WorldWideScience

Sample records for root stele tissue

  1. A stele-enriched gene regulatory network in the Arabidopsis root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Siobhan M; Zhang, Lifang; Megraw, Molly; Martinez, Natalia J; Jiang, Eric; Yi, Charles S; Liu, Weilin; Zeng, Anna; Taylor-Teeples, Mallorie; Kim, Dahae; Ahnert, Sebastian; Ohler, Uwe; Ware, Doreen; Walhout, Albertha J M; Benfey, Philip N

    2011-01-18

    Tightly controlled gene expression is a hallmark of multicellular development and is accomplished by transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). Although many studies have focused on identifying downstream targets of these molecules, less is known about the factors that regulate their differential expression. We used data from high spatial resolution gene expression experiments and yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) and two-hybrid (Y2H) assays to delineate a subset of interactions occurring within a gene regulatory network (GRN) that determines tissue-specific TF and miRNA expression in plants. We find that upstream TFs are expressed in more diverse cell types than their targets and that promoters that are bound by a relatively large number of TFs correspond to key developmental regulators. The regulatory consequence of many TFs for their target was experimentally determined using genetic analysis. Remarkably, molecular phenotypes were identified for 65% of the TFs, but morphological phenotypes were associated with only 16%. This indicates that the GRN is robust, and that gene expression changes may be canalized or buffered.

  2. Arabidopsis JACKDAW and MAGPIE zinc finger proteins delimit asymmetric cell division and stabilize tissue boundaries by restricting SHORT-ROOT action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welch, D.; Hassan, H.; Blilou, I.; Immink, G.H.; Heidstra, R.

    2007-01-01

    In the Arabidopsis root, the SHORT-ROOT transcription factor moves outward to the ground tissue from its site of transcription in the stele and is required for the specification of the endodermis and the stem cell organizing quiescent center cells. In addition, SHORT-ROOT and the downstream

  3. Arabidopsis JACKDAW and MAGPIE zinc finger proteins delimit asymmetric cell division and stabilize tissue boundaries by restricting SHORT-ROOT action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welch, D.R.; Hassan, H.B.M.; Blilou, I.; Immink, R.; Heidstra, R.; Scheres, B.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    In the Arabidopsis root, the SHORT-ROOT transcription factor moves outward to the ground tissue from its site of transcription in the stele and is required for the pecification of the endodermis and the stem cell organizing quiescent center cells. In addition, SHORT-ROOT and the downstream

  4. Rhizosecretion of stele-synthesized glucosinolates and their catabolites requires GTR-mediated import in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Deyang; Hanschen, Franziska S.; Witzel, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Casparian strip-generated apoplastic barriers not only control the radial flow of both water and ions but may also constitute a hindrance for the rhizosecretion of stele-synthesized phytochemicals. Here, we establish root-synthesized glucosinolates (GLS) are in Arabidopsis as a model to study...... the transport routes of plant-derived metabolites from the site of synthesis to the rhizosphere. Analysing the expression of GLS synthetic genes in the root indicate that the stele is the major site for the synthesis of aliphatic GLS, whereas indole GLS can be synthesized in both the stele and the cortex....... Sampling root exudates from the wild type and the double mutant of the GLS importers GTR1 and GTR2 show that GTR-mediated retention of stele-synthesized GLS is a prerequisite for the exudation of both intact GLS and their catabolites into the rhizosphere. The expression of the GTRs inside the stele...

  5. Stele-menhir of Los Llanos (Castillo de Bayuela, Toledo

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    Alberto MORALEDA OLIVARES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the finding, in the township of Castillo de Bayuela (Toledo of a granitic stone block with an antropomorphic figure engraved in it with schematic character. The piece lacks of an archaeological context, is difficult assigning it a precise chronology. Presumably it is a stele-menhir that we analyze it within the geographical area of the set in the Middle Tagus Basin and San Vicente Mountains.We suggest some interpretations and hypothesis about the posible dating and meaning while we are conscious that there are some constraints arising from the scant knowledge and rare documentation of that geographical zone. We can only with puntual findings and references wich can not allow definitive conclusions to be drawn on its chronology and function. However we believe the analysis of available data for this piece support the proposal for a partnership on the stele-menhirs and the funeral structures for the geografical area analyzed.

  6. Relationships between root respiration rate and root morphology, chemistry and anatomy in Larix gmelinii and Fraxinus mandshurica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuxia; McLaughlin, Neil B; Gu, Jiacun; Li, Xingpeng; Wang, Zhengquan

    2013-06-01

    Tree roots are highly heterogeneous in form and function. Previous studies revealed that fine root respiration was related to root morphology, tissue nitrogen (N) concentration and temperature, and varied with both soil depth and season. The underlying mechanisms governing the relationship between root respiration and root morphology, chemistry and anatomy along the root branch order have not been addressed. Here, we examined these relationships of the first- to fifth-order roots for near surface roots (0-10 cm) of 22-year-old larch (Larix gmelinii L.) and ash (Fraxinus mandshurica L.) plantations. Root respiration rate at 18 °C was measured by gas phase O2 electrodes across the first five branching order roots (the distal roots numbered as first order) at three times of the year. Root parameters of root diameter, specific root length (SRL), tissue N concentration, total non-structural carbohydrates (starch and soluble sugar) concentration (TNC), cortical thickness and stele diameter were also measured concurrently. With increasing root order, root diameter, TNC and the ratio of root TNC to tissue N concentration increased, while the SRL, tissue N concentration and cortical proportion decreased. Root respiration rate also monotonically decreased with increasing root order in both species. Cortical tissue (including exodermis, cortical parenchyma and endodermis) was present in the first three order roots, and cross sections of the cortex for the first-order root accounted for 68% (larch) and 86% (ash) of the total cross section of the root. Root respiration was closely related to root traits such as diameter, SRL, tissue N concentration, root TNC : tissue N ratio and stele-to-root diameter proportion among the first five orders, which explained up to 81-94% of variation in the rate of root respiration for larch and up to 83-93% for ash. These results suggest that the systematic variations of root respiration rate within tree fine root system are possibly due to the

  7. Root coverage using epithelial embossed connective tissue graft

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    T Ramakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In periodontal practice, root coverage after marginal soft tissue recession requires daily clinical decisions. Numerous longitudinal human studies have been presented to support the efficacy and predictability of different mucogingival surgical techniques for root coverage. Over the years, root coverage procedure using the subepithelial connective tissue graft with variations has emerged as the favorite surgical technique. In the case presented in this report, subepithelial connective tissue graft with embossed epithelium was used to cover Miller′s class II gingival recession in the upper right canine. The design is such that embossed epithelium exactly fits the recession site and the connective tissue portion is tucked below the gingival margin of the recipient site. In this technique, coronal advancement of flap is not needed. Wider zone of attached gingiva at the recipient site was achieved by this technique.

  8. Proteomics of Maize Root Development

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    Frank Hochholdinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize forms a complex root system with structurally and functionally diverse root types that are formed at different developmental stages to extract water and mineral nutrients from soil. In recent years proteomics has been intensively applied to identify proteins involved in shaping the three-dimensional architecture and regulating the function of the maize root system. With the help of developmental mutants, proteomic changes during the initiation and emergence of shoot-borne, lateral and seminal roots have been examined. Furthermore, root hairs were surveyed to understand the proteomic changes during the elongation of these single cell type structures. In addition, primary roots have been used to study developmental changes of the proteome but also to investigate the proteomes of distinct tissues such as the meristematic zone, the elongation zone as well as stele and cortex of the differentiation zone. Moreover, subcellular fractions of the primary root including cell walls, plasma membranes and secreted mucilage have been analyzed. Finally, the superior vigor of hybrid seedling roots compared to their parental inbred lines was studied on the proteome level. In summary, these studies provide novel insights into the complex proteomic interactions of the elaborate maize root system during development.

  9. PHIV-RootCell: a supervised image analysis tool for rice root anatomical parameter quantification

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    Marc eLartaud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed the PHIV-RootCell software to quantify anatomical traits of rice roots transverse section images. Combined with an efficient root sample processing method for image acquisition, this program permits supervised measurements of areas (those of whole root section, stele, cortex and central metaxylem vessels, number of cell layers and number of cells per cell layer. The PHIV-RootCell toolset runs under ImageJ, an independent operating system that has a license-free status. To demonstrate the usefulness of PHIV-RootCell, we conducted a genetic diversity study and an analysis of salt-stress responses of root anatomical parameters in rice (Oryza sativa L.. Using 16 cultivars, we showed that we could discriminate between some of the varieties even at the 6 day-old stage, and that tropical japonica varieties had larger root sections due to an increase in cell number. We observed, as described previously, that root sections become enlarged under salt stress. However, our results show an increase in cell number in ground tissues (endodermis and cortex but a decrease in external (peripheral tissues (sclerenchyma, exodermis and epidermis. Thus, the PHIV-RootCell program is a user-friendly tool that will be helpful for future genetic and physiological studies that investigate root anatomical trait variations.

  10. Spatial tissue distribution of polyacetylenes in carrot root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranska, Malgorzata; Schulz, Hartwig

    2005-06-01

    The presented results show the usefulness of Raman spectroscopy in the investigation of polyacetylenes in carrot root. The components are measured directly in the plant tissue without any preliminary sample preparation. Compared with the strong polyacetylene signals the spectral impact of the surrounding biological matrix is weak, except for carotenoids, and therefore it does not contribute significantly to the obtained results. Three different Raman mapping techniques applied here have revealed essential information about the investigated compounds. Using point acquisition several spectra have been measured to demonstrate the complex composition of the polyacetylene fraction in carrot root. The molecular structures of falcarinol, falcarindiol and falcarindiol 3-acetate are similar but their Raman spectra exhibit differences demonstrated by the shift of their -C triple bond C- mode. Line mapping performed along the diameter of transversely cut carrot roots has been used to investigate the relative concentration of polyacetylenes and carotenoids. An area map provides detailed information regarding the distribution of both components. It has been found that high accumulation of polyacetylenes is located in the outer section of the root, namely the pericyclic parenchyma, and in the phloem part close to the secondary cambium. The highest concentration of carotenes is seen in the immediate vicinity to polyacetylene conglomerates.

  11. Root Conditioning and Agents Effect in Regeneration of Periodontal Tissue

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    Kadkhoda Z

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis affected root surfaces are hypermineralized and contaminated with cytotoxic and"nother biologically active substances."nThe instrumented surface will inervitably be coverd by a smear layer following root planing with or without flap."nSmear layer is resistant to saline rinsing, but may be removed with agents such as acids (e.g.citric acid, tetracyclines, EDTA, and laser."nLow pH aqueous solutions such as citric acid have been used in surgical periodontal therapy mainly for two reasons, It dissolves smear layer after a relatively short exposure time and it has been claimed to selectively remove root surface associated mineral exposing collagen to varying degrees. A root surface coated with collagen appears to be a preferred surface for fibroblast attachment, a cellular event fundamental to successful periodontal wound healing."nSeveral studies indicate the potential of tetracycline (TTE-HCL in periodontal regeneration. Its acidic pH suggest that it can be used as a demineralization agent and removing the smear layer and exposing collagen matrix of the dentin."nChalating agent (EDTA working at neutral pH appears preferable with respect to preserving the integrity of exposed collagen fibers, early colonization, and wound healing. In addition, etching at neutral pH has been reported preserve adjacent tissue- vitality, while etching at low pH necrotizes the fiap and adjacent periodontium."nClinical and subclinical studies have demonstrated laser waves can remove calculus and bacterial plaque and pocket epithelium and strile the root surface and can expose the dentin collagen and dentinal tublules, and leads to pronounce reducing of probing depth around teeth diseased with periodontitis.

  12. Use of subepithelial conjunctive tissue graft in root covering

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    Denis Clemente Rodrigues

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Gingival recession may cause cosmetic changes and root hypersensitivity, which can alter mastication and tooth brushing, and thus contribute to the progression of periodontal disease. Treatment of gingival recessions with subepithelial conjunctive tissue grafting is very predictable due to its bilaminar nature. However, some factors may influence the success of the procedure, among them: selection of the lesion; characteristics of the defect with regard to the depth and width of the recession, the deeper and wider the recession, the worse the prognosis, and also the presence of restorations. Furthermore, it is necessary to control the etiologic factors of recessions, such as inflammation and traumatic brushing, control of systemic factors, occlusal trauma, smoking and harmful habits, technical considerations and asepsis. The success of the procedure must be based on observing the possible factors that might influence their predictability, as well as respecting the basic principles of mucogingival surgery.

  13. Patterns of nocturnal rehydration in root tissues of Vaccinium corymbosum L. under severe drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Estrada, Luis R; Richards, James H; Diaz, Andres; Eissensat, David M

    2009-01-01

    Although roots in dry soil layers are commonly rehydrated by internal hydraulic redistribution during the nocturnal period, patterns of tissue rehydration are poorly understood. Rates of nocturnal rehydration were examined in roots of different orders in Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Bluecrop' (Northern highbush blueberry) grown in a split-pot system with one set of roots in relatively moist soil and the other set of roots in dry soil. Vaccinium is noted for a highly branched and extremely fine root system. It is hypothesized that nocturnal root tissue rehydration would be slow, especially in the distal root orders because of their greater hydraulic constraints (smaller vessel diameters and fewer number of vessels). Vaccinium root hydraulic properties delayed internal water movement. Even when water was readily available to roots in the wet soil and transpiration was minimal, it took a whole night-time period of 12 h for the distal finest roots (1st to 4th order) under dry soil conditions to reach the same water potentials as fine roots in moist soil (1st to 4th order). Even though roots under dry soil equilibrated with roots in moist soil, the equilibrium point reached before sunrise was about -1.2 MPa, indicating that tissues were not fully rehydrated. Using a single-branch root model, it was estimated that individual roots exhibiting the lowest water potentials in dry soil were 1st order roots (distal finest roots of the root system). However, considered at the branch level, root orders with the highest hydraulic resistances corresponded to the lowest orders of the permanent root system (3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-order roots), thus indicating possible locations of hydraulic safety control in the root system of this species.

  14. Comparison of connective tissue graft and guided tissue regeneration in covering root surfaces

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    LotfazarM.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many researches evaluation different methods for covering the root surface. In the most of these studies, type I and II of Miller treatment had been searched. The purpose of this study was a comparison between connective tissue graft (CTG and guided tissue regeneration (GTR with a collagen membrane in the treatment of gingival recession defects (Miller class III. Six patients, each contributing a pair of Miller class III buccal gingival recessions, were treated. The clinical measurements were obtained at baseline and 1,2,4,6,12,18 months after surgery. Statistical analysis were performed using paired t-test between periods (baseline versus 6 months and baseline versus 18 months within each treatment group and also between treatment groups before treatment and 6, 12 and 18 months after the treatment. The treatments were compared by a triple analysis of variance along the time (treatment, patient, time. Both CTG and GTR with a bioabsorbable membrane demonstrated significant clinical and esthetic improvement for gingival recession coverage. The CTG and GTR procedures had mean root coverage of 55% and 47.5% respectively, in the end of study. The CTG group was statistically better than GTR for recession depth, recession width and keratinized tissue width. Also, passing the time (18 months as a distinct factor of treatment procedures was effective in increasing of clinical attachment level and keratinized tissue width.

  15. Treatment of root perforations with resin ionomer cement and connective tissue graft: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Leogenes M; Farias, Bruna de C; Carvalho, Alessandra de A T; Guerra, Catia Maria Fonseca; Cimoes, Renata

    2013-07-01

    The clinical practice of endodontic therapy is relatively common, especially in the anterior of the mouth, with easy access to cavities and in cases of mechanical debridement. However, problems such as perforation of the root canal can occur during treatment, and can cause periodontal tissue damage and esthetic problems. The treatment of root canal perforation consists of periodontal and endodontic therapy, as well as selecting the best material for perforation repair. This is a case report of iatrogenic root perforation on an anterior tooth that required combined restorative, periodontal, surgical, and endodontic approaches. The case describes the use of a subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) on a resin ionomer-restored root surface for the treatment of root perforation and periodontal damage caused by an iatrogenic procedure, with a 12-month follow-up. This case report shows that SCTG can successfully treat root perforations associated with a resin ionomer-restored root surface.

  16. Root nodule organogenesis : molecular characterization of the zonation central tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    Legume plants form root nodules by interacting with the soil bacterium, Rhizobium. In these nodules bacteria are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia which is used by the host plants as nitrogen source. Therefore symbiotic nitrogen fixation in root nodules

  17. Anatomical variability of the trunk wood and root tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical structure of the trunk wood and the roots of A. nitida and R. racemosa, two mangrove trees from Gabon. The anatomical differences between the trunks and the roots were used to understand their bio-remediating differences through heavy metals. It was found that the ...

  18. Utilizing collagen membranes for guided tissue regeneration-based root coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hom-Lay; Modarressi, Marmar; Fu, Jia-Hui

    2012-06-01

    Gingival recession is a common clinical problem that can result in hypersensitivity, pain, root caries and esthetic concerns. Conventional soft tissue procedures for root coverage require an additional surgical site, thereby causing additional trauma and donor site morbidity. In addition, the grafted tissues heal by repair, with formation of long junctional epithelium with some connective tissue attachment. Guided tissue regeneration-based root coverage was thus developed in an attempt to overcome these limitations while providing comparable clinical results. This paper addresses the biologic foundation of guided tissue regeneration-based root coverage, and describes the indications and contraindications for this technique, as well as the factors that influence outcomes. The step-by-step clinical techniques utilizing collagen membranes are also described. In comparison with conventional soft tissue procedures, the benefits of guided tissue regeneration-based root coverage procedures include new attachment formation, elimination of donor site morbidity, less chair-time, and unlimited availability and uniform thickness of the product. Collagen membranes, in particular, benefit from product biocompatibility with the host, while promoting chemotaxis, hemostasis, and exchange of gas and nutrients. Such characteristics lead to better wound healing by promoting primary wound coverage, angiogenesis, space creation and maintenance, and clot stability. In conclusion, collagen membranes are a reliable alternative for use in root coverage procedures. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Tissue distribution and deposition pattern of a cellulosic parenchyma-specific protein from cassava roots

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    Petrônio A.S. Souza

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A protein with a molecular mass of 22kDa was purified from the cellulosic parenchyma of cassava roots. The amino acid composition of the protein was determined and antibodies generated against the purified protein were used to show that the concentration of the protein remains unchanged during root "tuber" formation. By using a tissue printing technique, as well as western blot, it was shown that the cellulosic parenchyma was the only root tissue in which the protein was deposited.

  20. Root and periodontal tissue development after allogenic tooth transplantation between rat littermates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andou, K; Nakamura, M; Ina, Y; Sasaki, K; Sasano, Y

    2011-05-01

    The study was designed to investigate the development of roots and periodontal tissues after allogenic tooth transplantation between rat littermates by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histology. The upper right second molars in 2-week-old rats were extracted and immediately transplanted into the upper right first molar socket of rat littermates under anesthesia. The upper left second molars in 2-week-old recipient rats were used as a control. The rats were fixed and tissues analyzed at 0, 4, 8, or 12 weeks after transplantation. Root development of seven rats in each group was analyzed quantitatively using micro-CT. Periodontal tissue formation was examined qualitatively by histologic methods. Roots developed after allogenic transplantation, but they were significantly shorter than control roots. The number of roots varied from one to four in transplanted teeth, while it was consistently four in control teeth. Periodontal tissue formation in transplanted teeth was equivalent to that of the control teeth. Allogenic transplantation between rat littermates permits root development and periodontal tissue formation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Influence of plant root morphology and tissue composition on phenanthrene uptake: stepwise multiple linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xinhua; Liang, Xiao; Xu, Guohua; Zhou, Lixiang

    2013-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are contaminants that reside mainly in surface soils. Dietary intake of plant-based foods can make a major contribution to total PAH exposure. Little information is available on the relationship between root morphology and plant uptake of PAHs. An understanding of plant root morphologic and compositional factors that affect root uptake of contaminants is important and can inform both agricultural (chemical contamination of crops) and engineering (phytoremediation) applications. Five crop plant species are grown hydroponically in solutions containing the PAH phenanthrene. Measurements are taken for 1) phenanthrene uptake, 2) root morphology--specific surface area, volume, surface area, tip number and total root length and 3) root tissue composition--water, lipid, protein and carbohydrate content. These factors are compared through Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. The major factors which promote phenanthrene uptake are specific surface area and lipid content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. From stem to roots: Tissue engineering in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, M.; Banthia, Priyank; Banthia, Ruchi

    2012-01-01

    The vitality of dentin-pulp complex is fundamental to the life of tooth and is a priority for targeting clinical management strategies. Loss of the tooth, jawbone or both, due to periodontal disease, dental caries, trauma or some genetic disorders, affects not only basic mouth functions but aesthetic appearance and quality of life. One novel approach to restore tooth structure is based on biology: regenerative endodontic procedure by application of tissue engineering. Regenerative endodontics is an exciting new concept that seeks to apply the advances in tissue engineering to the regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex. The basic logic behind this approach is that patient-specific tissue-derived cell populations can be used to functionally replace integral tooth tissues. The development of such ‘test tube teeth’ requires precise regulation of the regenerative events in order to achieve proper tooth size and shape, as well as the development of new technologies to facilitate these processes. This article provides an extensive review of literature on the concept of tissue engineering and its application in endodontics, providing an insight into the new developmental approaches on the horizon. Key words:Regenerative, tissue engineering, stem cells, scaffold. PMID:24558528

  3. Integration of hormonal signaling networks and mobile microRNAs is required for vascular patterning in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Daniele; Mellor, Nathan; Pound, Michael P; Help, Hanna; Lucas, Mikaël; Chopard, Jérôme; Byrne, Helen M; Godin, Christophe; Hodgman, T Charlie; King, John R; Pridmore, Tony P; Helariutta, Ykä; Bennett, Malcolm J; Bishopp, Anthony

    2014-01-14

    As multicellular organisms grow, positional information is continually needed to regulate the pattern in which cells are arranged. In the Arabidopsis root, most cell types are organized in a radially symmetric pattern; however, a symmetry-breaking event generates bisymmetric auxin and cytokinin signaling domains in the stele. Bidirectional cross-talk between the stele and the surrounding tissues involving a mobile transcription factor, SHORT ROOT (SHR), and mobile microRNA species also determines vascular pattern, but it is currently unclear how these signals integrate. We use a multicellular model to determine a minimal set of components necessary for maintaining a stable vascular pattern. Simulations perturbing the signaling network show that, in addition to the mutually inhibitory interaction between auxin and cytokinin, signaling through SHR, microRNA165/6, and PHABULOSA is required to maintain a stable bisymmetric pattern. We have verified this prediction by observing loss of bisymmetry in shr mutants. The model reveals the importance of several features of the network, namely the mutual degradation of microRNA165/6 and PHABULOSA and the existence of an additional negative regulator of cytokinin signaling. These components form a plausible mechanism capable of patterning vascular tissues in the absence of positional inputs provided by the transport of hormones from the shoot.

  4. Integration of hormonal signaling networks and mobile microRNAs is required for vascular patterning in Arabidopsis roots

    KAUST Repository

    Muraro, D.

    2013-12-31

    As multicellular organisms grow, positional information is continually needed to regulate the pattern in which cells are arranged. In the Arabidopsis root, most cell types are organized in a radially symmetric pattern; however, a symmetry-breaking event generates bisymmetric auxin and cytokinin signaling domains in the stele. Bidirectional cross-talk between the stele and the surrounding tissues involving a mobile transcription factor, SHORT ROOT (SHR), and mobile microRNA species also determines vascular pattern, but it is currently unclear how these signals integrate. We use a multicellular model to determine a minimal set of components necessary for maintaining a stable vascular pattern. Simulations perturbing the signaling network show that, in addition to the mutually inhibitory interaction between auxin and cytokinin, signaling through SHR, microRNA165/6, and PHABULOSA is required to maintain a stable bisymmetric pattern. We have verified this prediction by observing loss of bisymmetry in shr mutants. The model reveals the importance of several features of the network, namely the mutual degradation of microRNA165/6 and PHABULOSA and the existence of an additional negative regulator of cytokinin signaling. These components form a plausible mechanism capable of patterning vascular tissues in the absence of positional inputs provided by the transport of hormones from the shoot.

  5. Patinas developed in environmental burial conditions: the Neolithic steles of Reguers de Seró (Lleida, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valles, Maite; Aulinas, Meritxell; López-Melción, Joan B; Moya-Garra, Andreu

    2010-08-01

    Weathering patinas in rocks are the result of interaction processes between rock surfaces and atmosphere, biosphere and soil. Therefore, their textural and mineral composition is strongly related to environmental and bioactivity conditions. Whereas the development of weathering patinas in atmospheric conditions is well documented (e.g. typical Mediterranean patina), only very few studies focus on their formation in a burial environment. Our study of patinas developed on the tumular structure of Reguers de Seró deals with the knowledge of burial patinas from a textural and mineralogical point of view. The aims of this study include: (1) the characterisation of the rock used in this megalithic monument as well as inferences regarding the origin of the raw material; (2) the evaluation of the patinas developed on the surface of the carved steles; and (3) the discussion of the environmental conditions (atmospheric or burial) that favoured the development of the patinas. Whole rock and related patinas (powdered samples and small single pieces) were carefully sampled in five of the seven Neolithic steles discovered during a municipal excavation. Some whole rock samples from the surrounding outcrops were also collected in order to correlate them with the stone forming the megalith. Samples were analysed macroscopically, using a glass binocular, and microscopically, by means of a polarising light microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDAX). The mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction, and a colorimetric analysis was also carried out in all the sampled patinas. The obtained results evidence a strong textural and mineralogical correlation between the whole rock of the megalith and the collected samples of the nearby outcrops; both are classified as calcarenite. A uniformly distributed beige-orange patina (35-100 microm thick) covering the surface of the steles modifies their aspect. A layer of calcite (micrite) with granular texture was

  6. [Effect of activated charcoal on rooting in tissue culture seedling of Begonia fimbristipula on Dinghushan Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiong-wei; Shao, Ling; Liang, Lian; Pan, Zhen-tao

    2012-09-01

    To study the effect of different plant growth substance and activated charcoal on rooting in culture seedling of Begonia fimbristpula on Dinghushan mountain. Tissue culture single factor experiment method was used. NAA 0. 3 mg/L + IBA 0. 2 mg/L preferably induction adventitious bud clump with corm to take rooting, but the number of adventitious root were less, short and small, callow shoot more germination. 300 mg/L activated carbon obviously increased radicate quality and inhibited fine buds point differentiation, root number up to 15.5 institia, root length range was 2.0-5.1 cm, root system developed. Tissue culture seedlings were higher, corn and leaf were good quality, strong growth. Took root of seedling cultivation with bulb for bush in the form of scattered bud planted to peat soil: perlite (3:1) mixed in matrix, after the transplant survival rate reached 100%, plant form seedlings fast, grew exuberant. MS with sucrose 30 g/L + NAA 0.3 mg/L + IBA 0.2 mg/L + activated carbon 300 mg/L + carrageenan 7.0 g/L as the tissue culture seedling of Begonia fimbristipula radicate system, is rapid propagation and preserve local unique plant in an effective way.

  7. Multi-omics analysis identifies genes mediating the extension of cell walls in the Arabidopsis thaliana root elongation zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Michael H; Holman, Tara J; Sørensen, Iben

    2015-01-01

    Plant cell wall composition is important for regulating growth rates, especially in roots. However, neither analyses of cell wall composition nor transcriptomes on their own can comprehensively reveal which genes and processes are mediating growth and cell elongation rates. This study reveals......)cellular localization of many epitopes. Extensins were localized in epidermal and cortex cell walls, while AGP glycans were specific to different tissues from root-hair cells to the stele. The transcriptome analysis found several gene families peaking in the REZ. These included a large family of peroxidases (which...... which is required for wall expansion. Knockdowns of these XTHs resulted in shorter root lengths, confirming a role of the corresponding proteins in root extension growth....

  8. Proper gibberellin localization in vascular tissue is required to regulate adventitious root development in tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyang; Li, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) are involved in many developmental aspects of the life cycle of plants, acting either directly or through interaction with other hormones. Accumulating evidence suggests that GAs have an important effect on root growth; however, there is currently little information on the specific regulatory mechanism of GAs during adventitious root development. A study was conducted on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants for altered rates of biosynthesis, catabolism, and GA signalling constitutively or in specific tissues using a transgenic approach. In the present study, PtGA20ox, PtGA2ox1, and PtGAI were overexpressed under the control of the 35S promoter, vascular cambium-specific promoter (LMX5), or root meristem-specific promoter (TobRB7), respectively. Evidence is provided that the precise localization of bioactive GA in the stem but not in the roots is required to regulate adventitious root development in tobacco. High levels of GA negatively regulate the early initiation step of root formation through interactions with auxin, while a proper and mobile GA signal is required for the emergence and subsequent long-term elongation of established primordia. The results demonstrated that GAs have an inhibitory effect on adventitious root formation but a stimulatory effect on root elongation. PMID:23918971

  9. Root surface modifiers and subepithelial connective tissue graft for treatment of gingival recessions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, P S B H; Sant'Ana, A C P; de Rezende, M L R; Greghi, S L A; Damante, C A; Zangrando, M S R

    2016-04-01

    Many techniques and flap designs have been used to treat gingival recession by root coverage, but subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) seems to be the gold standard procedure. In an attempt to improve the healing process and increase the success rate of root coverage, some authors have used root modifiers, including different root conditioners, lasers, EMD, recombinant human growth factors and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of root biomodification in clinical outcomes of gingival recessions treated with SCTG. Studies reporting SCTG associated with any form of root surface biomodification for root coverage of gingival recessions (Miller Class I and Class II) were considered as eligible for inclusion. Studies needed to have data of clinical outcomes in a follow up of at least 6 months. Screening of the articles, data extraction and quality assessment were conducted independently and in duplicate. None of the products evaluated (citric acid, EDTA, PRP, lasers and EMD) showed evident benefits in clinical outcomes. Test and control groups presented similar outcomes related to root coverage and periodontal parameters, with no statistical differences between them. The exception was root biomodification with the neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, which impaired root coverage and had a detrimental effect on clinical outcomes. Based on the present clinical data, the use of root surface modifiers to improve clinical outcomes in gingival recessions treated with SCTG is not justified. More in vivo studies, and randomized clinical trials with larger sample sizes and extended follow up, are necessary. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Mechanism of the Increase in Catalase Activity through Microbody Development in Wounded Sweet Potato Root Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Muneharu, ESAKA; Masayoshi, MAESHIMA; Tadashi, Asahi; Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Nagoya University

    1983-01-01

    An increase in catalase activity accompanied by microbody development in wounded sweet potato root tissue was investigated with a specific antibody against sweet potato catalase. The increase was completely inhibited by cycloheximide. Analysis with single radial immunodiffusion method showed that protein immunoprecipitated by the antibody increased in wounded tissue, indicating the involvement of de novo synthesis of catalase protein in the activity-increase. The activity-increase was, howeve...

  11. Treatment of a Developmental Groove and Supernumerary Root Using Guided Tissue Regeneration Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alizadeh Tabari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The radicular groove is a developmental groove which is usually found on the palatal or lateral aspects of the maxillary incisor teeth. The present case is a maxillary lateral incisor with a small second root and a deep radicular groove. The developmental groove caused a combined periodontal-endodontic lesion. Methods. Case was managed using a combined treatment procedure involving nonsurgical root canal therapy and surgical periodontal treatment. After completion of root canal treatment, guided tissue regeneration (GTR was carried out using decalcified freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA and a bioabsorbable collagenous membrane. Tooth also was splinted for two months. Results. After 12 months the tooth was asymptomatic. The periapical radiolucency disappeared and probing depth did not exceed 3 mm. Conclusion. Combined treatment procedure involving nonsurgical root canal therapy and surgical periodontal regenerative treatment can be a predictable technique in treating combined endodontic-periodontal lesions caused by radicular groove.

  12. Effects of enamel matrix proteins on tissue formation along the roots of human teeth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosshardt, D.D.; Sculean, A.; Windisch, P.; Pjetursson, B.E.; Lang, N.P.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Enamel matrix-derived proteins (EMD) are thought to trigger the formation of acellular extrinsic fibre cementum (AEFC), while other reports indicate that EMD may have osteogenic potential. The aim of the present study was to characterize the tissues developing on the root surface

  13. Linking salinity stress tolerance with tissue-specific Na+ sequestration in wheat roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghong eWu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress tolerance is a physiologically complex trait that is conferred by the large array of interacting mechanisms. Among these, vacuolar Na+ sequestration has always been considered as one of the key components differentiating between sensitive and tolerant species and genotypes. However, vacuolar Na+ sequestration has been rarely considered in the context of the tissue-specific expression and regulation of appropriate transporters contributing to Na+ removal from the cytosol. In this work, six bread wheat varieties contrasting in their salinity tolerance (three tolerant and three sensitive were used to understand the essentiality of vacuolar Na+ sequestration between functionally different root tissues, and link it with the overall salinity stress tolerance in this species. Roots of 4-d old wheat seedlings were treated with 100 mM NaCl for 3 days, and then Na+ distribution between cytosol and vacuole was quantified by CoroNa Green fluorescent dye imaging. Our major observations were as follows: 1 salinity stress tolerance correlated positively with vacuolar Na+ sequestration ability in the mature root zone but not in the root apex; 2 Contrary to expectations, cytosolic Na+ levels in root meristem were significantly higher in salt tolerant than sensitive group, while vacuolar Na+ levels showed an opposite trend. These results are interpreted as meristem cells playing a role of the salt sensor; 3 No significant difference in the vacuolar Na+ sequestration ability was found between sensitive and tolerant group in either transition or elongation zones; 4 The overall Na+ accumulation was highest in the elongation zone, suggesting its role in osmotic adjustment and turgor maintenance required to drive root expansion growth. Overall, the reported results suggest high tissue-specificity of Na+ uptake, signalling, and sequestration in wheat root. The implications of these findings for plant breeding for salinity stress tolerance are discussed.

  14. Increase in Catalase mRNA in Wounded Sweet Potato Tuberous Root Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeru, Sakajo; Kenzo, Nakamura; Tadashi, Asahi; Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Nagoya University

    1987-01-01

    Catalase protein, as well as its activity, increases in wounded sweet potato tuberous root tissue [Esaka et al. (1983) Plant Cell Physiol. 24: 615]. Whether catalase mRNA increases in wounded tissue was examined with a hybridization probe of a cDNA for sweet potato catalase mRNA. The content of catalase mRNA in the tissue increased after a lag phase of 10 h to reach a maximum at 30 h after wounding, whereas total RNA content increased without a lag phase. The increase in the mRNA content afte...

  15. Laterally positioned double flap with the connective tissue graft for coverage of denuded root surface: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Awadhesh Kumar Singh; Preeti Kiran

    2014-01-01

    Background: The laterally positioned flap has been shown to effectively treat gingival recession. The average percentage of root coverage obtained with laterally positioned flap was 68%. When full-thickness laterally positioned flap was combined with connective tissue graft, the average percentage of root coverage was 88%. The purpose of this case report was to evaluate percentage of root coverage by laterally positioned double flap with the connective tissue graft. Patients and Methods: A pa...

  16. Clinical comparision of semilunar coronally positional flap and subepithelial connective tissue graft in root coverage procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saave G.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Several surgical approaches have been used to achieve root coverage. The Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft (SCTG procedure has been shown to be a predictable means to treat gingival recession. Semilunar Coronally Positioned Flap (SCPF is a simple mucogingival surgery to cover the exposed root surface without harvesting the palatal connective tissue. The purpose of this study is to compare the outcome of gingival recession therapy using SCTG and SCPF. "nMaterials and Methods: Forty Miller class I buccal gingival recessions (≥2mm were selected. Recessions were randomly assigned to receive either the SCPF or SCTG. Recession Height (RH, Recession Width (RW, Width of Keratinized Tissue (WKT, Probing Depth (PD, Clinical Attachment Level (CAL, were measured at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. The data were analyzed using independent t-test and Repeated Measure ANOVA. "nResults: The average percentages of root coverage for SCPF and SCTG were 88% and 71%, respectively; and the complete root coverage observed were 55% and 45%, respectively. There were no significance differences between the two groups with regard to RW, PD, CAL, WKT (except in the third month after surgery which was slightly greater in SCPF group. RH was significantly decreased from 2 to 6 months after surgery in SCPF group. "nConclusion: The findings from this study indicate that if the tissue thickness and initial width of keratinized tissue are sufficient, SCPF may be a good substitute for SCTG in treatment of Miller class I gingival recessions.

  17. Subepithelial connective tissue graft associated with apicoectomy and root-end fillings in the treatment of deep localized gingival recession with apex root exposure: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Sergio; Egreja, Andre Medina Coeli; Barceleiro, Marcos de Oliveira

    2009-08-01

    Periodontal reconstructive surgery procedures seek to correct mucogingival defects, including gingival recession. This case report describes the use of a subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) associated with root-end fillings using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) for the treatment of Miller Class II recession with root apex exposure. A partial-thickness double pedicle flap was made, followed by root preparation with curette and bur finishing. The exposed root apex was removed and the canal was filled with MTA. An SCTG taken from the palate was placed over the root surface and covered with the double pedicle flap. Twelve months after treatment, a reduction from 11 mm to 1 mm in gingival recession was achieved, covering 91% of the root. Repair in the periapical region was determined with radiographs. A 1.0-mm probing depth was measured, and no bleeding was observed on probing. There was an adequate keratinized tissue band, along with esthetic tissue contour and coloration. This case report serves as an example of how the grafting of subepithelial connective tissue can be successfully accomplished in tandem with MTA for the treatment of isolated Miller Class II gingival recession with root apex exposure. (Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2009;29:445-449.).

  18. Influence of inter-dental tissues and root surface condition on complete root coverage following treatment of gingival recessions: a 1-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini-Prato, Giovanpaolo; Magnani, Cristina; Zaheer, Faizan; Rotundo, Roberto; Buti, Jacopo

    2015-06-01

    To explore the influence of inter-dental tissues and root surface condition on complete root coverage following surgical treatment of gingival recessions. Three hundred and eighty-six single recessions treated over 28 years were assessed. Patient-level and periodontal variables, presence/loss of inter-dental tissues, and presence/absence of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) were recorded. Root coverage was assessed 1-year post-surgery. Multilevel analysis was performed to identify predictors of CRC. Based on type of root coverage procedure four patient groups were created: free gingival graft (FGG) (n = 116), coronally advanced flap (CAF) (n = 107), CAF+connective tissue graft (CTG) (n = 131), and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) (n = 32). Percentages of complete root coverage (CRC) were 18.1% for FGG, 35.5% for CAF, 35.1% for CAF+CTG, and 18.8% for GTR. There was an OR = 0.26 (p FGG achieved less CRC then CAF+CTG (p = 0.0012; OR = 0.32). NCCLs, just like inter-dental tissue loss, are significant negative prognostic factors in achieving CRC following root coverage procedures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Subepithelial connective tissue grafts for the coverage of denuded root surfaces: A clinical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahathya R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of subepithelial connective tissue grafts (SCTG in the coverage of denuded roots. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 sites with ≥2 mm of recession height were included in the study for treatment with SCTG. The clinical parameters, such as recession height, recession width, width of keratinized gingiva, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level were measured at the baseline, third month, and at the end of the study [sixth month]. The defects were treated with a coronally positioned pedicle graft combined with connective tissue graft. Results: Out of 16 sites treated with SCTG, 11 sites showed complete (100% root coverage; the mean root coverage obtained was 87.5%. There was a statistically significant reduction in recession height, recession width, and probing pocket depth. There was also a statistically significant increase in the width of keratinized gingiva and also a gain in clinical attachment level. The postoperative results were both clinically and statistically significant ( P 0.05. Conclusion: From this study, it may be concluded that SCTG is a safe and effective method for the coverage of denuded roots.

  20. Esthetic Root Coverage with Double Papillary Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mutthineni, Ramesh Babu; Dudala, Ram Babu; Ramisetty, Arpita

    2014-01-01

    Patients today have become excessively concerned about esthetics. These esthetic concerns of patients have become an integral part of periodontal practice. Gingival recession is an esthetic problem that can be successfully treated by means of several mucogingival surgical approaches, any of which can be used, provided that the biologic conditions for accomplishing root coverage are satisfied with no loss of soft and hard tissue height interdentally. There are currently different techniques fo...

  1. An Updated Protocol for High Throughput Plant Tissue Sectioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Atkinson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of the tissue and cellular structure of plant material is essential for the study of a variety of plant sciences applications. Currently, many methods for sectioning plant material are either low throughput or involve free-hand sectioning which requires a significant amount of practice. Here, we present an updated method to provide rapid and high-quality cross sections, primarily of root tissue but which can also be readily applied to other tissues such as leaves or stems. To increase the throughput of traditional agarose embedding and sectioning, custom designed 3D printed molds were utilized to embed 5–15 roots in a block for sectioning in a single cut. A single fluorescent stain in combination with laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to obtain high quality images of thick sections. The provided CAD files allow production of the embedding molds described here from a number of online 3D printing services. Although originally developed for roots, this method provides rapid, high quality cross sections of many plant tissue types, making it suitable for use in forward genetic screens for differences in specific cell structures or developmental changes. To demonstrate the utility of the technique, the two parent lines of the wheat (Triticum aestivum Chinese Spring × Paragon doubled haploid mapping population were phenotyped for root anatomical differences. Significant differences in adventitious cross section area, stele area, xylem, phloem, metaxylem, and cortical cell file count were found.

  2. Ethylene is critical to the maintenance of primary root growth and Fe homeostasis under Fe stress in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangjie; Xu, Weifeng; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2015-04-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential microelement but is highly toxic when in excess. The response of plant roots to Fe toxicity and the nature of the regulatory pathways engaged are poorly understood. Here, we examined the response to excess Fe exposure in Arabidopsis wild type and ethylene mutants with a focus on primary root growth and the role of ethylene. We showed that excess Fe arrested primary root growth by decreasing both cell elongation and division, and principally resulteds from direct external Fe contact at the root tip. Pronounced ethylene, but not abscisic acid, evolution was associated with excess Fe exposure. Ethylene antagonists intensified root growth inhibition in the wild type, while the inhibition was significantly reduced in ethylene-overproduction mutants. We showed that ethylene plays a positive role in tissue Fe homeostasis, even in the absence of iron-plaque formation. Ethylene reduced Fe concentrations in the stele, xylem, and shoot. Furthermore, ethylene increased the expression of genes encoding Fe-sequestering ferritins. Additionally, ethylene significantly enhanced root K(+) status and upregulated K(+)-transporter (HAK5) expression. Our findings highlight the important role of ethylene in tissue Fe and K homeostasis and primary root growth under Fe stress in Arabidopsis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. Calcium movement, graviresponsiveness and the structure of columella cells and columella tissues in roots of Allium cepa L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    Roots of Allium cepa L. cv. Yellow are differentially responsive to gravity. Long (e.g. 40 mm) roots are strongly graviresponsive, while short (c.g. 4 mm) roots are minimally responsive to gravity. Although columella cells of graviresponsive roots are larger than those of nongraviresponsive roots, they partition their volumes to cellular organelles similarly. The movement of amyloplasts and nuclei in columella cells of horizontally-oriented roots correlates positively with the onset of gravicurvature. Furthermore, there is no significant difference in the rates of organellar redistribution when graviresponsive and nongraviresponsive roots are oriented horizontally. The more pronounced graviresponsiveness of longer roots correlates positively with (1) their caps being 9-6 times more voluminous, (2) their columella tissues being 42 times more voluminous, (3) their caps having 15 times more columella cells, and (4) their columella tissues having relative volumes 4.4 times larger than those of shorter, nongraviresponsive roots. Graviresponsive roots that are oriented horizontally are characterized by a strongly polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the root tip from the upper to the lower side, while similarly oriented nongraviresponsive roots exhibit only a minimal polar transport of 45Ca2+. These results indicate that the differential graviresponsiveness of roots of A. cepa is probably not due to either (1) ultrastructural differences in their columella cells, (2) differences in the rates of organellar redistribution when roots are oriented horizontally. Rather, these results indicate the graviresponsiveness may require an extensive columella tissue, which, in turn, may be necessary for polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the root tip.

  4. Mevalonate-derived quinonemethide triterpenoid from in vitro roots of Peritassa laevigata and their localization in root tissue by MALDI imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Edieidia S.; Silva, Denise B.; Teixeira, Simone P.; Coppede, Juliana S.; Furlan, Maysa; França, Suzelei C.; Lopes, Norberto P.; Pereira, Ana Maria S.; Lopes, Adriana A.

    2016-03-01

    Biosynthetic investigation of quinonemethide triterpenoid 22β-hydroxy-maytenin (2) from in vitro root cultures of Peritassa laevigata (Celastraceae) was conducted using 13C-precursor. The mevalonate pathway in P. laevigata is responsible for the synthesis of the quinonemethide triterpenoid scaffold. Moreover, anatomical analysis of P. laevigata roots cultured in vitro and in situ showed the presence of 22β-hydroxy-maytenin (2) and maytenin (1) in the tissues from transverse or longitudinal sections with an intense orange color. MALDI-MS imaging confirmed the distribution of (2) and (1) in the more distal portions of the root cap, the outer cell layers, and near the vascular cylinder of P. laevigata in vitro roots suggesting a role in plant defense against infection by microorganisms as well as in the root exudation processes.

  5. FTIR and SEM analysis applied in tissue engineering for root recovering surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Davidson Ribeiro; Nicolau, Renata Amadei; Costa, David Ribeiro; Raniero, Leandro José; Oliveira, Marco Antonio

    2017-08-01

    Gingival recession is defined by the displacement of the gingival margin in the apical direction, which overcomes the cementum enamel junction. The etiology of gingival retraction is related to tissue inflammation caused by the accumulation of biofilm, by trauma from brushing action. Aesthetic periodontal surgery aims to return the root coverage to aesthetic harmony, and reduce the risk of periodontal disease and caries. To assist in the root coverage process, the porcine collagen matrix (PCM) has been widely studied. The objectives of this study are to identify the types of collagen that make up the PCM and analyze their morphology. For this, five PCM fragments, 2 mm (thickness) × 2.6 mm (width), were analyzed with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The analysis by SEM showed that the PCM consists of two layers; the surface layer is compact, low porosity, and smooth surface, and a foamed underlying layer has high porosity. Through FTIR we identified that the surface and underlying layers are composed of collagen types I and III, respectively. This biomaterial is conducive to root coverage; it allows adsorption and cell proliferation following the matrix resorption and periodontal tissue neoformation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1326-1329, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A specialist root herbivore exploits defensive metabolites to locate nutritious tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erb M.; Babst B.; Robert, C.A.M.; Veyrat, N.; Glauser, G.; Marti, G.; Doyen, G.R.; Villard, N.; Gaillard, M.D.P.; Koellner, T.G.; Giron, D.; Body, M.; Babst, B.A.; Turlings, T.C.J.; Erb, M.

    2011-10-01

    The most valuable organs of plants are often particularly rich in essential elements, but also very well defended. This creates a dilemma for herbivores that need to maximise energy intake while minimising intoxication. We investigated how the specialist root herbivore Diabrotica virgifera solves this conundrum when feeding on wild and cultivated maize plants. We found that crown roots of maize seedlings were vital for plant development and, in accordance, were rich in nutritious primary metabolites and contained higher amounts of the insecticidal 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) and the phenolic compound chlorogenic acid. The generalist herbivores Diabrotica balteata and Spodoptera littoralis were deterred from feeding on crown roots, whereas the specialist D. virgifera preferred and grew best on these tissues. Using a 1,4-benzoxazin-3-one-deficient maize mutant, we found that D. virgifera is resistant to DIMBOA and other 1,4-benzoxazin-3-ones and that it even hijacks these compounds to optimally forage for nutritious roots.

  7. Modified Double-Papillae Flap Technique With Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft for Root Coverage in the Esthetic Zone: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littuma, Gustavo Javier Salazar; Bez, Leonardo; Lopez, Camilo Andres Villabona; Benfatti, Cesar Augusto Magalhães; Magini, Ricardo de Souza

    2017-03-01

    Gingival recession can compromise the esthetic appearance, leading to functional problems, hypersensitivity, and root caries. Several techniques have been implicated for root coverage, which includes pedicle grafts, free gingival grafts, connective tissue grafts, and guided-tissue regeneration. The double-papillae flap associated with subepithelial connective tissue is a predictable technique to cover isolated areas with insufficient attached gingiva apical to a recession. This case report demonstrates a surgical alternative to the technique using a sling periosteal suture to stabilize the connective tissue and pedicle flap during the initial phase of healing, increasing the potential of this periodontal procedure for gingival recession coverage.

  8. A scoping review of root canal revascularization: relevant aspects for clinical success and tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, M C M; Chisini, L A; Sarkis-Onofre, R; Schuch, H S; Nör, J E; Demarco, F F

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this scoping study was to evaluate the survival rate and nature of tissue formed inside root canals of human immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulps (NIPT) under root canal revascularization (RCR). The search was performed in SciVerse Scopus®, PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science®, BIREME and in the grey literature up to November 2015. The keywords were selected using MeSH terms and DECs. Two independent reviewers scrutinized the records obtained considering specific inclusion criteria. The included studies were evaluated in accordance with a modified Arksey and O' Malley's framework. From 375 studies that were evaluated, 75 were included. A total of 367 NIPT were submitted to RCR, from which only 21 needed further endodontic treatment. The weighted mean follow-up time was 17.6 months. The data were derived mainly from case reports (69%) or small case series (15%). NaOCl [0.5-6%] was applied as the disinfecting solution in almost all studies. Triple antibiotic paste was as effective as Ca(OH)2 as on intracanal medicament. De novo tissue was cementum and poorly mineralized bone positive to bone sialoprotein (BSP) but negative to dentine sialoprotein (DSP). Failures were associated mainly with reinfection of the root canal. The majority of included studies reported a significant increase in both root length and width. However, as most of these data came from case reports, they must be interpreted with care, as most were focused on treatment successes (not failures). Therefore, well-designed randomized controlled trials comparing RCR with available apexification treatments are needed to address this gap in the literature. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Soft tissue substitutes in non-root coverage procedures: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertl, Kristina; Melchard, Maximilian; Pandis, Nikolaos; Müller-Kern, Michael; Stavropoulos, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The present systematic review compared the effectiveness of soft tissue substitutes (STSs) and autogenous free gingival grafts (FGGs) in non-root-coverage procedures to increase keratinized tissue (KT) width around teeth. Included studies fulfilled the following main eligibility criteria: (a) preclinical in vivo or human controlled trials using FGG as control, (b) non-root-coverage procedures, and (c) assessment of KT width. Meta-analysis was performed on the gain in KT width (primary outcome variable) and several secondary variables. Eight human trials with short observation time evaluating five different STSs were identified. FGG yielded consistently significantly (p FGG yielded consistently ≥2 mm KT width postoperatively, while use of STS did not, in the few studies reporting on this outcome. On the other hand, STSs resulted in significantly better aesthetic outcomes and received greater patient preference (p FGG (1) resulted consistently in significantly larger increase in KT width compared to STS and (2) yielded consistently ≥2 mm KT width postoperatively, while STSs did not. STSs yielded significantly better aesthetic outcomes, received greater patient preference, and appeared safe. Larger and more predictable increase in KT width is achieved with FGG, but STSs may be considered when aesthetics is important. Clinical studies reporting relevant posttreatment outcomes, e.g., postop KT width ≥2 mm, on the long-term (>6 months) are warranted.

  10. The effect of partially exposed connective tissue graft on root-coverage outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Austin; Garcia, Jeffrey; Luepke, Paul; Lai, Yu-Lin; Kassab, Moawia; Lin, Guo-Hao

    2018-01-12

    The aim of this systematic review was to compare the root-coverage outcomes of using a partially exposed connective tissue graft (CTG) technique with a fully covered CTG technique for root coverage. An electronic search up to February 28 th , 2017, was performed to identify human clinical studies with data comparing outcomes of root coverage using CTG, with and without a partially exposed graft. Five clinical studies were selected for inclusion in this review. For each study, the gain of keratinized gingiva, reduction of recession depth, number of surgical sites achieving complete root coverage, percentage of root coverage, gain of tissue thickness, and changes of probing depth and clinical attachment level were recorded. Meta-analysis for the comparison of complete root coverage between the two techniques presented no statistically significant differences. A statistically significant gain of keratinized tissue in favor of the sites with an exposed CTG and a tendency of greater reduction in recession depth were seen at the sites with a fully covered CTG. Based on the results, the use of a partially exposed CTG in root-coverage procedures could achieve greater gain in keratinized gingiva, while a fully covered CTG might be indicated for procedures aiming to reduce recession depth. © 2018 Eur J Oral Sci.

  11. Coronally advanced flap combined with connective tissue graft; treatment of choice for root coverage following recession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeley, Ed; Duane, Brett

    2017-03-01

    Data sourcesMedline, The Cochrane Database Trials Register, Embase, supplemented by handsearching of five prominent periodontal journals, references from reviewed papers and contact with experts in the field of mucogingival surgery.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) with or without a split-mouth design, on human patients. RCTs had to compare at least two different surgical interventions on clearly specified recession defects, be over six months in duration and have clearly specified clinical measurements regarding root coverage.Data extraction and synthesisThe initial search for studies was carried out by one operator. The studies were quality assessed by two independent review authors using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Odds Ratios were combined for dichotomous data and mean differences in continuous data using a random-effect model. The strength of the evidence of included studies was assessed according to the GRADE recommendations for bias and heterogeneity.ResultsFifty-one RCTs were reviewed encompassing 1574 patients and 1744 recession defects. Eighty meta-analyses were conducted. Results showed that surgical intervention using a coronally advanced flap (CAF) in conjunction with a connective tissue graft (CTG) was more effective at obtaining complete root coverage (CRC), reduced recession (RecRed) and keratinised tissue (KT) gain compared to CAF alone. The use of barrier membranes with CAF showed no significant improvement to CAF alone with regard to CRC and RecRed. The use of enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) in conjunction with CAF had significant improvement in CRC, RecRed and KT gain compared to CAF alone. Using multiple techniques or biomaterials yielded similar or fewer benefits than simpler proceduresConclusionsTreatment of recession defects is best achieved with a coronally advanced flap combined with a connective tissue graft.

  12. Anatomical aspects of angiosperm root evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seago, James L; Fernando, Danilo D

    2013-07-01

    Anatomy had been one of the foundations in our understanding of plant evolutionary trends and, although recent evo-devo concepts are mostly based on molecular genetics, classical structural information remains useful as ever. Of the various plant organs, the roots have been the least studied, primarily because of the difficulty in obtaining materials, particularly from large woody species. Therefore, this review aims to provide an overview of the information that has accumulated on the anatomy of angiosperm roots and to present possible evolutionary trends between representatives of the major angiosperm clades. This review covers an overview of the various aspects of the evolutionary origin of the root. The results and discussion focus on angiosperm root anatomy and evolution covering representatives from basal angiosperms, magnoliids, monocots and eudicots. We use information from the literature as well as new data from our own research. The organization of the root apical meristem (RAM) of Nymphaeales allows for the ground meristem and protoderm to be derived from the same group of initials, similar to those of the monocots, whereas in Amborellales, magnoliids and eudicots, it is their protoderm and lateral rootcap which are derived from the same group of initials. Most members of Nymphaeales are similar to monocots in having ephemeral primary roots and so adventitious roots predominate, whereas Amborellales, Austrobaileyales, magnoliids and eudicots are generally characterized by having primary roots that give rise to a taproot system. Nymphaeales and monocots often have polyarch (heptarch or more) steles, whereas the rest of the basal angiosperms, magnoliids and eudicots usually have diarch to hexarch steles. Angiosperms exhibit highly varied structural patterns in RAM organization; cortex, epidermis and rootcap origins; and stele patterns. Generally, however, Amborellales, magnoliids and, possibly, Austrobaileyales are more similar to eudicots, and the

  13. Cell- and Tissue-Specific Transcriptome Analyses of Medicago truncatula Root Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpens, Erik; Moling, Sjef; Hooiveld, Guido; Pereira, Patrícia A.; Bisseling, Ton; Becker, Jörg D.; Küster, Helge

    2013-01-01

    Legumes have the unique ability to host nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria as symbiosomes inside root nodule cells. To get insight into this key process, which forms the heart of the endosymbiosis, we isolated specific cells/tissues at different stages of symbiosome formation from nodules of the model legume Medicago truncatula using laser-capture microdissection. Next, we determined their associated expression profiles using Affymetrix Medicago GeneChips. Cells were collected from the nodule infection zone divided into a distal (where symbiosome formation and division occur) and proximal region (where symbiosomes are mainly differentiating), as well as infected cells from the fixation zone containing mature nitrogen fixing symbiosomes. As non-infected cells/tissue we included nodule meristem cells and uninfected cells from the fixation zone. Here, we present a comprehensive gene expression map of an indeterminate Medicago nodule and selected genes that show specific enriched expression in the different cells or tissues. Validation of the obtained expression profiles, by comparison to published gene expression profiles and experimental verification, indicates that the data can be used as digital “in situ”. This digital “in situ” offers a genome-wide insight into genes specifically associated with subsequent stages of symbiosome and nodule cell development, and can serve to guide future functional studies. PMID:23734198

  14. cell- and tissue-specific transcriptome analyses of Medicago truncatula root nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Limpens

    Full Text Available Legumes have the unique ability to host nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria as symbiosomes inside root nodule cells. To get insight into this key process, which forms the heart of the endosymbiosis, we isolated specific cells/tissues at different stages of symbiosome formation from nodules of the model legume Medicago truncatula using laser-capture microdissection. Next, we determined their associated expression profiles using Affymetrix Medicago GeneChips. Cells were collected from the nodule infection zone divided into a distal (where symbiosome formation and division occur and proximal region (where symbiosomes are mainly differentiating, as well as infected cells from the fixation zone containing mature nitrogen fixing symbiosomes. As non-infected cells/tissue we included nodule meristem cells and uninfected cells from the fixation zone. Here, we present a comprehensive gene expression map of an indeterminate Medicago nodule and selected genes that show specific enriched expression in the different cells or tissues. Validation of the obtained expression profiles, by comparison to published gene expression profiles and experimental verification, indicates that the data can be used as digital "in situ". This digital "in situ" offers a genome-wide insight into genes specifically associated with subsequent stages of symbiosome and nodule cell development, and can serve to guide future functional studies.

  15. Subcutaneous connective tissue reactions to iRoot SP, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Fillapex, DiaRoot BioAggregate and MTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bósio, C C; Felippe, G S; Bortoluzzi, E A; Felippe, M C S; Felippe, W T; Rivero, E R C

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate connective tissue reactions to iRoot SP (Innovative Bioceramics, Vancouver, BC, Canada), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Fillapex (FLPX) (Angelus Soluções Odontológicas, Londrina, Brazil), DiaRoot Bioaggregate (DiaDent Group International, Burnaby, BC, Canada) and white MTA (Angelus, Londrina, Brazil) in Wistar rats. A total of 128 dentine tubes filled with the materials and 32 empty tubes (control) were implanted into 32 rats. After 7, 15, 30 and 90 days (n = 8 per period), the animals were euthanized, and the tissues were processed for histological evaluation using haematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and Von Kossa (VK) staining. Observations were made for cellular inflammatory components and the presence of multinucleated giant cells (MNGC), macrophages and tissue necrosis. Data were analysed by Fisher's exact and Kruskal–Wallis tests (P MTA FLPX and iRoot SP scored higher than the other groups for the variable macrophages (P MTA FLPX scored higher than the other groups for the variable MNGC (P MTA FLPX. VK positivity was observed in areas of necrosis in all groups, except in the control group. The materials were considered biologically acceptable except MTA FLPX, which remained toxic to subcutaneous tissue even after 90 days.

  16. Label Distribution in Tissues of Wheat Seedlings Cultivated with Tritium-Labeled Leonardite Humic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Natalia A.; Abroskin, Dmitry P.; Badun, Gennady A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Korobkov, Viktor I.; Beer, Anton S.; Tsvetkova, Eugenia A.; Senik, Svetlana V.; Klein, Olga I.; Perminova, Irina V.

    2016-06-01

    Humic substances (HS) play important roles in the biotic-abiotic interactions of the root plant and soil contributing to plant adaptation to external environments. However, their mode of action on plants remains largely unknown. In this study the HS distribution in tissues of wheat seedlings was examined using tritium-labeled humic acid (HA) derived from leonardite (a variety of lignites) and microautoradiography (MAR). Preferential accumulation of labeled products from tritiated HA was found in the roots as compared to the shoots, and endodermis was shown to be the major control point for radial transport of label into vascular system of plant. Tritium was also found in the stele and xylem tissues indicating that labeled products from tritiated HA could be transported to shoot tissues via the transpiration stream. Treatment with HA lead to an increase in the content of polar lipids of photosynthetic membranes. The observed accumulation of labeled HA products in root endodermis and positive impact on lipid synthesis are consistent with prior reported observations on physiological effects of HS on plants such as enhanced growth and development of lateral roots and improvement/repairs of the photosynthetic status of plants under stress conditions.

  17. Periodontal soft tissue non-root coverage procedures: a consensus report from the AAP Regeneration Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, E Todd; Sanz, Mariano; Dibart, Serge; Greenwell, Henry; John, Vanchit; Kim, David M; Langer, Laureen; Neiva, Rodrigo; Rasperini, Giulio

    2015-02-01

    Soft tissue grafting for the purposes of increasing the width of keratinized tissue (KT) is an important aspect of periodontal treatment. A systematic review was analyzed, focusing on non-root coverage tissue grafts. The references were updated to reflect the current literature. To formulate the consensus report, group members submitted any new literature related to the topic that met criteria fitting the systematic review, and this information was reviewed for inclusion in this report. A consensus report was developed to summarize the findings from the systematic review and to guide clinicians in their treatment decision-making process. Forty-six articles met the criteria for inclusion in the final analysis, and two articles were added that were used to formulate this consensus report. A list of eight clinically relevant questions was posed, and consensus statements were developed. The evidence suggests that a minimum amount of KT is not needed to prevent attachment loss (AL) when optimal plaque control is present. However, if plaque control is suboptimal, a minimum of 2 mm of KT is needed. The standard procedure to predictably gain KT is the autogenous gingival graft. There is limited evidence for alternative treatment options. However, additional research may offer promising results in certain clinical scenarios. Before patient treatment, the clinician should evaluate etiology, including the role of inflammation and various types of trauma that contribute to AL. The best outcome procedure (autograft) and alternative options should be reviewed with the patient during appropriate informed consent. Proper assessment of the outcome should be included during supportive periodontal care.

  18. Effect of Ethylene on the Increase in Catalase Activity through Microbody Development in Wounded Sweet Potato Root Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Muneharu, ESAKA; Takeshi, TAKAHASHI; Tadashi, Asahi; Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Nagoya University

    1983-01-01

    Catalase activity increases when slices of sweet potato root tissue are incubated in air. The increase is due to de novo synthesis of the enzyme protein and probably also to activation of a precursor protein [Esaka et al. (1983) Plant & Cell Physiol. 24: 615]. The activity-increase was partly depressed when tissue slices were incubated in ethylene-containing air, while the immunologically determined amount of catalase protein did not increase, rather it decreased, under the same conditions. W...

  19. Preservation and Tissue Handling Technique on Iatrogenic Dural Tear with Herniated Nerve Root at Cauda Equina Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jabir Rahyussalim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic or incidental dural tear is a relatively common complication in lumbar decompression surgery. Although mostly there are no changes that occurred in long-term result following an incidental durotomy, the sequelae are not always benign especially when the herniated nerve root is involved. Preservation and tissue handling is paramount in order to prevent further injury. Two cases of dural tear with herniated nerve root complicating the lumbar decompression surgery are presented. Direct watertight repair was performed using the preservation and tissue handling concept. Assessing the relative size between the dural tear and the root mass is the key in determining whether enlargement of tear is needed. Whenever feasible, the tear will not be enlarged. Opening the vent by using a suture anchor and manually repositioning the nerve root with a fine instrument is the key for an atraumatic handling of the herniated nerve root. Clinical and neurophysiology examination was performed postoperatively and no further neurologic deficit occurred despite the iatrogenic injury. Although some debate on a few intraoperative and postoperative details still persists, tissue handling and preservation concept should be applied in all cases.

  20. Comparison of amnion allograft with connective tissue graft for root coverage procedures: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahroudi, Amir Alireza Rasouli; Khorsand, Afshin; Rokn, Amir Reza; Sabounchi, Sepideh Seyedzadeh; Shayesteh, Yadollah Soleimani; Soolari, Ahmad

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present double-blind, randomized, controlled study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of amnion allograft and connective tissue graft in covering denuded root surfaces. Seventy-one teeth in 22 patients with gingival recession were treated randomly with coronally displaced flap plus connective tissue graft (control group, n = 29 recessions in 10 patients) or coronally displaced flap plus amnion allograft (test group, n = 42 recessions in 12 patients). The amount of root coverage and clinical parameters (probing depth, recession depth, clinical attachment level, recession width, gingival width, and papilla dimensions) were measured at baseline and at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Average root coverage percentages after 6 months in the test and control groups were 67% (2.3 +/- 0.289 mm) and 54% (2.24 +/- 0.519 mm), respectively, with no statistically significant differences (p = 0.054). The changes in depth and width of recessions and in gingival width were significant 3 and 6 months after surgery compared to baseline (p = 0.000). Variations in the level of attachment and probing depths after 6 months were statistically significant in the test group compared to the control group (p = 0.002). Papilla dimensions were significantly correlated with root coverage (p = 0.00). Amnion allograft might be a suitable alternative to connective tissue graft in procedures to cover denuded root surfaces and can reduce recession depth.

  1. [The stele of the eye doctor in the Museum of Bar and the logo of the French Language Society for the History of Ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspiller, A

    2015-02-01

    The objectives are to: recall the circumstances of discovery of two corner pillars 45 years apart and other objects belonging to a circa second century Gallo-Roman temple; analyze the sculptures, of which the best known is the "stele of the eye doctor", which the French Language Society for the History of Ophthalmology took as inspiration for its logo; discuss the significance of instruments and procedures within a markedly religious context at a time when the mystery cults appeared; provide elements for discussion on the interpretation of the scenes depicted on the two pillars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenolic profile within the fine-root branching orders of an evergreen species highlights a disconnect in root tissue quality predicted by elemental- and molecular-level carbon composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jian; Tharayil, Nishanth; Chow, Alex T; Suseela, Vidya; Zeng, Hui

    2015-06-01

    Fine roots constitute a significant source of plant productivity and litter turnover across terrestrial ecosystems, but less is known about the quantitative and qualitative profile of phenolic compounds within the fine-root architecture, which could regulate the potential contribution of plant roots to the soil organic matter pool. To understand the linkage between traditional macro-elemental and morphological traits of roots and their molecular-level carbon chemistry, we analyzed seasonal variations in monomeric yields of the free, bound, and lignin phenols in fine roots (distal five orders) and leaves of Ardisia quinquegona. Fine roots contained two-fold higher concentrations of bound phenols and three-fold higher concentrations of lignin phenols than leaves. Within fine roots, the concentrations of free and bound phenols decreased with increasing root order, and seasonal variation in the phenolic profile was more evident in lower order than in higher order roots. The morphological and macro-elemental root traits were decoupled from the quantity, composition and tissue association of phenolic compounds, revealing the potential inability of these traditional parameters to capture the molecular identity of phenolic carbon within the fine-root architecture and between fine roots and leaves. Our results highlight the molecular-level heterogeneity in phenolic carbon composition within the fine-root architecture, and imply that traits that capture the molecular identity of the root construct might better predict the decomposition dynamics within fine-root orders. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Root anatomical phenes predict root penetration ability and biomechanical properties in maize (Zea Mays)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimungu, Joseph G.; Loades, Kenneth W.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of roots to penetrate hard soil is important for crop productivity but specific root phenes contributing to this ability are poorly understood. Root penetrability and biomechanical properties are likely to vary in the root system dependent on anatomical structure. No information is available to date on the influence of root anatomical phenes on root penetrability and biomechanics. Root penetration ability was evaluated using a wax layer system. Root tensile and bending strength were evaluated in plant roots grown in the greenhouse and in the field. Root anatomical phenes were found to be better predictors of root penetrability than root diameter per se and associated with smaller distal cortical region cell size. Smaller outer cortical region cells play an important role in stabilizing the root against ovalization and reducing the risk of local buckling and collapse during penetration, thereby increasing root penetration of hard layers. The use of stele diameter was found to be a better predictor of root tensile strength than root diameter. Cortical thickness, cortical cell count, cortical cell wall area and distal cortical cell size were stronger predictors of root bend strength than root diameter. Our results indicate that root anatomical phenes are important predictors for root penetrability of high-strength layers and root biomechanical properties. PMID:25903914

  4. The biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 induces systemic defense responses in aerial tissues upon colonization of olive roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eGómez-Lama Cabanás

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, a native olive root endophyte and effective biocontrol agent (BCA against Verticillium wilt of olive, is able to trigger a broad range of defense responses in root tissues of this woody plant. In order to elucidate whether strain PICF7 also induces systemic defense responses in above-ground organs, aerial tissues of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after root bacterization with this endophytic BCA. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library, enriched in up-regulated genes, was generated. This strategy enabled the identification of 376 ESTs (99 contigs and 277 singlets, many of them related to response to different stresses. Five ESTs, involved in defense responses, were selected to carry out time-course quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR experiments aiming to: (i validate the induction of these genes, and (ii shed light on their expression pattern along time (from 1 to 15 days. Induction of olive genes potentially coding for lypoxigenase 2, catalase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase and phenylananine ammonia-lyase was thus confirmed at some time points. Computational analysis also revealed that different transcription factors were up-regulated in olive aerial tissues (i.e. jerf, bHLH, WRKYs, as previously reported for roots. Results confirmed that root colonization by this endophytic bacterium does not only trigger defense responses in this organ but also mount a wide array of systemic defense responses in distant tissues (stems, leaves. This sheds light on how olive plants respond to the ‘non-hostile’ colonization by a bacterial endophyte and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of strain PICF7.

  5. Epithelial Inclusions Following a Bilaminar Root Coverage Procedure with a Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft: A Histologic and Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Federica; Perotto, Stefano; Cricenti, Luca; Gotti, Stefano; Aimetti, Mario

    The aim of this study was to histologically examine any epithelial cell inclusions in submerged subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) after clinical healing was achieved. A total of 16 patients with Miller Class I or II gingival recessions were consecutively treated with a bilaminar procedure. At 2 months after surgery, a gingival tissue specimen was harvested from all SCTG-treated sites and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The histologic evaluation revealed connective tissue in active reorganization without epithelial inclusions in 14 of the 16 tissue specimens. In the remaining 2 specimens, epithelial islands were observed deep in the connective tissue. In one case they developed in a solid cystic space, while in the second case they were strictly integrated in the lamina propria. Complete recession coverage was obtained in 14 of the 16 treated defects, with a mean root coverage of 95.1% ± 14.2% at 12 months.

  6. Root coverage of a wide anterior mucogingival defect with epithelial embossed connective tissue graft and its evaluation using root coverage esthetic scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Avita; Fernandes, Bennete Aloysius; Sidhu, Preena; Ramamurthy, Priyadarshini

    2017-01-01

    New and innovative surgical techniques are necessary to help the clinician ensure the best results and satisfy patient's expectations. One such periodontal problem that has been challenging to the dental practitioners and impacts the oral health quality of life of patients has been gingival recession. When present anteriorly where esthetics is a major concern, patient centric parameters too become paramount. Root coverage esthetic score (RES) evaluation helps to keep the patient outcomes in mind. This case reports the successful treatment of a wide anterior mucogingival defect using epithelial embossed connective tissue graft which was evaluated for the first time using RES.

  7. Potential of Tissue Culture for Breeding Root-Knot Nematode Resistance into Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Fassuliotis, G.; Bhatt, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    Plant protoplast technology is being investigated as a means of transferring root-knot nematode resistance factors from Solanum sisymbriifolium into the susceptible S. melongena. Solanum sisymbriifolium plants regenerated from callus lost resistance to Meloidogyne javanica but retained resistance to M. incognita. Tomato plants cloned from leaf discs of the root-knot nematode resistant 'Patriot' were completely susceptible to M. incognita, while sections of stems and leaves rooted in sand in t...

  8. Treatment of a Developmental Groove and Supernumerary Root Using Guided Tissue Regeneration Technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alizadeh Tabari, Zahra; Homayouni, Hamed; Pourseyediyan, Tahere; Arvin, Armita; Eiland, Derrick; Moradi Majd, Nima

    2016-01-01

    .... The developmental groove caused a combined periodontal-endodontic lesion. Methods. Case was managed using a combined treatment procedure involving nonsurgical root canal therapy and surgical periodontal treatment...

  9. Sub-epithelial connective tissue graft for root coverage in nonsmokers and smokers: A pilot comparative clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chini Doraswamy Dwarakanath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gingival recession is a common condition and is more prevalent in smokers. It is widely believed that root coverage procedures in smokers result in less desirable outcome compared to nonsmokers', and there are few controlled studies in literature to support this finding. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the outcome of root coverage with sub-epithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG in nonsmokers and smokers. Materials and Methods: A sample of twenty subjects, 10 nonsmokers and 10 smokers were selected each with at least 1 Miller's Class I or II recession on a single rooted tooth. Clinical measurements of probing depth, clinical attachment level (CAL, gingival recession total surface area (GRTSA, depth of recession (RD, width of recession (RW, and width of keratinized tissue were determined at baseline, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Results: The treatment of gingival recession with SCTG and coronally advanced flap showed a decrease in the GRTSA, RD, RW, and an increase in CAL and width of keratinized gingiva in both the groups. However, the intergroup comparison of the clinical parameters showed no statistical significance. About 6 out of 10 nonsmokers (60% and 3 smokers (30% showed complete root coverage. The mean percentage of root coverage of 71.2% in nonsmokers and 38% in smokers was observed. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that smoking may negatively influence gingival recession reduction and CAL gain. In addition, smokers may exhibit fewer chances of complete root coverage. Overall, nonsmokers showed better improvements in all the parameters compared to smokers at the end of 6 months.

  10. Sub-epithelial connective tissue graft for root coverage in nonsmokers and smokers: A pilot comparative clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarakanath, Chini Doraswamy; Divya, Bheemavarapu; Sruthima, Gottumukkala Naga Venkata Satya; Penmetsa, Gautami Subadra

    2016-01-01

    Gingival recession is a common condition and is more prevalent in smokers. It is widely believed that root coverage procedures in smokers result in less desirable outcome compared to nonsmokers', and there are few controlled studies in literature to support this finding. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the outcome of root coverage with sub-epithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) in nonsmokers and smokers. A sample of twenty subjects, 10 nonsmokers and 10 smokers were selected each with at least 1 Miller's Class I or II recession on a single rooted tooth. Clinical measurements of probing depth, clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival recession total surface area (GRTSA), depth of recession (RD), width of recession (RW), and width of keratinized tissue were determined at baseline, 3, and 6 months after surgery. The treatment of gingival recession with SCTG and coronally advanced flap showed a decrease in the GRTSA, RD, RW, and an increase in CAL and width of keratinized gingiva in both the groups. However, the intergroup comparison of the clinical parameters showed no statistical significance. About 6 out of 10 nonsmokers (60%) and 3 smokers (30%) showed complete root coverage. The mean percentage of root coverage of 71.2% in nonsmokers and 38% in smokers was observed. The results of the present study suggest that smoking may negatively influence gingival recession reduction and CAL gain. In addition, smokers may exhibit fewer chances of complete root coverage. Overall, nonsmokers showed better improvements in all the parameters compared to smokers at the end of 6 months.

  11. Proteome analysis of in vitro and in vivo root tissue of Withania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... The results indicate that the expression pattern and the protein identified in both in vitro and in vivo roots of W. somnifera are similar, in spite of providing exogenous plant growth regulators for the in vitro root induction. Though, proteome analysis specific secondary metabolism related proteins involved in.

  12. Tissue reaction to Endométhasone sealer in root canal fillings short of or beyond the apical foramen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Suzuki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the response of periapical tissues to the endodontic sealer Endométhasone in root canal fillings short of or beyond the apical foramen. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty root canals of premolars and incisors of 2 mongrel dogs were used. After coronal access and pulp extirpation, the canals were instrumented up to a size 55 K-file and the apical cemental barrier was penetrated with a size 15 K-file to obtain a main apical foramen, which was widened to a size 25 K-file. The canals were irrigated with saline at each change of file. The root canals were obturated either short of or beyond the apical foramen by the lateral condensation of gutta-percha and Endométhasone, originating 2 experimental groups: G1: Endométhasone/short of the apical foramen; G2: Endométhasone/beyond the apical foramen. The animals were killed by anesthetic overdose 90 days after endodontic treatment. The individual roots were obtained and serial histological sections were prepared for histomorphological analysis (H&E and Brown & Brenn techniques under light microscopy. The following parameters were examined: closure of the apical foramen of the main root canal and apical opening of accessory canals, apical cementum resorption, intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate, presence of giant cells and thickness and organization of the apical periodontal ligament. Each parameter was scored 1 to 4, 1 being the best result and 4 the worst. Data were analyzed statistically by the Wilcoxon nonparametric tests (p=0.05. RESULTS: Comparing the 2 groups, the best result (p<0.05 was obtained with root canal filling with Endométhasone short of the apical foramen but a chronic inflammatory infiltrate was present in all specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Limiting the filling material to the root canal space apically is important to determine the best treatment outcome when Endométhasone is used as sealer.

  13. Multi-omics analysis identifies genes mediating the extension of cell walls in the Arabidopsis thaliana root elongation zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Wilson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell wall composition is important for regulating growth rates, especially in roots. However, neither analyses of cell wall composition nor transcriptomes on their own can comprehensively reveal which genes and processes are mediating growth and cell elongation rates. This study reveals the benefits of carrying out multiple analyses in combination. Sections of roots from five anatomically and functionally defined zones in Arabidopsis thaliana were prepared and divided into three biological replicates. We used glycan microarrays and antibodies to identify the major classes of glycans and glycoproteins present in the cell walls of these sections, and identified the expected decrease in pectin and increase in xylan from the meristematic zone (MS, through the rapid and late elongation zones (REZ, LEZ to the maturation zone and the rest of the root, including the emerging lateral roots. Other compositional changes included extensin and xyloglucan levels peaking in the REZ and increasing levels of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGP epitopes from the MS to the LEZ, which remained high through the subsequent mature zones. Immuno-staining using the same antibodies identified the tissue and (subcellular localization of many epitopes. Extensins were localized in epidermal and cortex cell walls, while AGP glycans were specific to different tissues from root-hair cells to the stele. The transcriptome analysis found several gene families peaking in the REZ. These included a large family of peroxidases (which produce the reactive oxygen species needed for cell expansion, and three xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase genes (XTH17, XTH18 and XTH19. The significance of the latter may be related to a role in breaking and re-joining xyloglucan cross-bridges between cellulose microfibrils, a process which is required for wall expansion. Knockdowns of these XTHs resulted in shorter root lengths, confirming a role of the corresponding proteins in root

  14. EX VITRO ROOTING OF OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. PLANTLETS DERIVED FROM TISSUE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaryono Sumaryono

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Plantlets of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. derived from so-matic embryos sometimes do not form well developed-roots. Root formation of unrooted-plantlets can be induced with aux-in during ex vitro acclimatization period to simplify the proce-dure and to reduce seedling production cost. Experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design to determine the effect of different types of auxin, i.e. indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, and 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA at different concentrations, i.e. 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mM on root development of oil palm plantlets. The plantlets used were derived from somatic embryos of MK 649 oil palm clone. The basal end of the shoots was dipped in auxin solution for 10 minutes before the shoot was cultured in a small plastic pot containing a mixed growing medium. The cultures were then placed inside a closed transparent plastic tunnel (240 cm x 100 cm x 95 cm for 12 weeks. The results showed that without auxin treatment only 15% of the shoots formed roots. Dipping in auxin solution increased significantly root frequen-cy to more than 50%. The best root formation was found on the shoots treated with 2 mM NAA by which rooting frequency was 80%. Auxin treatments also increased root quality as indi-cated by more number of primary and secondary roots. IAA, IBA, and NAA treatments at all concentrations tested increased significantly shoot height on average by 42% and shoot diame-ter by 30% compared to control treatment, but did not influ-ence root length. The best treatment for inducing roots of oil palm plantlets ex vitro was by dipping the basal end of the plant-lets in 2 mM NAA solution. The result showed that rooting of oil palm plantlets could be successfully conducted ex vitro that would eliminate sterile rooting stage thus simplify the protocol and reduce seedling production time and cost.

  15. Revascularization and tissue regeneration of an empty root canal space is enhanced by a direct blood supply and stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuwan, Tanida; Tilkorn, Daniel J; Al-Benna, Sammy; Abberton, Keren; Messer, Harold H; Thompson, Erik W

    2013-04-01

    Regenerative endodontics is an innovative treatment concept aiming to regenerate pulp, dentin and root structures. In the diseased or necrotic tooth, the limitation in vascular supply renders successful tissue regeneration/generation in a whole tooth challenging. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of vascularized tissue to develop within a pulpless tooth using tissue engineering techniques. A pulpless tooth chamber, filled with collagen I gel containing isolated rat dental pulp cells (DPC) and angiogenic growth factors, was placed into a hole created in the femoral cortex or into its own tooth socket, respectively. The gross, histological and biochemical characteristics of the de novo tissue were evaluated at 4 and 8 weeks post-transplantation. Tooth revascularization and tissue generation was observed only in the femur group, confirming the important role of vascular supply in tissue regeneration. The addition of cells and growth factors significantly promoted connective tissue production in the tooth chamber. Successful revascularization and tissue regeneration in this model demonstrate the importance of a direct vascular supply and the advantages of a stem cell approach. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Methanolic effect of Clerodendrum myricoides root extract on blood, liver and kidney tissues of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayelom, K; Mekbeb, A; Eyasu, M; Wondwossen, E; Kelbesa, U

    2012-12-01

    The present study deals with the toxicological investigations of chronic treatment with methanol root extract of Clerodendrum myricoides on body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters, and liver and kidney tissue sections. Mice treated with 100mg/kg bw/day of methanol extract showed no behavioral changes. However, there was a general reduction of activity in mice treated with 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract and LD50 treated mice showed hypoactivity, grooming, prostration, piloroerection and irritation during administration towards the last days of the treatment period. The body weight gain difference in the 100mg/kg bw/day methanol extract treated group was not significant, while those of the others were significant as compared with the controls. Hematological results for the RBC count, HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC in methanol extract treated mice showed no significant changes at both doses of treatments as compared with the controls. However, the value of lymphocytes was found significantly increased at 100 and 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract. Similarly, HGB was significantly increased at 100 and 400mg/kg bw/day of methanol extract treated groups. On the other hand, WBC and platelets count were significantly decreased after treatment with 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract. ALT, ALP, AST and urea values were significantly increased respectively at 100mg/kg bw/day and 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract. Several histopathological changes of liver and kidney were observed in the extract treated mice as compared to the controls. Such histopathological changes observed in both liver and kidneys were inflammations and hydropic degenerations of hepatocytes at both doses of methanol. In addition, in the LD50 treated mice of the extracts there were also hemorrhages and signs in congestion of glomeruli of the kidney. chronic treatment with Clerodendrum myricoides extracts in mice causes reduction in body weight gain, damage to liver & kidney and changes in some

  17. Effect of fluorine and of beta-indolacetic acid on the respiration of root tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilet, P.E.

    1964-01-01

    The auxin, beta-indolacetic acid, (BIAA) inhibited the elongation of Lens culinaris roots at all concentrations. At high concentrations fluoride had an inhibitor effect, but it had a stimulatory effect on root growth at low concentrations. BIAA mildly stimulated respiration at low concentrations and inhibited oxygen absorption at high concentrations. At concentrations stimulating respiration fluoride was found to reduce these stimulating effects caused by BIAA. Therefore, fluoride and BIAA acted as antagonists in their effect on respiration.

  18. Root gravitropism and root hair development constitute coupled developmental responses regulated by auxin homeostasis in the Arabidopsis root apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigas, Stamatis; Ditengou, Franck Anicet; Ljung, Karin; Daras, Gerasimos; Tietz, Olaf; Palme, Klaus; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

    2013-03-01

    Active polar transport establishes directional auxin flow and the generation of local auxin gradients implicated in plant responses and development. Auxin modulates gravitropism at the root tip and root hair morphogenesis at the differentiation zone. Genetic and biochemical analyses provide evidence for defective basipetal auxin transport in trh1 roots. The trh1, pin2, axr2 and aux1 mutants, and transgenic plants overexpressing PIN1, all showing impaired gravity response and root hair development, revealed ectopic PIN1 localization. The auxin antagonist hypaphorine blocked root hair elongation and caused moderate agravitropic root growth, also leading to PIN1 mislocalization. These results suggest that auxin imbalance leads to proximal and distal developmental defects in Arabidopsis root apex, associated with agravitropic root growth and root hair phenotype, respectively, providing evidence that these two auxin-regulated processes are coupled. Cell-specific subcellular localization of TRH1-YFP in stele and epidermis supports TRH1 engagement in auxin transport, and hence impaired function in trh1 causes dual defects of auxin imbalance. The interplay between intrinsic cues determining root epidermal cell fate through the TTG/GL2 pathway and environmental cues including abiotic stresses modulates root hair morphogenesis. As a consequence of auxin imbalance in Arabidopsis root apex, ectopic PIN1 mislocalization could be a risk aversion mechanism to trigger root developmental responses ensuring root growth plasticity. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Aesthetic management of gingival recession by root biomodification with carbon dioxide laser and subepithelial connective tissue graft with lateral repositioned flap technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Pavitra Kumar; Lal, Nand; Garg, Nimit; Anand, Vishal; Singhal, Rameshwari

    2012-01-01

    Localised gingival recessions continue to represent an important aesthetic condition requiring treatment in periodontics. Various techniques have been tried to treat exposed root surfaces to improve aesthetics with high percentage of success and minimal discomfort. Root biomodification is done to improve the predictability of these procedures. This clinical report describes periodontal plastic procedure involving subepithelial connective tissue graft with lateral repositioned flap technique and root biomodification with CO2 laser for the management of gingival recession. PMID:22778454

  20. Immunohistochemical and histochemical analysis of newly formed tissues in root canal space transplanted with dental pulp stem cells plus platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaofei; Wang, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Huang, George T-J; Zhang, Chengfei

    2014-10-01

    Tissue regeneration in root canals after pulpectomy can be achieved by transplantation of autologous dental pulp stem cells and/or platelet-rich plasma. However, the identity of the newly formed tissue in the pulp space has been only examined by histologic analysis. This study aimed to apply immunohistochemistry and histochemistry to detect specific markers in the newly generated tissues after root canal regenerative treatment. In our previous study, 32 root canals in 4 mature dogs were treated with a pulp regeneration procedure after pulpectomy using either blood clot, transplantation of dental pulp stem cells, platelet-rich plasma, or a combination of cells and plasma. In the present study, the tissues were examined for the expression of periostin to detect periodontal ligament tissue, nestin and dentin sialoprotein for odontoblasts, and bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin for bone tissues. Samples were also stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) as a marker for osteoclastic lineages. Continuous periostin-positive tissue was observed extending from the periodontal ligament into the inner canal surface in which the mineral islands were surrounded by weak periostin staining. There was also positive staining for TRAP, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin in the canal space, suggesting the presence of bone tissue. A layer of mineralized tissue along the inner surface of the root canal was negative for TRAP, suggesting the tissue likely to be cementum. In all samples, no nestin-positive reaction was observed, whereas dentin sialoprotein was detected in PDL, dentinal tubules, and intracanal fibrous tissues. There was no difference between any of the 4 groups. The tissues formed in the dog mature root canals after regenerative endodontic procedures are not pulp tissues but mainly periodontal tissues. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of fixation protocol and gravistimulation on cytoskeletal organization in Brassica rapa roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Andrea; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2012-07-01

    In preparation for a flight experiment we have studied the optimization of the staining protocols for microtubules and actin filaments in Brassica rapa seedlings. Microtubules (MT) were stained with monoclonal antibody (mAb) YOL 1/34. F-actin (FA) staining was achieved with C4 mAb antibody. Fixative prepared more than three weeks before use produces specimens that stained poorly. Storage in fixative for more than four weeks resulted in noticeably poorer staining. Staining was best in cortical cells but more difficult and less consistent in cap cells, especially for FA. In addition, the quality of staining of root cap cells was dependent on the age of the formaldehyde. The organization of the MTs corresponded with previously published descriptions; FA was prominent in the stele with thick and numerous parallel bundles; cortical cells showed less dense and less directional organization of mostly thinner filaments. FA organization was determined by tissue rather than by differential elongation. The organization of MTs in cortical cells of curving roots was uniformly circular and perpendicular to the long cell axis despite different cell length. The effect of clinorotation around the horizontal axis and centrifugation on the cytoskeletal organization was inconsistent. (Supported by NASA grant NNX10AP91G)

  2. Beneficial Bacteria Isolated from Grapevine Inner Tissues Shape Arabidopsis thaliana Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldan, Enrico; Nigris, Sebastiano; Romualdi, Chiara; D’Alessandro, Stefano; Clocchiatti, Anna; Zottini, Michela; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Squartini, Andrea; Baldan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential plant growth-promoting traits of 377 culturable endophytic bacteria, isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Glera, as good biofertilizer candidates in vineyard management. Endophyte ability in promoting plant growth was assessed in vitro by testing ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and IAA-like molecule biosynthesis, siderophore and lytic enzyme secretion. Many of the isolates were able to mobilize phosphate (33%), release ammonium (39%), secrete siderophores (38%) and a limited part of them synthetized IAA and IAA-like molecules (5%). Effects of each of the 377 grapevine beneficial bacteria on Arabidopsis thaliana root development were also analyzed to discern plant growth-promoting abilities (PGP) of the different strains, that often exhibit more than one PGP trait. A supervised model-based clustering analysis highlighted six different classes of PGP effects on root architecture. A. thaliana DR5::GUS plantlets, inoculated with IAA-producing endophytes, resulted in altered root growth and enhanced auxin response. Overall, the results indicate that the Glera PGP endospheric culturable microbiome could contribute, by structural root changes, to obtain water and nutrients increasing plant adaptation and survival. From the complete cultivable collection, twelve promising endophytes mainly belonging to the Bacillus but also to Micrococcus and Pantoea genera, were selected for further investigations in the grapevine host plants towards future application in sustainable management of vineyards. PMID:26473358

  3. Azacytidine and miR156 promote rooting in adult but not in juvenile Arabidopsis tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massoumi Bagherabadi, Mehdi; Krens, Frans A.; Visser, Richard G.F.; Klerk, de Geert-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Poor adventitious root (AR) formation is a major obstacle in micropropagation and conventional vegetative propagation of many crops. It is affected by many endogenous and exogenous factors. With respect to endogenous factors, the phase change from juvenile to adult has a major influence on AR

  4. The parenchymo-vascular cambium and its derivative tissues in stems and roots of Bougainvillaea glabra Choisy (Nyctaginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Puławska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the shoots and roots of Bougainmllaea, the parenchymo-vascular cambium produces thinwalled secondary parenchyma to one side and the secondary vascular bundles embedded in the "conjunctive tissue" to the other. Periclinal division of a single cambial cell in one radial row brings about periclinal divisions of the adjacent cells of the neighbouring rows. Anticlinal division of a single cambial cell at one level, on the other hand, causes anticlinal. divisions of the adjacent cells of the overlying and underlying tiers.

  5. A histologic evaluation of periodontal tissues adjacent to root perforations filled with Cavit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jew, R C; Weine, F S; Keene, J J; Smulson, M H

    1982-07-01

    Root perforations were created in dog premolars; thirty-one were filled with Cavit, whereas seventeen were left unfilled. The animals were killed after 1, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 days, and hematoxylin and eosin sections were prepared. Perforations near the gingival sulcus usually led to severe destruction, whereas those surrounded by ample bone tended to gain a favorable response, even when left unfilled.

  6. Root development in mice lacking functional tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene: inhibition of acellular cementum formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beertsen, W; VandenBos, T; Everts, V

    1999-06-01

    Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) is richly present in developing teeth including the cells of the periodontal ligament. Here, we investigated tooth and root development in mice lacking the TNAP gene. Heterozygous mutants were obtained from The Jackson Laboratory, Animal Resources (Bar Harbor, ME, USA) and bred. TNAP-deficient mice and their littermates were killed from 6 to 25 days after birth and their molar blocks processed for light and electron microscopy. It was observed that the eruption of the incisors into the oral cavity was delayed for 2 to 3 days. Also, the onset of mineralization of the mantle dentin in the roots of the developing molars was delayed for 2 to 3 days. Yet, dentin and enamel formation in the homozygous mutants showed a more or less normal pattern, with the exception of localized enamel hypoplasias. The most conspicuous finding was the defective formation of acellular cementum along the molar roots. Instead of a continuous layer, the cementum was deposited as very thin and irregularly shaped patches around the bases of the periodontal ligament fibers. Sharpey's fibers were short and poorly developed. In contrast, the development of the alveolar bone, the periodontal ligament, and the cellular cementum was seemingly unaffected. It is concluded that TNAP represents an essential factor in mantle dentin mineralization and in the formation of acellular cementum.

  7. Root hard-tissue demineralization rate measured by sup 125 I absorptiometry: Comparison with lesion-depth measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almqvist, H.; Wefel, J.S.; Lagerloef, F. (Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge (Sweden))

    1990-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare demineralization of root hard tissue, monitored by {sup 125}I absorptiometry, with lesion-depth measurements under polarized light microscopy. The intact roots of ten human molars, which had not been exposed to the oral environment, were divided into 39 cementum/dentin blocks and exposed to a buffer solution of pH 4.5 containing 2.2 mmol/L calcium and inorganic phosphate. After demineralization for 3.5, 7, 14, and 21 days, transmission measurements by {sup 125}I absorptiometry were performed, and one block from each tooth was taken out of the solution for lesion-depth measurement. The results showed a high degree of correlation (r = 0.952) between lesion depth and change in transmission, with a more rapid increase initially in both variables. A linear relationship with the square root of time was found. Conversion of transmission data to lesion-depth data was possible when this caries model system was used on cementum dentin blocks.

  8. Effect of Medium Supplements on Agrobacterium rhizogenes Mediated Hairy Root Induction from the Callus Tissues of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Mohammad M; Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Song, Da-Peng; Liu, Guo-Feng; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Wei, Shu

    2016-07-15

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation largely due to the bactericidal effects of tea polyphenols and phenolics oxidation induced by necrosis of explant tissue over the process of transformation. In this study, different antioxidants/adsorbents were added as supplements to the co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media to overcome these problems for the transformation improvement. Tea-cotyledon-derived calli were used as explants and Agrobacterium rhizognes strain ATCC 15834 was used as a mediator. Results showed that Agrobacterium growth, virulence (vir) gene expression and browning of explant tissue were greatly influenced by different supplements. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salts medium supplemented with 30 g·L(-1) sucrose, 0.1 g·L(-1) l-glutamine and 5 g·L(-1) polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) as co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media could maintain these parameters better that ultimately led to significant improvement of hairy root generation efficiency compared to that in the control (MS + 30 g·L(-1) sucrose). Additionally, the reporter genes β-glucuronidase (gusA) and cyan fluorescent protein (cfp) were also stably expressed in the transgenic hairy roots. Our study would be helpful in establishing a feasible approach for tea biological studies and genetic improvement of tea varieties.

  9. Effect of Medium Supplements on Agrobacterium rhizogenes Mediated Hairy Root Induction from the Callus Tissues of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Rana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis L. is recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation largely due to the bactericidal effects of tea polyphenols and phenolics oxidation induced by necrosis of explant tissue over the process of transformation. In this study, different antioxidants/adsorbents were added as supplements to the co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media to overcome these problems for the transformation improvement. Tea-cotyledon-derived calli were used as explants and Agrobacterium rhizognes strain ATCC 15834 was used as a mediator. Results showed that Agrobacterium growth, virulence (vir gene expression and browning of explant tissue were greatly influenced by different supplements. Murashige and Skoog (MS basal salts medium supplemented with 30 g·L−1 sucrose, 0.1 g·L−1 l-glutamine and 5 g·L−1 polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP as co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media could maintain these parameters better that ultimately led to significant improvement of hairy root generation efficiency compared to that in the control (MS + 30 g·L−1 sucrose. Additionally, the reporter genes β-glucuronidase (gusA and cyan fluorescent protein (cfp were also stably expressed in the transgenic hairy roots. Our study would be helpful in establishing a feasible approach for tea biological studies and genetic improvement of tea varieties.

  10. Interplay between ABA and GA Modulates the Timing of Asymmetric Cell Divisions in the Arabidopsis Root Ground Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin Ae; Jang, Sejeong; Yoon, Eun Kyung; Heo, Jung-Ok; Chang, Kwang Suk; Choi, Ji Won; Dhar, Souvik; Kim, Gyuree; Choe, Jeong-Eun; Heo, Jae Bok; Kwon, Chian; Ko, Jae-Heung; Hwang, Yong-Sic; Lim, Jun

    2016-06-06

    In multicellular organisms, controlling the timing and extent of asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs) is crucial for correct patterning. During post-embryonic root development in Arabidopsis thaliana, ground tissue (GT) maturation involves an additional ACD of the endodermis, which generates two different tissues: the endodermis (inner) and the middle cortex (outer). It has been reported that the abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) pathways are involved in middle cortex (MC) formation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between ABA and GA during GT maturation remain largely unknown. Through transcriptome analyses, we identified a previously uncharacterized C2H2-type zinc finger gene, whose expression is regulated by GA and ABA, thus named GAZ (GA- AND ABA-RESPONSIVE ZINC FINGER). Seedlings ectopically overexpressing GAZ (GAZ-OX) were sensitive to ABA and GA during MC formation, whereas GAZ-SRDX and RNAi seedlings displayed opposite phenotypes. In addition, our results indicated that GAZ was involved in the transcriptional regulation of ABA and GA homeostasis. In agreement with previous studies that ABA and GA coordinate to control the timing of MC formation, we also confirmed the unique interplay between ABA and GA and identified factors and regulatory networks bridging the two hormone pathways during GT maturation of the Arabidopsis root. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical and Chemical Barriers in Root Tissues Contribute to Quantitative Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi in Pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Bani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi (Fop is one of the most destructive diseases of pea worldwide. Control of this disease is difficult and it is mainly based on the use of resistant cultivars. While monogenic resistance has been successfully used in the field, it is at risk of breakdown by the constant evolution of the pathogen. New sources of quantitative resistance have been recently identified from a wild relative Pisum spp. collection. Here, we characterize histologically the resistance mechanisms occurring in these sources of quantitative resistance. Detailed comparison, of the reaction at cellular level, of eight pea accessions with differential responses to Fop race 2, showed that resistant accessions established several barriers at the epidermis, exodermis, cortex, endodermis and vascular stele efficiently impeding fungal progression. The main components of these different barriers were carbohydrates and phenolic compounds including lignin. We found that these barriers were mainly based on three defense mechanisms including cell wall strengthening, formation of papilla-like structures at penetration sites and accumulation of different substances within and between cells. These defense reactions varied in intensity and localization between resistant accessions. Our results also clarify some steps of the infection process of F. oxysporum in plant and support the important role of cell wall-degrading enzymes in F. oxysporum pathogenicity.

  12. Colonization process of olive tissues by Verticillium dahliae and its in planta interaction with the biocontrol root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pilar; Navarro‐Raya, Carmen; Valverde‐Corredor, Antonio; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Dobinson, Katherine F.; Mercado‐Blanco, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Summary The colonization process of Olea europaea by the defoliating pathotype of Verticillium dahliae, and the in planta interaction with the endophytic, biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 were determined. Differential fluorescent protein tagging was used for the simultaneous visualization of P. fluorescens PICF7 and V. dahliae in olive tissues. Olive plants were bacterized with PICF7 and then transferred to V. dahliae‐infested soil. Monitoring olive colonization events by V. dahliae and its interaction with PICF7 was conducted using a non‐gnotobiotic system, confocal laser scanner microscopy and tissue vibratoming sections. A yellow fluorescently tagged V. dahliae derivative (VDAT‐36I) was obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens‐mediated transformation. Isolate VDAT‐36I quickly colonized olive root surface, successfully invaded root cortex and vascular tissues via macro‐ and micro‐breakages, and progressed to the aerial parts of the plant through xylem vessel cells. Strain PICF7 used root hairs as preferred penetration site, and once established on/in root tissues, hindered pathogen colonization. For the first time using this approach, the entire colonization process of a woody plant by V. dahliae is reported. Early and localized root surface and root endophytic colonization by P. fluorescens PICF7 is needed to impair full progress of verticillium wilt epidemics in olive. PMID:21255281

  13. The comparison of modified semilunar technique in conjunction with connective tissue and subepithelial connective tissue graft for root coverage: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenabian, Niloofar; Khanjani, Nafiseh; Bijani, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Gingival recession may result in aesthetically unfavourable effects, difficulty in plaque control, increased susceptibility to root caries, and dentin hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to compare the use of modified semilunar techniques with connective tissue and subepithelial connective tissue grafts (Langer) for denuded root surface coverage. In this randomized clinical trial, fourteen localized recessions of Miller class I to II were treated in 5 subjects. Recessions were randomly treated with modified semilunar techniques (test group) and a subepithelial connective tissue graft (control group). Clinical parameters such as clinical attachment level (CAL), keratinized tissue width (KTW), probing pocket depth (PPD), vertical recession depth (VRD) and recession width (RW)were recorded at base line, 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery and healing index and the subject's satisfaction was evaluated. The repeated measure test and paired-sample t-test were used for statistical analyses by SPSS. Both methods showed significant improvement in clinical parameters. The healing index (HI) in the test group was a slightly more than the control group in Day 10. Aesthetic VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) levels in the test group were more than the control group in 1, 3 and 6 months (test group, in 1 month 6.57±1.13, in 3 month 7.86±1.07, in 6 month 8.00±0.81. control group in 1 month 5.57±1.13, in 3 month 7.00±1.00, in 6 month 7.14±0.90). The KTW, CAL, VRD and RW level's difference in the test and control group was significant in 6 month compared to the base line (p=0.000). The present study shows that treatment of Miller Class I and II gingival recession by the modified semilunar technique is acceptable. The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the Irct ID: IRCT201512021760N43. Date registered: December 27, 2015. The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

  14. Pulp Tissue Reaction of Dog Canines to Root MTA and Portland Cement Compared to ProRoot MTA as Pulp Capping Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Razmi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Mineral trioxid aggregate (MTA cement is widely used for root-end filling, pulp capping, perforation repair and other treatments in endodontics.Investigations have shown similar physical and chemical properties for Portland cement(type I, Root MTA and ProRoot MTA.Purpose: The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the reaction of dog canine pulp after pulp capping with Root MTA and Portland cement versus ProRoot MTA.Materials and Methods: All four canines from fifteen healthy dogs, 12-18 months of age, were mechanically exposed via buccal class V cavities under aseptic conditions.MTA, Portland cement and Root MTA were prepared according to the manufactures’instructions and placed in the cavities. Tricresol formalin was used in the control group.After 4, 8 and 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the teeth were fixed and processed for light microscopic analysis. The presence and thickness of the dentinal bridge and the degree of inflammation were evaluated. Data were submitted to Mann-Whiteny and Kruskal Wallis tests for statistical analysis.Results: No statistically significant difference was found in the presence and thickness of the dentinal bridge, and the degree of inflammation between Root MTA, Portland cement and ProRoot MTA (P>0.05.Conclusion: Root MTA, Portland cement and ProRoot MTA showed similarcomparative results when used as direct pulp capping materials. The results of this study support the idea that Portland cement and Root MTA have the potential to be used in clinical situation similar to those in which ProRoot MTA is being used.

  15. Cell-type-specific H+-ATPase activity in root tissues enables K+ retention and mediates acclimation of barley (Hordeum vulgare) to salinity stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Lana; Zhang, Jingyi; Pottosin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    conferring higher sensitivity of apical root cells to salinity in barley (Hordeum vulgare). We show that salinity application to the root apex arrests root growth in a highly tissue- and treatment-specific manner. Although salinity-induced transient net Na(+) uptake was about 4-fold higher in the root apex......While the importance of cell type specificity in plant adaptive responses is widely accepted, only a limited number of studies have addressed this issue at the functional level. We have combined electrophysiological, imaging, and biochemical techniques to reveal the physiological mechanisms...... depolarization, and (3) a higher reactive oxygen species production under NaCl and a larger density of reactive oxygen species-activated cation currents in the apex. Salinity treatment increased (2- to 5-fold) the content of 10 (out of 25 detected) amino acids in the root apex but not in the mature zone...

  16. Distributions of imidacloprid, imidacloprid-olefin and imidacloprid-urea in green plant tissues and roots of rapeseed (Brassica napus) from artificially contaminated potting soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifrtova, Marcela; Halesova, Tatana; Sulcova, Klara; Riddellova, Katerina; Erban, Tomas

    2017-05-01

    Imidacloprid-urea is the primary imidacloprid soil metabolite, whereas imidacloprid-olefin is the main plant-relevant metabolite and is more toxic to insects than imidacloprid. We artificially contaminated potting soil and used quantitative UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS to determine the imidacloprid, imidacloprid-olefin and imidacloprid-urea distributions in rapeseed green plant tissues and roots after 4 weeks of exposure. In soil, the imidacloprid/imidacloprid-urea molar ratios decreased similarly after the 250 and 2500 µg kg-1 imidacloprid treatments. The imidacloprid/imidacloprid-urea molar ratios in the root and soil were similar, whereas in the green plant tissue, imidacloprid-urea increased more than twofold compared with the root. Although imidacloprid-olefin was prevalent in the green plant tissues, with imidacloprid/imidacloprid-olefin molar ratios of 2.24 and 1.47 for the 250 and 2500 µg kg-1 treatments respectively, it was not detected in the root. However, imidacloprid-olefin was detected in the soil after the 2500 µg kg-1 imidacloprid treatment. Significant proportions of imidacloprid-olefin and imidacloprid-urea in green plant tissues were demonstrated. The greater imidacloprid supply increased the imidacloprid-olefin/imidacloprid molar ratio in the green plant tissues. The absence of imidacloprid-olefin in the root excluded its retransport from leaves. The similar imidacloprid/imidacloprid-urea ratios in the soil and root indicated that the root serves primarily for transporting these substances. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Differential expression of ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1 in adult rat dorsal root ganglion tissue

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    Ip Virginia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1 are metal transporting proteins that control the cellular disposition of copper and platinum drugs, but their expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG tissue and their role in platinum-induced neurotoxicity are unknown. To investigate the DRG expression of ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1, lumbar DRG and reference tissues were collected for real time quantitative PCR, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis from healthy control adult rats or from animals treated with intraperitoneal oxaliplatin (1.85 mg/kg or drug vehicle twice weekly for 8 weeks. Results In DRG tissue from healthy control animals, ATP7A mRNA was clearly detectable at levels similar to those found in the brain and spinal cord, and intense ATP7A immunoreactivity was localised to the cytoplasm of cell bodies of smaller DRG neurons without staining of satellite cells, nerve fibres or co-localisation with phosphorylated heavy neurofilament subunit (pNF-H. High levels of CTR1 mRNA were detected in all tissues from healthy control animals, and strong CTR1 immunoreactivity was associated with plasma membranes and vesicular cytoplasmic structures of the cell bodies of larger-sized DRG neurons without co-localization with ATP7A. DRG neurons with strong expression of ATP7A or CTR1 had distinct cell body size profiles with minimal overlap between them. Oxaliplatin treatment did not alter the size profile of strongly ATP7A-immunoreactive neurons but significantly reduced the size profile of strongly CTR1-immunoreactive neurons. ATP7B mRNA was barely detectable, and no specific immunoreactivity for ATP7B was found, in DRG tissue from healthy control animals. Conclusions In conclusion, adult rat DRG tissue exhibits a specific pattern of expression of copper transporters with distinct subsets of peripheral sensory neurons intensely expressing either ATP7A or CTR1, but not both or ATP7B. The neuron subtype-specific and largely non

  18. A Comparative 6-Month Clinical Study of Acellular Dermal Matrix Allograft and Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft for Root Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sadat Mansouri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Different surgical procedures have been proposed for the treatment of gingival recessions. The goal of this study was to compare the clinical results of gingival recession treatment using Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft and an Acellular Dermal MatrixAllograft.Materials and Methods: The present study was performed on 5 patients with 9 bilateral Miller`s class I or II gingival recessions. This included 15 premolars and 3 canines. In each patient the teeth were randomly divided in two groups of test (ADMA and control (SCTG.Clinical parameters including recession height (RH, recession width (RW, keratinized gingiva (KG, clinical attachment level (CAL and probing depth (PD were measured at baseline, 2, 4 and 6 months after surgery and data analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test.Results: The mean changes (mm from baseline to 6 months in SCTG and ADMA were 2.22±0.83 and 1.77±0.66 decrease in RH, 2.55±0.88 and 2.33±0.86 decrease in RW,1.44±0.88 and 2.0±1.11 increase in KG, 2.33±1.22 and 2.11±0.6 decrease in CAL and finally 0.22±0.66 and 0.33±0.7 decrease in PD, respectively. The differences in meanchanges were not significant between the two groups in any of the parameters. The percentage of root coverage was 85.7% and 71.1% for the control and test group,respectively. The changes from baseline to the 6 month visit were significant for both groups in all parameters but PD.Conclusion: Alloderm may be suggested as an acceptable substitute for connective tissue graft considering the root coverage effect and KG width increase.

  19. Periodontal soft tissue non-root coverage procedures: a systematic review from the AAP Regeneration Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David M; Neiva, Rodrigo

    2015-02-01

    Gingival augmentation procedures around natural teeth and dental implants are performed to facilitate plaque control, to improve patient comfort, to prevent future recession, and in conjunction with restorative, orthodontic, or prosthetic dentistry. The aim of this study is to answer the most common questions related to this treatment modality based on the most relevant and current knowledge in the field. Two reviewers worked to answer the five most common and clinically relevant questions with supporting literature to understand the role of gingiva around teeth. 1) What circumstances require an increased zone of keratinized tissue (KT), or is KT important? 2) What is the ideal thickness of an autogenous gingival graft? Is a thick autogenous gingival graft more effective than a thin autogenous gingival graft? 3) What are the alternatives to autogenous gingival grafting to increase the zone of attached gingiva? 4) Does orthodontic intervention affect soft tissue health and dimensions? 5) What is the patient-reported patient outcome for minimal KT compared with that for an enhanced zone of KT? An extensive literature search was performed using PubMed, the Cochrane Oral Health Group Specialized Trials Registry (the Cochrane Library), and the most respected journals in the field. Although gingival augmentation procedures were first introduced in 1960s, there have not been in-depth comparative studies examining the five questions that have been proposed by the authors. Lack of relevant systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on this topic do not allow authors to answer those questions with a strong level of evidence. However, the following can be recommended after reviewing case reports and case series on these topics. 1) There is enough clinical evidence to support maintaining an adequate band of gingiva for intracrevicular margin restoration. 2) Thick grafts do not appear to result in better clinical outcomes than thin grafts. Thick grafts are likely

  20. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in keloid tissues and TGF-β1-induced hair follicle outer root sheath keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Cao, Rui; Wang, Lianzhao; Liu, Yuanbo; Pan, Bo; Yin, Yanhua; Lv, Xiaoyan; Zhuang, Qiang; Sun, Xuejian; Xiao, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Keloid is a skin fibrotic disease with the characteristics of recurrence and invasion, its pathogenesis still remains unrevealed. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical for wound healing, fibrosis, recurrence, and invasion of cancer. We sought to investigate the EMT in keloid and the mechanism through which the EMT regulates keloid formation. In keloid tissues, the expressions of EMT-associated markers and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smad3 signaling were examined by immunohistochemistry. In the keloid epidermis and dermal tissue, the expressions of genes related to the regulation of skin homeostasis, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) and p63, were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that accompanying the loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and the gain of the mesenchymal markers fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) and vimentin in epithelial cells from epidermis and skin appendages, and in endothelial cells from dermal microvessels, enhanced TGF-β1 expression and Smad3 phosphorylation were noted in keloid tissues. Moreover, alternative splicing of the FGFR2 gene switched the predominantly expressed isoform from FGFR2-IIIb to -IIIc, concomitant with the decreased expression of ΔNp63 and TAp63, which changes might partially account for abnormal epidermis and appendages in keloids. In addition, we found that TGF-β1-induced hair follicle outer root sheath keratinocytes (ORSKs) and normal skin epithelial cells underwent EMT in vitro with ORSKs exhibiting more obvious EMT changes and more similar expression profiles for EMT-associated and skin homeostasis-related genes as in keloid tissues, suggesting that ORSKs might play crucial roles in the EMT in keloids. Our study provided insights into the molecular mechanisms mediating the EMT pathogenesis of keloids. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  1. The connective tissue graft wall 
technique to improve root coverage and clinical attachment levels 
in lingual gingival defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchelli, Giovanni; Bentivogli, Valentina; Ganz, Sabrina; Bellone, Pietro; Mazzotti, Claudio

    The present case report describes the application of the connective tissue graft wall (CTGW) technique for the treatment of deep lingual gingival recessions associated with probing pockets and bone loss. Two deep lingual gingival recessions affecting the mandibular central incisors associated with severe lingual attachment and bone loss were treated. The surgical technique comprised a connective tissue graft (CTG) placed below a trapezoidal-type coronally advanced flap (CAF) acting as a lingual soft tissue wall of the infrabony defect. One year after the surgery, clinically significant root coverage, an increase in lingual keratinized tissue (KT) height and thickness, and clinical attachment level gain were achieved in both treated teeth. This case report encourages the application of the CTGW technique to improve both root coverage and regenerative parameters in lingual gingival recessions associated with severe attachment and bone loss.

  2. Inducible knock-down of GNOM during root formation reveals tissue-specific response to auxin transport and its modulation of local auxin biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    In plants, active transport of auxin plays an essential role in root development. Localization of the PIN1 auxin transporters to the basal membrane of cells directs auxin flow and depends on the trafficking mediator GNOM. GNOM-dependent auxin transport is vital for root development and thus offers a useful tool for the investigation of a possible tissue-specific response to dynamic auxin transport. To avoid pleiotropic effects, DEX-inducible expression of GNOM antisense RNA was used to disrupt GNOM expression transiently or persistently during embryonic root development. It was found that the elongation zone and the pericycle layer are the most sensitive to GNOM-dependent auxin transport variations, which is shown by the phenotypes in cell elongation and the initiation of lateral root primordia, respectively. This suggests that auxin dynamics is critical to cell differentiation and cell fate transition, but not to cell division. The results also reveal that GNOM-dependent auxin transport could affect local auxin biosynthesis. This suggests that local auxin biosynthesis may also contribute to the establishment of GNOM-dependent auxin gradients in specific tissues, and that auxin transport and local auxin biosynthesis may function together in the regulatory network for initiation and development of lateral root primordia. Thus, the data reveal a tissue-specific response to auxin transport and modulation of local auxin biosynthesis by auxin transport. PMID:24453227

  3. Oxygen deficiency and salinity affect cell-specific ion concentrations in adventitious roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotula, Lukasz; Clode, Peta L; Striker, Gustavo G; Pedersen, Ole; Läuchli, André; Shabala, Sergey; Colmer, Timothy D

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen deficiency associated with soil waterlogging adversely impacts root respiration and nutrient acquisition. We investigated the effects of O2 deficiency and salinity (100 mM NaCl) on radial O2 concentrations and cell-specific ion distributions in adventitious roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Microelectrode profiling measured O2 concentrations across roots in aerated, aerated saline, stagnant or stagnant saline media. X-ray microanalysis at two positions behind the apex determined the cell-specific elemental concentrations of potassium (K), sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) across roots. Severe O2 deficiency occurred in the stele and apical regions of roots in stagnant solutions. O2 deficiency in the stele reduced the concentrations of K, Na and Cl in the pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells at the subapical region. Near the root apex, Na declined across the cortex in roots from the aerated saline solution but was relatively high in all cell types in roots from the stagnant saline solution. Oxygen deficiency has a substantial impact on cellular ion concentrations in roots. Both pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells are involved in energy-dependent K loading into the xylem and in controlling radial Na and Cl transport. At root tips, accumulation of Na in the outer cell layers likely contributed to reduction of Na in inner cells of the tips. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. The Phenylpropanoid Pathway and Lignin in Defense against Ganoderma boninense Colonized Root Tissues in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha T. Govender

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Basal stem rot, caused by the basidiomycete fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is an economically devastating disease in Malaysia. Our study investigated the changes in lignin content and composition along with activity and expression of the phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes and genes in oil palm root tissues during G. boninense infection. We sampled control (non-inoculated and infected (inoculated seedlings at seven time points [1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-inoculation (wpi] in a randomized design. The expression profiles of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, and peroxidase (POD genes were monitored at 1, 2, and 3 wpi using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Seedlings at 4, 8, and 12 wpi were screened for lignin content, lignin composition, enzyme activities (PAL, CAD, and POD, growth (weight and height, and disease severity (DS. Gene expression analysis demonstrated up-regulation of PAL, CAD, and POD genes in the infected seedlings, relative to the control seedlings at 1, 2, and 3 wpi. At 2 and 3 wpi, CAD showed highest transcript levels compared to PAL and POD. DS increased progressively throughout sampling, with 5, 34, and 69% at 4, 8, and 12 wpi, respectively. Fresh weight and height of the infected seedlings were significantly lower compared to the control seedlings at 8 and 12 wpi. Lignin content of the infected seedlings at 4 wpi was significantly higher than the control seedlings, remained elicited with no change at 8 wpi, and then collapsed with a significant reduction at 12 wpi. The nitrobenzene oxidation products of oil palm root lignin yielded both syringyl and guaiacyl monomers. Accumulation of lignin in the infected seedlings was in parallel to increased syringyl monomers, at 4 and 8 wpi. The activities of PAL and CAD enzymes in the infected seedlings at DS = 5–34% were significantly higher than the control seedlings and thereafter collapsed at DS = 69%.

  5. The Phenylpropanoid Pathway and Lignin in Defense against Ganoderma boninense Colonized Root Tissues in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Nisha T; Mahmood, Maziah; Seman, Idris A; Wong, Mui-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Basal stem rot, caused by the basidiomycete fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is an economically devastating disease in Malaysia. Our study investigated the changes in lignin content and composition along with activity and expression of the phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes and genes in oil palm root tissues during G. boninense infection. We sampled control (non-inoculated) and infected (inoculated) seedlings at seven time points [1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-inoculation (wpi)] in a randomized design. The expression profiles of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and peroxidase (POD) genes were monitored at 1, 2, and 3 wpi using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Seedlings at 4, 8, and 12 wpi were screened for lignin content, lignin composition, enzyme activities (PAL, CAD, and POD), growth (weight and height), and disease severity (DS). Gene expression analysis demonstrated up-regulation of PAL, CAD, and POD genes in the infected seedlings, relative to the control seedlings at 1, 2, and 3 wpi. At 2 and 3 wpi, CAD showed highest transcript levels compared to PAL and POD. DS increased progressively throughout sampling, with 5, 34, and 69% at 4, 8, and 12 wpi, respectively. Fresh weight and height of the infected seedlings were significantly lower compared to the control seedlings at 8 and 12 wpi. Lignin content of the infected seedlings at 4 wpi was significantly higher than the control seedlings, remained elicited with no change at 8 wpi, and then collapsed with a significant reduction at 12 wpi. The nitrobenzene oxidation products of oil palm root lignin yielded both syringyl and guaiacyl monomers. Accumulation of lignin in the infected seedlings was in parallel to increased syringyl monomers, at 4 and 8 wpi. The activities of PAL and CAD enzymes in the infected seedlings at DS = 5-34% were significantly higher than the control seedlings and thereafter collapsed at DS = 69%.

  6. The Phenylpropanoid Pathway and Lignin in Defense against Ganoderma boninense Colonized Root Tissues in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Nisha T.; Mahmood, Maziah; Seman, Idris A.; Wong, Mui-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Basal stem rot, caused by the basidiomycete fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is an economically devastating disease in Malaysia. Our study investigated the changes in lignin content and composition along with activity and expression of the phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes and genes in oil palm root tissues during G. boninense infection. We sampled control (non-inoculated) and infected (inoculated) seedlings at seven time points [1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-inoculation (wpi)] in a randomized design. The expression profiles of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and peroxidase (POD) genes were monitored at 1, 2, and 3 wpi using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Seedlings at 4, 8, and 12 wpi were screened for lignin content, lignin composition, enzyme activities (PAL, CAD, and POD), growth (weight and height), and disease severity (DS). Gene expression analysis demonstrated up-regulation of PAL, CAD, and POD genes in the infected seedlings, relative to the control seedlings at 1, 2, and 3 wpi. At 2 and 3 wpi, CAD showed highest transcript levels compared to PAL and POD. DS increased progressively throughout sampling, with 5, 34, and 69% at 4, 8, and 12 wpi, respectively. Fresh weight and height of the infected seedlings were significantly lower compared to the control seedlings at 8 and 12 wpi. Lignin content of the infected seedlings at 4 wpi was significantly higher than the control seedlings, remained elicited with no change at 8 wpi, and then collapsed with a significant reduction at 12 wpi. The nitrobenzene oxidation products of oil palm root lignin yielded both syringyl and guaiacyl monomers. Accumulation of lignin in the infected seedlings was in parallel to increased syringyl monomers, at 4 and 8 wpi. The activities of PAL and CAD enzymes in the infected seedlings at DS = 5–34% were significantly higher than the control seedlings and thereafter collapsed at DS = 69%. PMID:28861093

  7. Root coverage by coronally advanced flap with connective tissue graft and/or enamel matrix derivative: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, G-L; Fu, E; Tu, Y-K; Shen, E-C; Chiu, H-C; Huang, R-Y; Yuh, D-Y; Chiang, C-Y

    2015-04-01

    Previous systematic reviews have reported that the use of a coronally advanced flap (CAF) combined with a connective tissue graft (CTG) or enamel matrix derivative (EMD) is more likely to achieve complete root coverage (CRC) than other modalities. However, the details of periodontal parameters and comparisons among a variety of combinations of CAF with CTG and/or EMD are left to be investigated. This study aimed to analyze the differences in periodontal parameters between these treatment modalities. A literature search was performed using the Cochrane library and MEDLINE (PubMed) for studies focused on the treatment of gingival recession (Miller Class I, II and III) with CAF alone or combined with CTG, EMD or both up to December 2011. Randomized controlled clinical trials with a follow-up duration ≥ 6 mo were included. The outcome analysis included changes in periodontal probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level, recession depth (RED) and keratinized tissue width (KTW). Thirteen randomized controlled clinical trials, including 529 Miller Class I-III defects from 321 patients were included. For an increase in KTW, CAF + CTG significantly improved more than CAF alone. CAF + EMD also gained more KTW than CAF alone. EMD reduced PPD, however, a significant difference was not found. Furthermore, the effects on changes of RED and clinical attachment level were not identified in the study. When combined with CAF, CTG contributed more in the increase of KTW, while EMD seemed helpful for wound healing by its potential in PPD reduction. However, further research is needed to clarify the effects on changes in RED and clinical attachment level. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. An Intergenic Region Shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana Is a Tissue Specific and Stress Inducible Bidirectional Promoter Analyzed in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Tobacco Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Joydeep; Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Dey, Nrisingha; Houtz, Robert L.; Maiti, Indu Bhushan

    2013-01-01

    On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985) are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS) in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85) showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold) compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87). The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold) under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications. PMID:24260266

  9. An intergenic region shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana is a tissue specific and stress inducible bidirectional promoter analyzed in transgenic arabidopsis and tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeep Banerjee

    Full Text Available On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985 are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85 showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87. The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications.

  10. Analysis of AtGUS1 and AtGUS2 in Arabidopsis root apex by a highly sensitive TSA-MISH method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Leonardo; Ronchini, Matteo; Gagliardi, Olimpia; Corinti, Tamara; Chiappetta, Adriana; Gerola, Paolo; Bitonti, Maria B

    2015-01-01

    A new highly sensitive whole-mount in situ hybridization method, based on tyramide signal amplification (TSA-MISH) was developed and a combined GFP detection and TSA-MISH procedure was applied for the first time in plants, to precisely define the spatial pattern of AtGUS1 and AtGUS2 expression in the root apex. β-glucuronidases (GUSs) belonging to the glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) 79 family, are widely distributed in plants, but their functional role has not yet been fully investigated. In the model system Arabidopsis Thaliana, three different AtGUS genes have been identified which encode proteins with putative different fates. Endogenous GUS expression has been detected in different organs and tissues, but the cyto-histological domains of gene expression remain unclear. The results here reported show co-expression of AtGUS1 and AtGUS2 in different functional zones of the root apex (the cap central zone, the root cap meristem, the staminal cell niche and the cortical cell layers of the proximal meristem), while AtGUS2 is exclusively expressed in the cap peripheral layer and in the epidermis in the elongation zone. Interestingly, both genes are not expressed in the stelar portion of the proximal meristem. A spatial (cortex vs. stele) and temporal (proximal meristem vs. transition zone) regulation of AtGUS1 and AtGUS2 expression is therefore active in the root apex. This expression pattern, although globally consistent with the involvement of GUS activity in both cell proliferation and elongation, clearly indicates that AtGUS1 and AtGUS2 could control distinct downstream process depending on the developmental context and the interaction with other players of root growth control. In the future, the newly developed approaches may well be very useful to dissect such interactions.

  11. The connective tissue graft wall technique and enamel matrix derivative to improve root coverage and clinical attachment levels in Miller Class IV gingival recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchelli, Giovanni; Mazzotti, Claudio; Tirone, Federico; Mele, Monica; Bellone, Pietro; Mounssif, Ilham

    2014-01-01

    The case reports in this article describe a surgical approach for improving root coverage and clinical attachment levels in Miller Class IV gingival recessions. Two gingival recessions affecting maxillary and mandibular lateral incisors associated with severe interdental hard and soft tissue loss were treated. The surgical technique consisted of a connective tissue graft (CTG) that was placed below a coronally advanced envelope flap and acted as a buccal soft tissue wall of the bony defect treated with enamel matrix derivative (EMD). No palatal/lingual flap was elevated. In the first clinical case, 6 months after surgery a ceramic veneer was placed to correct tooth extrusion and improve the overall esthetic appearance. One year after the surgery in both cases, clinically significant root coverage, increase in buccal keratinized tissue height and thickness, improvement in the position of the interdental papilla, and clinical attachment level gain were achieved. The radiographs demonstrate bone fill of the intrabony components of the defects. This report encourages a novel application of CTG plus EMD to improve both root coverage and regenerative parameters in Miller Class IV gingival recessions.

  12. The riddle of mitochondrial alkaline/neutral invertases: A novel Arabidopsis isoform mainly present in reproductive tissues and involved in root ROS production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina E Battaglia

    Full Text Available Alkaline/neutral invertases (A/N-Inv, glucosidases that irreversibly hydrolyze sucrose into glucose and fructose, play significant roles in plant growth, development, and stress adaptation. They occur as multiple isoforms located in the cytosol or organelles. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two mitochondrial A/N-Inv genes (A/N-InvA and A/N-InvC have already been investigated. In this study, we functionally characterized A/N-InvH, a third Arabidopsis gene coding for a mitochondrial-targeted protein. The phenotypic analysis of knockout mutant plants (invh showed a severely reduced shoot growth, while root development was not affected. The emergence of the first floral bud and the opening of the first flower were the most affected stages, presenting a significant delay. A/N-InvH transcription is markedly active in reproductive tissues. It is also expressed in the elongation and apical meristem root zones. Our results show that A/N-InvH expression is not evident in photosynthetic tissues, despite being of relevance in developmental processes and mitochondrial functional status. NaCl and mannitol treatments increased A/N-InvH expression twofold in the columella root cap. Moreover, the absence of A/N-InvH prevented ROS formation, not only in invh roots of salt- and ABA-treated seedlings but also in invh control roots. We hypothesize that this isoform may take part in the ROS/sugar (sucrose or its hydrolysis products signaling pathway network, involved in reproductive tissue development, cell elongation, and abiotic stress responses.

  13. Studies on Microbody Development in Wounded Sweet Potato Root Tissue : Proposal for the Post-Translational Transport of Catalase into Preexisting Microbodies

    OpenAIRE

    Muneharu, ESAKA; Takeshi, TAKAHASHI; Tadashi, Asahi; Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Nagoya University

    1982-01-01

    Pure microbody fractions could be prepared in considerable yields from sweet potato root tissue slices incubated for 16 hr and 3 days. The ratio of catalase activity to phospholipid content in the fraction from slices incubated for 3 days was about 3 times that from slices incubated for 16 hr. Total catalase activity in the former slices was about twice that in the latter. This suggests that catalase synthesized during incubation ofthe slices is transported into microbodies preexisting in int...

  14. Physiological performance and differential expression profiling of genes associated with drought tolerance in root tissue of four contrasting varieties of two Gossypium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ruchi; Pandey, Neha; Kumar, Anil; Shirke, Pramod A

    2016-01-01

    Root growth in drying soil is generally limited by a combination of mechanical impedance and water stress. As the major function of root tissue is water and nutrient uptake, so it imparts an important role in plant growth and stress management. Previously, we have studied physiological performance and expression profiling of gene associated with drought tolerance in leaf tissue of four cotton varieties. Here, we have further continued our studies with the root tissue of these varieties. The Gossypium hirsutum species JKC-770 is drought-tolerant and KC-2 is drought-sensitive, while Gossypium herbaceum species JKC-717 is drought-tolerant and RAHS-187 is drought-sensitive. JKC-770 and JKC-717 the drought-tolerant varieties showed a comparatively high glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, proline along with their gene expression, and low malondialdehyde content indicating low membrane damage and better antioxidative defense under drought condition. The expression levels of cellulose synthase, xyloglucan:xyloglucosyl transferase, and glycosyl hydrolases suggest modulation in cell wall structure and partitioning of sugars towards osmoprotectants instead of cell wall biosynthesis in tolerant varieties. Heat shock proteins and serine/threonine protein phosphotases show upregulation under drought condition, which are responsible for temperature tolerance and protein phosphorylation, respectively. These effects many metabolic processes and may be playing a key role in drought tolerance and adaptability of JKC-770 towards drought tolerance. The long-term water use efficiency (WUE) estimated in terms of carbon isotope discrimination (∆(13)C) in the root tissues showed maximum depletion in the ∆(13)C values in JKC-770 variety, while minimum in RAHS-187 under drought stress with reference to their respective control, suggesting a high WUE in JKC-770 variety.

  15. Ex vivo evaluation of four final irrigation protocols on the removal of hard-tissue debris from the mesial root canal system of mandibular first molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, G B; Versiani, M A; Silva-Sousa, Y T; Bruniera, J F B; Pécora, J D; Sousa-Neto, M D

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of four final irrigation protocols on the reduction of hard-tissue debris accumulated within the mesial root canal system of mandibular first molars using micro-CT analysis. Forty mesial roots of mandibular molars with a single and continuous isthmus connecting the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals (Vertucci's Type I configuration) were selected and scanned at a resolution of 8.6 μm. Canals were enlarged sequentially using WaveOne Small and Primary instruments activated in reciprocating motion without intracanal irrigation to allow debris to accumulate within the mesial root canal system. Then, specimens were anatomically matched and distributed into four groups (n = 10), according to the final irrigation protocol: apical positive pressure (APP), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), Self-adjusting File (SAF) and XP-endo Finisher (XPF). The final irrigation procedures were performed over 2 min using a total of 5.5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl per canal. Reconstructed data sets were coregistered, and the mean percentage reduction of accumulated hard-tissue debris after the final irrigation procedures was compared statistically between groups using the anovapost hoc Tukey test with a significance level set at 5%. Reduction of accumulated hard-tissue debris was observed in all groups after the final irrigation protocol. Overall, PUI and XPF groups had higher mean percentage reductions of accumulated hard-tissue debris (94.1% and 89.7%, respectively) than APP and SAF groups (45.7% and 41.3%, respectively) (P  0.05) or APP and SAF groups (P > 0.05). The PUI technique and XP-endo Finisher instrument were associated with significantly lower levels of AHTD compared with conventional irrigation and the modified SAF system protocol in mesial root canals of mandibular molars. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Modeling hairy root tissue growth in in vitro environments using an agent-based, structured growth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Felix; Sürmann, Almuth; Oberthür, Patrick; Schneider, Mandy; Steingroewer, Juliane; Bley, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    An agent-based model for simulating the in vitro growth of Beta vulgaris hairy root cultures is described. The model fitting is based on experimental results and can be used as a virtual experimentator for root networks. It is implemented in the JAVA language and is designed to be easily modified to describe the growth of diverse biological root networks. The basic principles of the model are outlined, with descriptions of all of the relevant algorithms using the ODD protocol, and a case study is presented in which it is used to simulate the development of hairy root cultures of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) in a Petri dish. The model can predict various properties of the developing network, including the total root length, branching point distribution, segment distribution and secondary metabolite accumulation. It thus provides valuable information that can be used when optimizing cultivation parameters (e.g., medium composition) and the cultivation environment (e.g., the cultivation temperature) as well as how constructional parameters change the morphology of the root network. An image recognition solution was used to acquire experimental data that were used when fitting the model and to evaluate the agreement between the simulated results and practical experiments. Overall, the case study simulation closely reproduced experimental results for the cultures grown under equivalent conditions to those assumed in the simulation. A 3D-visualization solution was created to display the simulated results relating to the state of the root network and its environment (e.g., oxygen and nutrient levels).

  17. Transcriptomic and anatomical complexity of primary, seminal, and crown roots highlight root type-specific functional diversity in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Huanhuan; Lu, Xin; Opitz, Nina; Marcon, Caroline; Paschold, Anja; Lithio, Andrew; Nettleton, Dan; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Maize develops a complex root system composed of embryonic and post-embryonic roots. Spatio-temporal differences in the formation of these root types imply specific functions during maize development. A comparative transcriptomic study of embryonic primary and seminal, and post-embryonic crown roots of the maize inbred line B73 by RNA sequencing along with anatomical studies were conducted early in development. Seminal roots displayed unique anatomical features, whereas the organization of primary and crown roots was similar. For instance, seminal roots displayed fewer cortical cell files and their stele contained more meta-xylem vessels. Global expression profiling revealed diverse patterns of gene activity across all root types and highlighted the unique transcriptome of seminal roots. While functions in cell remodeling and cell wall formation were prominent in primary and crown roots, stress-related genes and transcriptional regulators were over-represented in seminal roots, suggesting functional specialization of the different root types. Dynamic expression of lignin biosynthesis genes and histochemical staining suggested diversification of cell wall lignification among the three root types. Our findings highlight a cost-efficient anatomical structure and a unique expression profile of seminal roots of the maize inbred line B73 different from primary and crown roots. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. A Histologic Evaluation on Tissue Reaction to Three Implanted Materials (MTA, Root MTA and Portland Cement Type I in the Mandible of Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sasani

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Nowadays Mineral Trioxide aggregate (MTA is widely used for root end fillings, pulp capping, perforation repair and other endodontic treatments.Investigations have shown similar physical and chemical properties for Portland cement and Root MTA with those described for MTA.Purpose: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the tissue reaction to implanted MTA, Portland cement and Root MTA in the mandible of cats.Materials and Methods: Under asepsis condition and general anesthesia, a mucoperiosteal flap, following the application of local anesthesia, was elevated to expose mandibular symphysis. Two small holes in both sides of mandible were drilled. MTA, Portland cement and Root MTA were mixed according to the manufacturers, recommendation and placed in bony cavities. In positive control group, the test material was Zinc oxide powder plus tricresoformalin. In negative control group, the bony cavities were left untreated. After 3,6 and 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the mandibular sections were prepared for histologic examination under light microscope. The presence and thickness of inflammation, presence of fibrosis capsule, the severity of fibrosis and bone formation were investigated. The data were submitted to Exact Fisher test, chi square test and Kruskal-Wallis test for statistical analysis.Results: No statistically significant differences were found in the degree of inflammation,presence of fibrotic capsule, severity of fibrosis and inflammation thickness between Root MTA, Portland cement and MTA (P>0.05. There was no statistical difference in boneformation between MTA and Portland cement (P>0.05. However, bone formation was not found in any of the Root MTA specimens and the observed tissue was exclusively of fibrosis type.Conclusion: The physical and histological results observed with MTA are similar to those of Root MTA and Portland cement. Additionally, all of these three materials are biocompatible

  19. Comparison of Extracellular Matrix Membrane and Connective Tissue Graft for Root Coverage in Class I/II Gingival Recession Defects: A Split Mouth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Yogini; Mlv, Prabhuji; Bv, Karthikeyan; N, Sai Jyothsna

    2016-04-08

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of extracellular matrix membrane (DynaMatrix®) in obtaining root coverage and compare it to the connective tissue graft for the treatment of Miller's Class I or Class II recession defects. Ten patients with a mean age of 31.2 years with bilateral Miller's Class I or Class II recession defects in the upper premolars were recruited. Each patient contributed two defects that were randomly treated by coronally advanced fl ap with connective tissue graft (CAF+CTG) and by coronally advanced flap underlaid with extracellular membrane (DynaMatrix®; CAF+DM). All the clinical parameters were recorded at baseline, three months and six months after surgery and data were statistically analyzed. The results of this study demonstrated that both the procedures were effective and predictable in root coverage procedures. However, no statistically signifi cant differences in gingival recession reduction were noted between extra cellular membrane and gold standard connective tissue graft. Within the limits of this clinical study, the use of extracellular membrane (DynaMatrix®) may represent an acceptable alternative to the connective tissue graft for treating gingival recession. Copyright© by the International Academy of Periodontology.

  20. Drought-responsive genes expressed predominantly in root tissues are enriched with homotypic cis-regulatory clusters in promoters of major cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ramzan Khan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The root appears to be the most relevant organ for breeding drought stress tolerance. However, our knowledge about temporal and spatial regulation of drought-associated genes in the root remains fragmented, especially in crop plants. We performed a meta-analysis of expression divergence of essential drought-inducible genes and analyzed their association with cis-elements in model crops and major cereal crops. Our analysis of 42 selected drought-inducible genes revealed that these are expressed primarily in roots, followed by shoot, leaf, and inflorescence tissues, especially in wheat. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis confirmed higher expression of TaDREB2 and TaAQP7 in roots, correlated with extensive rooting and drought-stress tolerance in wheat. A promoter scan up to 2 kb upstream of the translation start site using phylogenetic footprinting revealed 708 transcription factor binding sites, including drought response elements (DREs, auxin response elements (AuxREs, MYCREs/MYBREs, ABAREs, and ERD1 in 19 selected genes. Interestingly, these elements were organized into clusters of overlapping transcription factor binding sites known as homotypic clusters (HCTs, which modulate drought physiology in plants. Taken together, these results revealed the expression preeminence of major drought-inducible genes in the root, suggesting its crucial role in drought adaptation. The occurrence of HCTs in drought-inducible genes highlights the putative evolutionary modifications of crop plants in developing drought adaptation. We propose that these DNA motifs can be used as molecular markers for breeding drought-resilient cultivars, particularly in the cereal crops.

  1. Synchrotron micro-scale measurement of metal distributions in Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia root tissue from an urban brownfield site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huan; Qian, Yu; Gallagher, Frank J; Zhang, Weiguo; Yu, Lizhong; Liu, Changjun; Jones, Keith W; Tappero, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    Liberty State Park in New Jersey, USA, is a "brownfield" site containing various levels of contaminants. To investigate metal uptake and distributions in plants on the brownfield site, Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia were collected in Liberty State Park during the growing season (May-September) in 2011 at two sites with the high and low metal loads, respectively. The objective of this study was to understand the metal (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn) concentration and spatial distributions in P. australis and T. latifolia root systems with micro-meter scale resolution using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF) and synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (μCMT) techniques. The root structure measurement by synchrotron μCMT showed that high X-ray attenuation substance appeared in the epidermis. Synchrotron μXRF measurement showed that metal concentrations and distributions in the root cross-section between epidermis and vascular tissue were statistically different. Significant correlations were found between metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) and Fe in the epidermis, implying that metals were scavenged by Fe oxides. The results from this study suggest that the expression of metal transport and accumulation within the root systems may be element specific. The information derived from this study can improve our current knowledge of the wetland plant ecological function in brownfield remediation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    formerly been demonstrated how demyelinization of the myelin sheaths in the peripheral nerves close to the root provoke resorption. Accordingly, conditions affecting these tissue layers can be associated not only with different morphologies but also with general symptoms and diseases (e.g., ectodermal...

  3. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.

  4. De novo Transcriptome Assembly of Common Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) and Discovery of Drought-Response Genes in Root Tissue Based on Transcriptomic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xin-Jie; Long, Yan; Wang, Jiao; Zhang, Jing-Wen; Wang, Yan-Yan; Li, Wei-Min; Peng, Yu-Fa; Yuan, Qian-Hua; Pei, Xin-Wu

    2015-01-01

    The perennial O. rufipogon (common wild rice), which is considered to be the ancestor of Asian cultivated rice species, contains many useful genetic resources, including drought resistance genes. However, few studies have identified the drought resistance and tissue-specific genes in common wild rice. In this study, transcriptome sequencing libraries were constructed, including drought-treated roots (DR) and control leaves (CL) and roots (CR). Using Illumina sequencing technology, we generated 16.75 million bases of high-quality sequence data for common wild rice and conducted de novo assembly and annotation of genes without prior genome information. These reads were assembled into 119,332 unigenes with an average length of 715 bp. A total of 88,813 distinct sequences (74.42% of unigenes) significantly matched known genes in the NCBI NT database. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis showed that 3617 genes were up-regulated and 4171 genes were down-regulated in the CR library compared with the CL library. Among the DEGs, 535 genes were expressed in roots but not in shoots. A similar comparison between the DR and CR libraries showed that 1393 genes were up-regulated and 315 genes were down-regulated in the DR library compared with the CR library. Finally, 37 genes that were specifically expressed in roots were screened after comparing the DEGs identified in the above-described analyses. This study provides a transcriptome sequence resource for common wild rice plants and establishes a digital gene expression profile of wild rice plants under drought conditions using the assembled transcriptome data as a reference. Several tissue-specific and drought-stress-related candidate genes were identified, representing a fully characterized transcriptome and providing a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies in plants.

  5. Influences of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains, plant genotypes, and tissue types on the induction of transgenic hairy roots in Vitis species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated induction of transgenic hairy roots was previously demonstrated in Vitis vinifera L. and a few other Vitis species. In this study, 13 Vitis species, including V. aestivalis, V. afghanistan, V. champinii, V. doaniana, V. flexuosa, V. labrusca, V. nesbittiana, V. pal...

  6. Regulation of tissue differentiation by plant growth regulators on tTCLs of Panax ginseng adventitious roots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Maršík, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2012), s. 154-159 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400550705; GA MŠk ME08070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Adventitious roots * Panax ginseng * Ginsenosides Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.468, year: 2012

  7. A comparative clinical study of the efficacy of subepithelial connective tissue graft and acellular dermal matrix graft in root coverage: 6-month follow-up observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Libby John; Emmadi, Pamela; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Namasivayam, Ambalavanan

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of subepithelial connective tissue graft and acellular dermal matrix graft associated with coronally repositioned flap in the treatment of Miller's class I and II gingival recession, 6 months postoperatively. Ten patients with bilateral Miller's class I or class II gingival recession were randomly divided into two groups using a split-mouth study design. Group I (10 sites) was treated with subepithelial connective tissue graft along with coronally repositioned flap and Group II (10 sites) treated with acellular dermal matrix graft along with coronally repositioned flap. Clinical parameters like recession height and width, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and width of keratinized gingiva were evaluated at baseline, 90(th) day, and 180(th) day for both groups. The percentage of root coverage was calculated based on the comparison of the recession height from 0 to 180(th) day in both Groups I and II. Intragroup parameters at different time points were measured using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and Mann-Whitney U test was employed to analyze the differences between test and control groups. There was no statistically significant difference in recession height and width, gain in CAL, and increase in the width of keratinized gingiva between the two groups on the 180(th) day. Both procedures showed clinically and statistically significant root coverage (Group I 96%, Group II 89.1%) on the 180(th) day. The results indicate that coverage of denuded root with both subepithelial connective tissue autograft and acellular dermal matrix allograft are very predictable procedures, which were stable for 6 months postoperatively.

  8. Blood flow changes using a 3D xenogeneic collagen matrix or a subepithelial connective tissue graft for root coverage procedures: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarakis, Nikolaos; Gkranias, Nikolaos; Darbar, Ulpee; Donos, Nikolaos

    2017-10-27

    The study investigated the early healing process following the treatment of single Miller class I and II recessions with a 3D xenogeneic collagen matrix (CMX) or connective tissue graft (CTG). This pilot investigation was designed as a single-center randomized controlled parallel trial. A total of eight subjects (four per group) were treated with either CMX or CTG in the anterior maxilla. Vascular flow changes were assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) before and after surgery and at days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, and 30 while clinical evaluations took place at baseline and at days 60 and 180. Pain intensity perception was evaluated by the short-form McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ), at days 1 and 14. The vascular flow fluctuated similarly in both groups pre- and post-operatively, but the CTG exhibited a more homogeneous pattern as opposed to CMX that showed a second phase of increased blood flow at 14 days. Clinically, the CTG led to greater change in mean root coverage and keratinized tissue gain but CMX was associated with lower early pain intensity scores. Within the limits of the study, the vascular flow alterations during the early healing of both graft types followed a similar pattern. The CMX was associated with a second peak of increased blood flow. The vascular flow changes after the application of CMX for single tooth recession root coverage did not show major differences from those observed after the use of a CTG. A trend for better clinical performance in terms of root coverage and keratinized tissue gain was noted for the CTG, but the initial patient morbidity was less for CMX.

  9. Response to non-uniform salinity in the root zone of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia: growth, photosynthesis, water relations and tissue ion concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazihizina, Nadia; Colmer, Timothy D; Barrett-Lennard, Edward G

    2009-09-01

    Soil salinity is often heterogeneous, yet the physiology of halophytes has typically been studied with uniform salinity treatments. An evaluation was made of the growth, net photosynthesis, water use, water relations and tissue ions in the halophytic shrub Atriplex nummularia in response to non-uniform NaCl concentrations in a split-root system. Atriplex nummularia was grown in a split-root system for 21 d, with either the same or two different NaCl concentrations (ranging from 10 to 670 mm), in aerated nutrient solution bathing each root half. Non-uniform salinity, with high NaCl in one root half (up to 670 mm) and 10 mm in the other half, had no effect on shoot ethanol-insoluble dry mass, net photosynthesis or shoot pre-dawn water potential. In contrast, a modest effect occurred for leaf osmotic potential (up to 30 % more solutes compared with uniform 10 mm NaCl treatment). With non-uniform NaCl concentrations (10/670 mm), 90 % of water was absorbed from the low salinity side, and the reduction in water use from the high salinity side caused whole-plant water use to decrease by about 30 %; there was no compensatory water uptake from the low salinity side. Leaf Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations were 1.9- to 2.3-fold higher in the uniform 670 mm treatment than in the 10/670 mm treatment, whereas leaf K(+) concentrations were 1.2- to 2.0-fold higher in the non-uniform treatment. Atriplex nummularia with one root half in 10 mm NaCl maintained net photosynthesis, shoot growth and shoot water potential even when the other root half was exposed to 670 mm NaCl, a concentration that inhibits growth by 65 % when uniform in the root zone. Given the likelihood of non-uniform salinity in many field situations, this situation would presumably benefit halophyte growth and physiology in saline environments.

  10. Microcystin-LR induces abnormal root development by altering microtubule organization in tissue-cultured common reed (Phragmites australis) plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máthé, Csaba; Beyer, Dániel; Erdodi, Ferenc; Serfozo, Zoltán; Székvölgyi, Lóránt; Vasas, Gábor; M-Hamvas, Márta; Jámbrik, Katalin; Gonda, Sándor; Kiss, Andrea; Szigeti, Zsuzsa M; Surányi, Gyula

    2009-05-05

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a heptapeptide cyanotoxin, known to be a potent inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases in eukaryotes. Our aim was to investigate the effect of MC-LR on the organization of microtubules and mitotic chromatin in relation to its possible effects on cell and whole organ morphology in roots of common reed (Phragmites australis). P. australis is a widespread freshwater and brackish water aquatic macrophyte, frequently exposed to phytotoxins in eutrophic waters. Reed plantlets regenerated from embryogenic calli were treated with 0.001-40 microg ml(-1) (0.001-40.2 microM) MC-LR for 2-20 days. At 0.5 microg ml(-1) MC-LR and at higher cyanotoxin concentrations, the inhibition of protein phosphatase activity by MC-LR induced alterations in reed root growth and morphology, including abnormal lateral root development and the radial swelling of cells in the elongation zone of primary and lateral roots. Both short-term (2-5 days) and long-term (10-20 days) of cyanotoxin treatment induced microtubule disruption in meristems and in the elongation and differentiation zones. Microtubule disruption was accompanied by root cell shape alteration. At concentrations of 0.5-5 microg ml(-1), MC-LR increased mitotic index at long-term exposure and induced the increase of the percentage of meristematic cells in prophase as well as telophase and cytokinesis of late mitosis. High cyanotoxin concentrations (10-40 microg ml(-1)) inhibited mitosis at as short as 2 days of exposure. The alteration of microtubule organization was observed in mitotic cells at all exposure periods studied, at cyanotoxin concentrations of 0.5-40 microg ml(-1). MC-LR induced spindle anomalies at the metaphase-anaphase transition, the formation of asymmetric anaphase spindles and abnormal sister chromatid separation. This paper reports for the first time that MC-LR induces cytoskeletal changes that lead to alterations of root architecture and development in common reed and generally, in

  11. Gene expression and yeast two-hybrid studies of transcription factors mediating drought stress response in root tissues of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami eRamalingam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress has been one of the serious constraints affecting chickpea productivity to a great extent. Genomic assisted breeding in chickpea has been effective in providing a yield advantage of up to 24 %, thus having a potential to accelerate breeding precisely and efficiently. In order to do so, understanding the molecular mechanisms for drought tolerance and identification of candidate genes are crucial. Transcription factors (TFs have important roles in the regulation of plant stress related genes. In this context, quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR was used to study the differential gene expression of selected TFs, identified from large-scale gene expression analysis, in contrasting drought responsive genotypes. Root tissues of ICC 4958 (tolerant, ICC 1882 (sensitive, JG 11 (elite and JG 11+ (introgression line were used for the study. Subsequently, a candidate single repeat MYB gene (1R-MYB that was remarkably induced in the drought tolerant genotypes under drought stress was cloned and subjected to Y2H analysis by screening a root cDNA library. The protein-protein interaction study identified three interacting peptides, a galactinol-sucrose galactosyltransferase 2, a CBL (Calcineurin B-like-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 25 and an ABA responsive 17-like, which were confirmed by the co-transformation of candidate plasmids in yeast. These findings provide preliminary insights into the ability of 1R-MYB TF to co-regulate drought tolerance mechanism in chickpea roots.

  12. Glutathione Reductase of Vacuole. Comparison of Glutathione Reductase Activity of Vacuole and Tissue Extract of Red Beet Root (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Pradedova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.8.1.7 is the enzyme that reduces oxidized glutathione (GSSG and thus regulates the redox state of glutathione (GSH/GSSG. GR has been studied in most plants. This enzyme has been identified in chloroplasts and cytosol, so these cellular compartments are considered to be the main place of the enzyme localization. In the same time, just a little is known about GR vacuoles. There are no conclusive evidences to prove the presence or absence of this enzyme in the vacuoles. GR activity was found in the vacuoles of red beet root cells (Beta vulgaris L.. The level of activity, the optimum pH and isoenzyme composition of GR were compared in the vacuoles and tissue extract of beet root. Vacuolar GR activity was quite high, it was 1.5-2 times higher than the activity of the tissue extract. Enzyme pH optimum of all the objects were identical. pH-optimum depend on the pyridine nucleotide nature: pH 7.0-8.0 was an optimal range with NADPH; pH 5.0 – with NADH. GR activity of the vacuoles and tissue extracts decreased in the presence of a noncompetitive inhibitor 1-chloro-2.4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB, indicating the specificity of this enzymatic reaction. Two bands with glutathione reductase activity have been identified in the vacuoles and tissue extracts using zymography method to determine the enzymatic activity in PAAG after electrophoresis of proteins. Belonging to the GR isoforms of these bands was confirmed by enzyme immunoassay (Western blotting. The electric mobility of isoforms of the study objects did not differ significantly. It is concluded that the biochemical characteristics of vacuolar glutathione reductase were substantially identical to the biochemical characteristics of other localization GR.

  13. Heat transfers to periodontal tissues and gutta-percha during thermoplasticized root canal obturation in a finite element analysis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Chen, Yangyang; Wei, Xi; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Fang; Shi, Ying; Wu, Wancui

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the temperature distributions on the periodontal ligament and apical gutta-percha during thermal obturation with different plugger activation time. The multirooted model of mandibular first molar development and root canal treatment were performed by finite element analysis. The apical thirds of canals were obturated by continuous-wave condensation technique, with 3 seconds and 4 seconds of activation time. The remainder was backfilled with injected gutta-percha in 2 segments (Obtura II). The highest temperatures on the periodontal ligament reached 46.914 degrees C and 48.887 degrees C, in the "dangerous zone" between the root canals, when activation times were 3 seconds and 4 seconds, respectively. The greatest temperature rise within the apical gutta-percha was only 0.859 degrees C. With 3 seconds of activation, the temperature elevation reached almost 47 degrees C, so one should be careful not to extend the activation time beyond 3 seconds, which is clinically difficult to control. The apical gutta-percha temperature was always below the desired level to achieve proper thermoplasticity. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Coronal advanced flap in combination with a connective tissue graft. Is the thickness of the flap a predictor for root coverage? A prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces-McIntyre, Teresa; Carbonell, Josep Maria; Vallcorba, Lluís; Santos, Antonio; Valles, Cristina; Nart, José

    2017-09-01

    Evaluate if there is any relationship between the flap thickness (FT) and the presence of complete root coverage (CRC) when performing coronally advanced flaps in combination with a connective tissue graft (CTG). Prospective clinical study, in which multiple Miller class I and II recessions were treated with a coronally advanced flap and a CTG standardized at 1 mm of thickness. Individual stents permitted repeated measurements of conventional periodontal parameters at the same point. The primary outcome variable was CRC. Secondary outcomes were recession reduction, gingival thickness and width of keratinized tissue (KT) achieved at 6 months post-surgery. Forty-five recessions (2.4 ± 0.75 mm) were treated in 20 patients. Mean root coverage was 93.4 ± 10.98%; 65% achieved CRC. The mean FT was 1.01 mm ± 0.64 mm and 1.01 ± 0.61 mm at 2 and 5 mm from the gingival margin, respectively. No relationship could be found between FT and CRC (p > .05). Statistical significant changes (p tissue thickness at the end of the study. Flap thickness seems not to be a predictor for CRC when performing a coronally advanced flap plus a CTG. This technique may be of choice when treating thin biotypes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Uptake of macro- and micro-nutrients into leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus after irrigation with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Bart T. Sexton; Richard B. Hall

    2008-01-01

    Information about macro- and micro-nutrient uptake and distribution into tissues of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate helps to maximize biomass production and understand impacts of leachate chemistry on tree health. We irrigated eight Populus clones (NC 13460, NCI4O18, NC14104, NC14106, DM115, DN5, NM2, NM6) with fertilized (N, P, K) well...

  16. Gene-based SSR markers for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) derived from root and leaf tissue ESTs: an integration of the BMc series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Hurtado, Natalia; Chavarro, Carolina M; Muñoz-Torres, Monica C; Giraldo, Martha C; Pedraza, Fabio; Tomkins, Jeff; Wing, Rod

    2011-03-22

    Sequencing of cDNA libraries for the development of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) as well as for the discovery of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) has been a common method of developing microsatellites or SSR-based markers. In this research, our objective was to further sequence and develop common bean microsatellites from leaf and root cDNA libraries derived from the Andean gene pool accession G19833 and the Mesoamerican gene pool accession DOR364, mapping parents of a commonly used reference map. The root libraries were made from high and low phosphorus treated plants. A total of 3,123 EST sequences from leaf and root cDNA libraries were screened and used for direct simple sequence repeat discovery. From these EST sequences we found 184 microsatellites; the majority containing tri-nucleotide motifs, many of which were GC rich (ACC, AGC and AGG in particular). Di-nucleotide motif microsatellites were about half as common as the tri-nucleotide motif microsatellites but most of these were AGn microsatellites with a moderate number of ATn microsatellites in root ESTs followed by few ACn and no GCn microsatellites. Out of the 184 new SSR loci, 120 new microsatellite markers were developed in the BMc (Bean Microsatellites from cDNAs) series and these were evaluated for their capacity to distinguish bean diversity in a germplasm panel of 18 genotypes. We developed a database with images of the microsatellites and their polymorphism information content (PIC), which averaged 0.310 for polymorphic markers. The present study produced information about microsatellite frequency in root and leaf tissues of two important genotypes for common bean genomics: namely G19833, the Andean genotype selected for whole genome shotgun sequencing from race Peru, and DOR364 a race Mesoamerica subgroup 2 genotype that is a small-red seeded, released variety in Central America. Both race Peru and Mesoamerica subgroup 2 (small red beans) have been understudied in comparison to race Nueva

  17. Effect of Medium Supplements on Agrobacterium rhizogenes Mediated Hairy Root Induction from the Callus Tissues of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad M. Rana; Zhuo-Xiao Han; Da-Peng Song; Guo-Feng Liu; Da-Xiang Li; Xiao-Chun Wan; Alagarsamy Karthikeyan; Shu Wei

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation largely due to the bactericidal effects of tea polyphenols and phenolics oxidation induced by necrosis of explant tissue over the process of transformation. In this study, different antioxidants/adsorbents were added as supplements to the co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media to overcome these problems for the transformation improvement. Tea-cotyledon-derived calli were used as explants and Agro...

  18. Endophytic bacterial flora in root and stem tissues of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) genotype: isolation, identification and evaluation against Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, R; Kumar, A; Eapen, S J; Ramana, K V

    2009-01-01

    To isolate and identify black pepper (Piper nigrum L) associated endophytic bacteria antagonistic to Phytophthora capsici causing foot rot disease. Endophytic bacteria (74) were isolated, characterized and evaluated against P. capsici. Six genera belong to Pseudomonas spp (20 strains), Serratia (1 strain), Bacillus spp. (22 strains), Arthrobacter spp. (15 strains), Micrococcus spp. (7 strains), Curtobacterium sp. (1 strain) and eight unidentified strains were isolated from internal tissues of root and stem. Three isolates, IISRBP 35, IISRBP 25 and IISRBP 17 were found effective for Phytophthora suppression in multilevel screening assays which recorded over 70% disease suppression in greenhouse trials. A species closest match (99% similarity) of IISRBP 35 was established as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pseudomonas EF568931), IISRBP 25 as P. putida (Pseudomonas EF568932), and IISRBP 17 as Bacillus megaterium (B. megaterium EU071712) based on 16S rDNA sequencing. Black pepper associated P. aeruginosa, P. putida and B. megaterium were identified as effective antagonistic endophytes for biological control of Phytophthora foot rot in black pepper. This work provides the first evidence for endophytic bacterial diversity in black pepper stem and roots, with biocontrol potential against P. capsici infection.

  19. Root coverage using subepithelial connective tissue graft with platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of gingival recession: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, B V V; Rupa, N; Halini Kumari, K V; Prasad, S S V; Varalakshmi, U; Sudhakar, K

    2015-08-01

    The presence of gingival recession associated with an insufficient amount of keratinized tissue may indicate gingival augmentation procedure. It is a multifaceted problem for which several treatment options are available. The most predictable technique used for gingival augmentation is the subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG). Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an enhanced source of growth factors and helps in accelerated periodontal repair and regeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of SCTG along with PRP in the treatment of Miller's class I and II gingival recessions. Eleven subjects with Miller's class I and II gingival recessions were treated using SCTG with PRP. Clinical variables, including plaque index, gingival index, recession depth (RD), Recession width (RW), width of the keratinized gingiva, probing pocket depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded. Patients were recalled at baseline, 3 months, 6 months and 1-year after surgery and clinical recordings were taken. Root coverage percentage (%) was measured at the end of 1-year. The clinical parameters were analyzed during the follow-up period by repeated measures ANOVA test. Twelve months follow-up results showed significant improvements in all the clinical parameters. Reduction of recession resulted in a significant decrease in CAL, PD, RW and RD at the end of 12 months. A statistically significant gain in width of keratinized gingiva and a mean root coverage of 84.72 ± 19.10 was obtained at the end of 12 months. From the results of this study, it may be concluded that SCTG with PRP is an effective and predictable method to treat miller's class I and II gingival recession.

  20. Root development and structure in seedlings of Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacorsi, Nikole K; Seago, James L

    2016-02-01

    The popular, highly recognizable, well-known gymnosperm, Ginkgo biloba, was studied to document selected developmental features, which are little known in its primary root system from root tips to cotyledonary node following seed germination. Using seedlings grown in soil, vermiculite, or a mixture, we examined sections at various distances from the root cap to capture a developmental sequence of anatomical structures by using standard brightfield, epifluorescence, and confocal microscopic techniques. The vascular cylinder is usually a diarch stele, although modified diarchy and triarchy are found. Between exarch protoxylem poles, metaxylem usually develops into a complete disc, except near the transition region, which has irregularly arranged tracheary cells. The disc of primary xylem undergoes secondary growth on its metaxylem flanks with many tracheids added radially within a few weeks. Production of fibers in secondary phloem also accompanies secondary growth. In the cortex, endodermis produces Casparian bands early in development and continues into the upper transition region. Phi cells with phi-thickenings (bands of lignified walls) of a layer of inner cortex are often evident before endodermis, and then adjoining, additional layers of cortex develop phi cells; phi cells do not occur in the upper transition region or stem. An exodermis is produced early in root development and is continuous into the transition region and cotyledonary node. Seedling root axes of Ginkgo biloba are more complex than the literature suggests, and our findings contribute to our knowledge of root structure of this ancient gymnosperm. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  1. Tissues-based chemical profiling and semi-quantitative analysis of bioactive components in the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge by using laser microdissection system combined with UPLC-q-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenjian; Zhang, Hongjie; Zeng, Jianguo; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Liang, Zhitao

    2016-01-01

    The dry root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen in Chinese) is an used-widely traditional Chinese herbal medicine with and promising efficacy. This herbal plant has been extensively cultivated in China. Currently, people usually rely on its morphological features to evalaute its pharmaceutical quality. In this study, laser micro-dissection system (LMD) was applied to isolate single fresh tissue of root of S. miltiorrhiza. Under fluorescent microscopic model, five tissues namely cork, cortex, phloem, xylem ray and vessel were well recognized and isolated accurately by LMD, respectively and then the distribution pattern of the major bioactive compounds in various tissues was investigated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight-mass spectrometry, which aims to validate the traditional experience on evaluating pharmaceutical quality of Danshen by morphological features. Total 62 chemical peak signals were captured and 58 compounds including 33 tanshinones, 23 salvianolic acids and 2 others were identified or tentatively characterized in micro-dissection tissues. Further semi-quantitative analysis indicated that the bioactive components such as tanshinones and salvianolic acids were mainly enriched in cork tissue. In the present study, analysis of metabolic profile in different tissues of roots of S. miltiorrhiza is reported for the first time. The distribution pattern of major bioactive components could enable medicinal vendors and consumers to relatively determine the pharmaceutical quality of Danshen by morphological features.Graphical abstractTissues-based chemical profiling of Danshen.

  2. Meloxicam medication reduces orthodontically induced dental root resorption and tooth movement velocity: a combined in vivo and in vitro study of dental-periodontal cells and tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschneck, Christian; Meier, Matthias; Bauer, Kathrin; Proff, Peter; Fanghänel, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are used to alleviate pain sensations during orthodontic therapy but are also assumed to interfere with associated pseudo-inflammatory reactions. In particular, the effects of partially selective COX-2 inhibition over the constitutively expressed COX-1 (11:1) on periodontal cells and tissue, as induced by the NSAID meloxicam, remain unclear. We investigate possible adverse side-effects and potentially useful beneficial effects during orthodontic therapy and examine underlying cellular and tissue reactions. We randomly assigned 63 male Fischer344 rats to three consecutive experiments of 21 animals each (cone-beam computed tomography; histology/serology; reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) in three experimental groups (n = 7; control; orthodontic tooth movement [OTM] of the first/second upper left molars [NiTi coil spring, 0.25 N]; OTM with a daily oral meloxicam dose of 3 mg/kg). In vitro, we stimulated human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDL) with orthodontic pressure (2 g/cm2) with/without meloxicam (10 μM). In vivo, meloxicam significantly reduced serum C-reactive protein concentration, tooth movement velocity, orthodontically induced dentine root resorption (OIRR), osteoclast activity and the relative expression of inflammatory/osteoclast marker genes within the dental-periodontal tissue, while presenting good gastric tolerance. In vitro, we observed a corresponding significant decrease of prostaglandin E2/interleukin-6/RANKL(-OPG) expression and of hPDL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. By inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis, meloxicam seems to downregulate hPDL-mediated inflammation, RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and, consequently, tooth movement velocity by about 50%, thus limiting its suitability for analgesia during orthodontic therapy. However, its protective effects regarding OIRR and good tolerance profile suggest future prophylactic application, which merits its

  3. Periapical tissue response after use of intermediate restorative material, gutta-percha, reinforced zinc oxide cement, and mineral trioxide aggregate as retrograde root-end filling materials: a histologic study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wälivaara, Dan-Åke; Abrahamsson, Peter; Isaksson, Sten; Salata, Luiz Antonio; Sennerby, Lars; Dahlin, Christer

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the periapical tissue response of 4 different retrograde root-filling materials, ie, intermediate restorative material, thermoplasticized gutta-percha, reinforced zinc oxide cement (Super-EBA), and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), in conjunction with an ultrasonic root-end preparation technique in an animal model. Vital roots of the third and fourth right mandibular premolars in 6 healthy mongrel dogs were apicectomized and sealed with 1 of the materials using a standardized surgical procedure. After 120 days, the animals were sacrificed and the specimens were analyzed radiologically, histologically, and scanning electron microscopically. The Fisher exact test was performed on the 2 outcome values. Twenty-three sections were analyzed histologically. Evaluation showed better re-establishment of the periapical tissues and generally lower inflammatory infiltration in the sections from teeth treated with the intermediate restorative material and the MTA. New root cement on the resected dentin surfaces was seen on all sections regardless of the used material. New hard tissue formation, directly on the surface of the material, was seen only in the MTA sections. There was no statistical difference in outcome among the tested materials. The results from this dog model favor the intermediate restorative material and MTA as retrograde fillings when evaluating the bone defect regeneration. MTA has the most favorable periapical tissue response when comparing the biocompatibility of the materials tested. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tunnel technique with connective tissue graft versus coronally advanced flap with enamel matrix derivative for root coverage: a RCT using 3D digital measuring methods. Part II. Volumetric studies on healing dynamics and gingival dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebele, Stephan F; Zuhr, Otto; Schneider, David; Jung, Ronny E; Hürzeler, Markus B

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this randomized clinical trial (RCT) was to compare the clinical performance of the tunnel technique with subepithelial connective tissue graft (TUN) versus a coronally advanced flap with enamel matrix derivative (CAF) in the treatment of gingival recession defects. The use of innovative 3D digital measuring methods allowed to study healing dynamics at connective tissue (CT)-grafted sites and to evaluate the influence of the thickness of the root covering soft tissues on the outcome of surgical root coverage. Twenty-four patients contributed a total of 47 Miller class I or II recessions for scientific evaluation. Precise study models collected at baseline and follow-up examinations were optically scanned and virtually superimposed for digital evaluation of clinical outcome measures including mean marginal soft tissue thickness (THK). Healing dynamics were measured in a defined region of interest at CT-grafted sites where volume differences between time points were calculated. At 12 months, recession reduction as well as mean root coverage were significantly better at CT-grafted sites treated in the TUN group (1.94 mm and 98.4% respectively) compared to the non-augmented sites of the CAF group (1.17 mm and 71.8% respectively) and statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation of THK (1.63 mm TUN versus 0.91 mm CAF, p tissue healing following surgical root coverage with CT-grafting was mainly accomplished after 6 months, with around two-thirds of the augmented volume being maintained after 12 months. The TUN resulted in thicker gingiva and better clinical outcomes compared to CAF. Increased gingival thickness was associated with better surgical outcomes in terms of recession reduction and root coverage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effect of applied synthetic auxin on root growth in plantlet propagation by cuttage and tissue culture; Sashiki to soshiki baiyo ni okeru gosei auxin rui no shiyo koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, K.; Yoshihara, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The effect of synthetic plant hormone 4-C1-IAA and TFIBA on root growth in plantlet propagation was clarified by the cuttage and the issue culture of strawberry seedling production. A periwinkle, vine, and azalea are the effect of 4-C1-IAA on root growth, and a promotion effect was recognized for rooting and root elongation. The concentration of 4-C1-IAA in which the growth promotion effect of a root most appears varies depending on the species of a plant. The concentration of a periwinkle was 20 ppm, and that of an azalea was 2000 ppm. The growth promotion effect of a root in 4-C1-IAA and TFIBA was compared with IBA for an azalea. The result showed that 4-C1-IAA is the same in the effect as IBA and that TFIBA is higher than for IBA. The growth of a vine`s terminal bud was promoted by the effect of TFIBA on root growth, and the callus occurring when IBA was treated was not formed. The rooting of a strawberry was promoted by the effect of TFIBA on root growth. The combined use of TFIBA and BA promotes the growth of a side bud and forms a multi-bud plant. However, rooting was inhibited. The callus caused by the effect of BA on root growth could be suppressed through the combined use with TFIBA. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Subcellular Localization of Chitinase and of Its Potential Substrate in Tomato Root Tissues Infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamou, Nicole; Joosten, Matthieu H. A. J.; De Wit, Pierre J. G. M.

    1990-01-01

    Antiserum raised against a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) chitinase (molecular mass of 26 kilodaltons) was used as a probe to study the subcellular localization of this enzyme in tomato root tissues infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. A time-course experiment revealed that chitinase accumulated earlier in the incompatible interaction than in the compatible one. However, in both systems, chitinase deposition was largely correlated with pathogen distribution. The enzyme was found to accumulate in areas where host walls were in close contact with fungal cells. In contrast, the enzyme could not be detected in vacuoles and intracellular spaces. The substantial amount of chitinase found at the fungus cell surface supports the view of an antifungal activity. However, the preferential association of the enzyme with altered fungal wall areas indicates that chitinase activity is either preceded by the hydrolytic action of other enzymes such as β-1,3-glucanases or coincides with these enzymes. The possibility that fungal glucans released through the action of β-1,3-glucanases may act as elicitors of chitinase production is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:16667378

  7. Developmental Anatomy of the Root Cortex of the Basal Monocotyledon, Acorus calamus (Acorales, Acoraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOUKUP, ALEŠ; SEAGO, JAMES L.; VOTRUBOVÁ, OLGA

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The anatomical structure and development of adventitious roots were analysed in the basal monocotyledon, Acorus calamus, to determine to what extent those features are related to phylogenetic position. • Methods Root specimens were harvested and sectioned, either with a hand microtome or freehand, at varying distances from the root tip and examined under the microscope using a variety of staining techniques. • Key Results Roots of Acorus calamus possess a unique set of developmental characteristics that produce some traits similar to those of another basal angiosperm group, Nymphaeales. The root apical meristem organization seems to be intermediate between that of a closed and an open monocotyledonous root apical meristem organization. The open-type root apical meristem consists of a curved zone of cortical initials and epidermal initials overlying the vascular cylinder initials; the epidermal part of the meristem varies in its association with the cortical initials and columellar initials of the promeristem. The cortex develops an endodermis with only Casparian bands, a dimorphic exodermis with Casparian bands and suberin lamellae, and a polygonal aerenchyma by differential expansion, as also observed in the Nymphaeales and some dicotyledonous species. The stele has characteristics like those of members of the Nymphaeaceae. • Conclusions Specific anatomical and developmental attributes of Acorus roots seem to be related to the phylogenetic position of this genus. PMID:15965268

  8. Abnormal Root and Nodule Vasculature in R50 (sym16), a Pea Nodulation Mutant which Accumulates Cytokinins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Alicia N.; Morse, Andrew P.; Guinel, Frédérique C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims R50 (sym16) is a pea nodulation mutant with fewer and shorter lateral roots (LR), fewer nodules and high levels of cytokinins (CK). Because a link exists between CK imbalance and abnormal vasculature, the vasculature of the primary root (PR) and LR of R50 was studied and it was compared with that of the wild-type ‘Sparkle’. Also nodule vasculature was investigated to correlate R50 low nodulation phenotype with CK accumulation. Methods PR and first-order LR were hand-sectioned transversely in different locations and at different ages. Vascular poles were counted and root and stele diameters measured. To evaluate LR primordia number, roots were cleared. Nodules obtained from inoculated plants were either fixed and sectioned or cleared; numbers of vascular strands and of tracheary elements in the strands were counted. Key Results ‘Sparkle’ PR is triarch, whereas that of R50 can be triarch, tetrarch or pentarch. Furthermore, as the R50 roots developed, supernumerary vascular strands appeared but, as they aged, the new growth of more roots displayed the triarch pattern. LR vasculature differed from that of PR: whereas ‘Sparkle’ LR had three or four poles, those of R50 had two or three. No differences in PR or PR stele diameters existed between the two lines. Whereas ‘Sparkle’ nodules had two vascular strands, most R50 nodules possessed three; however, because R50 nodules were variable in size, their vasculature was highly diverse in terms of strand length. A strong correlation was found between nodule length and number of tracheary elements in strands. Conclusions R50 displays an additional number of vascular poles in its PR, a smaller number of vascular poles in its first-order LR and an altered vasculature in its nodules. It appears that these three characteristics are linked to the high levels of CKs that the mutant accumulates over its development. PMID:17383989

  9. GA(3) enhances root responsiveness to exogenous IAA by modulating auxin transport and signalling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guijun; Zhu, Changhua; Gan, Lijun; Ng, Denny; Xia, Kai

    2015-03-01

    We used auxin-signalling mutants, auxin transport mutants, and auxin-related marker lines to show that exogenously applied GA enhances auxin-induced root inhibition by affecting auxin signalling and transport. Variation in root elongation is valuable when studying the interactions of phytohormones. Auxins influence the biosynthesis and signalling of gibberellins (GAs), but the influence of GAs on auxins in root elongation is poorly understood. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of GA3 on Arabidopsis root elongation in the presence of auxin. Root elongation was inhibited in roots treated with both IAA and GA3, compared to IAA alone, and the effect was dose dependent. Further experiments showed that GA3 could modulate auxin signalling based on root elongation in auxin-signalling mutants and the expression of auxin-responsive reporters. The GA3-enhanced inhibition of root elongation observed in the wild type was not found in the auxin-signalling mutants tir1-1 and axr1-3. GA3 increased DR5::GUS expression in the root meristem and elongation zones, and IAA2::GUS in the columella. The DR5rev::GFP signal was enhanced in columella cells of the root caps and in the elongation zone in GA3-treated seedling roots. A reduction was observed in the stele of PAC-treated roots. We also examined the effect of GA3 on auxin transport. The enhanced responsiveness caused by GA3 was not observed in the auxin influx mutant aux1-7 or the efflux mutant eir1-1. Additional molecular data demonstrated that GA3 could promote auxin transport via AUX1 and PIN proteins. However, GA3-induced PIN gene expression did not fully explain GA-enhanced PIN protein accumulation. These results suggest that GA3 is involved in auxin-mediated primary root elongation by modulating auxin signalling and transport, and thus enhances root responsiveness to exogenous IAA.

  10. Histone acetylation associated up-regulation of the cell wall related genes is involved in salt stress induced maize root swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Yan, Shihan; Zhao, Lin; Tan, Junjun; Zhang, Qi; Gao, Fei; Wang, Pu; Hou, Haoli; Li, Lijia

    2014-04-23

    Salt stress usually causes crop growth inhibition and yield decrease. Epigenetic regulation is involved in plant responses to environmental stimuli. The epigenetic regulation of the cell wall related genes associated with the salt-induced cellular response is still little known. This study aimed to analyze cell morphological alterations in maize roots as a consequence of excess salinity in relation to the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the cell wall related protein genes. In this study, maize seedling roots got shorter and displayed swelling after exposure to 200 mM NaCl for 48 h and 96 h. Cytological observation showed that the growth inhibition of maize roots was due to the reduction in meristematic zone cell division activity and elongation zone cell production. The enlargement of the stele tissue and cortex cells contributed to root swelling in the elongation zone. The cell wall is thought to be the major control point for cell enlargement. Cell wall related proteins include xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET), expansins (EXP), and the plasma membrane proton pump (MHA). RT-PCR results displayed an up-regulation of cell wall related ZmEXPA1, ZmEXPA3, ZmEXPA5, ZmEXPB1, ZmEXPB2 and ZmXET1 genes and the down-regulation of cell wall related ZmEXPB4 and ZmMHA genes as the duration of exposure was increased. Histone acetylation is regulated by HATs, which are often correlated with gene activation. The expression of histone acetyltransferase genes ZmHATB and ZmGCN5 was increased after 200 mM NaCl treatment, accompanied by an increase in the global acetylation levels of histones H3K9 and H4K5. ChIP experiment showed that the up-regulation of the ZmEXPB2 and ZmXET1 genes was associated with the elevated H3K9 acetylation levels on the promoter regions and coding regions of these two genes. These data suggested that the up-regulation of some cell wall related genes mediated cell enlargement to possibly mitigate the salinity-induced ionic toxicity, and

  11. Composite Transport Model and Water and Solute Transport across Plant Roots: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangmin X. Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present review examines recent experimental findings in root transport phenomena in terms of the composite transport model (CTM. It has been a well-accepted conceptual model to explain the complex water and solute flows across the root that has been related to the composite anatomical structure. There are three parallel pathways involved in the transport of water and solutes in roots – apoplast, symplast, and transcellular paths. The role of aquaporins (AQPs, which facilitate water flows through the transcellular path, and root apoplast is examined in terms of the CTM. The contribution of the plasma membrane bound AQPs for the overall water transport in the whole plant level was varying depending on the plant species, age of roots with varying developmental stages of apoplastic barriers, and driving forces (hydrostatic vs. osmotic. Many studies have demonstrated that the apoplastic barriers, such as Casparian bands in the primary anticlinal walls and suberin lamellae in the secondary cell walls, in the endo- and exodermis are not perfect barriers and unable to completely block the transport of water and some solute transport into the stele. Recent research on water and solute transport of roots with and without exodermis triggered the importance of the extension of conventional CTM adding resistances that arrange in series (epidermis, exodermis, mid-cortex, endodermis, and pericycle. The extension of the model may answer current questions about the applicability of CTM for composite water and solute transport of roots that contain complex anatomical structures with heterogeneous cell layers.

  12. Rhizophores in Rhizophora mangle L: an alternative interpretation of so-called ''aerial roots''

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Nanuza L. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizophora mangle L., one of the most common mangrove species, has an aerial structure system that gives it stability in permanently swampy soils. In fact, these structures, known as "aerial roots" or "stilt roots", have proven to be peculiar branches with positive geotropism, which form a large number of roots when in contact with swampy soils. These organs have a sympodial branching system, wide pith, slightly thickened cortex, collateral vascular bundles, polyarch stele and endarch protoxylem, as in the stem, and a periderm produced by a phellogen at the apex similar to a root cap. They also have the same type of trichosclereid that occurs in the stem, with negative geotropism, unlike true Rhizophora roots, which do not form trichosclereids at all. On the other hand, these branches do not form leaves and in this respect they are similar to roots. These peculiar branches are rhizophores or special root-bearing branches, analogous to those found in Lepidodendrales and other Carboniferous tree ferns that grew in swampy soils.

  13. Root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grierson, C.; Nielsen, E.; Ketelaar, T.; Schiefelbein, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair

  14. Transport of silicon from roots to panicles in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian Feng; Yamaji, Naoki; Mitani-Ueno, Namiki

    2011-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is the most abundant minerals in soil and exerts beneficial effects on plant growth by alleviating various stresses. The transport of Si from soil to the panicles is mediated by different transporters. Lsi1, belonging to a NIP group of the aquaporin family, is responsible for the uptake of Si from soil into the root cells in both dicots and monocots although its expression patterns and cellular localization differ with plant species. The subsequent transport of Si out of the root cells towards the stele is medicated by an active efflux transporter, Lsi2. Lsi1 and Lsi2 are polarly localized at the distal and proximal sides, respectively, of both exodermis and endodermis in rice root. Silicon in the xylem sap is presented in the form of monosilicic acid and is unloaded by Lsi6, a homolog of Lsi1 in rice. Lsi6 is also involved in the inter-vascular transfer of Si at the node, which is necessary for preferential Si distribution to the panicles.

  15. Water Uptake along the Length of Grapevine Fine Roots: Developmental Anatomy, Tissue-Specific Aquaporin Expression, and Pathways of Water Transport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gregory A. Gambetta; Jiong Fei; Thomas L. Rost; Thorsten Knipfer; Mark A. Matthews; Ken A. Shackel; M. Andrew Walker; Andrew J. McElrone

    2013-01-01

    To better understand water uptake patterns in root systems of woody perennial crops, we detailed the developmental anatomy and hydraulic physiology along the length of grapevine (Vitis berlandieri × Vitis rupestris...

  16. Patient morbidity and root coverage outcomes after the application of a subepithelial connective tissue graft in combination with a coronally advanced flap or via a tunneling technique: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbato, Luca; Nart, Jose; Bressan, Eriberto; Mazzocco, Fabio; Paniz, Gianluca; Lops, Diego

    2016-11-01

    Subepithelial connective tissue grafts (SeCTG) in conjunction with a coronally advanced flap (CAF) or with tunneling technique (TT) are common periodontal procedures with similar indications for the treatment of a denuded root surface; however, it is unclear whether patient discomfort and postoperative morbidity are comparable in both approaches. The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the patient morbidity and root coverage outcomes of a SeCTG used in combination with a CAF or TT. For this single-center, randomized, clinical trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive SeCTG + CAF (control group) or SeCTG + TT (test group). Postoperative questionnaires at 3 days post intervention were administered to evaluate postoperative discomfort, bleeding, and inability to masticate. Evaluation of patients' perception of pain was performed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Clinical outcomes including percentage of root coverage (RC) and complete root coverage (CRC) were recorded 12 months postoperatively. Fifty patients (25 SeCTG + CAF and 25 SeCTG + TT) completed the study. Healing was uneventful for all test and control patients. The SeCTG + TT group showed a longer chair time (33.6 (3.6) and 23.6 (4.2) min for the SeCTG + TT and the SeCTG + CAF, respectively), as well as more painkiller consumption: 2736 vs. 1536 mg (p < 0.001). At the same time, the SeCTG + CAF group reported less pain or discomfort in all four sections of the questionnaire: pain experienced within the mouth as a whole, pain experienced throughout the day, pain experienced at night, and edema experienced after the surgery (p = 0.002, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, and p = 0001, respectively). Both treatments showed clinical efficacy in terms of root coverage as no differences per group were observed in the percentage of root coverage (87 vs. 85 %, p = 704) or patients with complete root coverage (60 vs. 52 %, p = 0.569). SeCTG + TT is

  17. Magnesium Deficiency Results in Increased Suberization in Endodermis and Hypodermis of Corn Roots 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozuelo, José M.; Espelie, Karl E.; Kolattukudy, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    The composition of the aliphatic components of suberin in the stele and cortex of young corn (Zea mays L.) roots was determined by combined gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry of the LiAlD4 depolymerization products. ω-Hydroxy acids were shown to be the major class of the aliphatic components of both the hypodermal (35%) and endodermal (28%) polymeric materials with the dominant chain length being C24 in the former and C16 in the latter. Nitrobenzene oxidation of the roots generated p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and vanillin with much less syringaldehyde. Electron microscopic examination of the hypodermal and endodermal cell walls from roots of corn plants grown in a Mg2+ -deficient (0.03 millimolar) nutrient solution showed that these walls were more heavily suberized than the analogous walls of roots from plants grown in normal (2 millimolar) Mg2+ levels. Analysis of the LiAlD4 depolymerization products of the suberin polymers from these roots showed that the roots grown in low Mg2+ had 3.5 times as much aliphatic suberin monomers on a weight basis as the roots from plants grown in nutrient with normal Mg2+ levels. Roots from plants grown in Mg2+ -deficient nutrient solution released 3.8 times the amount of aromatic aldehydes upon nitrobenzene oxidation as that released from normal roots. As the degree of Mg2+ deficiency of the nutrient solution was increased, there was an increase in the aliphatic and aromatic components characteristic of suberin. Thus, both ultrastructural and chemical evidence strongly suggested that Mg2+ deficiency resulted in increased suberization of the cell walls of both hypodermis and endodermis of Zea mays roots. The roots from Mg2+ -deficient plants also had a higher amount of peroxidase activity when compared to control roots. Images Fig. 1-3 PMID:16663407

  18. The role of the epidermis and cortex in gravitropic curvature of maize roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, T.; Cleland, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    In order to determine the role of the epidermis and cortex in gravitropic curvature of seedling roots of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Merit), the cortex on the two opposite flanks was removed from the meristem through the growing zone; gravitropic curvature was measured with the roots oriented horizontally with the cut flanks either on the upper and lower side, or on the lateral sides as a wound control. Curvature was slower in both these treatments (53 degrees in 5 h) than in intact roots (82 degrees), but there was no difference between the two orientations in extent and rate of curvature, nor in the latent time, showing that epidermis and cortex were not the site of action of the growth-regulating signal. The amount of cortex removed made no difference in the extent of curvature. Curvature was eliminated when the endodermis was damaged, raising the possibility that the endodermis or the stele-cortex interface controls gravitropic curvature in roots. The elongation rate of roots from which just the epidermis had been peeled was reduced by 0.01 mM auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) from 0.42 to 0.27 mm h-1, contradicting the hypothesis that only the epidermis responds to changes in auxin activity during gravistimulation. These observations indicate that gravitropic curvature in maize roots is not driven by differential cortical cell enlargement, and that movement of growth regulator(s) from the tip to the elongating zone is unlikely to occur in the cortex.

  19. Root uptake and phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Daohui; Xing, Baoshan

    2008-08-01

    Increasing application of nanotechnology highlights the need to clarify nanotoxicity. However, few researches have focused on phytotoxicity of nanomaterials; it is unknown whether plants can uptake and transport nanoparticles. This study was to examine cell internalization and upward translocation of ZnO nanoparticles by Lolium perenne (ryegrass). The dissolution of ZnO nanoparticles and its contribution to the toxicity on ryegrass were also investigated. Zn2+ ions were used to compare and verify the root uptake and phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in a hydroponic culture system. The root uptake and phytotoxicity were visualized by light scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopies. In the presence of ZnO nanoparticles, ryegrass biomass significantly reduced, root tips shrank, and root epidermal and cortical cells highly vacuolated or collapsed. Zn2+ ion concentrations in bulk nutrient solutions with ZnO nanoparticles were lower than the toxicity threshold of Zn2+ to the ryegrass; shoot Zn contents under ZnO nanoparticle treatments were much lower than that under Zn2+ treatments. Therefore, the phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles was not directly from their limited dissolution in the bulk nutrient solution or rhizosphere. ZnO nanoparticles greatly adhered on to the rootsurface. Individual ZnO nanoparticles were observed present in apoplast and protoplast of the root endodermis and stele. However, translocation factors of Zn from root to shoot remained very low under ZnO nanoparticle treatments, and were much lower than that under Zn2+ treatments, implying that little (if any) ZnO nanoparticles could translocate up in the ryegrass in this study.

  20. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed.......The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  1. Effects of silicon treatment and inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum on cellular defences in root tissues of two cotton cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whan, Jennifer A; Dann, Elizabeth K; Aitken, Elizabeth A B

    2016-08-01

    Silicon has been shown to enhance the resistance of plants to fungal and bacterial pathogens. Here, the effect of potassium silicate was assessed on two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivars subsequently inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov). Sicot 189 is moderately resistant whilst Sicot F-1 is the second most resistant commercial cultivar presently available in Australia. Transmission and light microscopy were used to compare cellular modifications in root cells after these different treatments. The accumulation of phenolic compounds and lignin was measured. Cellular alterations including the deposition of electron-dense material, degradation of fungal hyphae and occlusion of endodermal cells were more rapidly induced and more intense in endodermal and vascular regions of Sicot F-1 plants supplied with potassium silicate followed by inoculation with Fov than in similarly treated Sicot 189 plants or in silicate-treated plants of either cultivar not inoculated with Fov. Significantly more phenolic compounds were present at 7 d post-infection (dpi) in root extracts of Sicot F-1 plants treated with potassium silicate followed by inoculation with Fov compared with plants from all other treatments. The lignin concentration at 3 dpi in root material from Sicot F-1 treated with potassium silicate and inoculated with Fov was significantly higher than that from water-treated and inoculated plants. This study demonstrates that silicon treatment can affect cellular defence responses in cotton roots subsequently inoculated with Fov, particularly in Sicot F-1, a cultivar with greater inherent resistance to this pathogen. This suggests that silicon may interact with or initiate defence pathways faster in this cultivar than in the less resistant cultivar. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The effect of 3-indolylacetic acid on the accumulation of starch in the root tissue of Cichorium intybus L. cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Sobczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation between IAA-induced formation of amyloplasts in callus cells of chicory root and the influence of IAA on sugar uptake from the medium was investigated. Experiments with 14C-sucrose showed that IAA increased the uptake of sucrose from the medium. The amyloplast-like structures were also observed in callus grown on medium without IAA, but containing high concentration of sucrose (9%. The possibility of IAA influence on the formation of amyloplasts by increasing the permeability of cells for sugar is discussed.

  3. Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Attenuates Body Fat Mass, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance through the Interplay between the Liver and Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye Jin; Choi, Ji-Young; Ryu, Ri; Lee, Jeonghyeon; Cho, Su-Jung; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Rina, Yu; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-08-30

    The Platycodon grandiflorus root, a Korean medicinal food, is well known to have beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the metabolic effects of P. grandiflorus root ethanol extract (PGE), which is rich in platycodins, on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice (four-week-old males) were fed a normal diet (16.58% of kilocalories from fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 60% of kilocalories from fat), and HFD supplemented with 5% (w/w) PGE. In the HFD-fed mice, PGE markedly suppressed the body weight gain and white fat mass to normal control level, with simultaneous increase in the expression of thermogenic genes (such as SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1), that accompanied changes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and energy expenditure. In addition, PGE improved insulin sensitivity through activation of the PPARγ expression, which upregulates adiponectin while decreasing leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGE improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis while increasing expression of FAO-associated genes such as PGC1α. PGE normalized body fat and body weight, which is likely associated with the increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene expression. PGE can protect from HFD-induced insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis by controlling lipid and glucose metabolism.

  4. Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Attenuates Body Fat Mass, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance through the Interplay between the Liver and Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Jin Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Platycodon grandiflorus root, a Korean medicinal food, is well known to have beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the metabolic effects of P. grandiflorus root ethanol extract (PGE, which is rich in platycodins, on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice (four-week-old males were fed a normal diet (16.58% of kilocalories from fat, high-fat diet (HFD, 60% of kilocalories from fat, and HFD supplemented with 5% (w/w PGE. In the HFD-fed mice, PGE markedly suppressed the body weight gain and white fat mass to normal control level, with simultaneous increase in the expression of thermogenic genes (such as SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1, that accompanied changes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO and energy expenditure. In addition, PGE improved insulin sensitivity through activation of the PPARγ expression, which upregulates adiponectin while decreasing leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGE improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis while increasing expression of FAO-associated genes such as PGC1α. PGE normalized body fat and body weight, which is likely associated with the increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene expression. PGE can protect from HFD-induced insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis by controlling lipid and glucose metabolism.

  5. Seasonal dynamics of structure and functional activity of ectomycorrhizal roots of the Siberian fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Sizonenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was to study seasonal dynamics of the Siberian fir Abies sibirica Ledeb. ectomycorrhizal morpho-anatomical structure, respiration rate and fluorescence. The study was carried out in the bilberry-sphagnum spruce forest in the middle taiga of the Komi Republic, Russia. The morpho-anatomical structure and fluorescence parameters were studied by light and luminescence microscopy. Thin root respiration was studied in intact fine roots in the field using an infrared gas analyzer. 12 subtypes of fungal mantels were revealed in ectomycorrhizal fir roots; their amount and composition demonstrated seasonal dynamic changes. At the beginning vegetation stage, the diversity and proportion of pseudoparenchymatous and double covers were maximal. Plant component of ectomycorrhizae that includes cortical parenchyma and stele had high activity of fluorescence during the entire vegetation period. The dynamics of staining of fungal component (fungal mantel and Hartig net was more contrasting. The highest fluorescence intensity of cortical parenchyma was found in ectomycorrhizae with maximal fungal mantel thickness. High proportion of tannin cells in cortical parenchyma was related with low intensity of fungal mantel and Hartig net fluorescence. During vegetation season, maximal amount of intensively strained ectomycorrhizal elements occurred in July and unstrained – in June and August. Relation between fine roots respiration and an increase of brightly strained ectomycorrhizal structural elements in fir roots was not statistically significant. Root CO2-emission was lower in May and September in comparison with summer months. For respiration rate of fir fine roots we found its strong positive correlation with the litter temperature.

  6. Root xylem plasticity to improve water use and yield in water-stressed soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Silvas J; Murphy, Mackensie; Mutava, Raymond N; Durnell, Lorellin A; Valliyodan, Babu; Shannon, J Grover; Nguyen, Henry T

    2017-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increasing the number of metaxylem vessels would enhance the efficiency of water uptake in soybean (Glycine max) and decrease the yield gap in water-limited environments. A panel of 41 soybean accessions was evaluated in greenhouse, rainout shelter, and rain-fed field environments. The metaxylem number influenced the internal capture of CO2 and improved stomatal conductance, enhancing water uptake/use in soybeans exposed to stress during the reproductive stage. We determined that other root anatomical features, such as cortex cell area and the percentage of stele that comprised cortical cells, also affected seed yield under similar growth parameters. Seed yield was also impacted by pod retention rates under drought stress (24-80 pods/plant). We surmise that effective biomass allocation, that is, the transport of available photosynthates to floral structures at late reproductive growth stages (R6-R7), enables yield protection under drought stress. A mesocosm study of contrasting lines for yield under drought stress and root anatomical features revealed that increases in metaxylem number as an adaptation to drought in the high-yielding lines improved root hydraulic conductivity, which reduced the metabolic cost of exploring water in deeper soil strata and enhanced water transport. This allowed the maintenance of shoot physiological processes under water-limited conditions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Root anatomy, morphology, and longevity among root orders in Vaccinium corymbosum (Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Estrada, Luis R; Vera-Caraballo, Vivianette; Ruth, Leah E; Eissenstat, David M

    2008-12-01

    Understanding root processes at the whole-plant or ecosystem scales requires an accounting of the range of functions within a root system. Studying root traits based on their branching order can be a powerful approach to understanding this complex system. The current study examined the highly branched root system of the ericoid plant, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (highbush blueberry) by classifying its root orders with a modified version of the morphometric approach similar to that used in hydrology for stream classification. Root anatomy provided valuable insight into variation in root function across orders. The more permanent portion of the root system occurred in 4th- and higher-order roots. Roots in these orders had radial growth; the lowest specific root length, N:C ratios, and mycorrhizal colonization; the highest tissue density and vessel number; and the coarsest root diameter. The ephemeral portion of the root system was mainly in the first three root orders. First- and 2nd-order roots were nearly anatomically identical, with similar mycorrhizal colonization and diameter, and also, despite being extremely fine, median lifespans were not very short (115-120 d; estimated with minirhizotrons). Our research underscores the value of examining root traits by root order and its implications to understanding belowground processes.

  8. Molecular genetic studies in Fragaria species : agrobacterium-mediated transformation and fine mapping of the Phytophthora fragariae resistance gene Rpfl.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haymes, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    The fungus Phytophthora fragariae, is able to cause red stele root rot in the strawberry. Symptoms of the disease is discolouration of the stele of the roots, rotting away of the infected roots, dwarfism, wilting, and finally plant death. Chemical control of red stele

  9. Root (Botany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1981-01-01

    Plant roots can contribute significantly to the stability of steep slopes. They can anchor through the soil mass into fractures in bedrock, can cross zones of weakness to more stable soil, and can provide interlocking long fibrous binders within a weak soil mass. In deep soil, anchoring to bedrock becomes negligible, and lateral reinforcement predominates

  10. Root apoplastic barriers block Na+ transport to shoots in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunge, Kosala; Nayak, Shraddha; Schreiber, Lukas; Mathew, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    Rice is an important crop that is very sensitive to salinity. However, some varieties differ greatly in this feature, making investigations of salinity tolerance mechanisms possible. The cultivar Pokkali is salinity tolerant and is known to have more extensive hydrophobic barriers in its roots than does IR20, a more sensitive cultivar. These barriers located in the root endodermis and exodermis prevent the direct entry of external fluid into the stele. However, it is known that in the case of rice, these barriers are bypassed by most of the Na+ that enters the shoot. Exposing plants to a moderate stress of 100 mM NaCl resulted in deposition of additional hydrophobic aliphatic suberin in both cultivars. The present study demonstrated that Pokkali roots have a lower permeability to water (measured using a pressure chamber) than those of IR20. Conditioning plants with 100 mM NaCl effectively reduced Na+ accumulation in the shoot and improved survival of the plants when they were subsequently subjected to a lethal stress of 200 mM NaCl. The Na+ accumulated during the conditioning period was rapidly released when the plants were returned to the control medium. It has been suggested that the location of the bypass flow is around young lateral roots, the early development of which disrupts the continuity of the endodermal and exodermal Casparian bands. However, in the present study, the observed increase in lateral root densities during stress in both cultivars did not correlate with bypass flow. Overall the data suggest that in rice roots Na+ bypass flow is reduced by the deposition of apoplastic barriers, leading to improved plant survival under salt stress. PMID:21558150

  11. Identification of a Stelar-Localized Transport Protein That Facilitates Root-to-Shoot Transfer of Chloride in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2015-12-11

    Under saline conditions, higher plants restrict the accumulation of chloride ions (Cl–) in the shoot by regulating their transfer from the root symplast into the xylem-associated apoplast. To identify molecular mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon, we undertook a transcriptional screen of salt stressed Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Microarrays, quantitative RT-PCR, and promoter-GUS fusions identified a candidate gene involved in Cl– xylem loading from the Nitrate transporter 1/Peptide Transporter family (NPF2.4). This gene was highly expressed in the root stele compared to the cortex, and its expression decreased after exposure to NaCl or abscisic acid. NPF2.4 fused to fluorescent proteins, expressed either transiently or stably, was targeted to the plasma membrane. Electrophysiological analysis of NPF2.4 in Xenopus laevis oocytes suggested that NPF2.4 catalyzed passive Cl– efflux out of cells and was much less permeable to NO3−. Shoot Cl– accumulation was decreased following NPF2.4 artificial microRNA knockdown, whereas it was increased by overexpression of NPF2.4. Taken together, these results suggest that NPF2.4 is involved in long-distance transport of Cl– in plants, playing a role in the loading and the regulation of Cl– loading into the xylem of Arabidopsis roots during salinity stress.

  12. Tissue culture techniques in the proliferation of shoots and roots of Calendula officinalis Utilização de técnicas de cultura de tecidos na proliferação de brotos e enraizamento de Calendula officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pimentel Victório

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The high demand for plant material from Calendula officinalis in the production of herbal medicines and cosmetics, turns the technique of plant-tissue culture into one of the alternatives for the improvement of crops over a short period of time. A protocol for tissue culture was developed from segments of seedlings of C. officinalis, in order to improve the proliferation of shoots and roots. We used a Murashige and Skoog (MS½N medium, reduced to half the concentrations of NH4NO3 and KNO3 to verify the effect of different types of explants (basal, intermediate, and apical, a medium containing beach sand as support instead of agar, and the effect of auxins and cytokinins (TDZ tidiazuron; BAP, 6-benzylaminopurine, IAA, indol-3-acetic acid, IBA, indol-3-butyric acid, NAA, naphthalene-acetic acid on plant development in vitro. The results showed pronounced rooting from the apical explants, as well as a greater elongation of shoots and number of leaves. The solid medium was more suitable for the C. officinalis cultures. Shoot proliferation was dependent on cytokinins with better results from the influence of TDZ or BAP compared to the other treatments. Plants regenerated from the medium containing TDZ displayed a glazed appearance and morphogenetic deformations. The highest rate for rooting (80% was obtained using IAA 0.1mgL-1. Through in-vitro propagation, healthy C. officinalis plants were obtained with roots which can acclimatise, allowing the continuous supplement of raw material.A alta demanda por material vegetal de Calendula officinalis para produção de fitoterápicos e cosméticos, configura a técnica de cultura de tecidos vegetais como uma das alternativas para o aprimoramento das culturas em curto período de tempo. Um protocolo de cultura de tecidos foi desenvolvido a partir de segmentos de plântulas de C. officinalis, no intuito de melhorar a proliferação de brotos e o enraizamento. Foi utilizado o meio Murashige e Skoog (MS

  13. Comparison of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) and subepithelial connective tissue graft for root coverage in patients with multiple gingival recession defects: A randomized controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiou, Angeliki; Vouros, Ioannis; Menexes, Georgios; Konstantinidis, Antonis

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the clinical efficiency of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) placed under a coronally advanced flap (CAF; test group), to a connective tissue graft (CTG) placed under a CAF (control group), in patients with multiple recession defects. Twelve patients with multiple Miller's Class I or II gingival recessions in contralateral quadrants of the maxilla were selected. The primary outcome variable was the change in depth of the buccal recession (REC), at 6 months (T6) after surgery. The secondary outcome parameters included the clinical attachment level (CAL), the probing pocket depth (PPD), and the width of keratinized gingiva (WKT) apical to the recession. Recession defects were randomly divided to the test or control group by using a computer-generated randomization list. Data were analyzed within the frame of Mixed Linear Models with the ANOVA method. There were no statistically significantly differences observed between test and control groups in regards with the depth of buccal recession with a mean REC of 1.82 mm (CTG) and 1.72 mm (EMD) respectively. Similarly the mean PPD value was 1.3 mm for both groups at T6, while the respective value for CAL was 1.7 mm (EMD) and 1.8 mm (CTG). Statistically significant differences were observed only for the WKT, which were 3.0 mm and 3.6 mm for the test and control groups respectively (P < .001) at T6. The use of EMD in conjunction with a CAF resulted in similar results as compared to the CTG plus CAF.

  14. Glycerol affects root development through regulation of multiple pathways in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yonghong; Wang, Jinfang; Zhou, Yongming

    2014-01-01

    Glycerol metabolism has been well studied biochemically. However, the means by which glycerol functions in plant development is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the effects of glycerol on root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Exogenous glycerol inhibited primary root growth and altered lateral root development in wild-type plants. These phenotypes appeared concurrently with increased endogenous glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and H2O2 contents in seedlings, and decreased phosphate levels in roots. Upon glycerol treatment, G3P level and root development did not change in glycerol kinase mutant gli1, but G3P level increased in gpdhc1 and fad-gpdh mutants, which resulted in more severely impaired root development. Overexpression of the FAD-GPDH gene attenuated the alterations in G3P, phosphate and H2O2 levels, leading to increased tolerance to exogenous glycerol, which suggested that FAD-GPDH plays an important role in modulating this response. Free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content increased by 46%, and DR5pro::GUS staining increased in the stele cells of the root meristem under glycerol treatment, suggesting that glycerol likely alters normal auxin distribution. Decreases in PIN1 and PIN7 expression, β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining in plants expressing PIN7pro::GUS and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence in plants expressing PIN7pro::PIN7-GFP were observed, indicating that polar auxin transport in the root was downregulated under glycerol treatment. Analyses with auxin-related mutants showed that TIR1 and ARF7 were involved in regulating root growth under glycerol treatment. Glycerol-treated plants showed significant reductions in root meristem size and cell number as revealed by CYCB1;1pro::GUS staining. Furthermore, the expression of CDKA and CYCB1 decreased significantly in treated plants compared with control plants, implying possible alterations in cell cycle progression. Our data demonstrated that glycerol

  15. Using low energy x-ray radiography to evaluate root initiation and growth of Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; A. L. Friend; B. Kodrzycki; D.W. McDonald; R. Michaels; A.H. Wiese; J.W. Powers

    2007-01-01

    Populus roots have been studied less than aboveground tissues. However, there is an overwhelming need to evaluate root initiation and growth in order to understand the genetics and physiology of rooting, along with genotype x environment interactions.

  16. La inscripción medieval de la estela romana de Dombellas (Soria: su razonable relación con la leyenda de Muño Sancho de Finojosa = The Medieval Inscription on the Roman Stele Found in Dombellas (Soria And its Probable Relation to the Legend of ....

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Encinas Manchado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available La estela de Dombellas, conservada en el Museo Numantino (Soria, es una pieza romana reutilizada en la Edad Media para grabar una inscripción. Después de un largo proceso de análisis y lectura, teniendo en cuenta las letras conservadas, el sentido del texto, el lugar del hallazgo de la pieza y la cronología del epígrafe (principios del s. XII, planteamos que es razonable su relación con la leyenda de Muño Sancho de Finojosa, cuya plasmación escrita más antigua conservada hasta ahora se remontaba al s. XIII.The stele found in Dombellas, kept in Museo Numantino (Soria is a Roman object which was re-used during the Middle Ages to engrave an inscription. Having researched and studied the possibilities and taking into account the preserved letters, the sense of the text, the place where the object was found and the chronology of the inscription (early 12th century, its relation with the Muño Sancho de Finojosa legend seems more than likely. The oldest written record of this legend known and preserved thus far dates back to XIIIth century. 

  17. Disease notes - Bacterial root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial root rot initiated by lactic acid bacteria, particularly Leuconostoc, occurs every year in Idaho sugarbeet fields. Hot fall weather seems to make the problem worse. Although Leuconostoc initiates the rot, other bacteria and yeast frequently invade the tissue as well. The acetic acid bac...

  18. Cell signaling in root development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.

    1997-01-01

    Cell signaling has recently been shown to be of major importance in cell specification during Arabidopsis root development. In the ground tissue, cues of unknown molecular nature convey positional information and two genes provide an interesting link between asymmetric cell division and the

  19. Decomposition and nutrient release from fresh and dried pine roots under two fertilizer regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim H. Ludovici; Lance W. Kress

    2006-01-01

    Root decomposition and nutrient release are typically estimated from dried root tissues; however, it is unlikely that roots dehydrate prior to decomposing. Soil fertility and root diameter may also affect the rate of decomposition. This study monitored mass loss and nutrient concentrations of dried and fresh roots of two size classes (

  20. Cyclic programmed cell death stimulates hormone signaling and root development in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, Wei; Band, Leah R.; Kumpf, Robert P.; Rybel, De Bert

    2016-01-01

    The plant root cap, surrounding the very tip of the growing root, perceives and transmits environmental signals to the inner root tissues. In Arabidopsis thaliana, auxin released by the root cap contributes to the regular spacing of lateral organs along the primary root axis. Here, we show that

  1. Seedling root targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane L. Haase

    2011-01-01

    Roots are critical to seedling performance after outplanting. Although root quality is not as quick and simple to measure as shoot quality, target root characteristics should be included in any seedling quality assessment program. This paper provides a brief review of root characteristics most commonly targeted for operational seedling production. These are: root mass...

  2. Identification of a root-specific glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SEARCH U

    stress such as water or salt stress, by the expression of a gene that confers tolerance in a part of the plant such as the root, which is especially important with respect to that stress. Root-specific promoters also have the potential for application in the engineering of plants to improve uptake of nutrients through root tissues.

  3. Identification of a root-specific glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... that is sufficient to confer root-specific expression. Sequence analysis revealed that several regulatory elements were implicated in expression in root tissue. The promoter identified and characterized in this study has the potential to be applied in crop biotechnology for directing the root-specific expression of transgenes.

  4. Hydraulic conductivity in roots of ponderosa pine infected with black-stain (Leptographium wageneri) or annosus (Heterobasidion annosum) root disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Gladwin; Kelsey, Rick G.; Thies, Walter G.

    1998-05-01

    Roots from healthy and diseased mature ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Laws., trees were excavated from a site near Burns, Oregon. The diseased trees were infected with black-stain root disease, Leptographium wageneri Kendrick, or annosus root disease, Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref., or both. Axial hydraulic conductivity of the roots was measured under a positive head pressure of 5 kPa, and the conducting area was stained with safranin dye to determine specific conductivity (k(s)). In diseased roots, only 8-12% of the cross-sectional xylem area conducted water. Resin-soaked xylem completely restricted water transport and accounted for 13-16% of the loss in conducting area. In roots with black-stain root disease, 17% of the loss in conducting area was associated with unstained xylem, possibly resulting from occlusions or embolisms. Based on the entire cross-sectional area of infected roots, the k(s) of roots infected with black-stain root disease was 4.6% of that for healthy roots, whereas the k(s) of roots infected with annosus root disease was 2.6% of that for healthy roots. Although these low values were partly the result of the presence of a large number of diseased roots (72%) with no conducting xylem, the k(s) of functional xylem of diseased roots was only 33% of that for healthy roots. The low k(s) values of functional xylem in diseased roots may be caused by fungus induced occlusions preceding cavitation and embolism of tracheids. The k(s) of disease-free roots from diseased trees was only 70% of that for healthy roots from healthy trees. The disease-free roots had the same mean tracheid diameter and tissue density as the healthy roots, suggesting that the lower k(s) in disease-free roots of diseased trees may also have been caused by partial xylary occlusions.

  5. Root resorption: Focus on signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Kjaer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost - an ectodermal tissue layer (Malassez′s epithelium, a middle layer - composed by the collagen-mesodermal tissue layer, and an innermost root-close innervation layer. Abnormalities in one of these tissue layers are thought to cause inflammatory processes in the periodontal membrane comparable to inflammatory processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has formerly been demonstrated how demyelinization of the myelin sheaths in the peripheral nerves close to the root provoke resorption. Accordingly, conditions affecting these tissue layers can be associated not only with different morphologies but also with general symptoms and diseases (e.g., ectodermal dysplasia and hypophosphatasia.

  6. Adventitious root induction in Arabidopsis thaliana as a model for in vitro root organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Inge; Beeckman, Tom; Geelen, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Adventitious root formation, the development of roots on non-root tissue (e.g. leaves, hypocotyls and stems) is a critical step during micropropagation. Although root induction treatments are routinely used for a large number of species micropropagated in vitro as well as for in vivo cuttings, the mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting are still poorly understood. Researchers attempt to gain better insight into the molecular aspects by studying adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana. The existing assay involves etiolation of seedlings and measurements of de novo formed roots on the elongated hypocotyl. The etiolated hypocotyls express a novel auxin-controlled signal transduction pathway in which auxin response factors (ARFs), microRNAs and environmental conditions that drive adventitious rooting are integrated. An alternative assay makes use of so-called thin cell layers (TCL), excised strips of cells from the inflorescence stem of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, both the etiolated seedling system and the TCL assay are only distantly related to industrial rooting processes in which roots are induced on adult stem tissue. Here, we describe an adventitious root induction system that uses segments of the inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana, which have a histological structure similar to cuttings or in vitro micropropagated shoots. The system allows multiple treatments with chemicals as well as the evaluation of different environmental conditions on a large number of explants. It is therefore suitable for high throughput chemical screenings and experiments that require numerous data points for statistical analysis. Using this assay, the adventitious root induction capacity of classical auxins was evaluated and a differential response to the different auxins could be demonstrated. NAA, IBA and IAA stimulated adventitious rooting on the stem segment, whereas 2,4-D and picloram did not. Light conditions profoundly influenced the root induction capacity

  7. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  8. External root resorption: Different etiologies explained from the composition of the human root-close periodontal membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Kjaer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper summarizes different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots. It also highlights factors important for individual susceptibility to root resorption. Furthermore, the paper focuses on idiopathic root resorption where the provoking factor is not known. The Hypothesis: The several different disturbances causing root resorption can be either orthodontically provoked or acquired by trauma, virus or congenital diseases. It is presumed that all these conditions lead to inflammatory processes in the three main tissue layers, comprising the peri-root sheet. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: This paper explains how different etiologies behind root resorption and how different phenotypic traits in root resorption can be understood from immunohistochemical studies of the human periodontal membrane close to the root and thus, gain a new understanding of the phenomenon of root resorption.

  9. Immunology of root resorption: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luciano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Root resorption seems to be related to a complex combination of mechanical factors and biological activity, which comprehends the role of immunologic structures including specialized cells. The aim of this research was to explain the development of the process - from mineralization to the destruction of hard tissues - and the possible relationship between root resorption and immunology, along with discussing current concepts described in the literature.

  10. Nanodiamond?Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Kim, Sue Vin; Limansubroto, Adelheid Nerisa; Yen, Albert; Soundia, Akrivoula; Wang, Cun-Yu; Shi, Wenyuan; Hong, Christine; Tetradis, Sotirios; Kim, Yong; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K.; Ho, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable...

  11. Is pulp regeneration necessary for root maturation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Ali; Li, Kevin L; Vir, Kunwar; Hicks, M Lamar; Fouad, Ashraf F

    2013-10-01

    True regeneration of the dental pulp-dentin complex in immature teeth with necrotic pulps has not been shown histologically. It is not known to what extent this true tissue regeneration is necessary to achieve clinically acceptable outcomes. This case report describes the treatment of a patient with an immature maxillary right central incisor with a history of impact trauma and enamel-dentin crown fracture. A diagnosis of pulp necrosis with acute apical abscess was established. A regenerative endodontic protocol that used a paste containing Augmentin for 5 weeks as an intracanal medicament was used. Follow-ups at 9, 12, 17, and 31 months revealed complete osseous healing of the periapical lesion and formation of the root apex, but without increase in root length. Clinically, the tooth was functional, asymptomatic, and nonresponsive to pulp vitality tests. The crown discolored over time. On reentering the root canal, no tissues were observed under magnification inside the root canal space. The root canal treatment was completed with mineral trioxide aggregate obturation. Augmentin might be an acceptable choice for root canal disinfection in regenerative endodontic procedures. The protocol for regenerative endodontic treatment is not predictable for pulp-dentin regeneration. Formation of the root apex is possible without pulp regeneration. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing root architectural models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Plant roots play an important role in several soil processes (Gregory 2006). Root architecture development determines the sites in soil where roots provide input of carbon and energy and take up water and solutes. However, root architecture is difficult to determine experimentally when grown in opaque soil. Thus, root architectural models have been widely used and been further developed into functional-structural models that are able to simulate the fate of water and solutes in the soil-root system (Dunbabin et al. 2013). Still, a systematic comparison of the different root architectural models is missing. In this work, we focus on discrete root architecture models where roots are described by connected line segments. These models differ (a) in their model concepts, such as the description of distance between branches based on a prescribed distance (inter-nodal distance) or based on a prescribed time interval. Furthermore, these models differ (b) in the implementation of the same concept, such as the time step size, the spatial discretization along the root axes or the way stochasticity of parameters such as root growth direction, growth rate, branch spacing, branching angles are treated. Based on the example of two such different root models, the root growth module of R-SWMS and RootBox, we show the impact of these differences on simulated root architecture and aggregated information computed from this detailed simulation results, taking into account the stochastic nature of those models. References Dunbabin, V.M., Postma, J.A., Schnepf, A., Pagès, L., Javaux, M., Wu, L., Leitner, D., Chen, Y.L., Rengel, Z., Diggle, A.J. Modelling root-soil interactions using three-dimensional models of root growth, architecture and function (2013) Plant and Soil, 372 (1-2), pp. 93 - 124. Gregory (2006) Roots, rhizosphere and soil: the route to a better understanding of soil science? European Journal of Soil Science 57: 2-12.

  13. Piriformospora indica Root Colonization Triggers Local and Systemic Root Responses and Inhibits Secondary Colonization of Distal Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Mueller, Martin J.; Waller, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Piriformosporaindica is a basidiomycete fungus colonizing roots of a wide range of higher plants, including crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that P. indica improves growth, and enhances systemic pathogen resistance in leaves of host plants. To investigate systemic effects within the root system, we established a hydroponic split-root cultivation system for Arabidopsis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that initial P. indica colonization triggers a local, transient response of several defense-related transcripts, of which some were also induced in shoots and in distal, non-colonized roots of the same plant. Systemic effects on distal roots included the inhibition of secondary P. indica colonization. Faster and stronger induction of defense-related transcripts during secondary inoculation revealed that a P. indica pretreatment triggers root-wide priming of defense responses, which could cause the observed reduction of secondary colonization levels. Secondary P. indica colonization also induced defense responses in distant, already colonized parts of the root. Endophytic fungi therefore trigger a spatially specific response in directly colonized and in systemic root tissues of host plants. PMID:23922705

  14. Piriformospora indica root colonization triggers local and systemic root responses and inhibits secondary colonization of distal roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pedrotti

    Full Text Available Piriformosporaindica is a basidiomycete fungus colonizing roots of a wide range of higher plants, including crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that P. indica improves growth, and enhances systemic pathogen resistance in leaves of host plants. To investigate systemic effects within the root system, we established a hydroponic split-root cultivation system for Arabidopsis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that initial P. indica colonization triggers a local, transient response of several defense-related transcripts, of which some were also induced in shoots and in distal, non-colonized roots of the same plant. Systemic effects on distal roots included the inhibition of secondary P. indica colonization. Faster and stronger induction of defense-related transcripts during secondary inoculation revealed that a P. indica pretreatment triggers root-wide priming of defense responses, which could cause the observed reduction of secondary colonization levels. Secondary P. indica colonization also induced defense responses in distant, already colonized parts of the root. Endophytic fungi therefore trigger a spatially specific response in directly colonized and in systemic root tissues of host plants.

  15. Piriformospora indica root colonization triggers local and systemic root responses and inhibits secondary colonization of distal roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Mueller, Martin J; Waller, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Piriformosporaindica is a basidiomycete fungus colonizing roots of a wide range of higher plants, including crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that P. indica improves growth, and enhances systemic pathogen resistance in leaves of host plants. To investigate systemic effects within the root system, we established a hydroponic split-root cultivation system for Arabidopsis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that initial P. indica colonization triggers a local, transient response of several defense-related transcripts, of which some were also induced in shoots and in distal, non-colonized roots of the same plant. Systemic effects on distal roots included the inhibition of secondary P. indica colonization. Faster and stronger induction of defense-related transcripts during secondary inoculation revealed that a P. indica pretreatment triggers root-wide priming of defense responses, which could cause the observed reduction of secondary colonization levels. Secondary P. indica colonization also induced defense responses in distant, already colonized parts of the root. Endophytic fungi therefore trigger a spatially specific response in directly colonized and in systemic root tissues of host plants.

  16. Periosteal Pedicle Flap Harvested during Vestibular Extension for Root Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Root exposure along with inadequate vestibular depth is a common clinical finding. Treatment option includes many techniques to treat such defects for obtaining predictable root coverage. Normally, the vestibular depth is increased first followed by a second surgery for root coverage. The present case report describes a single-stage technique for vestibular extension and root coverage in a single tooth by using the Periosteal Pedicle Flap (PPF. This technique involves no donor site morbidity and allows for reflection of sufficient amount of periosteal flap tissue with its own blood supply at the surgical site, thus increasing the chances of success of root coverage with simultaneous increase in vestibular depth.

  17. Personalised external aortic root support (PEARS) in Marfan syndrome: analysis of 1-9 year outcomes by intention-to-treat in a cohort of the first 30 consecutive patients to receive a novel tissue and valve-conserving procedure, compared with the published results of aortic root replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treasure, Tom; Takkenberg, Johanna J M; Golesworthy, Tal; Rega, Filip; Petrou, Mario; Rosendahl, Ulrich; Mohiaddin, Raad; Rubens, Michael; Thornton, Warren; Lees, Belinda; Pepper, John

    2014-06-01

    Among people with Marfan syndrome who have a typical aortic root aneurysm, dissection is a characteristic cause of premature death. To pre-empt Type A dissection, composite root replacement with a mechanical valve became the standard of care in the 1980s and 1990s. This is being superseded by valve-sparing aortic root replacement to avoid lifelong anticoagulation. In 2004, a total root and valve-sparing procedure, personalised external aortic support, was introduced. We report here results among the first 30 recipients. From cross-sectional digital images, the patient's own aorta is modelled by computer aided design and a replica is made in thermoplastic by rapid prototyping. On this, a personalised support of a macroporous polymer mesh is manufactured. The mesh is positioned around the aorta, closely applied from the aortoventricular junction to beyond the brachiocephalic artery. The operation is performed with a beating heart and usually without cardiopulmonary bypass. Between 2004 and 2011, 30 patients, median age 28 years (IQR 20-44) had this operation and have been prospectively followed for 1.4-8.8 years by February 2013. During a total of 133 patient-years there were no deaths or cerebrovascular, aortic or valve-related events. These early outcomes are better than published results for the more radical extirpative root replacement operations. The aortic valve, the root architecture, and the blood/endothelia interface are conserved. The perioperative burden is less and there has been freedom from aortic and valvular events. A prospective comparative study is planned. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Meniscus root repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Dharmesh; Harner, Christopher D

    2012-06-01

    Root tears are a subset of meniscal injuries that result in significant knee joint pathology. Occurring on either the medial or lateral side, root tears are defined as radial tears or avulsions of the posterior horn attachment to bone. After a root tear, there is a significant increase in tibio-femoral contact pressure concomitant with altered knee joint kinematics. Previous cadaver studies from our institution have shown that root repair of the medial meniscus is successful in restoring joint biomechanics to within normal limits. Indications for operative management of meniscal root tears include (1) a symptomatic medial meniscus root tear with minimal arthritis and having failed non-operative treatment, and (2) a lateral root tear in associated with an ACL tear. In this review, we describe diagnosis, imaging, patient selection, and arthroscopic surgical technique of medial and lateral meniscus root injuries. In addition we highlight the pearls of repair technique, associated complications, post-operative rehabilitation regimen, and expected outcomes.

  19. Tooth Eruption without Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X.-P.

    2013-01-01

    Root development and tooth eruption are very important topics in dentistry. However, they remain among the less-studied and -understood subjects. Root development accompanies rapid tooth eruption, but roots are required for the movement of teeth into the oral cavity. It has been shown that the dental follicle and bone remodeling are essential for tooth eruption. So far, only limited genes have been associated with root formation and tooth eruption. This may be due to the diffic...

  20. Rooting an Android Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    o 8-GB Memory o Intel Xeon X5472 Central Processing Unit (CPU)  64-bit quad and dual-core  3.0 GHz 3. Rooting Android Devices The rooting...root access has been granted. 4. Conclusion This document serves as a tutorial on how to grant user administrative privilege to an Android device by

  1. Esau's Plant anatomy: meristems, cells, and tissues of the plant body : their structure, function, and development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evert, Ray Franklin; Esau, Katherine; Eichhorn, Susan E

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Body of a Vascular Plant Is Composed of Three Tissue Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structurally Stem, Leaf, and Root Differ Primarily...

  2. Evaluation of the responses of MHC class II molecule-expressing cells and macrophages to epoxy resin-based and 4-META-containing, methacrylate resin-based root canal sealers in rat subcutaneous tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Yusuke; Shigetani, Yoshimi; Yoshiba, Kunihiko; Kaneko, Tomoatsu; Yoshiba, Nagako; Okiji, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule-expressing cells and macrophages play a pivotal role in mediating the host tissue response to biomaterials. This study investigated the responses of these cells to epoxy resin-based and 4-META-containing, methacrylate resin-based endodontic sealers (AH Plus and MetaSEAL respectively) in rat connective tissue. Silicone tubes loaded with one of the sealers or solid silicone rods (control) were subcutaneously implanted in male Wistar rats for three time periods of 7, 14, or 28 days. Tissue specimens were immunoperoxidase-stained for MHC class II molecules and CD68 (a general macrophage marker). Results showed that AH Plus-implanted tissue displayed significantly more MHC class II-positive cells than the control at 14 and 28 days, whereas MetaSEAL-implanted tissue showed significantly more CD68-positive cells than both AH Plus-implanted tissue and the control at all time periods. It was concluded that the epoxy resin-based sealer induced the infiltration of MHC class II molecule-expressing cells, whereas 4-META-containing, methacrylate resin-based sealer elicited macrophage infiltration.

  3. The Exact Root Algorithm for Computing the Real Roots of an Nth Degree Polynomial

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. Adebile; V. I. Idoko

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The need to find an efficient and reliable algorithm for computing the exact real roots of the steady-state polynomial encountered in the investigation of temperature profiles in biological tissues during Microwave heating and other similar cases as found in the literature gave rise to this study. Approach: The algorithm (simply called ERA-Exact Root Algorithm) adopted polynomial deflation technique and uses Newton-Raphson iterative procedure though with a modified terminat...

  4. Rehabilitation of teeth with root canal treatment. Multidisciplinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Concha, Pompeyo H.; Residente 3° año, Segunda Especialidad en Rehabilitación Oral, UNMSM.; Canales Huarhua, Johnny; Residente 2°año, Segunda Especialidad en Periodoncia, UNMSM.; García Linares, Sixto; Especialidad en Periodoncia y Coordinador de Posgrado en Periodoncia, UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case details the teeth reconstruction and root canal retreatment, with recovery of the lost biological space invaded by maladjusted crowns and its subsequent reconstruction with fiberglass preformed poles for the cementation of splinted crowns by the decrease of the crown-root proportion. It is concluded that we must take into account the amount of remaining dental tissue, the periodontal status (biological width), the aesthetic requirements, the root morphology, the location of...

  5. Tooth mobility changes subsequent to root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    with a Mühlemanns periodontometer and noninjured incisors served as controls. The mobility values represented the labial-lingual excursion of the root measured in μm when the tooth received a frontal and a palatal impact of 100 g force. In 18 cases of hard tissue healing (HT), a slightly increased mobility was seen...

  6. How to bond to root canal dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

  7. Transcriptional and functional targets of SCHIZORIZA in root development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liere, van Sabine

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis I focus on SCHIZORIZA, a gene involved in tissue specification and cell fate segregation in the Arabidopsis root. Chapter 1 describes asymmetric cell division, Arabidopdis embryo development and root meristem development. In more detail we describe the maintenance of quiescent centre

  8. Influence of Agrobacterium rhizogenes on induction of hairy roots for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artemisinin production from plant tissue cultures and induction of hairy roots in vitro have been considered to be a promising alternative, which offer a high degree of genetic stability, grow rapidly and produce the higher spectrum of secondary metabolites than wild type plants. Hairy root cultures developed from infection of ...

  9. Influence of Agrobacterium rhizogenes on induction of hairy roots for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harish Tomar

    2012-05-01

    May 1, 2012 ... Artemisinin production from plant tissue cultures and induction of hairy roots in vitro have been considered to be a promising alternative, which offer a high degree of genetic stability, grow rapidly and produce the higher spectrum of secondary metabolites than wild type plants. Hairy root cultures developed ...

  10. Plant development in space: Observations on root formation and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.; Kann, R. P.; Krikorian, Abraham D.

    1990-01-01

    Root growth in space is discussed and observations on root production from plants flown as part of the Chromex project that were defined as to their origin, stage of development and physiological status, are presented. Roots were generated from fully differentiated, aseptically maintained individuals of Haplopappus gracilis (Compositae) under spaceflight conditions. Results are compared for tissue culture generated plantlets and comparably sized seedling clone individuals, both of which had their roots trimmed on Earth before they were loaded into NASA's plant growth unit and subjected to a 5 day shuttle flight (STS-29). Asepsis was maintained throughout the experiment. Overall root production was 40 to 50 percent greater under spaceflight conditions than during ground control tests. However, root formation slowed down towards the end of the flight. This decrease in new roots did not occur in the ground controls that sought to simulate flight except for microgravity.

  11. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of tooth root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyuan; Parada, Carolina; Chai, Yang

    2017-02-01

    The tooth root is an integral, functionally important part of our dentition. The formation of a functional root depends on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and integration of the root with the jaw bone, blood supply and nerve innervations. The root development process therefore offers an attractive model for investigating organogenesis. Understanding how roots develop and how they can be bioengineered is also of great interest in the field of regenerative medicine. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying tooth root formation. We review the function of cellular structure and components such as Hertwig's epithelial root sheath, cranial neural crest cells and stem cells residing in developing and adult teeth. We also highlight how complex signaling networks together with multiple transcription factors mediate tissue-tissue interactions that guide root development. Finally, we discuss the possible role of stem cells in establishing the crown-to-root transition, and provide an overview of root malformations and diseases in humans. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Tooth Eruption without Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Root development and tooth eruption are very important topics in dentistry. However, they remain among the less-studied and -understood subjects. Root development accompanies rapid tooth eruption, but roots are required for the movement of teeth into the oral cavity. It has been shown that the dental follicle and bone remodeling are essential for tooth eruption. So far, only limited genes have been associated with root formation and tooth eruption. This may be due to the difficulties in studying late stages of tooth development and tooth movement and the lack of good model systems. Transgenic mice with eruption problems and short or no roots can be used as a powerful model for further deciphering of the cellular, molecular, and genetic mechanisms underlying root formation and tooth eruption. Better understanding of these processes can provide hints on delivering more efficient dental therapies in the future. PMID:23345536

  13. Root Branching Is a Leading Root Trait of the Plant Economics Spectrum in Temperate Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Rebecca; Alings, Katrin; Meier, Ina C

    2017-01-01

    Global vegetation models use conceived relationships between functional traits to simulate ecosystem responses to environmental change. In this context, the concept of the leaf economics spectrum (LES) suggests coordinated leaf trait variation, and separates species which invest resources into short-lived leaves with a high expected energy return rate from species with longer-lived leaves and slower energy return. While it has been assumed that being fast (acquisitive) or slow (conservative) is a general feature for all organ systems, the translation of the LES into a root economics spectrum (RES) for tree species has been hitherto inconclusive. This may be partly due to the assumption that the bulk of tree fine roots have similar uptake functions as leaves, despite the heterogeneity of their environments and resources. In this study we investigated well-established functional leaf and stature traits as well as a high number of fine root traits (14 traits split by different root orders) of 13 dominant or subdominant temperate tree species of Central Europe, representing two phylogenetic groups (gymnosperms and angiosperms) and two mycorrhizal associations (arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal). We found reflected variation in leaf and lower-order root traits in some (surface areas and C:N) but not all (N content and longevity) traits central to the LES. Accordingly, the LES was not mirrored belowground. We identified significant phylogenetic signal in morphological lower-order root traits, i.e., in root tissue density, root diameter, and specific root length. By contrast, root architecture (root branching) was influenced by the mycorrhizal association type which developed independent from phylogeny of the host tree. In structural equation models we show that root branching significantly influences both belowground (direct influence on root C:N) and aboveground (indirect influences on specific leaf area and leaf longevity) traits which relate to resource investment and

  14. Transcription factor WRKY46 modulates the development of Arabidopsis lateral roots in osmotic/salt stress conditions via regulation of ABA signaling and auxin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong Jie; Yan, Jing Ying; Li, Chun Xiao; Li, Gui Xin; Wu, Yun Rong; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2015-10-01

    The development of lateral roots (LR) is known to be severely inhibited by salt or osmotic stress. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying LR development in osmotic/salt stress conditions are poorly understood. Here we show that the gene encoding the WRKY transcription factor WRKY46 (WRKY46) is expressed throughout lateral root primordia (LRP) during early LR development and that expression is subsequently restricted to the stele of the mature LR. In osmotic/salt stress conditions, lack of WRKY46 (in loss-of-function wrky46 mutants) significantly reduces, while overexpression of WRKY46 enhances, LR development. We also show that exogenous auxin largely restores LR development in wrky46 mutants, and that the auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) inhibits LR development in both wild-type (WT; Col-0) and in a line overexpressing WRKY46 (OV46). Subsequent analysis of abscisic acid (ABA)-related mutants indicated that WRKY46 expression is down-regulated by ABA signaling, and up-regulated by an ABA-independent signal induced by osmotic/salt stress. Next, we show that expression of the DR5:GUS auxin response reporter is reduced in roots of wrky46 mutants, and that both wrky46 mutants and OV46 display altered root levels of free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and IAA conjugates. Subsequent RT-qPCR and ChIP-qPCR experiments indicated that WRKY46 directly regulates the expression of ABI4 and of genes regulating auxin conjugation. Finally, analysis of wrky46 abi4 double mutant plants confirms that ABI4 acts downstream of WRKY46. In summary, our results demonstrate that WRKY46 contributes to the feedforward inhibition of osmotic/salt stress-dependent LR inhibition via regulation of ABA signaling and auxin homeostasis. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Rooting plant development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.

    2013-01-01

    In 1993, we published a paper in Development detailing the anatomical structure of the Arabidopsis root. The paper described how root growth was maintained by the precisely tuned activity of a small set of 'initials', which acted as the source of dividing and differentiating cells, and how these

  16. Hairy root culture of Lactuca virosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stojakowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hairy root culture of Lactuca virosa L. (Asteraceae was initiated by infection of the leaf explants of the aseptic plants with Agrobacterium rhizogenes - strain LBA 9402. One of the obtained clones which showed the most favourable growth rate was used for further investigation. An influence of different nutrient media and sucrose concentrations on the biomass accumulation was studied. The most advantageous for the biomass increment were media: MS and MS containing macronutrients reduced to half concentration, supplemented with 5% sucrose. A preliminary chromatographic analysis of the tissue extract revealed the presence of sesquiterpene lactones characteristic of the roots of the intact plant.

  17. Getting to the root of plant biology: impact of the Arabidopsis genome sequence on root research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfey, Philip N; Bennett, Malcolm; Schiefelbein, John

    2010-03-01

    Prior to the availability of the genome sequence, the root of Arabidopsis had attracted a small but ardent group of researchers drawn to its accessibility and developmental simplicity. Roots are easily observed when grown on the surface of nutrient agar media, facilitating analysis of responses to stimuli such as gravity and touch. Developmental biologists were attracted to the simple radial organization of primary root tissues, which form a series of concentric cylinders around the central vascular tissue. Equally attractive was the mode of propagation, with stem cells at the tip giving rise to progeny that were confined to cell files. These properties of root development reduced the normal four-dimensional problem of development (three spatial dimensions and time) to a two-dimensional problem, with cell type on the radial axis and developmental time along the longitudinal axis. The availability of the complete Arabidopsis genome sequence has dramatically accelerated traditional genetic research on root biology, and has also enabled entirely new experimental strategies to be applied. Here we review examples of the ways in which availability of the Arabidopsis genome sequence has enhanced progress in understanding root biology.

  18. Chromatic roots and hamiltonian paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    We present a new connection between colorings and hamiltonian paths: If the chromatic polynomial of a graph has a noninteger root less than or equal to t(n) = 2/3 + 1/3 (3)root (26 + 6 root (33)) + 1/3 (3)root (26 - 6 root (33)) = 1.29559.... then the graph has no hamiltonian path. This result...

  19. Histopathological response of Lens culinaris roots towards root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Swarn; Abbasi; Hisamuddin

    2013-04-01

    Lens culinaris (lentil) is an important pulse crop. The yield of the crop is reduced if grown in root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infested field. Meloidogyne incognita caused infection in primary and the secondary roots leading to the anomalies in the affected part of the root. The study revealed that the second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita entered the growing roots and their branches inter and intracellularly. The immediate response was hypertrophy and hyperplasia in the root tissue near the nematode head. In response to hypertrophy some cells became very large and contained dense and granular cytoplasm. Adjacent to the giant cells, the vascular tissue was found to be disturbed. Shape, size and orientation of the vascular elements was so much altered that it had become difficult to trace the normal course of vascular strands. In various sections vascular strands were found disrupted. The vessel elements had the shapes resembling the shapes of parenchyma cells. Similarly sieve tube elements of the phloem, near the giant cells were shorter and resembled with nearby parenchyma cells. Abnormalities in xylem and phloem favored transport water, minerals and metabolites towards the giant cells. From this study, it might be inferred that alteration in the cells of galled tissue was essential for the sustenance of giant cells and for the survival of the nematode.

  20. Ameloblastin in Hertwig's epithelial root sheath regulates tooth root formation and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Naoto; Shimazu, Atsushi; Watanabe, Mineo; Tanimoto, Kotaro; Koyota, Souichi; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Uchida, Takashi; Tanne, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Tooth root formation begins after the completion of crown morphogenesis. At the end edge of the tooth crown, inner and outer enamel epithelia form Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS). HERS extends along with dental follicular tissue for root formation. Ameloblastin (AMBN) is an enamel matrix protein secreted by ameloblasts and HERS derived cells. A number of enamel proteins are eliminated in root formation, except for AMBN. AMBN may be related to tooth root formation; however, its role in this process remains unclear. In this study, we found AMBN in the basal portion of HERS of lower first molar in mice, but not at the tip. We designed and synthesized small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting AMBN based on the mouse sequence. When AMBN siRNA was injected into a prospective mandibular first molar of postnatal day 10 mice, the root became shorter 10 days later. Furthermore, HERS in these mice revealed a multilayered appearance and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) positive cells increased in the outer layers. In vitro experiments, when cells were compared with and without transiently expressing AMBN mRNA, expression of growth suppressor genes such as p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) was enhanced without AMBN and BrdU incorporation increased. Thus, AMBN may regulate differentiation state of HERS derived cells. Moreover, our results suggest that the expression of AMBN in HERS functions as a trigger for normal root formation.

  1. Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous root extract plays an important role in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    into two stages, primary and secondary injury, involving (1) compression of spinal cord tissues .... spinal cord tissues were examined under a microscope following H&E staining. S. miltiorrhiza root extract increases the expression of PDGF- ... Higher Education of China (no. 2010201121049). Conflict of Interest. No conflict of ...

  2. Comparative assessment of the polypeptide profiles from lateral and primary roots of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, J.; Odom, W. R.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    In Phaseolus vulgaris, primary roots show gravitational sensitivity soon after emerging from the seed. In contrast, lateral roots are agravitropic during early development, and become gravitropic after several cm growth. Primary and lateral root tissues were examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, coupled with western blotting techniques, to compare proteins which may contribute to the acquisition of gravitational sensitivity. Root tips and zones of cell elongation were compared for each root type, using immunological probes for calmodulin, alpha-actin, alpha-tubulin, and proteins of the plastid envelope. Lateral roots contained qualitatively less calmodulin, and showed a slightly different pattern of actin-related epitope proteins, than did primary root tissues, suggesting that polypeptide differences may contribute to the gravitational sensitivity which these root types express.

  3. ROOT User Workshop 2013

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Since almost two decades, ROOT has established itself as the framework for HENP data processing and analysis. The LHC upgrade program and the new experiments being designed at CERN and elsewhere will pose even more formidable challenges in terms of data complexity and size. The new parallel and heterogeneous computing architectures that are either announced or already available will call for a deep rethinking of the code and the data structures to be exploited efficiently. This workshop, following from a successful series of such events, will allow you to learn in detail about the new ROOT 6 and will help shape the future evolution of ROOT.

  4. Nematicidal and allelopathic responses of Lantana camara root extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Shaukat

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of root leachates of Lantana camara L., a tropical weed, against Meloidogyne javanica, the root-knot nematode, was tested under laboratory and pot conditions. Concentrated and diluted root leachate caused substantial mortality of M. javanica juveniles. Significant suppression of the nematode was achieved when soil was treated with a full-strength concentration of the leachate. Whilst this high concentration retarded plant height and shoot fresh weight, more diluted concentrations actually enhanced plant growth. To establish whether this inhibition of plant growth from the leachate was the result of depleted nitrogen levels in the soil due to the leachate, soil treated with such leachates was given urea as an additional nitrogen source. Urea not only enhanced nematode suppression activity of the root leachates but also increased seedling emergence and growth of mungbean. Application of the L. camara root leachates in combination with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, significantly reduced nematode population densities in roots and subsequent root-knot infection, and enhanced plant growth. While a high concentration of root leachate slightly reduced P. aeruginosa colonization in the rhizosphere and inner root tissues, the nematicidal efficacy of the bacterium was unaffected. The root leachate of L. camara was found to contain phenolic compounds, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and a quercetin glycoside, 7-glucoside. It also contained weak enzymic hydrogen cyanide.

  5. Influence of biochar and nitrogen on fine root morphology, physiology, and chemistry of Acer mono.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaq, Muhammad; Salahuddin; Shen, Hai-Long; Sher, Hassan; Zhang, Peng

    2017-07-14

    Fine roots play an important role in the overall functions of individual plants. Previous studies showed that fertilization and available soil resources have a notably profound effect on fine root, but there is lack of study centered on how fine root morphology, physiology, and chemistry respond to biochar with N additions. Different levels of biochar (0, 10, 15, and 20 g) and N (0, 2, 4 and 6 g) were applied to Acer mono seedling plants in a field nursery. The root system morphology and root chemistry and physiology were evaluated in line with root length, root diameter, SRL, N and N: C and root respiration. Biochar and N significantly affected root morphology, chemistry and root respiration. Morphological, chemical and physiological parameters were found to be at their maximum with 20 g biochar and 6 g N; however, no significant effect was noted on fourth- and fifth-order roots. Furthermore, a significant increase in root respiration was recognized with the increase in root tissue N concentration and the negative relationship of root respiration with higher branch order. Thus, overall, study parameters indicate that biochar and nitrogen positively influence the Acer mono fine root, and therefore should be used to improve fine root health.

  6. Genetic association among root morphology, root quality and root yield in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ramesh R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera is a dryland medicinal crop and roots are used as valuable drug in traditional systems of medicine. Morphological variants (morphotypes and the parental populations were evaluated for root - morphometric, quality and yield traits to study genetic association among them. Root morphometric traits (root length, root diameter, number of secondary roots/ plant and crude fiber content exhibited strong association among them and showed significant positive genotypic correlation with yield. Starch-fiber ratio (SFR, determinant of brittle root texture showed strong negative association with root yield. The total alkaloid content had positive genotypic correlation with root yield. So genetic upgradation should aim at optimum balance between two divergent groups of traits i.e. root yield traits (root morphometric traits and crude fiber content and root textural quality traits (starch content and SFR to develop superior genotypes with better yield and quality.

  7. Imaging and characterizing root systems using electrical impedance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemna, A.; Weigand, M.; Kelter, M.; Pfeifer, J.; Zimmermann, E.; Walter, A.

    2011-12-01

    Root architecture, growth, and activity play an essential role regarding the nutrient uptake of roots in soils. While in recent years advances could be achieved concerning the modeling of root systems, measurement methods capable of imaging, characterizing, and monitoring root structure and dynamics in a non-destructive manner are still lacking, in particular at the field scale. We here propose electrical impedance tomography (EIT) for the imaging of root systems. The approach takes advantage of the low-frequency capacitive electrical properties of the soil-root interface and the root tissue. These properties are based on the induced migration of ions in an externally applied electric field and give rise to characteristic impedance spectra which can be measured by means of electrical impedance spectroscopy. The latter technique was already successfully applied in the 10 Hz to 1 MHz range by Ozier-Lafontaine and Bajazet (2005) to monitor root growth of tomato. We here apply the method in the 1 mHz to 45 kHz range, requiring four-electrode measurements, and demonstrate its implementation and potential in an imaging framework. Images of real and imaginary components of complex electrical conductivity are computed using a finite-element based inversion algorithm with smoothness-constraint regularization. Results from laboratory measurements on rhizotrons with different root systems (barley, rape) show that images of imaginary conductivity delineate the spatial extent of the root system under investigation, while images of real conductivity show a less clear response. As confirmed by numerical simulations, the latter could be explained by the partly compensating electrical conduction properties of epidermis (resistive) and inner root cells (conductive), indicating the limitations of conventional electrical resistivity tomography. The captured spectral behavior exhibits two distinct relaxation processes with Cole-Cole type signatures, which we interpret as the responses

  8. ROOT ANATOMICAL PLASTICITY IN RESPONSE TO SALT STRESS UNDER REAL AND FULL-SEASON FIELD CONDITIONS AND DETERMINATION OF NEW ANATOMIC SELECTION CHARACTERS FOR BREEDING SALT-RESISTANT RICE (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYBEKE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Specific understanding of root anatomy plasticity under salt stress is lacking and requires creation of efficient screening techniques for stress condition s. To fill this gap, this study aimed to determine the anatomical plasticity in root chracteristics of 31 different rice cultivars (from ‘Best’ to ‘Low’ yielding grown under real field conditions (saline and non-saline from planting to harvesting and to reveal detailed root anatomical parameters that can be used to select and breed salt-tolerant rice. Anatomical and histochemical features of all cultivars and thin structures of the apoplastic barriers were investigated. The amount of silica (Si, 35 different anatomical characteristics, anatomical plasticity characteristics, plasticity rates, plasticity trends and changes and strategies of each group under saline and non-saline conditions were compared. The results showed that protective anatomical characters improved/remained equal to, and worsened/remained equal to those of the controls, in the ‘Best’ and other groups, respectively, from non-saline to saline conditions. Anatomical plasticity is essentially directly related to apoplastic barrier features. High genotypic variation was observed in root anatomy in all cultivars, but foremost traits were as follows: (1 cell size, (2 Si presence, (3 Si accumulation shape, (4 Si distribution towards root stele, (5 xylem arch features, (6 lignification-suberization properties in apoplastic barriers and their degrees, (7 presence/absence of idioblast cells filled with gummic and phenolic substances and (8 moderate anatomical plasticity. Cultivars with the most stabile anatomy under saline and non-saline conditions should be used to select and breed salt-resistant rice.

  9. Gravisensitivity of cress roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Dieter; Tewinkel, Martin

    The minimum dose (stimulus x time [gs]) eliciting a visible gravitropic response, has been determined using continuous and intermittent stimulation and two different accelerations at 1g and 0.1g. The minimum dose of 20 - 30 gs estimated for microgravity roots and of 50 - 60 gs for roots grown on a 1g-centrifuge indicated a higher sensitivity of microgravity roots. Applying intermittent stimuli to microgravity-grown roots, gravitropic responses were observed after two stimuli of 13.5 gs separated by a stimulus free interval of 118 s. The curvature of microgravity-grown roots to lateral stimulation by 0.1 g was remarkably smaller than by 1g in spite of the same doses which were applied to the seedlings. Microscopic investigations corresponding to stimulations in the range of the threshold values, demonstrated small displacement (< 2 μm) of statoliths in root statocytes. Accepting the statolith theory, one can conclude that stimulus transformation has to occur in the cytoplasm in close vicinity to the statoliths and that this transformation system was affected during seedling cultivation in microgravity.

  10. Microanatomy of the brachial plexus roots and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Li-Yuan; Wang, Ai-Ping; Hong, Li; Chen, Sheng-Hua; Wang, Xian-Qin; Lv, Yun-Cheng; Peng, Tian-Hong

    2017-06-01

    To provide the anatomical basis of brachial plexus roots for the diagnosis and treatment of brachial plexus root avulsion injury. The morphological features of brachial plexus roots were observed and measured on 15 cervicothoracic spine of adult cadavers. The relationship of brachial plexus nerve roots and the surrounding tissues also were observed, as well as the blood supply of anterior and posterior roots of the brachial plexus. Origination of the nerve roots in the dorsal-ventral direction from the midline was fine-tuned at each level along the spinal cord. The minimum distance of the origin of the nerve root to midline was 2.2 mm at C 5, while the maximum was 3.1 mm at T 1. Inversely, the distance between the origin of the posterior root and the midline of the spinal cord gradually decreased, the maximum being 4.2 mm at C 5 and minimum 2.7 mm at T 1. Meanwhile, there was complicated fibrous connection among posterior roots of the brachial plexus. The C 5-6 nerve roots interlaced with tendons of the scalenus anterior and scalenus medius and fused with the transverse-radicular ligaments in the intervertebral foramina. However, these ligaments were not seen in C 7-8, and T 1. The blood supply of the anterior and posterior roots of the brachial plexus was from the segmental branches of the vertebral artery, deep cervical artery and ascending cervical artery, with a mean outer diameter of 0.61 mm. The systematic and comprehensive anatomic data of the brachial plexus roots provides the anatomical basis to diagnose and treat the brachial plexus root avulsion injury.

  11. Stretching of roots contributes to the pathophysiology of radiculopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Laredo, Jean-Denis; Darrieutort-Laffite, Christelle; Maugars, Yves

    2017-01-20

    To perform a synthesis of articles addressing the role of stretching on roots in the pathophysiology of radiculopathy. Review of relevant articles on this topic available in the PubMed database. An intraoperative microscopy study of patients with sciatica showed that in all patients the hernia was adherent to the dura mater of nerve roots. During the SLR (Lasègue's) test, the limitation of nerve root movement occurs by periradicular adhesive tissue, and temporary ischemic changes in the nerve root induced by the root stretching cause transient conduction disturbances. Spinal roots are more frail than peripheral nerves, and other mechanical stresses than root compression can also induce radiculopathy, especially if they also impair intraradicular blood flow, or the function of the arachnoid villi intimately related to radicular veins. For instance arachnoiditis, the lack of peridural fat around the thecal sac, and epidural fibrosis following surgery, can all promote sciatica, especially in patients whose sciatic trunks also stick to piriformis or internus obturator muscles. Indeed, stretching of roots is greatly increased by adherence at two levels. As excessive traction of nerve roots is not shown by imaging, many physicians have unlearned to think in terms of microscopic and physiologic changes, although nerve root compression in the lumbar MRI is lacking in more than 10% of patients with sciatica. It should be reminded that, while compression of a spinal nerve root implies stretching of this root, the reverse is not true: stretching of some roots can occur without any visible compression. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Root architecture impacts on root decomposition rates in switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, M.; Schadt, C.; Garten, C. T.; Jastrow, J. D.; Phillips, J.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    Roots strongly contribute to soil organic carbon accrual, but the rate of soil carbon input via root litter decomposition is still uncertain. Root systems are built up of roots with a variety of different diameter size classes, ranging from very fine to very coarse roots. Since fine roots have low C:N ratios and coarse roots have high C:N ratios, root systems are heterogeneous in quality, spanning a range of different C:N ratios. Litter decomposition rates are generally well predicted by litter C:N ratios, thus decomposition of roots may be controlled by the relative abundance of fine versus coarse roots. With this study we asked how root architecture (i.e. the relative abundance of fine versus coarse roots) affects the decomposition of roots systems in the biofuels crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). To understand how root architecture affects root decomposition rates, we collected roots from eight switchgrass cultivars (Alamo, Kanlow, Carthage, Cave-in-Rock, Forestburg, Southlow, Sunburst, Blackwell), grown at FermiLab (IL), by taking 4.8-cm diameter soil cores from on top of the crown and directly next to the crown of individual plants. Roots were carefully excised from the cores by washing and analyzed for root diameter size class distribution using WinRhizo. Subsequently, root systems of each of the plants (4 replicates per cultivar) were separated in 'fine' (0-0.5 mm), 'medium' (0.5-1 mm) and 'coarse' roots (1-2.5 mm), dried, cut into 0.5 cm (medium and coarse roots) and 2 mm pieces (fine roots), and incubated for 90 days. For each of the cultivars we established five root-treatments: 20g of soil was amended with 0.2g of (1) fine roots, (2) medium roots, (3) coarse roots, (4) a 1:1:1 mixture of fine, medium and coarse roots, and (5) a mixture combining fine, medium and coarse roots in realistic proportions. We measured CO2 respiration at days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 during the experiment. The 13C signature of the soil was -26‰, and the 13C signature

  13. Root architecture simulation improves the inference from seedling root phenotyping towards mature root systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiangsan; Rewald, Boris; Leitner, Daniel; Nagel, Kerstin A.; Nakhforoosh, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Root phenotyping provides trait information for plant breeding. A shortcoming of high-throughput root phenotyping is the limitation to seedling plants and failure to make inferences on mature root systems. We suggest root system architecture (RSA) models to predict mature root traits and overcome the inference problem. Sixteen pea genotypes were phenotyped in (i) seedling (Petri dishes) and (ii) mature (sand-filled columns) root phenotyping platforms. The RSA model RootBox was parameterized with seedling traits to simulate the fully developed root systems. Measured and modelled root length, first-order lateral number, and root distribution were compared to determine key traits for model-based prediction. No direct relationship in root traits (tap, lateral length, interbranch distance) was evident between phenotyping systems. RootBox significantly improved the inference over phenotyping platforms. Seedling plant tap and lateral root elongation rates and interbranch distance were sufficient model parameters to predict genotype ranking in total root length with an RSpearman of 0.83. Parameterization including uneven lateral spacing via a scaling function substantially improved the prediction of architectures underlying the differently sized root systems. We conclude that RSA models can solve the inference problem of seedling root phenotyping. RSA models should be included in the phenotyping pipeline to provide reliable information on mature root systems to breeding research. PMID:28168270

  14. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  15. Adaptive root foraging strategies along a boreal-temperate forest gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostonen, Ivika; Truu, Marika; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Lukac, Martin; Borken, Werner; Vanguelova, Elena; Godbold, Douglas L; Lõhmus, Krista; Zang, Ulrich; Tedersoo, Leho; Preem, Jens-Konrad; Rosenvald, Katrin; Aosaar, Jürgen; Armolaitis, Kęstutis; Frey, Jane; Kabral, Naima; Kukumägi, Mai; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Merilä, Päivi; Napa, Ülle; Nöjd, Pekka; Parts, Kaarin; Uri, Veiko; Varik, Mats; Truu, Jaak

    2017-08-01

    The tree root-mycorhizosphere plays a key role in resource uptake, but also in the adaptation of forests to changing environments. The adaptive foraging mechanisms of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) and fine roots of Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula were evaluated along a gradient from temperate to subarctic boreal forest (38 sites between latitudes 48°N and 69°N) in Europe. Variables describing tree resource uptake structures and processes (absorptive fine root biomass and morphology, nitrogen (N) concentration in absorptive roots, extramatrical mycelium (EMM) biomass, community structure of root-associated EcM fungi, soil and rhizosphere bacteria) were used to analyse relationships between root system functional traits and climate, soil and stand characteristics. Absorptive fine root biomass per stand basal area increased significantly from temperate to boreal forests, coinciding with longer and thinner root tips with higher tissue density, smaller EMM biomass per root length and a shift in soil microbial community structure. The soil carbon (C) : N ratio was found to explain most of the variability in absorptive fine root and EMM biomass, root tissue density, N concentration and rhizosphere bacterial community structure. We suggest a concept of absorptive fine root foraging strategies involving both qualitative and quantitative changes in the root-mycorrhiza-bacteria continuum along climate and soil C : N gradients. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Fast-cycling unit of root turnover in perennial herbaceous plants in a cold temperate ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Luke McCormack, M.; Li, Le; Ma, Zeqing; Guo, Dali

    2016-01-01

    Roots of perennial plants have both persistent portion and fast-cycling units represented by different levels of branching. In woody species, the distal nonwoody branch orders as a unit are born and die together relatively rapidly (within 1-2 years). However, whether the fast-cycling units also exist in perennial herbs is unknown. We monitored root demography of seven perennial herbs over two years in a cold temperate ecosystem and we classified the largest roots on the root collar or rhizome as basal roots, and associated finer laterals as secondary, tertiary and quaternary roots. Parallel to woody plants in which distal root orders form a fast-cycling module, basal root and its finer laterals also represent a fast-cycling module in herbaceous plants. Within this module, basal roots had a lifespan of 0.5-2 years and represented 62-87% of total root biomass, thus dominating annual root turnover (60%-81% of the total). Moreover, root traits including root length, tissue density, and biomass were useful predictors of root lifespan. We conclude that both herbaceous and woody plants have fast-cycling modular units and future studies identifying the fast-cycling module across plant species should allow better understanding of how root construction and turnover are linked to whole-plant strategies.

  17. Fast-cycling unit of root turnover in perennial herbaceous plants in a cold temperate ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; McCormack, M Luke; Li, Le; Ma, Zeqing; Guo, Dali

    2016-01-21

    Roots of perennial plants have both persistent portion and fast-cycling units represented by different levels of branching. In woody species, the distal nonwoody branch orders as a unit are born and die together relatively rapidly (within 1-2 years). However, whether the fast-cycling units also exist in perennial herbs is unknown. We monitored root demography of seven perennial herbs over two years in a cold temperate ecosystem and we classified the largest roots on the root collar or rhizome as basal roots, and associated finer laterals as secondary, tertiary and quaternary roots. Parallel to woody plants in which distal root orders form a fast-cycling module, basal root and its finer laterals also represent a fast-cycling module in herbaceous plants. Within this module, basal roots had a lifespan of 0.5-2 years and represented 62-87% of total root biomass, thus dominating annual root turnover (60%-81% of the total). Moreover, root traits including root length, tissue density, and biomass were useful predictors of root lifespan. We conclude that both herbaceous and woody plants have fast-cycling modular units and future studies identifying the fast-cycling module across plant species should allow better understanding of how root construction and turnover are linked to whole-plant strategies.

  18. Spatial-specific regulation of root development by phytochromes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnasooriya, Sankalpi N; Montgomery, Beronda L

    2011-12-01

    Distinct tissues and organs of plants exhibit dissimilar responses to light exposure--cotyledon growth is promoted by light, whereas hypocotyl growth is inhibited by light. Light can have different impacts on root development, including impacting root elongation, morphology, lateral root proliferation and root tropisms. In many cases, light inhibits root elongation. There has been much attention given to whether roots themselves are the sites of photoperception for light that impacts light-dependent growth and development of roots. A number of approaches including photoreceptor localization in planta, localized irradiation and exposure of dissected roots to light have been used to explore the site(s) of light perception for the photoregulation of root development. Such approaches have led to the observation that photoreceptors are localized to roots in many plant species, and that roots are capable of light absorption that can alter morphology and/or gene expression. Our recent results show that localized depletion of phytochrome photoreceptors in Arabidopsis thaliana disrupts root development and root responsiveness to the plant hormone jasmonic acid. Thus, root-localized light perception appears central to organ-specific, photoregulation of growth and development in roots. © 2011 Landes Bioscience

  19. Histological analysis of the periapical tissues of dog deciduous teeth after root canal filling with diferent materials Análise histológica dos tecidos periapicais de dentes decíduos de cães após obturação de canais com diferentes materiais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Satomi Murata

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of finding an ideal material for filling root canals of deciduous teeth has not been solved yet. This fact led to the development of an experiment to histologically analyze the periapical tissue reaction to 3 root canal filling materials. Eighty root canals of dog deciduous anterior teeth from 6 animals, 60 days old, were used in this study. After biomechanical preparation, the root canals were filled with the following materials: slowly resorbable Maisto paste, Sealer 26 with iodoform, L&C paste (calcium hydroxide with olive oil and as a control group, canals that were prepared but not filled. At thirty days after the treatment the animals were killed and the teeth prepared for histological analysis. The materials were ranked statistically from the best to the worst as follows: a - Maisto paste, b - Sealer 26 with iodoform, c - control group, d - L&C paste. There was significant difference (p = 0.01 only when the results of the other groups were compared with the L&C paste group. It was also observed that L&C paste was not biologically compatible and that the other materials were biocompatible but their resorption was not at the same rate as that of the deciduous teeth roots.O objetivo de encontrar um material ideal para obturar canais radiculares de dentes decíduos ainda não foi alcançado. Esse fato estimulou a realização de uma experimentação para analisar histologicamente a reação dos tecidos periapicais a 3 materiais obturadores de canal. Assim, oitenta canais radiculares de dentes decíduos anteriores de 6 cães, com 60 dias de idade, fora empregados neste estudo. Após o preparo biomecânico, os canais radiculares foram obturados com os seguintes materiais: pasta lentamente reabsorvível de Maisto, Sealer 26 com iodofórmio, pasta L&C (hidróxido de cálcio com óleo de oliva e, como grupo controle, dentes cujos canais foram preparados biomecanicamente mas não obturados. Trinta dias após o tratamento os animais

  20. Tissue tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    Tissue tests are widely used in horticulture practice and have in comparison with soil or substrate testing advantages as well disadvantages in comparison with soil testing. One of the main advantages of tissue tests is the certainty that analysed nutrients in plant tissues are really present in the

  1. Trade-off between root porosity and mechanical strength in species with different types of aerenchyma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, G G; Insausti, P; Grimoldi, A A; Vega, A S

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this work was to study the existence of a trade-off between aerenchyma formation and root mechanical strength. To this end, relationships among root anatomical traits and mechanical properties were analysed in plant species with contrasting root structural types: Paspalidium geminatum (graminaceous type), Cyperus eragrostis (cyperaceous type), Rumex crispus (Rumex type) and Plantago lanceolata (Apium type). Variations in anatomical traits and mechanical strength were assessed as a function of root diameter by exposing plants to 0, 7, 15 and 30 d of control and flooded conditions. For each species, the proportion of root cortex was positively associated with the increment of root diameter, contributing to the increase in root porosity under both control and flooded conditions. Moreover, cell lysis produced an additional increase in root porosity in most species under flooded conditions (except R. crispus). Both structural types that presented a uniseriate layer (epidermis) to cope with compression (Rumex and Apium types) were progressively weakened as root porosity increased. This effect was significant even when the increment of root porosity was solely because of increased root diameter (R. crispus), as when both processes (root diameter and cell lysis) added porosity to the roots (P. lanceolata). Conversely, structural types that presented a multiseriate ring of cells in the outer cortex (graminaceous and cyperaceous types) maintained mechanical strength over the whole range of porosity, in spite of lysogenic processes registered in the inner cortex. In conclusion, our study demonstrates a strong trade-off between aerenchyma formation and mechanical strength in root structural types that lacked a multiseriate ring of tissue for mechanical protection in the outer cortex. The results suggest that this ring of tissue plays a significant role in maintaining the mechanical strength of roots when flooding induces the generation of additional aerenchyma

  2. Geoperception in primary and lateral roots of Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae). III. A model to explain the differential georesponsiveness of primary and lateral roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, J. S.; Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    Half-tipped primary and lateral roots of Phaseolus vulgaris bend toward the side of the root on which the intact half tip remains. Therefore, tips of lateral and primary roots produce growth effectors capable of inducing gravicurvature. The asymmetrical placement of a tip of a lateral root onto a detipped primary root results in the root bending toward the side of the root onto which the tip was placed. That is, the lesser graviresponsiveness of lateral roots as compared with primary roots is not due to the inability of their caps to produce growth inhibitors. The more pronounced graviresponsiveness of primary roots is positively correlated with the presence of columella tissues that are 3.8 times longer, 1.7 times wider, and 10.5 times more voluminous than the columellas of lateral roots. We propose that the lack of graviresponsiveness exhibited by lateral roots is due to the fact that they (i) produce smaller amounts of the inhibitor than primary (i.e., strongly graviresponsive) roots and (ii) are unable to redistribute the inhibitor so as to be able to create a concentration gradient sufficient to induce a pronounced gravitropic response.

  3. Shoot-supplied ammonium targets the root auxin influx carrier AUX1 and inhibits lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baohai

    2011-03-24

    Deposition of ammonium (NH4 +) from the atmosphere is a substantial environmental problem. While toxicity resulting from root exposure to NH4 + is well studied, little is known about how shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) affects root growth. In this study, we show that SSA significantly affects lateral root (LR) development. We show that SSA inhibits lateral root primordium (LRP) emergence, but not LRP initiation, resulting in significantly impaired LR number. We show that the inhibition is independent of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and sucrose uptake in shoots but relates to the auxin response in roots. Expression analyses of an auxin-responsive reporter, DR5:GUS, and direct assays of auxin transport demonstrated that SSA inhibits root acropetal (rootward) auxin transport while not affecting basipetal (shootward) transport or auxin sensitivity of root cells. Mutant analyses indicated that the auxin influx carrier AUX1, but not the auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN)1 or PIN2, is required for this inhibition of LRP emergence and the observed auxin response. We found that AUX1 expression was modulated by SSA in vascular tissues rather than LR cap cells in roots. Taken together, our results suggest that SSA inhibits LRP emergence in Arabidopsis by interfering with AUX1-dependent auxin transport from shoot to root. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Drawing rooted phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huson, Daniel H

    2009-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a collection of species is usually represented by a phylogenetic tree. Sometimes, phylogenetic networks are used as a means of representing reticulate evolution or of showing uncertainty and incompatibilities in evolutionary datasets. This is often done using unrooted phylogenetic networks such as split networks, due in part, to the availability of software (SplitsTree) for their computation and visualization. In this paper we discuss the problem of drawing rooted phylogenetic networks as cladograms or phylograms in a number of different views that are commonly used for rooted trees. Implementations of the algorithms are available in new releases of the Dendroscope and SplitsTree programs.

  5. Nanodiamond-Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Kim, Sue Vin; Limansubroto, Adelheid Nerisa; Yen, Albert; Soundia, Akrivoula; Wang, Cun-Yu; Shi, Wenyuan; Hong, Christine; Tetradis, Sotirios; Kim, Yong; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K; Ho, Dean

    2015-11-24

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable, inert, and biocompatible. While filling the root canal space with GP is the standard of care for endodontic therapies, it has exhibited limitations including leakage, root canal reinfection, and poor mechanical properties. To address these challenges, clinicians have explored the use of alternative root filling materials other than GP. Among the classes of materials that are being explored as novel endodontic therapy platforms, nanodiamonds (NDs) may offer unique advantages due to their favorable properties, particularly for dental applications. These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others. This study developed a ND-embedded GP (NDGP) that was functionalized with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used for endodontic infection. Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP. In addition, digital radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated that obturation of root canals with NDGP could be achieved using clinically relevant techniques. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin. This study demonstrates a promising path toward NDGP implementation in future endodontic therapy for improved treatment outcomes.

  6. Auxin regulates aquaporin function to facilitate lateral root emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péret, Benjamin; Li, Guowei; Zhao, Jin; Band, Leah R; Voß, Ute; Postaire, Olivier; Luu, Doan-Trung; Da Ines, Olivier; Casimiro, Ilda; Lucas, Mikaël; Wells, Darren M; Lazzerini, Laure; Nacry, Philippe; King, John R; Jensen, Oliver E; Schäffner, Anton R; Maurel, Christophe; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2012-10-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels that facilitate water movement across cell membranes. In plants, aquaporins contribute to water relations. Here, we establish a new link between aquaporin-dependent tissue hydraulics and auxin-regulated root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. We report that most aquaporin genes are repressed during lateral root formation and by exogenous auxin treatment. Auxin reduces root hydraulic conductivity both at the cell and whole-organ levels. The highly expressed aquaporin PIP2;1 is progressively excluded from the site of the auxin response maximum in lateral root primordia (LRP) whilst being maintained at their base and underlying vascular tissues. Modelling predicts that the positive and negative perturbations of PIP2;1 expression alter water flow into LRP, thereby slowing lateral root emergence (LRE). Consistent with this mechanism, pip2;1 mutants and PIP2;1-overexpressing lines exhibit delayed LRE. We conclude that auxin promotes LRE by regulating the spatial and temporal distribution of aquaporin-dependent root tissue water transport.

  7. A simple method suitable to study de novo root organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong eChen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available De novo root organogenesis is the process in which adventitious roots regenerate from detached or wounded plant tissues or organs. In tissue culture, appropriate types and concentrations of plant hormones in the medium are critical for inducing adventitious roots. However, in natural conditions, regeneration from detached organs is likely to rely on endogenous hormones. To investigate the actions of endogenous hormones and the molecular mechanisms guiding de novo root organogenesis, we developed a simple method to imitate natural conditions for adventitious root formation by culturing Arabidopsis thaliana leaf explants on B5 medium without additive hormones. Here we show that the ability of the leaf explants to regenerate roots depends on the age of the leaf and on certain nutrients in the medium. Based on these observations, we provide examples of how this method can be used in different situations, and how it can be optimized. This simple method could be used to investigate the effects of various physiological and molecular changes on the regeneration of adventitious roots. It is also useful for tracing cell lineage during the regeneration process by differential interference contrast observation of -glucuronidase staining, and by live imaging of proteins labeled with fluorescent tags.

  8. Complexity and specificity of the maize (Zea mays L.) root hair transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Stefan; Baldauf, Jutta; Opitz, Nina; Lithio, Andrew; Pasha, Asher; Provart, Nicholas; Nettleton, Dan; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Root hairs are tubular extensions of epidermis cells. Transcriptome profiling demonstrated that the single cell-type root hair transcriptome was less complex than the transcriptome of multiple cell-type primary roots without root hairs. In total, 831 genes were exclusively and 5585 genes were preferentially expressed in root hairs [false discovery rate (FDR) ≤1%]. Among those, the most significantly enriched Gene Ontology (GO) functional terms were related to energy metabolism, highlighting the high energy demand for the development and function of root hairs. Subsequently, the maize homologs for 138 Arabidopsis genes known to be involved in root hair development were identified and their phylogenetic relationship and expression in root hairs were determined. This study indicated that the genetic regulation of root hair development in Arabidopsis and maize is controlled by common genes, but also shows differences which need to be dissected in future genetic experiments. Finally, a maize root view of the eFP browser was implemented including the root hair transcriptome of the present study and several previously published maize root transcriptome data sets. The eFP browser provides color-coded expression levels for these root types and tissues for any gene of interest, thus providing a novel resource to study gene expression and function in maize roots. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Fine-root mortality rates in a temperate forest: Estimates using radiocarbon data and numerical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, W.J.; Gaudinski, J.B.; Torn, M.S.; Joslin, J.D.; Hanson, P.J.

    2009-09-01

    We used an inadvertent whole-ecosystem {sup 14}C label at a temperate forest in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA to develop a model (Radix1.0) of fine-root dynamics. Radix simulates two live-root pools, two dead-root pools, non-normally distributed root mortality turnover times, a stored carbon (C) pool, and seasonal growth and respiration patterns. We applied Radix to analyze measurements from two root size classes (< 0.5 and 0.5-2.0 mm diameter) and three soil-depth increments (O horizon, 0-15 cm and 30-60 cm). Predicted live-root turnover times were < 1 yr and 10 yr for short- and long-lived pools, respectively. Dead-root pools had decomposition turnover times of 2 yr and 10 yr. Realistic characterization of C flows through fine roots requires a model with two live fine-root populations, two dead fine-root pools, and root respiration. These are the first fine-root turnover time estimates that take into account respiration, storage, seasonal growth patterns, and non-normal turnover time distributions. The presence of a root population with decadal turnover times implies a lower amount of belowground net primary production used to grow fine-root tissue than is currently predicted by models with a single annual turnover pool.

  10. Stachbotrys Root Rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachybotrys root rot is caused by Stachybotrys chartarum, a cellulytic saprophytic hyphomycete fungus. The pathogen produces mycotoxins including a host of immunosupressant compounds for human and is one of the causes of the "sick building syndrome." Although S. chartarum is rarely known as a plan...

  11. computer-aided root aided root aided root aided root-locus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    simplified and coded into computer. -loci obtained with this technique are found to confor loci obtained with this technique are found to confor loci are drawn to scale instead of rough sketches. m, stability, transient response, root-locus, iteration he means by which any a machine, mechanism or d or altered in accordance.

  12. Metagenomics at Grass Roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 3. Metagenomics at Grass Roots. Sudeshna ... benefit human health, agriculture, and ecosystemfunctions. This article provides a brief history of technicaladvances in metagenomics, including DNA sequencing methods,and some case studies.

  13. computer-aided root aided root aided root aided root-locus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    AIDED ROOT-LOCUS NUMERICAL TECHNIQUE. LOCUS NUMERICAL TECHNIQUE. A. R. Zubair1,* , A. ... -loci obtained with this technique are found to confor loci obtained with this technique are found to confor loci are .... approaches which use complex analytic or semi- analytic representation that involve the use of.

  14. Receptor-mediated chitin perception in legume roots is functionally separable from Nod factor perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozsoki, Zoltan; Cheng, Jeryl; Feng, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The ability of root cells to distinguish mutualistic microbes from pathogens is crucial for plants that allow symbiotic microorganisms to infect and colonize their internal root tissues. Here we show that Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula possess very similar LysM pattern-recognition recept......The ability of root cells to distinguish mutualistic microbes from pathogens is crucial for plants that allow symbiotic microorganisms to infect and colonize their internal root tissues. Here we show that Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula possess very similar LysM pattern...

  15. Expression and localization of polygalacturonase during the outgrowth of lateral roots in Allium porrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretto, R; Favaron, F; Bettini, V; De Lorenzo, G; Marini, S; Alghisi, P; Cervone, F; Bonfante, P

    1992-09-01

    The presence of polygalacturonase and its correlation with the formation of lateral roots in leek (Allium porrum L.) seedlings have been investigated. During root growth, a steady increase in polygalacturonase activity was associated with that of the lateral root primordia. Fractionation of root extract by fast protein liquid chromatography resolved at least two polygalacturonase isoforms. One of the isoforms, a 75-kdalton protein, strongly reacted on Western blots probed with a polyclonal antibody raised against tomato polygalacturonase. It also reacted with both polyclonal and monoclonal antisera raised against Fusarium moniliforme polygalacturonase. In situ localization with these three antibodies showed that polygalacturonase was present over the meristems of lateral root primordia. Antibodies against pectins (Knox et al. 1990, Planta 181, 512-521) detected large amounts of pectic material filling the area between the apex of the primordium and the mother root tissues. We suggest that a polygalacturonase plays an important role in leek root morphogenesis, particularly during lateral root outgrowth.

  16. Pharmacognostical Standardization of Tephrosia purpurea Pers Root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, S.; Ventaka, Ramana K.; Vinod, K.R

    2010-01-01

    Wild Indigo or Purple Tephrosia or fish poison occurs throughout the Indian subcontinent. It is widely used in the treatment of inflammation, diabetes, rheumatism, asthma, diarrhoea and many other ailments. But so far the pharmacognostic standardization has not been reported for its proper identification. Hence the present study is a pharmacognosy work carried out for the root part. This may help in the identification of the plant species. A thin transverse section, powder microscopy, measurement of the dimensions of cell structures, fluorescence analysis and physico chemical parameters were conducted for the root. From the TS, the secondary xylem fibres and vessels were found to be the tissues of diagnostic importance. The xylem vessels were of two types: narrow and long; broad and short. The important characters in the powdered microscopy were vessel elements, fibres and xylem parenchyma cells. The different fluorescent light shades were obtained under short and long UV light for both powder as well as the extracts of the root. The proximate analysis values were also obtained in a satisfactory way. Combining all these data a suitable root profile for plant can be constructed which may help in the identification of quality of the plant part. PMID:22557415

  17. The ability of cone-beam computed tomography to detect simulated buccal and lingual recesses in root canals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Y.H.; Yuan, M.; Li, G.; Shemesh, H.; Wesselink, P.R.; Wu, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Aim  To compare the ability of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital periapical radiographs (PR) to detect simulated tissue-occupied recesses in root canals. Methodology  A standard canal was created in 30 extracted mandibular premolar roots. Each root was longitudinally split into buccal

  18. Unresolving the "real age" of fine roots in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solly, Emily; Brunner, Ivano; Herzog, Claude; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Schweigruber, Fritz; Trumbore, Susan; Hagedorn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the turnover time of tree fine roots is crucial for modelling soil organic matter dynamics, but it is one of the biggest challenges in soil ecology and one of the least understood aspects of the belowground carbon cycle. The methods used - ranging from radiocarbon to ingrowth cores and root cameras (minirhizotrons) - yield very diverse pictures of fine root dynamics in forest ecosystems with turnover rates reaching from less than one year to decades. These have huge implications on estimates of carbon allocation to root growth and maintenance and on the persistence of root carbon in soils before it is decomposed or leached. We will present a new approach, involving techniques to study plant anatomy, which unravels the "real age" of fine roots. For a range of forests with diverse water and nutrient limitations located at different latitudes, we investigated the annual growth rings in the secondary xylem of thin transversal sections of fine roots belonging to tree species which form distinct growth rings. In temperate forests we find mean root "ring ages" of 1-2 years while in sub-arctic forests living fine roots can also persist for several years. The robustness of these results were tested by counting the maximum yearly growth rings in tree seedlings of known age and by counting the maximum number of growth rings of fine roots grown in ingrowth cores which were kept in temperate forest soils for one and two years. Radiocarbon estimates of mean "carbon ages", which define the time elapsed since structural carbon was fixed from the atmosphere, instead average around a decade in root systems of temperate forests (mixture of newly produced and older living roots). This dramatic difference may not be related to methodological bias, but to a time lag between C assimilation and production of a portion of fine root tissues due to the storage of older carbon components. The time lag depends very likely on tree species and environmental conditions. We further

  19. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports ... binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the ...

  20. Evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activity of root and root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trianthema decandra L. root and root callus extracts of different solvents viz., petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol were tested against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and also against Fusarium spp. Root callus extract of chloroform and ethanol showed significant activity against Bacillus ...

  1. Roots Stimulate Expression of Decomposition Transcripts in the Soil Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccio, E. E.; Karaoz, U.; Zhou, J.; Brodie, E.; Firestone, M.; Pett-Ridge, J.

    2016-12-01

    The soil surrounding plant roots, the rhizosphere, has long been recognized as a zone of great functional importance in terrestrial ecosystems. Rhizosphere microorganisms can affect the breakdown of plant tissues and root litter, and can accelerate the decomposition of detrital plant biomass, which is a process commonly described as "priming." However, the molecular mechanisms underlying rhizosphere C cycling are poorly understood, and the carbohydrate and lignolytic gene transcripts mediating the decomposition of root litter in soil are largely unidentified. We hypothesized that root exudates stimulate the expression of enzymes that are involved in decomposition of macromolecular C compounds. To assess how the abundance and diversity of decomposition enzymes differs in the rhizosphere relative to the surrounding bulk soil, we sequenced the community gene expression (metatranscriptomes) and single cell genomes of rhizosphere and bulk soil associated with wild oat (Avena fatua) over time (3, 6, 12, and 22 days). To isolate roots of a defined age in a mature plant, we used microcosms with a transparent experimental sidecar to track roots as they grew. Our results showed that a large number of C decomposition enzymes were more highly expressed in the rhizosphere compared to bulk soil, and that overall, transcripts tended to be elevated in younger roots than older roots. Genes relevant to aromatic C breakdown (nitroreductase, 4-hydroxybenzoate degradation, pectin methylesterase) and organic N cycling (ammonification) were elevated in the rhizosphere. This work identifies the potential molecular mechanisms that underpin priming in rhizosphere soil.

  2. Root growth regulation and gravitropism in maize roots does not require the epidermis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, T.; Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    We have earlier published observations showing that endogenous alterations in growth rate during gravitropism in maize roots (Zea mays L.) are unaffected by the orientation of cuts which remove epidermal and cortical tissue in the growing zone (Bjorkman and Cleland, 1988, Planta 176, 513-518). We concluded that the epidermis and cortex are not essential for transporting a growth-regulating signal in gravitropism or straight growth, nor for regulating the rate of tissue expansion. This conclusion has been challenged by Yang et al. (1990, Planta 180, 530-536), who contend that a shallow girdle around the entire perimeter of the root blocks gravitropic curvature and that this inhibition is the result of a requirement for epidermal cells to transport the growth-regulating signal. In this paper we demonstrate that the entire epidermis can be removed without blocking gravitropic curvature and show that the position of narrow girdles does not affect the location of curvature. We therefore conclude that the epidermis is not required for transport of a growth-regulating substance from the root cap to the growing zone, nor does it regulate the growth rate of the elongating zone of roots.

  3. Roots of the Chromatic Polynomial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrett, Thomas

    . In this thesis we study the real roots of the chromatic polynomial, termed chromatic roots, and focus on how certain properties of a graph affect the location of its chromatic roots. Firstly, we investigate how the presence of a certain spanning tree in a graph affects its chromatic roots. In particular we prove...... a tight lower bound on the smallest non-trivial chromatic root of a graph admitting a spanning tree with at most three leaves. Here, non-trivial means different from 0 or 1. This extends a theorem of Thomassen on graphs with Hamiltonian paths. We also prove similar lower bounds on the chromatic roots...... extend Thomassen’s technique to the Tutte polynomial and as a consequence, deduce a density result for roots of the Tutte polynomial. This partially answers a conjecture of Jackson and Sokal. Finally, we refocus our attention on the chromatic polynomial and investigate the density of chromatic roots...

  4. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  5. Introduction to the ROOT System

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Introduction to the ROOT data handling system. ROOT is used in some for or another by all LHC experiments and will be used by all for final data analysis. The introduction gives an overview of the system. Prerequisite knowledge: C++

  6. Morphoregulatory role of thidiazuron: morphogenesis of root outgrowths in thidiazuron-treated geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanago, M H; Murch, S J; Slimmon, T Y; Krishnaraj, S; Saxena, P K

    1995-12-01

    Root outgrowths formed on the root tissue of geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey cv. Kim and cv. Shone Helena) plants in response to treatment with the phenylurea derivative, thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5'-ylurea; TDZ). Treatment with the cytokinin N(6)-benzylaminopurine (BAP) or the auxin α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) did not result in stimulation of similar abnormal structures on the root tissue. Significantly more outgrowths developed on roots of plants treated with 10 μM and 20 μM TDZ than on control plants or those treated with 1 μM TDZ for the eight-week treatment period. Some outgrowths produced shoots and plantlets while still attached to roots, and regenerants were easily separated from the root tissue and transferred to soil in the greenhouse where they grew to maturity. Histological observations suggested these outgrowths originated from the vascular cambium region of the root.

  7. Rhizoctonia root rot (Rhizoctoni solani K ü h n of sugar beet in province Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojšin Vera B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet root rot appears regularly each year, but its intensity depends on agro ecological conditions. The predominant causers of root rot in Vojvodina are fungi from Fusarium genus and species Macrophomina phaseolina. Over the last couple of years, more intense occurrence of Rhizoctonia root rot has been observed. Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of root rot is present in sugar beet fields. During 2000-2005, on the territory of Vojvodina, the frequency of Rhizoctonia solani in phytopathological isolations from rotted sugar beet roots was between 0,0-18,2%. The intensity of the disease depends on localities, agro ecological conditions and genotypes. Symptoms of Rhizoctonia root rot were registered at some localities in all regions of Vojvodina: Srem, Banat and Bačka. The disease appearance is above all local. It occurs in small patches, on heavy, non-structured soil and on depressed wet parts of plots. Individual diseased plants can be found during July. Brown rot appears on sugar beet roots, with dried tissue on surface, which is present on the tail as well as on the middle part and the head of root. Tissues with described symptoms are deeper regarding the healthy part of root. On vertical root section, the necrotic changes are clearly visible comparing to tissue section without symptoms. The heavily infected tissue forms fissures on roots in most cases. Besides the above-mentioned symptoms on roots, the plant wilting and leaf handle necrosis as well as leaf dying are also observed. When rot spreads to the whole root head, plants quickly die.

  8. Root Canal Filling after Revascularization/Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia, Hugo; Cruz, Álvaro; Díaz, Mariana; Jiménez, Ana Laura; Solís, Rodrigo; Bernal, Cesar

    Revascularization/revitalization therapy is considered an alternative procedure for management of teeth with an immature apex and necrotic pulp, mainly when root development is interrupted in the early phases of formation. However, this clinical treatment protocol should be considered a permanent procedure? A maxillary central incisor with a previous and successful RR treatment was intentionally filled with a biocompatible material with the periapical tissues due to the patient's lack of adherence to the follow-up protocol. The 20-month follow-up showed absence of clinical, radiological and tomographic signs and symptoms of an endodontic re-infection. This case demonstrates that once the increased thickening of the canal walls, incrementing the root length, apical closure and the total resolution of the apical lesion are observed, the main canal of a previously treated tooth with an RR procedure can be filled.

  9. Strigolactones Effects on Root Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Hinanit

    2012-07-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) were defined as a new group of plant hormones that suppress lateral shoot branching. Our previous studies suggested SLs to be regulators of root development. SLs were shown to alter root architecture by regulating lateral root formation and to affect root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. Another important effect of SLs on root growth was shown to be associated with root directional growth. Supplementation of SLs to roots led to alterations in root directional growth, whereas associated mutants showed asymmetrical root growth, which was influenced by environmental factors. The regulation by SLs of root development was shown to be conducted via a cross talk of SLs with other plant hormones, including auxin. SLs were shown to regulate auxin transport, and to interfere with the activity of auxin-efflux carriers. Therefore, it might be that SLs are regulators of root directional growth as a result of their ability to regulated auxin transport. However, other evidences suggest a localized effect of SLs on cell division, which may not necessarily be associated with auxin efflux. These and other, recent hypothesis as to the SLs mode of action and the associated root perception and response to environmental factors will be discussed.

  10. Adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massoumi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is indispensable in vegetative propagation and is widely used. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms is needed to improve rooting treatments. We first established a system to study rooting in Arabidopsis, the model organism in plant biology but only

  11. Back to the roots!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that one can revive the critical edge that postmodernist theory has brought to marketing, thinking without subscribing to any particular school of (critical) theory by following the principle of methodological situationalism. The roots of postmodernist critique lie in careful...... in empirical observations of manifest meaning or social order in concrete situations. This does not mean that macro-processes or structures should be ignored, but that their roots and effects in local lived life have to be scrutinized. Critical theorizing does not need to resort to utopian or ideological...... arguments about the grand scheme of things. Careful empirical work zooming in on social life in concrete situations will provide plenty of novel insight and critical edge....

  12. Roots and routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Jensen, Sune Qvotrup

    2011-01-01

    the national exclusion of transnational migrants marked as ‘strangers’ and border figures of the nation and a relatively high degree of local belonging to the neighbourhood. This is followed by an in-depth empirical analysis inspired by Alfred Schutz's distinction between the stranger and the homecomer......This article is about transnational migrants, how they construct belonging to ‘new’ places where they have arrived, and how the feelings of belonging to their places of origin change when they go back. The theoretical part of the article outlines the relationship between migration and belonging....... A somewhat paradoxical finding is that it appears to be more difficult for transnational migrants to maintain their roots in the country of origin when they go back than it was to establish new roots in the host country...

  13. Rooted in Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses...... period of European prehistory. In so doing, the text not only addresses transmission and reception, but also the conceptualization of mobility within a world which was literally Rooted in Movement....

  14. Expressing Parallelism with ROOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piparo, D. [CERN; Tejedor, E. [CERN; Guiraud, E. [CERN; Ganis, G. [CERN; Mato, P. [CERN; Moneta, L. [CERN; Valls Pla, X. [CERN; Canal, P. [Fermilab

    2017-11-22

    The need for processing the ever-increasing amount of data generated by the LHC experiments in a more efficient way has motivated ROOT to further develop its support for parallelism. Such support is being tackled both for shared-memory and distributed-memory environments. The incarnations of the aforementioned parallelism are multi-threading, multi-processing and cluster-wide executions. In the area of multi-threading, we discuss the new implicit parallelism and related interfaces, as well as the new building blocks to safely operate with ROOT objects in a multi-threaded environment. Regarding multi-processing, we review the new MultiProc framework, comparing it with similar tools (e.g. multiprocessing module in Python). Finally, as an alternative to PROOF for cluster-wide executions, we introduce the efforts on integrating ROOT with state-of-the-art distributed data processing technologies like Spark, both in terms of programming model and runtime design (with EOS as one of the main components). For all the levels of parallelism, we discuss, based on real-life examples and measurements, how our proposals can increase the productivity of scientists.

  15. Expressing Parallelism with ROOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piparo, D.; Tejedor, E.; Guiraud, E.; Ganis, G.; Mato, P.; Moneta, L.; Valls Pla, X.; Canal, P.

    2017-10-01

    The need for processing the ever-increasing amount of data generated by the LHC experiments in a more efficient way has motivated ROOT to further develop its support for parallelism. Such support is being tackled both for shared-memory and distributed-memory environments. The incarnations of the aforementioned parallelism are multi-threading, multi-processing and cluster-wide executions. In the area of multi-threading, we discuss the new implicit parallelism and related interfaces, as well as the new building blocks to safely operate with ROOT objects in a multi-threaded environment. Regarding multi-processing, we review the new MultiProc framework, comparing it with similar tools (e.g. multiprocessing module in Python). Finally, as an alternative to PROOF for cluster-wide executions, we introduce the efforts on integrating ROOT with state-of-the-art distributed data processing technologies like Spark, both in terms of programming model and runtime design (with EOS as one of the main components). For all the levels of parallelism, we discuss, based on real-life examples and measurements, how our proposals can increase the productivity of scientists.

  16. Endogenous isoflavone methylation correlates with the in vitro rooting phases of Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clematis, Francesca; Viglione, Serena; Beruto, Margherita; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Paola; Poncet, Christine; Curir, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae) is a perennial shrub, native to the Mediterranean region in southern Europe, widespread in all the Italian regions and, as a leguminous species, it has a high isoflavone content. An in vitro culture protocol was developed for this species starting from stem nodal sections of in vivo plants, and isoflavone components of the in vitro cultured tissues were studied by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analytical techniques. Two main isoflavones were detected in the S. junceum tissues during the in vitro propagation phases: Genistein (4',5,7-Trihydroxyisoflavone), already reported in this species, and its methylated form 4',5,7-Trimethoxyisoflavone, detected for the first time in this plant species (0.750 ± 0.02 mg g(-1) dry tissue). The presence of both of these compounds in S. junceum tissues was consistently detected during the in vitro multiplication phase. The absence of the methylated form within plant tissues in the early phases of the in vitro adventitious root formation was correlated with its negative effect displayed on root induction and initiation phases, while its presence in the final "root manifestation" phase influenced positively the rooting process. The unmethylated form, although detectable in tissues in the precocious rooting phases, was no longer present in the final rooting phase. Its effect on rooting, however, proved always to be beneficial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Anatomical variability of the trunk wood and root tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wastewater treatment is one of the major environmental issues. Its amount increases with increasing ... hand, mangrove is a natural stock of active molecules; stem bark from mangrove plants like Xylocarpus ... racemosa was in the mud, at the edge of the river; that mangrove tree was sampled between 940' 31.22 '' for ...

  18. Apical root-end filling with tricalcium silicate-based cement in a patient with diabetes mellitus: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Biočanin Vladimir; Milić Marija; Vučetić Milan; Baćević Miljana; Vasović Dina; Živadinović Milka; Ćetković Dejan; Ćalasan Dejan; Brković Božidar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The material used for root-end filling has to be biocompatible with adjacent periapical tissue and to stimulate its regenerative processes. Tricalcium silicate cement (TSC), as a new dental material, shows good sealing properties with dentin, high compression strengths and better marginal adaptation than commonly used root-end filling materials. Although optimal postoperative healing of periapical tissues is mainly influenced by characteristics of end-root material used, it coul...

  19. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  20. Final Report: Regulation and Function of Two Cell Wall protein Genes in Me Dicago Roots and Root Nodules, August 1, 1995 - January 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, James B.

    2000-05-08

    During the period of DOE funding we synthesized several PRP peptides, generated rabbit antisera against two PRP repeats found in early nodulin PRPs, and developed confocal microscopy methods for root immunohistochemistry. Using the antibodies, we completed extensive descriptive studies of PRP deposition in medic and alfalfa roots showing that PRPs deposition is developmentally regulated in roots and spatially restricted within the walls of specific root tissues. Domain-specific antibodies were isolated from polyclonal sera using peptide affinity chromatography and were then used to demonstrate that nodule-specific epitopes are shared by several nodule-specific proteins. The following provides a more detailed summary of this work.

  1. Dynamic root uptake model for neutral lipophilic organics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    gave concentrations far below the thermodynamic equilibrium. The approach was tested against experimental uptake data of benzo[a]pyrene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorobenzenes from soil into carrots. Measured concentrations in carrot peels were up to 100 times higher than in the core......In current European risk assessment, an equilibrium approach is used to estimate chemical uptake from soil into root vegetables. Here a dynamic model for uptake of neutral lipophilic compounds from soil into roots is presented. Using experimental results, it is compared with the equilibrium...... approach. Very lipophilic compounds (e.g., DDT) diffuse very slowly into plant tissue, so they are likely to remain in the peel of root vegetables. In addition, a dynamic (steady-state) flux model for uptake with transpiration water into thick roots is presented. The model considers input from soil...

  2. The periosteum eversion technique for coverage of denuded root surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awadhesh Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The periosteum is highly cellular connective tissue with rich vascularity and regenerative potential, which make it suitable autogenous graft. The periosteum eversion technique utilized periosteum for coverage of denuded root surface. The purpose of this case report was to evaluate the periosteum eversion technique that involves a single surgical site, in terms of root coverage, gingival height, and probing depth. A patient with Miller class I gingival recession of 3.0 mm, gingival height of 2.0 mm and probing depth of 2.0 mm was treated by the periosteum eversion technique. Root conditioning was done with 24% ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid. In this technique, marginal periosteum was used as a pedicle graft. At the end of 6 months, 100% root surface was covered successfully with 5.0 mm of gingival height and 1.0 mm of probing depth. The periosteum eversion technique can be used for the treatment of gingival recession defect successfully.

  3. Research progress of antagonistic interactions among root canal irrigations disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen QU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Root canal therapy is the most effective way to treat various pulposis and periapical disease. Simple mechanical apparatus can not clean root canal thoroughly, but may affect tight filling instead. It can achieve a satisfactory cleansing effect only when it is combined with a chemical solution. Irrigation fluid for root canal should possess the properties of tissue dissolution, antimicrobial, lubrication, and removal of smear layer. So far, no solution is able to fulfill all these functions. Therefore, a combined use of multiple irrigation solutions is suggested. It can not only achieve good effect in cleaning and disinfection, also it can lower the concentration of different solutions, thus reducing the side effects. Nevertheless, some experiments proved that antagonism existed among the chemicals used for irrigations. The purpose of present article is to review the antagonistic effect among the chemicals used for irrigation when they are used together for root canal treatment.

  4. Clinical Management of Two Root Resorption Cases in Endodontic Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mincik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root resorption is a pathological process involving loss of hard dental tissues. It may occur as a consequence of dental trauma, orthodontic treatment, and bleaching, and occasionally it accompanies periodontal disease. Although the mechanism of resorption process is examined in detail, its etiology is not fully understood. Wide open apical foramen is more difficult to manage and the root canal may often overfill. In this report we present two cases of root resorption and describe means for its clinical management. We conclude that useful measure of a success or failure in managing root resorption is the persistence of the resorption process. It is a clear sign of an active ongoing inflammatory process and shows the clinical need for retreatment.

  5. Reproduction of root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... ELISA detected Bt protein in soil and roots of Bt cotton but not in HART 89M and isoline plant tissues and soil. Reaction of Bt cotton and isoline to M. incognita was different with the transgenic cotton being more susceptible to RKN. HART 89M was more resistant to RKN infection ... borne fungal pathogens.

  6. Sodicity tolerant polyembryonic mango root stock plants: A putative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAVANAN

    2015-01-28

    Jan 28, 2015 ... natural selection from saline sodic soils, analysed extracellular enzyme activity, performed molecular ... 1995) of a plant. Bacterial endophytes seem to be ubiquitous in plant tissues, having been isolated from flowers, fruits, leaves, stems, roots and seeds of ... the help of a flame photometer (Furman, 1975).

  7. Shoot and root morphogenesis from Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla plantlets were regenerated via indirect organogenesis. Histological assessment of their development focused on identifying the calli, the differentiation of shoots from the calli and the shoot-root junction from the nascent shoots. Vascular tissue formation within the callus preceded that of ...

  8. Laser scanning dental probe for endodontic root canal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Molly A. B.; Friedrich, Michal; Hamilton, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Peggy; Berg, Joel; Seibel, Eric J.

    2011-03-01

    Complications that arise during endodontic procedures pose serious threats to the long-term integrity and health of the tooth. Potential complexities of root canals include residual pulpal tissue, cracks, mesial-buccal 2 and accessory canals. In the case of a failed root canal, a successful apicoectomy can be jeopardized by isthmuses, accessory canals, and root microfracture. Confirming diagnosis using a small imaging probe would allow proper treatment and prevent retreatment of endodontic procedures. An ultrathin and flexible laser scanning endoscope of 1.2 to 1.6mm outer diameter was used in vitro to image extracted teeth with varied root configurations. Teeth were opened using a conventional bur and high speed drill. Imaging within the opened access cavity clarified the location of the roots where canal filing would initiate. Although radiographs are commonly used to determine the root canal size, position, and shape, the limited 2D image perspective leaves ambiguity that could be clarified if used in conjunction with a direct visual imaging tool. Direct visualization may avoid difficulties in locating the root canal and reduce the number of radiographs needed. A transillumination imaging device with the separated illumination and light collection functions rendered cracks visible in the prepared teeth that were otherwise indiscernible using reflected visible light. Our work demonstrates that a small diameter endoscope with high spatial resolution may significantly increase the efficiency and success of endodontic procedures.

  9. Potential contributions of root decomposition to the nitrogen cycle in arctic forest and tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träger, Sabrina; Milbau, Ann; Wilson, Scott D

    2017-12-01

    Plant contributions to the nitrogen (N) cycle from decomposition are likely to be altered by vegetation shifts associated with climate change. Roots account for the majority of soil organic matter input from vegetation, but little is known about differences between vegetation types in their root contributions to nutrient cycling. Here, we examine the potential contribution of fine roots to the N cycle in forest and tundra to gain insight into belowground consequences of the widely observed increase in woody vegetation that accompanies climate change in the Arctic. We combined measurements of root production from minirhizotron images with tissue analysis of roots from differing root diameter and color classes to obtain potential N input following decomposition. In addition, we tested for changes in N concentration of roots during early stages of decomposition, and investigated whether vegetation type (forest or tundra) affected changes in tissue N concentration during decomposition. For completeness, we also present respective measurements of leaves. The potential N input from roots was twofold greater in forest than in tundra, mainly due to greater root production in forest. Potential N input varied with root diameter and color, but this variation tended to be similar in forest and tundra. As for roots, the potential N input from leaves was significantly greater in forest than in tundra. Vegetation type had no effect on changes in root or leaf N concentration after 1 year of decomposition. Our results suggest that shifts in vegetation that accompany climate change in the Arctic will likely increase plant-associated potential N input both belowground and aboveground. In contrast, shifts in vegetation might not alter changes in tissue N concentration during early stages of decomposition. Overall, differences between forest and tundra in potential contribution of decomposing roots to the N cycle reinforce differences between habitats that occur for leaves.

  10. Auxin increases the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) root tips while inhibiting root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanchenko, Maria G; den Os, Désirée; Monshausen, Gabriele B; Dubrovsky, Joseph G; Bednárová, Andrea; Krishnan, Natraj

    2013-10-01

    The hormone auxin and reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate root elongation, but the interactions between the two pathways are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate how auxin interacts with ROS in regulating root elongation in tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Wild-type and auxin-resistant mutant, diageotropica (dgt), of tomato (S. lycopersicum 'Ailsa Craig') were characterized in terms of root apical meristem and elongation zone histology, expression of the cell-cycle marker gene Sl-CycB1;1, accumulation of ROS, response to auxin and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and expression of ROS-related mRNAs. The dgt mutant exhibited histological defects in the root apical meristem and elongation zone and displayed a constitutively increased level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the root tip, part of which was detected in the apoplast. Treatments of wild-type with auxin increased the H2O2 concentration in the root tip in a dose-dependent manner. Auxin and H2O2 elicited similar inhibition of cell elongation while bringing forth differential responses in terms of meristem length and number of cells in the elongation zone. Auxin treatments affected the expression of mRNAs of ROS-scavenging enzymes and less significantly mRNAs related to antioxidant level. The dgt mutation resulted in resistance to both auxin and H2O2 and affected profoundly the expression of mRNAs related to antioxidant level. The results indicate that auxin regulates the level of H2O2 in the root tip, so increasing the auxin level triggers accumulation of H2O2 leading to inhibition of root cell elongation and root growth. The dgt mutation affects this pathway by reducing the auxin responsiveness of tissues and by disrupting the H2O2 homeostasis in the root tip.

  11. Silicon modifies root anatomy, and uptake and subcellular distribution of cadmium in young maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaculík, Marek; Landberg, Tommy; Greger, Maria; Luxová, Miroslava; Stoláriková, Miroslava; Lux, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Silicon (Si) has been shown to ameliorate the negative influence of cadmium (Cd) on plant growth and development. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon is not fully understood. Here we describe the effect of Si on growth, and uptake and subcellular distribution of Cd in maize plants in relation to the development of root tissues. Young maize plants (Zea mays) were cultivated for 10 d hydroponically with 5 or 50 µm Cd and/or 5 mm Si. Growth parameters and the concentrations of Cd and Si were determined in root and shoot by atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The development of apoplasmic barriers (Casparian bands and suberin lamellae) and vascular tissues in roots were analysed, and the influence of Si on apoplasmic and symplasmic distribution of (109)Cd applied at 34 nm was investigated between root and shoot. Si stimulated the growth of young maize plants exposed to Cd and influenced the development of Casparian bands and suberin lamellae as well as vascular tissues in root. Si did not affect the distribution of apoplasmic and symplasmic Cd in maize roots, but considerably decreased symplasmic and increased apoplasmic concentration of Cd in maize shoots. Differences in Cd uptake of roots and shoots are probably related to the development of apoplasmic barriers and maturation of vascular tissues in roots. Alleviation of Cd toxicity by Si might be attributed to enhanced binding of Cd to the apoplasmic fraction in maize shoots.

  12. Clinical outcome of root caries restorations using ART and rotary techniques in institutionalized elders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cruz Gonzalez, Alberto Carlos; Marín Zuluaga, Dairo Javier

    2016-01-01

    ... restorative technique (ART), in an institutionalized elderly population in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. Root caries represents a multifactorial, progressive, chronic lesion with softened, irregular and darkened tissue involving the radicular surface...

  13. Delayed Root Development by Displaced Mineral Trioxide Aggregate after Regenerative Endodontics: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Aovana; Parashos, Peter

    2017-02-01

    This case report presents the treatment of a 16-year-old boy with a maxillary lateral incisor (tooth #10) presenting with Oehlers type II dens invaginatus and diagnosed with previously initiated therapy and asymptomatic apical periodontitis. A regenerative endodontic procedure (REP) was performed for the tooth but complicated by apically displaced mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Clinical and radiographic examination was undertaken yearly, and a cone-beam computed tomography scan was taken to investigate further the formation of hard tissues within the root canal. Subsequently, tooth #10 was re-accessed and then root-filled with MTA. There was complete periapical healing, thickening of the dentinal root walls, and completed apex formation 3 years after REP. Hard tissue formation was noted within the root canal, on the root canal wall, and the root apex through clinical and radiographic examination. Less hard tissue formation was noted on the labial root canal wall where the displaced MTA was located, which was identified on the cone-beam computed tomography scan. This report demonstrates that REP can potentially provide excellent treatment outcomes for structurally compromised teeth. REP should be considered as a first-line treatment before proceeding with a root filling when root development is incomplete, but attention to technical detail is essential. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tissue reaction surrounding miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage: An animal experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Shih-Hsuan Chen

    2012-03-01

    Results and conclusions: (1 Tissue surrounding roots damaged by a miniscrew showed a significant inflammatory response. (2 Root resorption was occasionally observed after 3 weeks following insertion of a miniscrew even if the miniscrew was not in direct contact with the root. (3 Root repair was noted with a cementoblast lining along the resorption surface at as early as 3 weeks after miniscrew insertion. Alveolar bone filled in the lesion when the root damage was large so that the contour of the alveolar bone followed that of the damaged root, with the width of the periodontal ligament space being maintained. (4 Stable miniscrews were mainly those which did not contact adjacent roots, and for which the surrounding tissue showed only a small inflammatory response with some extent of direct bone contact around the miniscrew. On the contrary, most of the failed miniscrews were those which had direct contact with adjacent roots, and which exhibited severe tissue inflammation and were covered by thick layers of soft tissue. Failure was detected 3 weeks after insertion. Surprisingly, the epithelial lining surrounding the miniscrews might not have spontaneously resolved 6 weeks after screw removal. Persistent infection in the sinus tract was noted, and this would require attention.

  15. Matching roots to their environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Gregory, Peter J.; Bengough, A. Glyn; Hallett, Paul D.; McKenzie, Blair M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants form the base of the terrestrial food chain and provide medicines, fuel, fibre and industrial materials to humans. Vascular land plants rely on their roots to acquire the water and mineral elements necessary for their survival in nature or their yield and nutritional quality in agriculture. Major biogeochemical fluxes of all elements occur through plant roots, and the roots of agricultural crops have a significant role to play in soil sustainability, carbon sequestration, reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses, and in preventing the eutrophication of water bodies associated with the application of mineral fertilizers. Scope This article provides the context for a Special Issue of Annals of Botany on ‘Matching Roots to Their Environment’. It first examines how land plants and their roots evolved, describes how the ecology of roots and their rhizospheres contributes to the acquisition of soil resources, and discusses the influence of plant roots on biogeochemical cycles. It then describes the role of roots in overcoming the constraints to crop production imposed by hostile or infertile soils, illustrates root phenotypes that improve the acquisition of mineral elements and water, and discusses high-throughput methods to screen for these traits in the laboratory, glasshouse and field. Finally, it considers whether knowledge of adaptations improving the acquisition of resources in natural environments can be used to develop root systems for sustainable agriculture in the future. PMID:23821619

  16. Root caries: a periodontal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignozzi, I; Crea, A; Capri, D; Littarru, C; Lajolo, C; Tatakis, D N

    2014-04-01

    A prevailing dental problem in the periodontal patient is root caries. Specifically, periodontal involvement often results in root surfaces becoming exposed and at risk for this condition. Periodontal therapy often leads to increased gingival recession as well, and the associated increased root caries risk may compromise the long-term success and survival of periodontally treated teeth.This narrative review will address the topic of root caries in the periodontal patient, focusing on unmet research needs. The Medline database was searched to identify items dealing with root caries, in terms of clinical features, diagnosis, pathogenic mechanisms and histopathology, as well as epidemiology, focusing then on the relationship between root caries and periodontal disorders. Although there is extensive literature on root caries, consensus is lacking regarding certain aspects, such as diagnostic criteria, prevalence within populations and indisputable risk factors. Advancing age could be an aggravating factor in susceptibility to root caries for the periodontal patient; however, definitive evidence in this regard is still missing. Similarly, full awareness of the increased risk of root caries in patients with periodontal disease or long-term periodontal treatment appears to be still lacking. Research regarding root caries in age-specific (elderly) periodontal patients is needed. Improved oral hygiene practices, locally applied preventive measures, good dietary habits and regular dental check-ups are crucial approaches to prevent both periodontal disease progression and root caries. Periodontal patients with root exposure should follow a strict root caries prevention protocol, as an integral component of their periodontal maintenance therapy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Phenotypic and molecular evaluation of cotton hairy roots as a model system for studying nematode resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubben, Martin J; Callahan, Franklin E; Triplett, Barbara A; Jenkins, Johnie N

    2009-09-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) hairy roots were evaluated as a model system for studying molecular cotton-nematode interactions. Hairy root cultures were developed from the root-knot nematode (RKN) (Meloidogyne incognita [Kofoid and White] Chitwood, race 3)-resistant breeding line M315 and from the reniform nematode (RN) (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira)-resistant accession GB713 (G. barbadense L.) and compared to a nematode-susceptible culture derived from the obsolete cultivar DPL90. M315, GB713, and DPL90 hairy roots differed significantly in their appearance and growth potential; however, these differences were not correlated with transcript levels of the A. rhizogenes T-DNA genes rolB and aux2 which help regulate hairy root initiation and proliferation. DPL90 hairy roots were found to support both RKN and RN reproduction in tissue culture, whereas M315 and GB713 hairy roots were resistant to RKN and RN, respectively. M315 hairy roots showed constitutive up-regulation of the defense gene MIC3 (Meloidogyne Induced Cotton3) compared to M315 whole-plant roots and DPL90 hairy roots. Our data show the potential use of cotton hairy roots in maintaining monoxenic RKN and RN cultures and suggest hairy roots may be useful in evaluating the effect of manipulated host gene expression on nematode resistance in cotton.

  18. Evaluation of strategies to separate root-associated microbial communities: A crucial choice in rhizobiome research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eRichter-Heitmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants shape distinct, species-specific microbiomes in their rhizospheres. A main premise for evaluating microbial communities associated with root-soil compartments is their successful separation into the rhizosphere (soil-root interface, the rhizoplane (root surface, and the endosphere (inside roots. We evaluated different approaches (washing, sonication, bleaching regarding their efficiency to separate microbial cells associated with different root compartments of soil-grown rice using fluorescence microscopy and community fingerprinting of 16S rRNA genes. Vigorous washing detached 45% of the rhizoplane population compared to untreated roots. Additional sonication reduced rhizoplane-attached microorganisms by up to 78% but caused various degrees of root tissue destruction at all sonication intensities tested. Treatment with sodium hypochlorite almost completely (98% removed rhizoplane-associated microbial cells. Community fingerprinting revealed that microbial communities obtained from untreated, washed, and sonicated roots were not statistically distinguishable. Hypochlorite-treated roots harbored communities significantly different from all other samples, likely representing true endospheric populations. Applying these procedures to other root samples (bean, clover revealed that treatment efficiencies were strongly affected by root morphological parameters such as root hair density and rigidity of epidermis. Our findings suggest that a careful evaluation of separation strategies prior to molecular community analysis is indispensable, especially when endophytes are the subject of interest.

  19. Identification of novel QTL governing root architectural traits in an interspecific soybean population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi P Manavalan

    Full Text Available Cultivated soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Dunbar (PI 552538 and wild G. soja (PI 326582A exhibited significant differences in root architecture and root-related traits. In this study, phenotypic variability for root traits among 251 BC2F5 backcross inbred lines (BILs developed from the cross Dunbar/PI 326582A were identified. The root systems of the parents and BILs were evaluated in controlled environmental conditions using a cone system at seedling stage. The G. max parent Dunbar contributed phenotypically favorable alleles at a major quantitative trait locus on chromosome 8 (Satt315-I locus that governed root traits (tap root length and lateral root number and shoot length. This QTL accounted for >10% of the phenotypic variation of both tap root and shoot length. This QTL region was found to control various shoot- and root-related traits across soybean genetic backgrounds. Within the confidence interval of this region, eleven transcription factors (TFs were identified. Based on RNA sequencing and Affymetrix expression data, key TFs including MYB, AP2-EREBP and bZIP TFs were identified in this QTL interval with high expression in roots and nodules. The backcross inbred lines with different parental allelic combination showed different expression pattern for six transcription factors selected based on their expression pattern in root tissues. It appears that the marker interval Satt315-I locus on chromosome 8 contain an essential QTL contributing to early root and shoot growth in soybean.

  20. Cold storage of rooted and non-rooted carnation cuttings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... 0.5 - 0°C, rooted chrysanthemum cuttings stored for 3 - 6 weeks at - 0.5 - 1.6°C, and rooted poinsettia cuttings stored for 1 week at 5°C can all be successfully used after storage. Laurie et al. (1969) do not recommend storage of rooted cuttings for more than 8 weeks because of a decreased survival rate ...

  1. Perennial roots to immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-10-01

    Maximum lifespan greatly varies among species, and it is not strictly determined; it can change with species evolution. Clonal growth is a major factor governing maximum lifespan. In the plant kingdom, the maximum lifespans described for clonal and nonclonal plants vary by an order of magnitude, with 43,600 and 5,062 years for Lomatia tasmanica and Pinus longaeva, respectively. Nonclonal perennial plants (those plants exclusively using sexual reproduction) also present a huge diversity in maximum lifespans (from a few to thousands of years) and even more interestingly, contrasting differences in aging patterns. Some plants show a clear physiological deterioration with aging, whereas others do not. Indeed, some plants can even improve their physiological performance as they age (a phenomenon called negative senescence). This diversity in aging patterns responds to species-specific life history traits and mechanisms evolved by each species to adapt to its habitat. Particularities of roots in perennial plants, such as meristem indeterminacy, modular growth, stress resistance, and patterns of senescence, are crucial in establishing perenniality and understanding adaptation of perennial plants to their habitats. Here, the key role of roots for perennial plant longevity will be discussed, taking into account current knowledge and highlighting additional aspects that still require investigation. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Synchrotron study of metal localization in Typha latifolia L. root sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yu; Feng, Huan; Gallagher, Frank J; Zhu, Qingzhi; Wu, Meiyin; Liu, Chang Jun; Jones, Keith W; Tappero, Ryan V

    2015-11-01

    Understanding mechanisms that control plant root metal assimilation in soil is critical to the sustainable management of metal-contaminated land. With the assistance of the synchrotron X-ray fluorescence technique, this study investigated possible mechanisms that control the localization of Fe, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in the root tissues of Typha latifolia L. collected from a contaminated wetland. Metal localizations especially in the case of Fe and Pb in the dermal tissue and the vascular bundles were different. Cluster analysis was performed to divide the dermal tissue into iron-plaque-enriched dermal tissue and regular dermal tissue based on the spatial distribution of Pb and Fe. Factor analysis showed that Cu and Zn were closely correlated to each other in the dermal tissues. The association of Cu, Zn and Mn with Fe was strong in both regular dermal tissue and iron-plaque-enriched dermal tissue, while significant (p < 0.05) correlation of Fe with Pb was only observed in tissues enriched with iron plaque. In the vascular bundles, Zn, Mn and Cu showed strong association, suggesting that the localization of these three elements was controlled by a similar mechanism. Iron plaque in the peripheral dermal tissues acted as a barrier for Pb and a buffer for Zn, Cu and Mn. The Casparian strip regulated the transportation of metals from dermal tissues to the vascular bundles. The results suggested that the mechanisms controlling metal localization in root tissues varied with both tissue types and metals.

  3. Intraspecific variation in root and leaf traits and leaf-root trait linkages in eight aspen demes (Populus tremula and P. tremuloides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eHajek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf and fine root morphology and physiology have been found to vary considerably among tree species, but not much is known about intraspecific variation in root traits and their relatedness to leaf traits. Various aspen progenies (Populus tremula and P. tremuloides with different growth performance are used in short-rotation forestry. Hence, a better understanding of the link between root trait syndromes and the adaptation of a deme to a particular environment is essential in order to improve the match between planted varieties and their growth conditions. We examined the between-deme (genetic and within-deme (mostly environmental variation in important fine root traits [mean root diameter, specific root area (SRA and specific root length (SRL, root tissue density (RTD, root tip abundance, root N concentration] and their co-variation with leaf traits [specific leaf area (SLA, leaf size, leaf N concentration] in eight genetically distinct P. tremula and P. tremuloides demes. Five of the six root traits varied significantly between the demes with largest genotypic variation in root tip abundance and lowest in mean root diameter and RTD (no significant difference. Within-deme variation in root morphology was as large as between-deme variation suggesting a relatively low genetic control. Significant relationships existed neither between SLA and SRA nor between leaf N and root N concentration in a plant. Contrary to expectation, high aboveground relative growth rates (RGR were associated with large, and not small, fine root diameters with low SRA and SRL. Compared to leaf traits, the influence of root traits on RGR was generally low. We conclude that aspen exhibits large intraspecific variation in leaf and also in root morphological traits which is only partly explained by genetic distances. A root order-related analysis might give deeper insights into intraspecific root trait variation.

  4. β-catenin is required in odontoblasts for tooth root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T H; Bae, C H; Lee, J C; Ko, S O; Yang, X; Jiang, R; Cho, E S

    2013-03-01

    The tooth root is an important part of the tooth that works together with the surrounding periodontium to maintain the tooth in the alveolar socket. The root develops after crown morphogenesis. While the molecular and cellular mechanisms of early tooth development and crown morphogenesis have been extensively studied, little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling tooth root formation. Here, we show that β-catenin is strongly expressed in odontoblast-lineage cells and is required for root formation. Tissue-specific inactivation of β-catenin in developing odontoblasts produced molars lacking roots and aberrantly thin incisors. At the beginning of root formation in the mutant molars, the cervical loop epithelium extended apically to form Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS), but root odontoblast differentiation was disrupted and followed by the loss of some HERS inner layer cells. However, the outer layer of the HERS extended without the root, and the mutant molars finally erupted. The periodontal tissues extensively invaded the dental pulp. These results indicate that there is a cell-autonomous requirement for Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the dental mesenchyme for root formation.

  5. Tissue water relations of four co-occurring chaparral shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S D; Mooney, H A

    1986-11-01

    Chaparral shrubs of California have a suite of morphological and physiological adaptations to withstand the prolonged summer droughts of a mediterranean climate. Not all species of chaparral have the same rooting depth and there is some evidence that those with shallow roots have tissue that is most tolerant to water stress. We tested this notion by comparing the tissue water relations of four co-occurring chaparral shrubs: Quercus durata, Heteromeles arbutifolia, Adenostoma fasciculatum, and Rhamnus californica. We used a pressure-volume technique and a dew-point hygrometer to metsure seasonal changes in osmotic potential when plant tissue was fully hydrated and osmotic potential at predawn, midday, and the turgor loss point. We also calculated seasonal changes in the minimum daily turgor potential, saturated weight/dry weight ratio of leaf tissue, and the bulk modulus of elasticity. We had information on the seasonal water use patterns and apparent rooting depths of these same four shrubs from a previous study (Davis and Mooney 1986). All evidence indicated that Rhamnus had shallow roots and Quercus deep roots. Our results indicated that the tissue water relations of our four co-occurring chaparral shrubs were not alike. Even though Rhamnus had shallow roots, it had the least xerophytic tissue. Seasonal osmotic potential and saturated weight/dry weight ratios were relatively high and bulk modulus of elasticity and minimum daily turgor potentials were low. Furthermore, even though Quercus had deep roots and experienced no seasonal water stress at our study site, its tissue water relations indicated relatively high tolerance to water stress. We conclude that seasonal drought tolerance of stem and leaf tissue of co-occurring chaparral shrubs does not necessarily correspond to rooting depth, to soil moisture resources available to the shrub, or to the degree of seasonal water stress experienced by the shrub.

  6. Determination of efficacy of root planing in removal of nicotine from periodontally involved teeth of smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelima Katti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Tobacco smoking is now recognized to be an important risk factor for the development and progression of periodontal disease. Nicotine, the major constituent of particulate phase of tobacco smoke, in addition to having its toxic systemic effects, is capable of causing local cytotoxicity. The typical characteristic of smoking-associated periodontal disease is the destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth, with the ensuing clinical symptoms of bone loss, attachment loss, pocket formation, and eventually tooth loss. The mechanisms behind the destructive effects of smoking on the periodontal tissues, however, are not well understood. This study aimed to detect nicotine from the root surfaces of periodontally involved root surfaces and to compare the quantity of nicotine present on root-planed and non-root-planed surfaces of teeth from smokers. Materials and Methods: 25 periodontally involved extracted teeth were taken from 18 smoker patients. The roots were sectioned longitudinally and each root half was either root planed (group B or left untreated (group A. Each root half was extracted for nicotine using methylene chloride technique, and quantified using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Statistical analysis: Nicotine concentrations were compared between the root planed ans the non root planed groups using paired t-test. Results: The results showed that nicotine could be detected from the root surface of periodontally involved teeth. The amount of nicotine present on non-root planed sections was statistically significantly higher than on treated sections. Conclusion: Nicotine is present on the periodonatally involved root surfaces of smoker patients and also its concentration can be significantly reduced by thorough root planning.

  7. ROOT Tutorial for Summer Students

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Piparo, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    ROOT is a "batteries-included" tool kit for data analysis, storage and visualization. It is widely used in High Energy Physics and other disciplines such as Biology, Finance and Astrophysics. This event is an introductory tutorial to ROOT and comprises a front lecture and hands on exercises. IMPORTANT NOTE: The tutorial is based on ROOT 6.04 and NOT on the ROOT5 series.  IMPORTANT NOTE: if you have ROOT 6.04 installed on your laptop, you will not need to install any virtual machine. The instructions showing how to install the virtual machine on which you can find ROOT 6.04 can be found under "Material" on this page.

  8. Removal of root filling materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.

    2011-05-01

    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  9. Oxygen absorption by adventitious roots promotes the survival of completely submerged terrestrial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayi, Qiaoli; Zeng, Bo; Liu, Jianhui; Li, Siqi; van Bodegom, Peter M; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2016-04-10

    Flooding imposes stress upon terrestrial plants because it results in oxygen deficiency, which is considered a major problem for submerged plants. A common response of terrestrial plants to flooding is the formation of aquatic adventitious roots. Some studies have shown that adventitious roots on submerged plants are capable of absorbing water and nutrients. However, there is no experimental evidence for the possible oxygen uptake function of adventitious roots or for how important this function might be for the survival of plants during prolonged submergence. This study aims to investigate whether adventitious roots absorb oxygen from the water column, and whether this new function is beneficial to the survival of completely submerged plants. TakingAlternanthera philoxeroides(Mart.) Griseb. as a representative species, the profiling of the underwater oxygen gradient towards living and dead adventitious roots on completely submerged plants was conducted, the oxygen concentration in stem nodes with and without adventitious roots was measured, and the growth, survival and non-structural carbohydrate content of completely submerged plants with and without adventitious roots was investigated. Oxygen profiles in the water column of adventitious roots showed that adventitious roots absorbed oxygen from water. It is found that the oxygen concentration in stem nodes having adventitious roots was higher than that in stem nodes without adventitious roots, which implies that the oxygen absorbed by adventitious roots from water was subsequently transported from the roots to other plant tissues. Compared with plants whose adventitious roots had been pruned, those with intact adventitious roots had slower leaf shedding, slower plant mass reduction, more efficient carbohydrate economy and prolonged survival when completely submerged. The adventitious roots ofA. philoxeroidesformed upon submergence can absorb oxygen from ambient water, thereby alleviating the adverse effects of

  10. Tissue Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, David Gerald [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The project began as a e ort to support InLight and Lumidigm. With the sale of the companies to a non-New Mexico entity, the project then focused on supporting a new company Medici Technologies. The Small Business (SB) is attempting to quantify glucose in tissue using a series of short interferometer scans of the nger. Each scan is produced from a novel presentation of the nger to the device. The intent of the project is to identify and, if possible, implement improved methods for classi cation, feature selection, and training to improve the performance of predictive algorithms used for tissue classi cation.

  11. Peroxidases, lignin and anatomy during in vitro and ex vitro rooting of gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) microshoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzilazarou, Stefanos P; Syros, Thomas D; Yupsanis, Traianos A; Bosabalidis, Artemios M; Economou, Athanasios S

    2006-07-01

    In vitro and ex vitro rooting of gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) microshoots with or without indolic-3-butyric acid (IBA) was studied in order to improve acclimatization of microplants after root formation and transplantation. Peroxidase (POD) activity and isoforms, lignin content and anatomical observations were evaluated in the course of the three interdependent phases (induction, initiation and expression) of microshoot rooting. Microshoots treated or not treated with IBA achieved high rooting percentages both in vitro and ex vitro. At the end of the 2-week acclimatization period, the percentage of surviving microplants ranged from 80% to 100%, for in vitro and ex vitro rooted microshoots, respectively. Microshoots rooted in vitro and ex vitro showed a relationship between rooting and POD activity but in a different time course. It appeared that root formation occurred after the microshoots had reached and passed a peak of maximum enzyme activity. In all treatments, electrophoretic analysis (native PAGE) of PODs revealed the appearance of one anionic and three cationic POD isoforms (C(1), C(3) and C(4)). An additional cationic POD isoform (C(2)) appeared only in the ex vitro rooting. The lignin content was similar in microshoots rooted both in vitro and ex vitro. The sequential anatomical changes during the rooting process were similar in both in vitro and ex vitro rooting treatments. In the case of in vitro rooting, pith cells had vacuoles entirely filled with a dark substance, while in the case of ex vitro rooting, pith cells contained many amyloplasts. The origin of the adventitious roots, in both rooting conditions, was located in the cambial ring. Roots with organized tissue systems emerged from the microshoot stem 10-14 days after the root induction treatments; on day 10 for rooting in vitro, while a 4-day delay was noted in microshoots rooted ex vitro.

  12. Comparing Leaf and Root Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Geldenhuys

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider two ways of inserting a key into a binary search tree: leaf insertion which is the standard method, and root insertion which involves additional rotations. Although the respective cost of constructing leaf and root insertion binary search trees trees, in terms of comparisons, are the same in the average case, we show that in the worst case the construction of a root insertion binary search tree needs approximately 50% of the number of comparisons required by leaf insertion.

  13. Root system in declining forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, F.H.

    1987-07-11

    Trees with obligate ectomycorrhiza are more sensitive to environmental stress than those without ectomycorrhiza or with facultative ectomycorrhiza. With spruce seedlings growing in humus material from a declining spruce forest an experimental proof was given, that reduction of the mineral nitrogen content by adding sawdust to the rooting substrate increases the share of root tips converted to ectomycorrhizas. A close correlation has been found between the mycorrhiza frequency and the number of root tips. This means, that the ramification of a root system is the more intense the better the conditions for mycorrhizal development are.

  14. Acclimation of fine root respiration to soil warming involves starch deposition in very fine and fine roots: a case study in Fagus sylvatica saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Antonino; Giacomuzzi, Valentino; Chiatante, Donato

    2016-03-01

    Root activities in terms of respiration and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) storage and mobilization have been suggested as major physiological roles in fine root lifespan. As more frequent heat waves and drought periods within the next decades are expected, to what extent does thermal acclimation in fine roots represent a mechanism to cope with such upcoming climatic conditions? In this study, the possible changes in very fine (diameter Fagus sylvatica saplings subjected to a simulated long-lasting heat wave event and to co-occurring soil drying. For both very fine and fine roots, soil temperature (ST) resulted inversely correlated with specific root length, respiration rates and SSs concentration, but directly correlated with root mass, root tissue density and starch concentration. In particular, starch concentration increased under 28 °C for successively decreasing under 21 °C ST. These findings showed that thermal acclimation in very fine and fine roots due to 24 days exposure to high ST (∼ 28 °C), induced starch accumulation. Such 'carbon-savings strategy' should bear the maintenance costs associated to the recovery process in case of restored favorable environmental conditions, such as those occurring at the end of a heat wave event. Drought condition seems to affect the fine root vitality much more under moderate than high temperature condition, making the temporary exposure to high ST less threatening to root vitality than expected. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. Radioprotective Effects of Hairy Roots of Ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Young; Yang, Deok Cho [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Panax ginseng is an important medicinal plant in Korea, which has broad efficacious effects against hypertension, diabetes, nociception and cancer. And it improves weakness. The native ginseng is a slow growing plant taking 5-7 years from seed planting to mature root harvesting, during which time much care is needed since its growth is susceptible to many environmental factors such as soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. Nowadays, a wild ginseng has become extremely scarce and the ginseng supply depends almost exclusively on field cultivation, which is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. To meet the demand for the plant in the international market, a bioreactor technology is a useful tool for production of root biomass on a large scale. Therefore, suspension culture of ginseng roots in bioreactors is viewed as a primary alternative method for large-scale production and recently our laboratory has developed a protocol for the in vitro culture of P. ginseng. About 60-70% of cellular DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation is caused by OH, formed from the radiolysis of water. Oxidative stress occurs when there is an excessive free radical production and/or low antioxidant defense, and results in the chemical alterations of biomolecules causing structural and functional modifications. The generation of the reactive oxygen metabolites plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the irradiation-induced tissue injury. An extensive literature review implicates cellular DNA as the primary target for the biological and lethal effects of ionizing radiation. Besides DNA, lipids and proteins are also attacked by free radicals. The purpose of this study, aimed at investigating the possible radioprotective effect of the hairy roots of P. ginseng on irradiation-induced damage by the comet assay.

  16. Root Scaling Study ; Description of the DNS Root Scaling Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsen, B.; Jamakovic, A.; Roijers, F.

    2009-01-01

    In opdracht van de Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), de organisatie verantwoordelijk voor het beheren van de Root zone, heeft TNO onderzoek gedaan naar de schaalbaarheid van de Root zone. Welke impact kunnen de invoering van secure DNS (DNSSEC) en IPv6 en de uitbreiding

  17. Cold storage of rooted and non-rooted carnation cuttings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    showed differences depending on the cultivar tested. Specifically, the Vittorio cultivar had a better reaction to long-term storage. The survival and rooting rates of non-rooted cuttings after cold storage also showed differences depending on the cultivar tested. Vittorio cultivar reacted better to storage than the Dianora cultivar.

  18. Effects of different concentarions of auxins on rooting and root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different concentarions of auxins on rooting and root characters of air and ground layers of jojoba ( Simmondsia chinensis (Link.) C.K. Schneider. ... The experiment was conducted during the rainy season from June to August in a randomised complete block design with three replications. Both air and ground ...

  19. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide reversibly inhibits root gravitropism and induces horizontal curvature of primary root during grass pea germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinglong; Su, Miao; Wang, Liyan; Jiao, Chengjin; Sun, Zhengxi; Cheng, Wei; Li, Fengmin; Wang, Chongying

    2012-04-01

    During germination in distilled water (dH(2)O) on a horizontally positioned Petri dish, emerging primary roots of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) grew perpendicular to the bottom of the Petri dish, due to gravitropism. However, when germinated in exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), the primary roots grew parallel to the bottom of the Petri dish and asymmetrically, forming a horizontal curvature. Time-course experiments showed that the effect was strongest when H(2)O(2) was applied prior to the emergence of the primary root. H(2)O(2) failed to induce root curvature when applied post-germination. Dosage studies revealed that the frequency of primary root curvature was significantly enhanced with increased H(2)O(2) concentrations. This curvature could be directly counteracted by dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a scavenger of H(2)O(2), but not by diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and pyridine, inhibitors of H(2)O(2) production. Exogenous H(2)O(2) treatment caused both an increase in the activities of H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzymes [including ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7)] and a reduction in endogenous H(2)O(2) levels and root vitality. Although grass pea seeds absorbed exogenous H(2)O(2) during seed germination, DAB staining of paraffin sections revealed that exogenous H(2)O(2) only entered the root epidermis and not inner tissues. These data indicated that exogenously applied H(2)O(2) could lead to a reversible loss of the root gravitropic response and a horizontal curvature in primary roots during radicle emergence of the seedling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of temperature generated from the Holmium: YAG laser on human osteoblasts in monolayer tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Moustafa I; Sandison, Anne; Coombs, Richard R H; McCarthy, Ian D; Hafez, Al-Shymaa M

    2012-01-01

    With the use of lasers for ablation purposes in spinal surgery, the tissue temperature increases above the boiling point of water, leading to tissue ablation by vaporisation. Due to the thermal environment engendered by the use of lasers, there is concern about the safety of the surrounding important structures, such as dura mater, dorsal root ganglia, and nerve roots.

  1. Root systems of chaparral shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerow, Jochen; Krause, David; Jow, William

    1977-06-01

    Root systems of chaparral shrubs were excavated from a 70 m2 plot of a mixed chaparral stand located on a north-facing slope in San Diego County (32°54' N; 900 m above sea level). The main shrub species present were Adenostoma fasciculatum, Arctostaphylos pungens, Ceanothus greggii, Erigonum fasciculatum, and Haplopappus pinifolius. Shrubs were wired into their positions, and the soil was washed out beneath them down to a depth of approximately 60 cm, where impenetrable granite impeded further washing and root growth was severely restricted. Spacing and interweaving of root systems were recorded by an in-scale drawing. The roots were harvested in accordance to their depths, separated into diameter size classes for each species, and their dry weights measured. Roots of shrubs were largely confined to the upper soil levels. The roots of Eriogonum fasciculatum were concentrated in the upper soil layer. Roots of Adenostoma fasciculatum tended to be more superficial than those from Ceanothus greggii. It is hypothesized that the shallow soil at the excavation site impeded a clear depth zonation of the different root systems. The average dry weight root:shoot ratio was 0.6, ranging for the individual shrubs from 0.8 to 0.4. The root area always exceeded the shoot area, with the corresponding ratios ranging from 6 for Arctostaphylos pungens to 40 for Haplopappus pinifolius. The fine root density of 64 g dry weight per m2 under the canopy was significantly higher than in the unshaded area. However, the corresponding value of 45 g dry weight per m2 for the open ground is still high enough to make the establishment of other shrubs difficult.

  2. Iridovirus infection of cell cultures from the Diaprepes root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. Hunter

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We here report the development and viral infection of a Diaprepes root weevil cell culture. Embryonic tissues of the root weevil were used to establish cell cultures for use in screening viral pathogens as potential biological control agents. Tissues were seeded into a prepared solution of insect medium and kept at a temperature of 24°C. The cell culture had primarily fibroblast-like morphology with some epithelial monolayers. Root weevil cells were successfully infected in vitro with a known insect virus, Invertebrate Iridescent Virus 6. Potential uses of insect cell cultures and insect viruses are discussed.

  3. Nanodiamond–Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable, inert, and biocompatible. While filling the root canal space with GP is the standard of care for endodontic therapies, it has exhibited limitations including leakage, root canal reinfection, and poor mechanical properties. To address these challenges, clinicians have explored the use of alternative root filling materials other than GP. Among the classes of materials that are being explored as novel endodontic therapy platforms, nanodiamonds (NDs) may offer unique advantages due to their favorable properties, particularly for dental applications. These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others. This study developed a ND-embedded GP (NDGP) that was functionalized with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used for endodontic infection. Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP. In addition, digital radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated that obturation of root canals with NDGP could be achieved using clinically relevant techniques. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin. This study demonstrates a promising path toward NDGP implementation in future endodontic therapy for improved treatment outcomes. PMID:26452304

  4. TGF-β and Physiological Root Resorption of Deciduous Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Shimazaki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to examine how transforming growth factor β (TGF-β in root-surrounding tissues on deciduous teeth regulates the differentiation induction into odontoclasts during physiological root resorption. We prepared root-surrounding tissues with (R or without (N physiological root resorption scraped off at three regions (R1–R3 or N1–N3 from the cervical area to the apical area of the tooth and measured both TGF-β and the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activities. The TGF-β activity level was increased in N1–N3, whereas the TRAP activity was increased in R2 and R3. In vitro experiments for the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB ligand (RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation revealed that proteins from N1–N3 and R1–R3 enhanced the TRAP activity in RAW264 cells. A genetic study indicated that the mRNA levels of TGF-β1 in N1 and N2 were significantly increased, and corresponded with levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG. In contrast, the expression level of RANKL was increased in R2 and R3. Our findings suggest that TGF-β is closely related to the regulation of OPG induction and RANKL-mediated odontoclast differentiation depending on the timing of RANKL and OPG mRNA expression in the root-surrounding tissues of deciduous teeth during physiological root resorption.

  5. Hyoscyamine biosynthesis in Datura stramonium hairy root in vitro systems with different ploidy levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A; Berkov, S; Weber, J; Bley, Th

    2009-05-01

    Hyoscyamine biosynthesis in Datura stramonium hairy roots with different ploidy levels was investigated. For the first time, we report that hairy roots undergo endoreduplication and therefore consist mainly of cells with doupled sets of chromosomes of primary plant tissues, used for Agrobacterium transformation. The alkaloid profiles of hairy roots obtained from diploid and tetraploid plants were similar in terms of the major compounds, but they differed significantly with respect to the minor compounds (here defined as those that accounted for stramonium hairy root cultures are also presented.

  6. Patterns of structural and defense investments in fine roots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) across a strong temperature and latitudinal gradient in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadworny, Marcin; McCormack, M Luke; Żytkowiak, Roma; Karolewski, Piotr; Mucha, Joanna; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2017-03-01

    Plant functional traits may be altered as plants adapt to various environmental constraints. Cold, low fertility growing conditions are often associated with root adjustments to increase acquisition of limiting nutrient resources, but they may also result in construction of roots with reduced uptake potential but higher tissue persistence. It is ultimately unclear whether plants produce fine roots of different structure in response to decreasing temperatures and whether these changes represent a trade-off between root function or potential root persistence. We assessed patterns of root construction based on various root morphological, biochemical and defense traits including root diameter, specific root length (SRL), root tissue density (RTD), C:N ratio, phenolic compounds, and number of phellem layers across up to 10 root orders in diverse populations of Scots pine along a 2000-km climatic gradient in Europe. Our results showed that different root traits are related to mean annual temperature (MAT) and expressed a pattern of higher root diameter and lower SRL and RTD in northern sites with lower MAT. Among absorptive roots, we observed a gradual decline in chemical defenses (phenolic compounds) with decreasing MAT. In contrast, decreasing MAT resulted in an increase of structural protection (number of phellem layers) in transport fine roots. This indicated that absorptive roots with high capacity for nutrient uptake, and transport roots with low uptake capacity, were characterized by distinct and contrasting trade-offs. Our observations suggest that diminishing structural and chemical investments into the more distal, absorptive roots in colder climates is consistent with building roots of higher absorptive capacity. At the same time, roots that play a more prominent role in transport of nutrients and water within the root system saw an increase in structural investment, which can increase persistence and reduce long-term costs associated with their frequent

  7. Melatonin promotes adventitious- and lateral root regeneration in etiolated hypocotyls of Lupinus albus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnao, Marino B; Hernández-Ruiz, Josefa

    2007-03-01

    Melatonin is a well-known animal substance, which has recently been detected in plant tissues. However, there are only a few studies concerning its possible physiological role in plants. In this paper, we investigate the possible effect of melatonin on the regeneration of lateral and adventious roots in etiolated hypocotyls of Lupinus albus L. compared with the effect of indole-3-acetic acid. We performed this study by measuring both molecules in roots. Six-day-old derooted lupin hypocotyls immersed in several melatonin or indole-3-acetic acid concentrations were used to induce roots. A macro- and microscopic study of the histological origin of the adventitious and lateral roots was made, while melatonin and indole-3-acetic acid in the roots were quantified using liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The data show that both melatonin and indole-3-acetic acid induced the appearance of root primordia from pericicle cells, modifying the pattern of distribution of adventitious or lateral roots, the time-course, the number and length of adventitious roots, and the number of lateral roots. Melatonin and indole-3-acetic acid were detected and quantified in lupin primary roots, where both molecules were present in similar concentrations. The physiological effect of exogenous melatonin as root promoter was demonstrated, its action being similar to that of indole-3-acetic acid.

  8. An auxin-responsive endogenous peptide regulates root development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fengxi; Song, Yu; Yang, Hao; Liu, Zhibin; Zhu, Genfa; Yang, Yi

    2014-07-01

    Auxin plays critical roles in root formation and development. The components involved in this process, however, are not well understood. Here, we newly identified a peptide encoding gene, auxin-responsive endogenous polypeptide 1 (AREP1), which is induced by auxin, and mediates root development in Arabidopsis. Expression of AREP1 was specific to the cotyledon and to root and shoot meristem tissues. Amounts of AREP1 transcripts and AREP1-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins were elevated in response to indoleacetic acid treatment. Suppression of AREP1 through RNAi silencing resulted in reduction of primary root length, increase of lateral root number, and expansion of adventitious roots, compared to the observations in wild-type plants in the presence of auxin. By contrast, transgenic plants overexpressing AREP1 showed enhanced growth of the primary root under auxin treatment. Additionally, root morphology, including lateral root number and adventitious roots, differed greatly between transgenic and wild-type plants. Further analysis indicated that the expression of auxin-responsive genes, such as IAA3, IAA7, IAA17, GH3.2, GH3.3, and SAUR-AC1, was significantly higher in AREP1 RNAi plants, and was slightly lower in AREP1 overexpressing plants than in wild-type plants. These results suggest that the novel endogenous peptide AREP1 plays an important role in the process of auxin-mediated root development. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Phenotyping Root System Architecture of Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. Grown Under Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mottaleb Shady A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity causes an annual deep negative impact to the global agricultural economy. In this study, the effects of salinity on early seedling physiology of two Egyptian cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. cultivars differing in their salinity tolerance were examined. Also the potential use of a low cost mini-rhizotron system to measure variation in root system architecture (RSA traits existing in both cultivars was assessed. Salt tolerant cotton cultivar ‘Giza 90’ produced significantly higher root and shoot biomass, accumulated lower Na+/K+ ratio through a higher Na+ exclusion from both roots and leaves as well as synthesized higher proline contents compared to salt sensitive ‘Giza 45’ cultivar. Measuring RSA in mini-rhizotrons containing solid MS nutrient medium as substrate proved to be more precise and efficient than peat moss/sand mixture. We report superior values of main root growth rate, total root system size, main root length, higher number of lateral roots and average lateral root length in ‘Giza 90’ under salinity. Higher lateral root density and length together with higher root tissue tolerance of Na+ ions in ‘Giza 90’ give it an advantage to be used as donor genotype for desirable root traits to other elite cultivars.

  10. Community-Weighted Mean Plant Traits Predict Small Scale Distribution of Insect Root Herbivore Abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnemann, Ilja; Pfestorf, Hans; Jeltsch, Florian; Wurst, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Small scale distribution of insect root herbivores may promote plant species diversity by creating patches of different herbivore pressure. However, determinants of small scale distribution of insect root herbivores, and impact of land use intensity on their small scale distribution are largely unknown. We sampled insect root herbivores and measured vegetation parameters and soil water content along transects in grasslands of different management intensity in three regions in Germany. We calculated community-weighted mean plant traits to test whether the functional plant community composition determines the small scale distribution of insect root herbivores. To analyze spatial patterns in plant species and trait composition and insect root herbivore abundance we computed Mantel correlograms. Insect root herbivores mainly comprised click beetle (Coleoptera, Elateridae) larvae (43%) in the investigated grasslands. Total insect root herbivore numbers were positively related to community-weighted mean traits indicating high plant growth rates and biomass (specific leaf area, reproductive- and vegetative plant height), and negatively related to plant traits indicating poor tissue quality (leaf C/N ratio). Generalist Elaterid larvae, when analyzed independently, were also positively related to high plant growth rates and furthermore to root dry mass, but were not related to tissue quality. Insect root herbivore numbers were not related to plant cover, plant species richness and soil water content. Plant species composition and to a lesser extent plant trait composition displayed spatial autocorrelation, which was not influenced by land use intensity. Insect root herbivore abundance was not spatially autocorrelated. We conclude that in semi-natural grasslands with a high share of generalist insect root herbivores, insect root herbivores affiliate with large, fast growing plants, presumably because of availability of high quantities of food. Affiliation of insect root

  11. Properties of Estimated Characteristic Roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent; Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    Estimated characteristic roots in stationary autoregressions are shown to give rather noisy information about their population equivalents. This is remarkable given the central role of the characteristic roots in the theory of autoregressive processes. In the asymptotic analysis the problems appear...

  12. Lead accumulation and association with Fe on Typha latifolia root from an urban brownfield site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huan; Qian, Yu; Gallagher, Frank J; Wu, Meiyin; Zhang, Weiguo; Yu, Lizhong; Zhu, Qingzhi; Zhang, Kewei; Liu, Chang-Jun; Tappero, Ryan

    2013-06-01

    Synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence and X-ray absorption near-edge microstructure spectroscopy techniques were applied to Typha latifolia (cattail) root sections and rhizosphere soils collected from a brownfield site in New Jersey to investigate lead (Pb) accumulation in T. latifolia roots and the role of iron (Fe) plaque in controlling Pb uptake. We found that Pb and Fe spatial distribution patterns in the root tissues are similar with both metals present at high concentrations mainly in the epidermis and at low concentrations in the vascular tissue (xylem and phloem), and the major Pb and Fe species in T. latifolia root are Pb(II) and Fe(III) regardless of concentration levels. The sequestration of Pb by T. latifolia roots suggests a potential low-cost remediation method (phytostabilization) to manage Pb-contaminated sediments for brownfield remediation while performing wetland rehabilitation.

  13. Ganglioneuroma of Lumbar Nerve Root: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Min Hye; Lee, Seung Hun; Joo, Kyung Bin; Jang, Ki Seok [Dept. of Hanyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ji Yoon [Dept. of Pathology, National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Ganglioneuroma is a rare, benign, slow-growing, well-differentiated tumor consisting of ganglion cells and Schwann cells. Ganglioneuromas originate from neural crest cells and can affect any part of the sympathetic tissue from the skull base to the pelvis. However, ganglioneuroma occurring in the nerve root is extremely rare. We describe a 50-year-old man with ganglioneuroma involving the right 5th lumbar nerve root. The ganglioneuroma showed intermediate signal intensity on the T1-weighted image and high signal intensity on the T2-weighted image with homogeneous enhancement on the gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted image.

  14. In vitro cultured primary roots derived from stem segments of cassava (Manihot esculenta) can behave like storage organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Ricardo D; Faloci, Mirta M; Gonzalez, Ana M; Mroginski, Luis A

    2007-03-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) has three adventitious root types: primary and secondary fibrous roots, and storage roots. Different adventitious root types can also regenerate from in vitro cultured segments. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of in vitro production of storage roots. Morphological and anatomical analyses were performed to identify and differentiate each root type. Twenty-nine clones were assayed to determine the effect of genotype on the capacity to form storage roots in vitro. The effects of cytokinins and auxins on the formation of storage roots in vitro were also examined. Primary roots formed in vitro and in vivo had similar tissue kinds; however, storage roots formed in vitro exhibited physiological specialization for storing starch. The only consistent diagnostic feature between secondary fibrous and storage roots was their functional differentiation. Anatomical analysis of the storage roots formed in vitro showed that radial expansion as a consequence of massive proliferation and enlargement of parenchymatous cells occurred in the middle cortex, but not from cambial activity as in roots formed in vivo. Cortical expansion could be related to dilatation growth favoured by hormone treatments. Starch deposition of storage roots formed in vitro was confined to cortical tissue and occurred earlier than in storage roots formed in vivo. Auxin and cytokinin supplementation were absolutely required for in vitro storage root regeneration; these roots were not able to develop secondary growth, but formed a tissue competent for starch storing. MS medium with 5 % sucrose plus 0.54 microM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 0.44 microM 6-benzylaminopurine was one of the most effective in stimulating the storage root formation. Genotypes differed significantly in their capacity to produce storage roots in vitro. Storage root formation was considerably affected by the segment's primary position and strongly influenced by hormone treatments. The storage

  15. In vitro Cultured Primary Roots Derived from Stem Segments of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Can Behave Like Storage Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Ricardo D.; Faloci, Mirta M.; Gonzalez, Ana M.; Mroginski, Luis A.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Cassava (Manihot esculenta) has three adventitious root types: primary and secondary fibrous roots, and storage roots. Different adventitious root types can also regenerate from in vitro cultured segments. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of in vitro production of storage roots. Methods Morphological and anatomical analyses were performed to identify and differentiate each root type. Twenty-nine clones were assayed to determine the effect of genotype on the capacity to form storage roots in vitro. The effects of cytokinins and auxins on the formation of storage roots in vitro were also examined. Key Results Primary roots formed in vitro and in vivo had similar tissue kinds; however, storage roots formed in vitro exhibited physiological specialization for storing starch. The only consistent diagnostic feature between secondary fibrous and storage roots was their functional differentiation. Anatomical analysis of the storage roots formed in vitro showed that radial expansion as a consequence of massive proliferation and enlargement of parenchymatous cells occurred in the middle cortex, but not from cambial activity as in roots formed in vivo. Cortical expansion could be related to dilatation growth favoured by hormone treatments. Starch deposition of storage roots formed in vitro was confined to cortical tissue and occurred earlier than in storage roots formed in vivo. Auxin and cytokinin supplementation were absolutely required for in vitro storage root regeneration; these roots were not able to develop secondary growth, but formed a tissue competent for starch storing. MS medium with 5 % sucrose plus 0·54 μm 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 0·44 μm 6-benzylaminopurine was one of the most effective in stimulating the storage root formation. Genotypes differed significantly in their capacity to produce storage roots in vitro. Storage root formation was considerably affected by the segment's primary position and strongly

  16. Multiple idiopathic apical root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanungo, Manish; Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Nayak, Prathibha Anand

    2013-04-23

    Idiopathic external root resorption is a rarely reported condition which has been observed in single or multiple teeth. This is a rare case of multiple idiopathic apical root resorption (MIARR) in a 16-year-old boy. External root resorption of the permanent teeth is a multifactorial process. Well-recognised causes of apical root resorption in permanent teeth include orthodontic therapy, trauma, periapical or periodontal inflammation, tumours, cysts, occlusal stresses, impacted teeth, systemic conditions, endocrine imbalances and dietary habits. When none of these causes are present, it is termed idiopathic root resorption which may be either cervical or apical. MIARR is a rare condition which is usually detected as an incidental radiographic finding. However, it may cause pain and mobility in severe cases.

  17. Physical root-soil interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Evelyne; Legue, Valérie; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice

    2017-10-04

    Plant root system development is highly modulated by the physical properties of the soil and especially by its mechanical resistance to penetration. The interplay between the mechanical stresses exerted by the soil and root growth is of particular interest for many communities, in agronomy and soil science as well as in biomechanics and plant morphogenesis. In contrast to shoots, roots apices must exert a growth pressure to penetrate strong soils and reorient their growth trajectory to cope with obstacles like stones or hardpans or to follow the tortuous paths of the soil porosity. In this review, we present the main macroscopic investigations of soil-root physical interactions in the field and combine them with simple mechanistic modeling derived from model experiments at the scale of the individual root apex. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  18. Roots and the stability of forested slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. R. Ziemer

    1981-01-01

    Abstract - Root decay after timber cutting can lead to slope failure. In situ measurements of soil with tree roots showed that soil strength increased linearly as root biomass increased. Forests clear-felled 3 years earlier contained about one-third of the root biomass of old-growth forests. Nearly all of the roots

  19. RootJS: Node.js Bindings for ROOT 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beffart, Theo; Früh, Maximilian; Haas, Christoph; Rajgopal, Sachin; Schwabe, Jonas; Wolff, Christoph; Szuba, Marek

    2017-10-01

    We present rootJS, an interface making it possible to seamlessly integrate ROOT 6 into applications written for Node.js, the JavaScript runtime platform increasingly commonly used to create high-performance Web applications. ROOT features can be called both directly from Node.js code and by JIT-compiling C++ macros. All rootJS methods are invoked asynchronously and support callback functions, allowing non-blocking operation of Node.js applications using them. Last but not least, our bindings have been designed to platform-independent and should therefore work on all systems supporting both ROOT 6 and Node.js. Thanks to rootJS it is now possible to create ROOT-aware Web applications taking full advantage of the high performance and extensive capabilities of Node.js. Examples include platforms for the quality assurance of acquired, reconstructed or simulated data, book-keeping and e-log systems, and even Web browser-based data visualisation and analysis.

  20. The Autoregulation Gene SUNN Mediates Changes in Root Organ Formation in Response to Nitrogen through Alteration of Shoot-to-Root Auxin Transport1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Watt, Michelle; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether a gene regulating nodule number in Medicago truncatula, Super Numeric Nodules (SUNN ), is involved in root architecture responses to carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and whether this is mediated by changes in shoot-to-root auxin transport. Nodules and lateral roots are root organs that are under the control of nutrient supply, but how their architecture is regulated in response to nutrients is unclear. We treated wild-type and sunn-1 seedlings with four combinations of low or increased N (as nitrate) and C (as CO2) and determined responses in C/N partitioning, plant growth, root and nodule density, and changes in auxin transport. In both genotypes, nodule density was negatively correlated with tissue N concentration, while only the wild type showed significant correlations between N concentration and lateral root density. Shoot-to-root auxin transport was negatively correlated with shoot N concentration in the wild type but not in the sunn-1 mutant. In addition, the ability of rhizobia to alter auxin transport depended on N and C treatment as well as the SUNN gene. Nodule and lateral root densities were negatively correlated with auxin transport in the wild type but not in the sunn-1 mutant. Our results suggest that SUNN is required for the modulation of shoot-to-root auxin transport in response to altered N tissue concentrations in the absence of rhizobia and that this controls lateral root density in response to N. The control of nodule density in response to N is more likely to occur locally in the root. PMID:22399647

  1. Root coverage of a previously restored tooth. A case report with a 7-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsair, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a maxillary canine that had 4 mm of marginal gingival recession. The exposed root had been previously restored with a composite class 5 restoration. The restoration was removed and the root planed and demineralized. The root was then covered by a subepithelial connective tissue graft harvested from the palate. The flap was coronally positioned to completely cover the graft and exposed root. The healing was photographed post-operatively at one month, six months, and seven years. Root coverage increased to 100% after seven years. The zone of attached gingiva also increased.

  2. An ESR study of manganese binding in plant tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacić, G; Schara, M; Ratković, S

    1993-02-01

    Two different fractions of manganese were found in the maize plant root apoplasm (intercellular space containing cell walls) after soaking the roots in MnCl2 solutions (concentration range 0.01-10 mmol.l-1): (a) an Mn2+ fraction in the water free space (WFS) which gave a characteristic six-line spectrum, and (b) an immobilized fraction that gave no detectable ESR spectrum. Both fractions affect proton NMR relaxation (T1) of the tissue water through water exchange across cell membranes. ESR spectra of free and total manganese of the root tissue treated with MnCl2 also revealed different time courses for saturation of WFS and DFS with Mn2+. Binding of manganese in the extracellular space of the tissue seems to be the rate limiting step in permeation of Mn2+ across the root cell membranes.

  3. Medico-legal aspects of vertical root fractures in root filled teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosen, E; Tsesis, I; Tamse, A

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the medico-legal aspects of vertical root fracture (VRF) following root canal treatment (RCT).......To analyse the medico-legal aspects of vertical root fracture (VRF) following root canal treatment (RCT)....

  4. A histological and micro-CT investigation in to the effect of NGF and EGF on the periodontal, alveolar bone, root and pulpal healing of replanted molars in a rat model - a pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Furfaro, Francesco; Ang, Estabelle SM; Lareu, Ricky R; Murray, Kevin; Goonewardene, Mithran

    2014-01-01

    ...) and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF) can enhance periodontal, alveolar bone, root and pulpal tissue regeneration while minimising the risk of pulpal necrosis, root resorption and ankylosis of replanted molars in a rat...

  5. Pulpectomy in hyperemic pulp and accelerated root resorption in primary teeth: A review with associated case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Walia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent hemorrhage after complete amputation of coronal pulp is a common clinical finding during pulpotomy procedure in primary teeth. These teeth are best managed with pulpectomy, but they have hyperemic pulp with some remaining vital tissue. Good chemico-biomechanical preparation of primary canals cannot guarantee complete removal of this vital tissue from inaccessible areas. Use of Ca(OH 2 containing root filling pastes in vital pulp tissue can cause accelerated resorption of primary roots. The possible mechanism behind such extensive root resorption is discussed with review of literature. A case report of a child with 30 months follow-up is presented and discussed.

  6. Pulpectomy in hyperemic pulp and accelerated root resorption in primary teeth: a review with associated case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Tarun

    2014-01-01

    Persistent hemorrhage after complete amputation of coronal pulp is a common clinical finding during pulpotomy procedure in primary teeth. These teeth are best managed with pulpectomy, but they have hyperemic pulp with some remaining vital tissue. Good chemico-biomechanical preparation of primary canals cannot guarantee complete removal of this vital tissue from inaccessible areas. Use of Ca(OH) ₂ containing root filling pastes in vital pulp tissue can cause accelerated resorption of primary roots. The possible mechanism behind such extensive root resorption is discussed with review of literature. A case report of a child with 30 months follow-up is presented and discussed.

  7. Root development during soil genesis: effects of root-root interactions, mycorrhizae, and substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, A.; Zaharescu, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    A major driver of soil formation is the colonization and transformation of rock by plants and associated microbiota. In turn, substrate chemical composition can also influence the capacity for plant colonization and development. In order to better define these relationships, a mesocosm study was set up to analyze the effect mycorrhizal fungi, plant density and rock have on root development, and to determine the effect of root morphology on weathering and soil formation. We hypothesized that plant-plant and plant-fungi interactions have a stronger influence on root architecture and rock weathering than the substrate composition alone. Buffalo grass (Bouteloua dactyloides) was grown in a controlled environment in columns filled with either granular granite, schist, rhyolite or basalt. Each substrate was given two different treatments, including grass-microbes and grass-microbes-mycorrhizae and incubated for 120, 240, and 480 days. Columns were then extracted and analyzed for root morphology, fine fraction, and pore water major element content. Preliminary results showed that plants produced more biomass in rhyolite, followed by schist, basalt, and granite, indicating that substrate composition is an important driver of root development. In support of our hypothesis, mycorrhizae was a strong driver of root development by stimulating length growth, biomass production, and branching. However, average root length and branching also appeared to decrease in response to high plant density, though this trend was only present among roots with mycorrhizal fungi. Interestingly, fine fraction production was negatively correlated with average root thickness and volume. There is also slight evidence indicating that fine fraction production is more related to substrate composition than root morphology, though this data needs to be further analyzed. Our hope is that the results of this study can one day be applied to agricultural research in order to promote the production of crops

  8. Non-canonical WOX11-mediated root branching contributes to plasticity in arabidopsis root system architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheng, Lihong; Hu, Xiaomei; Du, Yujuan; Zhang, Guifang; Huang, Hai; Scheres, Ben; Xu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Lateral roots (LRs), which originate from the growing root, and adventitious roots (ARs), which are formed from non-root organs, are the main contributors to the post-embryonic root system in Arabidopsis. However, our knowledge of how formation of the root system is altered in response to diverse

  9. Uncertainties on Root C Turnover and Decomposition and its Impact on Soil C Sequestration Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamala, R.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2005-12-01

    Roots provide a path for movement of carbon and energy from plant canopies to soils; thus, root production and turnover directly impact the biogeochemical cycle of C and nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. Uncertainties in estimates of production, mortality and decomposition of roots prevent proper quantification of net primary productivity (NPP), belowground C allocation and inputs to soil organic matter. Our study compares the ecosystem C sequestration potential of two distinct forest types, a pine and a sweetgum forest, growing under FACE (Free Air CO2-Enrichment) conditions that allow for the use of 13CO2 as a tracer in the tissues and soils. Using this technique root C turnover measurements have showed that although fine roots have often been assumed to have MRT of about one year, the MRT of the fine root C varies from 1 to 9 years depending on root diameter and tree species. The relative importance of a slow or a fast root C turnover is shown on the C accrual rate of the soil, slow root turnover rates appears to reduce the sequestration potential of C in soil supporting pine trees, while fast root C turnover in a sweetgum forest sustained significant increases in soil C after being exposed to elevated CO2 for five to six years. The rate of root decomposition and root inputs are calculated for both forest types and compared with the rate of soil organic matter accrual. Our results suggest that C sequestration in soils is strongly affected by root production and the MRT of C of the root system.

  10. Hypocotyl adventitious root organogenesis differs from lateral root development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Inge; Schotte, Sébastien; Geelen, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Wound-induced adventitious root (AR) formation is a requirement for plant survival upon root damage inflicted by pathogen attack, but also during the regeneration of plant stem cuttings for clonal propagation of elite plant varieties. Yet, adventitious rooting also takes place without wounding. This happens for example in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls, in which AR initiate upon de-etiolation or in tomato seedlings, in which AR initiate upon flooding or high water availability. In the hypocotyl AR originate from a cell layer reminiscent to the pericycle in the primary root (PR) and the initiated AR share histological and developmental characteristics with lateral roots (LRs). In contrast to the PR however, the hypocotyl is a determinate structure with an established final number of cells. This points to differences between the induction of hypocotyl AR and LR on the PR, as the latter grows indeterminately. The induction of AR on the hypocotyl takes place in environmental conditions that differ from those that control LR formation. Hence, AR formation depends on differentially regulated gene products. Similarly to AR induction in stem cuttings, the capacity to induce hypocotyl AR is genotype-dependent and the plant growth regulator auxin is a key regulator controlling the rooting response. The hormones cytokinins, ethylene, jasmonic acid, and strigolactones in general reduce the root-inducing capacity. The involvement of this many regulators indicates that a tight control and fine-tuning of the initiation and emergence of AR exists. Recently, several genetic factors, specific to hypocotyl adventitious rooting in A. thaliana, have been uncovered. These factors reveal a dedicated signaling network that drives AR formation in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Here we provide an overview of the environmental and genetic factors controlling hypocotyl-born AR and we summarize how AR formation and the regulating factors of this organogenesis are distinct from LR

  11. Hypocotyl adventitious root organogenesis differs from lateral root development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge eVerstraeten

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wound-induced adventitious root (AR formation is a requirement for plant survival upon root damage inflicted by pathogen attack, but also during the regeneration of plant stem cuttings for clonal propagation of elite plant varieties. Yet, adventitious rooting also takes place without wounding. This happens for example in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls, in which AR initiate upon de-etiolation or in tomato seedlings, in which AR initiate upon flooding or high water availability. In the hypocotyl AR originate from a cell layer reminiscent to the pericycle in the primary root (PR and the initiated AR share histological and developmental characteristics with lateral roots (LR. In contrast to the PR however, the hypocotyl is a determinate structure with an established final number of cells. This points to differences between the induction of hypocotyl AR and LR on the PR, as the latter grows indeterminately. The induction of AR on the hypocotyl takes place in environmental conditions that differ from those that control LR formation. Hence, AR formation depends on differentially regulated gene products. Similarly to AR induction in stem cuttings, the capacity to induce hypocotyl AR is genotype-dependent and the plant growth regulator auxin is a key regulator controlling the rooting response. The hormones cytokinins, ethylene, jasmonic acid and strigolactones in general reduce the root-inducing capacity. The involvement of this many regulators indicates that a tight control and fine-tuning of the initiation and emergence of AR exists. Recently, several genetic factors, specific to hypocotyl adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana, have been uncovered. These factors reveal a dedicated signaling network that drives AR formation in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Here we provide an overview of the environmental and genetic factors controlling hypocotyl-born AR and we summarize how AR formation and the regulating factors of this organogenesis are

  12. Using Hairy Roots for Production of Valuable Plant Secondary Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Plants synthesize a wide variety of natural products, which are traditionally termed secondary metabolites and, more recently, coined specialized metabolites. While these chemical compounds are employed by plants for interactions with their environment, humans have long since explored and exploited plant secondary metabolites for medicinal and practical uses. Due to the tissue-specific and low-abundance accumulation of these metabolites, alternative means of production in systems other than intact plants are sought after. To this end, hairy root culture presents an excellent platform for producing valuable secondary metabolites. This chapter will focus on several major groups of secondary metabolites that are manufactured by hairy roots established from different plant species. Additionally, the methods for preservations of hairy roots will also be reviewed.

  13. Upward and lateral translocation of /sup 32/P supplied to roots of apple and citrus trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, K.K. (City Coll. of Seoul); Chung, K.H.; Kwon, S.H.

    1976-09-01

    Phosphorus-32 was supplied to the roots of stem-ringed 1-year-old apple trees and 2-year-old citrus trees on which bark segments were isolated above and below the ring. /sup 32/P was translocated to shoots and leaves although considerable translocation occurred especially in wood and bark tissues. The accumulation of /sup 32/P in isolated bark segments indicated that the occurrence of these materials in this tissue was via radial translocation from xylem tissue, and that the main upward translocation pathway of /sup 32/P supplied to roots is through the xylem.

  14. CO2 enrichment increases carbon and nitrogen input from fine roots in a deciduous forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, Colleen M [ORNL; Childs, Joanne [ORNL; Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2008-08-01

    Greater root production under elevated [CO2] may drive changes in soil C storage and N cycling. However, this depends on root population turnover and chemistry, and the soil depth at which the roots are produced. We assessed the effect of elevated [CO2] on root biomass and N inputs at several soil depths using a long-term minirhizotron data set combined with continuous, root-specific measurements of root mass per unit length and [N]. Our experiment was conducted in a Liquidambar styraciflua forest stand exposed to current or elevated atmospheric [CO2] for 9 years. CO2-enrichment had no effect on root tissue density or [N] within a given diameter class. Root biomass production, standing crop and mortality were doubled under elevated [CO2]. Over 9 years, root mortality resulted in 681 g m-2 of extra C and 9 g m-2 of extra N input to the soil system under elevated [CO2]. At least half of these inputs were below 30 cm soil depth. Quantification of the effects of elevated CO2 on root detritus, especially at depth in the soil, will provide critical information needed for predicting processes such as long-term soil C storage and N cycling.

  15. Asymmetrical development of root endodermis and exodermis in reaction to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Líška, Denis; Martinka, Michal; Kohanová, Jana; Lux, Alexander

    2016-04-25

    In the present study, we show that development of endodermis and exodermis is sensitively regulated by water accessibility. As cadmium (Cd) is known to induce xeromorphic effects in plants, maize roots were exposed also to Cd to understand the developmental process of suberin lamella deposition in response to a local Cd source. In a first experiment, maize roots were cultivated in vitro and unilaterally exposed to water-containing medium from one side and to air from the other. In a second experiment, the roots were placed between two agar medium layers with a strip of Cd-containing medium attached locally and unilaterally to the root surface. The development of suberin lamella (the second stage of exodermal and endodermal development) started asymmetrically, preferentially closer to the root tip on the side exposed to the air. In the root contact with Cd in a spatially limited area exposed to one side of the root, suberin lamella was preferentially developed in the contact region and additionally along the whole length of the root basipetally from the contact area. However, the development was unilateral and asymmetrical, facing the treated side. The same pattern occurred irrespective of the distance of Cd application from the root apex. These developmental characteristics indicate a sensitive response of root endodermis and exodermis in the protection of vascular tissues against abiotic stresses. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Rapid crown root development confers tolerance to zinc deficiency in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Kaur eNanda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is one of the leading nutrient disorders in rice (Oryza sativa. Many studies have identified Zn efficient rice genotypes, but causal mechanisms for Zn deficiency tolerance remain poorly understood. Here we report a detailed study of the impact of Zn deficiency on crown root development of rice genotypes, differing in their tolerance to this stress. Zn deficiency delayed crown root development and plant biomass accumulation in both Zn efficient and inefficient genotypes, with the effects being much stronger in the latter. Zn efficient genotypes had developed new crown roots as early as three days after transplanting (DAT to a Zn deficient field and that was followed by a significant increase in total biomass by 7 DAT. Zn-inefficient genotypes developed few new crown roots and did not increase biomass during the first seven days following transplanting. This correlated with Zn efficient genotypes retranslocating a higher proportion of shoot Zn to their roots, compared to Zn inefficient genotypes. These latter genotypes were furthermore not efficient in utilizing the limited Zn for root development. Histological analyses indicated no anomalies in crown tissue of Zn-efficient or inefficient genotypes that would have suggested crown root emergence was impeded. We therefore conclude that the rate of crown root initiation was differentially affected by Zn deficiency between genotypes. Rapid crown root development, following transplanting, was identified as a main causative trait for tolerance to Zn deficiency and better Zn retranslocation from shoot to root was a key attribute of Zn-efficient genotypes.

  17. Swarming behavior in plant roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Ciszak

    Full Text Available Interactions between individuals that are guided by simple rules can generate swarming behavior. Swarming behavior has been observed in many groups of organisms, including humans, and recent research has revealed that plants also demonstrate social behavior based on mutual interaction with other individuals. However, this behavior has not previously been analyzed in the context of swarming. Here, we show that roots can be influenced by their neighbors to induce a tendency to align the directions of their growth. In the apparently noisy patterns formed by growing roots, episodic alignments are observed as the roots grow close to each other. These events are incompatible with the statistics of purely random growth. We present experimental results and a theoretical model that describes the growth of maize roots in terms of swarming.

  18. ISLSCP II Ecosystem Rooting Depths

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to predict the global distribution of plant rooting depths based on data about global aboveground vegetation structure and...

  19. ISLSCP II Ecosystem Rooting Depths

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this study was to predict the global distribution of plant rooting depths based on data about global aboveground vegetation structure and climate....

  20. Crenarchaeota colonize terrestrial plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, H M; Dodsworth, J A; Goodman, R M

    2000-10-01

    Microorganisms that colonize plant roots are recruited from, and in turn contribute substantially to, the vast and virtually uncharacterized phylogenetic diversity of soil microbiota. The diverse, but poorly understood, microorganisms that colonize plant roots mediate mineral transformations and nutrient cycles that are central to biosphere functioning. Here, we report the results of epifluorescence microscopy and culture-independent recovery of small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences showing that members of a previously reported clade of soil Crenarchaeota colonize both young and senescent plant roots at an unexpectedly high frequency, and are particularly abundant on the latter. Our results indicate that non-thermophilic members of the Archaea inhabit an important terrestrial niche on earth and direct attention to the need for studies that will determine their possible roles in mediating root biology.

  1. Investigation of the Fusarium virguliforme Transcriptomes Induced during Infection of Soybean Roots Suggests that Enzymes with Hydrolytic Activities Could Play a Major Role in Root Necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Binod B; Baumbach, Jordan L; Singh, Prashant; Srivastava, Subodh K; Yi, Xiaoping; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2017-01-01

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is caused by the fungal pathogen, Fusarium virguliforme, and is a major threat to soybean production in North America. There are two major components of this disease: (i) root necrosis and (ii) foliar SDS. Root symptoms consist of root necrosis with vascular discoloration. Foliar SDS is characterized by interveinal chlorosis and leaf necrosis, and in severe cases by flower and pod abscission. A major toxin involved in initiating foliar SDS has been identified. Nothing is known about how root necrosis develops. In order to unravel the mechanisms used by the pathogen to cause root necrosis, the transcriptome of the pathogen in infected soybean root tissues of a susceptible cultivar, 'Essex', was investigated. The transcriptomes of the germinating conidia and mycelia were also examined. Of the 14,845 predicted F. virguliforme genes, we observed that 12,017 (81%) were expressed in germinating conidia and 12,208 (82%) in mycelia and 10,626 (72%) in infected soybean roots. Of the 10,626 genes induced in infected roots, 224 were transcribed only following infection. Expression of several infection-induced genes encoding enzymes with oxidation-reduction properties suggests that degradation of antimicrobial compounds such as the phytoalexin, glyceollin, could be important in early stages of the root tissue infection. Enzymes with hydrolytic and catalytic activities could play an important role in establishing the necrotrophic phase. The expression of a large number of genes encoding enzymes with catalytic and hydrolytic activities during the late infection stages suggests that cell wall degradation could be involved in root necrosis and the establishment of the necrotrophic phase in this pathogen.

  2. Modification of cell wall polysaccharides during retting of cassava roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngolong Ngea, Guillaume Legrand; Guillon, Fabienne; Essia Ngang, Jean Justin; Bonnin, Estelle; Bouchet, Brigitte; Saulnier, Luc

    2016-12-15

    Retting is an important step in traditional cassava processing that involves tissue softening of the roots to transform the cassava into flour and various food products. The tissue softening that occurs during retting was attributed to the degradation of cell wall pectins through the action of pectin-methylesterase and pectate-lyase that possibly originated from a microbial source or the cassava plant itself. Changes in cell wall composition were investigated during retting using chemical analysis, specific glycanase degradation and immuno-labelling of cell wall polysaccharides. Pectic 1,4-β-d-galactan was the main cell wall polysaccharide affected during the retting of cassava roots. This result suggested that better control of pectic galactan degradation and a better understanding of the degradation mechanism by endogenous endo-galactanase and/or exogenous microbial enzymes might contribute to improve the texture properties of cassava products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA) increases root and cell hydraulic conductivity and abundance of some aquaporin isoforms in the ABA-deficient barley mutant Az34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharipova, Guzel; Veselov, Dmitriy; Kudoyarova, Guzel; Fricke, Wieland; Dodd, Ian C.; Katsuhara, Maki; Furuichi, Takuya; Ivanov, Igor; Veselov, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Regulation of water channel aquaporins (AQPs) provides another mechanism by which abscisic acid (ABA) may influence water flow through plants. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have addressed the changes in ABA levels, the abundance of AQPs and root cell hydraulic conductivity (LpCell) in the same tissues. Thus, we followed the mechanisms by which ABA affects root hydraulics in an ABA-deficient barley mutant Az34 and its parental line ‘Steptoe’. We compared the abundance of AQPs and ABA in cells to determine spatial correlations between AQP abundance and local ABA concentrations in different root tissues. In addition, abundance of AQPs and ABA in cortex cells was related to LpCell. Methods Root hydraulic conductivity (LpRoot) was measured by means of root exudation analyses and LpCell using a cell pressure probe. The abundance of ABA and AQPs in root tissues was assessed through immunohistochemical analyses. Isoform-specific antibodies raised against HvPIP2;1, HvPIP2;2 and HvPIP2;5 were used. Key Results Immunolocalization revealed lower ABA levels in root tissues of Az34 compared with ‘Steptoe’. Root hydraulic conductivity (LpRoot) was lower in Az34, yet the abundance of HvPIPs in root tissues was similar in the two genotypes. Root hair formation occurred closer to the tip, while the length of the root hair zone was shorter in Az34 than in ‘Steptoe’. Application of external ABA to the root medium of Az34 and ‘Steptoe’ increased the immunostaining of root cells for ABA and for HvPIP2;1 and HvPIP2;2 especially in root epidermal cells and the cortical cell layer located beneath, parallel to an increase in LpRoot and LpCell. Treatment of roots with Fenton reagent, which inhibits AQP activity, prevented the ABA-induced increase in root hydraulic conductivity. Conclusion Shortly after (hydraulics through other mechanisms, in particular the developmental timing of the formation of root hairs closer to the root tip and the length

  4. Iridovirus in the root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. Hunter

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV6 was evaluated for mode of transmission and ability to cause infection in the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.. This is the first evidence of IIV6 infection in D. abbreviatus, which caused both patent and sub-lethal covert infections in both larvae and adults. Adults and larvae were successfully infected with IIV6 by puncture, injection and per os. Transmission of IIV6 was demonstrated between infected and healthy individuals regardless of gender. Virus was detected in egg masses produced by virus-infected females suggesting IIV6 is transmitted transovarially. Virus particles were observed in the cytoplasm of weevil cells, and were shown to infect fat bodies, muscle, and nerve tissues, as visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Patent infections resulted in death of individuals within 3 to 4 days post infection. Individuals with covert infections tested positive for virus infection on day 7 by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Sequencing of PCR amplicons confirmed virus infection. Discovery of new pathogens against root weevils may provide new management tools for development of control strategies based on induced epizootics. This is the first report of a virus infecting D. abbreviatus.

  5. Effect of lanthanum on rooting of in vitro regenerated shoots of Saussurea involucrata Kar. et Kir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Xu, Ling-Ling; Guan, Zhen-Jun; Wei, Ya-Hui

    2012-06-01

    In present study, the effect of lanthanum (La) on the rooting of regenerated shoots of Saussurea involucrata Kar. et Kir was analyzed. Rooting occurred from regenerated shoots inoculated on a medium supplemented with La, the plant rooting hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), or both La and IAA together. The highest rooting efficiency (96%), root number/shoot (8.5), and root length (63 mm) were recorded in shoots cultured on medium containing 2.5 μM IAA combined with 100 μM La(3+). In order to elucidate the mechanism of rooting enhancement by La, we examined dynamic changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in plant tissue over time in culture. We found that the activities of peroxidase (POX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly higher in plant tissue cultured in IAA plus La than in La or IAA alone. At the same time, the highest H(2)O(2) content was detected in plant tissue in the presence of 2.5 μM IAA plus 100 μM La(3+). In light of these data and previous results, we speculate that La enhanced IAA-induced rooting by acting as a mild abiotic stress to stimulate POX and SOD activities in plant cells. Then, IAA reacted with oxygen and POX to form the ternary complex enzyme-IAA-O(2) that dissociated into IAA radicals and O(2)(-). Subsequently, IAA-induced O(2)(-) readily converted to hydroxyl radical (HO·) via SOD-catalyzed dismutation. Finally, cell wall loosening and cell elongation occurred as a consequence of HO-dependent scission of wall components, leading to root growth. The treatment of IAA combined with La resulted in the highest plantlet survival (80%) compared to single treatments with IAA or La alone. These data suggest that rare earth elements enhance root morphogenesis and the growth of S. involucrata.

  6. Healing of Horizontal Intra-alveolar Root Fractures after Endodontic Treatment with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyun; Yue, Wonyoung; Yoon, Tai-Cheol; Park, Sung-Ho; Kim, Euiseong

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the healing type and assess the outcome of horizontal intra-alveolar root fractures after endodontic treatment with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as filling material. The clinical database of the Department of Conservative Dentistry at Yonsei University Dental Hospital, Seoul, Korea, was searched for patients with histories of intra-alveolar root fractures and endodontic treatments with MTA between October 2005 and September 2014. Radiographic healing at the fracture line was evaluated independently by 2 examiners and was classified into 4 types according to Andreasen and Hjørting-Hansen. Of the 22 root-fractured teeth that received endodontic treatment with MTA, 19 cases participated in the follow-up after a period of at least 3 months. Seventeen of the 19 teeth (89.5%) exhibited healing of the root fractures. For each healing type, 7 teeth (36.8%) showed healing with calcified tissue, 8 teeth (42.1%) showed interposition of connective tissue, 2 teeth (10.5%) showed interposition of connective tissue and bone, and 2 teeth (10.5%) showed interposition of granulation tissue without healing. Within the limitations of this study, intra-alveolar root fractures showed satisfactory healing outcomes after endodontic treatment with MTA. MTA could be considered to be suitable filling material for the endodontic treatment of horizontal intra-alveolar root fractures. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bio-Root and Implant-Based Restoration as a Tooth Replacement Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z H; Hu, L; Liu, G L; Wei, F L; Liu, Y; Liu, Z H; Fan, Z P; Zhang, C M; Wang, J S; Wang, S L

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that dental stem cell-mediated bioengineered tooth root (bio-root) regeneration could restore tooth loss in a miniature pig model. As a potential new method for tooth restoration, it is essential to compare this method with the widely used commercial dental implant-based method of tooth restoration. Tooth loss models were created by extracting mandibular incisors from miniature pigs. Allogeneic periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were isolated and cultured. A PDLSC sheet was prepared by adding 20.0 µg/mL vitamin C to the culture medium; in addition, a hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP)/DPSC graft was fabricated and cultured in a 3-dimensional culture system. A total of 46 bio-root implantations and 9 dental implants were inserted, and crown restorations were performed 6 mo after implantation. Histological, radiological, biomechanical, and elemental analyses were used to evaluate and compare tissue-engineered bio-roots and dental implants to the natural tooth roots. After 6 mo, both computed tomography scans and histological examinations showed that root-like structures and dentin-like tissues had formed. Three months after crown restoration, clinical assessments revealed that tooth function was equivalent in the regenerated bio-root and the dental implant. Biomechanical testing showed that the bio-roots were similar to natural tooth roots in compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and torsional force; however, these properties were significantly higher in the dental implants. Elemental analysis revealed a higher similarity in elemental composition between bio-roots and natural tooth roots than between bio-roots and dental implants. However, the dental implant success rate was 100% (9 of 9) and the bio-root success rate was only 22% (10 of 46). Taken together, we showed that an allogeneic HA/TCP/DPSC/PDLSC sheet could successfully build a bio-root with structure and function similar to

  8. Effect of citric acid, tetracycline, and doxycycline on instrumented periodontally involved root surfaces: A SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurparkash Singh Chahal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A surface smear layer consisting of organic and inorganic material is formed on the root surface following mechanical instrumentation and may inhibit the formation of new connective tissue attachment to the root surface. Modification of the tooth surface by root conditioning has resulted in improved connective tissue attachment and has advanced the goal of reconstructive periodontal treatment. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of citric acid, tetracycline, and doxycycline on the instrumented periodontally involved root surfaces in vitro using a scanning electron microscope. Settings and Design: A total of 45 dentin samples obtained from 15 extracted, scaled, and root planed teeth were divided into three groups. Materials and Methods: The root conditioning agents were applied with cotton pellets using the "Passive burnishing technique" for 5 minutes. The samples were then examined by the scanning electron microscope. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, version 15.0 for Windows. For all quantitative variables means and standard deviations were calculated and compared. For more than two groups ANOVA was applied. For multiple comparisons post hoc tests with Bonferroni correction was used. Results: Upon statistical analysis the root conditioning agents used in this study were found to be effective in removing the smear layer, uncovering and widening the dentin tubules and unmasking the dentin collagen matrix. Conclusion: Tetracycline HCl was found to be the best root conditioner among the three agents used.

  9. GmPRP2 promoter drives root-preferential expression in transgenic Arabidopsis and soybean hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Jiang, Bingjun; Wu, Cunxiang; Sun, Shi; Hou, Wensheng; Han, Tianfu

    2014-09-16

    Promoters play important roles in gene expression and function. There are three basic types of promoters: constitutive, specific, and inducible. Constitutive promoters are widely used in genetic engineering, but these promoters have limitations. Inducible promoters are activated by specific inducers. Tissue-specific promoters are a type of specific promoters that drive gene expression in specific tissues or organs. Here, we cloned and characterized the GmPRP2 promoter from soybean. The expression pattern indicated that this promoter is root-preferential in transgenic Arabidopsis and the hairy roots of soybean. It can be used to improve the root resistance or tolerance to pathogens, pests, malnutrition and other abiotic stresses which cause extensive annual losses in soybean production. The GmPRP2 promoter (GmPRP2p-1062) was isolated from soybean cv. Williams 82. Sequence analysis revealed that this promoter contains many cis-acting elements, including root-specific motifs. The GmPRP2p-1062 and its 5'-deletion fragments were fused with the GUS reporter gene and introduced into Arabidopsis and the hairy roots of soybean to further determine promoter activity. Histochemical analysis in transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GUS activity was mainly detected in roots and hypocotyls in all deletion fragments except GmPRP2p-471 (a 5'-deletion fragment of GmPRP2p-1062 with 471 bp length). GUS activity was higher in transgenic Arabidopsis and hairy roots with GmPRP2p-1062 and GmPRP2p-852 (a 5'-deletion fragment of GmPRP2p-1062 with 852 bp length) constructs than the other two constructs. GUS activity was enhanced by NaCl, PEG, IAA and JM treatments and decreased by SA, ABA and GA treatments in transgenic Arabidopsis. GmPRP2p-1062 is a root-preferential promoter, and its core fragment for root-preferential expression might lie between -369 and +1. GmPRP2p-852 may be useful in the genetic engineering of novel soybean cultivars in the future.

  10. Xylem tissue specification, patterning, and differentiation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Mathias; Smith, Rebecca; Ellis, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Vascular plants (Tracheophytes) have adapted to a variety of environments ranging from arid deserts to tropical rainforests, and now comprise >250,000 species. While they differ widely in appearance and growth habit, all of them share a similar specialized tissue system (vascular tissue) for transporting water and nutrients throughout the organism. Plant vascular systems connect all plant organs from the shoot to the root, and are comprised of two main tissue types, xylem and phloem. In this review we examine the current state of knowledge concerning the process of vascular tissue formation, and highlight important mechanisms underlying key steps in vascular cell type specification, xylem and phloem tissue patterning, and, finally, the differentiation and maturation of specific xylem cell types.

  11. Management of Crown Root Fracture by Interdisciplinary Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, K. Radhakrishnan; Das, Anoop N.; Kuriakose, Manoj C.; Krishnankutty, Nandakumar

    2013-01-01

    Fracture of tooth after trauma is distressing to a person because of the discomfort and pain due to pulpal injury. Crown root fractures of anterior teeth cause concomitant periodontal injury and there will be concern about appearance, and aesthetics. Management of pulpal and periodontal tissue relieves pain and restoration of tooth form regains patients confidence. Restoration of fractured tooth will be accepted readily if it is minimally invasive, less expensive, and aesthetically acceptable...

  12. Geminated Maxillary Lateral Incisor with Two Root Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Romano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a case of gemination in a maxillary lateral incisor with two root canals and crown-root dilaceration. A 16-year-old male patient was referred for endodontic treatment of the maxillary left lateral incisor and evaluation of esthetic and functional complaints in the anterior region. The patient reported trauma to the anterior primary teeth. There was no spontaneous pain, but the tooth responded positively to the vertical percussion test and negatively to the pulp vitality test. Clinical examination showed esthetic and functional alterations and normal periodontal tissues. CBCT imaging confirmed the suspicion of gemination and crown-root dilaceration and also revealed the presence of two root canals and periapical bone rarefaction. The root canals were instrumented with Reciproc R40 and 1% NaOCl irrigation and were filled by lateral condensation of gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. The tooth was definitely restored with composite resin to recover esthetics. Continued follow-up over 6 months has shown absence of pain or clinical alterations as well as radiographic image suggestive of apical repair.

  13. [Cultivation of Panax ginseng adventitious roots in bubble bioreactors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Bei-Mei; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Juan; Yin, Shuang-Shuang; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Li-Ming

    2012-12-01

    To study cultivation of Panax ginseng adventitious roots in bubble bioreactors. The adventitious roots were obtained through tissue culture different types of bioreactors. The contents of ginsenosides Re, Rb1 and Rg1 were determined by HPLC while the contents of polysaccharides were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The results showed that of the three types tested, the most efficient bioreactor for cultivation of the ginseng adventitious roots was the cone-type bioreactors (with the 120 degrees ), in which, the growth curve of adventitious roots was S-shaped. The maximum biomass was obtained on the 40th day, with the fresh weight, dry weight and growth rate reaching the maximum, which were 113.15 g, 9.62 g and 63.13 times respectively, and the concomitant contents of polysaccharide and ginsenoside were 2.73% and 2.25 mg x g(-1). The results showed that the most efficient bioreactor for cultivation of the ginseng adventitious roots was the cone-type bioreactors (with the 120 degrees). These results provide a theoretical reference for developing an efficient production process of active metabolites of ginseng in the scale-up cultivation.

  14. Frequency of the external resorptions of root apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opačić-Galić Vanja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Root resorptions present a significant problem in endodontic therapy of the affected teeth and in dentistry in general. The objective of this study was to analyze, based on epidemiological and statistical research, the frequency of clinical incidence of pathological root resorptions in everyday practice related to localization, type of tooth, age and sex of patients. Radiographie documentation of patients treated from 1997 till 2002 at the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Stomatology in Belgrade, was used as baseline for this study. Retroalveolar radiographs of teeth with visible signs of resorptions were singled out from 15654 patients' clinical records used for this study. The external resorptions were shown as radiolucent areas localized on various outer root surfaces, followed by significant or less significant resorption of lamina dura and alveolar bone. Out of all teeth analyzed in this study, 594 (3.79% showed some kind of resorption. The external resorptions were found to be more present in the upper jaw (55.10% and molars (50.30% than in the lower jaw (44.90% and single root teeth (49.70%, but in both cases without significant statistical differences. The most frequent localization of resorptions was root apex (82.44%. In regard to age, the most frequent resorptions were recorded in patients aged between 21 and 30 years (28.40%, and the lowest incidence was found in the youngest population (5.51%. The results also showed that resorptions were more frequent among the female population (59.04% than among the male population (40.96%. Based on these results, we may conclude that the external root resorptions are not a frequent clinical phenomenon. Proper and early diagnostics of such tissue pathology is one of the basic prerequisites for successful endodontic therapy of the affected root.

  15. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) roots

    KAUST Repository

    Garcias Bonet, Neus

    2016-03-09

    Biological nitrogen fixation by diazotrophic bacteria in seagrass rhizosphere and leaf epiphytic community is an important source of nitrogen required for plant growth. However, the presence of endophytic diazotrophs remains unclear in seagrass tissues. Here, we assess the presence, diversity and taxonomy of nitrogen-fixing bacteria within surface-sterilized roots of Posidonia oceanica. Moreover, we analyze the nitrogen isotopic signature of seagrass tissues in order to notice atmospheric nitrogen fixation. We detected nitrogen-fixing bacteria by nifH gene amplification in 13 out of the 78 roots sampled, corresponding to 9 locations out of 26 meadows. We detected two different types of bacterial nifH sequences associated with P. oceanica roots, which were closely related to sequences previously isolated from the rhizosphere of a salt marsh cord grass and a putative anaerobe. Nitrogen content of seagrass tissues showed low isotopic signatures in all the sampled meadows, pointing out the atmospheric origin of the assimilated nitrogen by seagrasses. However, this was not related with the presence of endophytic nitrogen fixers, suggesting the nitrogen fixation occurring in rhizosphere and in the epiphytic community could be an important source of nitrogen for P. oceanica. The low diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria reported here suggests species-specific relationships between diazotrophs and P. oceanica, revealing possible symbiotic interactions that could play a major role in nitrogen acquisition by seagrasses in oligotrophic environments where they form lush meadows.

  16. Total Soluble Protein Extraction for Improved Proteomic Analysis of Transgenic Rice Plant Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raorane, Manish L; Narciso, Joan O; Kohli, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of high-throughput platforms, proteomics has become a powerful tool to search for plant gene products of agronomic relevance. Protein extractions using multistep protocols have been shown to be effective to achieve better proteome profiles than simple, single-step extractions. These protocols are generally efficient for above ground tissues such as leaves. However, each step leads to loss of some amount of proteins. Additionally, compounds such as proteases in the plant tissues lead to protein degradation. While protease inhibitor cocktails are available, these alone do not seem to suffice when roots are included in the plant sample. This is obvious given the lack of high molecular weight (HMW) proteins obtained from samples that include root tissue. For protein/proteome analysis of transgenic plant roots or of seedlings, which include root tissue, such pronounced protein degradation is especially undesirable. A facile protein extraction protocol is presented, which ensures that despite the inclusion of root tissues there is minimal loss in total protein components.

  17. Live cell imaging of Arabidopsis root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Root hairs are tubular extensions from the root surface that expand by tip growth. This highly focused type of cell expansion, combined with position of root hairs on the surface of the root, makes them ideal cells for microscopic observation. This chapter describes the method that is routinely used

  18. Pulp and periodontal tissue repair - regeneration or tissue metaplasia after dental trauma. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-02-01

    Healing subsequent to dental trauma is known to be very complex, a result explained by the variability of the types of dental trauma (six luxations, nine fracture types, and their combinations). On top of that, at least 16 different cellular systems get involved in more severe trauma types each of them with a different potential for healing with repair, i.e. (re-establishment of tissue continuity without functional restitution) and regeneration (where the injured or lost tissue is replaced with new tissue with identical tissue anatomy and function) and finally metaplasia (where a new type of tissue replaces the injured). In this study, a review is given of the impact of trauma to various dental tissues such as alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, cementum, Hertvigs epithelial root sheath, and the pulp. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  20. MES buffer affects Arabidopsis root apex zonation and root growth by suppressing superoxide generation in root apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eKagenishi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species. MES, 2-(N-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good’s buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5-7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8. However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone. Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis in root apex.

  1. In vitro production of secondary metabolite using Atropa komarovii Bline&Shal (Solanaceae hairy root culture via Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Banihashemi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim:A new sustainable tissue-based system is presented by plant hairy roots, preserving all of the several specialized types of cell with critical roles in allowing bioactive secondary molecules to be synthesized more consistently as usual. The system is also essential for studying the production of alkaloid in culture. Experimental: The Atropa komarovii leaves were wounded and infected with soil gram-negative bacterium Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834. After three weeks, the transformation roots and control roots without infection, appeared, and for confirming that T-DNA Ri plasmid fragments were transformed and integrated to plant genome, the rolB gene region, was amplified using PCR. HPLC method was then used for assaying how two tropane alkaloids such as atropine (hyosciamine and scopolamine (hyoscine were produced in hairy roots,control roots, leaves and roots of plantlet. Results: The data indicated that diagnostic 500bp rol B product amplification was exhibited to be present by all the transformed hairy roots. Scopolamine content in hairy roots was considerably greater than that in control roots but greatest (Hyoscyamine atropine content was observed in control roots. Analysis of DW, FW and root length showed that fresh and dry root weight increased in hairy roots compared with that in non transformed root. Recommended applications/industries: The present study demonstrated that secondary metabolite production using medicinal plants concerns many researchers worldwide today and hairy root culture is a useful method for producing tropane alkaloids in solanaceae.

  2. Root rot of sugarbeet in the Vojvodina Province

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    Stojšin Vera B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large changes introduced in the sugar beet production technology in the Vojvodina Province over last 40 years resulted in changes in the etiology and harmfulness of different agents of sugar beet root diseases. Improvements in cultivation practices reduced the harmfulness of some diseases while increased the harmfulness of others. Some disease agents became obsolete, but others gained importance. New agents of root diseases were found. The most frequent damages, persisting over long periods of time were caused by seedling damping-off, Fusarium root rot, charcoal root rot, parasitic (Rhizomania and non-parasitic root bearding. The parasitic damping-off caused by several fungal species but most frequently by Phoma betae occurred at the time when multigerm seeds were used in combination with extensive cultural practices. The agents of seedling diseases completely lost their significance as the consequence of switching to fungicide - treated monogerm seeds, earlier planting and improved soil tillage. In the period of intensive use of agricultural chemicals, seedling damping-off occurred frequently due to the phytotoxic action of chemicals (insecticides, herbicides and mineral fertilizers. In some years, frosts caused damping- off of sugar beet seedlings on a large scale in the Vojvodina Province. Poor sugar beet germination and emergence were frequently due to spring droughts. Sometimes they were due to strong winds. The occurrence of Fusarium root rot and charcoal root rot intensified on poor soils. Fusariosis symptoms were exhibited as plant wilting and different forms of root rot. In recent years root tip rot has occurred frequently in the first part of the growing season causing necrosis and dying of plants. Lateral roots tended to proliferate from the healthy tissue, giving the root a bearded appearance similar to Rhizomania. Fusarium oxysporum was the most frequent agent of this fusariosis. F. graminearum, F. equiseti, F. solani have also been

  3. Assembly line plants take root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comis, D.; Wood, M.

    1986-04-01

    This paper discussed tissue-culture propagation of sugarcane, apple trees, peach trees, citrus, orchids, data palms, and carrots. Tissue-culture propagation is a term used for a variety of techniques used to grow or genetically modify, preserve, or study plant parts in laboratories, from tissue or even a single cell. The author examined the benefits and commercial applications of this propagation process.

  4. Adaptive fine root foraging patterns in climate experiments and natural gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostonen, Ivika; Truu, Marika; Parts, Kaarin; Truu, Jaak

    2017-04-01

    Site based manipulative experiments and studies along climatic gradients have long been keystones of ecological research. We aimed to compare the response of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) and fine roots in manipulative studies and along climate gradient to describe the universal trends in root traits and to raise hypotheses about general mechanisms in fine root system adaptation of forest trees in global change. The root traits from two climate manipulation experiments - Bangor FACE and FAHM in Estonia, manipulated by CO2 concentration and relative air humidity in silver birch forest ecosystems, respectively and the data for three most ubiquitous tree species - Norway spruce (Picea abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and silver birch (Betula pendula) stands along natural gradient encompassing different climate and forest zones in Northern Europe were analysed. There are two main strategies in response of fine root system of trees: A) an extensive increase in absorptive root biomass, surface area and length, or B) a greater reliance on root-associated EcM fungi and bacterial communities with a smaller investment to absorptive root biomass. Trees in all studies tended to increase the EcM root biomass and the proportion of EcM root biomass of total fine root biomass towards harsh (northern boreal forests) or changed conditions (stress created by the increase in CO2 concentration or relative air humidity). We envisage a role of trilateral relation between the morphological traits of absorptive fine roots, exploration types of colonising EcM fungi and rhizosphere and bulk soil bacterial community structure. A significant change in EcM absorptive fine root biomass in all experiments and for all studied tree species coincided with changes in absorptive root morphology, being longer and thinner root tips with higher root tissue density in poor/treated sites. These changes were associated with significant shifts in community structure of dominating EcM fungi as well as soil and

  5. Identification and gene expression analysis of AUX1 influencing adventitious root induction in olive cuttings (Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hosseini Mazinani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive is one of the most important fruit crops throughout the Mediterranean Basin, mainly propagated by cuttings. The adventitious root development is a key stage in vegetative propagation however the low rooting capacity of some cultivars severely affects the efficiency of olive clonal propagation. Auxin Influx Carrier gene (AUX1, plays a key role in lateral root formation in many plant species promoting the export of IAA from newly developing leaves to lateral root primordia. Putative olive homologues were amplified by using degenerate primers designed on the conserved regions of AUX1 transcripts identified in other plants. Transcript and amino acid sequences in root (OeAUX1R and base of cutting (OeAUX1B were different causes of polymorphisms relating to possible distinct roles in these tissues. In order to investigate the gene expression patterns, Real-time PCR was performed on cuttings during the rooting stage collected from genotypes characterized by high and low rooting ability. Moreover, the gene expression was investigated on different olive tissues. Preliminary results showed that the expression of OeAUX1B and OeAUX1R in base of cuttings and roots of the high-rooting genotype were higher which suggests the hypothesis of the involvement of OeAUX1 in olive rooting. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that AUX1 gene had 8 exons in olive and the sequence of this gene in plant was conserved during evolution.

  6. A conservative management of iatrogenically damaged distal root of the mandibular second molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bansal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma to the adjacent hard and soft tissue is the most common iatrogenic injury during extraction of the mandibular third molar. As every functional component of the dental arch is of prime importance in contemporary dental practice, the major concern must be in conserving the tooth and its structure as much as possible. The present case discusses the application of this conservative approach for management of iatrogenically damaged distal root of the mandibular second molar during extraction of impacted third molar, in which excessive guttering of alveolar bone and fractured apical third of distal root of 37 was observed radiographically. A conservative and noninvasive approach was successfully achieved to restore the damaged root by the bioactive material. Sealing of the remaining root with mineral trioxide aggregate allowed regeneration of soft and hard tissue around it.

  7. Water uptake can occur through woody portions of roots and facilitates localized embolism repair in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, Italo F; Knipfer, Thorsten; Mandal, Pratiti; Brodersen, Craig R; McElrone, Andrew J

    2018-02-20

    Water acquisition is thought to be limited to the unsuberized surface located close to root tips. However, there are recurring periods when the unsuberized surfaces are limited in woody root systems, and radial water uptake across the bark of woody roots might play an important physiological role in hydraulic functioning. Using X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) and hydraulic conductivity measurements (Lp r ), we examined water uptake capacity of suberized woody roots in vivo and in excised samples. Bark hydration in grapevine woody roots occurred quickly upon exposure to water (c. 4 h). Lp r measurements through the bark of woody roots showed that it is permeable to water and becomes more so upon wetting. After bark hydration, microCT analysis showed that absorbed water was utilized to remove embolism locally, where c. 20% of root xylem vessels refilled completely within 15 h. Embolism removal did not occur in control roots without water. Water uptake through the bark of woody roots probably plays an important role when unsuberized tissue is scarce/absent, and would be particularly relevant following large irrigation events or in late winter when soils are saturated, re-establishing hydraulic functionality before bud break. No claim to original US Government works New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Infection and invasion of roots by symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia during nodulation of temperate legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Daniel J

    2004-06-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genera Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Azorhizobium (collectively referred to as rhizobia) grow in the soil as free-living organisms but can also live as nitrogen-fixing symbionts inside root nodule cells of legume plants. The interactions between several rhizobial species and their host plants have become models for this type of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Temperate legumes such as alfalfa, pea, and vetch form indeterminate nodules that arise from root inner and middle cortical cells and grow out from the root via a persistent meristem. During the formation of functional indeterminate nodules, symbiotic bacteria must gain access to the interior of the host root. To get from the outside to the inside, rhizobia grow and divide in tubules called infection threads, which are composite structures derived from the two symbiotic partners. This review focuses on symbiotic infection and invasion during the formation of indeterminate nodules. It summarizes root hair growth, how root hair growth is influenced by rhizobial signaling molecules, infection of root hairs, infection thread extension down root hairs, infection thread growth into root tissue, and the plant and bacterial contributions necessary for infection thread formation and growth. The review also summarizes recent advances concerning the growth dynamics of rhizobial populations in infection threads.

  9. History of plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Plant tissue culture, or the aseptic culture of cells, tissues, organs, and their components under defined physical and chemical conditions in vitro, is an important tool in both basic and applied studies as well as in commercial application. It owes its origin to the ideas of the German scientist, Haberlandt, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The early studies led to root cultures, embryo cultures, and the first true callus/tissue cultures. The period between the 1940s and the 1960s was marked by the development of new techniques and the improvement of those that were already in use. It was the availability of these techniques that led to the application of tissue culture to five broad areas, namely, cell behavior (including cytology, nutrition, metabolism, morphogenesis, embryogenesis, and pathology), plant modification and improvement, pathogen-free plants and germplasm storage, clonal propagation, and product (mainly secondary metabolite) formation, starting in the mid-1960s. The 1990s saw continued expansion in the application of the in vitro technologies to an increasing number of plant species. Cell cultures have remained an important tool in the study of basic areas of plant biology and biochemistry and have assumed major significance in studies in molecular biology and agricultural biotechnology in the twenty-first century. The historical development of these in vitro technologies and their applications is the focus of this chapter.

  10. Alkaloid Production by Hairy Root Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, nicotine alkaloid production by Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) hairy roots and tropane alkaloid production by Hyoscyamus niger hairy roots were investigated. The first objective of this research was to improve the oxygen mass transfer in hairy root cultures with microbubbles. Oxygen was shown as a critical nutrient for the growth of tobacco and H. niger hairy roots. In a 1-liter fermentor, microbubble dispersion improved the oxygen mass transfer, tobacco hairy root growt...

  11. Arabidopsis lateral root development : an emerging story

    OpenAIRE

    Péret, B.; De Rybel, B.; Casimiro, I; Benkova, E.; Swarup, R; Laplaze, Laurent; Beeckman, T.; Bennett, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Lateral root formation is a major determinant of root systems architecture. The degree of root branching impacts the efficiency of water uptake, acquisition of nutrients and anchorage by plants. Understanding the regulation of lateral root development is therefore of vital agronomic importance. The molecular and cellular basis of lateral root formation has been most extensively studied in the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Significant progress has recently been made in identi...

  12. Capturing Arabidopsis Root Architecture Dynamics with root-fit Reveals Diversity in Responses to Salinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julkowska, M.M.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Mol, S.; Feron, R.; de Boer, G.J.; Haring, M.A.; Testerink, C.

    2014-01-01

    The plant root is the first organ to encounter salinity stress, but the effect of salinity on root system architecture (RSA) remains elusive. Both the reduction in main root (MR) elongation and the redistribution of the root mass between MRs and lateral roots (LRs) are likely to play crucial roles

  13. Phytostabilization of heavy metals: role of plant roots and organic amendments

    OpenAIRE

    Lucchini, P

    2013-01-01

    Phytomanagement refers to a group of techniques which use plants to reduce content or toxicity of heavy metals in soils. This thesis focuses on metal phytostabilization, which aims at reducing metal bioavailability in soil. Phytostabilization can occur either in roots or in soils. The first requires the uptake of pollutants and their stable accumulation in root tissues (in-planta phytostabilization), the second insolubilization of metals in soil to prevent plant uptake (ex-planta phytostabili...

  14. Valve Sparing Aortic Root Replacement in Children with Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Tae Sim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder that is characterized by aggressive arterial and aortic disease, often involving the formation of aortic aneurysms. We describe the cases of two children with LDS who were diagnosed with aortic root aneurysms and successfully treated by valve-sparing aortic root replacement (VSRR with a Valsalva graft. VSRR is a safe and suitable operation for children that avoids prosthetic valve replacement.

  15. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced cotton hairy root culture as an alternative tool for cotton functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin

    2013-01-01

    Although well-accepted as the ultimate method for cotton functional genomics, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated cotton transformation is not widely used for functional analyses of cotton genes and their promoters since regeneration of cotton in tissue culture is lengthy and labor intensive. In certain cases, A. rhizogenes-induced hairy root culture has been a suitable molecular tool for functional analyses of genes and promoters for plants that are difficult to regenerate by A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Similarly, A. rhizogenes-induced hairy root cultures are an alternative tool for cotton functional genomics. In this chapter, the advantages and disadvantages of using A. rhizogenes-induced cotton hairy root culture over A. tumefaciens-mediated cotton transformation are discussed. The procedures for transformation, generation, selection, and molecular analyses of transgenic cotton hairy roots are introduced by describing the functional analysis of a cotton promoter in cotton hairy roots generated by A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation.

  16. [New facts on the apical caulogenesis in axillary roots of cress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballade, P

    1970-06-01

    The introduction of kinetin in the axillary tissues of isolated nodes of Cress cuttings induces a momentary stop in the growth of all the organs of the axillary "radicular plate". After this interruption, a more or less rapid growth of the long roots sets in again, while in the younger roots morphological modifications occur which lead to the formation of a bud at the tip of the root, whatever the age of the axil which bears these roots.This results is possible only up to a certain stage of root development (corresponding to a maximum length of 0.4 mm). Beyond this length the inversion of the direction of organogenesis does not occur.

  17. Sensitivity of the "Root Bundle Model" to root mechanical properties and root distribution: Implication for shallow landslide stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Massimiliano; Giadrossich, Filippo; Cohen, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Root reinforcement is recognized as an important factor for shallow landslides stability. Due to the complexity of root reinforcement mechanisms and the heterogeneity of the root-soil system, the estimation of parameters used in root reinforcement models is difficult, time consuming, and often highly uncertain. For practical applications, it is necessary to focus on the estimation of the most relevant parameters. The objective of the present contribution is to review the state of the art in the development of root reinforcement models and to discuss the sensitivity of the "Root Bundle Model" (RBM) when considering the variability of root mechanical properties and the heterogeneity of root distributions. The RBM is a strain-step loading fiber bundle model extended to include the mechanical and geometrical properties of roots. The model allows the calculation of the force-displacement behavior of a root bundle. In view of new results of field pullout tests performed on coarse roots of spruce (Picea abies) and considering a consistent dataset of root distribution of alpine tree species, we quantify the sensitivity of the RBM and the uncertainty associated with the most important input parameters. Preliminary results show that the extrapolation of force-diameter values from incomplete datasets (i.e., when only small roots are tested and values for coarse roots are extrapolated) may result in considerable errors. In particular, in the case of distributions with root diameters larger than 5 mm, root reinforcement tends to be dominated by coarse roots and their mechanical properties need to be quantified. In addition to the results of the model sensitivity, we present a possible best-practice method for the quantification of root reinforcement in view of its application to slope stability calculations and implementations in numerical models.

  18. Mandibular molar root morphology in Neanderthals and Late Pleistocene and recent Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczik, Kornelius; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2010-11-01

    Neanderthals have a distinctive suite of dental features, including large anterior crown and root dimensions and molars with enlarged pulp cavities. Yet, there is little known about variation in molar root morphology in Neanderthals and other recent and fossil members of Homo. Here, we provide the first comprehensive metric analysis of permanent mandibular molar root morphology in Middle and Late Pleistocene Homo neanderthalensis, and Late Pleistocene (Aterian) and recent Homo sapiens. We specifically address the question of whether root form can be used to distinguish between these groups and assess whether any variation in root form can be related to differences in tooth function. We apply a microtomographic imaging approach to visualise and quantify the external and internal dental morphologies of both isolated molars and molars embedded in the mandible (n=127). Univariate and multivariate analyses reveal both similarities (root length and pulp volume) and differences (occurrence of pyramidal roots and dental tissue volume proportion) in molar root morphology among penecontemporaneous Neanderthals and Aterian H. sapiens. In contrast, the molars of recent H. sapiens are markedly smaller than both Pleistocene H. sapiens and Neanderthals, but share with the former the dentine volume reduction and a smaller root-to-crown volume compared with Neanderthals. Furthermore, we found the first molar to have the largest average root surface area in recent H. sapiens and Neanderthals, although in the latter the difference between M(1) and M(2) is small. In contrast, Aterian H. sapiens root surface areas peak at M(2). Since root surface area is linked to masticatory function, this suggests a distinct occlusal loading regime in Neanderthals compared with both recent and Pleistocene H. sapiens. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: 'Omic and Isotope Based Measurements of Root C Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett-Ridge, J.; Nuccio, E. E.; Shi, S.; Neurath, R.; Brodie, E.; Zhou, J.; Lipton, M. S.; Herman, D.; Firestone, M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon cycling in the rhizosphere is a nexus of biophysical interactions between plant roots, microorganisms, and the soil organo-mineral matrix. Plant roots are the primary inputs of soil organic C; the presence of roots significantly alters rates of organic matter mineralization by soil microbes. Our research on how roots influence decomposition of soil organic matter in both simplified and complex microcosms uses geochemical characterization, molecular microbiology, isotope tracing, 'omics and novel imaging approaches ('ChipSIP' and 'STXM-SIMS') to trace the fate of isotopically labelled root exudates and plant tissues. Our work seeks to understand the genomic basis for how organic C transformation and decomposition in soil is altered by interactions between plant roots and the soil microbial community (bacteria, archaea, fungi, microfauna). We hypothesize that root-exudate stimulation of soil microbial populations results in the altered expression of transcripts and proteins involved in decomposition of macromolecular C compounds. Using an isotope array that allows us to follow root C into bacterial, fungal, and microfaunal communities, we have tracked movement of 13C from labeled exudates and 15N from labeled root litter into the soil microbial community, and linked this data to 16S profiles and community gene transcripts. By integrating stable isotopes as tracers of natural resource utilization (i.e. root litter), and analysis of the functional properties of the communities that respond to those resources, we can identify the molecular pathways that are stimulated in the soil microbiome in response to root litter, living roots, and their interfaces.

  20. Facilitative root interactions in intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Jensen, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    nitrogen transfer between legumes and non-leguminous plants, exploitation of the soil via mycorrhizal fungi and soil-plant processes which alter the mobilisation of plant growth resources such as through exudation of amino acids, extra-cellular enzymes, acidification, competition-induced modification...... of root architecture, exudation of growth stimulating substances, and biofumigation. Facilitative root interactions are most likely to be of importance in nutrient poor soils and in low-input agroecosystems due to critical interspecific competition for plant growth factors. However, studies from more...

  1. Machine Learning Developments in ROOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagoly, A.; Bevan, A.; Carnes, A.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Moneta, L.; Moudgil, A.; Pfreundschuh, S.; Stevenson, T.; Wunsch, S.; Zapata, O.

    2017-10-01

    ROOT is a software framework for large-scale data analysis that provides basic and advanced statistical methods used by high-energy physics experiments. It includes machine learning tools from the ROOT-integrated Toolkit for Multivariate Analysis (TMVA). We present several recent developments in TMVA, including a new modular design, new algorithms for pre-processing, cross-validation, hyperparameter-tuning, deep-learning and interfaces to other machine-learning software packages. TMVA is additionally integrated with Jupyter, making it accessible with a browser.

  2. Roots redefined: anatomical and genetic analysis of root development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.; McKahnn, H.; Berg, C. van den

    1996-01-01

    The postembryonic development of plants is fueled by apical meristems, which are the local production sites of new cells that form a pattern of different cell types within an organ. The regularity of this pattern in the root yielded ideas on its formation from the meristem well before critical

  3. Influence of crown shape on root coverage therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Santos Peres

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the crown shape on the outcomes of root coverage procedures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty patients with Miller class I gingival recessions in maxillary canines or premolars were selected. The recession areas were treated using the subepithelial connective tissue grafting. The following clinical parameters were analyzed: crown length (CL and width (CW, recession height and width, probing depth, clinical attachment level, width and thickness of the keratinized tissue and percentage of root coverage achieved. These measurements were recorded at baseline and 6 months after the surgical procedure. The CW/CL ratio was calculated for each tooth and the median obtained (0.83. Patients were then ranked into two groups, according to the shape of the tooth with gingival recession: Group A - square crown shape (CW/CL values above 0.83 and Group B - long and narrow crown shape (CW/CL values below 0.83. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences (p>0.05 were found between groups in any of the clinical parameters at baseline. After 6 months, both groups presented improved clinical outcomes for all parameters analyzed compared to baseline (p>0.05. The mean percentages and standard deviations of root coverage achieved in Group A and Group B was 91.37 (16.75 and 85.49 (23.55, respectively (p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Crown shape did not influence the root coverage obtained with the subepithelial connective tissue graft technique.

  4. Repressor-mediated tissue-specific gene expression in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B [Athens, GA; Balish, Rebecca S [Oxford, OH; Tehryung, Kim [Athens, GA; McKinney, Elizabeth C [Athens, GA

    2009-02-17

    Plant tissue specific gene expression by way of repressor-operator complexes, has enabled outcomes including, without limitation, male sterility and engineered plants having root-specific gene expression of relevant proteins to clean environmental pollutants from soil and water. A mercury hyperaccumulation strategy requires that mercuric ion reductase coding sequence is strongly expressed. The actin promoter vector, A2pot, engineered to contain bacterial lac operator sequences, directed strong expression in all plant vegetative organs and tissues. In contrast, the expression from the A2pot construct was restricted primarily to root tissues when a modified bacterial repressor (LacIn) was coexpressed from the light-regulated rubisco small subunit promoter in above-ground tissues. Also provided are analogous repressor operator complexes for selective expression in other plant tissues, for example, to produce male sterile plants.

  5. Root Tip Shape Governs Root Elongation Rate under Increased Soil Strength1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgessner, Norbert; Walter, Achim

    2017-01-01

    Increased soil strength due to soil compaction or soil drying is a major limitation to root growth and crop productivity. Roots need to exert higher penetration force, resulting in increased penetration stress when elongating in soils of greater strength. This study aimed to quantify how the genotypic diversity of root tip geometry and root diameter influences root elongation under different levels of soil strength and to determine the extent to which roots adjust to increased soil strength. Fourteen wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties were grown in soil columns packed to three bulk densities representing low, moderate, and high soil strength. Under moderate and high soil strength, smaller root tip radius-to-length ratio was correlated with higher genotypic root elongation rate, whereas root diameter was not related to genotypic root elongation. Based on cavity expansion theory, it was found that smaller root tip radius-to-length ratio reduced penetration stress, thus enabling higher root elongation rates in soils with greater strength. Furthermore, it was observed that roots could only partially adjust to increased soil strength. Root thickening was bounded by a maximum diameter, and root tips did not become more acute in response to increased soil strength. The obtained results demonstrated that root tip geometry is a pivotal trait governing root penetration stress and root elongation rate in soils of greater strength. Hence, root tip shape needs to be taken into account when selecting for crop varieties that may tolerate high soil strength. PMID:28600344

  6. Root Tip Shape Governs Root Elongation Rate under Increased Soil Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, Tino; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Walter, Achim; Keller, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Increased soil strength due to soil compaction or soil drying is a major limitation to root growth and crop productivity. Roots need to exert higher penetration force, resulting in increased penetration stress when elongating in soils of greater strength. This study aimed to quantify how the genotypic diversity of root tip geometry and root diameter influences root elongation under different levels of soil strength and to determine the extent to which roots adjust to increased soil strength. Fourteen wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) varieties were grown in soil columns packed to three bulk densities representing low, moderate, and high soil strength. Under moderate and high soil strength, smaller root tip radius-to-length ratio was correlated with higher genotypic root elongation rate, whereas root diameter was not related to genotypic root elongation. Based on cavity expansion theory, it was found that smaller root tip radius-to-length ratio reduced penetration stress, thus enabling higher root elongation rates in soils with greater strength. Furthermore, it was observed that roots could only partially adjust to increased soil strength. Root thickening was bounded by a maximum diameter, and root tips did not become more acute in response to increased soil strength. The obtained results demonstrated that root tip geometry is a pivotal trait governing root penetration stress and root elongation rate in soils of greater strength. Hence, root tip shape needs to be taken into account when selecting for crop varieties that may tolerate high soil strength. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Extraction and partial characterization of polyphenol oxidase from banana (Musa acuminata Grande naine) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuyts, Nathalie; De Waele, Dirk; Swennen, Rony

    2006-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1, monophenol monooxygenase, and EC 1.10.3.2, o-diphenoloxidase) has been extensively studied in banana fruit for its role in enzymatic browning. Rapid discolouration of leaf, stem and root tissue after injury and strong pigmentation of tissue extracts indicate that PPO and phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in vegetative tissue of banana as well. They hamper biochemical and molecular studies in banana, as cumbersome adaptations of extraction protocols are required. On the other hand, PPO and phenolic compounds could be an important part of the plant's defence system against pests and diseases, including root parasitic nematodes. To facilitate future studies in this area, extraction and assay conditions for PPO from roots of banana (Musa acuminata AAA, Grande naine) were optimized. Highest enzyme activities were obtained in a 0.2 M phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 with 5% insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone and 0.25% Triton X-100. The lowest K(m) values were obtained for dopamine and D-catechin. Monophenolase activity was shown with p-cresol. Banana root PPO was strongly inhibited by dithiothreitol and sodium metabisulfite. In root sections, oxidation of dopamine strongly co-localized with aerenchyma in the cortex. The experiments revealed indications for the involvement of root PPO and dopamine in resistance of banana against the parasitic nematode Radopholus similis.

  8. Histochemical analysis of the root tuber of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (Fam. Polygonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhi-Tao; Shi, Yi-Xiao; Chen, Hu-Biao; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen

    2011-06-01

    Authentication is the first priority in quality evaluation of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs). The most commonly used authentication methods are morphological identification and microscopic identification. Unfortunately, these two methods cannot provide the chemical information needed to assess the quality of CHMs. In this study, a combination of fluorescence microscopy and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was used to analyze the chemical profiles of the tissues of the raw root tubers of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. The results showed that the cork cells, cortex, and vessels in transverse sections of the raw root tuber of P. multiflorum fluoresced differently. Further analysis by HPLC-MS revealed that anthraquinones are mainly distributed in the cortex, and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside could be found in all tissues of the raw root tubers of P. multiflorum with its relative content as cork > cortex > xylem of allotype vascular bundles > xylem of central vascular bundles. Moreover, the fluorescence characteristics of the tissues from the steamed root tuber of P. multiflorum were compared and showed different fluorescence from those of raw material. From these results, it can be deduced that the root tuber of P. multiflorum with a broader cortex and fewer vascular bundles visible in a transverse section should be of better quality. The different fluorescence characteristics can be used to differentiate raw root tubers of P. multiflorum from those that have been steamed. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Effectiveness of EDTA as the irrigation solution to remove smear layer in root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniasri Amas Achiar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of successful endodontic treatment is the hermetic obturation of the root canal system. To achieve this, the root canal filling must seal the canal space both apically and coronally to prevent the ingress of microorganisms or tissue fluids into the canal space. Apical leakage is reported a common reason for the clinical failure of endodontic therapy. Leakage through an obturated root canal is expected to take place at interfaces between sealer and dentin or sealer and gutta-percha, or through voids within the sealer. Hence, the sealing quality of root canal filling depends much on the sealing ability of the sealer. Therefore, anything that may influence the adaptation of the root filling to the canal wall is can determine the degree and the extent of leakage, and ultimately the prognosis of the endodontic therapy. In endodontic therapy, the smear layer formation results from root canal preparation and may influence the effective seal of the root canal system. The smear layer formation is mainly composed of inorganic components (dentin debris and organic materials, such as pulp tissue remnant, bacteria, and blood cells. Removal of the smear layer from the root canal walls before the obturation can reduce the leakage of root canal sealer. To remove the smear layer use 10 ml 17% EDTA followed by 10 ml of 5.25% NaOCl as irrigating solution. This paper discribe about how the effectivity of EDTA as irigating solution to remove the smear layer especially in the apical root canal with many lateral canal to reduce the apical leakage.

  10. The maturation zone is an important target of Piriformospora indica in Chinese cabbage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sheqin; Tian, Zhihong; Chen, Peng Jen; Senthil Kumar, Rajendran; Shen, Chin Hui; Cai, Daguang; Oelmüllar, Ralf; Yeh, Kai Wun

    2013-11-01

    The mutualistic symbiont Piriformospora indica exhibits a great potential in agriculture. The interaction between P. indica and Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris cv. Chinensis) results in growth and biomass promotion of the host plant and in particular in root hair development. The resulting highly bushy root phenotype of colonized Chinese cabbage seedlings differs substantially from reports of other plant species, which prompted the more detailed study of this symbiosis. A large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) data set was obtained from a double-subtractive EST library, by subtracting the cDNAs of Chinese cabbage root tissue and of P. indica mycelium from those of P. indica-colonized root tissue. The analysis revealed ~700 unique genes rooted in 141 clusters and 559 singles. A total of 66% of the sequences could be annotated in the NCBI GenBank. Genes which are stimulated by P. indica are involved in various types of transport, carbohydrate metabolism, auxin signalling, cell wall metabolism, and root development, including the root hair-forming phosphoinositide phosphatase 4. For 20 key genes, induction by fungal colonization was confirmed kinetically during the interaction by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Moreover, the auxin concentration increases transiently after exposure of the roots to P. indica. Microscopic analyses demonstrated that the development of the root maturation zone is the major target of P. indica in Chinese cabbage. Taken together, the symbiotic interaction between Chinese cabbage and P. indica is a novel model to study root growth promotion which, in turn, is important for agriculture and plant biotechnology.

  11. Clinical Considerations on the Root Coverage of Gingival Recessions in Thin or Thick Biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Sergio; Almeida, Renato Alves da Rocha; Dias, Alexandra Tavares; Rodrigues, Walmir Júnior; Barceleiro, Marcos Oliveira; Taba, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Gingival biotype is a clinical term used to describe the thickness of the gingiva. It has been classified as being thick or thin and may be related to the clinical outcome of root coverage procedures. This study evaluated the impact of gingival biotype on the clinical outcome of root coverage procedures following subepithelial connective tissue graft plus coronally positioned flap. A total of 19 patients, 10 with thin and 9 with thick gingival biotype, were treated for localized Miller Class I or II gingival recessions. After 6 months, 14 patients achieved complete root coverage, 7 from each group. The overall mean pooled root coverage rate was 90.93%. The thin biotype cases yielded a reduced mean root coverage of 88.51% compared with 93.63% for patients who had the thick biotype classification. Although the thin gingival biotype may impair the clinical outcome of root coverage procedures, this limitation does not appear to have a strong influence on the success of the root coverage therapy when subepithelial connective tissue graft was associated with the coronal positioning of the flap.

  12. Innate immune responses activated in Arabidopsis roots by microbe-associated molecular patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Yves A; Danna, Cristian H; Clay, Nicole K; Songnuan, Wisuwat; Simon, Matthew D; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2010-03-01

    Despite the fact that roots are the organs most subject to microbial interactions, very little is known about the response of roots to microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). By monitoring transcriptional activation of beta-glucuronidase reporters and MAMP-elicited callose deposition, we show that three MAMPs, the flagellar peptide Flg22, peptidoglycan, and chitin, trigger a strong tissue-specific response in Arabidopsis thaliana roots, either at the elongation zone for Flg22 and peptidoglycan or in the mature parts of the roots for chitin. Ethylene signaling, the 4-methoxy-indole-3-ylmethylglucosinolate biosynthetic pathway, and the PEN2 myrosinase, but not salicylic acid or jasmonic acid signaling, play major roles in this MAMP response. We also show that Flg22 induces the cytochrome P450 CYP71A12-dependent exudation of the phytoalexin camalexin by Arabidopsis roots. The phytotoxin coronatine, an Ile-jasmonic acid mimic produced by Pseudomonas syringae pathovars, suppresses MAMP-activated responses in the roots. This suppression requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase COI1 as well as the transcription factor JIN1/MYC2 but does not rely on salicylic acid-jasmonic acid antagonism. These experiments demonstrate the presence of highly orchestrated and tissue-specific MAMP responses in roots and potential pathogen-encoded mechanisms to block these MAMP-elicited signaling pathways.

  13. Innate Immune Responses Activated in Arabidopsis Roots by Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Yves A.; Danna, Cristian H.; Clay, Nicole K.; Songnuan, Wisuwat; Simon, Matthew D.; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that roots are the organs most subject to microbial interactions, very little is known about the response of roots to microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). By monitoring transcriptional activation of β-glucuronidase reporters and MAMP-elicited callose deposition, we show that three MAMPs, the flagellar peptide Flg22, peptidoglycan, and chitin, trigger a strong tissue-specific response in Arabidopsis thaliana roots, either at the elongation zone for Flg22 and peptidoglycan or in the mature parts of the roots for chitin. Ethylene signaling, the 4-methoxy-indole-3-ylmethylglucosinolate biosynthetic pathway, and the PEN2 myrosinase, but not salicylic acid or jasmonic acid signaling, play major roles in this MAMP response. We also show that Flg22 induces the cytochrome P450 CYP71A12-dependent exudation of the phytoalexin camalexin by Arabidopsis roots. The phytotoxin coronatine, an Ile-jasmonic acid mimic produced by Pseudomonas syringae pathovars, suppresses MAMP-activated responses in the roots. This suppression requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase COI1 as well as the transcription factor JIN1/MYC2 but does not rely on salicylic acid–jasmonic acid antagonism. These experiments demonstrate the presence of highly orchestrated and tissue-specific MAMP responses in roots and potential pathogen-encoded mechanisms to block these MAMP-elicited signaling pathways. PMID:20348432

  14. Artemisinin production in Artemisia annua tissue cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Isaza, B.C.

    1988-01-01

    Production of artemisinin was studied in both plants and tissue cultures of Artemisia annua L. Incorporation of (3{prime}-{sup 14}C) mevalonic acid sodium salt into artemisinin or arteannuin B was not found when field-grown plants were fed once with 10 or 50 {mu}Ci and harvested after 44, 144 or 288 hr. Artemisinin was not present in root organ cultures, but was present in the shoot cultures in a concentration of less than 5 mg/100 g dry weight. The content of artemisinin in a shoot culture line with elongated and indented shoots was significantly higher at p value of 0.01 from that with short and compact shoots. Induction of roots on shoot cultures was associated with increased artemisinin production. Shoot cultures that developed into plants with roots had higher artemisinin content than those shoots cultures with aerial roots, or shoots cultures with basal roots. The artemisinin content in shoot cultures apparently increased with age. Preliminary studies on the metabolism of arteannuin B demonstrated that shoot cultures absorbed the exogenous arteannuin B from the medium without an increase in artemisinin content.

  15. Root growth, secondary root formation and root gravitropism in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Y. K.; Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of ABA on root growth, secondary-root formation and root gravitropism in seedlings of Zea mays was investigated by using Fluridone-treated seedlings and a viviparous mutant, both of which lack carotenoids and ABA. Primary roots of seedlings grown in the presence of Fluridone grew significantly slower than those of control (i.e. untreated) roots. Elongation of Fluridone-treated roots was inhibited significantly by the exogenous application of 1 mM ABA. Exogenous application of 1 micromole and 1 nmole ABA had either no effect or only a slight stimulatory effect on root elongation, depending on the method of application. The absence of ABA in Fluridone-treated plants was not an important factor in secondary-root formation in seedlings less than 9-10 d old. However, ABA may suppress secondary-root formation in older seedlings, since 11-d-old control seedlings had significantly fewer secondary roots than Fluridone-treated seedlings. Roots of Fluridone-treated and control seedlings were graviresponsive. Similar data were obtained for vp-9 mutants of Z. mays, which are phenotypically identical to Fluridone-treated seedlings. These results indicate that ABA is necessary for neither secondary-root formation nor for positive gravitropism by primary roots.

  16. A comparative histologic study on furcal perforation repair with Root MTA and Pro Root MTA in fully developed teeth in dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi S.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The goal of endodontics is to seal the root canal system from the orifice to apical constriction completely and tridimensionally.Hence perforations during root canal therapy, because of caries or resorptions must be sealed and obturated with ideal materials. The aim of this study was to histologically compare two kinds of mineral trioxide aggregate Root MTA and Pro Root MTA for furcal perforation repair in developed teeth in dog. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty teeth consisting of second, third and fourth mandibular premolars of five German shepherd dogs were selected. Twenty-four teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups (6 teeth each. One pair of Root MTA and Pro Root MTA groups studied in one month and the other in three months intervals. Positive and negative control groups was each contained three teeth. In positive control group, perforations were not treated and negative control group contained intact teeth. In experimental groups perforations repaired after one week exposure to oral cavity with Root MTA or Pro Root MTA. After time intervals animals were subjected to vital perfusion and 6 m histologic sections were prepared. Inflammation and hard tissue formation were ranked by Cox criteria. Data were analysed using Mann-Whitney and Chi-Square statistical tests with P0.05. Conclusion: Mineral Trioxide Aggregate is an adequate material for furcal perforation repair in dog’s teeth. Root MTA could be a good substitute for Pro Root MTA considering the lower cost and similar characteristics.

  17. Phylogeny and expression pattern of starch branching enzyme family genes in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under diverse environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jinli; Wang, Huijun; Xia, Zhiqiang; Liu, Chen; Chen, Xin; Ma, Pingan; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2015-08-01

    Starch branching enzyme (SBE) is one of the key enzymes involved in starch biosynthetic metabolism. In this study, six SBE family genes were identified from the cassava genome. Phylogenetic analysis divided the MeSBE family genes into dicot family A, B, C, and the new group. Tissue-specific analysis showed that MeSBE2.2 was strongly expressed in leaves, stems cortex, and root stele, and MeSBE3 had high expression levels in stem cortex and root stele of plants in the rapid growth stage under field condition, whereas the expression levels of MeSBE2.1, MeSBE4, and MeSBE5 were low except for in stems cortex. The transcriptional activity of MeSBE2.2 and MeSBE3 was higher compared with other members and gradually increased in the storage roots during root growth process, while the other MeSBE members normally remained low expression levels. Expression of MeSBE2.2 could be induced by salt, drought, exogenous abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid signals, while MeSBE3 had positive response to drought, salt, exogenous abscisic acid, and salicylic acid in leaves but not in storage root, indicating that they might be more important in starch biosynthesis pathway under diverse environments.

  18. [Effects nutrients on the seedlings root hair development and root growth of Poncirus trifoliata under hydroponics condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiu; Xia, Ren-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Shu, Bo

    2013-06-01

    Ahydroponics experiment was conducted to study the effects of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) deficiency on the length of primary root, the number of lateral roots, and the root hair density, length, and diameter on the primary root and lateral roots of Poncirus trifoliata seedlings. Under the deficiency of each test nutrient, root hair could generate, but was mainly concentrated on the root base and fewer on the root tip. The root hair density on lateral roots was significantly larger than that on primary root, but the root hair length was in adverse. The deficiency of each test nutrient had greater effects on the growth and development of root hairs, with the root hair density on primary root varied from 55.0 to 174.3 mm(-2). As compared with the control, Ca deficiency induced the significant increase of root hair density and length on primary root, P deficiency promoted the root hair density and length on the base and middle part of primary root and on the lateral roots significantly, Fe deficiency increased the root hair density but decreased the root hair length on the tip of primary root significantly, K deficiency significantly decreased the root hair density, length, and diameter on primary root and lateral roots, whereas Mg deficiency increased the root hair length of primary root significantly. In all treatments of nutrient deficiency, the primary root had the similar growth rate, but, with the exceptions of N and Mg deficiency, the lateral roots exhibited shedding and regeneration.

  19. Cutting the Roots of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziey, Paul W.

    1996-01-01

    Violence is rooted in obedience to authority and in comparisons--foundations of our institutions of parenting and schooling. Obedience brings reward and punishment, comparison perpetuates a cycle of competition and conflict. Television violence is especially harmful because children easily understand visual images. The Reality Research approach to…

  20. Contemporary root canal filling strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moinzadeh, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, clinicians can choose from a wide range of root canal filling materials and techniques, some of which have been evaluated in this thesis. Methacrylate resin-based sealers suffer from polymerization shrinkage stresses. This limitation may partly be overcome by a two-step cementation

  1. Topical Roots of Formal Dialectic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Erik C. W.

    Formal dialectic has its roots in ancient dialectic. We can trace this influence in Charles Hamblin's book on fallacies, in which he introduced his first formal dialectical systems. Earlier, Paul Lorenzen proposed systems of dialogical logic, which were in fact formal dialectical systems avant la

  2. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S

    2015-01-01

    ] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill system to three different final diameters. Half the posts did not receive any pretreatment. The other half...

  3. A deeper look at the relationship between root carbon pools and the vertical distribution of the soil carbon pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dietzel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant root material makes a substantial contribution to the soil organic carbon (C pool, but this contribution is disproportionate below 20 cm where 30 % of root mass and 50 % of soil organic C is found. Root carbon inputs changed drastically when native perennial plant systems were shifted to cultivated annual plant systems. We used the reconstruction of a native prairie and a continuous maize field to examine both the relationship between root carbon and soil carbon and the fundamental rooting system differences between the vegetation under which the soils developed versus the vegetation under which the soils continue to change. In all treatments we found that root C  :  N ratios increased with depth, and this plays a role in why an unexpectedly large proportion of soil organic C is found below 20 cm. Measured root C  :  N ratios and turnover times along with modeled root turnover dynamics showed that in the historical shift from prairie to maize, a large, structural-tissue-dominated root C pool with slow turnover concentrated at shallow depths was replaced by a small, nonstructural-tissue-dominated root C pool with fast turnover evenly distributed in the soil profile. These differences in rooting systems suggest that while prairie roots contribute more C to the soil than maize at shallow depths, maize may contribute more C to soil C stocks than prairies at deeper depths.

  4. Overexpression of hydroxynitrile lyase in cassava roots elevates protein and free amino acids while reducing residual cyanogen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Narayanan N; Ihemere, Uzoma; Ellery, Claire; Sayre, Richard T

    2011-01-01

    Cassava is the major source of calories for more than 250 million Sub-Saharan Africans, however, it has the lowest protein-to-energy ratio of any major staple food crop in the world. A cassava-based diet provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein. Moreover, both leaves and roots contain potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides. The major cyanogen in cassava is linamarin which is stored in the vacuole. Upon tissue disruption linamarin is deglycosylated by the apolplastic enzyme, linamarase, producing acetone cyanohydrin. Acetone cyanohydrin can spontaneously decompose at pHs >5.0 or temperatures >35°C, or is enzymatically broken down by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) to produce acetone and free cyanide which is then volatilized. Unlike leaves, cassava roots have little HNL activity. The lack of HNL activity in roots is associated with the accumulation of potentially toxic levels of acetone cyanohydrin in poorly processed roots. We hypothesized that the over-expression of HNL in cassava roots under the control of a root-specific, patatin promoter would not only accelerate cyanogenesis during food processing, resulting in a safer food product, but lead to increased root protein levels since HNL is sequestered in the cell wall. Transgenic lines expressing a patatin-driven HNL gene construct exhibited a 2-20 fold increase in relative HNL mRNA levels in roots when compared with wild type resulting in a threefold increase in total root protein in 7 month old plants. After food processing, HNL overexpressing lines had substantially reduced acetone cyanohydrin and cyanide levels in roots relative to wild-type roots. Furthermore, steady state linamarin levels in intact tissues were reduced by 80% in transgenic cassava roots. These results suggest that enhanced linamarin metabolism contributed to the elevated root protein levels.

  5. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in plant-soil systems: Plant responses to a chemical stress in the root zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoylman, Anne M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Under laboratory conditions selected to maximize root uptake, plant tissue distribution of PAH-derived 14C was largely limited to root tissue of Malilotus alba. These results suggest that plant uptake of PAHs from contaminated soil via roots, and translocation to aboveground plant tissues (stems and leaves), is a limited mechanism for transport into terrestrial food chains. However, these data also indicate that root surface sorption of PAHs may be important for plants grown in soils containing elevated concentration PAHs. Root surface sorption of PAHs may be an important route of exposure for plants in soils containing elevated concentrations of PAHS. Consequently, the root-soil interface may be the site of plant-microbial interactions in response to a chemical stress. In this study, evidence of a shift in carbon allocation to the root zone of plants exposed to phenanthrene and corresponding increases in soil respiration and heterotrophic plate counts provide evidence of a plant-microbial response to a chemical stress. The results of this study establish the importance of the root-soil interface for plants growing in PAH contaminated soil and indicate the existence of plant-microbial interactions in response to a chemical stress. These results may provide new avenues of inquiry for studies of plant toxicology, plant-microbial interactions in the rhizosphere, and environmental fates of soil contaminants. In addition, the utilization of plants to enhance the biodegradation of soil contaminants may require evaluation of plant physiological changes and plant shifts in resource allocation.

  6. Xenogeneic Bio-Root Prompts the Constructive Process Characterized by Macrophage Phenotype Polarization in Rodents and Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Sun, Jingjing; Li, Jie; Yang, Hefeng; Luo, Xiangyou; Chen, Jinlong; Xie, Li; Huo, Fangjun; Zhu, Tian; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2017-03-01

    Tissue or organ regeneration using xenogeneic matrices is a promising approach to address the shortage of donor matrices for allotransplantation. Success of such approach has been demonstrated to correlate with macrophage-mediated fibrotic homeostasis and tissue remodeling. The previous studies have demonstrated that treated dentin matrix (TDM) could be a suitable bioactive substrate for allogeneic tooth root regeneration. This study constructed xenogeneic bioengineered tooth root (bio-root) via a combination of porcine TDM (pTDM) with allogeneic dental follicle cells (DFCs). Macrophage phenotypes are used to evaluate the remodeling process of xenogeneic bio-roots in vitro and in vivo. pTDM can facilitate odontoblast differentiation of human derived DFCs. Xenogeneic bio-roots in rat subcutaneous tissue prompt constructive response via M1 macrophage infiltration during early postimplantation stages and increase restorative M2 phenotype at later stages. After implantation of bio-roots into jaws of rhesus monkeys for six months, periodontal ligament-like fibers accompanied by macrophage polarization are observed, which are positive for COL-1, Periostin, βIII-tubulin and display such structures as fibroblasts and blood vessels. The reconstructed bio-root possesses biomechanical properties for the dissipation of masticatory forces. These results support that xenogeneic bio-root could maintain fibrotic homeostasis during remodeling process and highlight the potential application of xenogeneic matrices in regenerative medicine. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Evaluation of Root and Canal Morphology of Mandibular First Molars: A Clearing Method in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirkavand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Successful endodontic treatment is dependent on the knowledge of root canal anatomy. Objectives This study aims to investigate the root canal anatomy of mandibular first molars in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods One hundred human mandibular first molars were collected and stored in 5.25% NaOCl. Radiographic images of the teeth were taken in mesial, distal, and buccal aspects using digital radiography. The root numbers were recorded, and the teeth were covered with lacquer. Access cavities were prepared, pulp tissue was dissolved, the apex was covered with liquid glue, and the root canals were injected with methylene blue. Decalcification of the teeth meant they were kept in 10% nitric acid, and final dehydration meant they were kept in 100% Isopropyl alcohol for 72 hours and rendered clear by immersion in methyl salicylate. The number of root canals per tooth, the number of canals per root, and canal configuration in each tooth were recorded. Results Ninety-nine of the 100 teeth had two roots and the other had three roots. The teeth were classified based on the number of canals; there were 2% with two canals, 59% with three canals, and 39% with four canals. Based on the Vertucci classification, the most prevalent canal configurations in the mesial root were types II and IV, and type I in the distal root. Conclusions The most common root morphology is the two rooted morphology with three canals. Both the mesial and distal roots show wide variations in canal anatomy with type IV and type I canal configuration predominating in the mesial and distal roots, respectively. Iranian mandibular first molar teeth exhibit features close to the average Caucasian, Jordanian, and Kuwaiti’s root and canal morphology.

  8. Root coverage of a previously restored tooth. A case report with a 7-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Corsair

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Alexander CorsairPrivate Practice, RockvilleCentre, NY, USAAbstract: This case report describes the treatment of a maxillary canine that had 4 mm of marginal gingival recession. The exposed root had been previously restored with a composite class 5 restoration. The restoration was removed and the root planed and demineralized. The root was then covered by a subepithelial connective tissue graft harvested from the palate. The flap was coronally positioned to completely cover the graft and exposed root. The healing was photographed post-operatively at one month, six months, and seven years. Root coverage increased to 100% after seven years. The zone of attached gingiva also increased.Keywords: coronally positioned, subepithelial, connective tissue graft, keritinized gingiva, creeping reattachment

  9. Rapid shoot‐to‐root signalling regulates root hydraulic conductance via aquaporins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    VANDELEUR, REBECCA K; SULLIVAN, WENDY; ATHMAN, ASMINI; JORDANS, CHARLOTTE; GILLIHAM, MATTHEW; KAISER, BRENT N; TYERMAN, STEPHEN D

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the relationship between transpiration and root hydraulic conductance Vandeleur et al report that leaf area reduction reduces root hydraulic conductance in grapevine, soybean and maize...

  10. Investigation of VEGGIE Root Mat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Arun M.

    2013-01-01

    VEGGIE is a plant growth facility that utilizes the phenomenon of capillary action as its primary watering system. A cloth made of Meta Aramid fiber, known as Nomex is used to wick water up from a reservoir to the bottom of the plants roots. This root mat system is intended to be low maintenance with no moving parts and requires minimal crew interface time. Unfortunately, the water wicking rates are inconsistent throughout the plant life cycle, thus causing plants to die. Over-wicking of water occurs toward the beginning of the cycle, while under-wicking occurs toward the middle. This inconsistency of wicking has become a major issue, drastically inhibiting plant growth. The primary objective is to determine the root cause of the inconsistent wicking through experimental testing. Suspect causes for the capillary water column to break include: a vacuum effect due to a negative pressure gradient in the water reservoir, contamination of material due to minerals in water and back wash from plant fertilizer, induced air bubbles while using syringe refill method, and material limitations of Nomex's ability to absorb and retain water. Experimental testing will be conducted to systematically determine the cause of under and over-wicking. Pressure gages will be used to determine pressure drop during the course of the plant life cycle and during the water refill process. A debubbler device will be connected to a root mat in order to equalize pressure inside the reservoir. Moisture and evaporation tests will simultaneously be implemented to observe moisture content and wicking rates over the course of a plant cycle. Water retention tests will be performed using strips of Nomex to determine materials wicking rates, porosity, and absorptivity. Through these experimental tests, we will have a better understanding of material properties of Nomex, as well as determine the root cause of water column breakage. With consistent test results, a forward plan can be achieved to resolve

  11. Infrared Imaging of Sunflower and Maize Root Anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dokken,K.; Davis, L.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) permits the direct analysis of plant cell-wall architecture at the cellular level in situ, combining spatially localized information and chemical information from IR absorbances to produce a chemical map that can be linked to a particular morphology or functional group. This study demonstrated the use of SR-IMS to probe biopolymers, such as cellulose, lignin, and proteins, in the root tissue of hydroponically grown sunflower and maize plants. Principal components analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal the major spectral variance between maize and sunflower plant tissues. The use of PCA showed distinct separation of maize and sunflower samples using the IR spectra of the epidermis and xylem. The infrared band at 1635 cm-1, representing hydrocinnamic acid in (H type) lignin, provided a conclusive means of distinguishing between maize and sunflower plant tissues.

  12. Characterizing pathways by which gravitropic effectors could move from the root cap to the root of primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    Plasmodesmata linking the root cap and root in primary roots Zea mays are restricted to approx. 400 protodermal cells bordering approx. 110000 microns2 of the calyptrogen of the root cap. This area is less than 10% of the cross-sectional area of the root-tip at the cap junction. Therefore, gravitropic effectors moving from the root cap to the root can move symplastically only through a relatively small area in the centre of the root. Decapped roots are non-responsive to gravity. However, decapped roots whose caps are replaced immediately after decapping are strongly graviresponsive. Thus, gravicurvature occurs only when the root cap contacts the root, and symplastic continuity between the cap and root is not required for gravicurvature. Completely removing mucilage from the root tip renders the root non-responsive to gravity. Taken together, these data suggest that gravitropic effectors move apoplastically through mucilage from the cap to the root.

  13. Intraradicular Splinting with Endodontic Instrument of Horizontal Root Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersan Çiçek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Root fractures, defined as fractures involving dentine, cementum, and pulpal and supportive tissues, constitute only 0.5–7% of all dental injuries. Horizontal root fractures are commonly observed in the maxillary anterior region and 75% of these fractures occur in the maxillary central incisors. Methods. A 14-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic three days after a traffic accident. In radiographic examination, the right maxillary central incisor was fractured horizontally in apical thirds. Initially, following local infiltrative anesthetics, the coronal fragment was repositioned and this was radiographically confirmed. Then the stabilization splint was applied and remained for three months. After three weeks, according to the results of the vitality tests, the right and left central incisors were nonvital. For the right central incisor, both the coronal and apical fragments were involved in the endodontic preparation. Results. For the right central tooth, both the coronal and apical root fragments were endodontically treated and obturated at a single visit with white mineral trioxide aggregate whilst the fragments were stabilized internally by insertion of a size 40 Hedstrom stainless-steel endodontic file into the canal. Conclusion. Four-year follow-up examination revealed satisfactory clinical and radiographic findings with hard tissue repair of the fracture line.

  14. Physiotherapy and spinal nerve root adhesion: a caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    The term 'spinal neuropathic pain' has been coined to describe the chronic neuropathic pain that results when spinal nerve roots are aggravated by scar tissue. (It is different from the pain of spinal cord injury.) Such patients have longstanding back and radicular pain (nerve root pain, predominantly in the limbs) caused by scar or inflammatory tissue around the nerve roots. The pathology of such patients' pain means that special consideration needs to be given to the fact that such adhesions compromise nerve biomechanics and that movement generates additional pain. Patients with such spinal neuropathic pain often do not do well from conventional physiotherapy. Exacerbation (flare-up) frequently follows the exercise routines in common practice. Individual patient experience was collected from an internet support group, and the results were tabulated. All patients considered stretching, flexing and strenuous exercise to be harmful. A few reported that gentle exercise with instruction not to cause pain was beneficial. Some patients received advice not to do physiotherapy once they had been diagnosed with arachnoiditis. The treatment of patients with spinal neuropathic pain warrants special consideration as far as physiotherapy is concerned: patients should only be prescribed gentle, individually tailored exercise. It is hoped the present small study will promote understanding and the development of better therapy.

  15. Measuring and Modeling Root Distribution and Root Reinforcement in Forested Slopes for Slope Stability Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D.; Giadrossich, F.; Schwarz, M.; Vergani, C.

    2016-12-01

    Roots provide mechanical anchorage and reinforcement of soils on slopes. Roots also modify soil hydrological properties (soil moisture content, pore-water pressure, preferential flow paths) via subsurface flow path associated with root architecture, root density, and root-size distribution. Interactions of root-soil mechanical and hydrological processes are an important control of shallow landslide initiation during rainfall events and slope stability. Knowledge of root-distribution and root strength are key components to estimate slope stability in vegetated slopes and for the management of protection forest in steep mountainous area. We present data that show the importance of measuring root strength directly in the field and present methods for these measurements. These data indicate that the tensile force mobilized in roots depends on root elongation (a function of soil displacement), root size, and on whether roots break in tension of slip out of the soil. Measurements indicate that large lateral roots that cross tension cracks at the scarp are important for slope stability calculations owing to their large tensional resistance. These roots are often overlooked and when included, their strength is overestimated because extrapolated from measurements on small roots. We present planned field experiments that will measure directly the force held by roots of different sizes during the triggering of a shallow landslide by rainfall. These field data are then used in a model of root reinforcement based on fiber-bundle concepts that span different spacial scales, from a single root to the stand scale, and different time scales, from timber harvest to root decay. This model computes the strength of root bundles in tension and in compression and their effect on soil strength. Up-scaled to the stand the model yields the distribution of root reinforcement as a function of tree density, distance from tree, tree species and age with the objective of providing quantitative

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Diazotrophic Rhizobacteria of Oil Palm Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlin, C. O.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial rhizobacteria were isolated from two different compartments of oil palm roots; the rhizosphere or rhizoplane and the inner root tissues. The root samples were collected from oil palm plantation at Felda Lepar 9, Temerloh Pahang (Block 17, Square 6 (soil pH 4.30; 10:25 0.01M CaCl2. Identification of the isolates was conducted by classical biochemical and physiological tests. Acetylene Reduction Assay (ARA test was also conducted to quantify the ability of the isolates to fix atmospheric N2. Twenty-nine strains of rhizobacteria were isolated from root samples and were maintained aerobically on N-free solid media. Seven of the isolates were identified as Gram negative while the rest were Gram positive. The isolates were successfully identified as Paenibacillus durus (formerly P. azotofixans, Paenibacillus polymyxa, Azospirillum lipoferum, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Acetobacter diazotrophicus. The N2 fixation capacities of the isolates ranged from 7.0 x 10-12 to 1.0 x 10-8 mol C2H4/cfu/hour.

  17. Root canal preparation in endodontics: conventional versus laser methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodis, Harold E.; White, Joel M.; Marshall, Sally J.; Marshall, Grayson W.; Moskowitz, Emrey

    1992-06-01

    Conventional cleaning and shaping of root canal systems employs hand and/or rotary instrumentation to remove the contents of the canal and shape the canal to receive a filling material. With the advent of the Nd:YAG laser system another method of accomplishing proper cleaning and shaping is evaluated. Single rooted teeth were radiographed bucco- lingually and mesio-distally and were divided into 2 groups. The first group was accessed and the root canal systems cleaned and shaped with a step back technique utilizing hand files and gates glidden burs. At completion of the procedure the teeth were again radiographed at the same positions as those prior to the procedure. The teeth were split longitudinally and examined under scanning electron microscopy to assess cleaning. The second group of teeth were accessed, and cleaning and shaping was accomplished using the Nd:YAG laser in combination with hand files and rotary instruments. These teeth were subjected to the same analysis as those in the first group. The before and after radiographs of each group were subjected to image analysis to determine effectiveness of the two methods in shaping the canal systems. We will discuss the ability of Nd:YAG to clean and shape root canal spaces and remove smear layer and organic tissue remnants from those areas.

  18. SSR Markers for Trichoderma virens: Their Evaluation and Application to Identify and Quantify Root-Endophytic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Geistlinger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using biological fertilizers and pesticides based on beneficial soil microbes in order to reduce mineral fertilizers and chemical pesticides in conventional agriculture is still a matter of debate. In this regard, a European research project seeks to elucidate the role of root-endophytic fungi and to develop molecular tools to trace and quantify these fungi in the rhizosphere and root tissue. To do this, the draft genome sequence of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens (T. virens was screened for simple sequence repeats (SSRs and primers were developed for 12 distinct loci. Primers were evaluated using a global collection of ten isolates where an average of 7.42 alleles per locus was detected. Nei’s standard genetic distance ranged from 0.18 to 0.27 among the isolates, and the grand mean of haploid diversity in AMOVA analysis was 0.693 ± 0.019. Roots of tomato plants were inoculated with different strains and harvested six weeks later. Subsequent PCR amplification identified root-endophytic strains and co-colonization of roots by different strains. Markers were applied to qPCR to quantify T. virens strains in root tissue and to determine their identity using allele-specific melting curve analysis. Thus, the root-endophytic lifestyle of T. virens was confirmed, strains in roots were quantified and simultaneous colonization of roots by different strains was observed.

  19. Dissection of HY5/HYH expression in Arabidopsis reveals a root-autonomous HY5-mediated photomorphogenic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghong Zhang

    Full Text Available ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5, a member of the bZIP gene family, is a positive regulator of the light signaling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Whereas the hy5 mutant exhibits an elongated hypocotyl when grown in the light, the hy5 homolog (hyh mutant does not. Although the functions of HY5 and HYH in light-mediated seedling development have been revealed, the tissue-specific expression patterns of HY5 and HYH and their interconnected regulation are largely unknown. Here, we report that HY5 regulates HYH expression in roots and contributes to root growth under different light conditions. We generated HY5 and HYH transcriptional and translational fusion reporter lines to investigate their expression patterns. HY5 was constitutively expressed in all root tissues, while HYH was predominantly expressed in root xylem cells. Root growth after a dark-to-light transition was perturbed in the hy5 and hy5hyh mutant lines, but not in the hyh mutant line, indicating that HY5 plays a major role in light-regulated root growth. Light-induced HY5/HYH expression occurred autonomously in roots. HYH expression in roots was decreased in the hy5 mutant, suggesting that HY5 regulates HYH expression. Collectively, these results indicate that an organ-specific HY5-mediated pathway controls root photomorphogenic development independently of light signaling in the shoot.

  20. Expression of nodule-specific uricase in soybean callus tissue is regulated by oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Knud; Jochimsen, Bjarne U.

    1986-01-01

    In soybean root nodules the enzyme uricase is expressed concomitantly with nodule development. The initial expression of this protein does not depend on active nitrogen fixation, as demonstrated by analysis of uricase activity in effective and ineffective root nodules. However, the maximal level of uricase activity is determined by the infecting Rhizobium japonicum strain. Sterile root cultures and callus tissue, devoid of the microsymbiont, were incubated at varying oxygen concentrations and...

  1. Healing after Root-end Microsurgery by Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and a New Calcium Silicate–based Bioceramic Material as Root-end Filling Materials in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ian; Karabucak, Bekir; Wang, Cong; Wang, Han-Guo; Koyama, Eiki; Kohli, Meetu R.; Nah, Hyun-Duck; Kim, Syngcuk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to compare healing after root-end surgery by using grey mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and EndoSequence Root Repair Material (RRM) as root-end filling material in an animal model. Methods Apical periodontitis was induced in 55 mandibular premolars of 4 healthy beagle dogs. After 6 weeks, root-end surgeries were performed by using modern microsurgical techniques. Two different root-end filling materials were used, grey MTA and RRM. Six months after surgery, healing of the periapical area was assessed by periapical radiographs, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), micro computed tomography (CT), and histology. Results Minimal or no inflammatory response was observed in the majority of periapical areas regardless of the material. The degree of inflammatory infiltration and cortical plate healing were not significantly different between the 2 materials. However, a significantly greater root-end surface area was covered by cementum-like, periodontal ligament–like tissue, and bone in RRM group than in MTA group. When evaluating with periapical radiographs, complete healing rate in RRM and MTA groups was 92.6% and 75%, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (P = .073). However, on CBCT and micro CT images, RRM group demonstrated significantly superior healing on the resected root-end surface and in the periapical area (P = .000 to .027). Conclusions Like MTA, RRM is a biocompatible material with good sealing ability. However, in this animal model RRM achieved a better tissue healing response adjacent to the resected root-end surface histologically. The superior healing tendency associated with RRM could be detected by CBCT and micro CT but not periapical radiography. PMID:25596728

  2. The roots of plant defenses: integrative multivariate analyses uncover dynamic behaviors of gene and metabolic networks of roots elicited by leaf herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Jyotasana; Baldwin, Ian T; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2014-03-01

    High-throughput analyses have frequently been used to characterize herbivory-induced reconfigurations in plant primary and secondary metabolism in above- and below-ground tissues, but the conclusions drawn from these analyses are often limited by the univariate methods used to analyze the data. Here we use our previously described multivariate time-series data analysis to evaluate leaf herbivory-elicited transcriptional and metabolic dynamics in the roots of Nicotiana attenuata. We observed large, but transient, systemic responses in the roots that contrasted with the pattern of co-linearity observed in the up- and downregulation of genes and metabolites across the entire time series in treated and systemic leaves. Using this newly developed approach for the analysis of whole-plant molecular responses in a time-course multivariate data set, we simultaneously analyzed stress responses in leaves and roots in response to the elicitation of a leaf. We found that transient systemic responses in roots resolved into two principal trends characterized by: (i) an inversion of root-specific semi-diurnal (12 h) transcript oscillations and (ii) transcriptional changes with major amplitude effects that translated into a distinct suite of root-specific secondary metabolites (e.g. alkaloids synthesized in the roots of N. attenuata). These findings underscore the importance of understanding tissue-specific stress responses in the correct day-night phase context and provide a holistic framework for the important role played by roots in above-ground stress responses. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. An assessment of techniques for dehydrating root canals using infrared laser radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyra, T; Walsh, L T; Walsh, L J

    2000-08-01

    Infrared lasers have been used for debridement and sterilisation of both soft and hard tissues, but there have been few studies of such laser applications in endodontics. The present laboratory study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of using pulsed infrared laser radiation to remove moisture from root canals (with an adjunctive sterilising effect). Canals were prepared in extracted teeth and a standardised technique used to fill the apical half of the root canal with saline. Pulses of CO2 or Nd:YAG laser energy were delivered into the root canal system via miniature applicators and residual fluid determined, as well as temperature changes on the root surface. With the CO2 laser, long pulse durations were effective at dehydrating the canals, but elicited deleterious thermal changes both locally within the canal as well as on the root surface. With Nd:YAG laser treatment, large temperature increases on the root surface occurred even with low powers and low pulse frequencies, and extended times were necessary for dehydration. With higher powers and pulse frequencies, complete dehydration could be achieved in less than 60 seconds, however root surface temperatures increased approximately 25 degrees, and the radicular dentine was damaged by the production of plasma. Dehydration of root canals could not be achieved safely with these two infrared lasers, and damage to both radicular dentine and the periodontal ligament would occur if these techniques were to be applied clinically. Alternative methods which do not exert significant thermal effects should be investigated.

  4. Iron plaque formed under aerobic conditions efficiently immobilizes arsenic in Lupinus albus L roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno, Teresa; Peñalosa, Jesús M; Santner, Jakob; Puschenreiter, Markus; Prohaska, Thomas; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a non-threshold carcinogenic metalloid. Thus, human exposure should be minimised, e.g. by chemically stabilizing As in soil. Since iron is a potential As immobiliser, it was investigated whether root iron plaque, formed under aerobic conditions, affects As uptake, metabolism and distribution in Lupinus albus plants. White lupin plants were cultivated in a continuously aerated hydroponic culture containing Fe/EDDHA or FeSO4 and exposed to arsenate (5 or 20 μM). Only FeSO4 induced surficial iron plaque in roots. LA-ICP-MS analysis accomplished on root sections corroborated the association of As to this surficial Fe. Additionally, As(V) was the predominant species in FeSO4-treated roots, suggesting less efficient As uptake in the presence of iron plaque. Fe/EDDHA-exposed roots neither showed such surficial FeAs co-localisation nor As(V) accumulation; in contrast As(III) was the predominant species in root tissue. Furthermore, FeSO4-treated plants showed reduced shoot-to-root As ratios, which were >10-fold lower compared to Fe/EDDHA treatment. Our results highlight the role of an iron plaque formed in roots of white lupin under aerobic conditions on As immobilisation. These findings, to our knowledge, have not been addressed before for this plant and have potential implications on soil remediation (phytostabilisation) and food security (minimising As in crops). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microhardness and sealing ability of materials used for root canal perforations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Carlos H R; Fonseca, Manuela B; Carvalho, Alessandra S; Camargo, Samira E; Cardoso, Flavia G; Valera, Marcia C

    2012-01-01

    Root perforations may lead to a loss of integrity in the root and periodontium, violations of the biologic periodontal distance, and injuries to periodontal tissue. This study sought to analyze the effect of root canal biomechanical preparation on the microhardness and the marginal sealing ability of different materials used to treat root perforations. Standard root perforations were performed in 96 bovine incisors. The teeth were divided into four groups (n = 24), based on the material used to treat those teeth: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (Group 1), MTA protected with cyanoacrylate (Group 2), MTA protected with glass ionomer (GI) cement (Group 3), and castor oil bean (COB) cement (Group 4). After root perforations were closed, the root canals were prepared biomechanically and teeth were sectioned longitudinally. Microleakage and microhardness of sealed perforations were assessed; microleakage data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) testing, while microhardness data were submitted to Dunnet and Tukey tests (p microhardness values compared to COB. It was concluded that the chemical and mechanical agents used during root canal preparation did not affect the sealing procedures. Administering surface protection to MTA did not improve microhardness or sealing.

  6. Anatomical and biochemical changes during adventitious rooting of apple rootstocks MM 106 cultured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naija, Sélima; Elloumi, Nadhra; Jbir, Najoua; Ammar, Saida; Kevers, Claire

    2008-07-01

    Adventitious rooting in microcuttings of Malus rootstocks MM106 was studied as regards their histological and biochemical aspects. Microcuttings from shoots raised in Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium were transferred into a rooting medium containing IBA in the dark, then fixed 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after. Some cambial zone and adjacent phloem cells became dense cytoplasm, nuclei with prominent nucleoli and the first cell divisions were observed at day 3. Meristemoids became individualized, consisting of densely staining cells (with enlarged nucleoli) formed outside the xylem by day 5. Identifiable root primordia with a conical shape and several cell layers were present at day 7. Roots with organized tissue system emerged from the stem 10 days after the root induction treatment. From these histological observations, it can be established that the rooting induction stage ended before day 3. The initiation stage, with the first histological modifications to the formation of meristemoids, would correspond to the transient increase of our biochemical marker (peroxidase activity) until day 5. The best rooting percentage obtained with cultures in the presence of auxin during 5 days confirms this hypothesis. The expression of rooting can then take place.

  7. MAIL1 is essential for development of the primary root but not of anchor roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ühlken, Christine; Hoth, Stefan; Weingartner, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    MAIN-LIKE1 (MAIL1) is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein, which has a crucial function during root development. We have recently described loss of function mutants for MAIL1, in which the organization and function of the primary root meristem is lost soon after germination. Moreover cell differentiation is impaired resulting in primary root growth arrest soon after emergence. Here we show that mail1 mutants form several anchor roots from the hypocotyl to root junction. These anchor roots show similar defects in the organization of the stem cell niche as the primary root. In contrast, differentiation processes are not impaired and thus anchor roots seem to be able to compensate for the loss of primary root function. Our data show that MAIL1 is essential for specification of cell fate in the primary root but not in anchor roots.

  8. QTL Information Table: 1043 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available inandang Patong B RM262 RM341 jsa Uga, Y., Okuno, K., and Yano, M. (2008). QTLs underlying natural variation in stele and xylem structures of rice root. Breeding Science 58, 7-14. ...

  9. Reference: 150 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s requiring numerous transporters for absorption and translocation of this major nutrient. In the genome of ...stele of lateral roots, suggesting a role of Pht1;4 in phosphate absorption and t

  10. Dimension, anatomy and morphology of the mesiobuccal root canal system in maxillary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degerness, Randy A; Bowles, Walter R

    2010-06-01

    To increase our understanding of the root canal system, we examined the mesiobuccal (MB) roots of maxillary first and second molars, which are considered to be one of the most complex root canal systems. Uninstrumented MB roots from 153 teeth were imbedded, sectioned, and observed at 8x using a stereomicroscope for main canal numbers, isthmus presence, and dimensional size of canals and dentin walls. The number of canals observed in maxillary first and second molars was 20% and 38.1% for one canal, 79.8% and 60.3% for two canals, and 1.1% and 1.6% for three canals, respectively. The buccal canal was larger than lingual or middle canals at all levels of the root. The average distance between the two main canals was 1.2 +/- 0.6 mm in first molars and 1.78 +/- 0.6 mm in second molars. Isthmus tissue increased greatly at 3.6 mm from the apex, suggesting optimal root resection at this level. Little differences in thickness between mesial and distal canal walls were seen until reaching the coronal sections of the root where the average canal wall thickness was found to be thinner (33%) on the distal, suggesting a "danger zone" for maxillary molars at a level where the root joins the crown of the tooth. The observations made here provide a more precise understanding of the maxillary MB root system. Orthograde and retrograde root canal therapy might be improved with a comprehensive understanding of pulpal morphology throughout the entire MB root. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hairy root culture optimization and resveratrol production from Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvesteris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Sayed Mehdi; Bahramnejad, Bahman; Douleti Baneh, Hamed; Emamifar, Aryo; Goodwin, Paul H

    2017-04-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound produced in very low levels in grapes. To achieve high yield of resveratrol in wild grape, three Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains, Ar318, ArA4 and LBA9402, were used to induce hairy roots following infection of internodes, nodes or petioles of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvesteris accessions W2 and W16, and cultivar Rasha. The effects of inoculation time, age of explants, bacterial concentration and co-cultivation times were examined on the efficiency of the production of hairy roots. Strains Ar318, ArA4 and LBA9402 all induced hairy roots in the tested genotypes, but the efficiency of ArA4 strain was higher than the other strains. The highest hairy root production was with using internodes as explants. The transformation of hairy roots lines was confirmed by PCR detection of rolB gene. Half Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium was better for biomass production compared with MS medium. HPLC analysis of resveratrol production in the hairy root cultures showed that all the genotypes produced higher amounts of resveratrol than control roots. The highest amount of resveratrol was produced from W16 internode cultures, which was 31-fold higher than that of control root. Furthermore, TLC analysis showed that treatments of hairy roots with sodium acetate and jasmonate elevated resveratrol levels both in hairy root tissue and excreted into the half MS medium. These results demonstrate that endogenous and exogenous factors can affect resveratrol production in hairy root culture of grape, and this strategy could be used to increase low resveratrol production in grapes.

  12. Neutral Red as a Probe for Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy Studies of Plant Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    DUBROVSKY, JOSEPH G.; GUTTENBERGER, MARTIN; SARALEGUI, ANDRES; NAPSUCIALY-MENDIVIL, SELENE; VOIGT, BORIS; BALUŠKA, FRANTIŠEK; MENZEL, DIEDRIK

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Neutral red (NR), a lipophilic phenazine dye, has been widely used in various biological systems as a vital stain for bright-field microscopy. In its unprotonated form it penetrates the plasma membrane and tonoplast of viable plant cells, then due to protonation it becomes trapped in acidic compartments. The possible applications of NR for confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies were examined in various aspects of plant root biology. • Methods NR was used as a fluorochrome for living roots of Phaseolus vulgaris, Allium cepa, A. porrum and Arabidopsis thaliana (wild-type and transgenic GFP-carrying lines). The tissues were visualized using CLSM. The effect of NR on the integrity of the cytoskeleton and the growth rate of arabidopsis primary roots was analysed to judge potential toxic effects of the dye. • Key Results The main advantages of the use of NR are related to the fact that NR rapidly penetrates root tissues, has affinity to suberin and lignin, and accumulates in the vacuoles. It is shown that NR is a suitable probe for visualization of proto- and metaxylem elements, Casparian bands in the endodermis, and vacuoles in cells of living roots. The actin cytoskeleton and the microtubule system of the cells, as well as the dynamics of root growth, remain unchanged after short-term application of NR, indicating a relatively low toxicity of this chemical. It was also found that NR is a useful probe for the observation of the internal structures of root nodules and of fungal hyphae in vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizas. • Conclusions Ease, low cost and absence of tissue processing make NR a useful probe for structural, developmental and vacuole-biogenetic studies of plant roots with CLSM. PMID:16520341

  13. EFFECT OF CALITROPIS PROCERA AQUEOUS ROOT EXTRACT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKAR

    The C. Procera root extract was found to significantly (p<0.05) reduce the serum levels of AST, ... urea. These indicates the possible hepatocurative effects of aqueous root extract of C. ... extracts is an excellent source of therapeutic agents.

  14. Tissue culture of Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep. and its quality evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun-Hua, Wei; Lin-Xuan, Li; Yong-Cai, Huang; Mei-Ying, Wang; Cui, Li; Jian-Hua, Miao

    2013-10-01

    Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep. is an important rare medicinal plant in China. There were only a few papers on the rapid propagation of S. tonkinensis through in vitro tissue culture, and still no report focuses on the quality analysis of in vitro tissue culture plantlets. The different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin (KT), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were used to establish and screen the optimal rapid propagation technology of S. tonkinensis by orthogonal test; the different concentrations of a-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and ABT rooting power (ABT) were used to screen the optimal rooting technology. For quality evaluation of tissue culture plants, three different sites were chose to finish planting experiment. The leaf characteristics, radix ex rhizoma yield, and contents of matrine and oxymatrine were evaluated, respectively, to provide evidence of high yield and good qualities of tissue culture plants. A large number of buds could be induced directly from epicotyl and hypocotyl explants on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l IAA, and 0.5 mg/l KT; the best root induction medium was solid MS medium at half the macronutrient concentration supplemented with 1.0 mg/l NAA, 0.4 mg/l IBA, and 0.1 mg/l ABT. The rooting rate was 98%. All tissue culture plants showed normal leaf characteristics. Tissue culture plants from two sites possessed higher radix ex rhizoma yield and overall productivity of matrine and oxymatrine than those of seed plants. Tissue culture is a rapid, effective, and convenient propagation method for S. tonkinensis, and the quality of S. tonkinensis tissue culture plants meets the requirement of quality standard of China Pharmacopoeia (edition 2010), the crude drug from S. tonkinensis tissue culture plants will be suitable for substituting the crude drug from seed plants.

  15. Zinc Oxide Eugenol-Formocresol Root Canal Treatment Fails to Treat a Deciduous Tooth with Dentoalveolar Abcess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifa Pediarahma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Irreversible pulp infection can lead to dentoalveolar abscess. Root canal treatment in deciduous teeth is indicated in irreversible pulp infection to maintain children’s health and deciduous teeth until its exfoliation period. Success rate of endodontic treatment in deciduous teeth can be enhanced by using antimicrobial root canal filling material. Combination of ZOE-formocresol as root canal filling material has a superior antimicrobial property. Unfortunately, based on some research it is also toxic to the tissue. This case report will discuss about failure of root canal treatment in deciduous tooth with dentoalveolar abscess using combination of ZOE-formocresol as obturating material. There are some factors that possibly cause the failure: complexity of deciduous molar anatomy, the choice of root canal filling material, application of root canal filling material that is not adequate, or an extend pathological condition.DOI:10.14693/jdi.v21i3.230

  16. Three-dimensional alteration of constricted alveolar ridge affected by root thrusting with and without open-flap decortication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Donghyun; Lee, Won-June; Kim, Kyung-A; Baek, Seung-Hak; Park, Young-Guk; Kim, Su-Jung

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the morphometric and histological alterations of the constricted alveolar ridge when affected by root thrusting with and without open-flap decortication. Eight beagles were divided into three groups: C, control without root thrusting; R, root thrusting only; RD, root thrusting with alveolar decortication. The ridge constriction model was prepared in 16 mandibular quadrants after extraction of the third premolars. Reciprocal root thrusting of the second and fourth premolars was performed toward the constricted ridge for 10 weeks, having a moment of 900 g-mm. Open-flap decortication was conducted on the constricted bone surface in group RD. Micro-CT-based histomorphometric analysis and trichrome-staining-based tissue fractional analysis were performed to evaluate morphometric and microstructural changes on the ridge. Group R revealed a higher percentage of bone volume (P decortication with root thrusting did not improve the volume or quality of the constricted ridge.

  17. [Allelopathy autotoxicity effects of aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil on rooting and growth of stem cuttings in Pogostemon cablin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kun; Li, Ming; Dong, Shan; Li, Yun-qi; Huang, Jie-wen; Li, Long-ming

    2014-06-01

    To study the allelopathy effects of aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil on the rooting and growth of stem cutting in Pogostemon cablin, and to reveal its mechanism initially. The changes of rhizogenesis characteristics and physic-biochemical during cutting seedlings were observed when using different concentration of aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil. Aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil had significant inhibitory effects on rooting rate, root number, root length, root activity, growth rate of cutting with increasing concentrations of tissue extracts; The chlorophyll content of cutting seedlings were decreased, but content of MDA were increased, and activities of POD, PPO and IAAO in cutting seedlings were affected. Aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil of Pogostemon cablin have varying degrees of inhibitory effects on the normal rooting and growth of stem cuttings.

  18. Tissue specific responses alter the biomass accumulation in wheat under gradual and sudden salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumurtaci A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one the major limiting environmental factors which has negative side effects on crop production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between the gradual and sudden salt stress effects on biomass accumulation associated with whole plant development in three different tissues of two wheat species ( Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum under hydroponic conditions in the long term. Considering the effects of sudden and gradual stress for biomass accumulation, while importance of salinity x genotype interaction for fresh weights was 5%, association for salinity x tissue type was found as 1% important. Interestingly, root branching and development of lateral roots were much more negatively affected by gradual stress rather than sudden salt application. Our results demonstrated that root and leaf were both critical tissues to test the salt tolerance by physiologically but sheath tissue might be used as an alternative source of variation for solving the interactions between root and leaves in wheat.

  19. [Reconstruction of soft and hard tissue around the tooth in aesthetic areas: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li

    2008-02-18

    Gingival recession or root exposure is associated with the loss of soft and hard tissue around the root. Gingival recession not only leads to aesthetic problem, but also affects tooth function, and even causes the loss of tooth. A case was diagnosed as gingival recession of upper incisor and periodontal- endodontic combined lesion. This report included the history of disease, clinical examination, X-ray film, treatment planning, root canal treatment and sequence of periodontal disease treatment (initial therapy, local drug therapy, bone graft and guided tissue regeneration combined with double laterally positioned flaps, subepithelial connective tissue graft and coronal positioned flap). The reasons of gingival recession, the methods of root coverage and the reconstruction of soft and hard tissue were also discussed on the basis of this case.

  20. Intersect a quartic to extract its roots

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavendra G. Kulkarni

    2017-01-01

    In this note we present a new method for determining the roots of a quartic polynomial, wherein the given quartic polynomial is intersected by a quadratic polynomial (which has two unknown coefficients) at its root point; so the root satisfies both the quartic and the quadratic equations. Elimination of the root term from the two equations leads to an expression in the two unknowns of quadratic polynomial. In addition, we introduce another expression in one unknown, which leads to determinati...

  1. Forcing the Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Preece; J. W. Van Sambeek; Paul H. Henry; James Zaczek

    2002-01-01

    Many woody shrubs and trees are propagated by rooting green, leafy cuttings (softwood or semihardwood) because of poor rooting response from dormant hardwood cuttings. However, this method limits cutting propagation to a short period each year. As a group of scientists, we've developed a system that allows for production of softwood cuttings during the dormant...

  2. Platelet-rich-fibrin: A novel root coverage approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilkumar K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of gingival recession has become an important therapeutic issue due to increasing cosmetic demand. Multiple surgical procedures have been developed to obtain predictable esthetic root coverage. More specifically, after periodontal regenerative surgery, the aim is to achieve complete wound healing and regeneration of the periodontal unit. A recent innovation in dentistry is the preparation and use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP, a concentrated suspension of the growth factors, found in platelets. These growth factors are involved in wound healing and postulated as promoters of tissue regeneration. This paper reports the use of PRF membrane for root coverage on the labial surfaces of the mandibular anterior teeth. This was accomplished using laterally displaced flap technique with platelet rich fibrin (PRF membrane at the recipient site.

  3. Early nodulins in root nodule development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.

    1990-01-01

    The symbiotic interaction between bacteria of the genus Rhizobium and leguminous plants leads to the formation of root nodules, which are specific nitrogen-fixing organs on the roots of plants. Bacteria enter the root by infection threads, and concomitantly cell

  4. Cellular organisation of the Arabidopsis thaliana root

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolan, L.; Janmaat, K.; Willemsen, V.; Linstead, P.; Poethig, S.; Roberts, R.; Scheres, B.J.G.

    1993-01-01

    The anatomy of the developing root of Arabidopsis is described using conventional histological techniques, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The root meristem is derived from cells of the hypophysis and adjacent cells of the embryo proper. The postembryonic organization of the root is

  5. Root Cause Analysis: Methods and Mindsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluch, Jacob H.

    This instructional unit is intended for use in training operations personnel and others involved in scram analysis at nuclear power plants in the techniques of root cause analysis. Four lessons are included. The first lesson provides an overview of the goals and benefits of the root cause analysis method. Root cause analysis techniques are covered…

  6. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    Root growth is an essential parameter regarding nitrogen (N) uptake efficiency, as more and deeper roots may improve the uptake from deeper soil layers and reduce nitrate leaching losses. During this PhD project, it was studied how different agronomic practices influence root growth and N relations...

  7. Rooting of microcuttings: Theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Poor adventitious root formation is a major obstacle in micropropagation and in conventional propagation. This paper reviews recent progress in the understanding of adventitious root formation as a developmental process focusing on the role of plant hormones and on the effect of rooting conditions

  8. Evaluation of bacterial leakage of four root- end filling materials: Gray Pro Root MTA, White Pro Root MTA, Root MTA and Portland Cement (type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarabian M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Today several materials have been used for root- end filling in endodontic surgery. Optimal properties of Pro Root MTA in in-vitro and in-vivo studies has been proven. On the other hand, based on some studies, Root MTA (Iranian Pro Root MTA and Portland cement are similar to Pro Root MTA in physical and biologic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate bacterial leakage (amount and mean leakage time of four root- end filling materials. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in-vitro study, seventy six extracted single- rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups for root-end filling with gray Pro Root MTA, white Pro Root MTA, Root MTA (Iranian Pro Root MTA, Portland Cement (type I and positive and negative control groups. Root canals were instrumented using the step- back technique. Root- end filling materials were placed in 3mm ultra sonic retro preparations. Samples and microleakage model system were sterilized in autoclave. The apical 3-4 mm of the roots were immersed in phenol red with 3% lactose broth culture medium. The coronal access of each specimen was inoculated every 24h with a suspension of Streptococcus sanguis (ATCC 10556. Culture media were observed every 24h for colour change indicating bacterial contamination for 60 days. Statistical analysis was performed using log- rank test with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: At the end of study 50%, 56.25%, 56.25% and 50% of specimens filled with Gray Pro Root MTA, White Pro Root MTA. Root MTA and Portland Cement (type I had evidence of leakage respectively. The mean leakage time was 37.19±6.29, 36.44±5.81, 37.69±5.97 and 34.81±6.67 days respectively. Statistical analysis of data showed no significant difference among the leakage (amount and mean leakage time of the four tested root- end filling materials (P=0.9958. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, there were no significant differences in leakage among the four

  9. Printing Values In Interactive ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Perovic, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This project report summarizes the work I have been performing during the past twelve weeks as a Summer Student intern working on ROOT project in the SFT group, PH department, under the supervision of Axel Naumann and Danilo Piparo. One of the widely requested features for ROOT was improved interactive shell experience as well as improved printing of object values. Solving this issue was the goal of this project. Primarily, we have enabled printing of the collections. Secondly, we have unified the printing interface, making it much more robust and extendible. Thirdly, we have implemented printing of nested collections in a flexible and user-friendly manner. Finally, we have added an interactive mode, allowing for paginated output. At the beginning of the report, ROOT is presented with examples of where it is used and how important it is. Then, the motivation behind the project is elaborated, by presenting the previous state of the software package and its potential for improvement. Further, the process in wh...

  10. [Exploration research on hepatotoxic constituents from Polygonum multiflorum root].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Liu, Ting; Feng, Wei-Hong; Hui, Lian-Qiang; Li, Rao-Rao; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Chen, An-Jia; Li, Chun; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2016-04-01

    By observing the cytotoxic effects of anthraquinones on HepG2 cell and using the precision-cut liver slices technique to authenticate the cytotoxic constituents, the paper aims to explore the material basis of Polygonum multiflorum root to cause liver toxicity. Firstly, MTT method was used to detect the effect of 11 anthraquinone derivatives on HepG2 cell. Then, the clear cytotoxic ingredients were co-cultured with rat liver slices for 6h respectively, and the liver tissue homogenate was prepared. BCA method was used to determine the content of protein in the homogenate and continuous monitoring method was used to monitor the leakage of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamine amino transpeptidase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The toxic effect of these ingredients on liver tissue was tested by calculating the leakage rate of the monitored enzymes. As a result, rhein, emodin, physcion-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and physcion-8-O-(6'-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside showed cytotoxic effects on HepG2 cell and their IC₅₀ values were 71.07, 125.62, 242.27, 402.32 μmol•L⁻¹ respectively, but the other 7 compounds are less toxic and their IC₅₀ values can not be calculated. The precision-cut liver slices tests showed that rhein group of 400 μmol•L⁻¹ concentration significantly increased the leakage rate of ALT, AST and LDH (Pmultiflorum root respectively, which is far from the statutory dose of crude P. multiflorum root (3-6 g) or its processed product (6-12 g). Therefore, the conclusion that anthraquinones are the prime constituents of the hepatotoxicity of P. multiflorum root are still not be proved. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. OpenSimRoot: widening the scope and application of root architectural models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Johannes A; Kuppe, Christian; Owen, Markus R; Mellor, Nathan; Griffiths, Marcus; Bennett, Malcolm J; Lynch, Jonathan P; Watt, Michelle

    2017-08-01

    OpenSimRoot is an open-source, functional-structural plant model and mathematical description of root growth and function. We describe OpenSimRoot and its functionality to broaden the benefits of root modeling to the plant science community. OpenSimRoot is an extended version of SimRoot, established to simulate root system architecture, nutrient acquisition and plant growth. OpenSimRoot has a plugin, modular infrastructure, coupling single plant and crop stands to soil nutrient and water transport models. It estimates the value of root traits for water and nutrient acquisition in environments and plant species. The flexible OpenSimRoot design allows upscaling from root anatomy to plant community to estimate the following: resource costs of developmental and anatomical traits; trait synergisms; and (interspecies) root competition. OpenSimRoot can model three-dimensional images from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) of roots in soil. New modules include: soil water-dependent water uptake and xylem flow; tiller formation; evapotranspiration; simultaneous simulation of mobile solutes; mesh refinement; and root growth plasticity. OpenSimRoot integrates plant phenotypic data with environmental metadata to support experimental designs and to gain a mechanistic understanding at system scales. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Cytokinins act directly on lateral root founder cells to inhibit root initiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laplaze, L.; Benkova, E.; Casimiro, I.; Maes, L.; Vanneste, S.; Swarup, R.; Weijers, D.; Calvo, V.; Parizot, B.; Herrera-Rodriguez, M.B.; Offringa, R.; Graham, N.; Doumas, P.; Friml, J.; Bogusz, D.; Beeckman, T.; Bennett, M.

    2007-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, lateral roots are formed from root pericycle cells adjacent to the xylem poles. Lateral root development is regulated antagonistically by the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin. While a great deal is known about how auxin promotes lateral root development, the mechanism of

  13. Treatment of gingival recession in two surgical stages: Free gingival graft and connective tissue grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Paulo Sergio Gomes; Nunes, Marcelo Pereira; Pelegrine, Andre Antonio

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a clinical case of severe Miller Class II gingival recession treated by two stages of surgery that combined a free gingival graft and connective tissue grafting. First, a free gingival graft (FGG) was performed to obtain an adequate keratinized tissue level. Three months later, a connective tissue graft (CTG) was performed to obtain root coverage. The results indicated that the FGG allows for a gain in the keratinized tissue level and the CTG allows for root coverage with decreased recession level after 16 months. Therefore, for this type of specific gingival recession, the combination of FGG and CTG can be used.

  14. Brassinolide Increases Potato Root GrowthIn Vitroin a Dose-Dependent Way and Alleviates Salinity Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yueqing; Xia, Shitou; Su, Yi; Wang, Huiqun; Luo, Weigui; Su, Shengying; Xiao, Langtao

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal phytohormones that regulate various physiological processes, such as root development and stress tolerance. In the present study, we showed that brassinolide (BL) affects potato root in vitro growth in a dose-dependent manner. Low BL concentrations (0.1 and 0.01  μ g/L) promoted root elongation and lateral root development, whereas high BL concentrations (1-100  μ g/L) inhibited root elongation. There was a significant ( P plants treated with 50  μ g/L BL showed enhanced salt stress tolerance through in vitro growth. Under this scenario, BL treatment enhanced the proline content and antioxidant enzymes' (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase) activity and reduced malondialdehyde content in potato shoots. Application of BL maintain K + and Na + homeostasis by improving tissue K + /Na + ratio. Therefore, we suggested that the effects of BL on root development from stem fragments explants as well as on primary root development are dose-dependent and that BL application alleviates salt stress on potato by improving root activity, root/shoot ratio, and antioxidative capacity in shoots and maintaining K + /Na + homeostasis in potato shoots and roots.

  15. Root caries, root surface restorations and lifestyle factors in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Ekstrand, Kim

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate selected lifestyle factors in relation to active caries and restored root surface lesions in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on clinical examinations and questionnaires, data on root caries, socioeconomic status, body mass index, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, tobacco...... and restored root surface lesions, respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of active root caries was 4%, while 26% displayed restored root surfaces. The sugar intake was not related to root caries. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that, in subjects aged 45 or over, smoking and wearing...... dentures were significantly associated with presence of active root caries (p alcohol intake (OR = 1.7; p alcohol...

  16. Ultrastructural analysis of organization of roots obtained from cell cultures at clinostating and under microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlutsky, A. G.

    1992-08-01

    Data are presented of a comparative analysis on rhizogenesis in the Arabidopsis thaliana tissue culture growing in a solid nutrient medium under stationary conditions, clinastatic conditions and microgravity. Tissue samples weighing 100 mg. were set in the Petri dishes and placed in a horizontal slow clinostate /2 revs/min/. After 14 days of growth they were analyzed. On clinostating the number of roots formed from the callus cells was approximately one half the control. The formed root cap manifested no essential differences, in comparison with the stationary control, in the number of layers and cell sizes in its layers. In callusogenic roots, formed from clinostated cells, differentiation including root cap cells, proceeds without noticeable deviations from the norm. At the same time, gravireceptor cells do not function under these conditions. This is clearly displayed at a structural level in the location of amyloplasts-statoliths throughout the cytoplasm. The callus cell cultures experienced microgravity for 8 days. The number of formed roots under the influence of this factor was 36% relative to the stationary control. Root cap formation was abnormal. Gravireceptor cells did not formed under microgravity.

  17. Intersect a quartic to extract its roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra G. Kulkarni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this note we present a new method for determining the roots of a quartic polynomial, wherein the given quartic polynomial is intersected by a quadratic polynomial (which has two unknown coefficients at its root point; so the root satisfies both the quartic and the quadratic equations. Elimination of the root term from the two equations leads to an expression in the two unknowns of quadratic polynomial. In addition, we introduce another expression in one unknown, which leads to determination of the two unknowns and subsequently the roots of quartic polynomial.

  18. Asteroidal Quadruples in non Rooted Path Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Marisa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A directed path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a directed tree. A rooted path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a rooted tree. Rooted path graphs are directed path graphs. Several characterizations are known for directed path graphs: one by forbidden induced subgraphs and one by forbidden asteroids. It is an open problem to find such characterizations for rooted path graphs. For this purpose, we are studying in this paper directed path graphs that are non rooted path graphs. We prove that such graphs always contain an asteroidal quadruple.

  19. Hydrogenase in actinorhizal root nodules and root nodule homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D R; Arp, D J; Burris, R H

    1980-04-01

    Hydrogenases were measured in intact actinorhizal root nodules and from disrupted nodules of Alnus glutinosa, Alnus rhombifolia, Alnus rubra, and Myrica pensylvanica. Whole nodules took up H2 in an O2-dependent reaction. Endophyte preparations oxidized H2 through the oxyhydrogen reaction, but rates were enhanced when hydrogen uptake was coupled to artificial electron acceptors. Oxygen inhibited artifical acceptor-dependent H2 uptake. The hydrogenase system from M. pensylvanica had a different pattern of coupling to various electron acceptors than the hydrogenase systems from the alders; only the bayberry system evolved H2 from reduced viologen dyes.

  20. Optimal root arrangement of cereal crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yeonsu; Park, Keunhwan; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-11-01

    The plant root absorbs water from the soil and supplies it to the rest part of the plant. It consists of a number of root fibers, through whose surfaces water uptake occurs. There is an intriguing observation that for most of cereal crops such as maize and wheat, the volume density of root in the soil declines exponentially as a function of depth. To understand this empirical finding, we construct a theoretical model of root water uptake, where mass transfer into root surface is modeled just as heat flux around a fin. Agreement between the theoretically predicted optimal root distribution in vertical direction and biological data supports the hypothesis that the plant root has evolved to achieve the optimal water uptake in competition with neighbors. This study has practical implication in the agricultural industry as well as optimal design of water transport networks in both micro- and macroscales. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

  1. Effects of fine root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghu Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The study was conducted to characterize the impacts of plant roots systems (e.g., root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems. Area of study: The study was carried out in Jiufeng National Forest Park, Beijing, China. Material and methods: The flow patterns were measured by field dye tracing experiments. Different species (Sophora japonica Linn,Platycladus orientalis Franco, Quercus dentata Thunbwere quantified in two replicates, and 12 soil depth were applied. Plant roots were sampled in the sieving methods. Root length density and root biomass were measured by WinRHIZO. Dye coverage was implied in the image analysis, and maximum depth of dye infiltration by direct measurement. Main results: Root length density and root biomass decreased with the increasing distance from soil surface, and root length density was 81.6% higher in preferential pathways than in soil matrix, and 66.7% for root biomass with respect to all experimental plots. Plant roots were densely distributed in the upper soil layers. Dye coverage was almost 100% in the upper 5-10 cm, but then decreased rapidly with soil depth. Root length density and root biomass were different from species: Platycladus orientalis Franco > Quercus dentata Thunb > Sophora japonica Linn. Research highlights: The results indicated that fine roots systems had strong effects on soil preferential flow, particularly root channels enhancing nutrition transport across soil profiles in forest dynamics.

  2. Hydraulic responses of whole vines and individual roots of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) following root severance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Marykate Z; Patterson, Kevin J; Minchin, Peter E H; Gould, Kevin S; Clearwater, Michael J

    2011-05-01

    Whole vine (K(plant)) and individual root (K(root)) hydraulic conductances were measured in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis 'Hort16A') vines to observe hydraulic responses following partial root system excision. Heat dissipation and compensation heat pulse techniques were used to measure sap flow in trunks and individual roots, respectively. Sap flux and measurements of xylem pressure potential (Ψ) were used to calculate K(plant) and K(root) in vines with zero and ∼80% of roots severed. Whole vine transpiration (E), Ψ and K(plant) were significantly reduced within 24 h of root pruning, and did not recover within 6 weeks. Sap flux in intact roots increased within 24 h of root pruning, driven by an increase in the pressure gradient between the soil and canopy and without any change in root hydraulic conductance. Photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were reduced, without significant effects on leaf internal CO(2) concentration (c(i)). Shoot growth rates were maintained; fruit growth and dry matter content were increased following pruning. The woody roots of kiwifruit did not demonstrate a rapid dynamic response to root system damage as has been observed previously in monocot seedlings. Increased sap flux in intact roots with no change in K(root) and only a moderate decline in shoot A suggests that under normal growing conditions root hydraulic conductance greatly exceeds requirements for adequate shoot hydration. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  3. Physiological minimum temperatures for root growth in seven common European broad-leaved tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Gabriela; Lenz, Armando; Körner, Christian; Hoch, Günter

    2014-03-01

    Temperature is the most important factor driving the cold edge distribution limit of temperate trees. Here, we identified the minimum temperatures for root growth in seven broad-leaved tree species, compared them with the species' natural elevational limits and identified morphological changes in roots produced near their physiological cold limit. Seedlings were exposed to a vertical soil-temperature gradient from 20 to 2 °C along the rooting zone for 18 weeks. In all species, the bulk of roots was produced at temperatures above 5 °C. However, the absolute minimum temperatures for root growth differed among species between 2.3 and 4.2 °C, with those species that reach their natural distribution limits at higher elevations also tending to have lower thermal limits for root tissue formation. In all investigated species, the roots produced at temperatures close to the thermal limit were pale, thick, unbranched and of reduced mechanical strength. Across