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Sample records for root hair initiation

  1. Regulation of root hair initiation and expansin gene expression in Arabidopsis

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    Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    The expression of two Arabidopsis expansin genes (AtEXP7 and AtEXP18) is tightly linked to root hair initiation; thus, the regulation of these genes was studied to elucidate how developmental, hormonal, and environmental factors orchestrate root hair formation. Exogenous ethylene and auxin, as well as separation of the root from the medium, stimulated root hair formation and the expression of these expansin genes. The effects of exogenous auxin and root separation on root hair formation required the ethylene signaling pathway. By contrast, blocking the endogenous ethylene pathway, either by genetic mutations or by a chemical inhibitor, did not affect normal root hair formation and expansin gene expression. These results indicate that the normal developmental pathway for root hair formation (i.e., not induced by external stimuli) is independent of the ethylene pathway. Promoter analyses of the expansin genes show that the same promoter elements that determine cell specificity also determine inducibility by ethylene, auxin, and root separation. Our study suggests that two distinctive signaling pathways, one developmental and the other environmental/hormonal, converge to modulate the initiation of the root hair and the expression of its specific expansin gene set.

  2. Effects of glucose and ethylene on root hair initiation and elongation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings.

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    Harigaya, Wakana; Takahashi, Hidenori

    2018-05-01

    Root hair formation occurs in lettuce seedlings after transfer to an acidic medium (pH 4.0). This process requires cortical microtubule (CMT) randomization in root epidermal cells and the plant hormone ethylene. We investigated the interaction between ethylene and glucose, a new signaling molecule in plants, in lettuce root development, with an emphasis on root hair formation. Dark-grown seedlings were used to exclude the effect of photosynthetically produced glucose. In the dark, neither root hair formation nor the CMT randomization preceding it occurred, even after transfer to the acidic medium (pH 4.0). Adding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC) to the medium rescued the induction, while adding glucose did not. Although CMT randomization occurred when glucose was applied together with ACC, it was somewhat suppressed compared to that in ACC-treated seedlings. This was not due to a decrease in the speed of randomization, but due to lowering of the maximum degree of randomization. Despite the negative effect of glucose on ACC-induced CMT randomization, the density and length of ACC-induced root hairs increased when glucose was also added. The hair-cell length of the ACC-treated seedlings was comparable to that in the combined-treatment seedlings, indicating that the increase in hair density caused by glucose results from an increase in the root hair number. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that glucose suppressed ethylene signaling. These results suggest that glucose has a negative and positive effect on the earlier and later stages of root hair formation, respectively, and that the promotion of the initiation and elongation of root hairs by glucose may be mediated in an ethylene-independent manner.

  3. ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE Class I Genes Promote Root Hair Development in the Grass Brachypodium distachyon.

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    Chul Min Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Genes encoding ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE (RSL class I basic helix loop helix proteins are expressed in future root hair cells of the Arabidopsis thaliana root meristem where they positively regulate root hair cell development. Here we show that there are three RSL class I protein coding genes in the Brachypodium distachyon genome, BdRSL1, BdRSL2 and BdRSL3, and each is expressed in developing root hair cells after the asymmetric cell division that forms root hair cells and hairless epidermal cells. Expression of BdRSL class I genes is sufficient for root hair cell development: ectopic overexpression of any of the three RSL class I genes induces the development of root hairs in every cell of the root epidermis. Expression of BdRSL class I genes in root hairless Arabidopsis thaliana root hair defective 6 (Atrhd6 Atrsl1 double mutants, devoid of RSL class I function, restores root hair development indicating that the function of these proteins has been conserved. However, neither AtRSL nor BdRSL class I genes is sufficient for root hair development in A. thaliana. These data demonstrate that the spatial pattern of class I RSL activity can account for the pattern of root hair cell differentiation in B. distachyon. However, the spatial pattern of class I RSL activity cannot account for the spatial pattern of root hair cells in A. thaliana. Taken together these data indicate that that the functions of RSL class I proteins have been conserved among most angiosperms-monocots and eudicots-despite the dramatically different patterns of root hair cell development.

  4. Roothairless5, which functions in maize (Zea mays L.) root hair initiation and elongation encodes a monocot-specific NADPH oxidase.

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    Nestler, Josefine; Liu, Sanzhen; Wen, Tsui-Jung; Paschold, Anja; Marcon, Caroline; Tang, Ho Man; Li, Delin; Li, Li; Meeley, Robert B; Sakai, Hajime; Bruce, Wesley; Schnable, Patrick S; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Root hairs are instrumental for nutrient uptake in monocot cereals. The maize (Zea mays L.) roothairless5 (rth5) mutant displays defects in root hair initiation and elongation manifested by a reduced density and length of root hairs. Map-based cloning revealed that the rth5 gene encodes a monocot-specific NADPH oxidase. RNA-Seq, in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR experiments demonstrated that the rth5 gene displays preferential expression in root hairs but also accumulates to low levels in other tissues. Immunolocalization detected RTH5 proteins in the epidermis of the elongation and differentiation zone of primary roots. Because superoxide and hydrogen peroxide levels are reduced in the tips of growing rth5 mutant root hairs as compared with wild-type, and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to be involved in tip growth, we hypothesize that the RTH5 protein is responsible for establishing the high levels of ROS in the tips of growing root hairs required for elongation. Consistent with this hypothesis, a comparative RNA-Seq analysis of 6-day-old rth5 versus wild-type primary roots revealed significant over-representation of only two gene ontology (GO) classes related to the biological functions (i.e. oxidation/reduction and carbohydrate metabolism) among 893 differentially expressed genes (FDR <5%). Within these two classes the subgroups 'response to oxidative stress' and 'cellulose biosynthesis' were most prominently represented. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The density and length of root hairs are enhanced in response to cadmium and arsenic by modulating gene expressions involved in fate determination and morphogenesis of root hairs in Arabidopsis

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    Ramin Bahmani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Root hairs are tubular outgrowths that originate from epidermal cells. Exposure of Arabidopsis to cadmium (Cd and arsenic [arsenite, As(III] increases root hair density and length. To examine the underlying mechanism, we measured the expression of genes involved in fate determination and morphogenesis of root hairs. Cd and As(III downregulated TTG1 and GL2 (negative regulators of fate determination and upregulated GEM (positive regulator, suggesting that root hair fate determination is stimulated by Cd and As(III. Cd and As(III increased the transcript levels of genes involved in root hair initiation (RHD6 and AXR2 and root hair elongation (AUX1, AXR1, ETR1, and EIN2 except CTR1. DR5::GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed a higher DR5 expression in the root tip, suggesting that Cd and As(III increased the auxin content in the root tip. Knockdown of TTG1 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased root hair density and decreased root hair length compared with the control (Col-0 on 1/2 MS media. This phenotype may be attributed to the downregulation of GL2 and CTR1 and upregulation of RHD6. By contrast, gem mutant plants displayed a decrease in root hair density and length with reduced expression of RHD6, AXR2, AUX1, AXR1, ETR1, CTR1, and EIN2. Taken together, our results indicate that fate determination, initiation, and elongation of root hairs are stimulated in response to Cd and As(III through the modulation of the expression of genes involved in these processes in Arabidopsis.

  6. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvild, K.C.; Rasmussen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M 2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M 2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M 1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  7. Root hair defective4 encodes a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate phosphatase required for proper root hair development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thole, J.M.; Vermeer, J.E.M.; Zhang, Y.; Gadella, Th.W.J.; Nielsen, E.

    2008-01-01

    Polarized expansion of root hair cells in Arabidopsis thaliana is improperly controlled in root hair-defective rhd4-1 mutant plants, resulting in root hairs that are shorter and randomly form bulges along their length. Using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy in rhd4-1 root hairs, we analyzed

  8. Abscisic Acid Regulates Auxin Homeostasis in Rice Root Tips to Promote Root Hair Elongation

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    Tao Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA plays an essential role in root hair elongation in plants, but the regulatory mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that exogenous ABA can promote rice root hair elongation. Transgenic rice overexpressing SAPK10 (Stress/ABA-activated protein kinase 10 had longer root hairs; rice plants overexpressing OsABIL2 (OsABI-Like 2 had attenuated ABA signaling and shorter root hairs, suggesting that the effect of ABA on root hair elongation depends on the conserved PYR/PP2C/SnRK2 ABA signaling module. Treatment of the DR5-GUS and OsPIN-GUS lines with ABA and an auxin efflux inhibitor showed that ABA-induced root hair elongation depends on polar auxin transport. To examine the transcriptional response to ABA, we divided rice root tips into three regions: short root hair, long root hair and root tip zones; and conducted RNA-seq analysis with or without ABA treatment. Examination of genes involved in auxin transport, biosynthesis and metabolism indicated that ABA promotes auxin biosynthesis and polar auxin transport in the root tip, which may lead to auxin accumulation in the long root hair zone. Our findings shed light on how ABA regulates root hair elongation through crosstalk with auxin biosynthesis and transport to orchestrate plant development.

  9. Early Arabidopsis root hair growth stimulation by pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae.

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    Pecenková, Tamara; Janda, Martin; Ortmannová, Jitka; Hajná, Vladimíra; Stehlíková, Zuzana; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-09-01

    Selected beneficial Pseudomonas spp. strains have the ability to influence root architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana by inhibiting primary root elongation and promoting lateral root and root hair formation. A crucial role for auxin in this long-term (1week), long-distance plant-microbe interaction has been demonstrated. Arabidopsis seedlings were cultivated in vitro on vertical plates and inoculated with pathogenic strains Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) and P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst), as well as Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Atu) and Escherichia coli (Eco). Root hair lengths were measured after 24 and 48h of direct exposure to each bacterial strain. Several Arabidopsis mutants with impaired responses to pathogens, impaired ethylene perception and defects in the exocyst vesicle tethering complex that is involved in secretion were also analysed. Arabidopsis seedling roots infected with Psm or Pst responded similarly to when infected with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria; root hair growth was stimulated and primary root growth was inhibited. Other plant- and soil-adapted bacteria induced similar root hair responses. The most compromised root hair growth stimulation response was found for the knockout mutants exo70A1 and ein2. The single immune pathways dependent on salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and PAD4 are not directly involved in root hair growth stimulation; however, in the mutual cross-talk with ethylene, they indirectly modify the extent of the stimulation of root hair growth. The Flg22 peptide does not initiate root hair stimulation as intact bacteria do, but pretreatment with Flg22 prior to Psm inoculation abolished root hair growth stimulation in an FLS2 receptor kinase-dependent manner. These early response phenomena are not associated with changes in auxin levels, as monitored with the pDR5::GUS auxin reporter. Early stimulation of root hair growth is an effect of an unidentified component of living plant pathogenic bacteria. The root

  10. Live cell imaging of Arabidopsis root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Root hairs are tubular extensions from the root surface that expand by tip growth. This highly focused type of cell expansion, combined with position of root hairs on the surface of the root, makes them ideal cells for microscopic observation. This chapter describes the method that is routinely used

  11. [Effects nutrients on the seedlings root hair development and root growth of Poncirus trifoliata under hydroponics condition].

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    Cao, Xiu; Xia, Ren-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Shu, Bo

    2013-06-01

    Ahydroponics experiment was conducted to study the effects of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) deficiency on the length of primary root, the number of lateral roots, and the root hair density, length, and diameter on the primary root and lateral roots of Poncirus trifoliata seedlings. Under the deficiency of each test nutrient, root hair could generate, but was mainly concentrated on the root base and fewer on the root tip. The root hair density on lateral roots was significantly larger than that on primary root, but the root hair length was in adverse. The deficiency of each test nutrient had greater effects on the growth and development of root hairs, with the root hair density on primary root varied from 55.0 to 174.3 mm(-2). As compared with the control, Ca deficiency induced the significant increase of root hair density and length on primary root, P deficiency promoted the root hair density and length on the base and middle part of primary root and on the lateral roots significantly, Fe deficiency increased the root hair density but decreased the root hair length on the tip of primary root significantly, K deficiency significantly decreased the root hair density, length, and diameter on primary root and lateral roots, whereas Mg deficiency increased the root hair length of primary root significantly. In all treatments of nutrient deficiency, the primary root had the similar growth rate, but, with the exceptions of N and Mg deficiency, the lateral roots exhibited shedding and regeneration.

  12. Root hairs aid soil penetration by anchoring the root surface to pore walls.

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    Bengough, A Glyn; Loades, Kenneth; McKenzie, Blair M

    2016-02-01

    The physical role of root hairs in anchoring the root tip during soil penetration was examined. Experiments using a hairless maize mutant (Zea mays: rth3-3) and its wild-type counterpart measured the anchorage force between the primary root of maize and the soil to determine whether root hairs enabled seedling roots in artificial biopores to penetrate sandy loam soil (dry bulk density 1.0-1.5g cm(-3)). Time-lapse imaging was used to analyse root and seedling displacements in soil adjacent to a transparent Perspex interface. Peak anchorage forces were up to five times greater (2.5N cf. 0.5N) for wild-type roots than for hairless mutants in 1.2g cm(-3) soil. Root hair anchorage enabled better soil penetration for 1.0 or 1.2g cm(-3) soil, but there was no significant advantage of root hairs in the densest soil (1.5g cm(-3)). The anchorage force was insufficient to allow root penetration of the denser soil, probably because of less root hair penetration into pore walls and, consequently, poorer adhesion between the root hairs and the pore walls. Hairless seedlings took 33h to anchor themselves compared with 16h for wild-type roots in 1.2g cm(-3) soil. Caryopses were often pushed several millimetres out of the soil before the roots became anchored and hairless roots often never became anchored securely.The physical role of root hairs in anchoring the root tip may be important in loose seed beds above more compact soil layers and may also assist root tips to emerge from biopores and penetrate the bulk soil. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Analysis of peptide uptake and location of root hair-promoting peptide accumulation in plant roots.

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    Matsumiya, Yoshiki; Taniguchi, Rikiya; Kubo, Motoki

    2012-03-01

    Peptide uptake by plant roots from degraded soybean-meal products was analyzed in Brassica rapa and Solanum lycopersicum. B. rapa absorbed about 40% of the initial water volume, whereas peptide concentration was decreased by 75% after 24 h. Analysis by reversed-phase HPLC showed that number of peptides was absorbed by the roots during soaking in degraded soybean-meal products for 24 h. Carboxyfluorescein-labeled root hair-promoting peptide was synthesized, and its localization, movement, and accumulation in roots were investigated. The peptide appeared to be absorbed by root hairs and then moved to trichoblasts. Furthermore, the peptide was moved from trichoblasts to atrichoblasts after 24 h. The peptide was accumulated in epidermal cells, suggesting that the peptide may have a function in both trichoblasts and atrichoblasts. Copyright © 2012 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Diversification of Root Hair Development Genes in Vascular Plants.

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    Huang, Ling; Shi, Xinhui; Wang, Wenjia; Ryu, Kook Hui; Schiefelbein, John

    2017-07-01

    The molecular genetic program for root hair development has been studied intensively in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). To understand the extent to which this program might operate in other plants, we conducted a large-scale comparative analysis of root hair development genes from diverse vascular plants, including eudicots, monocots, and a lycophyte. Combining phylogenetics and transcriptomics, we discovered conservation of a core set of root hair genes across all vascular plants, which may derive from an ancient program for unidirectional cell growth coopted for root hair development during vascular plant evolution. Interestingly, we also discovered preferential diversification in the structure and expression of root hair development genes, relative to other root hair- and root-expressed genes, among these species. These differences enabled the definition of sets of genes and gene functions that were acquired or lost in specific lineages during vascular plant evolution. In particular, we found substantial divergence in the structure and expression of genes used for root hair patterning, suggesting that the Arabidopsis transcriptional regulatory mechanism is not shared by other species. To our knowledge, this study provides the first comprehensive view of gene expression in a single plant cell type across multiple species. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG-Treated Hydroponic Culture Reduces Length and Diameter of Root Hairs of Wheat Varieties

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    Arif Hasan Khan Robin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is an important cereal crop worldwide that often suffers from moisture deficits at the reproductive stage. Polyethylene glycol (PEG-treated hydroponic conditions create negative osmotic potential which is compared with moisture deficit stress. An experiment was conducted in a growth chamber to study the effects of PEG on root hair morphology and associated traits of wheat varieties. Plants of 13 wheat varieties were grown hydroponically and three different doses of PEG 6000 (w/v: 0% (control, 0.3% and 0.6% (less than −1 bar were imposed on 60 days after sowing for 20 days’ duration. A low PEG concentration was imposed to observe how initial low moisture stress might affect root hair development. PEG-treated hydroponic culture significantly decreased root hair diameter and length. Estimated surface area reduction of root hairs at the main axes of wheat plants was around nine times at the 0.6% PEG level compared to the control plants. Decrease in root hair diameter and length under PEG-induced culture decreased “potential” root surface area per unit length of main root axis. A negative association between panicle traits, length and dry weight and the main axis length of young roots indicated competition for carbon during their development. Data provides insight into how a low PEG level might alter root hair development.

  16. Unleashing the potential of the root hair cell as a single plant cell type model in root systems biology

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    Zhenzhen eQiao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant root is an organ composed of multiple cell types with different functions. This multicellular complexity limits our understanding of root biology because –omics studies performed at the level of the entire root reflect the average responses of all cells composing the organ. To overcome this difficulty and allow a more comprehensive understanding of root cell biology, an approach is needed that would focus on one single cell type in the plant root. Because of its biological functions (i.e. uptake of water and various nutrients; primary site of infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria in legumes, the root hair cell is an attractive single cell model to study root cell response to various stresses and treatments. To fully study their biology, we have recently optimized procedures in obtaining root hair cell samples. We culture the plants using an ultrasound aeroponic system maximizing root hair cell density on the entire root systems and allowing the homogeneous treatment of the root system. We then isolate the root hair cells in liquid nitrogen. Isolated root hair yields could be up to 800 to 1000 mg of plant cells from 60 root systems. Using soybean as a model, the purity of the root hair was assessed by comparing the expression level of genes previously identified as soybean root hair specific between preparations of isolated root hair cells and stripped roots, roots devoid in root hairs. Enlarging our tests to include other plant species, our results support the isolation of large quantities of highly purified root hair cells which is compatible with a systems biology approach.

  17. Fabry's disease: biochemical and histochemical studies on hair roots for carrier detection.

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    Vermorken, A J; Weterings, P J; Spierenburg, G T; vanBennekom, C A; Wirtz, P; deBruyn, C H; Oei, T L

    1978-02-01

    A method of assay alpha-galactosidase and acid phosphatase activities in single hair roots is described. Enzyme histochemical studies show that the distribution of acid phosphatase in the human hair root matches that of alpha-galactosidase. Histochemically, the main activity is located in the upper part of the sheath near the orifice of the duct of the sebaceous gland. This is confirmed by enzyme assays on different parts of the hair root after dissection. The variation in the values found in individual hair roots is improved by relating alpha-galactosidase to acid phosphatase activities. Storage experiments indicate a remarkable stability of both alpha-galactosidase and acid phosphatase in human hair roots.

  18. A dual porosity model of nutrient uptake by root hairs

    KAUST Repository

    Zygalakis, K. C.; Kirk, G. J. D.; Jones, D. L.; Wissuwa, M.; Roose, T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: • The importance of root hairs in the uptake of sparingly soluble nutrients is understood qualitatively, but not quantitatively, and this limits efforts to breed plants tolerant of nutrient-deficient soils. • Here, we develop a mathematical model of nutrient uptake by root hairs allowing for hair geometry and the details of nutrient transport through soil, including diffusion within and between soil particles. We give illustrative results for phosphate uptake. • Compared with conventional 'single porosity' models, this 'dual porosity' model predicts greater root uptake because more nutrient is available by slow release from within soil particles. Also the effect of soil moisture is less important with the dual porosity model because the effective volume available for diffusion in the soil is larger, and the predicted effects of hair length and density are different. • Consistent with experimental observations, with the dual porosity model, increases in hair length give greater increases in uptake than increases in hair density per unit main root length. The effect of hair density is less in dry soil because the minimum concentration in solution for net influx is reached more rapidly. The effect of hair length is much less sensitive to soil moisture. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. A dual porosity model of nutrient uptake by root hairs

    KAUST Repository

    Zygalakis, K. C.

    2011-08-09

    Summary: • The importance of root hairs in the uptake of sparingly soluble nutrients is understood qualitatively, but not quantitatively, and this limits efforts to breed plants tolerant of nutrient-deficient soils. • Here, we develop a mathematical model of nutrient uptake by root hairs allowing for hair geometry and the details of nutrient transport through soil, including diffusion within and between soil particles. We give illustrative results for phosphate uptake. • Compared with conventional \\'single porosity\\' models, this \\'dual porosity\\' model predicts greater root uptake because more nutrient is available by slow release from within soil particles. Also the effect of soil moisture is less important with the dual porosity model because the effective volume available for diffusion in the soil is larger, and the predicted effects of hair length and density are different. • Consistent with experimental observations, with the dual porosity model, increases in hair length give greater increases in uptake than increases in hair density per unit main root length. The effect of hair density is less in dry soil because the minimum concentration in solution for net influx is reached more rapidly. The effect of hair length is much less sensitive to soil moisture. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Hair root diameter measurement as an indicator of protein deficiency in nonhospitalized alcoholics.

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    Bregar, R R; Gordon, M; Whitney, E N

    1978-02-01

    Protein status of alcoholics admitted to a detoxification center was investigated with a view to adapting a hair root test for use in screening for protein deficiency. Hair root volume and hair root diameter had previously been shown to correlate well with hair root protein and to be sensitive indicators of protein deficiency. Hair root volumes in this study correlated well with mean maximum hair root diameters (n = 35, r = 0.9), which were simpler to measure, so diameter measurements were used. Mean maximum hair root diameters (range 0.02 to 0.19 mm) correlated with plasma RNase concentrations (range 6000 to 14,000 units/ml; n = 17, r = -0.7). Mean hair diameters of 84 alcoholics averaged 0.0864 +/- 0.0366 mm; those of 25 nonalcoholics were significantly greater: 0.100 +/- 0.0254 mm (P less than 0.05). Frequency of occurrence of hair root diameters of 0.06 mm or less was significantly higher in 71 alcoholics (29.5%) than in 23 nonalcoholics (8.6%) matched by age. Mean hair root diameters of 0.06 mm or less therefore can be used to signify protein deficiency where more expensive or technically demanding tests are not feasible. Protein deficiency occurs extensively in non hospitalized alcoholics. This method enables staff to single out those clients most likely to be in need of nutritional counseling and therapy.

  1. Enhancement of cell wall protein SRPP expression during emergent root hair development in Arabidopsis.

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    Uno, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Takada, Natsuki; Sato, Ryosuke; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2017-10-03

    SRPP is a protein expressed in seeds and root hairs and is significantly induced in root hairs under phosphate (Pi)-deficient conditions. Root hairs in the knockout mutant srpp-1 display defects, i.e., suppression of cell growth and cell death. Here, we analyzed the expression profile of SRPP during cell elongation of root hairs and compared the transcript levels in several mutants with short root hairs. The mRNA level was increased in wild-type plants and decreased in mutants with short root hairs. Induction of SRPP expression by Pi starvation occurred one or two days later than induction of Pi-deficient sensitive genes, such as PHT1 and PHF1. These results indicate that the expression of SRPP is coordinated with root hair elongation. We hypothesize that SRPP is essential for structural robustness of the cell walls of root hairs.

  2. Increased root hair density by loss of WRKY6 in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Markus G. Stetter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Root hairs are unicellular elongations of certain rhizodermal cells that improve the uptake of sparingly soluble and immobile soil nutrients. Among different Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, root hair density, length and the local acclimation to low inorganic phosphate (Pi differs considerably, when analyzed on split agar plates. Here, genome-wide association fine mapping identified significant single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the increased root hair density in the absence of local phosphate on chromosome 1. A loss-of-functionmutant of the candidate transcription factor gene WRKY6, which is involved in the acclimation of plants to low phosphorus, had increased root hair density. This is partially explained by a reduced cortical cell diameter in wrky6-3, reducing the rhizodermal cell numbers adjacent to the cortical cells. As a consequence, rhizodermal cells in positions that are in contact with two cortical cells are found more often, leading to higher hair density. Distinct cortical cell diameters and epidermal cell lengths distinguish other Arabidopsis accessions with distinct root hair density and −Pi response from diploid Col-0, while tetraploid Col-0 had generally larger root cell sizes, which explain longer hairs. A distinct radial root morphology within Arabidopsis accessions and wrky6-3explains some, but not all, differences in the root hair acclimation to –Pi.

  3. S-nitrosoglutathione promotes cell wall remodelling, alters the transcriptional profile and induces root hair formation in the hairless root hair defective 6 (rhd6) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Moro, Camila Fernandes; Gaspar, Marilia; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G; Salgado, Ione; Braga, Marcia Regina

    2017-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) exerts pleiotropic effects on plant development; however, its involvement in cell wall modification during root hair formation (RHF) has not yet been addressed. Here, mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with altered root hair phenotypes were used to assess the involvement of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), the primary NO source, in cell wall dynamics and gene expression in roots induced to form hairs. GSNO and auxin restored the root hair phenotype of the hairless root hair defective 6 (rhd6) mutant. A positive correlation was observed between increased NO production and RHF induced by auxin in rhd6 and transparent testa glabra (ttg) mutants. Deposition of an epitope within rhamnogalacturonan-I recognized by the CCRC-M2 antibody was delayed in root hair cells (trichoblasts) compared with nonhair cells (atrichoblasts). GSNO, but not auxin, restored the wild-type root glycome and transcriptome profiles in rhd6, modulating the expression of a large number of genes related to cell wall composition and metabolism, as well as those encoding ribosomal proteins, DNA and histone-modifying enzymes and proteins involved in post-translational modification. Our results demonstrate that NO plays a key role in cell wall remodelling in trichoblasts and suggest that it also participates in chromatin modification in root cells of A. thaliana. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Characteristics of a root hair-less line of Arabidopsis thaliana under physiological stresses.

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    Tanaka, Natsuki; Kato, Mariko; Tomioka, Rie; Kurata, Rie; Fukao, Yoichiro; Aoyama, Takashi; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2014-04-01

    The plasma membrane-associated Ca(2+)-binding protein-2 of Arabidopsis thaliana is involved in the growth of root hair tips. Several transgenic lines that overexpress the 23 residue N-terminal domain of this protein under the control of the root hair-specific EXPANSIN A7 promoter lack root hairs completely. The role of root hairs under normal and stress conditions was examined in one of these root hair-less lines (NR23). Compared with the wild type, NR23 showed a 47% reduction in water absorption, decreased drought tolerance, and a lower ability to adapt to heat. Growth of NR23 was suppressed in media deficient in phosphorus, iron, calcium, zinc, copper, or potassium. Also, the content of an individual mineral in NR23 grown in normal medium, or in medium lacking a specific mineral, was relatively low. In wild-type plants, the primary and lateral roots produce numerous root hairs that become elongated under phosphate-deficient conditions; NR23 did not produce root hairs. Although several isoforms of the plasma membrane phosphate transporters including PHT1;1-PHT1;6 were markedly induced after growth in phosphate-deficient medium, the levels induced in NR23 were less than half those observed in the wild type. In phosphate-deficient medium, the amounts of acid phosphatase, malate, and citrate secreted from NR23 roots were 38, 9, and 16% of the levels secreted from wild-type roots. The present results suggest that root hairs play significant roles in the absorption of water and several minerals, secretion of acid phosphatase(s) and organic acids, and in penetration of the primary roots into gels.

  5. High-resolution synchrotron imaging shows that root hairs influence rhizosphere soil structure formation.

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    Koebernick, Nicolai; Daly, Keith R; Keyes, Samuel D; George, Timothy S; Brown, Lawrie K; Raffan, Annette; Cooper, Laura J; Naveed, Muhammad; Bengough, Anthony G; Sinclair, Ian; Hallett, Paul D; Roose, Tiina

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we provide direct evidence of the importance of root hairs on pore structure development at the root-soil interface during the early stage of crop establishment. This was achieved by use of high-resolution (c. 5 μm) synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) to visualise both the structure of root hairs and the soil pore structure in plant-soil microcosms. Two contrasting genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare), with and without root hairs, were grown for 8 d in microcosms packed with sandy loam soil at 1.2 g cm -3 dry bulk density. Root hairs were visualised within air-filled pore spaces, but not in the fine-textured soil regions. We found that the genotype with root hairs significantly altered the porosity and connectivity of the detectable pore space (> 5 μm) in the rhizosphere, as compared with the no-hair mutants. Both genotypes showed decreasing pore space between 0.8 and 0.1 mm from the root surface. Interestingly the root-hair-bearing genotype had a significantly greater soil pore volume-fraction at the root-soil interface. Effects of pore structure on diffusion and permeability were estimated to be functionally insignificant under saturated conditions when simulated using image-based modelling. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. A method for the isolation of root hairs from the model legume Medicago truncatula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Escribano, J.; Bisseling, T.

    2003-01-01

    A new method for the isolation of root hairs from the model legume, Medicago truncatula, was developed. The procedure involves the propagation of detached roots on agar plates and the collection of root hairs by immersion in liquid nitrogen. Yields of up to 40 µg of root hair protein were obtained

  7. Hair Growth Promotant Activity of Petroleum Ether Root Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract on hair growth in female Wistar rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were used for the hair growth promotion studies. They were divided into three groups(n = 6) and their dorsal skin was completely denuded to completely remove hair. Paraffin oil (control), 2 ...

  8. Vigorous root growth is a better indicator of early nutrient uptake than root hair traits in spring wheat grown under low fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    . Vigorous root growth, however, was a better indicator of early nutrient acquisition than RHL and RHD. Vigorous root growth and long and dense root hairs ensured efficient acquisition of macro- and micronutrients during early growth and a high root length to shoot dry matter ratio favored high macronutrient......A number of root and root hair traits have been proposed as important for nutrient acquisition. However, there is still a need for knowledge on which traits are most important in determining macro- and micronutrient uptake at low soil fertility. This study investigated the variations in root growth...... vigor and root hair length (RHL) and density (RHD) among spring wheat genotypes and their relationship to nutrient concentrations and uptake during early growth. Six spring wheat genotypes were grown in a soil with low nutrient availability. The root and root hair traits as well as the concentration...

  9. A root hairless barley mutant for elucidating genetic of root hairs and phosphorus uptake (Correction in v. 242, 2002, p. 299)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gahoonia, T.S.; Nielsen, N.E.; Priyavadan, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports a new barley mutant missing root hairs. The mutant was spontaneously discovered among the population of wild type (Pallas, a spring barley cultivar), producing normal, 0.8 mm long root hairs. We have called the mutant bald root barley (brb). Root anatomical studies confirmed...

  10. Complex Regulation of Prolyl-4-Hydroxylases Impacts Root Hair Expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasquez, Silvia M; Ricardi, Martiniano M; Poulsen, Christian Peter

    2015-01-01

    Root hairs are single cells that develop by tip growth, a process shared with pollen tubes, axons, and fungal hyphae. However, structural plant cell walls impose constraints to accomplish tip growth. In addition to polysaccharides, plant cell walls are composed of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins......5, and to a lesser extent P4H2 and P4H13, are pivotal for root hair tip growth. Second, we demonstrate that P4H5 has in vitro preferred specificity for EXT substrates rather than for other HRGPs. Third, by P4H promoter and protein swapping approaches, we show that P4H2 and P4H13 have interchangeable...... peptidyl-proline hydroxylation on EXTs, and possibly in other HRGPs, is required for proper cell wall self-assembly and hence root hair elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana....

  11. Nemesia root hair response to paper pulp substrate for micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrousse, Pascal; Delmail, David; Decou, Raphaël; Carlué, Michel; Lhernould, Sabine; Krausz, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Agar substrates for in vitro culture are well adapted to plant micropropagation, but not to plant rooting and acclimatization. Conversely, paper-pulp-based substrates appear as potentially well adapted for in vitro culture and functional root production. To reinforce this hypothesis, this study compares in vitro development of nemesia on several substrates. Strong differences between nemesia roots growing in agar or in paper-pulp substrates were evidenced through scanning electron microscopy. Roots developed in agar have shorter hairs, larger rhizodermal cells, and less organized root caps than those growing on paper pulp. In conclusion, it should be noted that in this study, in vitro microporous substrates such as paper pulp lead to the production of similar root hairs to those found in greenhouse peat substrates. Consequently, if agar could be used for micropropagation, rooting, and plant acclimatization, enhancement could be achieved if rooting stage was performed on micro-porous substrates such as paper pulp.

  12. Analysis of aneuploid lines of bread wheat to map chromosomal locations of genes controlling root hair length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Rathjen, Tina; Weligama, Kumara; Forrest, Kerrie; Hayden, Matthew; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2017-06-01

    Long root hairs enable the efficient uptake of poorly mobile nutrients such as phosphorus. Mapping the chromosomal locations of genes that control root hair length can help exploit the natural variation within crops to develop improved cultivars. Genetic stocks of the wheat cultivar 'Chinese Spring' were used to map genes that control root hair length. Aneuploid stocks of 'Chinese Spring' were screened using a rapid method based on rhizosheath size and then selected lines were assayed for root hair length to identify chromosomes harbouring genes controlling root hair length. A series of lines with various fractional deletions of candidate chromosomes were then screened to map the root hair loci more accurately. A line with a deletion in chromosome 5A was analysed with a 90 000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. The phosphorus acquisition efficiency (PAE) of one deletion line was compared with that of euploid 'Chinese Spring' by growing the seedlings in pots at low and luxury phosphorus supplies. Chromosomes 1A, 1D and 5A were found to harbour genes controlling root hair length. The 90 000 SNP array identified two candidate genes controlling root hair length located on chromosome 5A. The line with a deletion in chromosome 5A had root hairs that were approx. 20 % shorter than euploid 'Chinese Spring', but this was insufficient to reduce its PAE. A rapid screen for rhizosheath size enabled chromosomal regions controlling root hair length to be mapped in the wheat cultivar 'Chinese Spring' and subsequent analysis with an SNP array identified candidate genes controlling root hair length. The difference in root hair length between euploid 'Chinese Spring' and a deletion line identified in the rapid screen was still apparent, albeit attenuated, when the seedlings were grown on a fully fertilized soil. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Nitrate induction of root hair density is mediated by TGA1/TGA4 and CPC transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Javier; Contreras-López, Orlando; Álvarez, José M; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A

    2017-10-01

    Root hairs are specialized cells that are important for nutrient uptake. It is well established that nutrients such as phosphate have a great influence on root hair development in many plant species. Here we investigated the role of nitrate on root hair development at a physiological and molecular level. We showed that nitrate increases root hair density in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that two different root hair defective mutants have significantly less nitrate than wild-type plants, suggesting that in A. thaliana root hairs have an important role in the capacity to acquire nitrate. Nitrate reductase-null mutants exhibited nitrate-dependent root hair phenotypes comparable with wild-type plants, indicating that nitrate is the signal that leads to increased formation of root hairs. We examined the role of two key regulators of root hair cell fate, CPC and WER, in response to nitrate treatments. Phenotypic analyses of these mutants showed that CPC is essential for nitrate-induced responses of root hair development. Moreover, we showed that NRT1.1 and TGA1/TGA4 are required for pathways that induce root hair development by suppression of longitudinal elongation of trichoblast cells in response to nitrate treatments. Our results prompted a model where nitrate signaling via TGA1/TGA4 directly regulates the CPC root hair cell fate specification gene to increase formation of root hairs in A. thaliana. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. An Explicit Structural Model of Root Hair and Soil Interactions Parameterised by Synchrotron X-ray Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Samuel David; Zygalakis, Konstantinos C; Roose, Tiina

    2017-12-01

    The rhizosphere is a zone of fundamental importance for understanding the dynamics of nutrient acquisition by plant roots. The canonical difficulty of experimentally investigating the rhizosphere led long ago to the adoption of mathematical models, the most sophisticated of which now incorporate explicit representations of root hairs and rhizosphere soil. Mathematical upscaling regimes, such as homogenisation, offer the possibility of incorporating into larger-scale models the important mechanistic processes occurring at the rhizosphere scale. However, we lack concrete descriptions of all the features required to fully parameterise models at the rhizosphere scale. By combining synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (SRXCT) and a novel root growth assay, we derive a three-dimensional description of rhizosphere soil structure suitable for use in multi-scale modelling frameworks. We describe an approach to mitigate sub-optimal root hair detection via structural root hair growth modelling. The growth model is explicitly parameterised with SRXCT data and simulates three-dimensional root hair ideotypes in silico, which are suitable for both ideotypic analysis and parameterisation of 3D geometry in mathematical models. The study considers different hypothetical conditions governing root hair interactions with soil matrices, with their respective effects on hair morphology being compared between idealised and image-derived soil/root geometries. The studies in idealised geometries suggest that packing arrangement of soil affects hair tortuosity more than the particle diameter. Results in field-derived soil suggest that hair access to poorly mobile nutrients is particularly sensitive to the physical interaction between the growing hairs and the phase of the soil in which soil water is present (i.e. the hydrated textural phase). The general trends in fluid-coincident hair length with distance from the root, and their dependence on hair/soil interaction mechanisms, are

  15. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is involved in methyl jasmonate-induced root hair formation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changhua; Yang, Na; Ma, Xiaoling; Li, Guijun; Qian, Meng; Ng, Denny; Xia, Kai; Gan, Lijun

    2015-06-01

    Our results show that methyl jasmonate induces plasma membrane H (+) -ATPase activity and subsequently influences the apoplastic pH of trichoblasts to maintain a cell wall pH environment appropriate for root hair development. Root hairs, which arise from root epidermal cells, are tubular structures that increase the efficiency of water absorption and nutrient uptake. Plant hormones are critical regulators of root hair development. In this study, we investigated the regulatory role of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced root hair formation. We found that MeJA had a pronounced effect on the promotion of root hair formation in lettuce seedlings, but that this effect was blocked by the PM H(+)-ATPase inhibitor vanadate. Furthermore, MeJA treatment increased PM H(+)-ATPase activity in parallel with H(+) efflux from the root tips of lettuce seedlings and rhizosphere acidification. Our results also showed that MeJA-induced root hair formation was accompanied by hydrogen peroxide accumulation. The apoplastic acidification acted in concert with reactive oxygen species to modulate root hair formation. Our results suggest that the effect of MeJA on root hair formation is mediated by modulation of PM H(+)-ATPase activity.

  16. Uncovering genes and ploidy involved in the high diversity in root hair density, length and response to local scarce phosphate in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus G Stetter

    Full Text Available Plant root hairs increase the root surface to enhance the uptake of sparingly soluble and immobile nutrients, such as the essential nutrient phosphorus, from the soil. Here, root hair traits and the response to scarce local phosphorus concentration were studied in 166 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana using split plates. Root hair density and length were correlated, but highly variable among accessions. Surprisingly, the well-known increase in root hair density under low phosphorus was mostly restricted to genotypes that had less and shorter root hairs under P sufficient conditions. By contrast, several accessions with dense and long root hairs even had lower hair density or shorter hairs in local scarce phosphorus. Furthermore, accessions with whole-genome duplications developed more dense but phosphorus-insensitive root hairs. The impact of genome duplication on root hair density was confirmed by comparing tetraploid accessions with their diploid ancestors. Genome-wide association mapping identified candidate genes potentially involved in root hair responses tp scarce local phosphate. Knock-out mutants in identified candidate genes (CYR1, At1g32360 and RLP48 were isolated and differences in root hair traits in the mutants were confirmed. The large diversity in root hair traits among accessions and the diverse response when local phosphorus is scarce is a rich resource for further functional analyses.

  17. A role for CSLD3 during cell-wall synthesis in apical plasma membranes of tip-growing root-hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungjin; Szumlanski, Amy L; Gu, Fangwei; Guo, Feng; Nielsen, Erik

    2011-07-17

    In plants, cell shape is defined by the cell wall, and changes in cell shape and size are dictated by modification of existing cell walls and deposition of newly synthesized cell-wall material. In root hairs, expansion occurs by a process called tip growth, which is shared by root hairs, pollen tubes and fungal hyphae. We show that cellulose-like polysaccharides are present in root-hair tips, and de novo synthesis of these polysaccharides is required for tip growth. We also find that eYFP-CSLD3 proteins, but not CESA cellulose synthases, localize to a polarized plasma-membrane domain in root hairs. Using biochemical methods and genetic complementation of a csld3 mutant with a chimaeric CSLD3 protein containing a CESA6 catalytic domain, we provide evidence that CSLD3 represents a distinct (1→4)-β-glucan synthase activity in apical plasma membranes during tip growth in root-hair cells.

  18. Nod Factor Effects on Root Hair-Specific Transcriptome of Medicago truncatula: Focus on Plasma Membrane Transport Systems and Reactive Oxygen Species Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Isabelle; Drain, Alice; Guichard, Marjorie; Balzergue, Sandrine; Boscari, Alexandre; Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Brunaud, Véronique; Cottaz, Sylvain; Rancurel, Corinne; Da Rocha, Martine; Fizames, Cécile; Fort, Sébastien; Gaillard, Isabelle; Maillol, Vincent; Danchin, Etienne G J; Rouached, Hatem; Samain, Eric; Su, Yan-Hua; Thouin, Julien; Touraine, Bruno; Puppo, Alain; Frachisse, Jean-Marie; Pauly, Nicolas; Sentenac, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Root hairs are involved in water and nutrient uptake, and thereby in plant autotrophy. In legumes, they also play a crucial role in establishment of rhizobial symbiosis. To obtain a holistic view of Medicago truncatula genes expressed in root hairs and of their regulation during the first hours of the engagement in rhizobial symbiotic interaction, a high throughput RNA sequencing on isolated root hairs from roots challenged or not with lipochitooligosaccharides Nod factors (NF) for 4 or 20 h was carried out. This provided a repertoire of genes displaying expression in root hairs, responding or not to NF, and specific or not to legumes. In analyzing the transcriptome dataset, special attention was paid to pumps, transporters, or channels active at the plasma membrane, to other proteins likely to play a role in nutrient ion uptake, NF electrical and calcium signaling, control of the redox status or the dynamic reprogramming of root hair transcriptome induced by NF treatment, and to the identification of papilionoid legume-specific genes expressed in root hairs. About 10% of the root hair expressed genes were significantly up- or down-regulated by NF treatment, suggesting their involvement in remodeling plant functions to allow establishment of the symbiotic relationship. For instance, NF-induced changes in expression of genes encoding plasma membrane transport systems or disease response proteins indicate that root hairs reduce their involvement in nutrient ion absorption and adapt their immune system in order to engage in the symbiotic interaction. It also appears that the redox status of root hair cells is tuned in response to NF perception. In addition, 1176 genes that could be considered as "papilionoid legume-specific" were identified in the M. truncatula root hair transcriptome, from which 141 were found to possess an ortholog in every of the six legume genomes that we considered, suggesting their involvement in essential functions specific to legumes. This

  19. Nod factor effects on root hair-specific transcriptome of Medicago truncatula: focus on plasma membrane transport systems and reactive oxygen species networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eDAMIANI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Root hairs are involved in water and nutrient uptake, and thereby in plant autotrophy. In legumes, they also play a crucial role in establishment of rhizobial symbiosis. To obtain a holistic view of Medicago truncatula genes expressed in root hairs and of their regulation during the first hours of the engagement in rhizobial symbiotic interaction, a high throughput RNA sequencing on isolated root hairs from roots challenged or not with lipochitooligosaccharides Nod factors (NF for 4 h or 20 h was carried out. This provided a repertoire of genes displaying expression in root hairs, responding or not to NF and specific or not to legumes. In analyzing the transcriptome dataset, special attention was paid to pumps, transporters or channels active at the plasma membrane, to other proteins likely to play a role in nutrient ion uptake, NF electrical and calcium signaling, control of the redox status or the dynamic reprogramming of root hair transcriptome induced by NF treatment, and to the identification of papilionoid legume-specific genes expressed in root hairs. About 10 percent of the root hair expressed genes were significantly up- or down-regulated by NF treatment, suggesting their involvement in remodeling plant functions to allow establishment of the symbiotic relationship. For instance, NF-induced changes in expression of genes encoding plasma membrane transport systems or disease response proteins indicate that root hairs reduce their involvement in nutrient ion absorption and adapt their immune system in order to engage in the symbiotic interaction. It also appears that the redox status of root hair cells is tuned in response to NF perception. In addition, 1,176 genes that could be considered as papilionoid legume-specific were identified in the M. truncatula root hair transcriptome, from which 141 were found to possess an orthologue in every of the 6 legume genomes that we considered, suggesting their involvement in essential functions

  20. Peroxidase activity in root hairs of cress (lepidium sativum L.) Cytochemical localization and radioactive labelling of wall bound peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaar, K.

    1979-01-01

    The ultrastructural localization of peroxidase activity in young, growing root hairs of cress (Lepidium sativum L.) after assay with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine is reported. Prominent peroxidase activity has been found in the dictyosomes and the associated vesicles, in ribosomes on ER-cisternae, as well as in the cell wall. On the basis of both ultrastructural and cytochemical evidence it is proposed that peroxidase in root hairs is synthesized on the ER- and within dictyosome cisternae packaged and transported in secretory vesicles and extruded into the cell wall particularily at the tip region of a root hair. The kinetic of Golgi apparatus mediated peroxidasesecretion was monitored by measuring the 55 Fe protoheme content of primary cell walls. Peroxidase secretion seems to be enhanced during stress incubation in destilled water. Secretory activity in root hairs is 20 times higher than in cells of the root body. (author)

  1. Cytoplasm localization of aminopeptidase M1 and its functional activity in root hair cells and BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok Ran; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2012-12-01

    Aminopeptidase M1 (APM1) was the first M1 metallopeptidase family member identified in Arabidopsis, isolated by its affinity for the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). A loss-of-function mutation showed various developmental defects in cell division and auxin transport. APM1 was shown to be localized in endomembrane structures, the cytoplasm, and the plasma membrane. These previous results suggested that APM1 has diverse functional roles in different cell and tissue types. Here we report that APM1 localized to the cytoplasm, and its over-expression in the root hair cell caused longer root hair phenotypes. Treatment of aminopeptidase inhibitors caused internalization of auxin efflux PIN-FORMED proteins in root hair cells and suppressed short root hair phenotype of PIN3 overexpression line (PIN3ox). APM1 also localized to the cytoplasm in tobacco BY-2 cells, its over-expression had little effect on auxin transport in these cells.

  2. Nod Factor Effects on Root Hair-Specific Transcriptome of Medicago truncatula: Focus on Plasma Membrane Transport Systems and Reactive Oxygen Species Networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Damiani , Isabelle; Drain , Alice; Guichard , Marjorie; Balzergue , Sandrine; Boscari , Alexandre; Boyer , Jean-Christophe; Brunaud , Véronique; Cottaz , Sylvain; Rancurel , Corinne; Da Rocha , Martine; Fizames , Cécile; Fort , Sébastien; Gaillard , Isabelle; MAILLOL , Vincent; Danchin , Etienne G J

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Root hairs are involved in water and nutrient uptake, and thereby in plant autotrophy. In legumes, they also play a crucial role in establishment of rhizobial symbiosis. To obtain a holistic view of Medicago truncatula genes expressed in root hairs and of their regulation during the first hours of the engagement in rhizobial symbiotic interaction, a high throughput RNA sequencing on isolated root hairs from roots challenged or not with lipochitooligosaccharides Nod fac...

  3. Nod factor effects on root hair-specific transcriptome of Medicago truncatula: focus on plasma membrane transport systems and reactive oxygen species networks

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelle eDAMIANI; Alice eDRAIN; Marjorie eGUICHARD; Sandrine eBALZERGUE; Sandrine eBALZERGUE; Alexandre eBOSCARI; Jean-Christophe eBOYER; Véronique eBRUNAUD; Véronique eBRUNAUD; Sylvain eCOTTAZ; Sylvain eCOTTAZ; Corinne eRANCUREL; Martine eDa Rocha; Cécile eFIZAMES; Sebastien eFORT

    2016-01-01

    Root hairs are involved in water and nutrient uptake, and thereby in plant autotrophy. In legumes, they also play a crucial role in establishment of rhizobial symbiosis. To obtain a holistic view of Medicago truncatula genes expressed in root hairs and of their regulation during the first hours of the engagement in rhizobial symbiotic interaction, a high throughput RNA sequencing on isolated root hairs from roots challenged or not with lipochitooligosaccharides Nod factors (NF) for 4 h or 20 ...

  4. Numerical simulation of the hair formation -modeling of hair cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajihara, Narumichi; Nagayama, Katsuya

    2018-01-01

    In the recent years, the fields of study of anti-aging, health and beauty, cosmetics, and hair diseases have attracted significant attention. In particular, human hair is considered to be an important aspect with regard to an attractive appearance. To this end, many workers have sought to understand the formation mechanism of the hair root. However, observing growth in the hair root is difficult, and a detailed mechanism of the process has not yet been elucidated. Hair repeats growth, retraction, and pause cycles (hair cycle) in a repetitive process. In the growth phase, hair is formed through processes of cell proliferation and differentiation (keratinization). During the retraction phase, hair growth stops, and during the resting period, hair fall occurs and new hair grows. This hair cycle is believed to affect the elongation rate, thickness, strength, and shape of hair. Therefore, in this study, we introduce a particle model as a new method to elucidate the unknown process of hair formation, and to model the hair formation process accompanying the proliferation and differentiation of the hair root cells in all three dimensions. In addition, to the growth period, the retraction and the resting periods are introduced to realize the hair cycle using this model.

  5. From signal to form: Nod factor as a morhogenetic signal molecule to induce symbiotic responses in legume root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esseling, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, research is presented which contributes to a better understanding of nod factor (NF) induced signalling in Iegume root hairs, leading to a successful symbiosis. We mainly use root hairs of the model Iegume Medicago truncatula ('barrel medic') as an experimental system. In the

  6. Evaluation and Selection of Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) Genotypes for Root Traits Associated with Phosphorus (P) Acquisition Efficiency and the Use of {sup 32}P Isotope in Studies on P Uptake by Root Hairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, M. A.; Jochua, C. [Agricultural Research Institute of Mozambique (IIAM), Maputo (Mozambique); Lynch, J. P. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Low phosphorus (P) availability is one of the main edaphic constraints limiting crop production and productivity in most of the tropical agro-ecosystems. Several root traits are known to be associated with P acquisition efficiency in low P soils. These root traits include root hairs. Computer modeling, laboratory and field studies show the depletion of {sup 32}P-phosphate around roots and that the depletion zone is influenced by the length and density of root hairs. We conducted a study involving a series of experiments with the objective of evaluating the variability of root traits associated with P uptake efficiency among common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes, and to understand the mechanisms of long root hairs leading to the increase in P uptake in common bean. The study included (a) the screening of common bean genotypes in the laboratory and in the field for root traits, and (b) the use of radioactive phosphorus ({sup 32}P) in the experiments conducted in the greenhouse. For laboratory screening, seedlings were germinated in paper rolls in a growth media for 3 days before evaluation for basal root whorl number (BRWN), basal root number (BRN), basal root growth angle (BRGA) and root hair length (RHL). Common bean genotypes were planted in the field with low P for 45 days after planting (DAP) before evaluation. For the {sup 32}P study four contrasting genotypes for root hairs were grown for 28 DAP in the greenhouse using 15-20 liter pots filled with a mixture of sand and vermiculate as the growth media. The radioactive P was incorporated in the growth medium in the form of alumina-P fertilizer. Normal phosphorus (non-radioactive {sup 31}P) was included in the nutrient solution in the form of calcium phosphate, Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, and supplied through irrigation. Screened genotypes exhibited different root traits associated with P uptake efficiency, and that a given genotype can have one or more root traits responsible for it P uptake efficiency

  7. Non-enzymatic access to the plasma membrane of Medicago root hairs by laser microsurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkdjian, A.; Leitz, G.; Manigault, P.; Harim, A.; Greulich, K. O.

    1993-07-01

    Using UV laser microsurgery, the cell walls of root hairs from Medicago sativa (alfalfa) were perforated under plasmolysing conditions, giving direct access to the plasma membrane without enzyme treatment. The opening in the cell wall of a few μm in diameter results in immediate movement of the protoplasm and partial or complete extrusion of the cell contents. The movement of the protoplasm is retarded by increases in calcium concentration. The calcium-dependency of the movement of the protoplasm allows us to obtain preferentially the extrusion of protoplasm, or to gain access to a small area of plasma membrane in situ. The complete protoplasm can be expelled, to form a protoplast. Fluorescein diacetate staining indicated esterase activity and membrane integrity of the protoplasts. Microscopic examination revealed organelle movement and the presence of a nucleus. The plasma membrane was free from cell wall fragments, as shown by Tinopal staining. Conditions for obtaining plasmolysis without disturbing the physiology of the root hairs too much were achieved by slow, stepwise and reversible plasmolysis. Cytoplasmic streaming in root hairs was maintained during plasmolysis and laser microperforation. This laser technique should be suitable for the performance of electrophysiological studies using the patch-clamp technique on plasma membrane from non-enzyme-treated cells. (author)

  8. Non-enzymatic access to the plasma membrane of Medicago root hairs by laser microsurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurkdjian, A.; Leitz, G.; Manigault, P.; Harim, A.; Greulich, K.O.

    1993-01-01

    Using UV laser microsurgery, the cell walls of root hairs from Medicago sativa (alfalfa) were perforated under plasmolysing conditions, giving direct access to the plasma membrane without enzyme treatment. The opening in the cell wall of a few μm in diameter results in immediate movement of the protoplasm and partial or complete extrusion of the cell contents. The movement of the protoplasm is retarded by increases in calcium concentration. The calcium-dependency of the movement of the protoplasm allows us to obtain preferentially the extrusion of protoplasm, or to gain access to a small area of plasma membrane in situ. The complete protoplasm can be expelled, to form a protoplast. Fluorescein diacetate staining indicated esterase activity and membrane integrity of the protoplasts. Microscopic examination revealed organelle movement and the presence of a nucleus. The plasma membrane was free from cell wall fragments, as shown by Tinopal staining. Conditions for obtaining plasmolysis without disturbing the physiology of the root hairs too much were achieved by slow, stepwise and reversible plasmolysis. Cytoplasmic streaming in root hairs was maintained during plasmolysis and laser microperforation. This laser technique should be suitable for the performance of electrophysiological studies using the patch-clamp technique on plasma membrane from non-enzyme-treated cells. (author)

  9. Ergosterol content in ericaceous hair roots correlates with dark septate endophytes but not with ericoid mycorrhizal colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsrud, Maria; Michelsen, Anders; Wallander, Håkon

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between ergosterol content in ericaceous hair roots and ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) colonization versus dark septate endophytic (DSE) hyphal colonization was examined in a dwarf shrub-dominated subarctic mire in Northern Sweden. Ergosterol content in hair roots did not correlate...... under natural conditions. It also suggests the possibility of using ergosterol as an estimate of DSE hyphal colonization in ericaceous dwarf shrubs. This study has implications for the interpretation of results in field studies where ergosterol was used as a sole proxy for ErM colonization....

  10. No-hair conjectures, primordial shear and protoinflationary initial conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropic inflationary background geometries are analyzed in the context of an extended gauge action where the electric and magnetic susceptibilities are not bound to coincide and depend on the inflaton field. After deriving various classes of solutions with electric and magnetic hairs, we discuss the problem of the initial boundary conditions of the shear parameter and consider a globally neutral plasma as a possible relic of a preinflationary stage of expansion. While electric hairs are washed out by the finite value of the protoinflationary conductivity, magnetic hairs can persist and introduce a tiny amount of shear causing a different inflationary rate of expansion along orthogonal spatial directions. The plasma interactions are a necessary criterion to discriminate between physical and unphysical initial conditions but they are not strictly sufficient to warrant the stability of a given magnetic solution.

  11. The Root Hair Specific SYP123 Regulates the Localization of Cell Wall Components and Contributes to Rizhobacterial Priming of Induced Systemic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Rodriguez-Furlán

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Root hairs are important for nutrient and water uptake and are also critically involved the interaction with soil inhabiting microbiota. Root hairs are tubular-shaped outgrowths that emerge from trichoblasts. This polarized elongation is maintained and regulated by a robust mechanism involving the endomembrane secretory and endocytic system. Members of the syntaxin family of SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor in plants (SYP, have been implicated in regulation of the fusion of vesicles with the target membranes in both exocytic and endocytic pathways. One member of this family, SYP123, is expressed specifically in the root hairs and accumulated in the growing tip region. This study shows evidence of the SYP123 role in polarized trafficking using knockout insertional mutant plants. We were able to observe defects in the deposition of cell wall proline rich protein PRP3 and cell wall polysaccharides. In a complementary strategy, similar results were obtained using a plant expressing a dominant negative soluble version of SYP123 (SP2 fragment lacking the transmembrane domain. The evidence presented indicates that SYP123 is also regulating PRP3 protein distribution by recycling by endocytosis. We also present evidence that indicates that SYP123 is necessary for the response of roots to plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR in order to trigger trigger induced systemic response (ISR. Plants with a defective SYP123 function were unable to mount a systemic acquired resistance (SAR in response to bacterial pathogen infection and induced systemic resistance (ISR upon interaction with rhizobacteria. These results indicated that SYP123 was involved in the polarized localization of protein and polysaccharides in growing root hairs and that this activity also contributed to the establishment of effective plant defense responses. Root hairs represent very plastic structures were many biotic and abiotic factors

  12. Early Arabidopsis root hair growth stimulation by pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pečenková, Tamara; Janda, Martin; Ortmannová, Jitka; Hajná, Vladimíra; Stehlíková, Zuzana; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 3 (2017), s. 437-446 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14886S; GA ČR GA14-09685S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis * dde2/ein2/pad4/sid2 * exocyst * Flg22 * Pseudomonas * Root hair * vesicle trafficking Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2016

  13. Propidium iodide competes with Ca(2+) to label pectin in pollen tubes and Arabidopsis root hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Caleb M; Lubeck, Eric; Hepler, Peter K; Winship, Lawrence J

    2011-09-01

    We have used propidium iodide (PI) to investigate the dynamic properties of the primary cell wall at the apex of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root hairs and pollen tubes and in lily (Lilium formosanum) pollen tubes. Our results show that in root hairs, as in pollen tubes, oscillatory peaks in PI fluorescence precede growth rate oscillations. Pectin forms the primary component of the cell wall at the tip of both root hairs and pollen tubes. Given the electronic structure of PI, we investigated whether PI binds to pectins in a manner analogous to Ca(2+) binding. We first show that Ca(2+) is able to abrogate PI growth inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. PI fluorescence itself also relies directly on the amount of Ca(2+) in the growth solution. Exogenous pectin methyl esterase treatment of pollen tubes, which demethoxylates pectins, freeing more Ca(2+)-binding sites, leads to a dramatic increase in PI fluorescence. Treatment with pectinase leads to a corresponding decrease in fluorescence. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that PI binds to demethoxylated pectins. Unlike other pectin stains, PI at low yet useful concentration is vital and specifically does not alter the tip-focused Ca(2+) gradient or growth oscillations. These data suggest that pectin secretion at the apex of tip-growing plant cells plays a critical role in regulating growth, and PI represents an excellent tool for examining the role of pectin and of Ca(2+) in tip growth.

  14. Root-hair endophyte stacking in finger millet creates a physicochemical barrier to trap the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Walaa K; Shearer, Charles; Limay-Rios, Victor; Ettinger, Cassie L; Eisen, Jonathan A; Raizada, Manish N

    2016-09-26

    The ancient African crop, finger millet, has broad resistance to pathogens including the toxigenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. Here, we report the discovery of a novel plant defence mechanism resulting from an unusual symbiosis between finger millet and a root-inhabiting bacterial endophyte, M6 (Enterobacter sp.). Seed-coated M6 swarms towards root-invading Fusarium and is associated with the growth of root hairs, which then bend parallel to the root axis, subsequently forming biofilm-mediated microcolonies, resulting in a remarkable, multilayer root-hair endophyte stack (RHESt). The RHESt results in a physical barrier that prevents entry and/or traps F. graminearum, which is then killed. M6 thus creates its own specialized killing microhabitat. Tn5-mutagenesis shows that M6 killing requires c-di-GMP-dependent signalling, diverse fungicides and resistance to a Fusarium-derived antibiotic. Further molecular evidence suggests long-term host-endophyte-pathogen co-evolution. The end result of this remarkable symbiosis is reduced deoxynivalenol mycotoxin, potentially benefiting millions of subsistence farmers and livestock. Further results suggest that the anti-Fusarium activity of M6 may be transferable to maize and wheat. RHESt demonstrates the value of exploring ancient, orphan crop microbiomes.

  15. Split-Cre complementation restores combination activity on transgene excision in hair roots of transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengling Wen

    Full Text Available The Cre/loxP system is increasingly exploited for genetic manipulation of DNA in vitro and in vivo. It was previously reported that inactive ''split-Cre'' fragments could restore Cre activity in transgenic mice when overlapping co-expression was controlled by two different promoters. In this study, we analyzed recombination activities of split-Cre proteins, and found that no recombinase activity was detected in the in vitro recombination reaction in which only the N-terminal domain (NCre of split-Cre protein was expressed, whereas recombination activity was obtained when the C-terminal (CCre or both NCre and CCre fragments were supplied. We have also determined the recombination efficiency of split-Cre proteins which were co-expressed in hair roots of transgenic tobacco. No Cre recombination event was observed in hair roots of transgenic tobacco when the NCre or CCre genes were expressed alone. In contrast, an efficient recombination event was found in transgenic hairy roots co-expressing both inactive split-Cre genes. Moreover, the restored recombination efficiency of split-Cre proteins fused with the nuclear localization sequence (NLS was higher than that of intact Cre in transgenic lines. Thus, DNA recombination mediated by split-Cre proteins provides an alternative method for spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression in transgenic plants.

  16. Sonic Hedgehog Initiates Cochlear Hair Cell Regeneration through Downregulation of Retinoblastoma Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Na; Chen, Yan; Wang, Zhengmin; Chen, Guoling; Lin, Qin; Chen, Zheng-Yi; Li, Huawei

    2013-01-01

    Cell cycle re-entry by cochlear supporting cells and/or hair cells is considered one of the best approaches for restoring hearing loss as a result of hair cell damage. To identify mechanisms that can be modulated to initiate cell cycle re-entry and hair cell regeneration, we studied the effect of activating the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. We show that Shh signaling in postnatal rat cochleae damaged by neomycin leads to renewed proliferation of supporting cells and hair cells. Further, proliferating supporting cells are likely to transdifferentiate into hair cells. Shh treatment leads to inhibition of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by increasing phosphorylated pRb and reducing retinoblastoma gene transcription. This results in upregulation of cyclins B1, D2, and D3, and CDK1. These results suggest that Shh signaling induces cell cycle re-entry in cochlear sensory epithelium and the production of new hair cells, in part by attenuating pRb function. This study provides an additional route to modulate pRb function with important implications in mammalian hair cell regeneration. PMID:23211596

  17. Hair root characteristics of the human scalp hair in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.R. Peereboom-Wynia

    1982-01-01

    textabstractMorphological data on hair follicles have been available for over a hundred years, but only in recent years has a substantial advance been made in our knowledge of types and distribution of hair, its structure, metabolism, biochemistry and clinical patterns, and hormonal influences on

  18. Sonic hedgehog initiates cochlear hair cell regeneration through downregulation of retinoblastoma protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Na; Chen, Yan; Wang, Zhengmin; Chen, Guoling; Lin, Qin; Chen, Zheng-Yi; Li, Huawei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Shh activation in neonatal cochleae enhances sensory cell proliferation. ► Proliferating supporting cells can transdifferentiate into hair cells. ► Shh promotes proliferation by transiently modulating pRb activity. ► Shh inhibits pRb by inhibiting transcription and increasing phosphorylation of pRb. -- Abstract: Cell cycle re-entry by cochlear supporting cells and/or hair cells is considered one of the best approaches for restoring hearing loss as a result of hair cell damage. To identify mechanisms that can be modulated to initiate cell cycle re-entry and hair cell regeneration, we studied the effect of activating the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. We show that Shh signaling in postnatal rat cochleae damaged by neomycin leads to renewed proliferation of supporting cells and hair cells. Further, proliferating supporting cells are likely to transdifferentiate into hair cells. Shh treatment leads to inhibition of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by increasing phosphorylated pRb and reducing retinoblastoma gene transcription. This results in upregulation of cyclins B1, D2, and D3, and CDK1. These results suggest that Shh signaling induces cell cycle re-entry in cochlear sensory epithelium and the production of new hair cells, in part by attenuating pRb function. This study provides an additional route to modulate pRb function with important implications in mammalian hair cell regeneration.

  19. Sonic hedgehog initiates cochlear hair cell regeneration through downregulation of retinoblastoma protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Na [Otology Skull Base Surgery Department, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Department of Otolaryngology and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School and Eaton Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Chen, Yan [Central Laboratory, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Wang, Zhengmin [Otology Skull Base Surgery Department, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Chen, Guoling [Otology Skull Base Surgery Department, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Lin, Qin [Otology Skull Base Surgery Department, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Department of Otolaryngology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Otolaryngology Institute of Fujian Province, Fuzhou (China); Chen, Zheng-Yi, E-mail: Zheng-yi_chen@meei.harvard.edu [Department of Otolaryngology and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School and Eaton Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Li, Huawei, E-mail: hwli@shmu.edu.cn [Otology Skull Base Surgery Department, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shh activation in neonatal cochleae enhances sensory cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferating supporting cells can transdifferentiate into hair cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shh promotes proliferation by transiently modulating pRb activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shh inhibits pRb by inhibiting transcription and increasing phosphorylation of pRb. -- Abstract: Cell cycle re-entry by cochlear supporting cells and/or hair cells is considered one of the best approaches for restoring hearing loss as a result of hair cell damage. To identify mechanisms that can be modulated to initiate cell cycle re-entry and hair cell regeneration, we studied the effect of activating the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. We show that Shh signaling in postnatal rat cochleae damaged by neomycin leads to renewed proliferation of supporting cells and hair cells. Further, proliferating supporting cells are likely to transdifferentiate into hair cells. Shh treatment leads to inhibition of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by increasing phosphorylated pRb and reducing retinoblastoma gene transcription. This results in upregulation of cyclins B1, D2, and D3, and CDK1. These results suggest that Shh signaling induces cell cycle re-entry in cochlear sensory epithelium and the production of new hair cells, in part by attenuating pRb function. This study provides an additional route to modulate pRb function with important implications in mammalian hair cell regeneration.

  20. Microscopy of the hair and trichogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Dicle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair microscopy is a fast and simple method for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair in daily practice. For the microscopy of the hair, samples are collected by either clipping or plucking. The trichogram technique which the hair sample is collected by a standardized plucking method is used for the diagnosis of hair shedding and of alopecia via hair root pattern. In this review, the examination techniques and details are discussed and the most common indications for the hair microscopy including hair abnormalities as a part of genodermatosis and, infections and infestations affecting the hair are highlighted.

  1. Root growth in corn and soybeans: effects of cadmium and lead on lateral root initiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, C P; Miller, R J; Koeppe, D E

    1978-02-01

    This study examines the previously reported inhibitory effects of Cd on root growth. In hydroponic experiments, 100 ..mu..g Cd/l effected a 33% inhibition of lateral root initiation of corn. The growth of corn and soybean primary roots was not reduced at Cd concentrations of 1 mg/l, and the number of lateral root initials in soybeans was not reduced at 2 mg Cd/l. The toxic effects of Cd were ameliorated by additions of Zn or by additions of Fe citrate to nutrient growth solutions. While both Zn and Fe additions did result in increased lateral root initiation, the number of initials was significantly lower than the controls. Lead had no effect on the initiation of soybean lateral roots at a concentration of 100 ..mu..g Pb/l. However, 5 mg Pb/l did effect a 21% decrease in corn lateral root initials, but this decrease could not be demonstrated with higher Pb concentrations.

  2. Ultrastructural comparison of single dose hydroxyurea and ionizing radiation on mouse hair roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, R.W.; Malkinson, F.D.

    1986-01-01

    Growing mouse vibrissae were investigated by light and electron microscopy to compare the effects of hydroxyurea (1500 mgkg/sup -1/ intraperitoneally) and gamma radiation (10 Gy). In the case of the drug, specimens were obtained from 30 min to 9 days post-treatment. Irradiated specimens were taken at intervals up to 1.5 years post-irradiation. The morphological alterations were similar for both types of insult, but the time sequences of events were quite different. The post-irradiation recovery period was vastly extended compared with that of the hydroxyurea treated hair roots.

  3. Ultrastructural comparison of single dose hydroxyurea and ionizing radiation on mouse hair roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, R.W.; Malkinson, F.D.

    1986-01-01

    Growing mouse vibrissae were investigated by light and electron microscopy to compare the effects of hydroxyurea (1500 mgkg -1 intraperitoneally) and gamma radiation (10 Gy). In the case of the drug, specimens were obtained from 30 min to 9 days post-treatment. Irradiated specimens were taken at intervals up to 1.5 years post-irradiation. The morphological alterations were similar for both types of insult, but the time sequences of events were quite different. The post-irradiation recovery period was vastly extended compared with that of the hydroxyurea treated hair roots. (UK)

  4. Embryonic origin of the Arabidopsis primary root and root meristem initials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.; Wolkenfelt, H.; Willemsen, V.; Terlouw, M.; Lawson, E.; Dean, C.; Weisbeek, P.

    1994-01-01

    The embryonic origin of the Arabidopsis root and hypocotyl region has been investigated using histological techniques and clonal analysis. Our data reveal the pattern of cell division in the embryo giving rise to the various initials within the root promeristem. A small region of the root at its

  5. Barley root hair growth and morphology in soil, sand, and water solution media and relationship with nickel toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanqing; Allen, Herbert E; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2016-08-01

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare (Doyce), was grown in the 3 media of soil, hydroponic sand solution (sand), and hydroponic water solution (water) culture at the same environmental conditions for 4 d. Barley roots were scanned, and root morphology was analyzed. Plants grown in the 3 media had different root morphology and nickel (Ni) toxicity response. Root elongations and total root lengths followed the sequence soil > sand > water. Plants grown in water culture were more sensitive to Ni toxicity and had greater root hair length than those from soil and sand cultures, which increased root surface area. The unit root surface area as root surface area per centimeter of length of root followed the sequence water > sand > soil and was found to be related with root elongation. Including the unit root surface area, the difference in root elongation and 50% effective concentration were diminished, and percentage of root elongations can be improved with a root mean square error approximately 10% for plants grown in different media. Because the unit root surface area of plants in sand culture is closer to that in soil culture, the sand culture method, not water culture, is recommended for toxicity parameter estimation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2125-2133. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. A new path in defining light parameters for hair growth: Discovery and modulation of photoreceptors in human hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscone, Serena; Mardaryev, Andrei N; Raafs, Bianca; Bikker, Jan W; Sticht, Carsten; Gretz, Norbert; Farjo, Nilofer; Uzunbajakava, Natallia E; Botchkareva, Natalia V

    2017-09-01

    Though devices for hair growth based on low levels of light have shown encouraging results, further improvements of their efficacy is impeded by a lack of knowledge on the exact molecular targets that mediate physiological response in skin and hair follicle. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of selected light-sensitive receptors in the human hair follicle and to study the impact of UV-free blue light on hair growth ex vivo. The expression of Opsin receptors in human skin and hair follicles has been characterized using RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence approaches. The functional significance of Opsin 3 was assessed by silencing its expression in the hair follicle cells followed by a transcriptomic profiling. Proprietary LED-based devices emitting two discrete visible wavelengths were used to access the effects of selected optical parameters on hair growth ex vivo and outer root sheath cells in vitro. The expression of OPN2 (Rhodopsin) and OPN3 (Panopsin, Encephalopsin) was detected in the distinct compartments of skin and anagen hair follicle. Treatment with 3.2 J/cm 2 of blue light with 453 nm central wavelength significantly prolonged anagen phase in hair follicles ex vivo that was correlated with sustained proliferation in the light-treated samples. In contrast, hair follicle treatment with 3.2 J/cm 2 of 689 nm light (red light) did not significantly affect hair growth ex vivo. Silencing of OPN3 in the hair follicle outer root sheath cells resulted in the altered expression of genes involved in the control of proliferation and apoptosis, and abrogated stimulatory effects of blue light (3.2 J/cm 2 ; 453 nm) on proliferation in the outer root sheath cells. We provide the first evidence that (i) OPN2 and OPN3 are expressed in human hair follicle, and (ii) A 453 nm blue light at low radiant exposure exerts a positive effect on hair growth ex vivo, potentially via interaction with OPN3. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:705-718, 2017. © 2017 Wiley

  7. The root hair assay facilitates the use of genetic and pharmacological tools in order to dissect multiple signalling pathways that lead to programmed cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kacprzyk

    Full Text Available The activation of programmed cell death (PCD is often a result of complex signalling pathways whose relationship and intersection are not well understood. We recently described a PCD root hair assay and proposed that it could be used to rapidly screen genetic or pharmacological modulators of PCD. To further assess the applicability of the root hair assay for studying multiple signalling pathways leading to PCD activation we have investigated the crosstalk between salicylic acid, autophagy and apoptosis-like PCD (AL-PCD in Arabidopsis thaliana. The root hair assay was used to determine rates of AL-PCD induced by a panel of cell death inducing treatments in wild type plants treated with chemical modulators of salicylic acid synthesis or autophagy, and in genetic lines defective in autophagy or salicylic acid signalling. The assay demonstrated that PCD induced by exogenous salicylic acid or fumonisin B1 displayed a requirement for salicylic acid signalling and was partially dependent on the salicylic acid signal transducer NPR1. Autophagy deficiency resulted in an increase in the rates of AL-PCD induced by salicylic acid and fumonisin B1, but not by gibberellic acid or abiotic stress. The phenylalanine ammonia lyase-dependent salicylic acid synthesis pathway contributed only to death induced by salicylic acid and fumonisin B1. 3-Methyladenine, which is commonly used as an inhibitor of autophagy, appeared to influence PCD induction in all treatments suggesting a possible secondary, non-autophagic, effect on a core component of the plant PCD pathway. The results suggest that salicylic acid signalling is negatively regulated by autophagy during salicylic acid and mycotoxin-induced AL-PCD. However, this crosstalk does not appear to be directly involved in PCD induced by gibberellic acid or abiotic stress. This study demonstrates that the root hair assay is an effective tool for relatively rapid investigation of complex signalling pathways leading to

  8. An in vivo root hair assay for determining rates of apoptotic-like programmed cell death in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogg Bridget V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Arabidopsis thaliana we demonstrate that dying root hairs provide an easy and rapid in vivo model for the morphological identification of apoptotic-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD in plants. The model described here is transferable between species, can be used to investigate rates of AL-PCD in response to various treatments and to identify modulation of AL-PCD rates in mutant/transgenic plant lines facilitating rapid screening of mutant populations in order to identify genes involved in AL-PCD regulation.

  9. Functional anatomy of the hair follicle: The Secondary Hair Germ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleyev, Andrey A

    2018-07-01

    The secondary hair germ (SHG)-a transitory structure in the lower portion of the mouse telogen hair follicle (HF)-is directly involved in anagen induction and eventual HF regrowth. Some crucial aspects of SHG functioning and ontogenetic relations with other HF parts, however, remain undefined. According to recent evidence (in contrast to previous bulge-centric views), the SHG is the primary target of anagen-inducing signalling and a source of both the outer root sheath (ORS) and ascending HF layers during the initial (morphogenetic) anagen subphase. The SHG is comprised of two functionally distinct cell populations. Its lower portion (originating from lower HF cells that survived catagen) forms all ascending HF layers, while the upper SHG (formed by bulge-derived cells) builds up the ORS. The predetermination of SHG cells to a specific morphogenetic fate contradicts their attribution to the "stem cell" category and supports SHG designation as a "germinative" or a "founder" cell population. The mechanisms of this predetermination driving transition of the SHG from "refractory" to the "competent" state during the telogen remain unknown. Functionally, the SHG serves as a barrier, protecting the quiescent bulge stem cell niche from the extensive follicular papilla/SHG signalling milieu. The formation of the SHG is a prerequisite for efficient "precommitment" of these cells and provides for easier sensing and a faster response to anagen-inducing signals. In general, the formation of the SHG is an evolutionary adaptation, which allowed the ancestors of modern Muridae to acquire a specific, highly synchronized pattern of hair cycling. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Proteomics of Maize Root Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochholdinger, Frank; Marcon, Caroline; Baldauf, Jutta A; Yu, Peng; Frey, Felix P

    2018-01-01

    Maize forms a complex root system with structurally and functionally diverse root types that are formed at different developmental stages to extract water and mineral nutrients from soil. In recent years proteomics has been intensively applied to identify proteins involved in shaping the three-dimensional architecture and regulating the function of the maize root system. With the help of developmental mutants, proteomic changes during the initiation and emergence of shoot-borne, lateral and seminal roots have been examined. Furthermore, root hairs were surveyed to understand the proteomic changes during the elongation of these single cell type structures. In addition, primary roots have been used to study developmental changes of the proteome but also to investigate the proteomes of distinct tissues such as the meristematic zone, the elongation zone as well as stele and cortex of the differentiation zone. Moreover, subcellular fractions of the primary root including cell walls, plasma membranes and secreted mucilage have been analyzed. Finally, the superior vigor of hybrid seedling roots compared to their parental inbred lines was studied on the proteome level. In summary, these studies provide novel insights into the complex proteomic interactions of the elaborate maize root system during development.

  11. Proteomics of Maize Root Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hochholdinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize forms a complex root system with structurally and functionally diverse root types that are formed at different developmental stages to extract water and mineral nutrients from soil. In recent years proteomics has been intensively applied to identify proteins involved in shaping the three-dimensional architecture and regulating the function of the maize root system. With the help of developmental mutants, proteomic changes during the initiation and emergence of shoot-borne, lateral and seminal roots have been examined. Furthermore, root hairs were surveyed to understand the proteomic changes during the elongation of these single cell type structures. In addition, primary roots have been used to study developmental changes of the proteome but also to investigate the proteomes of distinct tissues such as the meristematic zone, the elongation zone as well as stele and cortex of the differentiation zone. Moreover, subcellular fractions of the primary root including cell walls, plasma membranes and secreted mucilage have been analyzed. Finally, the superior vigor of hybrid seedling roots compared to their parental inbred lines was studied on the proteome level. In summary, these studies provide novel insights into the complex proteomic interactions of the elaborate maize root system during development.

  12. Lgr5 marks cycling, yet long-lived, hair follicle stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaks, V.; Barker, N.; Kasper, M.; van Es, J.H.; Snippert, H.J.G.; Clevers, H.; Toftgard, R.

    2008-01-01

    In mouse hair follicles, a group of quiescent cells in the bulge is believed to have stem cell activity. Lgr5, a marker of intestinal stem cells, is expressed in actively cycling cells in the bulge and secondary germ of telogen hair follicles and in the lower outer root sheath of anagen hair

  13. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes applied through seed-priming influence early germination, root hair, growth and yield of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anjali; Kaur, Simranjeet; Dharamvir, Keya; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav

    2018-06-01

    Reports of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) incorporated into plants have indicated better yield and productivity, yet the phenomena need in-depth understanding especially when agricultural crops are tested. We primed wheat seeds with MWCNTs to understand the effects on germination, growth, anatomy, physiology and yield. This study, carried out in field conditions, is a step forward over the previous reports. Early germination, excessive root hair, denser stomata and larger root length result in faster growth and higher yield of wheat plants. Denser root hair facilitated the uptake of both water and essential minerals such as phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), which boosted the crop yield by significantly improving grain yield per plant from 1.53 to 2.5 g, a 63% increase. Increase in cell elongation by 80% was recorded, while xylem and phloem sizes dilated to almost 83% and 85% of control, thus enhancing their capacity to conduct water and nutrients. Augmented growth of MWCNT-primed wheat, enhancement in grain number, biomass, stomatal density, xylem-phloem size, epidermal cells, and water uptake is observed while finding no DNA damage. This opens up an entirely new aspect to using cost-effective nanomaterials (the MWCNTs were produced in-house) for enhancing the performance of crop plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Ethylene-auxin interactions regulate lateral root initiation and emergence in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanchenko, Maria G; Muday, Gloria K; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2008-07-01

    Plant root systems display considerable plasticity in response to endogenous and environmental signals. Auxin stimulates pericycle cells within elongating primary roots to enter de novo organogenesis, leading to the establishment of new lateral root meristems. Crosstalk between auxin and ethylene in root elongation has been demonstrated, but interactions between these hormones in root branching are not well characterized. We find that enhanced ethylene synthesis, resulting from the application of low concentrations of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), promotes the initiation of lateral root primordia. Treatment with higher doses of ACC strongly inhibits the ability of pericycle cells to initiate new lateral root primordia, but promotes the emergence of existing lateral root primordia: behaviour that is also seen in the eto1 mutation. These effects are correlated with decreased pericycle cell length and increased lateral root primordia cell width. When auxin is applied simultaneously with ACC, ACC is unable to prevent the auxin stimulation of lateral root formation in the root tissues formed prior to ACC exposure. However, in root tissues formed after transfer to ACC, in which elongation is reduced, auxin does not rescue the ethylene inhibition of primordia initiation, but instead increases it by several fold. Mutations that block auxin responses, slr1 and arf7 arf19, render initiation of lateral root primordia insensitive to the promoting effect of low ethylene levels, and mutations that inhibit ethylene-stimulated auxin biosynthesis, wei2 and wei7, reduce the inhibitory effect of higher ethylene levels, consistent with ethylene regulating root branching through interactions with auxin.

  15. Promotion of hair follicle development and trichogenesis by Wnt-10b in cultured embryonic skin and in reconstituted skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouji, Yukiteru; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Shiroi, Akira; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2006-01-01

    We previously showed that Wnt-10b promoted the differentiation of primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC) toward hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle (IRS) cells in vitro. In the present study, we found that Wnt-10b promotes the development of hair follicles using a culture of mouse embryonic skin tissue and trichogenesis using a reconstitution experiment with nude mice. Hair follicle development was observed in skin taken from mouse embryos on embryonic day 10.5 following a 2-day culture with recombinant Wnt-10b (rWnt-10b), however, not without rWnt-10b. Brown hair growth was observed at the site of reconstituted skin in Balb/c nude mice where dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, derived from C3H/HeN new born mice, were transplanted with Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-COS). Without the co-transplantation of Wnt-COS, no hair growth was observed. Our results suggest an important role of Wnt-10b in the initiation of hair follicle development and following trichogenesis

  16. Distribution of epidermal growth factor receptors in rat tissues during embryonic skin development, hair formation, and the adult hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, M R; Couchman, J R

    1984-01-01

    on the binding distribution of [125I]EGF, representing the tissue localization of available EGF receptors, during embryonic rat skin development including hair follicle formation and the adult hair growth cycle. At 16 days embryonic development a relatively low receptor density is seen over all the epidermal...... condensates marking the first stage of hair follicle development. This restricted and temporary loss of EGF receptors above these specialized mesenchymal condensates implies a role for the EGF receptor and possibly EGF or an EGF-like ligand in stimulating the epithelial downgrowth required for hair follicle...... development. In the anagen hair bulb, receptors for EGF are detected over the outer root sheath and the epithelial cell layers at the base of the follicle and show a correlation with the areas of epithelial proliferation in the hair bulb. During the catagen and telogen phases of the hair cycle, receptors...

  17. Regulation of root development in Arabidopsis thaliana by phytohormone-secreting epiphytic methylobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klikno, Jana; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    In numerous experimental studies, seedlings of the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana have been raised on sterile mineral salt agar. However, under natural conditions, no plant has ever grown in an environment without bacteria. Here, we document that germ-free (gnotobiotic) seedlings, raised on mineral salt agar without sucrose, develop very short root hairs. In the presence of a soil extract that contains naturally occurring microbes, root hair elongation is promoted; this effect can be mimicked by the addition of methylobacteria to germ-free seedlings. Using five different bacterial species (Methylobacterium mesophilicum, Methylobacterium extorquens, Methylobacterium oryzae, Methylobacterium podarium, and Methylobacterium radiotolerans), we show that, over 9 days of seedling development in a light-dark cycle, root development (hair elongation, length of the primary root, branching patterns) is regulated by these epiphytic microbes that occur in the rhizosphere of field-grown plants. In a sterile liquid culture test system, auxin (IAA) inhibited root growth with little effect on hair elongation and significantly stimulated hypocotyl enlargement. Cytokinins (trans-zeatin, kinetin) and ethylene (application of the precursor ACC) likewise exerted an inhibitory effect on root growth but, in contrast to IAA, drastically stimulated root hair elongation. Methylobacteria are phytosymbionts that produce/secrete cytokinins. We conclude that, under real-world conditions (soil), the provision of these phytohormones by methylobacteria (and other epiphytic microbes) regulates root development during seedling establishment.

  18. Searching for plant root traits to improve soil cohesion and resist soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baets, Sarah; Smyth, Kevin; Denbigh, Tom; Weldon, Laura; Higgins, Ben; Matyjaszkiewicz, Antoni; Meersmans, Jeroen; Chenchiah, Isaac; Liverpool, Tannie; Quine, Tim; Grierson, Claire

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion poses a serious threat to future food and environmental security. Soil erosion protection measures are therefore of great importance for soil conservation and food security. Plant roots have proven to be very effective in stabilizing the soil and protecting the soil against erosion. However, no clear insights are yet obtained into the root traits that are responsible for root-soil cohesion. This is important in order to better select the best species for soil protection. Research using Arabidopsis mutants has made great progress towards explaining how root systems are generated by growth, branching, and responses to gravity, producing mutants that affect root traits. In this study, the performance of selected Arabidopsis mutants is analyzed in three root-soil cohesion assays. Measurements of detachment, uprooting force and soil detachment are here combined with the microscopic analysis of root properties, such as the presence, length and density of root hairs in this case. We found that Arabidopsis seedlings with root hairs (wild type, wer myb23, rsl4) were more difficult to detach from gel media than hairless (cpc try) or short haired (rsl4, rhd2) roots. Hairy roots (wild type, wer myb23) on mature, non-reproductive rosettes were more difficult to uproot from compost or clay soil than hairless roots (cpc try). At high root densities, erosion rates from soils with hairless roots (cpc try) were as much as 10 times those seen from soils occupied by roots with hairs (wer myb23, wild type). We find therefore root hairs play a significant role in root-soil cohesion and in minimizing erosion. This framework and associated suite of experimental assays demonstrates its ability to measure the effect of any root phenotype on the effectiveness of plant roots in binding substrates and reducing erosion.

  19. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.

  20. Optical hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, R J; Anderson, R R

    1999-06-01

    Traditional methods of hair removal have proven unsatisfactory for many individuals with excessive or unwanted hair. In the last few years, several lasers and xenon flashlamps have been developed that promise to fulfill the need for a practical, safe, and long-lasting method of hair removal. Aggressive marketing of these has contributed to their popularity among patients and physicians. However, significant controversy and confusion surrounds this field. This article provides a detailed explanation of the scientific underpinnings for optical hair removal and explores the advantages and disadvantages of the various devices currently available (Nd:YAG, ruby, alexandrite, diode lasers, and xenon flashlamp). Treatment and safety guidelines are provided to assist the practitioner in the use of these devices. Although the field of optical hair removal is still in its infancy, initial reports of long-term efficacy are encouraging.

  1. Ultrastructural Studies on Root Nodules of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Raiha Qadri; A. Mahmood; Mohammad Athar

    2007-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies were conducted on Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb) Benth. root nodules collected from trees growing under natural conditions. Rhizobial infection on root surface of P. dulce started with curling of root hair. Both curled and straight root hairs were observed. The internal structure of a mature nodule showed an epidermis, cortex, vascular region and a bacteriod region. Vascular bundles were amphicribral. A distinct periderm consisted of sclereid tissue could be observed in t...

  2. Hair: what is new in diagnosis and management? Female pattern hair loss update: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanaskova Mesinkovska, Natasha; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of alopecia in women. FPHL is characterized histologically with increased numbers of miniaturized, velluslike hair follicles. The goal of treatment of FPHL is to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate hair regrowth. The treatments for FPHL can be divided into androgen-dependent and androgen-independent. There is an important adjuvant role for nutritional supplements, light therapy, and hair transplants. All treatments work best when initiated early. Combinations of treatments tend to be more efficacious. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Loss of normal anagen hair in pemphigus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshpazhooh, M; Mahmoudi, H R; Rezakhani, S; Valikhani, M; Naraghi, Z S; Mohammadi, Y; Habibi, A; Chams-Davatchi, C

    2015-07-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a known cause of loss of 'normal' anagen hair; that is, shedding of intact anagen hairs covered by root sheaths. However, studies on this subject are limited. To investigate anagen hair shedding in patients with PV, and ascertain its association with disease severity. In total, 96 consecutive patients with PV (new patients or patients in relapse) who were admitted to the dermatology wards of a tertiary hospital were enrolled in this study. Demographic data, PV phenotype, disease severity and presence of scalp lesions were recorded. A group of 10-20 hairs were pulled gently from different areas of the scalp (lesional and nonlesional skin) in all patients, and anagen hairs were counted. Disease severity was graded according to Harman score. Anagen hair was obtained by pull test in 59 of the 96 patients (61.5%), of whom 2 had normal scalp. The mean ± SD anagen hair count was 5.9 ± 7.6 (range 0-31). In univariate analysis, anagen hair loss (P hair count was significantly higher in the severe (mean 6.83 ± 7.89) than the moderate (mean 1.06 ± 1.94) subgroup (P hair loss (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.05-1.28, P hair loss was an independent predictor of the disease severity. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Plant roots use a patterning mechanism to position lateral root branches toward available water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yun; Aggarwal, Pooja; Robbins, Neil E; Sturrock, Craig J; Thompson, Mark C; Tan, Han Qi; Tham, Cliff; Duan, Lina; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Vernoux, Teva; Mooney, Sacha J; Bennett, Malcolm J; Dinneny, José R

    2014-06-24

    The architecture of the branched root system of plants is a major determinant of vigor. Water availability is known to impact root physiology and growth; however, the spatial scale at which this stimulus influences root architecture is poorly understood. Here we reveal that differences in the availability of water across the circumferential axis of the root create spatial cues that determine the position of lateral root branches. We show that roots of several plant species can distinguish between a wet surface and air environments and that this also impacts the patterning of root hairs, anthocyanins, and aerenchyma in a phenomenon we describe as hydropatterning. This environmental response is distinct from a touch response and requires available water to induce lateral roots along a contacted surface. X-ray microscale computed tomography and 3D reconstruction of soil-grown root systems demonstrate that such responses also occur under physiologically relevant conditions. Using early-stage lateral root markers, we show that hydropatterning acts before the initiation stage and likely determines the circumferential position at which lateral root founder cells are specified. Hydropatterning is independent of endogenous abscisic acid signaling, distinguishing it from a classic water-stress response. Higher water availability induces the biosynthesis and transport of the lateral root-inductive signal auxin through local regulation of tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis 1 and PIN-formed 3, both of which are necessary for normal hydropatterning. Our work suggests that water availability is sensed and interpreted at the suborgan level and locally patterns a wide variety of developmental processes in the root.

  5. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration and ACC synthase expression in soybean roots, root tips, and soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)-infected roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark L; Xue, Ping; Yang, Ronghui

    2010-01-01

    Colonization of plant roots by root knot and cyst nematodes requires a functional ethylene response pathway. However, ethylene plays many roles in root development and whether its role in nematode colonization is direct or indirect, for example lateral root initiation or root hair growth, is not known. The temporal requirement for ethylene and localized synthesis of ethylene during the life span of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) on soybean roots was further investigated. Although a significant increase in ethylene evolution was not detected from SCN-colonized roots, the concentration of the immediate precursor to ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), was higher in SCN-colonized root pieces and root tips than in other parts of the root. Moreover, expression analysis of 17 ACC synthase (ACS) genes indicated that a select set of ACS genes is expressed in SCN-colonized root pieces that is clearly different from the set of genes expressed in non-colonized roots or root tips. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR indicated that ACS transcript accumulation correlates with the high concentration of ACC in root tips. In addition, an ACS-like sequence was found in the public SCN nucleotide database. Acquisition of a full-length sequence for this mRNA (accession GQ389647) and alignment with transcripts for other well-characterized ACS proteins indicated that the nematode sequence is missing a key element required for ACS activity and therefore probably is not a functional ACS. Moreover, no significant amount of ACC was found in any growth stage of SCN that was tested.

  6. The root epidermis-specific pea gene RH2 is homologous to a pathogenesis-related gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mylona, P.; Moerman, M.; Yang, W.C.; Gloudemans, T.; Kerckhove, van de J.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.; Franssen, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of pea root and root hair proteins revealed the existence of at least 10 proteins present at elevated levels in root hairs. One of these, named RH2, was isolated and a partial amino acid sequence was determined from two tryptic peptides. Using this sequence

  7. Hair loss in women: medical and cosmetic approaches to increase scalp hair fullness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R; Patel, M; Dawson, T L; Yazdabadi, A; Yip, L; Perez, A; Rufaut, N W

    2011-12-01

    Androgenetic alopecia affects both men and women. In men it produces male pattern hair loss with bitemporal recession and vertex baldness. In women it produces female pattern hair loss (FPHL) with diffuse alopecia over the mid-frontal scalp. FPHL occurs as a result of nonuniform hair follicle miniaturization within follicular units. Diffuse alopecia is produced by a reduction in the number of terminal fibres per follicular unit. Baldness occurs only when all hairs within the follicular units are miniaturized and is a relatively late event in women. The concepts of follicular units and primary and secondary hair follicles within follicular units are well established in comparative mammalian studies, particularly in sheep. However, discovery of these structures in the human scalp hair and investigation of the changes in follicular unit anatomy during the development of androgenetic alopecia have provided a clearer understanding of the early stages of androgenetic alopecia and how the male and female patterns of hair loss are related. FPHL is the most common cause of alopecia in women and approximately one-third of adult caucasian women experience hair loss. The impact of FPHL is predominantly psychological. While men anticipate age-related hair loss, hair loss in women is usually unexpected and unwelcome at any age. Treatment options to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate partial hair regrowth for FPHL include the androgen receptor antagonists spironolactone and cyproterone acetate, the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride and the androgen-independent hair growth stimulator minoxidil. These treatments appear to work best when initiated early. Hair transplantation should be considered in advanced FPHL that is resistant to medical treatments. Hair transplantation requires well-preserved hair growth over the occipital donor area. The psychological impact of FPHL may also be reduced by cosmetic products that improve the appearance of the hair. These agents work to

  8. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Q Dinh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Quan Q Dinh, Rodney SinclairDepartment of Dermatology, St Vincent’s Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful.Keywords: female pattern hair loss, androgenetic alopecia

  9. Metagenomic analyses of bacteria on human hairs: a qualitative assessment for applications in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tridico, Silvana R; Murray, Dáithí C; Addison, Jayne; Kirkbride, Kenneth P; Bunce, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian hairs are one of the most ubiquitous types of trace evidence collected in the course of forensic investigations. However, hairs that are naturally shed or that lack roots are problematic substrates for DNA profiling; these hair types often contain insufficient nuclear DNA to yield short tandem repeat (STR) profiles. Whilst there have been a number of initial investigations evaluating the value of metagenomics analyses for forensic applications (e.g. examination of computer keyboards), there have been no metagenomic evaluations of human hairs-a substrate commonly encountered during forensic practice. This present study attempts to address this forensic capability gap, by conducting a qualitative assessment into the applicability of metagenomic analyses of human scalp and pubic hair. Forty-two DNA extracts obtained from human scalp and pubic hairs generated a total of 79,766 reads, yielding 39,814 reads post control and abundance filtering. The results revealed the presence of unique combinations of microbial taxa that can enable discrimination between individuals and signature taxa indigenous to female pubic hairs. Microbial data from a single co-habiting couple added an extra dimension to the study by suggesting that metagenomic analyses might be of evidentiary value in sexual assault cases when other associative evidence is not present. Of all the data generated in this study, the next-generation sequencing (NGS) data generated from pubic hair held the most potential for forensic applications. Metagenomic analyses of human hairs may provide independent data to augment other forensic results and possibly provide association between victims of sexual assault and offender when other associative evidence is absent. Based on results garnered in the present study, we believe that with further development, bacterial profiling of hair will become a valuable addition to the forensic toolkit.

  10. ILK modulates epithelial polarity and matrix formation in hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudkouskaya, Alena; Welch, Ian; Dagnino, Lina

    2014-03-01

    Hair follicle morphogenesis requires coordination of multiple signals and communication between its epithelial and mesenchymal constituents. Cell adhesion protein platforms, which include integrins and integrin-linked kinase (ILK), are critical for hair follicle formation. However, their precise contribution to this process is poorly understood. We show that in the absence of ILK, the hair follicle matrix lineage fails to develop, likely due to abnormalities in development of apical-basal cell polarity, as well as in laminin-511 and basement membrane assembly at the tip of the hair bud. These defects also result in impaired specification of hair matrix and absence of precortex and inner sheath root cell lineages. The molecular pathways affected in ILK-deficient follicles are similar to those in the absence of epidermal integrin β1 and include Wnt, but not sonic hedgehog, signaling. ILK-deficient hair buds also show abnormalities in the dermal papilla. Addition of exogenous laminin-511 restores morphological and molecular markers associated with hair matrix formation, indicating that ILK regulates hair bud cell polarity and functions upstream from laminin-511 assembly to regulate the developmental progression of hair follicles beyond the germ stage.

  11. Effect of amino acid substitution of CAPRICE on cell-to-cell movement ability in Arabidopsis root epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Wada, Takuji

    2018-03-01

    An R3-type MYB transcription factor, CAPRICE (CPC), is known to promote root hair cell differentiation in Arabidopsis root epidermis. The CPC protein moves from non-hair cells to the neighboring cells, and acts as an inducer of root hair formation. In contrast, we previously showed that the CPC homolog, ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1), does not move between the root epidermal cells. To clarify the critical difference in the cell-to-cell movement ability of CPC and ETC1 proteins, we generated five different chimeras of CPC and ETC1. As expected, four of the five chimeric proteins with substitution of CPC amino acids with those of ETC1 induced many root hair and no-trichome phenotype, like CPC. These chimeric proteins essentially maintained the cell-to-cell movement ability of CPC. However, one chimeric protein in which ETC1 was sandwiched between the CPC-specific movement motifs of S1 and S2 did not induce ectopic root hair formation. This chimeric protein did not move between the cells. These results indicate that the maintenance of not only the S1 and S2 motifs but also the precise structure of CPC protein might be necessary for the cell-to-cell movement of CPC. Our results should help in further unraveling of the roles of these MYB transcription factors in root hair formation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lateral root initiation and formation within the parental root meristem of Cucurbita pepo: is auxin a key player?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilina, Elena L; Kiryushkin, Alexey S; Semenova, Victoria A; Demchenko, Nikolay P; Pawlowski, Katharina; Demchenko, Kirill N

    2018-04-19

    In some plant families, including Cucurbitaceae, initiation and development of lateral roots (LRs) occur in the parental root apical meristem. The objective of this study was to identify the general mechanisms underlying LR initiation (LRI). Therefore, the first cellular events leading to LRI as well as the role of auxin in this process were studied in the Cucurbita pepo root apical meristem. Transgenic hairy roots harbouring the auxin-responsive promoter DR5 fused to different reporter genes were used for visualizing of cellular auxin response maxima (ARMs) via confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3-D imaging. The effects of exogenous auxin and auxin transport inhibitors on root branching were analysed. The earliest LRI event involved a group of symmetric anticlinal divisions in pericycle cell files at a distance of 250-350 µm from the initial cells. The visualization of the ARMs enabled the precise detection of cells involved in determining the site of LR primordium formation. A local ARM appeared in sister cells of the pericycle and endodermis files before the first division. Cortical cells contributed to LR development after the anticlinal divisions in the pericycle via the formation of an ARM. Exogenous auxins did not increase the total number of LRs and did not affect the LRI index. Although exogenous auxin transport inhibitors acted in different ways, they all reduced the number of LRs formed. Literature data, as well as results obtained in this study, suggest that the formation of a local ARM before the first anticlinal formative divisions is the common mechanism underlying LRI in flowering plants. We propose that the mechanisms of the regulation of root branching are independent of the position of the LRI site relative to the parental root tip.

  13. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Telek, A.; Biro, T.; Debrecen Univ.

    2006-01-01

    root sheath keratinocyte layers, 1000- 2000; hair shaft, 1000-2000. The induction of catagen transformation essentially did not change the Ca concentrations in the dermal papilla, bulb matrix regions nor in the hair shaft (1000-2000 in all parts). In contrast, we observed a remarkable increase in the outer/ inner root sheath keratinocyte layers up to 4000-8000 μg/g Ca concentration. In capsaicin-treated catagen HFs, the Ca concentration was increased mostly in those layers which possess a significant expression of TRPV1, the receptor for capsaicin. Since TRPV1 functions as a Ca-permeable channel, the elevated Ca in the TRPV1-expressing layers suggest that the activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin resulted in a prolonged elevation of intracellular Ca-concentration which, in turn, led to the inhibition of proliferation of HF keratinocytes as well as the induction of HF apoptosis. Moreover, our findings also show that ion microscopy may serve as a fine tool to detect changes in elemental distribution related to the human hair-cycle. (author)

  14. A toddler with hair fascination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Patricia; Needlman, Robert D; Stein, Martin T

    2010-04-01

    Joseph is a 24-months old boy referred by his pediatrician because of an "obsession" with pulling and eating hair. When Joseph was 14 months old, he enjoyed touching and twirling his mother's long hair. She observed that it seemed to provide comfort to him. At 18 months, he initiated pulling out and eating his own hair, twirling his mother's hair around his thumb and then sucking on it. Currently, he searches the carpet or a hard floor and looks for hair to eat. The identical behavior is observed at daycare. Joseph's teacher commented, "He pulled hair from a girl who has the longest hair of all the children. We try to distract him from this habit, but he is not distracted for long." Less frequently, Joseph has also eaten sand, chalk, and crayons at daycare. Joseph's mother describes him as a "happy and outgoing" child who interacts with his peers and has a best friend at the daycare. There have not been recent changes or stressful events in his life. Joseph separates from his mother with ease and he sleeps comfortably through the night in his own bed. There have been no episodes of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or constipation. Strands of hair are occasionally seen in the stool. Prenatal and perinatal history was unremarkable. Joseph was breast-fed for 11 months, described as an "easy" baby, achieved motor, social, and language developmental milestones at the usual time, and has been in excellent health. He lives with his mother and maternal grandparents; the biological father has never been involved in his care. At 20 months, Joseph's pediatrician suggested cutting his hair. After several haircuts, Joseph stopped pulling his own hair. However, he continued to search the floor for hair. Hemoglobin and a blood lead level were normal. Joseph appeared pleasant and friendly with normal growth parameters and facial features. He was sitting comfortably on his mother's lap, sucking on his thumb. Social interactions with his mother were appropriate and reciprocal. He

  15. Characterization of Rhizobium strain isolated from the roots of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... The Rhizobium species isolated from fenugreek roots have the potential to produce industrially important ... growth of leguminous crops (Dilworth and Parker, 1969). ..... events, such as chemotaxis and root hair colonization,.

  16. Paraquat initially damages cochlear support cells leading to anoikis-like hair cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhui; Sun, Hong; Salvi, Richard; Ding, Dalian

    2018-07-01

    Paraquat (PQ), one of the most widely used herbicides, is extremely dangerous because it generates the highly toxic superoxide radical. When paraquat was applied to cochlear organotypic cultures, it not only damaged the outer hair cells (OHCs) and inner hair cells (IHCs), but also caused dislocation of the hair cell rows. We hypothesized that the dislocation arose from damage to the support cells (SCs) that anchors hair cells within the epithelium. To test this hypothesis, rat postnatal cochlear cultures were treated with PQ. Shortly after PQ treatment, the rows of OHCs separated from one another and migrated radially away from IHCs suggesting loss of cell-cell adhesion that hold the hair cells in proper alignment. Hair cells dislocation was associated with extensive loss of SCs in the organ of Corti, loss of tympanic border cells (TBCs) beneath the basilar membrane, the early appearance of superoxide staining and caspase-8 labeling in SCs below the OHCs and disintegration of E-cadherin and β-catenin in the organ of Corti. Damage to the TBCs and SCs occurred prior to loss of OHC or IHC loss suggesting a form of detachment-induced apoptosis referred to as anoikis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. On the use of hair analysis to assess the influence of exposure to some toxic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vis, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    The micro PIXE technique is an analytical method capable to measure trace element concentration distribution at ppm concentration level and at μm scale. This method opens the possibility to measure radial and longitudinal element distribution across and along hair samples. The incorporation of Cd and Pb in rat hair has been studied using two different analytical techniques, namely micro PIXE to measure the radial distribution of these elements across the hair root and in a section cut at 3 mm distance from the root, and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) to measure the distribution of these elements over different protein fractions prepared by other CRP participant. Hair samples from 12 persons were also analyzed with micro PIXE. Inter element effects were observed in this case, especially the negative correlation between Cu and Zn. Also the data indicate correlations between Zn concentration in hair and bone (positive) and hair and liver (negative). Cu shows the same behaviour. A large number of hair and whole blood samples from a group of school children was also analyzed. In this data set, it was observed that Pb concentration affects other elements. It turned out that Ca and Zn concentrations in hair were lower, while Cu values were higher in the samples with high Pb values. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  18. Heuristic Aspect of the Lateral Root Initiation Index: A Case Study of the Role of Nitric Oxide in Root Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Lira-Ruan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Lateral root (LR initiation (LRI is a central process in root branching. Based on LR and/or LR primordium densities, it has been shown that nitric oxide (NO promotes LRI. However, because NO inhibits primary root growth, we hypothesized that NO may have an opposite effect if the analysis is performed on a cellular basis. Using a previously proposed parameter, the LRI index (which measures how many LRI events take place along a root portion equivalent to the length of a single file of 100 cortical cells of average length, we addressed this hypothesis and illustrate here that the LRI index provides a researcher with a tool to uncover hidden but important information about root initiation. Methods and Results: Arabidopsis thaliana roots were treated with an NO donor (sodium nitroprusside [SNP] and/or an NO scavenger (2-(4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-l-oxyl-3-oxide [cPTIO]. LRI was analyzed separately in the root portions formed before and during the treatment. In the latter, SNP caused root growth inhibition and an increase in the LR density accompanied by a decrease in LRI index, indicating overall inhibitory outcome of the NO donor on branching. The inhibitory effect of SNP was reversed by cPTIO, showing the NO-specific action of SNP on LRI. Conclusions: Analysis of the LRI index permits the discovery of otherwise unknown modes of action of a substance on the root system formation. NO has a dual action on root branching, slightly promoting it in the root portion formed before the treatment and strongly inhibiting it in the root portion formed during the treatment.

  19. Multiple unit root tests under uncertainty over the initial condition : some powerful modifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanck, C.

    We modify the union-of-rejection unit root test of Harvey et al. "Unit Root Testing in Practice: Dealing with Uncertainty over the Trend and Initial Condition" (Harvey, Econom Theory 25:587-636, 2009). This test rejects if either of two different unit root tests rejects but controls the inherent

  20. Using low energy x-ray radiography to evaluate root initiation and growth of Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; A. L. Friend; B. Kodrzycki; D.W. McDonald; R. Michaels; A.H. Wiese; J.W. Powers

    2007-01-01

    Populus roots have been studied less than aboveground tissues. However, there is an overwhelming need to evaluate root initiation and growth in order to understand the genetics and physiology of rooting, along with genotype x environment interactions.

  1. A function for Rac1 in the terminal differentiation and pigmentation of hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Kristina; Klatte, Jennifer; Pofahl, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    in the regulation of terminal hair follicle differentiation. To address this, we have expressed a constitutively active mutant of Rac1, L61Rac1, only in the basal epidermal layer and outer root sheath of mice possessing an epidermis-specific deletion of endogenous Rac1, which experience severe hair loss......The small GTPase Rac1 is ubiquitously expressed in proliferating and differentiating layers of the epidermis and hair follicles. Previously, Rac1 was shown to regulate stem cell behaviour in these compartments. We have asked whether Rac1 has, in addition, a specific, stem-cell-independent function....... The resulting 'rescue' mice exhibited a hair coat throughout their lives. Therefore, expression of Rac1 activity in the keratin-14-positive compartment of the skin is sufficient for the formation of hair follicles and hair in normal quantities. The quality of hair formed in rescue mice was, however, not normal...

  2. A study with microbeam PIXE technique needed for the interpretation of data on pollutants in hair obtained with NAA and other bulk concentration analysis. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear-based methods for analysis of pollutants in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houtman, J.P.W.

    1981-01-01

    Hair metals the analysis of which has been proposed as a practical method for assaying human contamination with metal pollutants, reflect both internal and external contamination. This study is an attempt to distinguish these two components of hair metals, using the scanning microbeam PIXE technique. Individual hair strands were embedded in a resin combined with a hardener. Each embedded hair strand was cut perpendicular to its axis, into the root, 1-cm and 2-cm segments from the root. The 3 segments were analysed for few elements including As and Pb, using the scanning microbeam PIXE technique. For each segment, a proton microbeam of 15μ diameter and 500Hz frequency was used to scan the segment cross-section along the long axis. X-ray spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of the elements studied. The results, although preliminary, showed that the scanning microbeam PIXE technique may provide important information about elemental concentrations and distribution patterns along hair length and hair cross-section. This may lead to a better understanding of mechanisms responsible for the deposition of elements into hair and thereby to a more rational use of hair analysis as a method for assaying human exposure to element pollutants

  3. Quantitative analysis and classification of AFM images of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurden, S P; Monteiro, V F; Longo, E; Ferreira, M M C

    2004-07-01

    The surface topography of human hair, as defined by the outer layer of cellular sheets, termed cuticles, largely determines the cosmetic properties of the hair. The condition of the cuticles is of great cosmetic importance, but also has the potential to aid diagnosis in the medical and forensic sciences. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been demonstrated to offer unique advantages for analysis of the hair surface, mainly due to the high image resolution and the ease of sample preparation. This article presents an algorithm for the automatic analysis of AFM images of human hair. The cuticular structure is characterized using a series of descriptors, such as step height, tilt angle and cuticle density, allowing quantitative analysis and comparison of different images. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated by a classification study. Thirty-eight AFM images were measured, consisting of hair samples from (a) untreated and bleached hair samples, and (b) the root and distal ends of the hair fibre. The multivariate classification technique partial least squares discriminant analysis is used to test the ability of the algorithm to characterize the images according to the properties of the hair samples. Most of the images (86%) were found to be classified correctly.

  4. The interaction between glucose and cytokinin signaling in controlling Arabidopsis thaliana seedling root growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwah, Sunita; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2017-05-04

    Cytokinin (CK) and glucose (GLC) control several common responses in plants. There is an extensive overlap between CK and GLC signal transduction pathways in Arabidopsis. Physiologically, both GLC and CK could regulate root length in light. CK interacts with GLC via HXK1 dependent pathway for root length control. Wild-type (WT) roots cannot elongate in the GLC free medium while CK-receptor mutant ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE4 (ahk4) and type B ARR triple mutant ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR1, 10,11 (arr1, 10,11) roots could elongate even in the absence of GLC as compared with the WT. The root hair initiation was also found defective in CK signaling mutants ahk4, arr1,10,11 and arr3,4,5,6,8,9 on increasing GLC concentration (up to 3%); and lesser number of root hairs were visible even at 5% GLC as compared with the WT. Out of 941 BAP regulated genes, 103 (11%) genes were involved in root growth and development. Out of these 103 genes, 60 (58%) genes were also regulated by GLC. GLC could regulate 5736 genes, which include 327 (6%) genes involved in root growth and development. Out of these 327 genes, 60 (18%) genes were also regulated by BAP. Both GLC and CK signaling cannot alter root length in light in auxin signaling mutant AUXIN RESPONSE3/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID17 (axr3/iaa17) suggesting that they may involve auxin signaling component as a nodal point. Therefore CK- and GLC- signaling are involved in controlling different aspects of root growth and development such as root length, with auxin signaling components working as downstream target.

  5. Thinning Hair and Hair Loss: Could it be Female Pattern Hair Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Thinning hair and hair loss: Could it be female pattern hair loss? Female pattern hair loss: Without treatment, female ... can I tell if I have female pattern hair loss? It’s best to make an appointment to ...

  6. Daunomycin accumulation and induction of programmed cell death in rat hair follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Masashi; Larsson, Lars-Inge; Hougaard, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The anthracycline antibiotic daunomycin (DM) is useful for the treatment of leukemia but has side-effects such as alopecia. Using immunocytochemistry, we show that, after a single i.v. injection, DM accumulates in the nuclei of matrix cells and in the outer root sheath of hair follicles. DM......-positive matrix cells are detectable up to 48 h after injection and exhibit a characteristic granular morphology, which is not observed in saline-injected controls. TUNEL-staining has revealed that DM injection induces programmed cell death (PCD) in rat hair follicles. Cells undergoing PCD are detectable as late...... (PCD type 2). Interestingly, little, if any, DM accumulation or apoptosis has been detected in the dermal hair papillae. This may have a bearing on potential regeneration of the hair follicles. Thus, DM accumulates in a characteristic pattern in hair follicles. This accumulation is associated...

  7. Expression of basement membrane components through morphological changes in the hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T

    1985-01-01

    The amount and distribution of fibronectin associated with hair follicles was found to vary during the hair growth cycle in the rat. Immunocytochemical staining of follicles in mid-late anagen (the growth stage) revealed the presence of fibronectin in the dermal papilla matrix, in the basement...... membrane separating this from the epithelial cells of the hair bulb, and in the basement membrane and connective tissue sheath which underly the cells of the outer root sheath. Early in catagen, the transitional stage, staining of the dermal papilla matrix disappeared. Fibronectin persisted in the basement...

  8. Is there any relationship between decreased AgNOR protein synthesis and human hair loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroz, R; Tasdemir, S; Dogan, H

    2012-11-01

    Argyrophilic nucleolar organizing region associated proteins (AgNORs) play roles in cell proliferation and a variety of diseases. We attempted to determine whether decreased NOR protein synthesis causes human hair loss. We studied 21 healthy males who suffered hair loss on the frontal/vertex portion of the head. Hair root cells from normal and hair loss sites were stained for AgNOR. One hundred nuclei per site were evaluated and the AgNOR number and NORa/TNa proportions of individual cells were determined using a computer program. The cells from normal sites had significantly higher AgNOR counts than those from hair loss sites. Also, the cells from the normal sites had significantly higher NORa/TNa than cells from the hair loss sites. In the normal sites, the cells demonstrated more NOR protein synthesis than cells in hair loss sites. Therefore, decreased NOR protein synthesis appears to be related to hair loss in humans.

  9. TRIPTYCHON, not CAPRICE, participates in feedback regulation of SCM expression in the Arabidopsis root epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Su-Hwan; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root epidermal cells decide their fates (root-hair cell and non-hair cell) according to their position. SCRAMBLED (SCM), an atypical leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR RLK) mediates the positional information to the epidermal cells enabling them to adopt the proper fate. Via feedback regulation, the SCM protein accumulates preferentially in cells adopting the root-hair cell fate. In this study, we determine that TRY, but not the related factor CPC, is responsible for this preferential SCM accumulation. We observed severe reduction of SCM::GUS expression in the try-82 mutant root, but not in the cpc-1 mutant. Furthermore, the overexpression of TRY by CaMV35S promoter caused an increase in the expression of SCM::GUS in the root epidermis. Intriguingly, the overexpression of CPC by CaMV35S promoter repressed the expression of SCM::GUS. Together, these results suggest that TRY plays a unique role in generating the appropriate spatial expression of SCM.

  10. The initiation of lateral roots in the primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) implies a reactivation of cell proliferation in a group of founder pericycle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, M Victoria; Lloret, Pedro G; Martín-Partido, Gervasio; Salguero, Julio

    2016-03-15

    The initiation of lateral roots (LRs) has generally been viewed as a reactivation of proliferative activity in pericycle cells that are committed to initiate primordia. However, it is also possible that pericycle founder cells that initiate LRs never cease proliferative activity but rather are displaced to the most distal root zones while undertaking successive stages of LR initiation. In this study, we tested these two alternative hypotheses by examining the incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) into the DNA of meristematic root cells of Zea mays. According to the values for the length of the cell cycle and values for cell displacement along the maize root, our results strongly suggest that pericycle cells that initiate LR primordia ceased proliferative activity upon exiting the meristematic zone. This finding is supported by the existence of a root zone between 4 and 20mm from the root cap junction, in which neither mitotic cells nor labelled nuclei were observed in phloem pericycle cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimization Of Bio-inspired Hair Sensor Arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaganatharaja, R.K.; Bruinink, C.M.; Izadi, N.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Casas, J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Crickets use a pair of hairy appendages on their abdomen called cerci, each of which contains numerous mechano-receptive filiform hairs. These sensitive hairs can respond even to the slightest air movements, down to 0.03 mm/s, generated by the approaching predators and initiating an escape mechanism

  12. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  13. Chronic periapical periodontitis containing mature human hair shaft: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Mohammad Owaise; Yar, Riaz; Oliver, Richard

    2011-04-01

    A case is reported of a 44-year-old male who was referred with persistent pus discharge associated with his UL2 which had been root treated on two occasions. Radiographic examination revealed a radiolucency of approximately 8 mm diameter. An apicectomy was performed and histopathological examination revealed the presence of mature birefringent hair-shaft structures within a chronic periapical periodontitis. This article presents a rare occurrence, the presence of human hair in the periapical tissues.

  14. Localization of Myosin and Actin in the Pelage and Whisker Hair Follicles of Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Kiyokazu; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Takata, Kuniaki

    2006-01-01

    The combined effects of myosin II and actin enable muscle and nonmuscle cells to generate forces required for muscle contraction, cell division, cell migration, cellular morphological changes, the maintenance of cellular tension and polarity, and so on. However, except for the case of muscle contraction, the details are poorly understood. We focus on nonmuscle myosin and actin in the formation and maintenance of hair and skin, which include highly active processes in mammalian life with respect to the cellular proliferation, differentiation, and movement. The localization of nonmuscle myosin II and actin in neonatal rat dorsal skin, mystacial pad, hair follicles, and vibrissal follicles was studied by immunohistochemical technique to provide the basis for the elucidation of the roles of these proteins. Specificities of the antibodies were verified by using samples from the relevant tissues and subjecting them to immunoblotting test prior to morphological analyses. The myosin and actin were abundant and colocalized in the spinous and granular layers but scarce in the basal layer of the dorsal and mystacial epidermis. In hair and vibrissal follicles, nonmuscle myosin and actin were colocalized in the outer root sheath and some hair matrix cells adjoining dermal papillae. In contrast, most areas of the inner root sheath and hair matrix appeared to comprise very small amounts of myosin and actin. Hair shaft may comprise significant myosin during the course of its keratinization. These results suggest that the actin-myosin system plays a part in cell movement, differentiation, protection and other key functions of skin and hair cells

  15. Development of a Single-Sampling Noninvasive Hair Snare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremner-Harrison, Samantha; Harrison, Stephen W. R.; Cypher, Brian L.

    2006-01-01

    Noninvasive hair and fecal DNA sampling provides a means of collecting information on elusive species, while causing little or no disturbance. However, current methods of hair collection do not preclude multiple sampling, thus risking sample contamination. We developed a hair snare that prevents...... multiple sampling, is cost-effective, easy to construct, and safe for target and nontarget species. Our initial field tests on endangered San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and swift foxes (Vulpes velox) suggest that this hair snare may be effective in collecting uncontaminated samples for DNA...

  16. Identifying the transition to the maturation zone in three ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajero Sánchez, Wendy; García-Ponce, Berenice; Sánchez, María de la Paz; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana

    2018-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana (hereafter Arabidopsis) root has become a useful model for studying how organ morphogenesis emerge from the coordination and balance of cell proliferation and differentiation, as both processes may be observed and quantified in the root at different stages of development. Hence, being able to objectively identify and delimit the different stages of root development has been very important. Up to now, three different zones along the longitudinal axis of the primary root of Arabidopsis, have been identified: the root apical meristematic zone (RAM) with two domains [the proliferative (PD) and the transition domain (TD)], the elongation zone (EZ) and the maturation zone (MZ). We previously reported a method to quantify the length of the cells of the meristematic and the elongation zone, as well as the boundaries or transitions between the root domains along the growing part of the Arabidopsis root. In this study, we provide a more accurate criterion to identify the MZ. Traditionally, the transition between the EZ to the MZ has been established by the emergence of the first root-hair bulge in the epidermis, because this emergence coincides with cell maturation in this cell type. But we have found here that after the emergence of the first root-hair bulge some cells continue to elongate and we have confirmed this in three different Arabidopsis ecotypes. We established the limit between the EZ and the MZ by looking for the closest cortical cell with a longer length than the average cell length of 10 cells after the cortical cell closest to the epidermal cell with the first root-hair bulge in these three ecotypes. In Col-0 and Ws this cell is four cells above the one with the root hair bulge and, in the Ler ecotype, this cell is five cells above. To unambiguously identifying the site at which cells stop elongating and attain their final length and fate at the MZ, we propose to calculate the length of completely elongated cortical cells counting 10

  17. Balancing Water Uptake and Loss through the Coordinated Regulation of Stomatal and Root Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Hepworth

    Full Text Available Root development is influenced by nutrient and water availabilities. Plants are able to adjust many attributes of their root in response to environmental signals including the size and shape of the primary root, lateral roots and root hairs. Here we investigated the response of roots to changes in the levels of leaf transpiration associated with altered stomatal frequency. We found that plants with high stomatal density and conductance produce a larger rooting area and as a result have enhanced phosphate uptake capacity whereas plants with low stomatal conductance produce a smaller root. Manipulating the growth environment of plants indicated that enhanced root growth is most likely a result of an increased demand for water rather than phosphate. Plants manipulated to have an increase or reduction in root hair growth show a reduction or increase respectively, in stomatal conductance and density. Our results demonstrate that plants can balance their water uptake and loss through coordinated regulation of both stomatal and root development.

  18. The ethylene-inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine restores normal nodulation by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar. viciae on Vicia sativa subsp. nigra by suppressing the 'Thick and short roots' phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaat, S. A.; van Brussel, A. A.; Tak, T.; Lugtenberg, B. J.; KIJNE, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Nodulation of Vicia sativa subsp. nigra L. by Rhizobium bacteria is coupled to the development of thick and short roots (Tsr). This root phenotype as well as root-hair induction (Hai) and root-hair deformation (Had) are caused by a factor(s) produced by the bacteria in response to plant flavonoids.

  19. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sheila K.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Olsen, Nanna J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. Objective: To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing...... status or weekly hair washing frequency among women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1–2 cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair...... washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing. Results: No statistically significant difference (p = 0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean...

  20. Localization of ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 protein in Arabidopsis root epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Kurata, Tetsuya; Wada, Takuji

    2017-07-01

    CAPRICE (CPC) is a R3-type MYB transcription factor, which induces root-hair cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. The CPC homologous gene ENHANCER TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1) has a similar function to CPC, and acts in concert with CPC. The CPC protein moves between root epidermal cells, from hairless cells to the neighboring cells, and promotes root-hair differentiation. Therefore, ETC1 is predicted to have movement ability similar to that of CPC. In this study, we generated ETC1:ETC1:GFP and CPC:ETC1:GFP transgenic plants to clarify whether ETC1 exhibits cell-to-cell movement. Transgenic plants showed many-root-haired and trichome-less phenotypes, similar to those observed in CPC:CPC:GFP plants, suggesting a similar function of ETC1 and CPC. However, the ETC1:GFP fusion protein located exclusively to the hairless cells in both ETC1:ETC1:GFP and CPC:ETC1:GFP transgenic plants. These results indicate that, unexpectedly, the ETC1 protein cannot move in the root epidermis from hairless cells to the neighboring cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Body hair transplant: An additional source of donor hair in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poswal Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic alopecia (pattern baldness is a condition in which there is androgen mediated progressive miniaturization and loss of hair follicles in a genetically susceptible individual. A 47-year-old male patient with advanced degree of hair loss (Norwood 6 category wanted to go for full hair restoration surgery. Due to the limited availability of donor hair in the scalp, a small session with 700-chest hair was performed. On follow-up at eight months it was observed that chest hair grew and formed a cosmetically acceptable forelock.

  2. Image Based Hair Segmentation Algorithm for the Application of Automatic Facial Caricature Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehu Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a salient feature in human face region and are one of the important cues for face analysis. Accurate detection and presentation of hair region is one of the key components for automatic synthesis of human facial caricature. In this paper, an automatic hair detection algorithm for the application of automatic synthesis of facial caricature based on a single image is proposed. Firstly, hair regions in training images are labeled manually and then the hair position prior distributions and hair color likelihood distribution function are estimated from these labels efficiently. Secondly, the energy function of the test image is constructed according to the estimated prior distributions of hair location and hair color likelihood. This energy function is further optimized according to graph cuts technique and initial hair region is obtained. Finally, K-means algorithm and image postprocessing techniques are applied to the initial hair region so that the final hair region can be segmented precisely. Experimental results show that the average processing time for each image is about 280 ms and the average hair region detection accuracy is above 90%. The proposed algorithm is applied to a facial caricature synthesis system. Experiments proved that with our proposed hair segmentation algorithm the facial caricatures are vivid and satisfying.

  3. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  4. Hair cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the ′lift′ of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today′s rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and ′natural′ hair products.

  5. Ingrown Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrown hair Overview An ingrown hair occurs when a shaved or tweezed hair grows back into the skin. It can cause inflammation, pain and tiny bumps in the area where the hair was removed. Ingrown hair is a common condition ...

  6. Number, position, diameter and initial direction of growth of primary roots in Musa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Francois; Vaucelle, Aurelien; Pages, Loic; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry

    2002-07-01

    To understand soil colonization by a root system, information is needed on the architecture of the root system. In monocotyledons, soil exploration is mainly due to the growth of adventitious primary roots. Primary root emergence in banana was quantified in relation to shoot and corm development. Root emergence kinetics were closely related to the development of aerial organs. Root position at emergence on the corm followed an asymptotic function of corm dry weight, so that the age of each root at a given time could be deduced from its position. Root diameter at emergence was related to the position of the roots on the corm, with younger roots being thicker than older ones. However, root diameters were not constant along a given root, but instead decreased with the distance to the base; roots appear to be conical in their basal and apical parts. Root growth directions at emergence were variable, but a high proportion of the primary roots emerged with a low angle to the horizontal. Further research is needed to evaluate whether these initial trajectories are conserved during root development. Results presented in this study are in good agreement with those reported for other monocotyledons such as maize and rice. They give quantitative information that will facilitate the development of models of root system architecture in banana.

  7. Hair Cortisol in Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rietschel, Liz; Streit, Fabian; Zhu, Gu

    2017-01-01

    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a promising measure of long-term hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Previous research has suggested an association between HCC and psychological variables, and initial studies of inter-individual variance in HCC have implicated genetic factors...

  8. Tachyon hair on two-dimensional black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peet, A.; Susskind, L.; Thorlacius, L.

    1993-01-01

    Static black holes in two-dimensional string theory can carry tachyon hair. Configurations which are nonsingular at the event horizon have a nonvanishing asymptotic energy density. Such solutions can be smoothly extended through the event horizon and have a nonvanishing energy flux emerging from the past singularity. Dynamical processes will not change the amount of tachyon hair on a black hole. In particular, there will be no tachyon hair on a black hole formed in gravitational collapse if the initial geometry is the linear dilaton vacuum. There also exist static solutions with a finite total energy, which have singular event horizons. Simple dynamical arguments suggest that black holes formed in gravitational collapse will not have tachyon hair of this type

  9. Root growth of tomato seedlings intensified by humic substances from peat bogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Christofaro Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Peats are an important reserve of humified carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. The interest in the use of humic substances as plant growth promoters is continuously increasing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of alkaline soluble humic substances (HS, humic (HA and fulvic acids (FA isolated from peats with different decomposition stages of organic matter (sapric, fibric and hemic in the Serra do Espinhaço Meridional, state of Minas Gerais. Dose-response curves were established for the number of lateral roots growing from the main plant axis of tomato seedlings. The bioactivity of HA was greatest (highest response in lateral roots at lowest concentration while FA did not intensify root growth. Both HS and HA stimulated root hair formation. At low concentrations, HS and HA induced root hair formation near the root cap, a typical hormonal imbalance effect in plants. Transgenic tomato with reporter gene DR5::GUS allowed the observation that the auxin-related signalling pathway was involved in root growth promotion by HA.

  10. Nutrition of women with hair loss problem during the period of menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Sabina Goluch-Koniuszy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the period of menopause as an effect of changes in hormone status, one of the most common ailments for women is hair loss. Taking into consideration fact that the ingredients of diet contained in various groups of consumed food products are both precursors in steroid hormones synthesis as well as have direct impact on structure, growth and keeping hair in skin integument, this is the reason why nourishing support for women during this period of life as well as during the hair loss therapy is reasonable. Standard value proteins containing Sulphur amino-acids: cysteine and methionine as precursor to keratin hair protein synthesis are basic element of diet conditioning of hair building. Irreplaceable having impact on keeping hair in skin integument is exogenous L-lysine, mainly present in the inner part of hair root is responsible for hair shape and volume. Fats present in the diet take part in steroid hormones synthesis (from cholesterol thus have influence on keeping hair in skin integument. Women diet should contain products rich in complex carbohydrates, with low glycemic index and load containing fiber regulating carbohydrate-lipid metabolism of the body. Vitamins also have impact on the state of hair: C vitamin, group B and A vitamins. Minerals which influence hair growth are: Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Si, Mg and Ca. It is worthwhile to pay closer attention to diet in women who besides hormone changes and undertaken pharmacotherapy are additionally exposed to chronic stress and improperly conducted cosmetic’s and hairdresser’s treatments.

  11. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Skin Experts Skin Treatments Hair Transplants Share » HAIR TRANSPLANTS Before (left) and after (right) - front of ... transplant. Photo courtesy of N. Sadick What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ...

  12. From Hair in India to Hair India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.

  13. Limitations of the scalp-hair biologic monitor in assessing selenium status in epidemiological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.S.; Spate, V.L.; Crane, S.B.; Alejandra Gudino

    2012-01-01

    Scalp hair is routinely used to assess exposure to toxic trace elements and nutritional status of some required trace elements. The advantages and disadvantages of hair as a biologic monitor have been comprehensively discussed in the literature for many years. Among the concerns is distinguishing between exogenous and endogenous contributions. Nested in this issue is the longitudinal distribution of a trace element along the hair strand. The typical observation for many elements of interest is that the element concentration increases from the root end to the distal end; and this is attributed to continuing contamination from exogenous sources. In this study we used neutron activation analysis to measure 14 trace elements in 6 mm segments of full-length scalp hair from three healthy members of the same household having light-urban environmental exposure. To extend the data set for selenium, we included three adult female subjects with longer than average scalp hair. From these trace-element concentrations we calculated the root-to-distal end ratios as a profile diagnostic of trace-element distributions. Ratios fall into three diagnostic categories, >1, ∼1, and 1, Zn and S have R ∼ 1, and the remaining 11 elements all have R I > Hg ∼ Au ∼ Mg ∼ Mn ∼ Sb ∼ Ca > Cu > Al ∼ Ag. R Se is greater than 1 and increases with hair length (P 0.02) corresponding to a continuous longitudinal loss of Se in stark and puzzling contrast to the other elements measured. An analogous loss of Se in the nail monitor was not observed leading us to conclude that the nail is less prone to misclassification of selenium status in epidemiological studies. (author)

  14. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Removal KidsHealth / For Teens / Hair Removal What's in ... you need any of them? Different Types of Hair Before removing hair, it helps to know about ...

  15. Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Hair KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Hair What's in this ... eyes from sweat dripping down from your forehead. Hair Comes From Where? Whether hair is growing out ...

  16. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  17. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  18. Tarantula Hairs as Corneal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Stagg

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of tarantula hairs found in the cornea and discuss treatment. Case Report: A 16-year-old male presented with a 6-week history of right ocular irritation that began after letting his pet tarantula crawl on his face. Slit-lamp examination of the right eye revealed the presence of approximately 16 dark foreign bodies that had the appearance of small hairs. The foreign bodies were removed from the nasal region of the right cornea using Jewelers forceps, and the patient was prescribed a combination neomycin, polymyxin B, and dexamethasone ointment (Maxitrol®, given 4 times per day. Results: The patient presented for follow-up 2 weeks later, with resolution of symptoms. Conclusion: Effective treatment of keratitis caused by tarantula hairs includes taking a detailed history, conducting a careful slit-lamp examination, removal of any accessible hairs, and initiation of treatment with a topical steroid as determined by the clinical picture.

  19. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  20. The Changes of Gene Expression on Human Hair during Long-Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masahiro; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Higashibata, Akira; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Sudoh, Masamichi; Minamisawa, Susumu

    Hair has many advantages as the experimental sample. In a hair follicle, hair matrix cells actively divide and these active changes sensitively reflect physical condition on human body. The hair shaft records the metabolic conditions of mineral elements in our body. From human hairs, we can detect physiological informations about the human health. Therefore, we focused on using hair root analysis to understand the effects of spaceflight on astronauts. In 2009, we started a research program focusing on the analysis of astronauts’ hairs to examine the effects of long-term spaceflight on the gene expression in the human body. We want to get basic information to invent the effectivly diagnostic methods to detect the health situations of astronauts during space flight by analyzing human hair. We extracted RNA form the collected samples. Then, these extracted RNA was amplified. Amplified RNA was processed and hybridized to the Whole Human Genome (4×44K) Oligo Microarray (Agilent Technologies) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Slide scanning was performed using the Agilent DNA Microarray Scanner. Scanning data were normalized with Agilent’s Feature Extraction software. Data preprocessing and analysis were performed using GeneSpring software 11.0.1. Next, Synthesis of cDNA (1 mg) was carried out using the PrimeScript RT reagent Kit (TaKaRa Bio) following the manufacturer’s instructions. The qRT-PCR experiment was performed with SYBR Premix Ex Taq (TaKaRa Bio) using the 7500 Real-Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems). We detected the changes of some gene expressions during spaceflight from both microarray and qRT-PCR data. These genes seems to be related with the hair proliferation. We believe that these results will lead to the discovery of the important factor effected during space flight on the hair.

  1. Rhizobial infection in Adesmia bicolor (Fabaceae) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Luciana

    2014-09-01

    The native legume Adesmia bicolor shows nitrogen fixation efficiency via symbiosis with soil rhizobia. The infection mechanism by means of which rhizobia infect their roots has not been fully elucidated to date. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to identify the infection mechanism in Adesmia bicolor roots. To this end, inoculated roots were processed following conventional methods as part of our root anatomy study, and the shape and distribution of root nodules were analyzed as well. Neither root hairs nor infection threads were observed in the root system, whereas infection sites-later forming nodules-were observed in the longitudinal sections. Nodules were found to form between the main root and the lateral roots. It can be concluded that in Adesmia bicolor, a bacterial crack entry infection mechanism prevails and that such mechanism could be an adaptive strategy of this species which is typical of arid environments.

  2. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  3. Fluorine-induced apoptosis and lipid peroxidation in human hair follicles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-hui; Li, Xiao-li; Yang, Zhuang-qun; Xu, Min

    2010-12-01

    Fluoride is an essential trace element for human body; however, exposure to high amounts of fluoride has been documented to be correlated with an increasing risk of hair loss. To date, little is known about the mechanism(s) of how fluoride affects hair follicles. Here, we demonstrated that middle (1.0 mmol/L) and high (10.0 mmol/L) concentrations of sodium fluoride (NaF) significantly inhibited hair follicle elongation in vitro, but low NaF (0.1 mmol/L) showed little influence. Moreover, treatment with high levels of NaF resulted in a marked increase in terminal dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells in the outer layer of the outer root sheath, the dermal sheath, and the lower bulb matrix surrounding dermal papilla. Furthermore, the enhanced apoptosis was coupled with an increased oxidative stress manifested as higher malondialdehyde content. Additionally, the presence of selenium considerably antagonized the effects of middle NaF on hair follicles, with regard to either the suppression of hair growth or the induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis. In conclusion, exposure to high levels of fluoride compromises hair follicle growth and accelerate cell apoptosis in vitro. The toxicity of fluoride can be reduced by selenium, at least partially via the suppression of intracellular oxidative stress.

  4. Inference of the Genetic Network Regulating Lateral Root Initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Muraro, D.

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression is crucial for organism growth, and it is one of the challenges in systems biology to reconstruct the underlying regulatory biological networks from transcriptomic data. The formation of lateral roots in Arabidopsis thaliana is stimulated by a cascade of regulators of which only the interactions of its initial elements have been identified. Using simulated gene expression data with known network topology, we compare the performance of inference algorithms, based on different approaches, for which ready-to-use software is available. We show that their performance improves with the network size and the inclusion of mutants. We then analyze two sets of genes, whose activity is likely to be relevant to lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis, and assess causality of their regulatory interactions by integrating sequence analysis with the intersection of the results of the best performing methods on time series and mutants. The methods applied capture known interactions between genes that are candidate regulators at early stages of development. The network inferred from genes significantly expressed during lateral root formation exhibits distinct scale free, small world and hierarchical properties and the nodes with a high out-degree may warrant further investigation. © 2004-2012 IEEE.

  5. Hair loss and hair-pulling in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Corrine K; Coleman, Kristine; Worlein, Julie; Novak, Melinda A

    2013-07-01

    Alopecia is a common problem in rhesus macaque colonies. A possible cause of this condition is hair-pulling; however the true relationship between hair-pulling and alopecia is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hair loss and hair-pulling in 1258 rhesus macaques housed in 4 primate colonies across the United States. Alopecia levels ranged from 34.3% to 86.5% (mean, 49.3%) at the primate facilities. At facilities reporting a sex-associated difference, more female macaques were reported to exhibit alopecia than were males. In contrast, more males were reported to hair-pull. Animals reported to hair-pull were significantly more likely to have some amount of alopecia, but rates of hair-pulling were substantially lower than rates of alopecia, ranging from 0.6% to 20.5% (mean, 7.7%) of the populations. These results further demonstrate that hair-pulling plays only a small role in alopecia in rhesus macaques.

  6. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is why some people with eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia lose their hair: The body isn't getting enough protein, vitamins, and minerals to support hair growth. Some teens who are vegetarians also lose their hair if ...

  7. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  8. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Hair loss Overview Hereditary hair loss: Millions of men ... of hair loss can often be successfully treated. Hair loss: Overview Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE- ...

  9. Parietal scalp is another affected area in female pattern hair loss: an analysis of hair density and hair diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojhirunsakool S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinee Rojhirunsakool, Poonkiat Suchonwanit Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common hair disease. However, studies of the quantitative measurement of FPHL are still limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of hair density and hair diameter in normal women and FPHL patients, and further correlate the quantitative measurement with the clinical presentation of FPHL.Patients and methods: An evaluation of 471 FPHL patients and 236 normal women was carried out according to the Ludwig classification, and analysis was performed by using a computerized handheld USB camera with computer-assisted software. Various areas of the scalp, including frontal, parietal, midscalp, and occipital, were analyzed for hair density, non-vellus hair diameter, and percentage of miniaturized hair.Results: The hair density in normal women was the highest and the lowest in the midscalp and parietal areas, respectively. The FPHL group revealed the lowest hair density in the parietal area. Significant differences in hair density, non-vellus hair diameter, and percentage of miniaturized hair between the normal and FPHL groups were observed, especially in the midscalp and parietal areas.Conclusion: The parietal area is another important affected area in FPHL in addition to the midscalp area. This finding provides novel important information of FPHL and will be useful for hair transplant surgeons choosing the optimal donor sites for hair transplantation in women. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, alopecia, phototrichogram, miniaturization

  10. Apical root resorption 6 months after initiation of fixed orthodontic appliance therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smale, I.M.; Artun, J.; Behbehani, F.; Doppel, D.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Individual predisposition might be a major reason for the observed variation in apical orthodontic root resorption. If so, resorption might be expressed during the initial stages of orthodontic therapy in patients at risk. METHODS: To explore this hypothesis, we evaluated standardized,

  11. Hair cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Madnani; Kaleem Khan

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dr...

  12. A Hairy Situation: Laser Hair Removal after Oral Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Bridget E; Moye, Molly S; Bayon, Rodrigo; Sperry, Steven M; Wanat, Karolyn A

    2018-03-01

    To present a case series of 4 patients who underwent postoperative hair removal using the long-pulsed Alexandrite or Nd:YAG laser following intraoral cutaneous flap reconstruction. Patients underwent epilation in dermatology clinic with long-pulsed Alexandrite or Nd:YAG lasers, spaced 8 weeks apart, until hair removal was achieved. All patients achieved improvement in hair removal regardless of initial flap donor site with significant improvement in quality of life and minimal side effects. The long-pulsed Alexandrite and Nd:YAG represent safe and effective treatment options to improve patient quality of life following intraoral flap repair following excision of malignancy.

  13. Hair Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cani , Marie-Paule; Bertails , Florence

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Processing interactions is one of the main challenges in hair animation. Indeed, in addition to the collisions with the body, an extremely large number of contacts with high friction rates are permanently taking place between individual hair strands. Simulating the latter is essential: without hair self-interactions, strands would cross each other during motion or come to rest at the same location, yielding unrealistic behavior and a visible lack of hair volume. This c...

  14. Tractography of lumbar nerve roots: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbi, Vincent; Budzik, Jean-Francois; Thuc, Vianney le; Cotten, Anne [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service de Radiologie et d' Imagerie musculo-squelettique, Lille Cedex (France); Duhamel, Alain [Universite de Lille 2, UDSL, Lille (France); Bera-Louville, Anne [Service de Rhumatologie, Hopital Roger Salengro, Lille (France)

    2011-06-15

    The aims of this preliminary study were to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fibre tracking (FT) of the lumbar nerve roots, and to assess potential differences in the DTI parameters of the lumbar nerves between healthy volunteers and patients suffering from disc herniation. Nineteen patients with unilateral sciatica related to posterolateral or foraminal disc herniation and 19 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. DTI with tractography of the L5 or S1 nerves was performed. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were calculated from tractography images. FA and MD values could be obtained from DTI-FT images in all controls and patients. The mean FA value of the compressed lumbar nerve roots was significantly lower than the FA of the contralateral nerve roots (p=0.0001) and of the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.0001). MD was significantly higher in compressed nerve roots than in the contralateral nerve root (p=0.0002) and in the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.04). DTI with tractography of the lumbar nerves is possible. Significant changes in diffusion parameters were found in the compressed lumbar nerves. (orig.)

  15. Tractography of lumbar nerve roots: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbi, Vincent; Budzik, Jean-Francois; Thuc, Vianney le; Cotten, Anne; Duhamel, Alain; Bera-Louville, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this preliminary study were to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fibre tracking (FT) of the lumbar nerve roots, and to assess potential differences in the DTI parameters of the lumbar nerves between healthy volunteers and patients suffering from disc herniation. Nineteen patients with unilateral sciatica related to posterolateral or foraminal disc herniation and 19 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. DTI with tractography of the L5 or S1 nerves was performed. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were calculated from tractography images. FA and MD values could be obtained from DTI-FT images in all controls and patients. The mean FA value of the compressed lumbar nerve roots was significantly lower than the FA of the contralateral nerve roots (p=0.0001) and of the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.0001). MD was significantly higher in compressed nerve roots than in the contralateral nerve root (p=0.0002) and in the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.04). DTI with tractography of the lumbar nerves is possible. Significant changes in diffusion parameters were found in the compressed lumbar nerves. (orig.)

  16. A precise automatic system for the hair assessment in hair-care diagnosis applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, H

    2015-11-01

    One emerging subject in medical image processing is to quantitatively assess the health and the properties of cranial hairs, including density, diameter, length, level of oiliness, and others. This information helps hair specialists with making a more accurate diagnosis and the therapy required. We develop a practical hair counting algorithm. This analytic system calculates the number of hairs on a scalp using a digital microscope camera, providing accurate information for both the hair specialist and the patient. Our proposed hair counting algorithm is substantially more accurate than the Hough-based one, and is robust to curls, oily scalp, noise-corruption, and overlapping hairs, under various levels of illumination. Rather than manually counting the hairs on a person's scalp, the proposed system determines the density, diameter, length, and level of oiliness of the hairs. We propose an automated system for counting the amount of hairs in the microscopy images. To reduce the effect of bright spots, we develop a robust morphological algorithm for color to smooth out the color and preserve the fidelity of the hair. Then, we utilize a modified Hough transform algorithm to detect the different hair lengths and to reduce any false detection due to noise. Our proposed system enables us to look at curved hairs as multiple pieces of straight lines. To avoid missing hairs when the thinning process is applied, we use edge information to discover any hidden or overlapping hairs. Finally, we employ a mutually associative regression method to label a group of line segments into a meaningful 'hair'. We demonstrated a novel approach for accurately computing the number of hairs, and successfully solved the three main obstacles in automated hair counting, including (i) oily and moist hairs, (ii) wavy and curly hairs, and (iii) under-estimation of the number of hairs occurs when hairs cross and occlude each other. The framework of this paper can be seen as the first step toward

  17. Role of peptide growth factors in the rhythm of change hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kubanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents current data on the role growth factors play in hair physiology. Based on a review of literature, the authors described the role growth factors play for initiating, suppressing the growth and differentiating hair follicles. According to them, each morphologic development stage of hair follicles is characterized by its own factor expression pattern. Referring to experimental and clinical studies, the authors describe the role some growth factors play for mechanisms promoting the development of androgynous and focal alopecia.

  18. Hair Loss Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarco, Gabriella; McMichael, Amy

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hair loss is a common complaint seen in dermatology clinics. From frustration and attempts at self-help, patients with hair loss may present to the dermatologist with false beliefs, or myths, about the causes of their condition and what treatments are effective. METHODS: We identified 12 common myths about hair loss, categorized as myths about minoxidil treatment, vitamin and mineral supplements, natural topical treatments, and hair care practices. We performed a PubMed search to find evidence to support or refute each myth. RESULTS: We found that there is little evidence to support many of these common hair loss myths. In some cases, randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of particular therapies and point to the effectiveness of certain hair loss treatments. DISCUSSION: In many cases, there have not been sufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of different therapies and hair care practices on hair loss. It is best to guide patients toward treatments with a long track record of efficacy and away from those where little is known scientifically. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):690-694..

  19. Ethnic hair care products may increase false positives in hair drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, David A; Smith, Frederick P; Shepherd, Arica R

    2015-12-01

    The question of why different races appear more susceptible to hair contamination by external drugs remains controversial. This research studied susceptibility of head hair to external cocaine and methamphetamine when hair products have been applied. Three different chemical classes of ethnic hair products were applied to Caucasian, Asian, and African hair. Some products increased the methamphetamine and cocaine concentrations in all hair types. A unique finding of this research is that certain ethnic hair products can replace moisture as a diffusion medium, thereby increasing the susceptibility to contamination over 100-fold compared to petroleum-based products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Hormones and hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  1. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  2. Resolution of methylphenidate osmotic release oral system-induced hair loss in two siblings after dose escalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardic, Ulku Akyol; Ercan, Eyup Sabri

    2017-11-01

    This report describes the cases of two siblings who experienced hair loss after treatment with methylphenidate (MPH) osmotic release oral system (OROS). Hair loss was resolved after discontinuation of the drug, but the children re-initiated treatment, after which hair loss again occurred, but they continued the treatment. After dose escalation, the hair loss resolved. This is the first report to describe resolution of OROS-MPH-induced hair loss after dose escalation. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Hair and bare skin discrimination for laser-assisted hair removal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayir, Sercan; Yetik, Imam Samil

    2017-07-01

    Laser-assisted hair removal devices aim to remove body hair permanently. In most cases, these devices irradiate the whole area of the skin with a homogenous power density. Thus, a significant portion of the skin, where hair is not present, is burnt unnecessarily causing health risks. Therefore, methods that can distinguish hair regions automatically would be very helpful avoiding these unnecessary applications of laser. This study proposes a new system of algorithms to detect hair regions with the help of a digital camera. Unlike previous limited number of studies, our methods are very fast allowing for real-time application. Proposed methods are based on certain features derived from histograms of hair and skin regions. We compare our algorithm with competing methods in terms of localization performance and computation time and show that a much faster real-time accurate localization of hair regions is possible with the proposed method. Our results show that the algorithm we have developed is extremely fast (around 45 milliseconds) allowing for real-time application with high accuracy hair localization ( 96.48 %).

  4. Endophytic colonization of plant roots by nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocking, Edward C.

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are able to enter into roots from the rhizosphere, particularly at the base of emerging lateral roots, between epidermal cells and through root hairs. In the rhizosphere growing root hairs play an important role in symbiotic recognition in legume crops. Nodulated legumes in endosymbiosis with rhizobia are amongst the most prominent nitrogen-fixing systems in agriculture. The inoculation of non-legumes, especially cereals, with various non-rhizobial diazotrophic bacteria has been undertaken with the expectation that they would establish themselves intercellularly within the root system, fixing nitrogen endophytic ally and providing combined nitrogen for enhanced crop production. However, in most instances bacteria colonize only the surface of the roots and remain vulnerable to competition from other rhizosphere micro-organisms, even when the nitrogen-fixing bacteria are endophytic, benefits to the plant may result from better uptake of soil nutrients rather than from endophytic nitrogen fixation. Azorhizobium caulinodans is known to enter the root system of cereals, other nonlegume crops and Arabidopsis, by intercellular invasion between epidermal cells and to internally colonize the plant intercellularly, including the xylem. This raises the possibility that xylem colonization might provide a nonnodular niche for endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation in rice, wheat, maize, sorghum and other non-legume crops. A particularly interesting, naturally occurring, non-qodular xylem colonising endophytic diazotrophic interaction with evidence for endophytic nitrogen fixation is that of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane. Could this beneficial endophytic colonization of sugarcane by G. diazotrophicus be extended to other members of the Gramineae, including the major cereals, and to other major non-legume crops of the World? (author)

  5. Hertwig’s Epithelial Root Sheath Fate during Initial Cellular Cementogenesis in Rat Molars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki; Yamada, Tamaki; Yamamoto, Tomomaya; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Hongo, Hiromi; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the fate of the epithelial root sheath during initial cellular cementogenesis, we examined developing maxillary first molars of rats by immunohistochemistry for keratin, vimentin, and tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP) and by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). The advancing root end was divided into three sections, which follow three distinct stages of initial cellular cementogenesis: section 1, where the epithelial sheath is intact; section 2, where the epithelial sheath becomes fragmented; and section 3, where initial cellular cementogenesis begins. After fragmentation of the epithelial sheath, many keratin-positive epithelial sheath cells were embedded in the rapidly growing cellular cementum. A few unembedded epithelial cells located on the cementum surface. Dental follicle cells, precementoblasts, and cementoblasts showed immunoreactivity for vimentin and TNALP. In all three sections, there were virtually no cells possessing double immunoreactivity for vimentin-keratin or TNALP-keratin and only embedded epithelial cells showed TUNEL reactivity. Taken together, these findings suggest that: (1) epithelial sheath cells divide into two groups; one group is embedded in the cementum and thereafter dies by apoptosis, and the other survives on the cementum surface as epithelial cell rests of Malassez; and (2) epithelial sheath cells do not undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition during initial cellular cementogenesis

  6. Perception of Hair Transplant for Androgenetic Alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bater, Kristin L; Ishii, Masaru; Joseph, Andrew; Su, Peiyi; Nellis, Jason; Ishii, Lisa E

    2016-12-01

    Hair transplant is among the most common cosmetic services sought by men, with more than 11 000 procedures performed in 2014. Despite its growing popularity, the effect of hair transplant on societal perceptions of youth, attractiveness, or facets of workplace and social success is unknown. To determine whether hair transplant improves observer ratings of age, attractiveness, successfulness, and approachability in men treated for androgenetic alopecia and to quantify the effect of hair transplant on each of these domains. A randomized controlled experiment was conducted from November 10 to December 6, 2015, using web-based surveys featuring photographs of men before and after hair transplant. One hundred twenty-two participants recruited through various social media platforms successfully completed the survey. Observers were shown 2 side-by-side images of each man and asked to compare the image on the left with the one on the right. Of 13 pairs of images displayed, 7 men had undergone a hair transplant procedure and 6 had served as controls. Observers evaluated each photograph using various metrics, including age, attractiveness, successfulness, and approachability. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed to understand the effect of hair transplant on observer perceptions. Planned posthypothesis testing was used to identify which variables changed significantly as a result of the transplant. Observer ratings of age (in number of years younger) and attractiveness, successfulness, and approachability (on a scale of 0 to 100; scores higher than 50 indicate a positive change). Of the 122 participants in the survey, 58 were men (47.5%); mean (range) age was 27.1 (18-52) years. The initial multivariate analysis of variance revealed a statistically significant multivariate effect for transplant (Wilks λ = 0.9646; P hair transplant on observers' perceptions of age (mean [SD] number of years younger, 3.6 [2.9] years; P hair transplant. Participants also

  7. Effect of water deficiency on anatomical structure of codex in root hair zone of maize root tip%水分亏缺对玉米根毛区皮层解剖结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于涛; 李万春; 汪李宏; 岳文俊; 马旭凤; 姚雅琴; 张富仓

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】 The research was to study the effect of water deficiency on anatomical structure of codex in maize root hair zone for drought resistance mechanism.【Method】 Taking Gaonong 901 maize which has certain drought resistance in a pot experiment as four groups named control,light deficiency,moderate deficiency,severe deficiency with water treatments:75%-85% of field capacity(CK),65%-75% of field capacity(LS),55%-65% of field capacity(MS),and 45%-55% of field capacity(SS).Tissues of roots which were 10 cm distance from root tips prepared emgedded in epoxy resins were cut into half thin section for optical microscope.With green and the counterstain safranin,armour aniline blue and fluorescent dyes,the changes of cortical cell and casparian band were found through observation under Olympus BX51 microscope and calculation by image pro plus 6.0.【Result】 With increasing water deficiency,codex parenchyma cells were irregularly arranged and width of codex in root hair zone of maize seedling and jointing got thinner.Both in seedling and jointing stage,the length of endodermis in root hair zone decreased unconspicuously,and the width of endodermis changed obviously.Comparatively,the endodermis in seedling changed more obviously than that in jointing,which caused by mature casparian band enhanced mechanical strength of endodermis.Fluorescence observations showed that casparian band of axial walls of endodermis thickened on seedling stage with light deficiency.Both axial and inner tangential walls of casparian band of endodermis thickened more obviously at jointing stage with light and moderate deficiency.Endodermis which had less modified structure deformated obviously with severe deficiency.【Conclusion】 The structure of codex in root hair zone of maize at seedling was more sensitive than at jointing with water deficiency.The tolerance of roots to proper water deficit may be increased by changes such as width of codex and ligno

  8. Temporal diet changes recorded by stable isotopes in Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, R N; Goto, M; Izumiyama, S; Yoh, M; Ogura, N; Hayashi, H

    2005-03-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were measured in hair samples of the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) inhabiting the Northern Japanese Alps (NJA) (n = 20) and the periphery of Nagano City (NC) (n = 6), in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. The hair of NJA bears, which did not have access to anthropogenic foods, showed lower values of d13C and d15N than that of NC bears which had access to garbage and corn fields, especially during the summer. These results reflect somewhat differing diets between the NJA and NC bears. We attempted to assess the feeding history during the hair growth cycle using the growth section analysis method. Each hair sample had been cut into 3?mm lengths from root to tip, labeled, and analyzed along the hair growth. We measured the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of each 3?mm length of hair sample from one NC bear which had been killed while raiding a corn field. The sections showed wide ranges of isotope ratios, from -23.2% to -14.6% for delta13C, and from 0.3% to 4.6% for delta15N. It was shown that the diet of this bear shifted dramatically from principally C3 plants to more C4 plants and to foods of animal origin. An analysis of the whole hair reflects just the average feeding habit during hair growth, but the present method can trace its diet history. This method can contribute to obtain precise ecological information of wildlife.

  9. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania) No. 96; Reviewed July 2013 It ... for children and adolescents to play with their hair. However, frequent or obsessive hair pulling can lead ...

  10. A Study on Scalp Hair Health and Hair Care Practices among Malaysian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B Satheesha; Ann, Chua Yuet; Azhar, Azeldeen Bin; Ling, Emily Chan Su; Yen, Wong Hui; Aithal, P Ashwini

    2017-01-01

    Scalp care is essential because it determines the health and condition of the hair and prevents the diseases of scalp and hair. The objectives of our study were to correlate race and hair types, to determine the awareness of hair care among Malaysian medical students, and to distinguish the factors that affect the health of hair and scalp. It was a cross-sectional study wherein validated questionnaires were given to 240 medical undergraduate students who belonged to three ethnic races of Malaysia, i.e., Chinese, Malay, and Malaysian Indians after their informed consent. The results were then analyzed using percentage statistics. Chinese students had comparatively healthier scalp without dandruff. Most Chinese and Indians had silky type of hair while Malay had dry, rough hair. Chinese and Indians colored their hair and used various styling methods; while among the Malays, this percentage was very less. Regarding hair care practices, males used only shampoo and females used shampoo and conditioner for hair wash. Students also faced dietary and examination-related stress. Results indicate that there exist morphological differences in hair among the studied population. Since most students color their hair and employ various hairstyling methods, they should be educated regarding best hair care practices to improve their scalp hair condition and health.

  11. Contribution of Root Traits to Phosphorus Acqusition Efficiency by Maize Landraces in Acid Soils of the Highlands in Central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayuelo-Jimenez, J. S.; Hernandez-Bravo, N.; Magdaleno-Armas, M. L.; Perez-Decelis, V. A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Tarimbaro, Michoacan (Mexico); Gallardo-Valdez, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agricolas y Pecuarias,. Campo Experimental Uruapan (Mexico); Ochoa, I. [Unipalma S.A. Bogota D.C. (Colombia); Paredes-Gutierrez, L. C. [Centro Nuclear Dr. Nabor Carrillo Flores, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Municipio de Ocoyoacac, Salazar (Mexico); Lynch, J. P. [Department of Horticulture, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Plants have a wide range of mechanisms and morphological features that increase availability and acquisition of orthophosphate from soil. Root growth, root branching, and root hair morphology are important for the efficient acquisition of phosphorus (P). The series of studies reported here was based on the hypothesis that Mexican maize landraces, which have developed mostly in environments with low P availability and have a well-developed root system, could be a source of variation for the improvement of phosphorus acquisition. Several studies were conducted to evaluate genotypic variation in both root (root architecture and morphology, including root hairs) and plant growth traits associated with P acquisition efficiency (PAE) and/or P utilization efficiency (PUE) of maize landraces in a P-deficient Andisol in the Central Mexican Highlands, and to identify genotypic differences, among both efficient and inefficient in P acquisition and responsive and non-responsive maize landraces to applied P. The results showed that accessions differed greatly in plant growth, grain yield, root morphology, total uptake of P, PAE, PUE, and P efficiency defined as growth with suboptimal P availability. Phosphorus-efficient accessions had not only greater biomass per unit of absorbed P, but also larger root systems, greater P uptake per unit root weight, more nodal roots, nodal root laterals, and greater root hair density of nodal root main axes and first-order laterals than did Pinefficient accessions under P deficiency. Root biomass allocation, as quantified by the allometric partitioning coefficient (K) was not altered by P availability in the efficient accessions, but inefficient accessions had less biomass partitioning to roots (i.e. a lower K) under low P conditions. Accessions with enhanced nodal rooting and laterals had greater P uptake and growth under low P. Dense root hairs on nodal root main axes and first-order laterals conferred a marked benefit under low P, as

  12. Effect of minoxidil on hair transplantation in alopecia androgenetica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurinderjit

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty patients suffering from androgenetic alopecia were given 3 to 4 sittings of hair transplantation at an interval of 4 to 6 weeks each. Only patients of type III, type III(vertex and type IV baldness were operated. Twenty patients, six of type III, six of type III(vertex and eight of type IV baldness were advised to use minoxidil 2% locally at the recipient area in the dose of 1 ml applied twice daily. Twenty patients of similar types of baldness were advised to just shampoo their hair daily without using topical minoxidil. Percentage of response was compared between the two groups. Minoxidil did not play any role in the percentage of hair survival before and after transplantation in androgenetic alopecia. However in 60percent grafts of patients who had used topical minoxidil, there was no initial postoperative hair shedding.

  13. Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Marcel; van Baar, J.J.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; de Boer, J.H.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy

  14. Detection and closure measurement of short fatigue crack initiated at notch root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-Hyung; Kobayashi, Hideo

    1985-01-01

    Short fatigue cracks initiated at the notch root were successfully detected at a fairly high accuracy by the ultrasonic amplitude calibration method for the notched compact specimens of an A508-3 steel. Crack closure measurements by the ultrasonic and back-face strain compliance methods were also performed. Crack growth characteristics at the notch root are similar to those of delyed retardation caused by a single peak overload. Also, transitional behavior from short cracks to long cracks was interpreted in terms of effective stress intensity ΔKsub(eff). The relation between crack growth rate da/dN and ΔKsub(eff) for short cracks shows a fairly good agreement with those for long cracks. (author)

  15. Hair cosmetics and camouflage technics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahide Eriş Eken

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is composed of a mixture of trace elements in small quantities, proteins, lipids and water. Proteins consist of helical polypeptide amino acid molecules. In the hair cells; polypeptide chains of keratin protein would be organized in filaments. In recent years, hair cosmetics showed a significant change and development. The content of shampoos which is used to cleanse the hair has enhanced significantly. Hair conditioner, hair styling products, pomades, brilliantine, and gloss sprays, hair protective products, camouflage products are most commonly used hair cosmetics. Hair shaping procedures are frequently applied.

  16. Doppler laser imaging predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, J; Kovacevic, M; Situm, M; Stanimirovic, A; Bolanca, Z; Goren, A

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only drug approved by the US FDA for the treatment of female pattern hair loss. Unfortunately, following 16 weeks of daily application, less than 40% of patients regrow hair. Several studies have demonstrated that sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles predicts topical minoxidil response in female pattern hair loss patients. However, due to patients’ discomfort with the procedure, and the time required to perform the enzymatic assay it would be ideal to develop a rapid, non-invasive test for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Minoxidil is a pro-drug converted to its active form, minoxidil sulfate, by sulfotransferase enzymes in the outer root sheath of hair. Minoxidil sulfate is the active form required for both the promotion of hair regrowth and the vasodilatory effects of minoxidil. We thus hypothesized that laser Doppler velocimetry measurement of scalp blood perfusion subsequent to the application of topical minoxidil would correlate with sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles. In this study, plucked hair follicles from female pattern hair loss patients were analyzed for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Additionally, laser Doppler velocimetry was used to measure the change in scalp perfusion at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, after the application of minoxidil. In agreement with our hypothesis, we discovered a correlation (r=1.0) between the change in scalp perfusion within 60 minutes after topical minoxidil application and sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hairs. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the feasibility of using laser Doppler imaging as a rapid, non-invasive diagnostic test to predict topical minoxidil response in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

  17. Hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  18. Chemical Stability Analysis of Hair Cleansing Conditioners under High-Heat Conditions Experienced during Hair Styling Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A. Drechsel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical stability is a key component of ensuring that a cosmetic product is safe for consumer use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical stability of commercially available hair cleansing conditioners subjected to high heat stresses from the styling processes of blow drying or straightening. Two hair cleansing conditioners were subjected to temperatures of 60 °C and 185 °C to simulate the use of a blow dryer or flatiron hair straightener, respectively and analyzed via Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-UV (HPLC and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR to capture a chemical profile of the samples. The resulting spectra from matched heated and unheated samples were compared to identify any changes in chemical composition. Overall, no differences in the spectra were observed between the heated and unheated samples at both temperatures evaluated. Specifically, no new peaks were observed during analysis, indicating that no degradation products were formed. In addition, all chemicals identified during GC-MS analysis were known listed ingredients of the products. In summary, no measurable changes in chemical composition were observed in the hair cleansing conditioner samples under high-heat stress conditions. The presented analytical methods can serve as an initial screening tool to evaluate the chemical stability of a cosmetic product under conditions of anticipated use.

  19. Viking Age Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Arwill-Nordbladh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of hair in the Viking Age. The article draws on medieval Icelandic and Scandinavian texts for interpretation. Further information is taken from pictoral representations of viking hair styles and decoration, hairdressing artefacts, figurines and actual remains of hair.

  20. Hair cell regeneration in the avian auditory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jennifer S; Cotanche, Douglas A

    2007-01-01

    Regeneration of sensory hair cells in the mature avian inner ear was first described just over 20 years ago. Since then, it has been shown that many other non-mammalian species either continually produce new hair cells or regenerate them in response to trauma. However, mammals exhibit limited hair cell regeneration, particularly in the auditory epithelium. In birds and other non-mammals, regenerated hair cells arise from adjacent non-sensory (supporting) cells. Hair cell regeneration was initially described as a proliferative response whereby supporting cells re-enter the mitotic cycle, forming daughter cells that differentiate into either hair cells or supporting cells and thereby restore cytoarchitecture and function in the sensory epithelium. However, further analyses of the avian auditory epithelium (and amphibian vestibular epithelium) revealed a second regenerative mechanism, direct transdifferentiation, during which supporting cells change their gene expression and convert into hair cells without dividing. In the chicken auditory epithelium, these two distinct mechanisms show unique spatial and temporal patterns, suggesting they are differentially regulated. Current efforts are aimed at identifying signals that maintain supporting cells in a quiescent state or direct them to undergo direct transdifferentiation or cell division. Here, we review current knowledge about supporting cell properties and discuss candidate signaling molecules for regulating supporting cell behavior, in quiescence and after damage. While significant advances have been made in understanding regeneration in non-mammals over the last 20 years, we have yet to determine why the mammalian auditory epithelium lacks the ability to regenerate hair cells spontaneously and whether it is even capable of significant regeneration under additional circumstances. The continued study of mechanisms controlling regeneration in the avian auditory epithelium may lead to strategies for inducing

  1. Light and decapitation effects on in vitro rooting in maize root segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golaz, F W; Pilet, P E

    1985-10-01

    The effects of white light and decapitation on the initiation and subsequent emergence and elongation of lateral roots of apical maize (Zea mays L. cv LG 11) root segments have been examined. The formation of lateral root primordium was inhibited by the white light. This inhibition did not depend upon the presence of the primary root tip. However, root decapitation induced a shift of the site of appearance of the most apical primordium towards the root apex, and a strong disturbance of the distribution pattern of primordium volumes along the root axis. White light had a significant effect neither on the distribution pattern of primordium volumes, nor on the period of primordium development (time interval required for the smallest detectable primordia to grow out as secondary roots). Thus, considering the rooting initiation and emergence, the light effect was restricted to the initiation phase only. Moreover, white light reduced lateral root elongation as well as primary root growth.

  2. Hair follicle stem cell proliferation, Akt and Wnt signaling activation in TPA-induced hair regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Weiming; Lei, Mingxing; Zhou, Ling; Bai, Xiufeng; Lai, Xiangdong; Yu, Yu; Yang, Tian; Lian, Xiaohua

    2017-06-01

    Regeneration of hair follicles relies on activation of hair follicle stem cells during telogen to anagen transition process in hair cycle. This process is rigorously controlled by intrinsic and environmental factors. 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a tumor promoter, accelerates reentry of hair follicles into anagen phase. However, it is unclear that how TPA promotes the hair regeneration. In the present study, we topically applied TPA onto the dorsal skin of 2-month-old C57BL/6 female mice to examine the activity of hair follicle stem cells and alteration of signaling pathways during hair regeneration. We found that refractory telogen hair follicles entered anagen prematurely after TPA treatment, with the enhanced proliferation of CD34-positive hair follicle stem cells. Meanwhile, we observed Akt signaling was activated in epidermis, hair infundibulum, bulge and hair bulb, and Wnt signaling was also activated after hair follicle stem cells proliferation. Importantly, after overexpression of DKK1, a specific Wnt signaling inhibitor, the accelerated reentry of hair follicles into anagen induced by TPA was abolished. Our data indicated that TPA-induced hair follicle regeneration is associated with activation of Akt and Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  3. Organic components in hair-ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Diana; Steffen, Bernhard; Disko, Ulrich; Wagner, Gerhard; Mätzler, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Hair-ice is a rather unknown phenomenon. In contrast to generally known frost needles, originating from atmospheric water and expanding e.g. from plant surfaces in all directions, hair ice grows from the basis of wet, rotten hardwood. The hair-like, flexible, linear structures may reach up to 10 cm in length without any ramifications. Hair-ice appears to be related to the biological activity of a fungus mycelium within the wood. Hair-ice can attract winter-active Collemboles (snow flea, Isotoma nivalis). At the onset of hair-ice melt a very thin fibre becomes apparent, which carries brownish pearl-like water drops. Therefore, it is supposed that organic substances are inherent, which could possibly act as freezing catalyst as well as recrystallization inhibitor. The aim of this work was the chemical characterization of organic substances contained in hair-ice. First analyses of melted hair-ice show a total organic carbon (TOC) value of 235 mg/l in contrast to 11 mg/l total nitrogen. Most of inherent nitrogen (70 %) exists thereby as ammonium. Screened by different (mass spectrometric) methods, no evidence could be found for the initially expected organic substances like proteins, lipids, small volatile substances or carboxylic acids. By coupling of Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with a triple quadrupol mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS) a non-resolved chromatogram from a melted hair-ice sample was received. Averaged spectra from different regions are similar among themselves with a broad peak spreading over the mass range 100-650 Da with favored intense, odd-numbered peaks. Such spectra are similar to dissolved organic matter (DOM), known e.g. from terrestrial and marine waters, soil extracts or aerosols. In the next step, samples were desalted and concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequently analyzed by flow injection analysis (FIA) in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T

  4. Hair loss in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Romero, J A; Grimalt, R

    2014-02-01

    Hair diseases represent a significant portion of cases seen by pediatric dermatologists although hair has always been a secondary aspect in pediatricians and dermatologists training, on the erroneous basis that there is not much information extractable from it. Dermatologists are in the enviable situation of being able to study many disorders with simple diagnostic techniques. The hair is easily accessible to examination but, paradoxically, this approach is often disregarded by non-dermatologist. This paper has been written on the purpose of trying to serve in the diagnostic process of daily practice, and trying to help, for example, to distinguish between certain acquired and some genetically determined hair diseases. We will focus on all the data that can be obtained from our patients' hair and try to help on using the messages given by hair for each patient. Quite often it is extremely hard to distinguish between abnormality and normality in neonatal hair aspects. We will specially focus in the most common physiological changes that may mislead to an incorrect diagnosis. Specific treatment for those hair diseases that do have one, and basic general approach to improve the cosmetic appearance of hair, will be also be discussed for those hair disturbances that do not have a specific treatment.

  5. Localization of the CAPRICE-ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 chimera protein in Arabidopsis root epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Kurata, Tetsuya; Wada, Takuji

    2017-09-01

    The CAPRICE (CPC) encodes an R3-type MYB transcription factor, which promotes root-hair differentiation. Previously, we showed that the CPC protein moves from the non-hair cell to the neighboring cell and induces root-hair differentiation in Arabidopsis. In addition, we proposed two cell-to-cell movement signal sequences, S1 and S2, in CPC. However, an S1:2xGFP:S2 chimera protein did not move between root epidermal cells. Here, we show that the S1 and S2 sequences do not confer cell-to-cell movement or nuclear localization ability to a GFP protein. The ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1) gene encodes the CPC homolog R3 MYB; this protein does not possess cell-to-cell movement ability or the S1 sequence. To elucidate whether the S1 sequence can induce cell-to-cell movement ability in ETC1, CPCp:S1:ETC1:2xGFP was constructed and introduced into Arabidopsis. Our results indicate that the addition of the S1 sequence was not sufficient for ETC1 to acquire cell-to-cell movement ability.

  6. Hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented.

  7. Hair casts

    OpenAIRE

    Sweta S Parmar; Kirti S Parmar; Bela J Shah

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  8. Mobilizing Transit-Amplifying Cell-Derived Ectopic Progenitors Prevents Hair Loss from Chemotherapy or Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Yen; Lai, Shih-Fan; Chiu, Hsien-Yi; Chang, Michael; Plikus, Maksim V; Chan, Chih-Chieh; Chen, You-Tzung; Tsao, Po-Nien; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Chi, Peter; Lin, Sung-Jan

    2017-11-15

    Genotoxicity-induced hair loss from chemotherapy and radiotherapy is often encountered in cancer treatment, and there is a lack of effective treatment. In growing hair follicles (HF), quiescent stem cells (SC) are maintained in the bulge region, and hair bulbs at the base contain rapidly dividing, yet genotoxicity-sensitive transit-amplifying cells (TAC) that maintain hair growth. How genotoxicity-induced HF injury is repaired remains unclear. We report here that HFs mobilize ectopic progenitors from distinct TAC compartments for regeneration in adaptation to the severity of dystrophy induced by ionizing radiation (IR). Specifically, after low-dose IR, keratin 5 + basal hair bulb progenitors, rather than bulge SCs, were quickly activated to replenish matrix cells and regenerated all concentric layers of HFs, demonstrating their plasticity. After high-dose IR, when both matrix and hair bulb cells were depleted, the surviving outer root sheath cells rapidly acquired an SC-like state and fueled HF regeneration. Their progeny then homed back to SC niche and supported new cycles of HF growth. We also revealed that IR induced HF dystrophy and hair loss and suppressed WNT signaling in a p53- and dose-dependent manner. Augmenting WNT signaling attenuated the suppressive effect of p53 and enhanced ectopic progenitor proliferation after genotoxic injury, thereby preventing both IR- and cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. Hence, targeted activation of TAC-derived progenitor cells, rather than quiescent bulge SCs, for anagen HF repair can be a potential approach to prevent hair loss from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Cancer Res; 77(22); 6083-96. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Hair removal in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to hormonal stimulation during puberty, changes occur in hair type and distribution. In both sexes, body and facial unwanted hair may have a negative psychological impact on the teenager. There are several available methods of hair removal, but the choice of the most suitable one for each individual can raise doubts. Objective: To review the main methods of hair removal and clarify their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Development: There are several removal methods currently available. Shaving and depilation with chemicals products are temporary methods, that need frequent repetition, because hair removal is next to the cutaneous surface. The epilating methods in which there is full hair extraction include: epilation with wax, thread, tweezers, epilating machines, laser, intense pulsed light, and electrolysis. Conclusions: The age of beginning hair removal and the method choice must be individualized and take into consideration the skin and hair type, location, dermatological and endocrine problems, removal frequency, cost and personal preferences.

  10. Tissue-engineered skin preserving the potential of epithelial cells to differentiate into hair after grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Danielle; Cuffley, Kristine; Paquet, Claudie; Germain, Lucie

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether tissue-engineered skin produced in vitro was able to sustain growth of hair follicles in vitro and after grafting. Different tissues were designed. Dissociated newborn mouse keratinocytes or newborn mouse hair buds (HBs) were added onto dermal constructs consisting of a tissue-engineered cell-derived matrix elaborated from either newborn mouse or adult human fibroblasts cultured with ascorbic acid. After 7-21 days of maturation at the air-liquid interface, no hair was noticed in vitro. Epidermal differentiation was observed in all tissue-engineered skin. However, human fibroblast-derived tissue-engineered dermis (hD) promoted a thicker epidermis than mouse fibroblast-derived tissue-engineered dermis (mD). In association with mD, HBs developed epithelial cyst-like inclusions presenting outer root sheath-like attributes. In contrast, epidermoid cyst-like inclusions lined by a stratified squamous epithelium were present in tissues composed of HBs and hD. After grafting, pilo-sebaceous units formed and hair grew in skin elaborated from HBs cultured 10-26 days submerged in culture medium in association with mD. However, the number of normal hair follicles decreased with longer culture time. This hair-forming capacity after grafting was not observed in tissues composed of hD overlaid with HBs. These results demonstrate that epithelial stem cells can be kept in vitro in a permissive tissue-engineered dermal environment without losing their potential to induce hair growth after grafting.

  11. Activation of Arabidopsis seed hair development by cotton fiber-related genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Guan

    Full Text Available Each cotton fiber is a single-celled seed trichome or hair, and over 20,000 fibers may develop semi-synchronously on each seed. The molecular basis for seed hair development is unknown but is likely to share many similarities with leaf trichome development in Arabidopsis. Leaf trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana is activated by GLABROUS1 (GL1 that is negatively regulated by TRIPTYCHON (TRY. Using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis, we found that many putative MYB transcription factor and structural protein genes were differentially expressed in fiber and non-fiber tissues. Gossypium hirsutum MYB2 (GhMYB2, a putative GL1 homolog, and its downstream gene, GhRDL1, were highly expressed during fiber cell initiation. GhRDL1, a fiber-related gene with unknown function, was predominately localized around cell walls in stems, sepals, seed coats, and pollen grains. GFP:GhRDL1 and GhMYB2:YFP were co-localized in the nuclei of ectopic trichomes in siliques. Overexpressing GhRDL1 or GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0 activated fiber-like hair production in 4-6% of seeds and had on obvious effects on trichome development in leaves or siliques. Co-overexpressing GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 plants increased hair formation in ∼8% of seeds. Overexpressing both GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 try mutant plants produced seed hair in ∼10% of seeds as well as dense trichomes inside and outside siliques, suggesting synergistic effects of GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 with try on development of trichomes inside and outside of siliques and seed hair in A. thaliana. These data suggest that a different combination of factors is required for the full development of trichomes (hairs in leaves, siliques, and seeds. A. thaliana can be developed as a model a system for discovering additional genes that control seed hair development in general and cotton fiber in particular.

  12. Time course of cortisol loss in hair segments under immersion in hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jifeng; Xie, Qiaozhen; Gao, Wei; Xu, Youyun; Wang, Shuang; Deng, Huihua; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-02-18

    Hair cortisol is supposed to be a good biomarker of chronic stress. Major loss of hair cortisol in long-term exposure to environmental factors affected strongly its proper assessment of chronic stress in human. However, there was no research on time course of hair cortisol loss during the long-term exposure. Hair samples with longer than 1cm in the posterior vertex region were cut as close as possible to the scalp. The 1-cm hair samples were treated by ultraviolet irradiation or immersion in shampoo solution or water immersion at 40, 65 and 80°C. Hair cortisol content was determined with high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Ultraviolet irradiation and immersion in shampoo solution and hot water gave rise to the significant cortisol loss in hair. Hair cortisol content was sharply decreased with water immersion duration during initial stage and slowly decreased in the following stage. The 2-stage loss process with water immersion duration modeled to some extent time course of hair cortisol loss in long-term exposure to external environments. Cortisol from hair samples closest to the scalp in the posterior vertex could represent more accurately central hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Incorporation of tritium into hair proteins of rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochalska, M.; Ardelt, W.; Szot, Z.

    1981-01-01

    A simple and relatively rapid procedure for the extraction and fractionation of hair proteins, was elaborated and used for an analysis of rat hair proteins, tritiated in vivo. The most radioactive protein, containing over 6% of the initial hair radioactivity, was isolated in a homogeneous state. The protein had a molecular weight of about 190,000 daltons, and showed high proportions of glutamic acid, cysteine, aspartic acid, serine, and glycine and a low content of methionine and histidine. More than 80% of total tritium radioactivity incorporated into this protein was distributed among indispensable phenylalanine (30.3%) and, isoleucine (17.2%), valine (17.6%), proline (10,5%) and tyrosine (8.4%). The highest values of specific radioactivity were recorded for phenylalanine, isoleucine, valine and methionine. The radioactivity recovered in the amino acids is due to the presence of firmly bound tritium. (author)

  14. Yellowing and bleaching of grey hair caused by photo and thermal degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richena, M; Silveira, M; Rezende, C A; Joekes, I

    2014-09-05

    Yellowing is an undesirable phenomenon that is common in people with white and grey hair. Because white hair has no melanin, the pigment responsible for hair colour, the effects of photodegradation are more visible in this type of hair. The origin of yellowing and its relation to photodegradation processes are not properly established, and many questions remain open in this field. In this work, the photodegradation of grey hair was investigated as a function of the wavelength of incident radiation, and its ultrastructure was determined, always comparing the results obtained for the white and black fibres present in grey hair with the results of white wool. The results presented herein indicate that the photobehaviour of grey hair irradiated with a mercury lamp or with solar radiation is dependent on the wavelength range of the incident radiation and on the initial shade of yellow in the sample. Two types of grey hair were used: (1) blended grey hair (more yellow) and (2) grey hair from a single-donor (less yellow). After exposure to a full-spectrum mercury lamp for 200 h, the blended white hair turned less yellow (the yellow-blue difference, Db(*) becomes negative, Db(*)=-6), whereas the white hair from the single-donor turned slightly yellower (Db(*)=2). In contrast, VIS+IR irradiation resulted in bleaching in both types of hair, whereas a thermal treatment (at 81 °C) caused yellowing of both types of hair, resulting in a Db(*)=3 for blended white hair and Db(*)=9 for single-donor hair. The identity of the yellow chromophores was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results obtained with this technique were contradictory, however, and it was not possible to obtain a simple correlation between the sample shade of yellow and the absorption spectra. In addition, the results are discussed in terms of the morphology differences between the pigmented and non-pigmented parts of grey hair, the yellowing and bleaching effects of grey hair, and the occurrence of dark

  15. Expression and localization of VEGFR-2 in hair follicles during induced hair growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian-Jie; Jing, Jing; Lu, Zhong-Fa; Zheng, Min

    2018-06-16

    Recently, VEGFR-2 has been detected not only in vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells but also in some non-vascular endothelial cells, particularly human hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands. In addition, VEGFR-2 has been confirmed to play direct roles in hair follicle keratinocyte regulation beyond simply angiogenesis. To elucidate whether VEGFR-2 activation plays a role in hair follicle cycling regulation, immunofluorescence of VEGFR-2 expression was performed during hair cycling of the dorsum of the mouse induced by hair plucking. We observed that staining for VEGFR-2 in hair follicles during anagen II and IV was much stronger than during anagen VI, catagen and telogen. During anagen II, intense staining for VEGFR-2 was observed on the keratinocyte strands of the hair follicle. Subsequently, we detected intense staining for VEGFR-2 in the ORS, IRS and hair bulb during anagen IV. Moderate staining for VEGFR-2 was detected in the ORS and hair bulb, but staining was most intense in IRS during anagen VI. During catagen, staining for VEGFR-2 in the IRS remained intense, while staining in the ORS and hair bulb was significantly weakened and was negative in the dermal papilla. During telogen, we detected VEGFR-2 in germ cells, cap, and club hair adjoining the epidermis. In conclusion, VEGFR-2 was expressed on the hair follicles of the dorsum of the mouse and varied in expression on the mouse hair follicles during hair cycling, suggesting that VEGFR-2 may exert roles in hair cycle regulation in hair follicles on the dorsum of mice.

  16. Co-option of Hair Follicle Keratins into Amelogenesis Is Associated with the Evolution of Prismatic Enamel: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Beniash

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent discovery of hair follicle keratin 75 (KRT75 in enamel raises questions about the function of this protein in enamel and the mechanisms of its secretion. It is also not clear how this protein with a very specific and narrow expression pattern, limited to the inner root sheath of the hair follicle, became associated with enamel. We propose a hypothesis that KRT75 was co-opted by ameloblasts during the evolution of Tomes' process and the prismatic enamel in synapsids.

  17. "I think gorilla-like back effusions of hair are rather a turn-off": 'Excessive hair' and male body hair (removal) discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Gareth; Braun, Virginia

    2016-06-01

    Men's hair removal practices are becoming mainstream, seen as a consequence of changing masculine norms and men's relationships to their bodies. This is often presented as a straightforward 'shift' from men's ideal bodies as naturally hairy, to increased hairlessness, and the consequence on men's body concerns as inevitable. This paper analyses qualitative survey data from Aotearoa/New Zealand using critical thematic analysis, and describes three themes. Two themes capture contradictory ideas: that men's body hair is natural, and that men's body hair is unpleasant. A third theme introduces the concept of 'excess' hair, which allowed sense-making of this contradiction, mandating men's grooming of 'excessive' hair. However its vagueness as a concept may provoke anxiety for men resulting in hair removal. This paper adds to a body of research demonstrating a cultural transition: the ways changing masculinities, increased commodification of male bodies, and shifting gender roles impact on men's hair removal practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  19. Hair cycle in dogs with different hair types in a tropical region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarato, Evandro S; Conceição, Lissandro Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Hair cycle activity has been extensively studied in humans, sheep and laboratory animals, but there is a lack of information in dogs. Besides varying according to species, breed, sex and general health, hair growth is mainly affected by climatic variations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the follicle activity in three breeds of dogs with different hair types, in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais (latitude 20 degrees 45'S), Brazil. Twenty-one male dogs of boxer, labrador and schnauzer breeds were trichographically analysed monthly over 12 consecutive months. Hair percentage of telogen and anagen hairs at the different stages of the hair cycle in boxers and labradors was not significantly different, but both differed from the schnauzers. A significant correlation between hair follicle cycle and environmental temperature and photoperiod was noted in the boxers and labradors. In these breeds, a larger number of telogen hairs were observed during the hottest months of the year, and an increase in anagen hairs during the coldest months. The mean percentage of telogen hairs was 93, 90 and 55.3% for boxer, labrador and schnauzer, respectively.

  20. Drug-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Hair loss can have major psychological consequences. It can be due to a wide variety of causes, including hormonal disorders, dietary factors, infections, inflammation, trauma, emotional factors, and cancer. Drugs can also induce hair loss, by interacting with the hair growth cycle. Drug-induced hair loss may be immediate or delayed, sudden or gradual, and diffuse or localised. It is usually reversible after drug discontinuation. The drugs most often implicated in hair loss are anticancer agents, interferon, azole antifungals, lithium, immunosuppressants, and many other drugs belonging to a variety of pharmacological classes.

  1. Growing evidence of the beneficial effects of a marine protein-based dietary supplement for treating hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornfeldt, Carl S

    2018-04-01

    Hair loss is a common condition among women with a range of causes including nutritional deficiencies. To review the clinical data supporting the use of an oral marine supplement designed to promote hair growth. Adult women with temporary thinning hair. Following an initial pilot study, five randomized, double-blind studies assessed the effectiveness of the oral marine supplement for promoting hair growth. Each study was approved by one or more institutional review boards. Together, these studies demonstrated the ability of oral marine supplements to increase the growth of terminal and vellus hairs, increase the diameter of terminal and vellus hairs, and decrease hair loss. This product is beneficial for men as well as women. A dietary supplement containing a marine complex and other natural ingredients can safely and effectively promote hair growth and decrease hair shedding in women and men with thinning hair. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Loose anagen hair syndrome with diffuse woolly hair phenotype: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshdeep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Loose anagen hair syndrome (LAHS is an underestimated cause of noncicatricial alopecia among children, manifesting as thin, sparse or fine hair. We report a case of LAHS clinically presenting as diffuse woolly hair, an association rarely described in the literature. In addition, we review the clinical as well as genetic link between these two enigmatic hair disorders and hypothesize that both may be associated in a yet unknown manner.

  3. Drugs and hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mansi; Harrison, Shannon; Sinclair, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a common complaint, both in men and women, and use of prescription medications is widespread. When there is a temporal association between the onset of hair loss and commencement of a medication, the medication is commonly thought to have caused the hair loss. However, hair loss and in particular telogen effluvium may occur in response to a number of triggers including fever, hemorrhage, severe illness, stress, and childbirth, and a thorough exclusion of these potential confounders is necessary before the hair loss can be blamed on the medication. Certain medications are known to cause hair loss by a variety of mechanisms including anagen arrest, telogen effluvium, or accentuation of androgenetic alopecia by androgens. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Synchrotron nanoscopy imaging study of scalp hair in breast cancer patients and healthy individuals: Difference in medulla loss and cortical membrane enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung-Mi; Chikawa, Jun-Ichi; Jeon, Jae-Kun; Hwang, Min-Young; Lim, Jun; Jeong, Young-Ju; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Hong-Tae; Jheon, Sanghoon; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscopic synchrotron X-ray imaging was performed on scalp hair samples of patients with breast cancer and healthy individuals to investigate any structural differences as diagnostic tool. Hair strands were divided into 2-3 segments along the strands from root to tip, followed by imaging either in projection or in CT scanning with a monochromatic 6.78-keV X-ray using zone-plate optics with a resolving power of 60 nm. All the examined cancer hairs exhibited medulla loss with cancer stage-dependent pattern; complete loss, discontinuous or trace along the strands. In contrast, medullas were well retained without complete loss in the healthy hair. In the CT-scanned axial images, the cortical spindle compartments had no contrast in the healthy hair, but appeared hypointense in contrast to the surrounding hyperintense cortical membrane complex in the cancer hair. In conclusion, observation of medulla loss and cortical membrane enhancements in the hair strands of breast cancer patients demonstrated structural variations in the cancer hair, providing a new platform for further synchrotron X-ray imaging study of screening breast cancer patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2017-03-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  6. Artificial Hair: By the Dawn to Automatic Biofibre® Hair Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Roccia

    2017-12-01

    In 1995 the European Union (UE recognised the artificial hair implant as a legitimate medical treatment and outlined the rules related to that procedure. In 1996, biocompatible fibres (Biofibre® produced by Medicap® Italy were approved by the UE Authorities and by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA as medical devices for hair implant. An effective medical protocol was developed during the following years to provide correct guidelines for appropriate treatment, and to reduce possible related complications. Automatic Biofibre® hair implant represents the last achievement in this hair restoration technique with significant advantages for the patients.

  7. l-N-acetylcysteine protects outer hair cells against TNFα initiated ototoxicity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillinger, Joshua A; Gupta, Chhavi; Ila, Kadri; Ahmed, Jamal; Mittal, Jeenu; Van De Water, Thomas R; Eshraghi, Adrien A

    2018-03-07

    The present study is aimed at determining the efficacy and exploring the mechanisms by which l-N-acetylcysteine (l-NAC) provides protection against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα)-induced oxidative stress damage and hair cell loss in 3-day-old rat organ of Corti (OC) explants. Previous work has demonstrated a high level of oxidative stress in TNFα-challenged OC explants. TNFα can potentially play a significant role in hair cell loss following an insult to the inner ear. l-NAC has shown to provide effective protection against noise-induced hearing loss in laboratory animals but mechanisms of this otoprotective effect are not well-defined. Rat OC explants were exposed to either: (1) saline control (N = 12); (2) TNFα (2 μg/ml, N = 12); (3) TNFα+l-NAC (5 mM, N = 12); (4) TNFα+l-NAC (10 mM, N = 12); or (5) l-NAC (10 mM, N = 12). Outer hair cell (OHC) density, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation of cell membranes, gluthathione activity, and mitochondrial viability were assayed. l-NAC (5 and 10 mM) provided protection for OHCs from ototoxic level of TNFα in OC explants. Groups treated with TNFα+l-NAC (5 mM) showed a highly significant reduction of both ROS (p l-NAC (5 mM) treated explants (p l-NAC is a promising treatment for protecting auditory HCs from TNFα-induced oxidative stress and subsequent loss via programmed cell death.

  8. Efficient generation of mutations mediated by CRISPR/Cas9 in the hairy root transformation system of Brassica carinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Thomas W; Niehaus, Markus; Debener, Thomas; Schenk, Manfred K; Herde, Marco

    2017-01-01

    A protocol for the induction of site-directed deletions and insertions in the genome of Brassica carinata with CRISPR is described. The construct containing the Cas9 nuclease and the guide RNA (gRNA) was delivered by the hairy root transformation technique, and a successful transformation was monitored by GFP fluorescence. PAGE analysis of an amplified region, presumably containing the deletions and insertions, demonstrated up to seven different indels in one transgenic root and in all analyzed roots a wildtype allele of the modified gene was not detectable. Interestingly, many of these mutations consisted of relatively large indels with up to 112 bp. The exact size of the deletions was determined to allow an estimation whether the targeted gene was not functional due to a considerable deletion or a frame shift within the open reading frame. This allowed a direct phenotypic assessment of the previously characterized roots and, in fact, deletions in FASCICLIN-LIKE ARABINOGALACTAN PROTEIN 1 (BcFLA1)-a gene with an expression pattern consistent with a role in root hair architecture-resulted in shorter root hairs compared to control roots ectopically expressing an allele of the gene that cannot be targeted by the gRNA in parallel to the CRISPR construct. As an additional line of evidence, we monitored BcFLA1 expression with qPCR and detected a significant reduction of the transcript in roots with an active CRISPR construct compared to the control, although residual amounts of the transcript were detected, possibly due to inefficient nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Additionally, the presence of deletions and insertions were verified by Sanger sequencing of the respective amplicons. In summary we demonstrate the successful application of CRISPR/Cas9 in hairy roots of B. carinata, the proof of its effectiveness and its effect on the root hair phenotype. This study paves the way for experimental strategies involving the phenotypic assessment of gene lesions by CRISPR which

  9. Efficient generation of mutations mediated by CRISPR/Cas9 in the hairy root transformation system of Brassica carinata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Kirchner

    Full Text Available A protocol for the induction of site-directed deletions and insertions in the genome of Brassica carinata with CRISPR is described. The construct containing the Cas9 nuclease and the guide RNA (gRNA was delivered by the hairy root transformation technique, and a successful transformation was monitored by GFP fluorescence. PAGE analysis of an amplified region, presumably containing the deletions and insertions, demonstrated up to seven different indels in one transgenic root and in all analyzed roots a wildtype allele of the modified gene was not detectable. Interestingly, many of these mutations consisted of relatively large indels with up to 112 bp. The exact size of the deletions was determined to allow an estimation whether the targeted gene was not functional due to a considerable deletion or a frame shift within the open reading frame. This allowed a direct phenotypic assessment of the previously characterized roots and, in fact, deletions in FASCICLIN-LIKE ARABINOGALACTAN PROTEIN 1 (BcFLA1-a gene with an expression pattern consistent with a role in root hair architecture-resulted in shorter root hairs compared to control roots ectopically expressing an allele of the gene that cannot be targeted by the gRNA in parallel to the CRISPR construct. As an additional line of evidence, we monitored BcFLA1 expression with qPCR and detected a significant reduction of the transcript in roots with an active CRISPR construct compared to the control, although residual amounts of the transcript were detected, possibly due to inefficient nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Additionally, the presence of deletions and insertions were verified by Sanger sequencing of the respective amplicons. In summary we demonstrate the successful application of CRISPR/Cas9 in hairy roots of B. carinata, the proof of its effectiveness and its effect on the root hair phenotype. This study paves the way for experimental strategies involving the phenotypic assessment of gene lesions

  10. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal to lose up to ... months after the "shock". This sudden increase in hair loss, usually described as the hair coming out in ...

  11. Taking Care of Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Taking Care of Your Hair KidsHealth / For Teens / Taking Care of Your Hair ... role in how healthy it looks. Caring for Hair How you take care of your hair depends ...

  12. In Vitro Methodologies to Evaluate the Effects of Hair Care Products on Hair Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Miranda da Gama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers use different hair care products to change the physical appearance of their hair, such as shampoos, conditioners, hair dye and hair straighteners. They expect cosmetics products to be available in the market to meet their needs in a broad and effective manner. Evaluating efficacy of hair care products in vitro involves the use of highly accurate equipment. This review aims to discuss in vitro methodologies used to evaluate the effects of hair care products on hair fiber, which can be assessed by various methods, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Protein Loss, Electrophoresis, color and brightness, thermal analysis and measuring mechanical resistance to combing and elasticity. The methodology used to test hair fibers must be selected according to the property being evaluated, such as sensory characteristics, determination of brightness, resistance to rupture, elasticity and integrity of hair strain and cortex, among others. If equipment is appropriate and accurate, reproducibility and ease of employment of the analytical methodology will be possible. Normally, the data set must be discussed in order to obtain conclusive answers to the test.

  13. Induction of Functional Hair-Cell-Like Cells from Mouse Cochlear Multipotent Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanwen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a two-step-induction method of generating functional hair cells from inner ear multipotent cells. Multipotent cells from the inner ear were established and induced initially into progenitor cells committed to the inner ear cell lineage on the poly-L-lysine substratum. Subsequently, the committed progenitor cells were cultured on the mitotically inactivated chicken utricle stromal cells and induced into hair-cell-like cells containing characteristic stereocilia bundles. The hair-cell-like cells exhibited rapid permeation of FM1-43FX. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to measure the membrane currents of cells differentiated for 7 days on chicken utricle stromal cells and analyze the biophysical properties of the hair-cell-like cells by recording membrane properties of cells. The results suggested that the hair-cell-like cells derived from inner ear multipotent cells were functional following differentiation in an enabling environment.

  14. Gender differences in scalp hair growth rates are maintained but reduced in pattern hair loss compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, D J J; Rushton, D H

    2016-08-01

    Hair loss is related to follicular density, programmed regrowth and hair productivity. The dissatisfaction with hair growth in patients experiencing hair loss might be due to slower linear hair growth rate (LHGR). LHGR and hair diameter was evaluated in Caucasian controls and patients with patterned hair loss employing the validated non-invasive, contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram with exogen collection. We evaluated 59,765 anagen hairs (controls 24,609, patients 35,156) and found thinner hairs grew slower than thicker hairs. LHGR in normal women was generally higher than in normal men. LHGR correlates with hair diameter (P hair of equal thickness in controls, subjects affected with patterned hair loss showed reduced hair growth rates, an observation found in both male and female patients. Males with pattern hair loss showed further reduction in growth rates as clinical severity worsened. However, sample size limitations prevented statistical evaluation of LHGR in severely affected females. Caucasian ethnicity. In pattern hair loss, LHGR significantly contributes to the apparent decrease in hair volume in affected areas. In early onset, LHRG might have a prognostic value in females but not in males. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Kids / Hair Loss What's in this ... head are in the resting phase. What Causes Hair Loss? Men, especially older men, are the ones who ...

  16. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Skin, Hair, and Nails KidsHealth / For Parents / Skin, Hair, and ... piel, el cabello y las uñas About Skin, Hair and Nails Skin is our largest organ. If ...

  17. Europium Uptake and Partitioning in Oat (Avena sativa) Roots as studied By Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Confocal Microscopy Profiling Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Wang, Zheming; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2003-01-01

    The uptake of Eu3+ by elongating oat plant roots was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime measurement, as well as laser excitation time-resolved confocal fluorescence profiling technique. The results of this work indicated that the initial uptake of Eu(III) by oat root was most evident within the apical meristem of the root just proximal to the root cap. Distribution of assimilated Eu(III) within the roots differentiation and elongation zone was non-uniform. Higher concentrations were observed within the vascular cylinder, specifically in the phloem and developing xylem parenchyma. Elevated levels of the metal were also observed in the root hairs of the mature root. The concentration of assimilated Eu3+ dropped sharply from the apical meristem to the differentiation and elongation zone and then gradually decreased as the distance from the root cap increased. Fluorescence spectroscopic characteristics of the assimilated Eu3+ suggested that the Eu3+ exists a s inner-sphere mononuclear complexes inside the root. This work has also demonstrated the effectiveness of a time-resolved Eu3+ fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence profiling techniques for the in vivo, real-time study of metal[Eu3+] accumulation by a functioning intact plant root. This approach can prove valuable for basic and applied studies in plant nutrition and environmental uptake of actinide radionuclides

  18. Linear scans of hair strands for trace elements by proton induced x-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, R.K.; Pehrson, G.R.; Gupta, S.K.; Buckle, D.C.; Aceto, H. Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Hair strands obtained from school children in the 10 to 12 year age group were analyzed for trace element concentration as a function of distance from the root by proton-induced x-ray emission to study the history of exposure of the donors to toxic trace metals. These samples were collected from the vicinity of a copper smelter where high levels of As, Cd, Sb, and Pb have been noted. Scans show a continual build-up of Pb as a function of distance from the root, while As shows a reproducible and distinct maximum approximately 10 cm from the root. The concentration of Zn was found to be constant in all samples (without exception) to within the uncertainties of our measurements

  19. The amazing miniorgan: Hair follicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiler Çelik Özenci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a primary characteristic of mammals, and exerts a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, and social interactions. The hair shaft consists of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are produced by the hair follicle. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal–mesodermal interactions. Hair follicles form during embryonic development and, after birth, undergo recurrent cycling of growth (anagen, apoptosis-driven regression (catagen, and relative quiescence (telogen. As a functional mini-organ, the hair follicle develops in an environment with dynamic and alternating changes of diverse molecular signals. Our molecular understanding of hair follicle biology relies heavily on genetically engineered mouse models with abnormalities in hair structure, growth, and/or pigmentation and significant advances have been made toward the identification of key signaling pathways and the regulatory genes involved. In this review, the basic concepts of hair follicle, a mini-complex organ, biology will be presented and its importance in clinical applications will be summarized.

  20. Role of hormones in controlling vascular differentiation and the mechanism of lateral root initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloni, Roni

    2013-11-01

    The vascular system in plants is induced and controlled by streams of inductive hormonal signals. Auxin produced in young leaves is the primary controlling signal in vascular differentiation. Its polar and non-polar transport pathways and major controlling mechanisms are clarified. Ethylene produced in differentiating protoxylem vessels is the signal that triggers lateral root initiation, while tumor-induced ethylene is a limiting and controlling factor of crown gall development and its vascular differentiation. Gibberellin produced in mature leaves moves non-polarly and promotes elongation, regulates cambium activity and induces long fibers. Cytokinin from the root cap moves upward to promote cambial activity and stimulate shoot growth and branching, while strigolactone from the root inhibits branching. Furthermore, the role of the hormonal signals in controlling the type of differentiating vascular elements and gradients of conduit size and density, and how they regulate plant adaptation and have shaped wood evolution are elucidated.

  1. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  2. An auxin transport independent pathway is involved in phosphate stress-induced root architectural alterations in Arabidopsis. Identification of BIG as a mediator of auxin in pericycle cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bucio, José; Hernández-Abreu, Esmeralda; Sánchez-Calderón, Lenin; Pérez-Torres, Anahí; Rampey, Rebekah A; Bartel, Bonnie; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2005-02-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants display a number of root developmental responses to low phosphate availability, including primary root growth inhibition, greater formation of lateral roots, and increased root hair elongation. To gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms by which phosphorus (P) availability alters postembryonic root development, we performed a mutant screen to identify genetic determinants involved in the response to P deprivation. Three low phosphate-resistant root lines (lpr1-1 to lpr1-3) were isolated because of their reduced lateral root formation in low P conditions. Genetic and molecular analyses revealed that all lpr1 mutants were allelic to BIG, which is required for normal auxin transport in Arabidopsis. Detailed characterization of lateral root primordia (LRP) development in wild-type and lpr1 mutants revealed that BIG is required for pericycle cell activation to form LRP in both high (1 mm) and low (1 microm) P conditions, but not for the low P-induced alterations in primary root growth, lateral root emergence, and root hair elongation. Exogenously supplied auxin restored normal lateral root formation in lpr1 mutants in the two P treatments. Treatment of wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings with brefeldin A, a fungal metabolite that blocks auxin transport, phenocopies the root developmental alterations observed in lpr1 mutants in both high and low P conditions, suggesting that BIG participates in vesicular targeting of auxin transporters. Taken together, our results show that auxin transport and BIG function have fundamental roles in pericycle cell activation to form LRP and promote root hair elongation. The mechanism that activates root system architectural alterations in response to P deprivation, however, seems to be independent of auxin transport and BIG.

  3. Zebrafish hair cell mechanics and physiology through the lens of noise-induced hair cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Allison B.; Xu, Jie; Uribe, Phillip M.

    2018-05-01

    Hair cells are exquisitely sensitive to auditory stimuli, but also to damage from a variety of sources including noise trauma and ototoxic drugs. Mammals cannot regenerate cochlear hair cells, while non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit robust regenerative capacity. Our research group uses the lateral line system of larval zebrafish to explore the mechanisms underlying hair cell damage, identify protective therapies, and determine molecular drivers of innate regeneration. The lateral line system contains externally located sensory organs called neuromasts, each composed of ˜8-20 hair cells. Lateral line hair cells are homologous to vertebrate inner ear hair cells and share similar susceptibility to ototoxic damage. In the last decade, the lateral line has emerged as a powerful model system for understanding hair cell death mechanisms and for identifying novel protective compounds. Here we demonstrate that the lateral line is a tractable model for noise-induced hair cell death. We have developed a novel noise damage system capable of inducing over 50% loss of lateral line hair cells, with hair cell death occurring in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell death is greatest 72 hours post-exposure. However, early signs of hair cell damage, including changes in membrane integrity and reduced mechanotransduction, are apparent within hours of noise exposure. These features, early signs of damage followed by delayed hair cell death, are consistent with mammalian data, suggesting that noise acts similarly on zebrafish and mammalian hair cells. In our future work we will use our new model system to investigate noise damage events in real time, and to develop protective therapies for future translational research.

  4. Effect of hair care and hair cosmetics on the concentrations of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Sven; Auwärter, Volker; Pragst, Fritz

    2003-01-28

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) can be used as alcohol markers in hair. It was investigated in this study whether this diagnostic method is disturbed by hair care and hair cosmetics. Traces of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate were detected in all of 49 frequently applied hair care products by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest concentration was 0.003% in a hair wax. From experiments with separated hair samples of alcoholics as well as from the evaluation of the FAEE concentrations and the data about hair care of 75 volunteers (alcoholics, social drinkers and teetotalers) follows that usual shampooing, permanent wave, dyeing, bleaching or shading are of minor importance as compared to the drinking amount and other individual features. However, false positive results were found after daily treatment with a hair lotion containing 62.5% ethanol, with a deodorant and with a hair spray. As an explanation, it is assumed that FAEE are formed in the sebum glands also after regular topical application of products with a higher ethanol content.

  5. Essential of Hair Care Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Alessandrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hair care and style play a very important role in people’s physical aspect and self-perception. Hair cosmetics can be distinguished into two main categories: cosmetics with temporary effect on the hair, for example shampoos, conditioners, sprays, and temporary colors; and cosmetics with permanent effect on the hair, such as permanent waves, relaxers, bleaches and permanent colors. These cosmetic procedures may induce hair abnormalities. We provide an overview on the most important characteristics of these procedures, analyzing components and effects on the hair. Finally, we evaluated new camouflage techniques and tattoo scalp.

  6. Distribution and time course of hair cell regeneration in the pigeon utricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, B. J.; Frank, T. C.; Newlands, S. D.; Dickman, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Vestibular and cochlear regeneration following ototoxic insult from aminoglycoside antibiotics has been well documented, particularly in birds. In the present study, intraotic application of a 2 mg streptomycin paste was used to achieve complete vestibular hair cell destruction in pigeons (Columba livia) while preserving regenerative ability. Scanning electron microscopy was used to quantify hair cell density longitudinally during regeneration in three different utricular macula locations, including the striola, central and peripheral regions. The utricular epithelium was void of stereocilia (indicating hair cell loss) at 4 days after intraotic treatment with streptomycin. At 2 weeks the stereocilia began to appear randomly and mostly in an immature form. However, when present most kinocilia were polarized toward the developing striola. Initially, regeneration occurred more rapidly in the central and peripheral regions of the utricle as compared to the striola. As regeneration proceeded from 2 to 12 weeks, hair cell density in the striola region equaled the density noted in the central and peripheral regions. At 24 weeks, hair cell density of the central and peripheral regions was equal to normal values, however the striola region had a slightly greater hair cell density than that observed for normal animals.

  7. Hypocotyl adventitious root organogenesis differs from lateral root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Inge; Schotte, Sébastien; Geelen, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Wound-induced adventitious root (AR) formation is a requirement for plant survival upon root damage inflicted by pathogen attack, but also during the regeneration of plant stem cuttings for clonal propagation of elite plant varieties. Yet, adventitious rooting also takes place without wounding. This happens for example in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls, in which AR initiate upon de-etiolation or in tomato seedlings, in which AR initiate upon flooding or high water availability. In the hypocotyl AR originate from a cell layer reminiscent to the pericycle in the primary root (PR) and the initiated AR share histological and developmental characteristics with lateral roots (LRs). In contrast to the PR however, the hypocotyl is a determinate structure with an established final number of cells. This points to differences between the induction of hypocotyl AR and LR on the PR, as the latter grows indeterminately. The induction of AR on the hypocotyl takes place in environmental conditions that differ from those that control LR formation. Hence, AR formation depends on differentially regulated gene products. Similarly to AR induction in stem cuttings, the capacity to induce hypocotyl AR is genotype-dependent and the plant growth regulator auxin is a key regulator controlling the rooting response. The hormones cytokinins, ethylene, jasmonic acid, and strigolactones in general reduce the root-inducing capacity. The involvement of this many regulators indicates that a tight control and fine-tuning of the initiation and emergence of AR exists. Recently, several genetic factors, specific to hypocotyl adventitious rooting in A. thaliana, have been uncovered. These factors reveal a dedicated signaling network that drives AR formation in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Here we provide an overview of the environmental and genetic factors controlling hypocotyl-born AR and we summarize how AR formation and the regulating factors of this organogenesis are distinct from LR

  8. Hypocotyl adventitious root organogenesis differs from lateral root development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge eVerstraeten

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wound-induced adventitious root (AR formation is a requirement for plant survival upon root damage inflicted by pathogen attack, but also during the regeneration of plant stem cuttings for clonal propagation of elite plant varieties. Yet, adventitious rooting also takes place without wounding. This happens for example in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls, in which AR initiate upon de-etiolation or in tomato seedlings, in which AR initiate upon flooding or high water availability. In the hypocotyl AR originate from a cell layer reminiscent to the pericycle in the primary root (PR and the initiated AR share histological and developmental characteristics with lateral roots (LR. In contrast to the PR however, the hypocotyl is a determinate structure with an established final number of cells. This points to differences between the induction of hypocotyl AR and LR on the PR, as the latter grows indeterminately. The induction of AR on the hypocotyl takes place in environmental conditions that differ from those that control LR formation. Hence, AR formation depends on differentially regulated gene products. Similarly to AR induction in stem cuttings, the capacity to induce hypocotyl AR is genotype-dependent and the plant growth regulator auxin is a key regulator controlling the rooting response. The hormones cytokinins, ethylene, jasmonic acid and strigolactones in general reduce the root-inducing capacity. The involvement of this many regulators indicates that a tight control and fine-tuning of the initiation and emergence of AR exists. Recently, several genetic factors, specific to hypocotyl adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana, have been uncovered. These factors reveal a dedicated signaling network that drives AR formation in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Here we provide an overview of the environmental and genetic factors controlling hypocotyl-born AR and we summarize how AR formation and the regulating factors of this organogenesis are

  9. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  10. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  11. Consecutive operative procedures in patients with Marfan syndrome up to 28 years after initial aortic root surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puluca, Nazan; Burri, Melchior; Cleuziou, Julie; Krane, Markus; Lange, Rüdiger

    2018-02-28

    Most patients (75%) with Marfan syndrome present with aortic root dilatation that may require surgical intervention. However, associated cardiovascular disorders are not limited to the aortic root. These patients frequently require consecutive operations on the remaining thoracic aorta or the heart valves. Our intent was to characterize the spectrum of such procedures. Data from all patients with Marfan syndrome undergoing aortic root surgery at our centre between 1988 and 2016 were analysed retrospectively. Overall, 73 patients (26 women) were selected for the study. The median age at 1st operation was 30 years (3-68 years). Indications for aortic root surgery were aneurysm (78%) and dissection (22%). Initially, 33 Bentall procedures and 40 valve-sparing root replacement procedures were performed, with a 97% rate of follow-up completion. The median follow up was 8 years (0-28 years). Survival at 1, 10 and 15 years was 100%, 85% and 82%, respectively. During follow-up monitoring, 48 subsequent procedures were performed in 33 patients (aorta, 23; aortic valve, 11; mitral valve, 7 and combined procedures, 7). The 30-day mortality rate after subsequent procedures was 4.2%. Freedom from subsequent operation and death (combined end-point) after 5, 10 and 15 years was 70%, 53% and 34%, respectively. After the initial surgery, subsequent procedures required in the setting of Marfan syndrome most often involve the remaining native aorta, followed by the aortic and mitral valves. The continued need for additional operative procedures remains high, even decades after the initial surgeries are undertaken. Therefore, long-term patient monitoring at specialized centres is imperative.

  12. Direct hair transplantation: A modified follicular unit extraction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Sethi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In hair transplantation, the survival rate of harvested grafts depends upon many factors like maintenance of hydration, cold temperature, reduced mechanical handling and asepsis. All these factors are favourably improved if time out of body is reduced significantly. We have tried a modification called direct hair transplantation in the existing follicular unit extraction technique, in which the follicular unit grafts are implanted as soon as they are harvested. In this article, we have described the detailed methodology and a series of 29 patients who underwent direct hair transplantation. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of direct hair transplantation. Subjects and Methods: The patients willing to undergo hair transplantation by the technique of follicular unit extraction were enrolled for the surgery. After administration of local anaesthesia, the recipient sites were created. Thereafter, the processes of scoring the skin with a motorized punch, graft extraction and implantation were performed simultaneously. These patients were followed up to look for the time period of initiation of hair growth, the growth achieved at the end of 6-8 months and any adverse events. The results of patients with noticeable improvement in the photographs and reduction in baldness grade were taken as ′good′, whereas, in other patients, it was classified as ′poor′. Results: All patients were males with age ranging from 21 to 66 years (median 30 years. Twenty-six patients had androgenetic alopecia, 1 patient had traction alopecia and 2 patients had scarring alopecia. Twenty-seven patients showed ′good′ results, whereas 2 patients showed ′poor′ results. Conclusion: Direct hair transplantation is a simple and feasible modification in the follicular unit extraction technique. It is an efficacious surgical treatment modality for baldness.

  13. Diseases that turn African hair silky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajose, Frances O A

    2012-11-01

    African hair in its natural state poses tenacious grooming challenges; consequently a large portion of the African cosmetic industry is focused on means to relax the tight curls of African hair to make the hair more manageable. In malnourished and hypoproteinemic states, African hair straightens in an uncomplimentary manner. Recently, we observed that in certain diseases African hair changes to a desirable silky wavy texture. To identify the diseases that turn African hair silky and their parameters we examined 5612 dermatology patients at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. We then studied the clinical and basic laboratory parameters of those patients whose diseases were accompanied by the silky hair change. Silky hair change similar to the hair of the African neonatal child was observed in five diseases, namely AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, pulmonary tuberculosis with cachexia, and Behçet's disease. Our study identified retrogression of African hair to the neonatal structure in five diseases. Anemia of chronic illness, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mild hypocalcemia were significant laboratory parameters. This is an important observation, which should excite and advance research into the nature and structure of African hair. The causes of structural hair changes should include these five diseases. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Systemic causes of hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richard L; Garibyan, Lilit; Kimball, Alexandra B; Drake, Lynn A

    2016-09-01

    Hair loss is both a common chief complaint by patients and a clinical challenge for physicians, especially general practitioners, yet few dermatological problems yield as much patient satisfaction when resolved as hair loss. The diagnosis is often attributed to androgen-related hair loss, while other causes, some of which are life-threatening but treatable, are overlooked. We searched for relevant literature on hair loss and supported these findings with our clinical experience to identify seven major systemic etiologies of hair loss, ranging from infectious agents to consumption of unsafe supplements. Many causes are only described in the literature through case studies, though some original articles and meta-analyses are available. Careful history taking, proper examination techniques, and judicious use of laboratory tests are essential to reach at the correct diagnosis in a cost-effective manner when performing patient work-up. Such methodical evaluation of hair loss can result in the appropriate treatment plan and provide significant patient satisfaction. Key messages Hair loss is a common chief complaint and a difficult challenge for both general practitioners and dermatology consultants. We identified seven major categories of systemic hair loss etiology and present a framework for their clinical evaluation. A methodical approach to hair loss can result in the appropriate treatment plan and provide significant patient satisfaction.

  15. Managing hair loss in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2013-02-01

    Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hair-on-hair static friction coefficient can be determined by tying a knot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Nicolas R

    2017-11-01

    Characterizing the tribological properties of the hair-hair interface is important to quantify the manageability of hair and to assess the performance of hair care products. Audoly et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 164301, 2007) derived an equation relating the self-friction coefficient of an elastic fiber to the dimensions of a simple, relaxed overhand knot made from this fiber. I experimentally tested and validated their equation using nylon thread and an independent measurement of its self-friction coefficient. I show that this methodology can be applied to provide high-throughput data on the static self-friction coefficient of single hair fibers in various conditions and to quantitatively assess how hair care treatments (conditioner, relaxant) alter frictional properties. I find that treatment of hair with 1M sodium hydroxide leads to a quick, irreversible self-friction coefficient increase; the resulting fine frictional fibers can be used to form very small knots for microsurgical vessel and organ ligature in medicine or embryology. The relaxed overhand knot method can more generally be used to measure the self-friction coefficients of a wide range of elastic fibers from the nano- (e.g. proteins, nanotubes) to the macro-scale (e.g. textile fiber, fiberglass). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  18. Speciation of arsenic in human nail and hair from arsenic-affected area by HPLC-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Badal Kumar; Ogra, Yasumitsu; Suzuki, Kazuo T.

    2003-01-01

    Nail and hair are rich in fibrous proteins, i.e., α-keratins that contain abundant cysteine residues (up to 22% in nail and 10-14% in hair). Although they are metabolically dead materials in the epidermis, the roots are highly influenced by the health status of the living beings and their analyses are used as a tool to monitor occupational and environmental exposure to toxic elements. The aims of the present study are to speciate arsenicals in human nail and hair and also to judge whether they should be used as a biomarker to arsenic (As) exposure and/or toxicity. All human fingernail and hair samples (n = 47) were collected from the As-affected area of West Bengal, India. Speciation of arsenicals in water extracts of fingernails and hair at 90 degree sign C was carried out by HPLC-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer (ICP MS). Fingernails contained iAs III (58.6%), iAs V (21.5), MMA V (7.7), DMA III (9.2), and DMA V (3.0), and hair contained iAs III (60.9%), iAs V (33.2), MMA V (2.2), and DMA V (3.6). Fingernails contained DMA III , but hair did not. The higher percentage of iAs III both in fingernails and hair than that of iAs V suggests more affinity of iAs III to keratin. Although all arsenicals in fingernails and hair correlate to As exposure positively, As speciation in fingernails seems to be more correlated with arsenism than that in hair. Exogenous contamination is a confounding factor for hair to consider it as a biomarker, whereas this is mostly absent in fingernails, which recommends it to be a better biomarker to arsenic exposure. DMA III content in fingernails and DMA V contents in both fingernails and hair could be the biomarker to As exposure

  19. Grey Hair Evlsion Technique For Evaluating the Effect of Drugs For the Treatment of Premature Grey Hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved method for evaluating the effect of treatment for premature grey hairs is described. The method consists of pulling out all the grey hairs in a patient and counting the number removed. Simultaneously, the converted hairs are also snipped at the grey-black junction and counted. After a gap of 3 months, the survey is repeated to count the number of hairs which have regrowing as grey hairs, the hairs which have become grey and also the hairs which have got converted into black during this period. Such surveys are repeated at 3 months intervals over a period of several years to see the progress of greying of hair in an individual and to evaluate the effect of various therapeutic procedures.

  20. Effects of methyl-jasmonate on 9-methoxycanthin-6-one content in Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) root culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, F.M.; Rathinam, X.; Danial, M.

    2015-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia is a flowering plant from the Simaroubaceae family and it has been identified as one of the most intriguing medicinal plants in Malaysia. In the present study, the production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one, an alkaloid compound was determined with various methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) concentrations using root culture via liquid system. Quantification of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one was confirmed by using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Quantitative analysis using HPLC displayed highest concentration of 9-methoxycanthin-6- one content in the absence of MeJA treatment (control) followed by increasing concentrations of MeJA (1, 10 and 100 micro M). Microanatomical analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) has shown that root hair morphology of E.longifolia does not change significantly, whereas roots hair displayed rough surfaces with increases MeJA concentrations. Therefore, MeJA is not a suitable elicitor to increase 9-methoxycanthin-6-one compound in E. lon. (author)

  1. Bio-inspired flow sensor from printed PEDOT:PSS micro-hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaraj, Harish; Sharma, Rajnish; Aw, Kean C; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka; Aydemir, Nihan; Williams, David; Haemmerle, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the creation of a low-cost, disposable sensor for low flow velocities, constructed from extruded micro-sized ‘hair’ of conducting polymer PEDOT. These microstructures are inspired by hair strands found in many arthropods and chordates, which play a prime role in sensing air flows. The paper describes the fabrication techniques and the initial prototype testing results toward employing this sensing mechanism in applications requiring sensing of low flow rates such as a flow sensor in neonatal resuscitators. The fabricated 1000 μm long, 6 μm diameter micro-hairs mimic the bending movement of tactile hair strands to sense the velocity of air flow. The prototype sensor developed is a four-level direct digital-output sensor and is capable of detecting flow velocities of up to 0.97 m s −1 . (paper)

  2. Arabidopsis mutants lacking asparaginases develop normally but exhibit enhanced root inhibition by exogenous asparagine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ana; Kameka, Alexander; Pajak, Agnieszka; Bruneau, Luanne; Beyaert, Ronald; Hernández-Sebastià, Cinta; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2012-06-01

    Asparaginase catalyzes the degradation of L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia, and is implicated in the catabolism of transported asparagine in sink tissues of higher plants. The Arabidopsis genome includes two genes, ASPGA1 and ASPGB1, belonging to distinct asparaginase subfamilies. Conditions of severe nitrogen limitation resulted in a slight decrease in seed size in wild-type Arabidopsis. However, this response was not observed in a homozygous T-DNA insertion mutant where ASPG genes had been inactivated. Under nitrogen-sufficient conditions, the ASPG mutant had elevated levels of free asparagine in mature seed. This phenotype was observed exclusively under conditions of low illumination, when a low ratio of carbon to nitrogen was translocated to the seed. Mutants deficient in one or both asparaginases were more sensitive than wild-type to inhibition of primary root elongation and root hair emergence by L-asparagine as a single nitrogen source. This enhanced inhibition was associated with increased accumulation of asparagine in the root of the double aspga1-1/-b1-1 mutant. This indicates that inhibition of root growth is likely elicited by asparagine itself or an asparagine-derived metabolite, other than the products of asparaginase, aspartic acid or ammonia. During germination, a fusion between the ASPGA1 promoter and beta-glucuronidase was expressed in endosperm cells starting at the micropylar end. Expression was initially high throughout the root and hypocotyl, but became restricted to the root tip after three days, which may indicate a transition to nitrogen-heterotrophic growth.

  3. Hair breakage as a presenting sign of early or occult central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: clinicopathologic findings in 9 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Valerie D; Wright, Dakara Rucker; Davis, Erica C; Sperling, Leonard C

    2012-09-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is the most common form of cicatricial alopecia in African American women. Treatment options are limited and mostly aimed at halting further hair loss but rarely result in hair regrowth. Therefore, it is important to recognize early clinical signs, perform a confirmatory biopsy, and begin treatment promptly. We have observed that hair breakage may be a key sign of early central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, and this association is not clearly described in the literature. Nine patients with hair breakage on the vertex with or without scalp symptoms underwent scalp biopsies as part of their evaluation. Of these, 8 had histologic samples adequate for complete interpretation: 5 specimens (63%) showed histologic changes typical of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, with 1 of these showing advanced end-stage changes of cicatricial alopecia. Two (25%) revealed premature desquamation of the inner root sheath as the sole finding suggestive of early central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia and 1 (13%) was normal. Although hair breakage can have multiple causes, early central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia must be considered in the differential diagnosis, particularly in women of African ancestry. Histologic evaluation may reveal early or late findings that can help establish the diagnosis.

  4. Photodynamic therapy for hair removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. M. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted hair is one of the most common medical problems affecting women of reproductive age inducing a lot of psychological stress and threatening their femininity and self-esteem. Old methods of removing unwanted hair include shaving, waxing, chemical depilation, and electrolysis, all of which have temporary results. However laser-assisted hair removal is the most efficient method of long-term hair removal currently available. It is desirable to develop a reduced cost photodynamic therapy (PDT system whose properties should include high efficiency and low side-effects. Method: Mice skin tissues were used in this study and divided into six groups such as controls, free methylene blue (MB incubation, liposome methylene blue (MB incubation, laser without methylene blue (MB, free methylene blue (MB for 3 and 4 hrs and laser, liposome methylene blue (MB for 3 hrs and laser. Methylene blue (MBwas applied to wax epilated areas. The areas were irradiated with CW He-Ne laser system that emits orange-red light with wavelength 632.8 nm and 10 mW at energy density of 5 J/ cm2 for 10 minutes. The UV-visible absorption spectrum was collected by Cary spectrophotometer. Results: Methylene blue (MB is selectively absorbed by actively growing hair follicles due to its cationic property. Methylene blue (MBuntreated sections showed that hair follicle and sebaceous gland are intact and there is no change due to the laser exposure. Free methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed that He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles, leaving an intact epidermis. Treated section with free methylene blue (MB for 4 hrs showed degeneration and necrosis in hair follicle, leaving an intact epidermis. Liposomal methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles with intradermal leucocytic infiltration. Conclusions: Low power CW He:Ne laser and methylene blue (MB offered a successful PDT system

  5. Determination of uranium in human hair by acid digestion and FIAS-ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonnen, R.; Kol, R.; Laichter, Y.; Marcus, P.; Lorber, A.; Karpas, Z.; Halicz, L.

    2000-01-01

    The content of heavy metals in human hair may serve as an indicator of occupational or environmental exposure of metal compounds. However, before such exposure can be determined, the level of the element in a 'normal' population must be established. The concentration of uranium in human hair was measured by flow injection - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FIAS-ICPMS) after acid digestion of the hair samples. All hair samples were rinsed in order to remove external contamination prior to the digestion in a 2:1 solution of concentrated nitric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide. The limit of detection of the method, for a 50 mg hair sample, was 0.015 μg/g, mainly due to the presence of impurities in the hydrogen peroxide. The range of uranium concentration in the initial test group was found to be 0.01-0.18 μg/g. The mean and median values of the entire study population were 0.062 and 0.050 μg U/g hair, respectively. Differences between the following sub-populations: male and female, smokers and non-smokers and people below and above 45 years of age were examined. The only statistically significant difference was found in the latter group (p=0.03). (author)

  6. Automatic hair detection in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian, Pauline; Dehais, Christophe; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for segmenting the hair region in uncontrolled, real life conditions images. Our method is based on a simple statistical hair shape model representing the upper hair part. We detect this region by minimizing an energy which uses active shape and active contour....... The upper hair region then allows us to learn the hair appearance parameters (color and texture) for the image considered. Finally, those parameters drive a pixel-wise segmentation technique that yields the desired (complete) hair region. We demonstrate the applicability of our method on several real images....

  7. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  8. Analysis of integrated multiple 'omics' datasets reveals the mechanisms of initiation and determination in the formation of tuberous roots in Rehmannia glutinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingjie; Yang, Yanhui; Li, Xinyu; Gu, Li; Wang, Fengji; Feng, Fajie; Tian, Yunhe; Wang, Fengqing; Wang, Xiaoran; Lin, Wenxiong; Chen, Xinjian; Zhang, Zhongyi

    2015-09-01

    All tuberous roots in Rehmannia glutinosa originate from the expansion of fibrous roots (FRs), but not all FRs can successfully transform into tuberous roots. This study identified differentially expressed genes and proteins associated with the expansion of FRs, by comparing the tuberous root at expansion stages (initiated tuberous root, ITRs) and FRs at the seedling stage (initiated FRs, IFRs). The role of miRNAs in the expansion of FRs was also explored using the sRNA transcriptome and degradome to identify miRNAs and their target genes that were differentially expressed between ITRs and FRs at the mature stage (unexpanded FRs, UFRs, which are unable to expand into ITRs). A total of 6032 genes and 450 proteins were differentially expressed between ITRs and IFRs. Integrated analyses of these data revealed several genes and proteins involved in light signalling, hormone response, and signal transduction that might participate in the induction of tuberous root formation. Several genes related to cell division and cell wall metabolism were involved in initiating the expansion of IFRs. Of 135 miRNAs differentially expressed between ITRs and UFRs, there were 27 miRNAs whose targets were specifically identified in the degradome. Analysis of target genes showed that several miRNAs specifically expressed in UFRs were involved in the degradation of key genes required for the formation of tuberous roots. As far as could be ascertained, this is the first time that the miRNAs that control the transition of FRs to tuberous roots in R. glutinosa have been identified. This comprehensive analysis of 'omics' data sheds new light on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of tuberous roots formation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Topical Valproate Solution for Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kakunje

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Valproate is used regularly in the treatment of various seizure disorders, bipolar disorder, migraine prophylaxis and off label in many other conditions. Alopecia or hair loss is cosmetic side effect of oral valproate administration. Hair loss with valproate is diffused, non-scarring and dose related. A large number of drugs may interfere with the hair cycle and produce hair loss. We have only a few drugs like Minoxidil, Finasteride used for hair regeneration and both have its own side effects and limitations. In contrast to oral ingestions of valproate causing hair loss, early experiments with topical Valproic acid cream showed hair regeneration. Valproic acid cream is currently unavailable in the market, alternatively, we do have valproate and divalproex solutions available in various strengths which have a potential to be used topically for hair regeneration. The side effects and cost of topical valproate solution could be much less than the available options in the market. Valproate solution topically has the potential to be used for hair growth.

  10. Hair Transplantation in Migraine Headache Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ors, Safvet

    2017-09-01

    Migraine headache is a primary neurologic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. As a consequence, quality of life is diminished, productivity suffers (through loss of work force), and treatment costs are substantial. The occurrence rate in the general population is quite high, with women accounting for 3 of every 4 cases. Between January 2011 and May 2012, a total of 221 patients received hair transplants. Another 590 patients underwent hair transplantation between June 2012 and December 2016. Initially (first interval), patients were not questioned on migraine headaches in preoperative visits, but questioning was regularly done thereafter. Overall, 150 patients given transplants in the first period were surveyed by phone regarding preoperative migraine headaches. Aside from the 1 incidental discovery, no other instances of migraine emerged. Headache origins were occipital-frontal in 2 patients, occipital-temporal in 2 patients, and occipital-temporal-frontal in the 2 others. Donor/receiver areas in hair transplantation and migraine trigger zones shared locations. Headache frequencies ranged from 4 to 8 days per month (average, 6 days), and pain scores were 5-8 (10 being highest). Duration of pain was 3-5 hours (average, 4 hours). All six patients had used various medications, such as triptans, ergot, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, before hair transplantation. The 1 female patient was a 32-year-old seeking treatment for alopecia, with a 6-year history of migraine headaches. The male patients presenting with androgenetic alopecia (grade 4-5 by Norwood classification) had 6- to 20-year migrainous histories. After hair transplantation, each migraine sufferer was checked once in the first month and then once every 3 months. Those who could not appear in person after the first year were evaluated by phone every 3 months. Migraine headaches had ceased in all 6 patients, none of whom used medical treatments for migraines thereafter. The postoperative

  11. Hair cell counts in a rat model of sound damage: Effects of tissue preparation & identification of regions of hair cell loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Christopher; Kennon-McGill, Stefanie; Freemyer, Andrea; Shum, Axel; Staecker, Hinrich; Durham, Dianne

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to intense sound can damage or kill cochlear hair cells (HC). This loss of input typically manifests as noise induced hearing loss, but it can also be involved in the initiation of other auditory disorders such as tinnitus or hyperacusis. In this study we quantify changes in HC number following exposure to one of four sound damage paradigms. We exposed adult, anesthetized Long-Evans rats to a unilateral 16 kHz pure tone that varied in intensity (114 dB or 118 dB) and duration (1, 2, or 4 h) and sacrificed animals 2-4 weeks later. We compared two different methods of tissue preparation, plastic embedding/sectioning and whole mount dissection, for quantifying hair cell loss as a function of frequency. We found that the two methods of tissue preparation produced largely comparable cochleograms, with whole mount dissections allowing a more rapid evaluation of hair cell number. Both inner and outer hair cell loss was observed throughout the length of the cochlea irrespective of sound damage paradigm. Inner HC loss was either equal to or greater than outer HC loss. Increasing the duration of sound exposures resulted in more severe HC loss, which included all HC lesions observed in an analogous shorter duration exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Module-based complexity formation: periodic patterning in feathers and hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Yeh, Chao-Yuan; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Widelitz, Randall

    2013-01-01

    Patterns describe order which emerges from homogeneity. Complex patterns on the integument are striking because of their visibility throughout an organism’s lifespan. Periodic patterning is an effective design because the ensemble of hair or feather follicles (modules) allows the generation of complexity, including regional variations and cyclic regeneration, giving the skin appendages a new lease on life. Spatial patterns include the arrangements of feathers and hairs in specific number, size, and spacing.We explorehowa field of equivalent progenitor cells can generate periodically arranged modules based on genetic information, physical–chemical rules and developmental timing. Reconstitution experiments suggest a competitive equilibrium regulated by activators/inhibitors involving Turing reaction-diffusion. Temporal patterns result from oscillating stem cell activities within each module (microenvironment regulation), reflected as growth (anagen) and resting (telogen) phases during the cycling of feather and hair follicles. Stimulating modules with activators initiates the spread of regenerative hair waves, while global inhibitors outside each module (macroenvironment) prevent this. Different wave patterns can be simulated by cellular automata principles. Hormonal status and seasonal changes can modulate appendage phenotypes, leading to ‘organ metamorphosis’, with multiple ectodermal organ phenotypes generated from the same precursors. We discuss potential novel evolutionary steps using this module-based complexity in several amniote integument organs, exemplified by the spectacular peacock feather pattern. We thus explore the application of the acquired knowledge of patterning in tissue engineering. New hair follicles can be generated after wounding. Hairs and feathers can be reconstituted through self-organization of dissociated progenitor cells. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Mutations in Three Genes Encoding Proteins Involved in Hair Shaft Formation Cause Uncombable Hair Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ü Basmanav, F Buket; Cau, Laura; Tafazzoli, Aylar

    2016-01-01

    Uncombable hair syndrome (UHS), also known as "spun glass hair syndrome," "pili trianguli et canaliculi," or "cheveux incoiffables" is a rare anomaly of the hair shaft that occurs in children and improves with age. UHS is characterized by dry, frizzy, spangly, and often fair hair that is resistant...... in the majority of UHS case subjects. The two enzymes PADI3 and TGM3, responsible for posttranslational protein modifications, and their target structural protein TCHH are all involved in hair shaft formation. Elucidation of the molecular outcomes of the disease-causing mutations by cell culture experiments...... and tridimensional protein models demonstrated clear differences in the structural organization and activity of mutant and wild-type proteins. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed morphological alterations in hair coat of Padi3 knockout mice. All together, these findings elucidate the molecular genetic...

  14. Missing Strands? Dealing with Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 Print this issue Missing Strands? Dealing with Hair Loss En español Send us your comments Hair loss is often associated with men and aging, but ... or their treatments, and many other things cause hair loss. The most common type of hair loss is ...

  15. Hair transplantation: Standard guidelines of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwardhan Narendra

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Hair transplantation is a surgical method of hair restoration. Physician qualification : The physician performing hair transplantation should have completed post graduation training in dermatology; he should have adequate background training in dermatosurgery at a centre that provides education training in cutaneous surgery. In addition, he should obtain specific hair transplantation training or experience at the surgical table(hands on under the supervision of an appropriately trained and experienced hair transplant surgeon. In addition to the surgical technique, training should include instruction in local anesthesia and emergency resuscitation and care. Facility : Hair transplantation can be performed safely in an outpatient day case dermatosurgical facility. The day case theatre should be equipped with facilities for monitoring and handling emergencies. A plan for handling emergencies should be in place and all nursing staff should be familiar with the emergency plan. It is preferable, but not mandatory to have a standby anesthetist. Indication for hair transplantation is pattern hair loss in males and also in females. In female pattern hair loss, investigations to rule out any underlying cause for hair loss such as anemia and thyroid deficiency should be carried out. Hair transplantation can also be performed in selected cases of scarring alopecia, eyebrows and eye lashes, by experienced surgeons. Preoperative counseling and informed consent :Detailed consent form listing details about the procedure and possible complications should be signed by the patient. The consent form should specifically state the limitations of the procedure and if more procedures are needed for proper results, it should be clearly mentioned. Patient should be provided with adequate opportunity to seek information through brochures, computer presentations, and personal discussions. Need for concomitant medical therapy should be emphasized. Patients should understand

  16. Hair Shaft Abnormality in Children: a Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Rahmatpour Rokni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Hair is an ectodermal structure, and its formation is regulated by master genes important in embryology. Hair shaft consists of three major regions: the medulla, cortex and cuticle. Hair shaft abnormality will divide structural hair abnormalities into two broad categories - those associated with increased hair fragility and those not associated with increased hair fragility. We conducted a review study to assess hair shaft abnormality in children. Materials and Methods We conducted a review of all papers published on hair shaft abnormalities. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar on papers publish from 1990 to 2016. The search terms were: hair shaft abnormality, Hair loss, Hair fragility. All abstracts and full text English-language articles were studied. Results While common developmental and structural features are shared in hair follicles and hair shafts. Anomalies of the hair shaft are separated into those with and those without increased hair fragility. Conclusion Although hair has no vital function, it may serve as an indicator for human health. Clinical and morphological hair abnormalities can be clues to specific complex disorders. Hair shaft abnormalities can be inherited or acquired, can reflect a local problem or a systemic disease.

  17. Diagnosis of Hair Loss: Clinical features of common causes of hair loss

    OpenAIRE

    Coupe, Robert L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Common causes of hair loss include androgenic hair loss, alopecia areata, trichotillomania, tinea capitis, telogen effluvium, and traction alopecia. The author discusses their distinguishing clinical features and those of less common alopecias.

  18. Hair analysis using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongkou.

    1983-10-01

    A simple new technique for examining single hair strands to obtain linear mass densities, longitudinal profiles and transverse distribution of each trace element is described. It is primarily based upon the PIXE technique, in combination with proton back- scattering. The three main components of this technique are: 1) An accurate way of using an interpolation method to evaluate the magnitude of the correction factor accounting for the proton energy loss and X-ray absorption in the bulk of the hair is formulated; 2) A simple method to qualitatively determine the transverse distribution of each trace element in a hair is in- troduced and proved to be effective; 3) Proton back-scattering is proved to be capable of providing an ideal linear measure of the geometric hair diameter, one of the most important parameters in quantifying the results of PIXE measurements in mass concentrations. Using the technique, a PIXE system designed and constructed for routine longitudinal scanning of single hair strands is also described. (Author)

  19. Transient hair loss in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria treated with omalizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noshela Ghazanfar, M; Thomsen, S F

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Omalizumab (anti-IgE) is used as add-on therapy for antihistamine refractory chronic urticaria patients. The most commonly reported adverse effects were headache, arthralgia, upper respiratory infections, fatigue, nausea and injection-site reactions. However, lately a few cases of hair...... loss have been reported. We describe a case of transient hair loss in a young female patient after initiating treatment with omalizumab. Despite this side effect, the patient continued with omalizumab treatment for 10 months with good effect....

  20. Hair Loss: Common Causes and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, T Grant; Slomiany, W Paul; Allison, Robert

    2017-09-15

    Hair loss is often distressing and can have a significant effect on the patient's quality of life. Patients may present to their family physician first with diffuse or patchy hair loss. Scarring alopecia is best evaluated by a dermatologist. Nonscarring alopecias can be readily diagnosed and treated in the family physician's office. Androgenetic alopecia can be diagnosed clinically and treated with minoxidil. Alopecia areata is diagnosed by typical patches of hair loss and is self-limited. Tinea capitis causes patches of alopecia that may be erythematous and scaly and must be treated systemically. Telogen effluvium is a nonscarring, noninflammatory alopecia of relatively sudden onset caused by physiologic or emotional stress. Once the precipitating cause is removed, the hair typically will regrow. Trichotillomania is an impulse-control disorder; treatment is aimed at controlling the underlying psychiatric condition. Trichorrhexis nodosa occurs when hairs break secondary to trauma and is often a result of hair styling or overuse of hair products. Anagen effluvium is the abnormal diffuse loss of hair during the growth phase caused by an event that impairs the mitotic activity of the hair follicle, most commonly chemotherapy. Physician support is especially important for patients in this situation.

  1. Hair dosimetry following neutron irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Briot, F; Distinguin, S; Boisson, P; Exmelin, L; Racine, Y; Berard, P; Flüry-Herard, A; Miele, A; Fottorino, R

    2007-05-01

    Use of hair as a biological dosimeter of neutron exposure was proposed a few years ago. To date, the (32)S(n,p)(32)P reaction in hair with a threshold of 2.5 MeV is the best choice to determine the fast neutron dose using body activation. This information is essential with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the organism. This is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction from the surface to the deeper tissues. This evaluation is essential to the adapted management of irradiated victims by specialized medical staff. Comparison exercises between clinical biochemistry laboratories from French sites (the CEA and COGEMA) and from the IRSN were carried out to validate the measurement of (32)P activity in hair and to improve the techniques used to perform this examination. Hair was placed on a phantom and was irradiated at different doses in the SILENE reactor (Valduc, France). Different parameters were tested: variation of hair type, minimum weight of hair sample, hair wash before measurement, delivery period of results, and different irradiation configurations. The results obtained in these comparison exercises by the different laboratories showed an excellent correlation. This allowed the assessment of a dose-activity relationship and confirmed the feasibility and the interest of (32)P measurement in hair following fast neutron irradiation.

  2. Topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride: An account of maintenance of hair density after replacing oral finasteride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Chandrashekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Finasteride acts by reducing dihydrotestosterone levels, thereby inhibiting miniaturization of hair follicles in patients with androgenetic alopecia (AGA. Oral finasteride is associated with side effects such as decreased libido, sexual dysfunction, and gynecomastia. Aim: The aim of the following study is to assess the efficacy of maintaining hair growth with 5% topical minoxidil fortified with 0.1% finasteride in patients with AGA after initial treatment with 5% topical minoxidil and oral finasteride for two years. Materials and Methods: A retrospective assessment was done in 50 male patients aged 20-40 years with AGA. All the patients had been initially treated with topical minoxidil and oral finasteride for a period of two years, after which the oral finasteride was replaced with topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride. Five of 50 patients had discontinued the treatment for a period of 8-12 months and were then resumed with only topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride. The patients′ case sheets and photographs were reviewed by independent observers and the efficacy of minoxidil-finasteride combination was assessed. Results: Of the 45 patients who underwent a continuous treatment for AGA, 84.44% maintained a good hair density with topical minoxidil-finasteride combinatio. Of the five patients who discontinued oral finasteride for 8-12 months, four demonstrated good improvement in hair density when treatment was resumed with topical minoxidil-finasteride combination. Conclusion: Topical finasteride can be considered for hair density maintenance after initial improvement with oral finasteride, thereby obviating the indefinite use of oral finasteride.

  3. Hair Loss Following The Topiramate Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ghafoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Genetics, hormone profiles and other physiologic factors can cause hair loss. Medication induced hair loss is an occasional side effect of many psychopharmaceuticals. It can reduce medication compliance if not discovered and treated. We present a 18 year old female with migraine headache who developed hair loss after 3 months of receiving topiramate treatment. CASE REPORT: 18 year old female had been suffering from headache visited in psychiatric clinic. She agreed to a treatment with topiramate (50mg per day for Migraine headache. 3 months later, the patient complained of significant hair loss. Topiramate tapered to 25 mg/day and stopped. Hair loss stopped after topiramate withdrawal. Two weeks after reintroduction of topiramate, hair loss developed again. The medication was stopped and hair loss stopped again. CONCLUSION: Topiramate can cause hair loss. Although the condition is not life-threatening, a decrease in medication compliance can cause recurrence of the underlying disease. It is necessary to ask the patient at visits about it.

  4. Root developmental adaptation to phosphate starvation: better safe than sorry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péret, Benjamin; Clément, Mathilde; Nussaume, Laurent; Desnos, Thierry

    2011-08-01

    Phosphorus is a crucial component of major organic molecules such as nucleic acids, ATP and membrane phospholipids. It is present in soils in the form of inorganic phosphate (Pi), which has low availability and poor mobility. To cope with Pi limitations, plants have evolved complex adaptive responses that include morphological and physiological modifications. This review describes how the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana adapts its root system architecture to phosphate deficiency through inhibition of primary root growth, increase in lateral root formation and growth and production of root hairs, which all promote topsoil foraging. A better understanding of plant adaptation to low phosphate will open the way to increased phosphorus use efficiency by crops. Such an improvement is needed in order to adjust how we manage limited phosphorus stocks and to reduce the disastrous environmental effects of phosphate fertilizers overuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fine-tuning by strigolactones of root response to low phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapulnik, Yoram; Koltai, Hinanit

    2016-03-01

    Strigolactones are plant hormones that regulate the development of different plant parts. In the shoot, they regulate axillary bud outgrowth and in the root, root architecture and root-hair length and density. Strigolactones are also involved with communication in the rhizosphere, including enhancement of hyphal branching of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Here we present the role and activity of strigolactones under conditions of phosphate deprivation. Under these conditions, their levels of biosynthesis and exudation increase, leading to changes in shoot and root development. At least for the latter, these changes are likely to be associated with alterations in auxin transport and sensitivity. On the other hand, strigolactones may positively affect plant-mycorrhiza interactions and thereby promote phosphate acquisition by the plant. Strigolactones may be a way for plants to fine-tune their growth pattern under phosphate deprivation. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Can an "Aesthetic" Intervention (Braided Hair Coil) Cause Hair Loss After an Aesthetic Operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionyssopoulos, Alexander; Papaconstantinou, Antony; Stoltidou, Alexandra; Spyropoulou, Georgia-Alexandra

    2014-07-01

    Postoperative pressure alopecia (PPA), defined as hair loss caused by prolonged pressure on the patient's scalp during surgery, is an uncommon condition after aesthetic surgery. Originally, it was described for patients who underwent lengthy cardiovascular and gynecologic operations. The authors present a rare case, in which hair loss occurred after secondary breast augmentation (replacement of breast implants). The PPA appeared in the occipitoparietal region of the patient's scalp approximately 2 weeks after surgery. The operation was completed in less than 3 hours, without any fluctuations in the patient's blood pressure or any unusual blood loss. There were no other precipitating factors such as anemia or coagulopathies. The probable cause of this unexpected result was the patient's braided hair coil, which had not been noted before the operation. The patient habitually, and on the day of her operation, combed her hair into a braided coil, which placed extra pressure on the occipitoparietal region. The hair loss was temporary, and hair regrowth was complete within 2 months. This incident may have been avoided if the braided hair coil had been noted by nursing or other medical staff preoperatively. Repositioning the head every 30 minutes and providing adequate head padding during surgery are advised to protect the patient and prevent such incidents. 5. © 2014 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.

  7. Eps8 regulates hair bundle length and functional maturation of mammalian auditory hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Zampini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hair cells of the mammalian cochlea are specialized for the dynamic coding of sound stimuli. The transduction of sound waves into electrical signals depends upon mechanosensitive hair bundles that project from the cell's apical surface. Each stereocilium within a hair bundle is composed of uniformly polarized and tightly packed actin filaments. Several stereociliary proteins have been shown to be associated with hair bundle development and function and are known to cause deafness in mice and humans when mutated. The growth of the stereociliar actin core is dynamically regulated at the actin filament barbed ends in the stereociliary tip. We show that Eps8, a protein with actin binding, bundling, and barbed-end capping activities in other systems, is a novel component of the hair bundle. Eps8 is localized predominantly at the tip of the stereocilia and is essential for their normal elongation and function. Moreover, we have found that Eps8 knockout mice are profoundly deaf and that IHCs, but not OHCs, fail to mature into fully functional sensory receptors. We propose that Eps8 directly regulates stereocilia growth in hair cells and also plays a crucial role in the physiological maturation of mammalian cochlear IHCs. Together, our results indicate that Eps8 is critical in coordinating the development and functionality of mammalian auditory hair cells.

  8. Eps8 regulates hair bundle length and functional maturation of mammalian auditory hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Valeria; Rüttiger, Lukas; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Furness, David N; Waldhaus, Jörg; Xiong, Hao; Hackney, Carole M; Holley, Matthew C; Offenhauser, Nina; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Knipper, Marlies; Masetto, Sergio; Marcotti, Walter

    2011-04-01

    Hair cells of the mammalian cochlea are specialized for the dynamic coding of sound stimuli. The transduction of sound waves into electrical signals depends upon mechanosensitive hair bundles that project from the cell's apical surface. Each stereocilium within a hair bundle is composed of uniformly polarized and tightly packed actin filaments. Several stereociliary proteins have been shown to be associated with hair bundle development and function and are known to cause deafness in mice and humans when mutated. The growth of the stereociliar actin core is dynamically regulated at the actin filament barbed ends in the stereociliary tip. We show that Eps8, a protein with actin binding, bundling, and barbed-end capping activities in other systems, is a novel component of the hair bundle. Eps8 is localized predominantly at the tip of the stereocilia and is essential for their normal elongation and function. Moreover, we have found that Eps8 knockout mice are profoundly deaf and that IHCs, but not OHCs, fail to mature into fully functional sensory receptors. We propose that Eps8 directly regulates stereocilia growth in hair cells and also plays a crucial role in the physiological maturation of mammalian cochlear IHCs. Together, our results indicate that Eps8 is critical in coordinating the development and functionality of mammalian auditory hair cells.

  9. Pollution Damage and Protection of Asian Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke was used to simulate a polluted environment and an experiment was performed to reveal how virgin and bleached hair are damaged by a polluted environment. The dry/wet combability, surface contact angle, tryptophan content, and cuticle morphology of the smoke exposed hair were evaluated, and compared to unexposed virgin hair. The results showed that pollution exposure can cause significant chemical damage to hair. In particular, virgin hair exposure to pollution can cause damage to the hair cuticles (higher wet/dry combing, protein degradation, and a more hydrophilic hair surface. The experiment also demonstrated that the styling polymer, polyimide-1 (isobutylene/dimethyl amino propyl maleimide/ethoxylated maleimide/maleic acid copolymer, can provide effective protection against such hair damage.

  10. Mercury in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, P.A.; Cruz, C.C.; Verceluz, F.P.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair obtained from individuals residing in five different localities in the Philippines - Metro Manila, Naga City in Bicol, Bataan, Oriental Mindoro, and Palawan is presented. An overall mean of 1.46 ug/g of hair was obtained for all samples excluding those from Palawan and represents a baseline value.'' In terms of the mercury levels found in hair, the Honda Bay area in Palawan is, relatively, a ''contaminated area.'' (author)

  11. The Current Status of Microscopical Hair Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F. Rowe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microscopical comparison of human hairs has been accepted in courts of law for over a century, recent advances in DNA technology have called this type of forensic examination into question. In a number of cases, post-conviction DNA testing has exonerated defendants who were convicted in part on the results of microscopical hair comparisons. A federal judge has held a Daubert hearing on the microscopical comparison of human hairs and has concluded that this type of examination does not meet the criteria for admission of scientific evidence in federal courts. A review of the available scientific literature on microscopical hair comparisons (including studies conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation leads to three conclusions: (1 microscopical comparisons of human hairs can yield scientifically defensible conclusions that can contribute to criminal investigations and criminal prosecutions, (2 the reliability of microscopical hair comparisons is strongly affected by the training of the forensic hair examiner, (3 forensic hair examiners cannot offer estimates of the probability of a match of a questioned hair with a hair from a randomly selected person. In order for microscopical hair examinations to survive challenges under the U.S. Supreme Court’s Daubert decision, hair microscopists must be better trained and undergo frequent proficiency testing. More research on the error rates of microscopical hair comparisons should be undertaken, and guidelines for the permissible interpretations of such comparisons should be established. Until these issues have been addressed and satisfactorily resolved, microscopical hair comparisons should be regarded by law enforcement agencies and courts of law as merely presumptive in nature, and all microscopical hair comparisons should be confirmed by nuclear DNA profiling or mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

  12. "Castor Oil" - The Culprit of Acute Hair Felting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduri, V Ramya; Vedachalam, Ahalya; Kiruthika, S

    2017-01-01

    Acute hair felting is a rare disorder of scalp hair. In this condition, the hair becomes twisted, entangled as a hard stony mass resembling a bird's nest. Sudden hair matting has been reported earlier in the literature after vigorous use of chemical and herbal shampoos. Plica polonica is a patchy area of hair matting occurring in due course of time in neglected hair or underlying psychiatric illness. This case is interesting as the whole scalp hair matted immediately after using coconut oil and castor oil following washing. Growing long hair and taking oil bath are cultural and religious customs in South India. The high viscosity of castor oil and long hair had contributed to sudden felting of hair. This disorder of hair is irreversible and the hair should be cut off. Acute nature of this disorder will result in a serious psychological impact on the patient and the family.

  13. Nanotechnology-Based Cosmetics for Hair Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Rosen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a significant indicator of health and can have a major impact on an individual’s cosmetic appearance. Research within the cosmetics industry has revealed that when nanomaterials are engineered into hair care, they can enhance the benefits of active ingredients in order to improve hair cosmesis. Within the cosmetics arena, the unique size and intrinsic properties of nanoparticles can be tailored to target the hair follicle and shaft. This review aims to provide an overview of cosmetic nanocarriers that can be employed to improve the appearance of hair.

  14. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out, but people with naturally lighter hair are just as likely to go gray. From the time a person notices a few gray hairs, it may take more than 10 years for all of that person's hair to turn ... really believe that this happens. Just in case, try not to freak out your ...

  15. Stimulation of hair cells with ultraviolet light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzadeh, Julien B.; Fabella, Brian A.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Hair bundles are specialized organelles that transduce mechanical inputs into electrical outputs. To activate hair cells, physiologists have resorted to mechanical methods of hair-bundle stimulation. Here we describe a new method of hair-bundle stimulation, irradiation with ultraviolet light. A hair bundle illuminated by ultraviolet light rapidly moves towards its tall edge, a motion typically associated with excitatory stimulation. The motion disappears upon tip-link rupture and is associated with the opening of mechanotransduction channels. Hair bundles can be induced to move sinusoidally with oscillatory modulation of the stimulation power. We discuss the implications of ultraviolet stimulation as a novel hair-bundle stimulus.

  16. Exposure to nickel by hair mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Izabela; Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wołowiec, Paulina; Saeid, Agnieszka; Górecki, Henryk

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to nickel from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from subjects, including 87 males and 178 females (22 ± 2 years). The samples of hair were analyzed by ICP-OES. The effect of several factors on nickel content in hair was examined: lifestyle habits (e.g. hair coloring, hair spray, hair straighteners, hair drier, drugs); dietary factors (e.g. yoghurts, blue cheese, lettuce, lemon, mushroom, egg, butter); other (e.g. solarium, cigarette smoking, tap water pipes, tinned food, PVC foil, photocopier, amalgam filling). These outcomes were reached by linking the results of nickel level in hair with the results of questionnaire survey. Basing on the results it can be concluded that exposure to nickel ions can occur from different sources: lifestyle, eating habits and environmental exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... Women normally produce low levels of male hormones (androgens). If your body makes too much of this ...

  18. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  19. Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Piérard-Franchimont

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium, alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods.

  20. Brief communication: Hair density and body mass in mammals and the evolution of human hairlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Aaron A

    2013-09-01

    Humans are unusual among mammals in appearing hairless. Several hypotheses propose explanations for this phenotype, but few data are available to test these hypotheses. To elucidate the evolutionary history of human "hairlessness," a comparative approach is needed. One previous study on primate hair density concluded that great apes have systematically less dense hair than smaller primates. While there is a negative correlation between body size and hair density, it remains unclear whether great apes have less dense hair than is expected for their body size. To revisit the scaling relationship between hair density and body size in mammals, I compiled data from the literature on 23 primates and 29 nonprimate mammals and conducted Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares regressions. Among anthropoids, there is a significant negative correlation between hair density and body mass. Chimpanzees display the largest residuals, exhibiting less dense hair than is expected for their body size. There is a negative correlation between hair density and body mass among the broader mammalian sample, although the functional significance of this scaling relationship remains to be tested. Results indicate that all primates, and chimpanzees in particular, are relatively hairless compared to other mammals. This suggests that there may have been selective pressures acting on the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees that led to an initial reduction in hair density. To further understand the evolution of human hairlessness, a systematic study of hair density and physiology in a wide range of species is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pulling Biting, chewing or eating pulled-out hair Playing with pulled-out hair or rubbing it across ... of trichotillomania: Family history. Genetics may play a role in the development of trichotillomania, and the disorder ...

  2. Improved biolistic transfection of hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhao

    Full Text Available Transient transfection of hair cells has proven challenging. Here we describe modifications to the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun that, along with an optimized protocol, improve transfection of bullfrog, chick, and mouse hair cells. The increased penetrating power afforded by our method allowed us to transfect mouse hair cells from the basal side, through the basilar membrane; this configuration protects hair bundles from damage during the procedure. We characterized the efficiency of transfection of mouse hair cells with fluorescently-tagged actin fusion protein using both the optimized procedure and a published procedure; while the efficiency of the two methods was similar, the morphology of transfected hair cells was improved with the new procedure. In addition, using the improved method, we were able to transfect hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus and chick cochlea for the first time. We used fluorescent-protein fusions of harmonin b (USH1C and PMCA2 (ATP2B2; plasma-membrane Ca(2+-ATPase isoform 2 to examine protein distribution in hair cells. While PMCA2-EGFP localization was similar to endogenous PMCA2 detected with antibodies, high levels of harmonin-EGFP were found at stereocilia tapers in bullfrog and chick, but not mouse; by contrast, harmonin-EGFP was concentrated in stereocilia tips in mouse hair cells.

  3. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  4. The use of human hair as biodosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepe Çam, S.; Polat, M.; Seyhan, N.

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of human hair samples as biologic dosimeter was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The hair samples were obtained from female volunteers and classified according to the color, age and whether they are natural or dyed. Natural black, brown, red, blonde and dyed black hair samples were irradiated at low doses (5–50 Gy) and high doses (75–750 Gy) by gamma source giving the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/s in The Sarayköy Establishment of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority. While the peak heights and g-values (2.0021–2.0023) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent, the peak-to-peak line widths were varied according to natural or dyed hair (ΔH pp : 0.522–0.744 mT). In all samples, the linear dose–response curves at low doses saturated after ∼300 Gy. In black hair samples taken from different individuals, differences in the structure of the spectrum and signal intensities were not observed. The EPR signal intensities of samples stored at room temperature for 22 days fell to their half-values in 44 h in black hair, 41 h in blonde and brown hairs, 35 h in dyed black hair and in 17 h in red hair. The activation energies of samples annealed at high temperatures for different periods of time were correlated well with those obtained in the literature. In conclusion, hair samples can be used as a biological dosimeter considering the limitations showed in this study. - Highlights: • Applied electron spin resonance spectroscopy to human hair used in biodosimetry. • Showed the limitations of hair samples using as a biological dosimeter. • Provided more systematic information on radiation-induced radicals in hair. • Found at least 3 different contributions in the RIS. That is the major finding of this work

  5. Elution behaviors of elements from the hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Junko; Fukushima, Ichiro; Imahori, Akira

    1981-01-01

    The elution of the neutron activated elements out of hair soaked in some organic solvents and EDTA solution was studied. Soakage of the hair sample, which was washed with water and acetone in advance as IAEA's proposal, in ether and acetone for 30 minutes each resulted in no elution of Hg, Zn, Co and Se. Elution of Zn and Co from the powdered hair sample soaked in 0.1 M EDTA solution was rapid, while Zn did not elute out from the cut hair (2 -- 3 mm length) on the same condition. Hg, Se and Au were not eluted out by 0.1 M EDTA solution in the both case of cut hair and of powdered hair. Br was removed by 0.1 M EDTA solution from the cut hair and from the powdered hair with equal ease. (author)

  6. Root-cause Investigation for No Setback Initiation at Liquid Zone Control Unit Perturbation in CANDU6 Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Donghwan; Kim, Youngae; Kim, Sungmin [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Liquid zone control system (LZCS) is one of the indigenous systems in CANDU type reactor for reactor reactivity control. The LZCS is filled with light water and used to provide a continuous fine control of the reactivity and the reactor power level. This system is also designed to accomplish spatial control of the power distribution, automatically, which prevents xenon induced power oscillations. As the tilt control term is phased out, it is replaced by a level control term, which tends to drive the individual zone levels towards the average level of all the zones. Most of CANDU reactors have been experienced these events. Generally setback or stepback conditions are on when variables of spatial control off, high zone power, etc. are reached to the initiating conditions before ROP trip. But the condition of setback or stepback is not initiated before ROP trip sometime. In this study the root-causes for this event are investigated, and the impact assessment is performed by physics computational modeling. To investigate the root-cause of ROP trip before initiating setback at abnormal operating condition, some LZC perturbation models were simulated and investigated the neutron flux readings of zone detector and ROP detector. Two root-causes were founded. The first, flux variation by water level change is more gradual than other zones due to design characteristics in zone 03. The second, ROP detector (SDS no. 2 3G) in the near zone 03 is very sensitive below 40% of water level due to ROP detector installed position. Even though setback is initiated earlier than ROP trip in case of zone 03 perturbation, ROP trip will be occurred because power decreasing rate is very slow(0.1%/sec) on setback condition.

  7. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Incorporation of trace elements into hair structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limic, N.; Valkovic, V.

    1985-01-01

    Examining blood and urine provides an immense insight into human diseases. It is natural to hope that the hair studies will be added routinely to the examinations. Human head hair is a recording filament which can reflect metabolic changes of many elements over a long period of time. The idea of hair analysis is very inviting, because hair is easily samples, shipped and analyzed. In this paper the authors propose a method for the determination of some diffusion parameters from experimental data on the distribution of trace element concentrations in hair and then a method for the determination of the radial diffusion constants of Se, Zn and Pb. The authors' model of hair structure with respect to diffusion is based on the supposition of cross-sectional homogeneity as well as the longitudinal homogeneity of hair. This supposition implies nonisotropic diffusion in hair which is described by two diffusion constants. Diffusion constants can be determined by experiment on wetting hair in solvents or by measurements of natural contamination of hair in air. The first type of experiments can be arranged in various ways to separate radial diffusion from the longitudinal one and, consequently, to determine two diffusion constants from various sets of experiments. The authors' aim is to consider only radial diffusion in hair and to determine the radial diffusion constants of Se, Zn and Pb

  9. Vertical Root Fracture initiation in curved roots after root canal preparation: A dentinal micro-crack analysis with LED transillumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguéns-Vila, Ramón; Martín-Biedma, Benjamín; Varela-Patiño, Purificación; Ruíz-Piñón, Manuel; Castelo-Baz, Pablo

    2017-10-01

    One of the causative factors of root defects is the increased friction produced by rotary instrumentation. A high canal curvature may increase stress, making the tooth more susceptible to dentinal cracks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dentinal micro-crack formation with the ProTaper NEXT and ProTaper Universal systems using LED transillumination, and to analyze the micro-crack generated at the point of maximum canal curvature. 60 human mandibular premolars with curvatures between 30-49° and radii between 2-4 mm were used. The root canals were instrumented using the Protaper Universal® and Protaper NEXT® systems, with the aid of the Proglider® system. The obtained samples were sectioned transversely before subsequent analysis with LED transillumination at 2 mm and 8 mm from the apex and at the point of maximum canal curvature. Defects were scored: 0 for no defects; and 1 for micro-cracks. Root defects were not observed in the control group. The ProTaper NEXT system caused fewer defects (16.7%) than the ProTaper Universal system (40%) ( P Universal system caused significantly more micro-cracks at the point of maximum canal curvature than the ProTaper NEXT system ( P Universal system. A higher prevalence of defects was found at the point of maximum curvature in the ProTaper Universal group. Key words: Curved root, Micro-crack, point of maximum canal curvature, ProTaper NEXT, ProTaper Universal, Vertical root fracture.

  10. Geometric classification of scalp hair for valid drug testing, 6 more reliable than 8 hair curl groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mkentane

    Full Text Available Curly hair is reported to contain higher lipid content than straight hair, which may influence incorporation of lipid soluble drugs. The use of race to describe hair curl variation (Asian, Caucasian and African is unscientific yet common in medical literature (including reports of drug levels in hair. This study investigated the reliability of a geometric classification of hair (based on 3 measurements: the curve diameter, curl index and number of waves.After ethical approval and informed consent, proximal virgin (6cm hair sampled from the vertex of scalp in 48 healthy volunteers were evaluated. Three raters each scored hairs from 48 volunteers at two occasions each for the 8 and 6-group classifications. One rater applied the 6-group classification to 80 additional volunteers in order to further confirm the reliability of this system. The Kappa statistic was used to assess intra and inter rater agreement.Each rater classified 480 hairs on each occasion. No rater classified any volunteer's 10 hairs into the same group; the most frequently occurring group was used for analysis. The inter-rater agreement was poor for the 8-groups (k = 0.418 but improved for the 6-groups (k = 0.671. The intra-rater agreement also improved (k = 0.444 to 0.648 versus 0.599 to 0.836 for 6-groups; that for the one evaluator for all volunteers was good (k = 0.754.Although small, this is the first study to test the reliability of a geometric classification. The 6-group method is more reliable. However, a digital classification system is likely to reduce operator error. A reliable objective classification of human hair curl is long overdue, particularly with the increasing use of hair as a testing substrate for treatment compliance in Medicine.

  11. The actin-binding proteins eps8 and gelsolin have complementary roles in regulating the growth and stability of mechanosensory hair bundles of mammalian cochlear outer hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Olt

    Full Text Available Sound transduction depends upon mechanosensitive channels localized on the hair-like bundles that project from the apical surface of cochlear hair cells. Hair bundles show a stair-case structure composed of rows of stereocilia, and each stereocilium contains a core of tightly-packed and uniformly-polarized actin filaments. The growth and maintenance of the stereociliary actin core are dynamically regulated. Recently, it was shown that the actin-binding protein gelsolin is expressed in the stereocilia of outer hair cells (OHCs and in its absence they become long and straggly. Gelsolin is part of a whirlin scaffolding protein complex at the stereocilia tip, which has been shown to interact with other actin regulatory molecules such as Eps8. Here we investigated the physiological effects associated with the absence of gelsolin and its possible overlapping role with Eps8. We found that, in contrast to Eps8, gelsolin does not affect mechanoelectrical transduction during immature stages of development. Moreover, OHCs from gelsolin knockout mice were able to mature into fully functional sensory receptors as judged by the normal resting membrane potential and basolateral membrane currents. Mechanoelectrical transducer current in gelsolin-Eps8 double knockout mice showed a profile similar to that observed in the single mutants for Eps8. We propose that gelsolin has a non-overlapping role with Eps8. While Eps8 is mainly involved in the initial growth of stereocilia in both inner hair cells (IHCs and OHCs, gelsolin is required for the maintenance of mature hair bundles of low-frequency OHCs after the onset of hearing.

  12. Trace-element content of human scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordus, A.A.; Wysocki, C.M.; Maher, C.C. III; Wieland, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of some of the factors that could affect the measured trace-element content of human scalp hair have been evaluated. Included are frequency of hair washing and swimming, shampoos used, gross differences in diet, and the variation in content along the strands of hair. The data for length-content variation suggest that, for some elements, eccrine sweat may contribute significantly to the measured trace-element content of hair and that such variation must be taken into account in assessing data for historical hair samples, many of which represent clippings of distal segments of hair

  13. Possible biological dosimeters in skin and hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    The hair follicle, when producing hair, contains rapidly proliferating cells, some of which are very sensitive to radiation. These can be detected by studying the incidence of dead or dying (apoptotic) cells which reach peak yields 12 h after irradiation. The yield of apoptotic cells in the follicle has been studied after various doses. The response is dose-dependent and sensitive down to levels of a few cGy. Any reduction in cell production resulting from mitotic delay or cell death might be expressed as a reduction in the width of the hair. This has been studied and the abnormality referred to as dysplasia of the hair. The fraction of dysplastic hairs is strongly dose dependent over the range 2-10 Gy. More detailed studies using higher magnification and numerous measurements of hair width should make this end-point an even more sensitive assay for radiation exposure. Preliminary measurements on the average width at a critical point along the length of the hair illustrate that doses between 1.0 and 1.5 Gy can be detected. The width of the hair is dose dependent. The length of the affected region of the hair is also probably dose dependent. Estimates for the full reduction in volume of hair should increase the sensitivity further. (orig./MG)

  14. Moyamoya syndrome in a patient with Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Ho; Oh, Moon-Yeon; Yum, Mi-Sun; Lee, Beom Hee; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2015-03-01

    Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair is one of the RASopathies characterized by Noonan syndrome-like features with unique ectodermal abnormalities. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the SHOC2 gene. We encountered a patient with moyamoya syndrome associated with Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair presenting with transient ischemic attacks. A 6-year-old girl was diagnosed with Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair because of profound short stature and ectodermal anomalies such as sparse and easily pluckable hair. A heterozygous mutation of c.4A>G (p.S2G) in the SHOC2 gene was identified, and recombinant human growth hormone therapy was initiated at 8 years of age. At age 10, she manifested recurrent left hemiplegia. Moreover, cerebrovascular imaging revealed occlusion or narrowing of both internal carotid arteries and both middle cerebral arteries with distal moyamoya-like vessels. She is treated with aspirin and calcium channel blocker. We describe the first case of Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair associated with moyamoya syndrome, although it has been reported to be associated with a few cases of other RASopathies, including Noonan, cardiofaciocutaneous, and Costello syndromes. This report emphasizes the associations between cerebrovascular anomalies and Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of functionalized silicones on hair fiber-fiber interactions and on the relationship with the macroscopic behavior of hair assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussaud, Anne; Fieschi-Corso, Lara

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that silicones alter hair surface properties and that silicones have a significant impact on the macroscopic behavior of hair assembly, such as visual appearance, combing performance and manageability of the hair. In order to fine-tune the chemistry of functionlized silicones for specific consumer benefits and hair types, we investigated the influence of silicones on hair fiber-fiber interactions and their correlation to hair volume. The incline plane fiber loop method, implemented with a high-precision motorized rotary stage, was used to quantify the fiber-fiber interactions. Low load static friction was studied as a function of polymer molecular weight, dose and chemical architecture. This information was related to the macroscopic behavior of hair assembly, using virgin curly hair in high humidity.

  16. Frontier in hair loss and trichoscopy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtisam Elghblawi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin surfaces have always been examined using dermoscopy, a familiar tool which is useful to magnify and examine skin especially in cases of pigmented skin lesions. However, to examine the hair and scalp, a practical tool called trichoscopy has surfaced recently and has proven to be handy and functional in diagnosing most hair-related diseases. It is also referred to as dermoscopy of the hair and the scalp. It can aid in assessing active diseases in the scalp and hair, such as yellow dots, dystrophic hairs, cadaverized black dots, white dots, and exclamation mark hairs – all of which denote specific criteria for hair diseases. Trichoscopy is a very newly developed non-invasive technique for hair image analysis. It permits non-invasive visualization of hair shafts at higher intensification (about ×70 and ×100 and enables measurement of hair shaft width without the need for removing hair for diagnostic reasons. Moreover, it helps in vivo visualization of the epidermal portion of hair follicles and perifollicular epidermis (orifices. Consequently, it is valuable as it permits the inspection of structures that are otherwise not seen by the naked eye. Trichoscopy is the new frontier for the diagnosis of hair and scalp disease. Nowadays, a trichoscope is considered a must for dermatologists and it is a hot topic in the treatment of hair diseases. There is pooled evidence that the utilization of trichoscopy in the clinical setting for evaluating hair disorders can improve its diagnostic capability beyond simple clinical scrutiny. Trichoscopy can identify both hair shaft and hair opening abnormalities without the need for hair sampling, as well as distinguish between different scalp and hair diseases. Furthermore, it can give easy and quick evaluation of the hair with a follow-up to determine progress and prognosis of the disease with photos. It can also aid in some genetic hair shaft dystrophies such as trichorrhexis nodosa, trichorrhexis

  17. Hierarchical capillary adhesion of microcantilevers or hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianlin; Feng Xiqiao; Xia Re; Zhao Hongping

    2007-01-01

    As a result of capillary forces, animal hairs, carbon nanotubes or nanowires of a periodically or randomly distributed array often assemble into hierarchical structures. In this paper, the energy method is adopted to analyse the capillary adhesion of microsized hairs, which are modelled as clamped microcantilevers wetted by liquids. The critical conditions for capillary adhesion of two hairs, three hairs or two bundles of hairs are derived in terms of Young's contact angle, elastic modulus and geometric sizes of the beams. Then, the hierarchical capillary adhesion of hairs is addressed. It is found that for multiple hairs or microcantilevers, the system tends to take a hierarchical structure as a result of the minimization of the total potential energy of the system. The level number of structural hierarchy increases with the increase in the number of hairs if they are sufficiently long. Additionally, we performed experiments to verify our theoretical solutions for the adhesion of microbeams

  18. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Dorothea; Schoelermann, Andrea M; Filbry, Alexander; Hamann, Tina; Moser, Claudia; Rippke, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp. The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers' self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants. Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test shampoo significantly reduced the extent of scabs and erythema. Therefore, the shampoo is ideally suited for use after hair transplantation and for the treatment of sensitive scalp. The excellent skin compatibility is because of the mild surfactant system, the calming ingredient bisabolol, and

  19. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with  electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size

  20. Identification of symbiotically defective mutants of Lotus japonicus affected in infection thread growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Fabien; Heckmann, Anne Birgitte Lau; Miwa, Hiroki

    2006-01-01

    During the symbiotic interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the host cell plasma membrane and associated plant cell wall invaginate to form a tunnel-like infection thread, a structure in which bacteria divide to reach the plant root cortex. We isolated four Lotus japonicus mutants that make...... infection pockets in root hairs but form very few infection threads after inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti. The few infection threads that did initiate in the mutants usually did not progress further than the root hair cell. These infection-thread deficient (itd) mutants were unaffected for early...... symbiotic responses such as calcium spiking, root hair deformation, and curling, as well as for the induction of cortical cell division and the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Complementation tests and genetic mapping indicate that itd2 is allelic to Ljsym7, whereas the itd1, itd3, and itd4 mutations...

  1. Hair-Thread Tourniquet Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Gokcen

    2016-01-01

    Two month-old male infant was brought to the emergency service with the complaint of fever, uneasiness, and swelling on 4th-5th toes of right foot.  Apparent swelling, rubescence and increase in heat were seen and a constrictive band was observed to surround proximal phalanges of both toes in the physical examination of the patient (Figure 1.  A hair was found on the constrictive band surrounding both toes. The hair was removed by means of forceps. Oral antibiotic was administered to the patient. The patient was treated successfully by not letting a necrosis develop on the toes. It should be remembered that hair-thread tourniquet syndrome may be observed in the infant patients applying to the hospital with the complaints of unexplained fever and uneasiness. Figure 1: Appearance of the toes right after the hair was removed. Arrows show the constrictive band. 

  2. Matting of Hair Due to Halo-egg Shampoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z M Mani

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of hair matting in an 18 year old female is reported. The hair got densely entangled immediately after washing the hair with ′Halo Egg′ shampoo. The hair was disentangled completely after prolonged dipping of the hair in arachis oil frr 5 days.

  3. Immunocosmeceuticals: An emerging trend in repairing human hair damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthika Selvan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair is one of the most important portions for beauty care and in recent years grooming and cosmetic treatment of hair has drastically risen. Substantially, it may deteriorate and weaken the hair by modification of keratin protein. This makes the hair dry, brittle and split vend occurs due to loss of hair strength and the damage further increases with cosmetic treatments. The various poor ingredients are being used for repairing which have extremely poor compatibility with hair. Now the hair care products can be introduced with an active ingredient comprising a yolk derived anti-hair antibody immunoglobin obtained from egg of chickens immunized with damaged hair as antigen. This immuno-cosmeceuticals can repair the hair damage and imparts flexibility and smoothness to the hair. These effects are not lost by the ordinary shampooing. This article focuses on the characteristic of human hair, its damaging processes and the effects of immuno-cosmeceuticals for repairing the hair damage.

  4. Undead Blond Hair in the Victorian Imagination: The Hungarian Roots of Bram Stoker’s "The Secret of the Growing Gold"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Heiniger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian folktale “Woman with Hair of Gold” is a part of what Nina Auerbach calls feminine mythos in Woman and the Demon. It is a story about the murder and revenge of a “very strange but beautiful woman with golden hair as fine as spun gold.” This paper explores how Bram Stoker’s short story “The Secret of the Growing Gold” reworks this folktale, stripping away its uniquely feminine voice, to create a story expressing British Victorian racial anxieties. The message of Teutonic superiority, which Stoker links with Hungarian folklore, is this author’s most dangerous and nefarious fiction.

  5. Hair follicle proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1993-01-01

    that are present in the epithelial and stromal compartments of hair follicles. However, the transmembrane proteoglycan syndecan may be important in follicle morphogenesis, both with respect to the epithelium and dermal papilla cells. Syndecan may possess both heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains, interacts...... basement membranes, including those surrounding the epithelial compartment of hair follicles. Additionally, and quite unlike the dermis, the dermal papilla is enriched in basement-membrane components, especially a chondroitin 6-sulfate-containing proteoglycan, BM-CSPG. The function of this proteoglycan...... is not known, but developmental studies indicate that it may have a role in stabilizing basement membranes. In the hair cycle, BM-CSPG decreases through catagen and is virtually absent from the telogen papilla. One or more heparan sulfate proteoglycans, including perlecan, are also present in papilla...

  6. An overview of unwanted female hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, U

    2011-12-01

    Unwanted facial hair (UFH) is an important but often overlooked issue, with over 40% of women experiencing some degree of UFH. In the female population a wide spectrum of unwanted hair concerns is represented - from biologically normal but undesirable to excessive unwanted hair with an underlying pathology. While women may seek to manage unwanted hair across their bodies, UFH is a particular concern, due to its negative impact on perceived femininity. There may not always be a direct correlation between degree of severity diagnosed objectively by the physician and level of concern and impact upon the patient. This review discusses the spectrum of facial hair experience and outlines the clinical approach to unwanted hair management including UFH. It highlights the importance of a treatment regimen which should respond to the causation factors and needs of the individual. This will lead to a holistic treatment approach including evaluation of the implementation of emotional coping strategies and on-going support, lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions (to address underlying pathologies) and the use of cosmetic hair removal methods as either a stand-alone or adjunct treatment as appropriate to the individual. © 2011 The Author. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing of cat hair: an informative forensic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarditi, Christy R; Grahn, Robert A; Evans, Jeffrey J; Kurushima, Jennifer D; Lyons, Leslie A

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 81.7 million cats are in 37.5 million U.S. households. Shed fur can be criminal evidence because of transfer to victims, suspects, and/or their belongings. To improve cat hairs as forensic evidence, the mtDNA control region from single hairs, with and without root tags, was sequenced. A dataset of a 402-bp control region segment from 174 random-bred cats representing four U.S. geographic areas was generated to determine the informativeness of the mtDNA region. Thirty-two mtDNA mitotypes were observed ranging in frequencies from 0.6-27%. Four common types occurred in all populations. Low heteroplasmy, 1.7%, was determined. Unique mitotypes were found in 18 individuals, 10.3% of the population studied. The calculated discrimination power implied that 8.3 of 10 randomly selected individuals can be excluded by this region. The genetic characteristics of the region and the generated dataset support the use of this cat mtDNA region in forensic applications. 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2010. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  8. Clinical Evidence of Increase in Hair Growth and Decrease in Hair Loss without Adverse Reactions Promoted by the Commercial Lotion ECOHAIR®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, María Rosario; Anesini, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Hair exerts protection, sensory functions, thermoregulation, and sexual attractiveness. Hair loss (alopecia) is caused by several diseases, drug intake, hormone imbalance, stress, and infections (Malassesia furfur). Drugs usually used in alopecia produce irreversible systemic and local side effects. An association of extracts of Coffea arabica and Larrea divaricata (ECOHAIR®) is successfully being commercialized in Argentina for hair growth. The aim of this study was to provide scientific support for the efficacy and innocuousness of ECOHAIR® in patients with noncicatricial alopecia during a 3-month treatment. The efficacy was determined through the assessment of an increase in hair volume, improvement in hair looks, growth of new hair, and a decrease in hair loss by the test of hair count and hair traction. The capacity to decrease the amount of dandruff was also evaluated as well as the adverse local effects caused by the treatment. ECOHAIR® spray improved the overall hair volume and appearance; it increased its thickness, induced hair growth, and decreased hair loss. Besides, no adverse local reactions were observed upon treatment with the product. This study provides scientific support for the clinical use of ECOHAIR® as a treatment to be used in noncicatricial alopecia. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. The ethylene-inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine restores normal nodulation by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar. viciae on Vicia sativa subsp. nigra by suppressing the 'Thick and short roots' phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaat, S A; Van Brussel, A A; Tak, T; Lugtenberg, B J; Kijne, J W

    1989-02-01

    Nodulation of Vicia sativa subsp. nigra L. by Rhizobium bacteria is coupled to the development of thick and short roots (Tsr). This root phenotype as well as root-hair induction (Hai) and root-hair deformation (Had) are caused by a factor(s) produced by the bacteria in response to plant flavonoids. When very low inoculum concentrations (0.5-5 bacteria·ml(-1)) were used, V. sativa plants did not develop the Tsr phenotype and became nodulated earlier than plants with Tsr roots. Furthermore, the nodules of these plants were located on the primary root in contrast to nodules on Tsr roots, which were all located at sites of lateral-root emergence. The average numbers of nodules per plant were not significantly different for these two types of nodulation. Root-growth inhibition and Hai, but not Had, could be mimicked by ethephon, and inhibited by aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). Addition of AVG to co-cultures of Vicia sativa and the standard inoculum concentration of 5·10(5) bacteria·ml(-1) suppressed the development of the Tsr phenotype and restored nodulation to the pattern that was observed with very low concentrations of bacteria (0.5-5 bacteria·ml(-1)). The delay in nodulation on Tsr roots appeared to be caused by the fact that nodule meristems did not develop on the primary root, but only on the emerging laterals. The relationship between Tsr, Hai, Had, and nodulation is discussed.

  10. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  11. Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Spilde

    Full Text Available Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios, which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  12. [Monilethrix--rare syndrome of structural hair abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezińska-Wcisło, L; Bogdanowski, T; Szeremeta-Bazylewicz, G; Pierzchała, E

    1999-11-01

    Monilethrix is a rare structural disorder of hair. Characteristic abnormalities in the form of alternating thinning and fusiform thickening are observed in most of hair shafts that we call beaded hair. Macroscopic estimation shows lustreless, dry, rough, fragile hair. Trichological examination usually reveals a considerable percentage of anagenic hair. According to our own experiences and literature data systemic therapy (vitamins) and topical treatment (desquamative ointments) are not effective sufficiently. Spontaneous regression of symptoms often appears with time. Five cases of familial occurrence of monilethrix have been presented.

  13. Hair curvature: a natural dialectic and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissimov, Joseph N; Das Chaudhuri, Asit Baran

    2014-08-01

    Although hair forms (straight, curly, wavy, etc.) are present in apparently infinite variations, each fibre can be reduced to a finite sequence of tandem segments of just three types: straight, bent/curly, or twisted. Hair forms can thus be regarded as resulting from genetic pathways that induce, reverse or modulate these basic curvature modes. However, physical interconversions between twists and curls demonstrate that strict one-to-one correspondences between them and their genetic causes do not exist. Current hair-curvature theories do not distinguish between bending and twisting mechanisms. We here introduce a multiple papillary centres (MPC) model which is particularly suitable to explain twisting. The model combines previously known features of hair cross-sectional morphology with partially/completely separated dermal papillae within single follicles, and requires such papillae to induce differential growth rates of hair cortical material in their immediate neighbourhoods. The MPC model can further help to explain other, poorly understood, aspects of hair growth and morphology. Separate bending and twisting mechanisms would be preferentially affected at the major or minor ellipsoidal sides of fibres, respectively, and together they exhaust the possibilities for influencing hair-form phenotypes. As such they suggest dialectic for hair-curvature development. We define a natural-dialectic (ND) which could take advantage of speculative aspects of dialectic, but would verify its input data and results by experimental methods. We use this as a top-down approach to first define routes by which hair bending or twisting may be brought about and then review evidence in support of such routes. In particular we consider the wingless (Wnt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways as paradigm pathways for molecular hair bending and twisting mechanisms, respectively. In addition to the Wnt canonical pathway, the Wnt/Ca(2+) and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways

  14. Interferon alfa and ribavirin induced hair changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, S.; Taj, A.; Muhamud, T.H.; Iqbal, Z.; Yaqub, F.

    2007-01-01

    Combination therapy of Interferon alfa and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C has well documented cutaneous adverse effects. Most interesting of these has been reported on hair physiology. This study was conducted to determine the frequency and pattern of adverse effects involving hair in patients receiving combination of interferon alfa 2a and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. The study was conducted in Department of Dermatology, Division of Medicine Shaikh Zayed Hospital. Thirty Eight patients who completed treatment with interferon alfa (3 MIU subcutaneously thrice weekly) and 1200 mg ribavirin daily for 24 weeks were enrolled in this single-center study. The patient's response and examination finding particularly regarding involvement of hair was noted on a Proforma. Thirty Two out of thirty eight (84%) patients noted adverse effects involving hair. The most frequent was diffuse hair loss and occurred in 27 patients (71%). Hypertrichosis of eyelashes (trichomegaly) and eyebrows (synophyrs) was observed in 18 (47%) and 16 (42%) patients respectively. Graying of hair was noted in 4 patients (11%), while discoloration of moustache hair was seen in 2 patients (5%). Epilation at the site of subcutaneous injection was noted in 10 patients (26%). Alopecia areata was reported in 2 patients (5%). It is concluded that adverse effects involving hair are frequent and varied (hair loss to excess hair growth) during combination therapy with Interferon alfa-2a and Ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. (author)

  15. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in keloid tissues and TGF-β1-induced hair follicle outer root sheath keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Cao, Rui; Wang, Lianzhao; Liu, Yuanbo; Pan, Bo; Yin, Yanhua; Lv, Xiaoyan; Zhuang, Qiang; Sun, Xuejian; Xiao, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Keloid is a skin fibrotic disease with the characteristics of recurrence and invasion, its pathogenesis still remains unrevealed. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical for wound healing, fibrosis, recurrence, and invasion of cancer. We sought to investigate the EMT in keloid and the mechanism through which the EMT regulates keloid formation. In keloid tissues, the expressions of EMT-associated markers and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smad3 signaling were examined by immunohistochemistry. In the keloid epidermis and dermal tissue, the expressions of genes related to the regulation of skin homeostasis, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) and p63, were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that accompanying the loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and the gain of the mesenchymal markers fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) and vimentin in epithelial cells from epidermis and skin appendages, and in endothelial cells from dermal microvessels, enhanced TGF-β1 expression and Smad3 phosphorylation were noted in keloid tissues. Moreover, alternative splicing of the FGFR2 gene switched the predominantly expressed isoform from FGFR2-IIIb to -IIIc, concomitant with the decreased expression of ΔNp63 and TAp63, which changes might partially account for abnormal epidermis and appendages in keloids. In addition, we found that TGF-β1-induced hair follicle outer root sheath keratinocytes (ORSKs) and normal skin epithelial cells underwent EMT in vitro with ORSKs exhibiting more obvious EMT changes and more similar expression profiles for EMT-associated and skin homeostasis-related genes as in keloid tissues, suggesting that ORSKs might play crucial roles in the EMT in keloids. Our study provided insights into the molecular mechanisms mediating the EMT pathogenesis of keloids. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  16. Drug testing with alternative matrices II. Mechanisms of cocaine and codeine deposition in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, R E; Höld, K M; Wilkins, D G; Rollins, D E; Cone, E J

    1999-10-01

    A 10-week inpatient study was performed to evaluate cocaine, codeine, and metabolite disposition in biological matrices collected from volunteers. An initial report described drug disposition in plasma, sebum, and stratum corneum collected from five African-American males. This report focuses on drug disposition in hair and sweat collected from the same five subjects. Following a three-week washout period, three doses of cocaine HCl (75 mg/70 kg, subcutaneous) and three doses of codeine SO4 (60 mg/70 kg, oral) were administered on alternating days in week 4 (low-dose week). The same dosing sequence was repeated in week 8 with doubled doses (high-dose week). Hair was collected by shaving the entire scalp once each week. Hair from the anterior vertex was divided into two portions. One portion was washed with isopropanol and phosphate buffer; the other portion was not washed. Hair was enzymatically digested, samples were centrifuged, and the supernatant was collected. Sweat was collected periodically by placing PharmChek sweat patches on the torso. Drugs were extracted from sweat patches with methanol/0.2 M sodium acetate buffer (75:25, v/v). Supernatants from hair digests, hair washes, and sweat patch extracts were processed by solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for cocaine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, and metabolites. Cocaine and codeine were the primary analytes identified in sweat patches and hair. Drugs were detected in sweat within 8 h after dosing, and drug secretion primarily occurred within 24 h after dosing. No clear relationship was observed between dose and drug concentrations in sweat. Drug incorporation into hair appeared to be dose-dependent. Drugs were detected in hair within 1-3 days after the last drug administration; peak drug concentrations generally occurred in the following 1-2 weeks; thereafter, drug concentrations decreased. Solvent washes removed 50-55% of cocaine and codeine from hair collected 1

  17. Biophysics of Human Hair Structural, Nanomechanical, and Nanotribological Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the biophysics of hair. It deals with the structure of hair, its mechanical properties, the nanomechanical characterization, tensile deformation, tribological characterization, the thickness distribution and binding interactions on hair surface. Another important topic of the book is the health of hair, human hair and skin, hair care, cleaning and conditioning treatments and damaging processes. It is the first book on the biophysical properties of hair.

  18. [New discoveries in forensic medicine. Hair analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaempe, B

    1999-03-29

    A review of forensic chemical drug testing in hair is given. Applications for analysis of hair are described. The special problems linked to the determination of drugs in hair such as contamination, differences in sex and ethnic groups and cosmetic pretreatment of the hair are outlined. It is concluded that greater knowledge of hair analysis is needed before the results can be used for toxicological evaluation at the same level as blood. On the other hand, a chemical hair analysis might expose a (mis)use of drugs and follow it step by step up to half a year back in time. In this way, it may supplement a systematic toxicological analysis (STA) for 'a general unknown' for use by police and forensic pathologists.

  19. Hormonal therapy in female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Brough

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss in women and one of the most common problems seen by dermatologists. This hair loss is a nonscarring alopecia in which loss occurs on the vertex scalp, generally sparing the frontal hairline. Hair loss can have significant psychosocial effects on patients, and treatment can be long and difficult. The influence of hormones on the pathogenesis of female pattern hair loss is not entirely known. The purpose of this paper is to review physiology and potential hormonal mechanisms for the pathogenesis of female pattern hair loss. We also discuss the current hormonal and hormone-modifying therapies that are available to providers as they partner with patients to treat this frustrating issue.

  20. Classifications of Patterned Hair Loss: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mysore, Venkataram

    2016-01-01

    Patterned hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss seen in both the sexes after puberty. Numerous classification systems have been proposed by various researchers for grading purposes. These systems vary from the simpler systems based on recession of the hairline to the more advanced multifactorial systems based on the morphological and dynamic parameters that affect the scalp and the hair itself. Most of these preexisting systems have certain limitations. Currently, the Hamilton-Norwood classification system for males and the Ludwig system for females are most commonly used to describe patterns of hair loss. In this article, we review the various classification systems for patterned hair loss in both the sexes. Relevant articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Search terms included but were not limited to androgenic alopecia classification, patterned hair loss classification, male pattern baldness classification, and female pattern hair loss classification. Further publications were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed articles.

  1. Classifications of patterned hair loss: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterned hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss seen in both the sexes after puberty. Numerous classification systems have been proposed by various researchers for grading purposes. These systems vary from the simpler systems based on recession of the hairline to the more advanced multifactorial systems based on the morphological and dynamic parameters that affect the scalp and the hair itself. Most of these preexisting systems have certain limitations. Currently, the Hamilton-Norwood classification system for males and the Ludwig system for females are most commonly used to describe patterns of hair loss. In this article, we review the various classification systems for patterned hair loss in both the sexes. Relevant articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Search terms included but were not limited to androgenic alopecia classification, patterned hair loss classification, male pattern baldness classification, and female pattern hair loss classification. Further publications were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed articles.

  2. Transition zone cells reach G2 phase before initiating elongation in maize root apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Victoria Alarcón

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Root elongation requires cell divisions in the meristematic zone and cell elongation in the elongation zone. The boundary between dividing and elongating cells is called the transition zone. In the meristem zone, initial cells are continuously dividing, but on the basal side of the meristem cells exit the meristem through the transition zone and enter in the elongation zone, where they stop division and rapidly elongate. Throughout this journey cells are accompanied by changes in cell cycle progression. Flow cytometry analysis showed that meristematic cells are in cycle, but exit when they enter the elongation zone. In addition, the percentage of cells in G2 phase (4C strongly increased from the meristem to the elongation zone. However, we did not observe remarkable changes in the percentage of cells in cell cycle phases along the entire elongation zone. These results suggest that meristematic cells in maize root apex stop the cell cycle in G2 phase after leaving the meristem.

  3. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  4. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  5. Public health benefits of hair-mercury analysis and dietary advice in lowering methylmercury exposure in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Line E; Jørgensen, Jan S; Nielsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    recruited from the antenatal clinic at a Danish university hospital at their initial ultrasound scan. Dietary advice was provided on avoiding methylmercury exposure from large predatory fish and a hair sample from each participant was analysed for mercury, with the results being communicated shortly......AIMS: To evaluate whether a public health intervention using focused dietary advice combined with a hair-mercury analysis can lower neurotoxic methylmercury exposure among pregnant women without decreasing their overall intake of seafood. METHODS: A total of 146 pregnant women were consecutively......% three months later. Average hair-mercury concentrations decreased by 21%. However, the total seafood intake remained at the same level after three months. CONCLUSIONS: Increased exposure to methylmercury among pregnant women is an important public health concern in Denmark. The observed lowering of hair...

  6. Coat and hair color: hair cortisol and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi Nejad, Jalil; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-01-01

    The deleterious effects of heat stress on animal health are being increasingly recognized. This study aimed to determine hair cortisol (HC) and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions with different coat and hair-cut color. Forty-five multiparous lactating Holstein cows (days in milk = 130 ± 47, body weight = 753 ± 85 kg) were divided to two main groups of over 80% black coat color (BC) and over 85% white coat color (WC) visually observed based on registry certificates and subdividing to black hair sample (BH) and white hair samples (WH) in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements. Hair samples were taken from the forehead of the individuals. Higher HC levels were observed in BC than WC cows (P  0.05). Serotonin levels showed no difference between BC and WC (P > 0.05). Interaction between coat color and hair color was not significant (P > 0.05). The cortisol levels in hair are not affected by pigmentation. However, pigmentation within the coat alters cortisol levels. In conclusion, white coat color retains less cortisol than the black coat. Therefore, white coats are preferable for dairy cows under heat stress conditions. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Using coloured roots to study root interaction and competition in intercropped legumes and non-legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosti, Giacomo; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    if a species with coloured roots can be used to examine the interaction in a legume-non-legume intercropping system; (ii) to verify the importance of initial root growth on the successive root development of mixture component plants; (iii) to test if the root interaction in the shallow layers has consequences...

  8. Unravelling hair follicle-adipocyte communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barbara; Horsley, Valerie

    2012-11-01

    Here, we explore the established and potential roles for intradermal adipose tissue in communication with hair follicle biology. The hair follicle delves deep into the rich dermal macroenvironment as it grows to maturity where it is surrounded by large lipid-filled adipocytes. Intradermal adipocytes regenerate with faster kinetics than other adipose tissue depots and in parallel with the hair cycle, suggesting an interplay exists between hair follicle cells and adipocytes. While adipocytes have well-established roles in metabolism and energy storage, until recently, they were overlooked as niche cells that provide important growth signals to neighbouring skin cells. We discuss recent data supporting adipocytes as niche cells for the skin and skin pathologies that may be related to alterations in skin adipose tissue defects. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Non-canonical WOX11-mediated root branching contributes to plasticity in Arabidopsis root system architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lihong; Hu, Xiaomei; Du, Yujuan; Zhang, Guifang; Huang, Hai; Scheres, Ben; Xu, Lin

    2017-09-01

    Lateral roots (LRs), which originate from the growing root, and adventitious roots (ARs), which are formed from non-root organs, are the main contributors to the post-embryonic root system in Arabidopsis However, our knowledge of how formation of the root system is altered in response to diverse inductive cues is limited. Here, we show that WOX11 contributes to root system plasticity. When seedlings are grown vertically on medium, WOX11 is not expressed in LR founder cells. During AR initiation, WOX11 is expressed in AR founder cells and activates LBD16 LBD16 also functions in LR formation and is activated in that context by ARF7 / 19 and not by WOX11 This indicates that divergent initial processes that lead to ARs and LRs may converge on a similar mechanism for primordium development. Furthermore, we demonstrated that when plants are grown in soil or upon wounding on medium, the primary root is able to produce both WOX11 -mediated and non- WOX11 -mediated roots. The discovery of WOX11 -mediated root-derived roots reveals a previously uncharacterized pathway that confers plasticity during the generation of root system architecture in response to different inductive cues. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

    1972-01-01

    Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

  11. The effect of a 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser in female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G-Y; Lee, S-J; Kim, W-S

    2011-12-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of hair loss in women, and its prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and social withdrawal. A variety of laser and light sources have been tried for treatment of hair loss, and some success has been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of a 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser in treatment of female pattern hair loss. Twenty eight ethnic South Korean patients with varying degrees of FPHL were enrolled in the study. Patients received ten treatments with a 1550 nm fractional Er:Glass Laser (Mosaic, Lutronic Co., Ltd, Seoul, South Korea) at 2-weeks intervals using the same parameters (5-10 mm tip, 6 mJ pulse energy, 800 spot/cm(2) density, static mode). Phototrichogram and global photographs were taken at baseline and at the end of laser treatment, and analysed for changes in hair density and hair shaft diameter. Global photographs underwent blinded review by three independent dermatologists using a 7-point scale. Patients also answered questionnaires assessing hair growth throughout the study. All adverse effects were reported during the study. Twenty seven patients completed a 5-month schedule of laser treatment. One patient was excluded during treatment due to occurrence of alopecia areata. At the initial visit, mean hair density was 100 ± 14/cm(2) , and mean hair thickness was 58 ± 12 μm. After 5 months of laser treatment, hair density showed a marked increase to 157 ± 28/cm(2) (P laser treatment; however, these resolved within 2 h. A 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser irradiation may be an effective and safe treatment option for women with female pattern hair loss. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  12. Synchrotron Radiation and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Applications on Elemental Distribution in Human Hair and Bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.L.; Marques, A.F.; Brito, J.

    2003-01-01

    This work is an application of synchrotron microprobe X- Ray fluorescence in order to study elemental distribution along human hair samples of contemporary citizens. Furthermore, X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry is also used to analyse human bones of different historical periods: Neolithic and contemporary subjects. The elemental content in the bones allowed us to conclude about environmental contamination, dietary habits and health status influence in the corresponding citizens. All samples were collected post-mortem. Quantitative analysis was performed for Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb. Mn and Fe concentration were much higher in bones from pre-historic periods. On the contrary, Pb bone concentrations of contemporary subjects are much higher than in pre-historical ones, reaching 100 μg g-1, in some cases. Very low concentrations for Co, Ni, Br and Rb were found in all the analysed samples. Cu concentrations, allows to distinguish Chalcolithic bones from the Neolithic ones. The distribution of trace elements along human hair was studied for Pb and the obtained pattern was consistent with the theoretical model, based on the diffusion of this element from the root and along the hair. Therefore, the higher concentrations in hair for Pb of contemporary individuals were also observed in the bones of citizens of the same sampling sites. All samples were analysed directly without any chemical treatment

  13. Detection and diagnostic interpretation of amphetamines in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Y

    1995-01-05

    A review with 22 references on detection and incorporation of amphetamines in hair is presented. This review deals with the detection, incorporation into hair, behavior in the hair shaft, confirmation of past drug use and diagnosis of dependence mainly regarding amphetamine and methamphetamine, along with methoxyphenamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, bromomethamphetamine, deprenyl, benzphetamine, fenproporex and mefenorex. First, pretreatment, extraction and analytical methods for amphetamines in hair using immunoassay, HPLC and GC/MS are discussed. This is followed by sections describing the animal experiments, incorporation rates of amphetamines from blood to hair and relationship between drug history and drug distribution in hair. Finally, the diagnosis of amphetamine dependence and confirmation of methamphetamine baby by hair analysis is discussed. The paper concludes with a brief outlook.

  14. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug

  15. Body to scalp: Evolving trends in body hair transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Saxena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular unit extraction (FUE is becoming an increasingly popular method for hair restoration. As FUE leaves behind no linear scars, it is more suitable to harvest from various body areas including beard, chest, and extremities in hirsute individuals. Body hair characteristics such as thickness, length, and hair cycle may not completely match to that of the scalp hair. The techniques of harvesting body hairs are more time consuming, requiring higher degree of skill than regular scalp FUE. Body hair transplantation can be successfully used either alone or in combination with scalp hair in advanced grades of baldness, for improving the cosmetic appearance of hairlines and in scarring alopecia when there is paucity of donor scalp hair. Harvesting of body hairs opens up a new viable donor source for hair restoration surgeons, especially in cases of advanced Norwood grades five and above of androgenetic alopecia.

  16. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schweiger D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dorothea Schweiger,1 Andrea M Schoelermann,1 Alexander Filbry,1 Tina Hamann,1 Claudia Moser,2 Frank Rippke1 1Research and Development, Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, Germany; 2Moser Medical, Clinics for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Vienna, Austria Background: Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp.Methods: The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire.Results: Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers' self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants.Conclusion: Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test

  17. Quantitative autoradiographic investigations on hairs, skin, and nails with the precursors 35S-cystine or 35S-methionine and 3H-thymidine respectively in animal experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiegelow, P.; Berndt, G.; Lindner, J.; Puschmann, M.

    1981-01-01

    By quantitative autoradiographic methods we tested the possible influence of the sulphurous amino acid L-cystine on the growth of hair, skin and nails. In the 3 H-thymidine autoradiographic method the tracing index (percentage of traced cell cores in relation to the total number of cell cores of a cell population) is calculated morphologically. In the 35 S-cystine and the 35 S-methionine autoradiography a quantification is carried out by applying the microscopic photometer for the investigation of defined hair root cross-sections. Measured values are indicated which depend on dosage and on the incorporation time. The investigation of other agents provoking negative or positive reactions of the hair growth by means of this method will have to be realized. Unlabelled L-cystine seems to promote the growth of hairs, epidermic basal cells and of germ cells of mouse nails, according to experiences made in animal experiments. The latter findings will have to be completed and confirmed by additional experiments. (orig.) [de

  18. Clinical applications of cortisol measurements in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Vincent L; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol measurements in blood, saliva and urine are frequently used to examine the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in clinical practice and in research. However, cortisol levels are subject to variations due to acute stress, the diurnal rhythm and pulsatile secretion. Cortisol measurements in body fluids are not always a reflection of long-term cortisol exposure. The analysis of cortisol in scalp hair is a relatively novel method to measure cumulative cortisol exposure over months up to years. Over the past years, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) have been examined in association with a large number of somatic and mental health conditions. HCC can be used to evaluate disturbances of the HPA axis, including Cushing's syndrome, and to evaluate hydrocortisone treatment. Using HCC, retrospective timelines of cortisol exposure can be created which can be of value in diagnosing cyclic hypercortisolism. HCC have also been shown to increase with psychological stressors, including major life events, as well as physical stressors, such as endurance exercise and shift work. Initial studies show that HCC may be increased in depression, but decreased in general anxiety disorder. In posttraumatic stress disorder, changes in HCC seem to be dependent on the type of traumatic experience and the time since traumatization. Increased hair cortisol is consistently linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Potentially, HCC could form a future marker for cardiovascular risk stratification, as well as serve as a treatment target. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  19. The no-hair conjecture in 2D dilaton supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboa, J.; Georgelin, Y.

    1993-06-01

    Two dimensional dilaton gravity and supergravity are studied following Hamiltonian methods. The structure of constraints of 2D dilaton gravity and the 2D dilaton supergravity theory is discussed taking the square root of the bosonic constraints. The equations of motion are integrated in both cases, and it is shown that the solutions of the equation of motion of 2D dilaton supergravity differs from the solutions of 2D dilaton gravity only by boundary conditions on the fermionic variables, i.e. the black holes of 2D dilaton supergravity theory are exactly the same black holes of 2D bosonic dilaton gravity modulo supersymmetry transformations. This result is the bidimensional analogue of the no-hair theorem for supergravity. (authors). 28 refs

  20. Contact allergy to common ingredients in hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed.......p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed....

  1. PELE'S HAIR: case studies from Kilauea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata, C. B.

    2010-12-01

    Pele’s hair are long, thin strands of basaltic volcanic glass formed when small drops of magma are spun or drawn out by the wind or streams of volcanic gas into long hair-like strands. Named for Pele, the Hawaiian goddess of fire, they are basically found in Hawaiian eruption deposits. Pele’s hair is deep yellow or gold and is commonly found downwind from active vents concentrated in hollows or other low energy ‘traps’. In literature the origin of these thin strands of glass have been linked to fountains from Hawaiian eruptions. Beside the high fountaining, Pele’s hair are actually found in other environments. In this work we investigated in detail the dimensions, surface textures and the nature of Pele’s hair, from four typical environment of formation at Hawaiian volcanoes: high fountaining, weak explosive activity, lava ocean entry and a lava skylight. Samples has been characterized in terms of textural and morphological features, in thin section and under the SEM. Pele’s hair consists of long strands of gold sideromelane, showing variable length, from an half mm to tens of mm, often without surface vesicles and sometimes including Pele’s tears inside or at the end. They are often found incomplete, since they are easily broken on landing or even during transport. Their surfaces are mostly rough, with ‘ploughs’ of different sizes and large cavities. Vesicles are visible in the cross sections of Pele’s hair. There are two mostly size population of bubbles: one elongated and central and parallel to the axis of elongation and the other one smaller, and rounded and dispersed across the cross section of the fibers. Pele’s hair often shows, in thin section, a single inner elongate vesicle in the middle of the fragment linked to bubble coalescence phenomena, along the entire length of the hair. Samples from the four volcanic environments show different features in terms of their shape, surface textures and micro-textures, pointing out that

  2. Medical application of laser hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlalla, Alwalled Hussein Ataalmannan

    2015-12-01

    The use of laser in medical treatment has become of paramount importance proportional to what has high therapeutic privileges such as speed and accuracy in penetrating tissues and high quality especially when used in hair removal which is the subject of our study, this laser operates cards may cause some change in the color of the skin when used in a manner that is correct ratio of the thermal impact force in the laser hair removal process, or if it is exposed directly to his eye. This study is a comparison between the physical properties of laser of lasers used in hair removal, according to previous studies to be the basis for the benefit of doctors who use lasers for hair removal. The aim of this study was to study the effect of laser hair removal using the Nd: YAG laser with a wavelength 1064 nm as well as the risks airing from the assessment. The aim of this study was to identify the appropriate laser energy that absorbed in the hair follicle with a dark color and the appropriate thermal effect occurs to vaporize the follicle cell, a 40 J/cm"2 is to be significant without side effects for healthy tissue. In this study doses for a few laser beam is considered when compared to previous studies. Laser danger to the patient during the operation increases with increasing laser energy emitted during treatment. Laser hair removal by the user and energy emitted by wavelength of the laser device also depends on the hair color and roughness as well as skin color. (Author)

  3. Clinical and molecular diagnosis of a cartilage-hair hypoplasia with IGF-1 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Cortázar, Inma; Rodríguez De Ita, Julieta; Martín-Estal, Irene; Castorena, Fabiola; Aguirre, Gabriel A; García de la Garza, Rocío; Elizondo, Martha I

    2017-02-01

    Cartilage-hair hypoplasia syndrome (CHH) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by metaphyseal chondrodysplasia and characteristic hair, together with a myriad of other symptoms, being most common immunodeficiency and gastrointestinal complications. A 15-year-old Mexican male initially diagnosed with Hirschsprung disease and posterior immunodeficiency, presents to our department for genetic and complementary evaluation for suspected CHH. Physical, biochemical, and genetic studies confirmed CHH together with IGF-1 deficiency. For this reason, we propose IGF-1 replacement therapy for its well-known actions on hematopoiesis, immune function and maturation, and metabolism. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Histopathological insights into hair loss in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome: diffuse anagen-telogen conversion precedes clinical hair loss progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe-Okada, Emiko; Inazumi, Toyoko; Matsukawa, Hidehiko; Ohyama, Manabu

    2014-05-01

    Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS) is a rare disorder characterised by gastrointestinal polyposis and ectodermal changes, represented by extensive alopecia. Detailed histopathological investigations of alopecic lesions in two female CCS patients with severe hair loss revealed a marked increase in telogen hair follicles with no sign of loss or of the minaturisation or atrophy of hair follicle structures and the absence of inflammatory change, despite severe inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. These findings suggested that hair regrowth can be expected without systemic corticosteroids, if they are not necessary for treatment of the gastrointestinal tract, and that anagen-telogen transition is an early event preceding clinical hair loss in CCS. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  5. Can we manipulate root system architecture to control soil erosion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, A.; Dodd, I. C.; Quinton, J. N.

    2015-09-01

    Soil erosion is a major threat to soil functioning. The use of vegetation to control erosion has long been a topic for research. Much of this research has focused on the above-ground properties of plants, demonstrating the important role that canopy structure and cover plays in the reduction of water erosion processes. Less attention has been paid to plant roots. Plant roots are a crucial yet under-researched factor for reducing water erosion through their ability to alter soil properties, such as aggregate stability, hydraulic function and shear strength. However, there have been few attempts to specifically manipulate plant root system properties to reduce soil erosion. Therefore, this review aims to explore the effects that plant roots have on soil erosion and hydrological processes, and how plant root architecture might be manipulated to enhance its erosion control properties. We demonstrate the importance of root system architecture for the control of soil erosion. We also show that some plant species respond to nutrient-enriched patches by increasing lateral root proliferation. The erosional response to root proliferation will depend upon its location: at the soil surface dense mats of roots may reduce soil erodibility but block soil pores thereby limiting infiltration, enhancing runoff. Additionally, in nutrient-deprived regions, root hair development may be stimulated and larger amounts of root exudates released, thereby improving aggregate stability and decreasing erodibility. Utilizing nutrient placement at specific depths may represent a potentially new, easily implemented, management strategy on nutrient-poor agricultural land or constructed slopes to control erosion, and further research in this area is needed.

  6. A review of surgical methods (excluding hair transplantation and their role in hair loss management today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep S Sattur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is more than one way to manage hair loss surgically. Apart from hair transplantation, there are other techniques which have been used by many to treat baldness. This article attempts to review the surgical methodology and philosophy that have acted as guiding lights in the approach to surgical treatment of baldness over the years and reviews the current role of other techniques in the armamentarium of hair restoration surgeons today.

  7. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  8. LSD in pubic hair in a fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulier, Jean-michel; Maublanc, Julie; Lamballais, Florence; Bargel, Sophie; Lachâtre, Gérard

    2012-05-10

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogen, active at very low dosage and its determination in body fluids in a forensic context may present some difficulties, even more so in hair. A dedicated liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS/MS) assay in hair was used to document the case of a 24-year-old man found dead after a party. Briefly, after a decontamination step, a 50mg sample of the victim's pubic hair was cut into small pieces (LSD. A LSD concentration of 0.66pg/mg of pubic hair was observed. However, this result remains difficult to interpret owing to the concomitant LSD presence in the victim's post mortem blood and urine, the lack of previously reported LSD concentrations in hair, and the absence of data about LSD incorporation and stability in pubic hair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. What is the use of elephant hair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor L Myhrvold

    Full Text Available The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own.

  10. Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients, especially precursors and couplers, is a well-known entity among consumers having hair colouring done at home or at a hairdresser. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate consumer exposure to some selected precursors (p-phenylenediamine, toluene......-2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative...... hair dye formation in the absence of hair was investigated using 6 products, and 2 products were used for experimental hair dyeing. In both presence and absence of hair, significant amounts of unconsumed precursors and couplers remained in the hair dye formulations after final colour development. Thus...

  11. Radioimmunoassay of hair for determining opiate-abuse histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, A.M.; Jones, P.F.; Baumgartner, W.A.; Black, C.T.

    1979-01-01

    Heroin and morphine metabolites can be detected in hair with the use of commerically available radioimmunoassay reagents and with minor sample preparation. Hair samples obtained from morphine-treated mice and heroin users contained nanogram levels of the drug per milligram of hair (single human hair). The results of the hair analyses for all subjects admitting the use of heroin were positive, whereas the results of only 30% of thin-layer chromatographic urinanalyses of these same subjects were positive. In addition, differences in drug concentration for sections of hair near the scalp and near the distal end correlated with the length of time the drug had been used. These results exemplify the potential advantages of the use of hair analysis over urine and serum analyses in terms of accessibility, sample stability, and long-term retention of information

  12. Human hair identification by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.Y.; Jang, S.G.; Chung, Y.S.

    1998-01-01

    Nondestructive neutron activation technique was used to analyze 17 elements (Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Cl, Cu, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sb, Sr, V and Zn) in 75 human hair samples in 5 different locations, respectively, from 15 glassware workers. The analytical results were treated further statistically to find the elemental distribution among different human hairs and to identify the individual's hair. The identifying probability of one's hair by the comparison of elemental concentrations is found to be 10 4 -10 6 times higher from the same person's than from any other person's. The standard deviation of the elemental concentrations of samples taken from 5 different locations of one person is about 5 time smaller than the standard deviation for individual's hair. These data support the possibility of using NAA of hair for human hair identification. (author)

  13. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cabrini Scheibel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI and external apical root resorption (EARR after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1 and after 12 months of treatment (T2. ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157. CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction.

  14. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibel, Paula Cabrini; Ramos, Adilson Luiz; Iwaki, Lilian Cristina Vessoni; Micheletti, Kelly Regina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI) and external apical root resorption (EARR) after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1) and after 12 months of treatment (T2). ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157). CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction. PMID:25715722

  15. Sensory Hairs in the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus (Cetacea, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Summer E; Crish, Samuel D; George, John C; Stimmelmayr, Raphaella; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-07-01

    We studied the histology and morphometrics of the hairs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). These whales are hairless except for two patches of more than 300 hairs on the rostral tip of the lower lip and chin, the rostral tip of the upper lip, and a bilateral row of approximately ten hairs caudal to the blowhole. Histological data indicate that hairs in all three of these areas are vibrissae: they show an outermost connective tissue capsule, a circumferential blood sinus system surrounding the hair shaft, and dense innervation to the follicle. Morphometric data were collected on hair diameters, epidermal recess diameters, hair follicle length, and external hair lengths. The main difference between the hairs in the different regions is that blowhole hairs have larger diameters than the hairs in the chin and rostrum regions. We speculate that the hair shaft thickness patterns in bowheads reflect functional specializations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Trichoderma spp. Improve growth of Arabidopsis seedlings under salt stress through enhanced root development, osmolite production, and Na⁺ elimination through root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Cornejo, Hexon Angel; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Alfaro-Cuevas, Ruth; López-Bucio, José

    2014-06-01

    Salt stress is an important constraint to world agriculture. Here, we report on the potential of Trichoderma virens and T. atroviride to induce tolerance to salt in Arabidopsis seedlings. We first characterized the effect of several salt concentrations on shoot biomass production and root architecture of Arabidopsis seedlings. We found that salt repressed plant growth and root development in a dose-dependent manner by blocking auxin signaling. Analysis of the wild type and eir1, aux1-7, arf7arf19, and tir1abf2abf19 auxin-related mutants revealed a key role for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) signaling in mediating salt tolerance. We also found that T. virens (Tv29.8) and T. atroviride (IMI 206040) promoted plant growth in both normal and saline conditions, which was related to the induction of lateral roots and root hairs through auxin signaling. Arabidopsis seedlings grown under saline conditions inoculated with Trichoderma spp. showed increased levels of abscissic acid, L-proline, and ascorbic acid, and enhanced elimination of Na⁺ through root exudates. Our data show the critical role of auxin signaling and root architecture to salt tolerance in Arabidopsis and suggest that these fungi may enhance the plant IAA level as well as the antioxidant and osmoprotective status of plants under salt stress.

  17. Distribution of two basement membrane proteoglycans through hair follicle development and the hair growth cycle in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; King, J L; McCarthy, K J

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of two distinct populations of basement membrane proteoglycans has been monitored through hair growth development in the rat embryo and subsequent hair growth cycle. An antiserum against a small heparan sulfate proteoglycan uniformly stained the dermal-epidermal junction...... of embryonic rats throughout the period of hair follicle formation. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies recognizing a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan only weakly stained 16-d embryo dermal-epidermal junction, but strong staining was associated with hair follicle buds...... as they developed. Through the hair growth cycle, it was found that the heparan sulfate proteoglycan persisted around the follicles, while the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan decreased in amount through catagen until it was undetectable at the base and dermal papilla of the telogen follicle. As anagen commenced...

  18. Effect of the multifunctional cosmetic ingredient sphinganine on hair loss in men and women with diffuse hair reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach N

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicole Gerlach,1,* Matthias Mentel,2,* Tim Köhler,2 Benjamin Tuchscherer,2 Birgit Garbe,1 Jasmina Ülker,1 Hagen Tronnier,1 Ulrike Heinrich,1 Mike Farwick2 1DermaTronnier GmbH & Co. KG, Institute for Experimental Dermatology, Witten/Herdecke University, Witten, 2Evonik Nutrition & Care GmbH, Essen, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Sphingolipids are well known to promote keratinocyte differentiation and to induce ceramide production. In addition, they show anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential effect of sphinganine on prolonging the hair anagen rate and improving the overall hair quality and scalp health. The inhibitory potential of sphinganine toward 5-α-reductase was studied using an in vitro assay. The stimulation of the antimicrobial peptide HBD2 by sphinganine was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. Sphinganine bioavailability was studied ex vivo using a pig skin model. A placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of sphinganine on hair loss and hair/scalp quality in vivo. In vitro results showed that sphinganine is a potent inhibitor of 5-α-reductase type I that prevents the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, a key factor of androgenetic male baldness. In vivo results demonstrated efficacy in reducing non-illness-related hair loss among males. In terms of expert rating, all hair quality and scalp parameters improved after application of sphinganine. Improved scalp health might be linked to the observed increase of the antimicrobial peptide HBD2. Thus, sphinganine is well suited as a topical alternative for the improvement of scalp health and hair quality and anti-hair loss application. Keywords: sphinganine, 5-α-reductase inhibition, HBD2, hair loss, anagen rate, TrichoScan®

  19. Sensory hair cell death and regeneration in fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Monroe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensory hair cells are specialized mechanotransductive receptors required for hearing and vestibular function. Loss of hair cells in humans and other mammals is permanent and causes reduced hearing and balance. In the early 1980’s, it was shown that hair cells continue to be added to the inner ear sensory epithelia in cartilaginous and bony fishes. Soon thereafter, hair cell regeneration was documented in the chick cochlea following acoustic trauma. Since then, research using chick and other avian models has led to great insights into hair cell death and regeneration. However, with the rise of the zebrafish as a model organism for studying disease and developmental processes, there has been an increased interest in studying sensory hair cell death and regeneration in its lateral line and inner ears. Advances derived from studies in zebrafish and other fish species include understanding the effect of ototoxins on hair cells and finding otoprotectants to mitigate ototoxin damage, the role of cellular proliferation versus direct transdifferentiation during hair cell regeneration, and elucidating cellular pathways involved in the regeneration process. This review will summarize research on hair cell death and regeneration using fish models, indicate the potential strengths and weaknesses of these models, and discuss several emerging areas of future studies.

  20. Piriformospora indica root colonization triggers local and systemic root responses and inhibits secondary colonization of distal roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Mueller, Martin J; Waller, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Piriformosporaindica is a basidiomycete fungus colonizing roots of a wide range of higher plants, including crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that P. indica improves growth, and enhances systemic pathogen resistance in leaves of host plants. To investigate systemic effects within the root system, we established a hydroponic split-root cultivation system for Arabidopsis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that initial P. indica colonization triggers a local, transient response of several defense-related transcripts, of which some were also induced in shoots and in distal, non-colonized roots of the same plant. Systemic effects on distal roots included the inhibition of secondary P. indica colonization. Faster and stronger induction of defense-related transcripts during secondary inoculation revealed that a P. indica pretreatment triggers root-wide priming of defense responses, which could cause the observed reduction of secondary colonization levels. Secondary P. indica colonization also induced defense responses in distant, already colonized parts of the root. Endophytic fungi therefore trigger a spatially specific response in directly colonized and in systemic root tissues of host plants.

  1. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Drugs of Abuse in Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, Bryn; Cuypers, Eva; Porta, Tiffany; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Heeren, Ron M A

    2017-01-01

    Hair testing is a powerful tool routinely used for the detection of drugs of abuse. The analysis of hair is highly advantageous as it can provide prolonged drug detectability versus that in biological fluids and chronological information about drug intake based on the average growth of hair. However, current methodology requires large amounts of hair samples and involves complex time-consuming sample preparation followed by gas or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry imaging is increasingly being used for the analysis of single hair samples, as it provides more accurate and visual chronological information in single hair samples.Here, two methods for the preparation of single hair samples for mass spectrometry imaging are presented.The first uses an in-house built cutting apparatus to prepare longitudinal sections, the second is a method for embedding and cryo-sectioning hair samples in order to prepare cross-sections all along the hair sample.

  2. Observations of the severity of notch-root radius in initiation of subcritical crack growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, W.G.; Eiholzer, C.R.; Tupper, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Slow bend tests were conducted on Charpy specimens containing precracks or machined notches of 0.10 or 0.25 mm radius. The test specimens were fabricated from three heats of annealed Type 304 stainless steel. The purpose of these tests was to examine the effects of notch root radius, in very ductile materials, on initiation of subcritical crack growth. In addition, it was intended to establish the critical values of J, COD, etc. for the single-edge notch specimen for comparison with results obtained from specimens containing surface flaws. This paper will briefly describe only those results of the calculation for J. The tests were monitored by acoustic emission to identify the load corresponding to initiation of subcritical crack growth, by a crack-opening displacement gage (COD), by cross-head displacement, and by stop-action photography

  3. Focal Atrichia: A Diagnostic Clue in Female Pattern Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Elise A; Whiting, David A

    2017-10-07

    Focal atrichia is a common clinical finding in female pattern hair loss whose specificity and histologic findings need further clarification. To determine the frequency of focal atrichia in various types of hair loss and its histologic characteristics in female pattern hair loss. Part 1: Review of 250 consecutive female patients seen with hair loss for the presence of focal atrichia and Part 2: paired biopsies of haired areas vs focal atrichia in 18 subjects with female pattern hair loss RESULTS: Focal atrichia was seen in 46/104 (44%) of women with female pattern hair loss, including 67% of late onset vs 15% of early onset, compared to 3/146 (2%) of those with other hair disorders Biopsy findings of focal atrichia in female pattern hair loss showed primarily a more progressive miniaturization process than that of haired areas of the scalp. Some women with female pattern hair loss may have had concomitant chronic telogen effluvium CONCLUSIONS: When present, focal atrichia is a clinical clue to the diagnosis of female pattern hair loss, particularly late onset subtype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Attachment of associative diazotroph alcaligenes faecalis to rice roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Min; Fang Xuanjun; You Chongbiao

    1993-01-01

    The process of attachment of diazotroph Alcaligenes faecalis to host plant rice was studied by using 15 N-labelled bacteria and Tn5-induced mutants. A three-step attachment mechanism of A. faecalis to rice root surface is proposed on the basis of experimental data. Adsorption is the first step. The number of adsorbed bacteria reaches maximal level after 3 h of inoculation, it consists 3.7% of the total number of bacteria inoculated. Adsorbed bacteria could be removed from rice root surface quantitatively by shaking in water. Therefore, the adsorption forces are weak. Anchoring is the second step. It begins only after 9h of inoculation and reaches a maximal level (21%) after 16 h. Anchored bacteria could not be removed by shaking. Colonization is the third step. After 20 h of inoculation. part of anchored bacteria colonizes on rice root surface tightly, and it can not be removed by vortex. At this time, the pectolytic activity of bacteria appears. Chemotaxis and exopolysaccharide (EPS) play important roles in the attachment of A. faecalis to rice root surface. EPS mutants (Exo - , Exo ++ ) showed less anchoring-capability in comparison with wild type of bacterium, but they remained the adsorption capability. While chemotaxis (Che - ) mutants are defective in adsorption, but not in anchoring. Che - , Exo - mutant lost both adsorption and anchoring capabilities. A. faecalis absorbed on all part of rice root, but the anchoring and colonization of bacteria were occurred mainly on root hairs, particularly on the joint area of main root and lateral root

  5. Number, Position, Diameter and Initial Direction of Growth of Primary Roots in Musa

    OpenAIRE

    LECOMPTE, FRANCOIS; VAUCELLE, AURELIEN; PAGES, LOIC; OZIER‐LAFONTAINE, HARRY

    2002-01-01

    To understand soil colonization by a root system, information is needed on the architecture of the root system. In monocotyledons, soil exploration is mainly due to the growth of adventitious primary roots. Primary root emergence in banana was quantified in relation to shoot and corm development. Root emergence kinetics were closely related to the development of aerial organs. Root position at emergence on the corm followed an asymptotic function of corm dry weight, so that the age of each ro...

  6. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...... laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0...

  7. Use of a modified hair strand test to assess the antifungal activity kinetics of dog hair after a 2% climbazole shampoo application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jean Yanique; Cavana, Paola; Thoumire, Sandra; Guillot, Jacques; Perrot, Sébastien

    2016-06-01

    The "hair strand test" was first developed as a model to evaluate the antifungal activity of antidandruff shampoos. To assess the residual activity of an antifungal shampoo on the hair shafts of dogs after a single application, followed by bathing with a physiological shampoo one month later. Six beagles (two males and four females) from a research colony. Dogs were bathed with a 2% climbazole shampoo. Hairs were collected before application of the shampoo and at scheduled intervals for 30 days after treatment. A physiological shampoo was then applied to all dogs and hairs were collected following the same schedule. The inhibition zone around the hair shafts was measured after incubation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates streaked with three Malassezia pachydermatis strains. Inhibition zones around hairs collected from dogs bathed with 2% climbazole shampoo were significantly larger than those around hairs collected before shampooing at all time points (P = 0.003). An increase in the width of the inhibition zones around climbazole treated hairs was observed following physiological shampoo on Day 30 (P = 0.005). No significant differences were observed between Malassezia pachydermatis isolates (P = 0.571). No inhibition zones were seen around the hairs of dogs bathed with physiological shampoo only. The modified hair strand test is useful for the assessment of residual antifungal activity on animal hairs. Use of a physiological shampoo following antifungal shampoo therapy may increase the efficacy of the antifungal product for the control of Malassezia overgrowth. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  8. Comparison of Plasma, Saliva, and Hair Levetiracetam Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaś-Ruszczyk, Katarzyna; Kuczyńska, Julita; Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, Halina; Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, Iwona; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw; Restel, Magdalena; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Mierzejewski, Pawel

    2017-06-01

    Previous findings revealed high correlations between serum/plasma and saliva levetiracetam concentrations, indicating saliva as an alternative matrix for monitoring levetiracetam therapy. Levetiracetam concentration in the hair, which could reflect long-term drug exposure and patients' compliance, has not been systematically tested, as yet. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between plasma, saliva, and hair levetiracetam concentrations in 47 patients with epilepsy. Plasma, saliva, and hair levetiracetam concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive ionization. Levetiracetam saliva and plasma concentrations were highly correlated (r = 0.93). Plasma concentrations were not influenced by sex, age, and other concomitant antiepileptic drugs. Levetiracetam hair concentrations correlated with plasma concentrations (r = 0.36) but not daily dose (mg/kg). Drug hair concentrations were not influenced by hair color or treatment (dyed). The results tend to indicate that saliva may be a reliable alternative to plasma for monitoring levetiracetam concentrations. Levetiracetam can also be detected in human hair.

  9. Effects of solar radiation on hair and photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dario, Michelli F; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the negative effects of solar radiation (ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths) on hair properties like color, mechanical properties, luster, protein content, surface roughness, among others, will be discussed. Despite knowing that radiation damages hair, there are no consensus about the particular effect of each segment of solar radiation on the hair shaft. The hair photoprotection products are primarily targeted to dyed hair, specially auburn pigments, and gray shades. They are usually based on silicones, antioxidants and quaternary chemical UV filters that have more affinity for negatively charged hair surface and present higher efficacy. Unfortunately, there are no regulated parameters, like for skin photoprotection, for efficacy evaluation of hair care products, which makes impossible to compare the results published in the literature. Thus, it is important that researchers make an effort to apply experimental conditions similar to a real level of sun exposure, like dose, irradiance, time, temperature and relative humidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of a nutritional supplement on hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floc'h, Caroline; Cheniti, Ahsène; Connétable, Sophie; Piccardi, Nathalie; Vincenzi, Colombina; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss is a frequent and distressing condition. To evaluate vs. control, the effects on hair loss of a 6-month supplementation with specific omega 3&6 and antioxidants. One hundred and twenty healthy female subjects participated in this 6-month, randomized, comparative study. The primary endpoint was the change in hair density evaluated on standardized photographs. Secondary endpoints included changes in telogen hair percentage and diameter distribution of anagen hair (>40 µm vs. ≤40 µm) measured by trichogram. Overall changes in hair density and diameter were also measured by trichometer and by subjects' self-assessment. After 6 months of treatment, photograph assessment demonstrated a superior improvement in the supplemented group (P hair percentage was significantly (P hair (>40 µm) increased compared to the control group. The trichometer index increased in the supplemented group, while it decreased in the control group. A large majority of supplemented subjects reported a reduction in hair loss (89.9% of subjects at 6 months), as well as an improvement in hair diameter (86.1%) and hair density (87.3%). A 6-month supplementation with omega 3&6 and antioxidants acts efficiently against hair loss in improving hair density and reducing the telogen percentage and the proportion of miniaturized anagen hair. Objectively measured improvements were confirmed by the subjects' perception of efficacy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Detection of oxidative hair treatment using fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Silvana; Wunder, Cora; Paulke, Alexander; Verhoff, Marcel A; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2016-08-01

    In assessing abstinence from drug or alcohol abuse, hair analysis plays an important role. Cosmetic hair treatment influences the content of deposited drugs which is not always detectable during analysis. Since oxidation of melanin leads to an increase in fluorescence, a microscopic method was developed to distinguish natural from cosmetically treated hair. For validation, natural hair samples were treated with different types of cosmetics and inspected by fluorescence microscopy. Hair samples from 20 volunteers with documented cosmetic treatment and as a proof of concept 100 hair samples from forensic cases were analyzed by this method. Apart from autofluorescence with excitation at 365 nm, no obvious fluorescence was observed in untreated hair samples. Tinting and a natural plant product had no influence on fluorescence, but dyeing procedures including oxidation led to a marked increase in fluorescence. Proof of cosmetic treatment was achieved in hair samples from the 20 volunteers. In 100 forensic cases, 13 samples were characterized as oxidatively treated, which was in accordance with the respective disclosure except for one case where treatment was not admitted. This fluorescence microscopic procedure proved to be fast, easy, and reliable to identify oxidatively treated hair samples, which must be considered especially in evaluating cases of negative drug results. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J; Hepp, Lisa M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Kim, Sungroul; Madsen, Camille; Ma, Jiemin; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N

    2012-08-01

    In the United States, race/ethnicity is a strong determinant of tobacco use patterns, biomarkers of tobacco smoke components and metabolites, and likelihood of successful cessation. Although Black smokers tend to smoke fewer cigarettes than White smokers, they have higher cotinine levels and disease risk and lower cessation success. We examined racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among daily tobacco smokers (n = 103) in Baltimore, Maryland. Participants completed a survey, and hair samples were collected and analyzed for nicotine concentration using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. After adjustment, hair nicotine concentrations among Black smokers were more than 5 times higher than among White smokers (95% CI 3.0, 10.5). Smokers reporting hair treatments other than coloring (bleaching, permanent, or straightening) in the past 12 months had 66% lower (95% CI 32%, 83%) hair nicotine concentrations. Smokers reporting smoking their first cigarette within 30 min of waking had twice the hair nicotine concentrations of those whose time to first cigarette was greater than 30 min after waking (95% CI 1.1, 4.2). For every additional cigarette smoked per day up to 20, mean hair nicotine concentration among all smokers increased by 4% (95% CI -1%, 9%). This study demonstrates that Black smokers have substantially higher hair nicotine levels than White smokers, after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day and other exposure sources. Time to first cigarette, cigarettes smoked per day, and use of hair treatments other than coloring were also associated with hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

  13. Hair receptor sensitivity to changes in laminar boundary layer shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, B T

    2010-01-01

    Biologists have shown that bat wings contain distributed arrays of flow-sensitive hair receptors. The hair receptors are hypothesized to feedback information on airflows over the bat wing for enhanced stability or maneuverability during flight. Here, we study the geometric specialization of hair-like structures for the detection of changes in boundary layer velocity profiles (shapes). A quasi-steady model that relates the flow velocity profile incident on the longitudinal axis of a hair to the resultant moment and shear force at the hair base is developed. The hair length relative to the boundary layer momentum thickness that maximizes the resultant moment and shear-force sensitivity to changes in boundary layer shape is determined. The sensitivity of the resultant moment and shear force is shown to be highly dependent on hair length. Hairs that linearly taper to a point are shown to provide greater output sensitivity than hairs of uniform cross-section. On an order of magnitude basis, the computed optimal hair lengths are in agreement with the range of hair receptor lengths measured on individual bat species. These results support the hypothesis that bats use hair receptors for detecting changes in boundary layer shape and provide geometric guidelines for artificial hair sensor design and application.

  14. Gel network shampoo formulation and hair health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J M; Brown, M A; Felts, T J; Hutton, H D; Vatter, M L; Whitaker, S; Wireko, F C; Styczynski, P B; Li, C; Henry, I D

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this work was to create a shampoo formula that contains a stable ordered gel network structure that delivers fatty alcohols inside hair. X-ray diffraction (SAXS and WAXS), SEM and DSC have been used to confirm formation of the ordered Lβ gel network with fatty alcohol (cetyl and stearyl alcohols) and an anionic surfactant (SLE1S). Micro-autoradiography and extraction methods using GC-MS were used to confirm penetration of fatty alcohols into hair, and cyclic fatigue testing was used to measure hair strength. In this work, evidence of a stable Lβ ordered gel network structure created from cetyl and stearyl alcohols and anionic surfactant (SLE1S) is presented, and this is confirmed via scanning electron microscopy images showing lamella layers and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showing new melting peaks vs the starting fatty alcohols. Hair washed for 16 repeat cycles with this shampoo showed penetration of fatty alcohols from the gel network into hair as confirmed by a differential extraction method with GC-MS and by radiolabelling of stearyl alcohol and showing its presence inside hair cross-sections. The gel network role in delivering fatty alcohol inside hair is demonstrated by comparing with a shampoo with added fatty alcohol not in an ordered gel network structure. The hair containing fatty alcohol was measured via the Dia-stron cyclic fatigue instrument and showed a significantly higher number of cycles to break vs control. The formation of a stable gel network was confirmed in the formulated shampoo, and it was demonstrated that this gel network is important to deliver cetyl and stearyl alcohols into hair. The presence of fatty alcohol inside hair was shown to deliver a hair strength benefit via cyclic fatigue testing. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. Hair Mesotherapy in Treatment of Alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Ozdogan

    2011-01-01

    mesotherapy in any form. Material and Methods: In this study, we evaluate the clinical changes of mesotherapy formulation on 15 men and 8 women patients, which consists of minoxidil, biotin, dexpantenol, herbal complex and procain and which is applied for androgenetic alopecia in our clinic every week. Results: In the analysis done before and after the mesotherapy, when the hair quantity, hair thickness, scalp state and hair loss are compared, the difference between them was statistically meaningful (p<0,05. There was no side effect during and after the application. Conclusion: In the hair mesotherapy, there is lack of mixture and application scheme whose effectiveness has been proved scientifically. We approve this study to be published that it supports the few  issues.

  16. Public health benefits of hair-mercury analysis and dietary advice in lowering methylmercury exposure in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Line E; Jørgensen, Jan S; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate whether a public health intervention using focused dietary advice combined with a hair-mercury analysis can lower neurotoxic methylmercury exposure among pregnant women without decreasing their overall intake of seafood. A total of 146 pregnant women were consecutively recruited from the antenatal clinic at a Danish university hospital at their initial ultrasound scan. Dietary advice was provided on avoiding methylmercury exposure from large predatory fish and a hair sample from each participant was analysed for mercury, with the results being communicated shortly thereafter to the women. A dietary questionnaire was filled in. Follow-up three months later included a dietary questionnaire and a repeat hair-mercury analysis. In the follow-up group, 22% of the women had hair-mercury concentrations above a safe limit of 0.58 µg/g at enrolment, decreasing to 8% three months later. Average hair-mercury concentrations decreased by 21%. However, the total seafood intake remained at the same level after three months. Increased exposure to methylmercury among pregnant women is an important public health concern in Denmark. The observed lowering of hair-mercury concentrations associated with dietary advice corresponds to a substantial public health benefit that probably makes such an intervention highly profitable.

  17. The pluripotency of hair follicle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2006-02-01

    The hair follicle bulge area is an abundant, easily accessible source of actively growing, pluripotent adult stem cells. Nestin, a protein marker for neural stem cells, is also expressed in follicle stem cells as well as their immediate differentiated progeny. The nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells differentiated into neurons, glial cells, keratinocytes and smooth muscle cells in vitro. Hair-follicle stem cells were implanted into the gap region of a severed sciatic nerve. The hair follicle stem cells greatly enhanced the rate of nerve regeneration and the restoration of nerve function. The follicle stem cells transdifferentiated largely into Schwann cells which are known to support neuron regrowth. Function of the rejoined sciatic nerve was measured by contraction of the gastrocnemius muscle upon electrical stimulation. After severing the tibial nerve and subsequent transplantation of hair-follicle stem cells, the transplanted mice recovered the ability to walk normally. These results suggest that hair-follicle stem cells provide an important accessible, autologous source of adult stem cells for regenerative medicine.

  18. Hair analysis as evidence in forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, M R; Fey, P; Sachs, H

    1993-12-01

    Because hair analysis can be used for the determination of drug use months after drug consumption, hair analysis data can often act as important and even decisive evidence in the courtroom. More recently developed GC/MS methods offer excellent sensitivity and can make the distinction between chronic heroin and codeine use, which was not possible earlier with radioimmunoassay techniques. From more than a thousand hair analyses, the morphine/codeine ratios necessary to determine heroin use were set at 5:1 for low morphine concentrations (< 1 ng/mg hair) and 2:1 for concentrations above 1 ng/mg hair. The distinction can be further focused with the additional analysis of the metabolite monoacetylmorphine (MAM). As can be seen from several case examples, hair analysis cannot pinpoint an exact date of opiate use, but it can be used to validate or invalidate a subject's statement concerning his/her drug consumption. Interpretations should always be made cautiously. Ranges, means and medians are also listed for amphetamine, cocaine and cannabis and work is under way to draw similar safety guidelines for these drugs.

  19. Oxidative stress in ageing of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2009-01-01

    Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a major role in the ageing process. Reactive oxygen species are generated by a multitude of endogenous and environmental challenges. Reactive oxygen species or free radicals are highly reactive molecules that can directly damage cellular structural membranes, lipids, proteins, and DNA. The body possesses endogenous defence mechanisms, such as antioxidative enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidative molecules, protecting it from free radicals by reducing and neutralizing them. With age, the production of free radicals increases, while the endogenous defence mechanisms decrease. This imbalance leads to the progressive damage of cellular structures, presumably resulting in the ageing phenotype. Ageing of hair manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production or alopecia. There is circumstantial evidence that oxidative stress may be a pivotal mechanism contributing to hair graying and hair loss. New insights into the role and prevention of oxidative stress could open new strategies for intervention and reversal of the hair graying process and age-dependent alopecia.

  20. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited. ...

  1. The design, calibration, and use of a water microjet for stimulating hair cell sensory hair bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, J C; Szymko, Y M

    1989-11-01

    The design, calibration, and use of a noninvasive, noncontact device for stimulating hair cell hair bundles in vitro are described. This device employed a piezoelectric crystal, driven at high frequencies, to generate sinusoidal pressure in a contained fluid volume. The pressure was propagated to the tip of a glass micropipette and the oscillating water jet stimulus produced at the tip was used to stimulate sensory hair bundles. The movements of glass microbeads, caught in the oscillating pressure field of the water jet, provided a means of calibrating this stimulus. The linearity of the jet, its waveform and frequency response, the influence of pipette shape and tip diameter, as well as models to explain the operation of the water jet, are described. The use of this stimulus for measuring hair bundle micromechanics at high frequencies is then demonstrated.

  2. Lateral root organogenesis - from cell to organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benková, Eva; Bielach, Agnieszka

    2010-12-01

    Unlike locomotive organisms capable of actively approaching essential resources, sessile plants must efficiently exploit their habitat for water and nutrients. This involves root-mediated underground interactions allowing plants to adapt to soils of diverse qualities. The root system of plants is a dynamic structure that modulates primary root growth and root branching by continuous integration of environmental inputs, such as nutrition availability, soil aeration, humidity, or salinity. Root branching is an extremely flexible means to rapidly adjust the overall surface of the root system and plants have evolved efficient control mechanisms, including, firstly initiation, when and where to start lateral root formation; secondly lateral root primordia organogenesis, during which the development of primordia can be arrested for a certain time; and thirdly lateral root emergence. Our review will focus on the most recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of lateral root initiation and organogenesis with the main focus on root system of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Signal detection by active, noisy hair bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Maoiléidigh, Dáibhid; Salvi, Joshua D.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Vertebrate ears employ hair bundles to transduce mechanical movements into electrical signals, but their performance is limited by noise. Hair bundles are substantially more sensitive to periodic stimulation when they are mechanically active, however, than when they are passive. We developed a model of active hair-bundle mechanics that predicts the conditions under which a bundle is most sensitive to periodic stimulation. The model relies only on the existence of mechanotransduction channels and an active adaptation mechanism that recloses the channels. For a frequency-detuned stimulus, a noisy hair bundle's phase-locked response and degree of entrainment as well as its detection bandwidth are maximized when the bundle exhibits low-amplitude spontaneous oscillations. The phase-locked response and entrainment of a bundle are predicted to peak as functions of the noise level. We confirmed several of these predictions experimentally by periodically forcing hair bundles held near the onset of self-oscillation. A hair bundle's active process amplifies the stimulus preferentially over the noise, allowing the bundle to detect periodic forces less than 1 pN in amplitude. Moreover, the addition of noise can improve a bundle's ability to detect the stimulus. Although, mechanical activity has not yet been observed in mammalian hair bundles, a related model predicts that active but quiescent bundles can oscillate spontaneously when they are loaded by a sufficiently massive object such as the tectorial membrane. Overall, this work indicates that auditory systems rely on active elements, composed of hair cells and their mechanical environment, that operate on the brink of self-oscillation.

  4. Effect of nickel on the organization of actin filaments in Arabidopsis thaliana primary root cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goryunova, I.I.; Krasilenko, Yu.A.; Emets, A.I.; Blyum, Ya.B.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of one of the most toxic heavy metals - nickel (Ni 2+ ) - on the organization of actin filaments (microfilaments) of different types of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) root cells is studied in living cells by the laser scanning microscopy. To visualize microfilaments, the A. thaliana line expressing chimeric gene gfp-fabd2 was used. Ni 2+ leads to a significant inhibition of the growth of the main root and disturbs its morphology, causing the swelling of epidermal cells and inducing a large number of abnormally long root hairs. For the first time, it has been shown that Ni 2+ disturbs the organization of actin filaments in cells, leading to morphological changes of a root as the main organ, being the first exposed to the intoxication by soil pollutants. It is found that the most sensitive to its action are actin filaments of epidermal cells of all growth zones of A. thaliana root

  5. The treatment of female pattern hair loss and other applications of surgical hair restoration in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffrey S

    2004-05-01

    In the specialty of surgical hair restoration, men comprise more than 90% of the patients treated; however, in the last few years the number of women undergoing the procedure has increased significantly. The reasons for this growth are many and include the increase in public awareness of the efficacy of hair transplantation from such sources as the media,the Internet, advertising and word of mouth. More importantly, advances in technique have significantly improved results, increasing the confidence level in women to undergo the procedure and in hair transplant specialists to offer it.

  6. Segmental Analysis of Chlorprothixene and Desmethylchlorprothixene in Postmortem Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Kamilla Nyborg; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Wicktor, Petra; Banner, Jytte; Linnet, Kristian

    2018-06-26

    Analysis of drugs in hair differs from their analysis in other tissues due to the extended detection window, as well as the opportunity that segmental hair analysis offers for the detection of changes in drug intake over time. The antipsychotic drug chlorprothixene is widely used, but few reports exist on chlorprothixene concentrations in hair. In this study, we analyzed hair segments from 20 deceased psychiatric patients who had undergone chronic chlorprothixene treatment, and we report hair concentrations of chlorprothixene and its metabolite desmethylchlorprothixene. Three to six 1-cm long segments were analyzed per individual, corresponding to ~3-6 months of hair growth before death, depending on the length of the hair. We used a previously published and fully validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the hair analysis. The 10th-90th percentiles of chlorprothixene and desmethylchlorprothixene concentrations in all hair segments were 0.05-0.84 ng/mg and 0.06-0.89 ng/mg, respectively, with medians of 0.21 and 0.24 ng/mg, and means of 0.38 and 0.43 ng/mg. The estimated daily dosages ranged from 28 mg/day to 417 mg/day. We found a significant positive correlation between the concentration in hair and the estimated daily doses for both chlorprothixene (P = 0.0016, slope = 0.0044 [ng/mg hair]/[mg/day]) and the metabolite desmethylchlorprothixene (P = 0.0074). Concentrations generally decreased throughout the hair shaft from proximal to distal segments, with an average reduction in concentration from segment 1 to segment 3 of 24% for all cases, indicating that most of the individuals had been compliant with their treatment. We have provided some guidance regarding reference levels for chlorprothixene and desmethylchlorprothixene concentrations in hair from patients undergoing long-term chlorprothixene treatment.

  7. Hair Transplantation in Migraine Headache Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safvet Ors, MD

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions:. This report details 6 patients who experienced abatement of migraine headache symptoms following hair transplantation. The positive effects of hair transplantation on migraine headache and potential mechanisms of action are also discussed.

  8. Hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In the literature of the past 30 years there are only some publications concerned with hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women. Therefore, the relevance of hyperprolactinemia was evaluated in 40 women with diffuse alopecia. Hair loss was assessed by clinical appearance and the pluck trichogram. 82.5% of the female patients had diffuse hair loss and 17.5% had androgenetic alopecia. The highest prolactin values measured were 1390 ng/ml and 255 ng/ml. Six patients had values between 150–80.4 ng/ml and 10 between 79.1–51.7 ng/ml. All others had prolactin values below 50 ng/ml. Fifteen untreated patients with elevated prolactin levels could be followed up. Without any prolactin-inhibiting drugs, reductions and normalizations beside moderate fluctuations could be detected. Thyroid-specific diagnostics showed in 95% of the patients a normal thyroid function. 2.5% had a slight hyperthyreoidism and 2.5% had a slight hypothyreoidism. No female patient had clinical signs of androgenization and the determined androgens testosterone, androstendione and dihydroepiandrostendione were in the normal range. According to these results, moderate elevated prolactin levels in association with diffuse or androgenetic hair loss can be neglected as causative for the hair loss, because there is no evidence that they have an influence to the pattern, the extent or the duration of the hair loss. These results are supported by investigations of other authors who described only in high doses of prolactin an inhibiting effect on human hair follicles in vitro. Nevertheless, moderate constantly elevated prolactin levels should induce further diagnostics to exclude a prolactin-producing tumor of the pituitary gland. PMID:22870355

  9. Preclinical and Clinical Studies Demonstrate That the Proprietary Herbal Extract DA-5512 Effectively Stimulates Hair Growth and Promotes Hair Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Young Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proprietary DA-5512 formulation comprises six herbal extracts from traditional oriental plants historically associated with therapeutic and other applications related to hair. Here, we investigated the effects of DA-5512 on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs in vitro and on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and conducted a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-5512. DA-5512 significantly enhanced the viability of hDPCs in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05, and 100 ppm of DA-5512 and 1 μM minoxidil (MXD significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells, compared with the control group (p<0.05. MXD (3% and DA-5512 (1%, 5% significantly stimulated hair growth and increased the number and length of hair follicles (HFs versus the controls (each p<0.05. The groups treated with DA-5512 exhibited hair growth comparable to that induced by MXD. In clinical study, we detected a statistically significant increase in the efficacy of DA-5512 after 16 weeks compared with the groups treated with placebo or 3% MXD (p<0.05. In conclusion, DA-5512 might promote hair growth and enhance hair health and can therefore be considered an effective option for treating hair loss.

  10. Characteristics and phenomenology of hair-pulling: an exploration of subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, P L; van Kradenburg, J; Niehaus, D J; Stein, D J

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to detail the demographic and phenomenological features of adult chronic hair-pullers. Key possible subtypes were identified a priori. On the basis of the phenomenological data, differences between the following possible subtypes were investigated: hair-pullers with and without DSM-IV trichotillomania (TTM), oral habits, automatic versus focused hair-pulling, positive versus negative affective cues prior to hair-pulling, comorbid self-injurious habits, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and tics. Forty-seven participants were drawn from an outpatient population of chronic adult hair-pullers. A structured interview that focused on hair-pulling and associated behaviors was administered to participants. Six of the participants (12.8%) were male, and 41 (87.7%) were female. A large number of hair-pullers (63.8%) had comorbid self-injurious habits. A greater proportion of male hair-pullers had comorbid tics when compared with females. Certain subgroups of chronic hair-pullers (e.g., hairpullers with or without automatic/focused hair-pulling, comorbid self-injurious habits, and oral habits) were found to differ on a number of phenomenological and hair-pulling characteristics. However, differences between other possible subgroups (e.g., hair-pullers with or without DSM-IV TTM, comorbid OCD, and negative versus positive affective cues) may reflect greater severity in hair-pulling symptomatology rather than distinct subtypes of chronic hair-pulling. The findings of the present study also indicated that chronic hair-pulling (even in cases where DSM-IV criteria for TTM were not met) has a significant impact on quality of life. The present study provided limited support for the existence of possible subtypes of chronic hair-pulling. Recommendations are made for further investigations into such subtypes. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  11. Eyelash Transplantation Using Leg Hair by Follicular Unit Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanusi Umar, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fine hairs of the head and nape areas have been used as donor sources in eyelash transplantation but are straight, coarse, and grow rapidly, requiring frequent eyelash maintenance. This is the first reported case of eyelash transplantation by follicular unit extraction using leg hair as a donor source; findings were compared with that of another patient who underwent a similar procedure with donor hairs from the nape area. Although both patients reported marked improvement in fullness of eyelashes within 3 months postsurgery, the transplanted leg hair eyelashes required less frequent trimming (every 5–6 weeks compared with nape hair eyelashes (every 2–3 weeks. Additionally, in leg hair eyelashes, the need for perming to sustain a natural looking eyelash curl was eliminated. Eyelash transplantation using leg donor hair in hirsute women may result in good cosmetic outcomes and require less maintenance compared with nape donor hair.

  12. [When hair starts to fall out].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorenzi, Caroline; Quenan, Sandrine

    2018-03-28

    Hair loss causes physical and psychological distress and represents a common motive of consultation both in general practice and dermatology. Causes of hair loss are highly diverse and can lead to a challenging diagnosis, which can delay its management. Knowledge of the main causes and their different mechanisms are thus necessary in order to optimize both the diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the main causes of hair loss in order to improve its diagnosis and management.

  13. Significance of hair-dye base-induced sensory irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, F; Azuma, T; Tajiri, M; Okamoto, H; Sano, M; Tominaga, M

    2010-06-01

    Oxidation hair-dyes, which are the principal hair-dyes, sometimes induce painful sensory irritation of the scalp caused by the combination of highly reactive substances, such as hydrogen peroxide and alkali agents. Although many cases of severe facial and scalp dermatitis have been reported following the use of hair-dyes, sensory irritation caused by contact of the hair-dye with the skin has not been reported clearly. In this study, we used a self-assessment questionnaire to measure the sensory irritation in various regions of the body caused by two model hair-dye bases that contained different amounts of alkali agents without dyes. Moreover, the occipital region was found as an alternative region of the scalp to test for sensory irritation of the hair-dye bases. We used this region to evaluate the relationship of sensitivity with skin properties, such as trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content, sebum amount, surface temperature, current perception threshold (CPT), catalase activities in tape-stripped skin and sensory irritation score with the model hair-dye bases. The hair-dye sensitive group showed higher TEWL, a lower sebum amount, a lower surface temperature and higher catalase activity than the insensitive group, and was similar to that of damaged skin. These results suggest that sensory irritation caused by hair-dye could occur easily on the damaged dry scalp, as that caused by skin cosmetics reported previously.

  14. Tetrahydroxystilbene Glucoside Effectively Prevents Apoptosis Induced Hair Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Polygonum multiflorum against hair loss has been widely recognized. 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG is the main component of Polygonum multiflorum; however, its role in hair regeneration has not been established. To evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity of TSG, depilated C57BL/6J mice were topically treated with normal saline, TSG, Pifithrin-α, Minoxidil for 2 weeks. In this study, we identified that p53, Caspase-3, Active Caspase-3, and Caspase-9 were obviously upregulated in the skin of human and mice with hair loss by western blot analysis. Depilated mice treated with TSG showed markedly hair regrowth. TUNEL+ cells were also reduced in mice with TSG. These changes were accompanied with inhibition of Fas, p53, Bax, Active Caspase-3, and Procaspase-9 activities. These results demonstrated that TSG exerts great hair regrowth effect on hair loss, which was probably mediated by inhibition of p53, Fas, and Bax induced apoptosis.

  15. Motility of vestibular hair cells in the chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Y; Sekitani, T

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies of the outer hair cells in cochlea have demonstrated active motilities. However, very little study has been done on the vestibular hair cells (VHCs). The present study shows the motile response of the VHCs induced by application of Ca2+/ATP promoting contraction. Reversible cell shape changes could be shown in 10 of 16 isolated type I hair cells and 9 of 15 isolated type II hair cells by applying the contraction solution. Furthermore, the sensory hair bundles in the utricular epithelium pivoted around the base and stood perpendicularly to the apical borderline of the epithelium in response to the application of the same solution. It is suggested that the contraction of the isolated VHCs may be transferred to tension which causes the sensory hair bundles to restrict their motion in normal tissue, instead of changing the cell shape.

  16. Ratchet effect for nanoparticle transport in hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Matthias; Patzelt, Alexa; Knorr, Fanny; Lademann, Jürgen; Netz, Roland R

    2017-07-01

    The motion of a single rigid nanoparticle inside a hair follicle is investigated by means of Brownian dynamics simulations. The cuticular hair structure is modeled as a periodic asymmetric ratchet-shaped surface. Induced by oscillating radial hair motion we find directed nanoparticle transport into the hair follicle with maximal velocity at a specific optimal frequency and an optimal particle size. We observe flow reversal when switching from radial to axial oscillatory hair motion. We also study the diffusion behavior and find strongly enhanced diffusion for axial motion with a diffusivity significantly larger than for free diffusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hair shedding score may affect body temperature more than hair coat color during heat stress in weaned beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hair shedding score and hair coat color on the vaginal temperature (VT) of calves during heat stress. Weaned Bos taurus beef heifers (n = 32; BW = 282 ± 6.4 kg) were assigned to a hair coat color class (BLACK; RED; or LIGHT, where LIGHT = yel...

  18. The absence of the N-acyl-homoserine-lactone autoinducer synthase genes tral and ngrl increases the copy number of the symbiotic plasmid in Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-released flavonoids induce the transcription of symbiotic genes in rhizobia and one of the first bacterial responses is the synthesis of so called Nod factors. They are responsible for the initial root hair curling during onset of root nodule development. This signal exchange is believed to be...

  19. QTL-mapping in mink (Neovison vison) shows evidence for QTL for guard hair thickness, guard hair length and skin length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2011-01-01

    Fur quality in mink (Neovison vison) is a composite trait, consisting of e.g. guard hair length, guard hair thickness and density of wool. A genome wide QTL search was performed to detect QTL for fur quality traits in mink. Here we present the results of QTL analyses for guard hair length, guard...... hair thickness and density of wool. Data from an F2-cross was analysed across fourteen chromosomes using 100 microsatellites as markers with a spacing of approximately 20 cM. The two lines used for the F2-cross were Nordic wild mink and American short nap mink. In total 1,083 animals (21 wild type, 25...... short nap, 103 F1 and 934 F2) were marker typed and recorded for the three presented fur quality traits. For the QTL-analyses a regression analysis implemented in QTL Express software was used. Evidence was found for the existence of QTL for guard hair length, guard hair thickness and density of wool...

  20. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who has experience with performing laser hair removal. Electrolysis: Electrolysis is the only hair removal method that permanently ... using slow strokes. Rinse your skin with warm water after you are done shaving and then pat ...

  1. The Association Between Men's Sexist Attitudes and Facial Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldmeadow, Julian A; Dixson, Barnaby J

    2016-05-01

    Facial hair, like many masculine secondary sexual traits, plays a significant role in perceptions of an array of sociosexual traits in men. While there is consensus that beards enhance perceptions of masculinity, age, social dominance, and aggressiveness, the perceived attractiveness of facial hair varies greatly across women. Given the ease with which facial hair can be groomed and removed entirely, why should some men retain beards and others choose to remove them? We hypothesized that men with relatively sexist attitudes would be more likely to allow their facial hair to grow than men with less sexist attitudes. Men from the USA (n = 223) and India (n = 309) completed an online survey measuring demographic variables, ambivalent sexism, and facial hair status. After controlling for demographic variables, men with facial hair were significantly higher in hostile sexism than clean-shaven men; hostile sexism was a significant predictor of facial hair status over and above demographic variables; and facial hair was more frequent among ambivalent and hostile sexists than among benevolent and non-sexists. It is suggested that sexist men choose to grow facial hair because it maximizes sexual dimorphism and augments perceived masculinity and dominance.

  2. Effect of ultraviolet radiation, smoking and nutrition on hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2015-01-01

    Similar to the rest of the skin, the hair is exposed to noxious environmental factors. While ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and smoking are well appreciated as major factors contributing to the extrinsic aging of the skin, their effects on the condition of hair have only lately attracted the attention of the medical community. Terrestrial solar UVR ranges from approximately 290 to 400 nm; UV-B (290-315 nm) reaches only the upper dermis, while the penetration of UV-A (315-400 nm) into the dermis increases with wavelength. The two most important chronic effects of UVR on the skin and bald scalp are photocarcinogenesis and solar elastosis; however, the effects of UVR on hair have largely been ignored. As a consequence of increased leisure time and a growing popularity of outdoor activities and holidays in the sun, the awareness of sun protection of the skin has become important and should also apply to the hair. Besides being the single-most preventable cause of significant cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and an important cause of death, the association of tobacco smoking with various adverse effects on the skin and hair has also been recognized. Increasing public awareness of the association between smoking and hair loss seems to offer a good opportunity for the prevention or cessation of smoking, since the appearance of hair plays an important role in the overall physical appearance and self-perception of people. Finally, the quantity and quality of hair are closely related to the nutritional state of an individual. Normal supply, uptake, and transport of proteins, calories, trace elements, and vitamins are of fundamental importance in tissues with high biosynthetic activity, such as the hair follicle. In instances of protein and calorie malnutrition as well as essential amino acid, trace element, and vitamin deficiencies, hair growth and pigmentation may be impaired. Ultimately, important commercial interest lies in the question of whether increasing the

  3. Cell wall heterogeneity in root development of Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Somssich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls provide stability and protection to plant cells. During growth and development the composition of cell walls changes, but provides enough strength to withstand the turgor of the cells. Hence, cell walls are highly flexible and diverse in nature. These characteristics are important during root growth, as plant roots consist of radial patterns of cells that have diverse functions and that are at different developmental stages along the growth axis. Young stem cell daughters undergo a series of rapid cell divisions, during which new cell walls are formed that are highly dynamic, and that support rapid anisotropic cell expansion. Once the cells have differentiated, the walls of specific cell types need to comply with and support different cell functions. For example, a newly formed root hair needs to be able to break through the surrounding soil, while endodermal cells modify their walls at distinct positions to form Casparian strips between them. Hence, the cell walls are modified and rebuilt while cells transit through different developmental stages. In addition, the cell walls of roots readjust to their environment to support growth and to maximize nutrient uptake. Many of these modifications are likely driven by different developmental and stress signalling pathways. However, our understanding of how such pathways affect cell wall modifications and what enzymes are involved remain largely unknown. In this review we aim to compile data linking cell wall content and re-modelling to developmental stages of root cells, and dissect how root cell walls respond to certain environmental changes.

  4. Variation of elemental concentration in hair of the Japanese in terms of age, sex and hair treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, T.; Hayashi, T.; Takada, J.; Hayashi, Y.; Koyama, M.; Shinogi, M.; Aoki, A.; Tomiyama, T.; Katayama, K.

    1982-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been performed on human hair of the normal Japanese individuals to define the baseline levels of trace elements. A statistical analysis which is not influenced by detection limits, has been carried out to elucidate the variations of elemental concentrations in terms of age, sex and hair treatment. Correlation coefficients have been calculated between the logarithmic concentrations of the elements determined in the groups classified according to sex, age and hair treatment. Their significant levels have been evaluated. (author)

  5. Responses of root architecture development to low phosphorus availability: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yao Fang; Chai, Ru Shan; Jin, Gu Lei; Wang, Huan; Tang, Cai Xian; Zhang, Yong Song

    2013-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for plant growth and development but it is often a limiting nutrient in soils. Hence, P acquisition from soil by plant roots is a subject of considerable interest in agriculture, ecology and plant root biology. Root architecture, with its shape and structured development, can be considered as an evolutionary response to scarcity of resources. This review discusses the significance of root architecture development in response to low P availability and its beneficial effects on alleviation of P stress. It also focuses on recent progress in unravelling cellular, physiological and molecular mechanisms in root developmental adaptation to P starvation. The progress in a more detailed understanding of these mechanisms might be used for developing strategies that build upon the observed explorative behaviour of plant roots. The role of root architecture in alleviation of P stress is well documented. However, this paper describes how plants adjust their root architecture to low-P conditions through inhibition of primary root growth, promotion of lateral root growth, enhancement of root hair development and cluster root formation, which all promote P acquisition by plants. The mechanisms for activating alterations in root architecture in response to P deprivation depend on changes in the localized P concentration, and transport of or sensitivity to growth regulators such as sugars, auxins, ethylene, cytokinins, nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and abscisic acid (ABA). In the process, many genes are activated, which in turn trigger changes in molecular, physiological and cellular processes. As a result, root architecture is modified, allowing plants to adapt effectively to the low-P environment. This review provides a framework for understanding how P deficiency alters root architecture, with a focus on integrated physiological and molecular signalling.

  6. Responses of root architecture development to low phosphorus availability: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yao Fang; Chai, Ru Shan; Jin, Gu Lei; Wang, Huan; Tang, Cai Xian; Zhang, Yong Song

    2013-01-01

    Background Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for plant growth and development but it is often a limiting nutrient in soils. Hence, P acquisition from soil by plant roots is a subject of considerable interest in agriculture, ecology and plant root biology. Root architecture, with its shape and structured development, can be considered as an evolutionary response to scarcity of resources. Scope This review discusses the significance of root architecture development in response to low P availability and its beneficial effects on alleviation of P stress. It also focuses on recent progress in unravelling cellular, physiological and molecular mechanisms in root developmental adaptation to P starvation. The progress in a more detailed understanding of these mechanisms might be used for developing strategies that build upon the observed explorative behaviour of plant roots. Conclusions The role of root architecture in alleviation of P stress is well documented. However, this paper describes how plants adjust their root architecture to low-P conditions through inhibition of primary root growth, promotion of lateral root growth, enhancement of root hair development and cluster root formation, which all promote P acquisition by plants. The mechanisms for activating alterations in root architecture in response to P deprivation depend on changes in the localized P concentration, and transport of or sensitivity to growth regulators such as sugars, auxins, ethylene, cytokinins, nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and abscisic acid (ABA). In the process, many genes are activated, which in turn trigger changes in molecular, physiological and cellular processes. As a result, root architecture is modified, allowing plants to adapt effectively to the low-P environment. This review provides a framework for understanding how P deficiency alters root architecture, with a focus on integrated physiological and molecular signalling. PMID:23267006

  7. Management of hair loss diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Ohyama

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of hair loss diseases is sometimes difficult because of insufficient efficacy and limited options. However, recent advances in understanding of the pathophysiology and development of new remedies have improved the treatment of refractory hair loss conditions. In this article, an update on the management of hair loss diseases is provided, especially focusing on recently reported therapeutic approaches for alopecia areata (AA. An accurate diagnosis is indispensable to optimize treatment. Dry dermoscopy represents new diagnostic techniques, which could enable the differentiation of barely indistinguishable alopecias, e.g. AA and trichotillomania. An organized scalp biopsy adopting both vertical and transverse sectioning approaches also provides a deep insight into the pathophysiology of ongoing alopecias. Among various treatments for AA, intraregional corticosteroid and contact immunotherapy have been recognized as first-line therapies. However, some AA cases are refractory to both treatments. Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of pulse corticosteroid therapy or the combination of oral psoralen ultraviolet A therapy and systemic corticosteroids for severe AA. Previous clinical observations have suggested the potential role of antihistamines as supportive medications for AA. Experimental evaluation using AA model mice further supports their effectiveness in AA treatment. Finasteride opens up new possibilities for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. For androgenetic alopecia patients refractory to finasteride, the combination of finasteride with topical minoxidil or the administration of dutasteride, another 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, may provide better outcomes. Scarring alopecia is the most difficult form of hair loss disorder to treat. The bulge stem cell area is destroyed by unnecessary immune reactions with resultant permanent loss of hair follicle structures in scarring alopecia. Currently, treatment options for

  8. Hair follicle defects and squamous cell carcinoma formation in Smad4 conditional knockout mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, W; Li, A G; Owens, P; Xu, X; Wang, X-J; Deng, C-X

    2006-01-12

    Smad4 is the common mediator for TGFbeta signals, which play important functions in many biological processes. To study the role of Smad4 in skin development and epidermal tumorigenesis, we disrupted this gene in skin using the Cre-loxP approach. We showed that absence of Smad4 blocked hair follicle differentiation and cycling, leading to a progressive hair loss of mutant (MT) mice. MT hair follicles exhibited diminished expression of Lef1, and increased proliferative cells in the outer root sheath. Additionally, the skin of MT mice exhibited increased proliferation of basal keratinocytes and epidermal hyperplasia. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the absence of Smad4 resulted in a block of both TGFbeta and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways, including p21, a well-known cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Consequently, all MT mice developed spontaneous malignant skin tumors from 3 months to 13 months of age. The majority of tumors are malignant squamous cell carcinomas. A most notable finding is that tumorigenesis is accompanied by inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (Pten), activation of AKT, fast proliferation and nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1. These observations revealed the essential functions of Smad4-mediated signals in repressing skin tumor formation through the TGFbeta/BMP pathway, which interacts with the Pten signaling pathway.

  9. Composite Cucurbita pepo plants with transgenic roots as a tool to study root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilina, Elena L; Logachov, Anton A; Laplaze, Laurent; Demchenko, Nikolay P; Pawlowski, Katharina; Demchenko, Kirill N

    2012-07-01

    In most plant species, initiation of lateral root primordia occurs above the elongation zone. However, in cucurbits and some other species, lateral root primordia initiation and development takes place in the apical meristem of the parental root. Composite transgenic plants obtained by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation are known as a suitable model to study root development. The aim of the present study was to establish this transformation technique for squash. The auxin-responsive promoter DR5 was cloned into the binary vectors pKGW-RR-MGW and pMDC162-GFP. Incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) was used to evaluate the presence of DNA-synthesizing cells in the hypocotyl of squash seedlings to find out whether they were suitable for infection. Two A. rhizogenes strains, R1000 and MSU440, were used. Roots containing the respective constructs were selected based on DsRED1 or green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence, and DR5::Egfp-gusA or DR5::gusA insertion, respectively, was verified by PCR. Distribution of the response to auxin was visualized by GFP fluorescence or β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity staining and confirmed by immunolocalization of GFP and GUS proteins, respectively. Based on the distribution of EdU-labelled cells, it was determined that 6-day-old squash seedlings were suited for inoculation by A. rhizogenes since their root pericycle and the adjacent layers contain enough proliferating cells. Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000 proved to be the most virulent strain on squash seedlings. Squash roots containing the respective constructs did not exhibit the hairy root phenotype and were morphologically and structurally similar to wild-type roots. The auxin response pattern in the root apex of squash resembled that in arabidopsis roots. Composite squash plants obtained by A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation are a good tool for the investigation of root apical meristem development and root branching.

  10. Diversity in human hair growth, diameter, colour and shape. An in vivo study on young adults from 24 different ethnic groups observed in the five continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loussouarn, Geneviève; Lozano, Isabelle; Panhard, Ségolène; Collaudin, Catherine; El Rawadi, Charles; Genain, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Based on previous findings, from a worldwide study, classified the shapes of human hair into 8 major types, from straight to highly curly. This clearly extended the usual classification of hair into African, Asian or Caucasian types. However, determinations of hair growth parameters and hair density were excluded from such studies. To measure and compare the hair growth profiles of young adults without alopecia living in the five continents. 2249 young adults (18-35 years, females and males) without alopecia, originating from 24 various human ethnic groups were included in the study. Total hair density, telogen percentage and growth rate on three different scalp areas were measured, using non-invasive validated techniques. Natural hair colour level, curliness and hair diameter were additionally recorded, when practically possible. Diversity in hair growth parameters among the entire cohort was a key finding, with differences linked to scalp area, gender and geographic origin. Statistical approaches depicted African hair as having lower density and a slower growth rate. Asian hair showed a thicker diameter, with faster growth. Caucasian hair showed a high total hair density. On the one hand, this inter-continental study of hair growth parameters provides initial valuable base-line data on hair in young adults without alopecia, and on the other hand, further extends our knowledge of this unique human appendage, with some mosaic features, observed worldwide.

  11. Will initiatives to promote hydroelectricity consumption be effective? Evidence from univariate and panel LM unit root tests with structural breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lean, Hooi Hooi; Smyth, Russell

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether initiatives to promote hydroelectricity consumption are likely to be effective by applying univariate and panel Lagrange Multiplier (LM) unit root tests to hydroelectricity consumption in 55 countries over the period 1965–2011. We find that for the panel, as well as about four-fifths of individual countries, that hydroelectricity consumption is stationary. This result implies that shocks to hydroelectricity consumption in most countries will only result in temporary deviations from the long-run growth path. An important consequence of this finding is that initiatives designed to have permanent positive effects on hydroelectricity consumption, such as large-scale dam construction, are unlikely to be effective in increasing the share of hydroelectricity, relative to consumption of fossil fuels. - Highlights: • Applies unit root tests to hydroelectricity consumption. • Hydroelectricity consumption is stationary. • Shocks to hydroelectricity consumption result in temporary deviations from the long-run growth path

  12. Hair as an alternative matrix in bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Joana; Faria, Juliana; Carvalho, Félix; Pedro, Madalena; Queirós, Odília; Moreira, Roxana; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Alternative matrices are steadily gaining recognition as biological samples for toxicological analyses. Hair presents many advantages over traditional matrices, such as urine and blood, since it provides retrospective information regarding drug exposure, can distinguish between chronic and acute or recent drug use by segmental analysis, is easy to obtain, and has considerable stability for long periods of time. For this reason, it has been employed in a wide variety of contexts, namely to evaluate workplace drug exposure, drug-facilitated sexual assault, pre-natal drug exposure, anti-doping control, pharmacological monitoring and alcohol abuse. In this article, issues concerning hair structure, collection, storage and analysis are reviewed. The mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair are briefly discussed. Analytical techniques for simultaneous drug quantification in hair are addressed. Finally, representative examples of drug quantification using hair are summarized, emphasizing its potentialities and limitations as an alternative biological matrix for toxicological analyses.

  13. Forensic Human Hair Examination and Comparison in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, M M

    2005-01-01

    Forensic hair examination and comparison is often undervalued as evidence. Significant information can be developed from a thorough microscopic examination and comparison of human and animal hairs that can assist criminal and civil investigations. Animal hairs can be distinguished easily from human hairs and often can be specified to a genus, species, or even breed. Human hairs often can be identified as to their body area origin and the racial ancestry of the person from whom they originated. Additionally, damage, disease, or cosmetic treatments can be identified and described. Finally, suitable hairs can be compared microscopically with known hair samples to determine if they could have come from the same source. This application is now being augmented by mitochondrial DNA analysis, which enhances the information already available from a microscopic examination of evidentiary hairs. Training and qualification of forensic hair examiners is crucial to the quality and reliability of forensic hair examinations. Many of the weaknesses in forensic hair examinations seen to date are a result of inadequate training of forensic hair examiners and a lack of understanding about the fundamental nature of the examination of hairs. Mitochondrial DNA offers a chance for the rehabilitation and validation of microscopical examination of human, and potentially animal, hairs. Copyright © 2005 Central Police University.

  14. Thymosin Beta-4 Induces Mouse Hair Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Gao

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4 is known to induce hair growth and hair follicle (HF development; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. We generated mice that overexpressed Tβ4 in the epidermis, as well as Tβ4 global knockout mice, to study the role of Tβ4 in HF development and explore the mechanism of Tβ4 on hair growth. To study Tβ4 function, we depilated control and experimental mice and made tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E. To explore the effect of Tβ4 on hair growth and HF development, the mRNA and protein levels of Tβ4 and VEGF were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting in control and experimental mice. Protein expression levels and the phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT were also examined by western blotting. The results of depilation indicated that hair re-growth was faster in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, but slower in knockout mice. Histological examination revealed that Tβ4-overexpressing mice had a higher number of hair shafts and HFs clustered together to form groups, while the HFs of control mice and knockout mice were separate. Hair shafts in knockout mice were significantly reduced in number compared with control mice. Increased Tβ4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, which also had increased VEGF expression. On the other hand, knockout mice had reduced levels of VEGF expression. Mechanistically, Tβ4-overexpressing mice showed increased protein expression levels and phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT, whereas knockout mice had decreased levels of both expression and phosphorylation of these proteins. Tβ4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts.

  15. Polar lipid composition of mammalian hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wix, M A; Wertz, P W; Downing, D T

    1987-01-01

    The types and amounts of polar lipids from the hair of monkey (Macacca fascicularis), dog (Canis familiaris), pig (Sus scrofa) and porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) have been determined by quantitative thin-layer chromatography. The polar lipid content of the hair samples ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 wt%. Lipid compositions included ceramides (57-63% of the polar lipid by weight), glycosphingolipids (7-9%) and cholesteryl sulfate (22-29%). Several minor components (4-7%) remain unidentified. The results suggest that cholesteryl sulfate may be an important determinant of the cohesiveness of hair.

  16. Innovative modified hair follicle harvesting technique with reverse rake scalp elevator for lower occipital donor area in follicular unit extraction hair transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharwade, Chandrakant Rambhau

    2016-01-01

    Follicular unit extraction (FUE) is one of the widely practiced minimally invasive follicular harvesting techniques employed during hair transplantation. FUE technique has an advantage of utilising lower occipital area and supra-auricular region as a safe donor area described by Unger, in addition to the standard occipital donor area used in strip method (follicular unit transplant). Despite its potential advantages such as rapid recovery, minimal scarring and reduced post-operative pain; its widespread acceptance is limited due to various factors in variable contribution like steeper learning curve and potentially higher follicular transection rates (FTRs). The main practical drawbacks in harvesting FUE from lower occipital donor region that lie inferior to the standard donor area, is its acute angle (10°-15°) of emergent hair from scalp skin, higher variance angle (15°-35°) between hairs below the skin and hair exit angle above the skin and comparatively loose scalp, preventing to provide stable platform for punching. Hair transplant surgeon faces difficulty in aligning and engaging the FUE punch leading to very high hair follicle transection rate, and therefore, it is not a preferred site for harvesting follicles in FUE. Authors description of modified technique using reverse rake scalp elevator helps in negating the acute angle of the hair follicles exit from scalp skin and reducing the variance angle between emergent hair and hair below the skin in lower occipital region thereby reducing FTR. Furthermore, an added advantage of reducing the overall operative time and surgeon fatigue, improve donor area healing, availability of a comparatively larger donor area which increases the confidence of the beginners. This method will be of help as it is easy to duplicate and follow by novice hair transplant surgeons and also for those who are routinely doing mega hair transplants sessions.

  17. Innovative modified hair follicle harvesting technique with reverse rake scalp elevator for lower occipital donor area in follicular unit extraction hair transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Rambhau Gharwade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular unit extraction (FUE is one of the widely practiced minimally invasive follicular harvesting techniques employed during hair transplantation. FUE technique has an advantage of utilising lower occipital area and supra-auricular region as a safe donor area described by Unger, in addition to the standard occipital donor area used in strip method (follicular unit transplant. Despite its potential advantages such as rapid recovery, minimal scarring and reduced post-operative pain; its widespread acceptance is limited due to various factors in variable contribution like steeper learning curve and potentially higher follicular transection rates (FTRs. The main practical drawbacks in harvesting FUE from lower occipital donor region that lie inferior to the standard donor area, is its acute angle (10°–15° of emergent hair from scalp skin, higher variance angle (15°–35° between hairs below the skin and hair exit angle above the skin and comparatively loose scalp, preventing to provide stable platform for punching. Hair transplant surgeon faces difficulty in aligning and engaging the FUE punch leading to very high hair follicle transection rate, and therefore, it is not a preferred site for harvesting follicles in FUE. Authors description of modified technique using reverse rake scalp elevator helps in negating the acute angle of the hair follicles exit from scalp skin and reducing the variance angle between emergent hair and hair below the skin in lower occipital region thereby reducing FTR. Furthermore, an added advantage of reducing the overall operative time and surgeon fatigue, improve donor area healing, availability of a comparatively larger donor area which increases the confidence of the beginners. This method will be of help as it is easy to duplicate and follow by novice hair transplant surgeons and also for those who are routinely doing mega hair transplants sessions.

  18. Tiger hair morphology and its variations for wildlife forensic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thitika Kitpipit

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tiger population has dramatically decreased due to illegal consumption and commercialisation of their body parts. Frequently, hair samples are the only evidence found in the crime scene. Thus, they play an important role in species identification for wildlife forensic investigation. In this study, we provide the first in-depth report on a variety of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of tiger guard hairs (24 hairs per individual from four individuals. The proposed method could reduce subjectivity of expert opinions on species identification based on hair morphology. Variations in 23 hair morphological characteristics were quantified at three levels: hair section, body region, and intra-species. The results indicate statistically significant variations in most morphological characteristics in all levels. Intra-species variations of four variables, namely hair length, hair index, scale separation and scale pattern, were low. Therefore, identification of tiger hairs using these multiple features in combination with other characteristics with high inter-species variations (e.g. medulla type should bring about objective and accurate tiger hair identification. The method used should serve as a guideline and be further applied to other species to establish a wildlife hair morphology database. Statistical models could then be constructed to distinguish species and provide evidential values in terms of likelihood ratios.

  19. Estimation of squeeze film damping in artificial hair-sensor towards the detection-limit of crickets' hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagamseh, A.M.K.

    2014-01-01

    The filliform hairs of crickets are among the most sensitive flow sensing elements in nature. The high sensitivity of these hairs enables crickets in perceiving tiny air-movements which are only just distinguishable from noise. This forms our source of inspiration to design highly-sensitive array

  20. Matting Of Hair Due To ′Sunsilk′ Shampoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Mohd

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Matting of hair been reported from time to time due to treatment of hair with detergent, shampoos, waving lotions, setting lotions and bleaches. A case of matting of hairs in a young girl due to a change in the brand of shampoo is reported.

  1. Biomimetic Hair Sensor Arrays: From Inspiration To Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaganatharaja, R.K.; Bruinink, C.M.; Kolster, M.L.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we report on the successful implementation of highly sensitive artificial hair-based flow-sensor arrays for sensing low-frequency air flows. Artificial hair sensors are bio-inspired from crickets’ cercal filiform hairs, one of nature’s best in sensing small air flows. The presented

  2. Learning from Crickets: Artificial Hair-Sensor Array Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2010-01-01

    We have successfully developed biomimetic flowsensitive hair-sensor arrays taking inspiration from mechanosensory hairs of crickets. Our current generation of sensors achieves sub mm/s threshold air-flow sensitivity for single hairs operating in a bandwidth of a few hundred Hz and is the result of a

  3. Efficacy and Safety of Minoxidil 5% Foam in Combination With a Botanical Hair Solution in Men With Androgenic Alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaney, Terrence C; Pham, Hanh; von Grote, Erika; Meckfessel, Matthew H

    2016-04-01

    Androgenic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of hair loss in men, characterized by hair miniaturization, hairline recession, and vertex balding. It affects approximately 50% of men, negatively affecting self-esteem and sociability. Topical minoxidil formulations are approved up to a 5% concentration for men, but patient adherence to treatment is challenged by gradual results that may be perceived as a lack of initial benefit. Herbal extracts, which are also believed to promote healthier-looking hair, have a long history of use in hair care formulations. The safety and efficacy of a twice-daily regimen of 5% minoxidil foam used in combination with a novel botanical hair solution was evaluated in a 12-week, multicenter, single-arm, open label study in 56 subjects with mild to moderate AGA. Assessments included investigator ratings of improvement and subject self-ratings of satisfaction. Investigator ratings indicated significant improvement in scalp hair coverage and perception of overall treatment benefit in as early as 4 weeks (P<.001). Subject self-ratings were significant for improved hair growth and hair appearance in as few as 4 weeks (P<.05). The regimen was well tolerated, and subjects indicated a high degree of satisfaction. Investigator and subject-assessed efficacy and subject satisfaction with this novel regimen provide clinicians with an effective treatment option for AGA that also provides a high level of patient satisfaction, which may help promote patient adherence to long-term treatment.

  4. Biomimetic model systems of rigid hair beds: Part II - Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammalamadaka, Mani S. S.; Hood, Kaitlyn; Hosoi, Anette

    2017-11-01

    Crustaceans - such as lobsters, crabs and stomapods - have hairy appendages that they use to recognize and track odorants in the surrounding fluid. An array of rigid hairs impedes flow at different rates depending on the spacing between hairs and the Reynolds number, Re. At larger Reynolds number (Re>1), fluid travels through the hairs rather than around them, a phenomenon called leakiness. Crustaceans flick their appendages at different speeds in order to manipulate the leakiness between the hairs, allowing the hairs to either detect the odors in a sample of fluid or collect a new sample. Theoretical and numerical studies predict that there is a fast flow region near the hairs that moves closer to the hairs as Re increases. Here, we test this theory experimentally. We 3D printed rigid hairs with an aspect ratio of 30:1 in rectangular arrays with different hair packing fractions. We custom built an experimental setup which establishes poiseuille flow at intermediate Re, Re <=200. We track the flow dynamics through the hair beds using tracer particles and Particle Imaging Velocimetry. We will then compare the modelling predictions with the experimental outcomes.

  5. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants Before (left) and after (right) - top ...

  6. Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Song, Shuangqi

    2015-12-22

    A hair treatment process for providing dispersed colors by light diffraction including (a) coating the hair with a material comprising a polymer, (b) pressing the hair with a pressing device including one or more surfaces, and (c) forming a secondary nanostructured surface pattern on the hair that is complementary to the primary nanostructured surface pattern on the one or more surfaces of the pressing device. The secondary nanostructured surface pattern diffracts light into dispersed colors that are visible on the hair. The section of the hair is pressed with the pressing device for from about 1 to 55 seconds. The polymer has a glass transition temperature from about 55.degree. C. to about 90.degree. C. The one or more surfaces include a primary nanostructured surface pattern.

  7. A 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the ability of a marine complex supplement to promote hair growth in men with thinning hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablon, Glynis

    2016-12-01

    Male pattern baldness, or androgenetic alopecia, affects approximately 50% of the adult population and can cause poor self-image, low self-esteem and have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. An oral nutraceutical supplement based on a marine complex formulation has previously been reported to significantly increase the number of terminal hairs in women with thinning hair. The objective of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to confirm the beneficial effects of a similar marine complex supplement in adult male subjects with thinning hair (Viviscal ® Man; Lifes2good, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Healthy adult male subjects with thinning hair associated with clinically diagnosed male pattern hair loss were enrolled and randomized to receive study drug or placebo twice daily. At Day 90, subjects indicated a significant improvement in three of six quality of life measures as well as a significant overall improvement in quality of life. After 180 days, significant increases were observed for total hair count, total hair density, and terminal hair density (for each, P = 0.001). The investigator assessments revealed significant improvements in terminal and vellus hair count and terminal hair density. Hair pull test results were significantly lower (fewer hairs removed) for study drug vs. placebo at Days 90 (P < 0.05) and 180 (P < 0.01). There were no reports of treatment-emergent adverse events. The results of this study showed for the first time that a dietary supplement containing a marine complex and other ingredients can decrease hair shedding and promote hair growth in men with thinning hair. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Current status of accreditation for drug testing in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gail; Moeller, Manfred; Kronstrand, Robert

    2008-03-21

    At the annual meeting of the Society of Hair Testing in Vadstena, Sweden in 2006, a committee was appointed to address the issue of guidelines for hair testing and to assess the current status of accreditation amongst laboratories offering drug testing in hair. A short questionnaire was circulated amongst the membership and interested parties. Fifty-two responses were received from hair testing laboratories providing details on the amount and type of hair tests they offered and the status of accreditation within their facilities. Although the vast majority of laboratories follow current guidelines (83%), only nine laboratories were accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 for hair testing. A significant number of laboratories reporting that they were in the process of developing quality systems with a view to accrediting their methods within 2-3 years. This study provides an insight into the status of accreditation in hair testing laboratories and supports the need for guidelines to encourage best practice.

  9. Regeneration of hair cells in the mammalian vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; You, Dan; Chen, Yan; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-06-01

    Hair cells regenerate throughout the lifetime of non-mammalian vertebrates, allowing these animals to recover from hearing and balance deficits. Such regeneration does not occur efficiently in humans and other mammals. Thus, balance deficits become permanent and is a common sensory disorder all over the world. Since Forge and Warchol discovered the limited spontaneous regeneration of vestibular hair cells after gentamicininduced damage in mature mammals, significant efforts have been exerted to trace the origin of the limited vestibular regeneration in mammals after hair cell loss. Moreover, recently many strategies have been developed to promote the hair cell regeneration and subsequent functional recovery of the vestibular system, including manipulating the Wnt, Notch and Atoh1. This article provides an overview of the recent advances in hair cell regeneration in mammalian vestibular epithelia. Furthermore, this review highlights the current limitations of hair cell regeneration and provides the possible solutions to regenerate functional hair cells and to partially restore vestibular function.

  10. Changes in root cap pH are required for the gravity response of the Arabidopsis root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, J. M.; Swanson, S. J.; Blancaflor, E. B.; Dowd, P. E.; Kao, T. H.; Gilroy, S.

    2001-01-01

    Although the columella cells of the root cap have been identified as the site of gravity perception, the cellular events that mediate gravity signaling remain poorly understood. To determine if cytoplasmic and/or wall pH mediates the initial stages of root gravitropism, we combined a novel cell wall pH sensor (a cellulose binding domain peptide-Oregon green conjugate) and a cytoplasmic pH sensor (plants expressing pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein) to monitor pH dynamics throughout the graviresponding Arabidopsis root. The root cap apoplast acidified from pH 5.5 to 4.5 within 2 min of gravistimulation. Concomitantly, cytoplasmic pH increased in columella cells from 7.2 to 7.6 but was unchanged elsewhere in the root. These changes in cap pH preceded detectable tropic growth or growth-related pH changes in the elongation zone cell wall by 10 min. Altering the gravity-related columella cytoplasmic pH shift with caged protons delayed the gravitropic response. Together, these results suggest that alterations in root cap pH likely are involved in the initial events that mediate root gravity perception or signal transduction.

  11. Mechanically Gated Ion Channels in Mammalian Hair Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Qiu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hair cells in the inner ear convert mechanical stimuli provided by sound waves and head movements into electrical signal. Several mechanically evoked ionic currents with different properties have been recorded in hair cells. The search for the proteins that form the underlying ion channels is still in progress. The mechanoelectrical transduction (MET channel near the tips of stereociliary in hair cells, which is responsible for sensory transduction, has been studied most extensively. Several components of the sensory mechanotransduction machinery in stereocilia have been identified, including the multi-transmembrane proteins tetraspan membrane protein in hair cell stereocilia (TMHS/LHFPL5, transmembrane inner ear (TMIE and transmembrane channel-like proteins 1 and 2 (TMC1/2. However, there remains considerable uncertainty regarding the molecules that form the channel pore. In addition to the sensory MET channel, hair cells express the mechanically gated ion channel PIEZO2, which is localized near the base of stereocilia and not essential for sensory transduction. The function of PIEZO2 in hair cells is not entirely clear but it might have a role in damage sensing and repair processes. Additional stretch-activated channels of unknown molecular identity and function have been found to localize at the basolateral membrane of hair cells. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the different mechanically gated ion channels in hair cells and discuss open questions concerning their molecular composition and function.

  12. Serum Biotin Levels in Women Complaining of Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes that assist various metabolic reactions involved in fatty acid synthesis, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and gluconeogenesis important for maintenance of healthy skin and hair. Due to its availability, affordability, and effective marketing for this purpose, biotin is a popular nutritional supplement for treatment of hair loss. However, there are little data on the frequency of biotin deficiency in patients complaining of hair loss and on the value of oral biotin for treatment of hair loss that is not due to an inborn error of biotin metabolism or deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and significance of biotin deficiency in women complaining of hair loss. Biotin deficiency was found in 38% of women complaining of hair loss. Of those showing diffuse telogen effluvium in trichograms (24%), 35% had evidence of associated seborrheic-like dermatitis. About 11% of patients with biotin deficiency had a positive personal history for risk factors for biotin deficiency. The custom of treating women complaining of hair loss in an indiscriminate manner with oral biotin supplementation is to be rejected, unless biotin deficiency and its significance for the complaint of hair loss in an individual has been demonstrated on the basis of a careful patient history, clinical examination, determination of serum biotin levels, and exclusion of alternative factors responsible for hair loss.

  13. Development and Evaluation of Herbal Formulations for Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipi Purwal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair formulation of Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae, Bacopa, monnieri (Scrophulariaceae, Trigonella foenumgraecum (Leguminosae, Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae in various concentrations in the form of herbal oil were studied for their hair growth activity. Each drug was tested for their hair growth activity in a concentration range for 1-10% separately. Based on these results mixture of crude drugs Murraya koeniigi, leaf (Rutaceae, Bacopa monnieri, leaf (Scrophulariaceae, Trigonella foenumgraecum (Leguminosae, Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae were prepared in varying concentration in the form of herbal hair oil by three different oils preparation techniques and were tested for hair growth activity. The result revealed that the hair growth activity of each drug was found proportional to the concentration range tested. Similarly higher concentrations of drug in the formulation were found to have higher hair growth activities. But looking towards the formulation viscosity the maximum concentration of combined drug was found to be 30% at their maximum level. The formulation containing 7.5% of each drug used for the study and showed excellent hair growth activity with standard (2% minoxidil ethanolic solution by an enlargement of follicular size and prolongation of the anagen phase. It holds the promise of potent herbal alternative for minoxidil. Excellent results of hair growth were seen in formulation prepared by cloth pouch decoction method of oils preparation technique.

  14. Biomimetic model systems of rigid hair beds: Part I - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Kaitlyn; Jammalamadaka, Mani S. S.; Hosoi, Anette

    2017-11-01

    Crustaceans - such as lobsters, crabs, and stomapods - have hairy appendages that they use to recognize and track odorants in the surrounding fluid. An array of rigid hairs impedes flow at different rates depending on the spacing between hairs and the Reynolds number, Re. At larger Reynolds numbers (Re >1), fluid travels through the hairs rather than around them, a phenomenon called leakiness. Crustaceans flick their appendages at different speeds in order to manipulate the leakiness between the hairs, allowing the hairs to either detect odors in a sample of fluid or collect a new sample. A single hair can be represented as a slender body attached at one end to a wall. Using both slender body theory and numerical methods, we observe that there is a region of flow around the hair that speeds up relative to the unobstructed flow. As the Reynolds number increases, this fast flow region moves closer to the hair. Using this model, we predict that an array of hairs can be engineered to have a desired leakiness profile.

  15. Serenoa repens extracts promote hair regeneration and repair of hair loss mouse models by activating TGF-β and mitochondrial signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H-L; Gao, Y-H; Yang, J-Q; Li, J-B; Gao, J

    2018-06-01

    Plenty of plant extracts have been used for treating hair loss. This study aims to investigate the effects of liposterolic extracts of Serenoa repens (LSESr) on hair cell growth and regeneration of hair, and clarify the associated mechanisms. Human keratinocyte cells (HACAT) were cultured, incubated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and treated with LSESr. Cell viability was examined by using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H- tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Hair loss C57BL/6 mouse model was established by inducing with DHT. Hair growth, density, and thickness were evaluated. Back skin samples were collected and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) assay. B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated protein X (Bax), cleaved caspase 3 and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2) were examined using Western blot assay. LSESr treatment significantly increased HACAT cell viabilities compared to DHT-only treated cells (p<0.05). LSESr treatment post injection of DHT significantly converted skin color from pink to gray and increased hair density, weight and thickness compared to DHT-only treated mice (p<0.05). LSESr treatment significantly triggered follicle growth and decreased inflammatory response. LSESr treatment significantly decreased TGF-β2 and cleaved caspase 3 expression of hair loss mouse models compared to that of DHT treated mice (p<0.05). LSESr treatment significantly enhanced Bcl-2 expression and reduced Bax expression compared to that of DHT treated mice (p<0.05). Meanwhile, effects of LSESr were substantial even achieving to the potential of finasteride. LSESr promoted the hair regeneration and repair of hair loss mouse models by activating TGF-β signaling and mitochondrial signaling pathway.

  16. Idiopathic hirsutism: excessive bodily and facial hair in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghblawi, Ebtisam

    Hirsutism is the excessive and increased bodily and facial hair growth in women in locations where hair is normally minimal or absent. It refers to the growth of hair in a pattern normally occurring only in men, and therefore primarily raises psychological, cosmetic and social concerns. Idiopathic hirsutism (IH), where the cause of excessive hair growth is unknown, is considered to be the most common form of hirsutism. It is suspected that this type of hirsutism may be familial, as there is often a family history of the condition. Women with IH will generally have normal menses and normal levels of testosterone. There are many treatment modalities that fall into two broad groups: medical and mechanical treatment. An example of a medical treatment is when an agent is used, which interferes with the synthesis of androgen at the ovarian or adrenal level, or by inhibiting the effect of androgen at the receptor level. An example of a mechanical treatment is laser hair removal, where the hair follicle is destroyed; however, much depends on the on the skill of the treating practitioner, laser type, laser spot size, skin type, hair colour, and the stage at which the hair follicles were during their hair growth cycle, and the delivered wavelength. Laser offers the fastest method of hair loss. Other mechanical treatments include electrolysis, depilatory creams, plucking and waxing. This article presents a general overview of IH, including a definition, diagnostic measures, clinical manifestations, normal and abnormal physiology, and treatment options.

  17. A curious case of the necklace hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Samipa Samir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monilethrix is a rare autosomal dominant inheritable hair shaft defect with variable penetrance. The diagnosis is confirmed by the characteristic beaded appearance of the hair under light microscopy which occurs due to defective keratinization. We hereby describe a case of monilethrix syndrome with keratotic follicular papules, moniliform hair, and koilonychias in an 8-year-old Indian female child. A rare association of trichorrhexis nodosa was also noted in our case.

  18. An ESR study on biological dosimeters: Human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, Seyda; Ozbey, Turan

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, characteristic features of the radicals found in untreated, gamma and UV-irradiated and mechanical damaged human hair samples were investigated by ESR spectroscopy. Heights of the resonance peaks measured with respect to the spectrum base line were used to monitor microwave power, dose-response, storage time and temperature dependent kinetic features of the radical species contributing to the formation of recorded experimental ESR spectra. Peak heights and g-values (2.0037-2.0052) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent with ΔHpp-0.47 mT. The act of cutting hair samples gene rates sulfur centered radicals which are found in the a-keratin structure of hair. The variations of the peak heights with temperature were related with the water content found in the hair samples. In the 6-1100 Gy dose range, a linear + quadratic dose-response curve was recorded for hair and the mean radiation yield (G mean ) was calculated to be 0.4. The gamma radiation induced radicals were stable for a several hours at room temperature storage conditions. Based on these findings it was concluded that human hair samples could be used as biological/personnel dosimeters and that ESR spectroscopy could be successfully used as a potential technique for monitoring its dosimetric behaviours.

  19. Supramolecular hair dyes: a new application of cocrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delori, Amit; Urquhart, Andrew; Oswald, Iain D. H.

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript presents the first report of hair dyes of various colors formed by cocrystallization. Unlike the most popular oxidative hair dye (OHD) products, these dyes are NH3 free and do not require H2O2 as a color developer. The importance of these new hair dyes products is further enhanced...

  20. Influence of bleaching and coloring on ethyl glucuronide content in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzel-Witt, Silvana; Pogoda, Werner; Wunder, Cora; Paulke, Alexander; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2018-01-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is increasingly used in forensic toxicology as a marker for alcohol use in analyses of hair samples, especially in abstinence control. Some cosmetic treatments are considered to markedly reduce the EtG content. In view of especially many women with coloured hair the present study was performed to further investigate the effect of a variety of colouring procedures (bleaching, tinting, permanent and semi-permanent dyeing, henna) on the EtG content. Untreated hair samples (n = 12, EtG 13.9-64.7 pg/mg) were re-analyzed (gas chromatography- negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry, 0.8 pg/mg quantification limit) after different treatment procedures. A decrease of the EtG content of at least 10% occurred in every case. The reduction in comparison to the untreated hair was expectedly high for permanent dyeing and bleaching with 18.1% of the initial content (median, range 0.0-50.9%) and 18.4% (0.0-46.7%), respectively. For henna this was 38.3% (0.0-83.0%), for tinting 70.4% (29.0-90.8%), for semi-permanent dyeing 41.9% (0.0-77.4%). With permanent hair dye the EtG content was decreased to below 7 pg/mg in 10 of 12 cases, in 3 cases even below the LOD (0.2 pg/mg). Surprisingly henna treatment without oxidative component had a marked influence, EtG was below 2 pg/mg in 2 of 12 samples. The study showed that all tested coloration procedures markedly affected the deposited EtG content. Even temporary or henna coloration may have a marked effect. The present data support the recommendation to exclude hair samples with colour manipulations for analysis on the EtG content as a precaution in alcohol abstinence programs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people's perception of a person's age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people's response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty.

  2. Patch testing with hair cosmetic series in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Frosch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many key ingredients of hair cosmetics (in particular, dyes, bleaches, and hair-styling agents) are potent (strong to extreme) contact allergens. Some heterogeneity is apparent from published results concerning the range of allergens for which patch testing is important. The objective...... of the present review was to collect information on the current practice of using 'hair cosmetic series', and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning consumer/professional exposure and regulatory aspects to finally derive a recommendation for a 'European hair cosmetic series'. The methods...... (Annex II of the Cosmetics Regulation). An up-to-date 'European hair cosmetics series', as recommended in the present article, should (i) include broadly used and/or potent contact allergens, (ii) eliminate substances of only historical concern, and (iii) be continually updated as new evidence emerges....

  3. Grey hair: clinical investigation into changes in hair fibres with loss of pigmentation in a photoprotected population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, P D; Polefka, T; Grove, G; Daly, S; Jumbelic, L; Harper, D; Nori, M; Evans, T; Ramaprasad, R; Bianchini, R

    2011-04-01

    Loss of pigmentation in hair fibres is one of the most obvious phenotypic changes with ageing and has been a topic of increasing interest in the study of follicle biology. The onset of greying brings cosmetic complaints that grey fibres are wild or difficult to manage. Of course, these perceptions may be the consequence of visual obviousness rather than underlying physical or chemical differences. Although several studies have compared pigmented and unpigmented fibres, few have tried to control genetic and ethnic difference as well as extrinsic factors such as photoexposure and chemical treatment. We have recruited subjects with salt-and-pepper hair from a population of Old Order Mennonites who, for cultural reasons, are not only prohibited from chemically treating their hair but also limit their exposure to sunlight. Hair samples were examined for elemental composition, surface energy, Young's modulus, break stress, bending modulus, shear modulus and water sorption/desorption isotherm. The parameters were evaluated statistically for global differences, individual differences and typical individual differences. Consistent with previous published literature, few global differences were found between pigmented and unpigmented hair across the population. We do find that many individual subjects had differences between pigmented and unpigmented fibres. These differences tend to be more pronounced in bulk than in surface properties. The small differences in mechanical properties and moisture uptake and loss lend support to the perception by consumers that grey hair is wilder, drier and less manageable. © 2011 TRI/Princeton. Journal compilation. © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  4. Adrenal steroid hormone concentrations in dogs with hair cycle arrest (Alopecia X) before and during treatment with melatonin and mitotane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Linda A; Hnilica, Keith A; Oliver, Jack W

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate intermediate adrenal steroid hormones (ISH) in neutered dogs with hair cycle arrest (Alopecia X) during treatment with melatonin, and to see if hair re-growth is associated with sex hormone concentrations within the normal ranges. Twenty-nine neutered, euthyroid, and normo-cortisolemic dogs were enrolled in the study (23 Pomeranians, three keeshonds, two miniature poodles, and one Siberian husky). Coat assessment and an ACTH stimulation test were performed pre-treatment and approximately every 4 months for a year post treatment. Melatonin was administered initially at 3-6 mg, every 12 h. Based on clinical progression, each dog was continued on the current dose of melatonin, given an increased dose of melatonin or changed to mitotane. Partial to complete hair re-growth occurred in 14/23 Pomeranians, and partial re-growth in 3/3 keeshond and 1/2 poodle dogs. A Siberian husky dog failed to re-grow hair. Fifteen dogs had partial hair re-growth at the first re-evaluation. Melatonin dosage was increased in eight dogs but only one had improved hair re-growth. On mitotane treatment, partial to complete hair re-growth was seen in 4/6 dogs and no re-growth in 2/6 dogs. No significant decrease in sex hormone concentrations were seen during melatonin or mitotane treatment. Concentrations of ISH in dogs with hair re-growth did not differ significantly from pre-treatment values. At the completion of the study, androstenedione, progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were still above reference ranges in 21, 64 and 36%, respectively, of dogs with partial to complete hair re-growth. In conclusion, 62% of dogs had partial to complete hair re-growth. However, not all dogs with hair re-growth had concentrations of ISH within the normal range.

  5. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinju

    2018-01-01

    Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential. PMID:29438422

  6. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinju Ma

    Full Text Available Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential.

  7. The hair-trigger effect for a class of nonlocal nonlinear equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelshtein, Dmitri; Tkachov, Pasha

    2018-06-01

    We prove the hair-trigger effect for a class of nonlocal nonlinear evolution equations on which have only two constant stationary solutions, 0 and . The effect consists in that the solution with an initial condition non identical to zero converges (when time goes to ) to θ locally uniformly in . We also find sufficient conditions for existence, uniqueness and comparison principle in the considered equations.

  8. Characterization of aging hair and its influence in quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella A. L. Gabarra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies that characterize the non-pigmented hair compared to pigmented hair. Furthermore, it is important to evaluate how the natural process of aging hair influences quality of life in women. For this purpose, a questionnaire was applied to evaluate the impact of greying hair and the appearance alterations on women´s self-esteem. The satisfaction level of volunteers regarding their hair structure and conditions such as shine, strength and smoothness were also evaluated. Mechanical properties, such as elasticity and traction to rupture were measured using Universal test equipment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to measure the hair surface morphological conditions. A large majority of the volunteers indicated that the beginning of greying hair can negatively influence their quality of life. They also reported that the primary changes of their hair were the frizziness, dryness and loss of shine, increased loss and breakage and thinning. Morphological evaluation showed that the non-pigmented hair cuticles were thinner than pigmented hair. The adherence of the cuticle scales was more pronounced in the non-pigmented hair .Finally, this study showed the influence of the appearance of grey hair on quality of life in women as well as the morphological alterations resulting from the greying processes.

  9. Enhancing hair growth in male androgenetic alopecia by a combination of fractional CO2 laser therapy and hair growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Zhuo, Fenglin; Li, Linfeng

    2017-11-01

    Laser therapy and growth factors have been used as alternative treatments for male androgenetic alopecia (MAA). The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of hair growth factors alone or combined with ablative carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) fractional laser therapy in MAA. Twenty-eight men were enrolled in this randomized half-split study based on a left-head to right-head pattern. Fractional CO 2 laser treatment was unilaterally performed; hair growth factors were bilaterally applied. Six sessions with 2-week intervals were performed. Global photographs and dermoscopy assessments were performed at the baseline and 4 months after first treatment. Global photographs underwent blinded review by three independent dermatologists. Scanning electron microscopy was used to compare changes in hair-follicle phase and hair-shaft diameter. Twenty-seven participants completed the 4-month treatment schedule. One patient was lost. Mean hair density increased from 114 ± 27 to 143 ± 25/cm 2 (P laser combined with hair growth factors may serve as an alternative treatment for MAA in individuals unwilling/unable to undergo medical or surgical treatment.

  10. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  11. Hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction of amphetamine-type stimulants in human hair samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento Pantaleão, Lorena; Bismara Paranhos, Beatriz Aparecida Passos; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2012-09-07

    A fast method was optimized and validated in order to quantify amphetamine-type stimulants (amphetamine, AMP; methamphetamine, MAMP; fenproporex, FPX; 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA; and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, MDA) in human hair samples. The method was based in an initial procedure of decontamination of hair samples (50 mg) with dichloromethane, followed by alkaline hydrolysis and extraction of the amphetamines using hollow-fiber liquid-phase micro extraction (HF-LPME) in the three-phase mode. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for identification and quantification of the analytes. The LoQs obtained for all amphetamines (around 0.05 ng/mg) were below the cut-off value (0.2 ng/mg) established by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT). The method showed to be simple and precise. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were within 10.6% and 11.4%, respectively, with the use of only two deuterated internal standards (AMP-d5 and MDMA-d5). By using the weighted least squares linear regression (1/x²), the accuracy of the method was satisfied in the lower concentration levels (accuracy values better than 87%). Hair samples collected from six volunteers who reported regular use of amphetamines were submitted to the developed method. Drug detection was observed in all samples of the volunteers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hair cortisol measurement in mitotane-treated adrenocortical cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenschijn, L; Quinkler, M; van Rossum, E F C

    2014-04-01

    The only approved drug for the treatment of adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is mitotane. Mitotane is adrenolytic and therefore, hydrocortisone replacement therapy is necessary. Since mitotane increases cortisol binding globulin (CBG) and induces CYP3A4 activity, high doses of hydrocortisone are thought to be required. Evaluation of hydrocortisone therapy in mitotane-treated patients has been difficult since there is no good marker to evaluate hydrocortisone therapy. Measurement of cortisol in scalp hair is a novel method that offers the opportunity to measure long-term cortisol levels. Our aim was to evaluate whether hair cortisol measurements could be useful in evaluating recent hydrocortisone treatment in mitotane-treated ACC patients. Hair cortisol levels were measured in 15 mitotane-treated ACC patients on hydrocortisone substitution and 96 healthy individuals. Cortisol levels were measured in 3 cm hair segments, corresponding to a period of 3 months. Hair cortisol levels were higher in ACC patients compared to healthy individuals (pcortisol levels above the reference range. None of the patients had hair cortisol levels below normal. In contrast to hydrocortisone doses (β=0.03, p=0.93), hair cortisol levels were associated with BMI (β=0.53, p=0.042). There was no correlation between hair cortisol levels and hydrocortisone doses (β=0.41, p=0.13). Almost half of the ACC patients had high hair cortisol levels, suggesting long-term over-substitution of hydrocortisone in some of the patients, whereas none of the patients was under-substituted. Hair cortisol measurements might be useful in long-term monitoring hydrocortisone treatment in mitotane-treated ACC patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Elemental hair analysis: A review of procedures and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozebon, D.; Scheffler, G.L.; Dressler, V.L.

    2017-01-01

    Although exogenous contamination and unreliable reference values have limited the utility of scalp hair as a biomarker of chemical elements exposure, its use in toxicological, clinical, environmental and forensic investigations is growing and becoming more extensive. Therefore, hair elemental analysis is reviewed in the current manuscript which spans articles published in the last 10 years. It starts with a general discussion of history, morphology and possible techniques for elemental analysis, where inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is clearly highlighted since this technique is leading quantitative ultra-trace elemental analysis. Emphasis over sampling, quality assurance, washing procedures and sample decomposition is given with detailed protocols compiled in tables as well as the utility of hair to identify human gender, age, diseases, healthy conditions, nutrition status and contamination sites. Isotope ratio information, chemical speciation analysis and analyte preconcentration are also considered for hair. Finally, the potential of laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) to provide spatial resolution and time-track the monitoring of elements in hair strands instead of conventional bulk analysis is spotlighted as a real future trend in the field. - Highlights: • Elemental analysis of hair is critically reviewed, with focus on ICP-MS employment. • Standards protocols of hair washing and sample decomposition are compiled. • The usefulness of elemental and/or isotopic analysis of hair is demonstrated. • The potential of LA-ICP-MS for elemental time tracking in hair is highlighted.

  14. The role of neprilysin in regulating the hair cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Morisaki

    Full Text Available In most mammals, each hair follicle undergoes a cyclic process of growing, regressing and resting phases (anagen, catagen, telogen, respectively called the hair cycle. Various biological factors have been reported to regulate or to synchronize with the hair cycle. Some factors involved in the extracellular matrix, which is a major component of skin tissue, are also thought to regulate the hair cycle. We have focused on an enzyme that degrades elastin, which is associated with skin elasticity. Since our previous study identified skin fibroblast elastase as neprilysin (NEP, we examined the fluctuation of NEP enzyme activity and its expression during the synchronized hair cycle of rats. NEP activity in the skin was elevated at early anagen, and decreased during catagen to telogen. The expression of NEP mRNA and protein levels was modulated similarly. Immunostaining showed changes in NEP localization throughout the hair cycle, from the follicular epithelium during early anagen to the dermal papilla during catagen. To determine whether NEP plays an important role in regulating the hair cycle, we used a specific inhibitor of NEP (NPLT. NPLT was applied topically daily to the dorsal skin of C3H mice, which had been depilated in advance. Mice treated with NPLT had significantly suppressed hair growth. These data suggest that NEP plays an important role in regulating the hair cycle by its increased expression and activity in the follicular epithelium during early anagen.

  15. Vertex Accentuation in Female Pattern Hair Loss in Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavalit Supsrisunjai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common cause of hair loss seen in women is female pattern hair loss (FPHL, also known as female androgenetic alopecia. It affects the central part of the scalp, but spares the frontal hairline. Frontal accentuation was also described by Olsen. In Asian women, vertex thinning patterns are frequently developed, but there has been no report about vertex thinning pattern in female pattern hair loss. Objective: To find prevalence of vertex accentuation in female pattern hair loss (FPHL in Asian women. Methods: Scalp hair counting (n/cm2 were measured at 3 different areas; vertex, mid scalp and frontal area respectively by digital dermoscope (Dino digital AM-413T. Visual counting and photography were performed. Outcomes were evaluated by gross appearance of vertex thinning and/or hair density <120 /cm2 in any of 3 areas. Results: 143 patients were evaluated. Mean age was 45.54 years. Of the hair loss type, 36.4% were mid-scalp, 33.6% were vertex accentuation and 30.1% were frontal accentuation, respectively. Age was not significantly different among the 3 types of hair loss (P- value 0.859. Conclusion: Although the most common female pattern hair loss type is diffuse type (Ludwig type, vertex accentuation pattern is the second most common pattern in this study. This study is the first to mention “Vertex accentuation” to be another pattern for FPHL.

  16. Biophysics of Hair Cell Sensory Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, Hendrikus; Horst, Johannes; van Dijk, Pim; van Netten, Sietse

    1993-01-01

    The last decade revealed to auditory researchers that hair cells can not only detect and process mechanical energy, but are also able to produce it. Thanks to the active hair cell, ears can produce otoacoustic emissions. This book gives the newest insights into the biophysics and physiology of

  17. Study of inner ear and lateral line hair cell regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Piqué Borràs, Maria Riera

    2013-01-01

    Death of sensory hair cells in the inner ear results in two global health problems that millions of people around the world suffer: hearing loss and balance disorders. Hair cells convert sound vibrations and head movements into electrical signals that are conveyed to the brain, and as a result of aging, exposure to noise, modern drugs or genetic predisposition, hair cells die. In mammals, the great majority of hair cells are produced during embryogenesis, and hair cells that ar...

  18. Clinical Profiles, Occurrence, and Management of Adolescent Patients with HAIR-AN Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim A. Omar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and acanthosis nigricans (HAIR-AN is a subphenotype of the polycystic ovary syndrome. It is one of the most common causes of menstrual problems, hyperandrogenic symptoms, and insulin resistance among young women. Review of clinical data in an outpatient adolescent clinic showed that of the 1,002 young women (ages 10—21 years attending the clinic over a 2-year period, 50 (5% were diagnosed with HAIR-AN syndrome. Mean age of the patients was 15.5, initial mean weight at diagnosis was 94.5 kg, and the mean BMI was 33.33 kg/m2. Patients were treated with a weight-stabilization and -reduction program, oral contraceptive pills, and in most cases metformin. Of the patients, 80% were compliant with the follow-up and treatment regimen, 60% maintained or reduced their weight, 95% had regular menstrual cycles, and in most patients, the acne and/or hirsutism were the same or better than at the start of treatment. We conclude that HAIR-AN syndrome is a common disease in young women and multifaceted, aggressive treatment appears to be effective in reducing the severity of symptoms and preventing further consequences.

  19. The interpretation of hair analysis for drugs and drug metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Eva; Flanagan, Robert J

    2018-02-01

    Head hair analysis for drugs and drug metabolites has been used widely with the aim of detecting exposure in the weeks or months prior to sample collection. However, inappropriate interpretation of results has likely led to serious miscarriages of justice, especially in child custody cases. The aim of this review is to assess critically what can, and perhaps more importantly, what cannot be claimed as regards the interpretation of hair test results in a given set of circumstances in order to inform future testing. We searched the PubMed database for papers published 2010-2016 using the terms "hair" and "drug" and "decontamination", the terms "hair" and "drug" and "contamination", the terms "hair" and "drug-facilitated crime", the terms "hair" and "ethyl glucuronide", and the terms "hair", "drug testing" and "analysis". Study of the reference lists of the 46 relevant papers identified 25 further relevant citations, giving a total of 71 citations. Hair samples: Drugs, drug metabolites and/or decomposition products may arise not only from deliberate drug administration, but also via deposition from a contaminated atmosphere if drug(s) have been smoked or otherwise vaporized in a confined area, transfer from contaminated surfaces via food/fingers, etc., and transfer from sweat and other secretions after a single large exposure, which could include anesthesia. Excretion in sweat of endogenous analytes such as γ-hydroxybutyric acid is a potential confounder if its use is to be investigated. Cosmetic procedures such as bleaching or heat treatment of hair may remove analytes prior to sample collection. Hair color and texture, the area of the head the sample is taken from, the growth rate of individual hairs, and how the sample has been stored, may also affect the interpretation of results. Toxicological analysis: Immunoassay results alone do not provide reliable evidence on which to base judicial decisions. Gas or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection

  20. Analysis of psilocin, bufotenine and LSD in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rafaela; Schürenkamp, Jennifer; Gasse, Angela; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Köhler, Helga

    2015-03-01

    A method for the simultaneous extraction of the hallucinogens psilocin, bufotenine, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) as well as iso-LSD, nor-LSD and O-H-LSD from hair with hydrochloride acid and methanol is presented. Clean-up of the hair extracts is performed with solid phase extraction using a mixed-mode cation exchanger. Extracts are measured with liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The method was successfully validated according to the guidelines of the 'Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry' (GTFCh). To obtain reference material hair was soaked in a solution of the analytes in dimethyl sulfoxide/methanol to allow incorporation into the hair. These fortified hair samples were used for method development and can be employed as quality controls. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Delayed appearance of tracer lead in facial hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowitz, M.; Wetherill, G.; Kopple, J.

    1976-01-01

    Three adult men were fed 204 Pb--a rare, stable isotope of lead--daily for about 100 days. Simultaneous blood and facial hair measurements of this tracer and of total lead concentrations were made by mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis. Although the blood showed an immediate response to the intake of the tracer, the facial hair showed a more gradual response and a delay of approximately 35 days. Since the pattern of appearance of lead in hair does not appear to represent a simple time delay of blood lead concentration, the existence of a physiological pool of lead fed by the blood and giving rise to the content in hair is suggested. Hair lead values should therefore, be interpreted as the integral of the blood lead values over the mean life of this intermediate pool--about 100 days

  2. Effect of Miracle Fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) Seed Oil (MFSO®) on the Measurable Improvement of Hair Breakage in Women with Damaged Hair: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Eight-month Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, Roberta; Zhang, Yu; Wakeford, Charles

    2017-11-01

    Background: Hair breakage is a common unrecognized form of hair loss in women most often the result of hair weathering and traumatic grooming practices. Lipids are major determinants of the physical properties of the hair. Synsepalum dulcificum seed oil (MFSO ® ; Miracle Fruit Oil Co., Miami Beach, Florida), is an exotic fruit oil with physicochemical properties suited to providing a superior ability to reduce hair breakage. Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of a hair oil containing MFSO and its effects on hair breakage rates. Methods: Healthy, long-haired women (age range: 19-63 years, mean age: 36.7 years, standard deviation: 10.77 years) with excessive hair breakage were randomized in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study to receive MFSO (n=24), vehicle (n=17), or argan oil (n=16). Measurements of hair length, hair diameter, and Hair Mass Index were performed at baseline, Month 4, and Month 8. Hair Breakage Index and the Healthy Hair Index values were calculated from the trichometer measurements, and subject self-assessment questionnaires were conducted. The primary efficacy endpoints were the percent change in Healthy Hair Index 75 and Healthy Hair Index 50 measurements from baseline to the eighth month. Results: The Healthy Hair Index calculations, expressed as percent change from baseline to Month 4 and from baseline to Month 8, revealed that the MFSO ® treatment group improved by 103.6 percent and 215.7 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 75 and 133.7 and 188.3 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 50 values, respectively. When compared with the vehicle and the argan oil brand groups, the Healthy Hair Index levels were significantly higher (p oil treatment group was better than each of the other two treatment groups by at least 117.6 percent and 234.9 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 75 and 316.5 percent and 312 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 50 values, respectively, thereby achieving the primary efficacy objective. Subjects favored the

  3. Woolly hair generalizado: caso clínico e revisão da literatura Generalized woolly hair: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Torres

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O termo woolly hair, ou cabelo lanoso, refere-se a uma variante anormal de cabelo, que pode ser parcial ou generalizado. As variantes de woolly hair generalizado são raras e podem ocorrer isoladamente ou associadas a outras alterações cutâneas e extracutâneas. Desta forma, nestes doentes, é necessário a exclusão de certos síndromes, como o de Noonan e cardiofaciocutâneo (CFC, que cursam com importante morbilidade e mortalidade. É descrito o caso clínico de uma criança com woolly hair generalizado e queratose pilar, mas que, após avaliação dos vários órgãos e sistemas, não foi encontrada qualquer alteração ou característica associada a esses síndromes.The term woolly hair, or tightly curled hair, refers to a structural anomaly of scalp hair, which can be partial or generalized. Generalized woolly hair variants are rare and can occur in isolation or in association with other cutaneous and extra-cutaneous abnormalities. Thus, it is important to dismiss in these patients the diagnosis of syndromes such as the Noonan syndrome and Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, which have high morbidity and mortality rates. We report the clinical case of a 7 year-old boy with generalized woolly hair and keratosis pilaris. After an evaluation of organs and systems, no alteration or characteristics associated with these syndromes were found.

  4. Hair and Nail Changes During Long-term Therapy With Ibrutinib for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Carole; Farooqui, Mohammed Z H; Valdez, Janet; Saba, Nakhle S; Soto, Susan; Bray, Amanda; Marti, Gerald; Wiestner, Adrian; Cowen, Edward W

    2016-06-01

    Ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a new targeted agent approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), mantle cell lymphoma, and Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Ibrutinib is overall well tolerated but long-term treatment is required until disease progression or intolerable toxic effects occur. Little is known regarding its cutaneous adverse effects. To describe the hair and nail manifestations associated with the long-term use of ibrutinib for the treatment of CLL. Prospective study of 66 patients with CLL enrolled in a single-arm phase 2 clinical trial of ibrutinib for CLL between March 2014 and October 2015 at the National Institutes of Health. The primary outcome, nail and hair changes associated with ibrutinib therapy, was assessed by an 11-question survey. In addition, the severity of nail changes was determined from a 0 to 3 rating scale for both onychoschizia and onychorrhexis. Among 66 patients (43 men and 23 women with ages ranging from 55 to 85 years), 44 (67%) reported brittle fingernails at a median of 6.5 (95% CI, 6-12) months after starting ibrutinib therapy. Fifteen patients (23%) developed brittle toenails after a median of 9 (95% CI, 6-15) months of ibrutinib therapy. Textural hair changes were reported in 17 patients (26%), at a median of 9 (95% CI, 6-12) months of ibrutinib treatment. Hair and nail abnormalities are commonly associated with ibrutinib and appear several months after initiating therapy. Ibrutinib inhibits Bruton tyrosine kinase by covalently binding to cysteine 481. Whether ibrutinib affects the hair and nails by binding and altering cysteine-rich proteins of hair and nails or by means of another mechanism remains unknown. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01500733.

  5. Establishing and prioritizing research questions for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hair loss (excluding alopecia areata): the Hair Loss Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, A; Tomlinson, J; Messenger, A; Moore-Millar, K; Michaelides, C; Shipman, A; Kassim, J; Brockley, J; Szczecinska, W; Farrant, P; Robinson, R; Rodgers, J; Chambers, J; Upadhyaya, S; Harries, M

    2018-02-01

    Hair and scalp problems are common. Unfortunately, many uncertainties exist around the most effective management and treatment strategies for these disorders. To identify uncertainties in hair-loss management, prevention, diagnosis and treatment that are important to both people with hair loss and healthcare professionals. A Hair Loss Priority Setting Partnership was established between patients, their carers and relatives, and healthcare professionals to identify the most important uncertainties in hair loss. The methodology of the James Lind Alliance was followed to ensure a balanced, inclusive and transparent process. In total, 2747 treatment uncertainties were submitted by 912 participants; following exclusions 884 uncertainties relating to hair loss (excluding alopecia areata) were analysed. Questions were combined into 'indicative uncertainties' following a structured format. A series of ranking exercises further reduced this list to a top 25 that was taken to a final prioritization workshop where the top 10 priorities were agreed. We present the top 10 research priorities for hair loss (excluding alopecia areata) to guide researchers and funding bodies to support studies important to both patients and clinicians. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Nodules on the Hair: A Rare Case of Mixed Piedra

    OpenAIRE

    Khatu, Swapna S; Poojary, Shital Amin; Nagpur, Niranjan G

    2013-01-01

    Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft characterized by nodules along the hair shaft. Black piedra affects the scalp hair more frequently than white piedra. Occurrence of both types of piedra simultaneously in a patient is extremely rare. We describe here a rare case of mixed piedra of scalp hair.

  7. Nodules on the hair: a rare case of mixed piedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatu, Swapna S; Poojary, Shital Amin; Nagpur, Niranjan G

    2013-10-01

    Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft characterized by nodules along the hair shaft. Black piedra affects the scalp hair more frequently than white piedra. Occurrence of both types of piedra simultaneously in a patient is extremely rare. We describe here a rare case of mixed piedra of scalp hair.

  8. Multifraction dose response of growing and resting phase hair follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegesna, V.; Withers, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    It has been established in both the clinic and the laboratory that there is a differentiation response to changes in dose per fraction in early and late responding tissues. To study one possible biological reason for differences in early and late responses. The authors selected one kind of cellular entity, the hair follicle, in two different phases of mitotic activity. The follicles are usually in a resting phase (7-12 wks), but mitotic activity can be initiated by plucking the club hairs. This was done on one half of the thorax and then exposing mice to doses of radiation (cesium gamma-ray). Dose responses for epilation between growing (early) and resting (late) follicles were compared for the same mouse. The fractionated response was studied by reducing the dose down to 2.5 Gy/fx. As the literature suggests, the total dose tolerated by a resting (late) follicle increased more than that for a growing (early) follicle

  9. A Review: Hair Health, Concerns of Shampoo Ingredients and Scalp Nourishing Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chin-Hsien T; Huang, Shu-Hung; Wang, Hui-Min D

    2015-01-01

    Human hair serves a biological purpose of protecting the scalp, as well as physical attractiveness to the perception of beauty. Hair loss, graying of hair, dandruff and other conditions affecting hair conditions can be distressing to patients, as hair condition is often considered important in people's own assessment of physical beauty. Different hair types can benefit from different treatment methods to promote hair health and growth. External factors like exposure to the sun and smoking, dietary factors including malnutrition of essential fatty acids and vitamins, and chemicals applied to the hair and scalp in shampoos and other treatments can all cause damage to existing hair and impair hair growth. Specific chemicals found in many shampoos, including antimicrobial agents, surfactants and preservatives, can all impair different aspects of hair health. In this review, we aim to discuss the main hair issues, such as hair loss, followed by the safety assessments of selected ingredients in shampoo, and possible nourishment for scalp improvement. This review highlights areas of disagreement in the existing literature, and points to new directions for future studies. Key conclusions include the carcinogenic chemicals to avoid, alternatives of such ingredients, and scalp nourishing treatments with micronutrients.

  10. Shoot position affects root initiation and growth of dormant unrooted cuttings of Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S., Jr. Zalesny; R.B. Hall; E.O. Bauer; D.E. Riemenschneider

    2003-01-01

    Rooting of dormant unrooted cuttings is crucial to the commercial deployment of intensively cultured poplar (Populus spp.) plantations because it is the first biological prerequisite to stand establishment. Rooting can be genetically controlled and subject to selection. Thus, our objective was to test for differences in rooting ability among cuttings...

  11. Advanced hair damage model from ultra-violet radiation in the presence of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J M; Davis, M G; Flagler, M J; Sun, Y; Chaudhary, T; Mamak, M; McComb, D W; Williams, R E A; Greis, K D; Rubio, L; Coderch, L

    2015-10-01

    Damage to hair from UV exposure has been well reported in the literature and is known to be a highly complex process involving initiation via absorption of UV light followed by formation and propagation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The objective of this work was to understand these mechanisms, explain the role of copper in accelerating the formation of ROS and identify strategies to reduce the hair damage caused by these reactive species. The location of copper in hair was measured by Transmission electron microscopy-(TEM) X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) and levels measured by ICP-OES. Protein changes were measured as total protein loss via the Lowry assay, and MALDI ToF was used to identify the biomarker protein fragments. TBARS assay was used to measure lipid peroxide formation. Sensory methods and dry combing friction were used to measure hair damage due to copper and UV exposure and to demonstrate the efficacy of N,N' ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) and histidine chelants to reduce this damage. In this work, a biomarker protein fragment formed during UV exposure is identified using mass spectrometry. This fragment originates from the calcium-binding protein S100A3. Also shown is the accelerated formation of this peptide fragment in hair containing low levels of copper absorbed from hair during washing with tap water containing copper ions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) studies indicate copper is located in the sulphur-poor endo-cuticle region, a region where the S100A3 protein is concentrated. A mechanism for formation of this peptide fragment is proposed in addition to the possible role of lipids in UV oxidation. A shampoo and conditioner containing chelants (EDDS in shampoo and histidine in conditioner) is shown to reduce copper uptake from tap water and reduce protein loss and formation of S100A3 protein fragment. In addition, the long-term consequences of UV oxidation and

  12. Neutron activation analysis of organohalogens in Chinese human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Chai, Z.F.; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Sun, H.B.; Xu, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    To effectively extract organohalogens from human hair, two factors, the extracting time and hair length on the extraction efficiency of organohalogens were studied by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD), respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of extractable organohalogens (EOX) and extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX) in hair samples from angioma and control babies were also measured by the established method. The results indicated that the optimal Soxhlet-extraction time for EOX and EPOX in hair was from 8 to 11 hours, and the extraction efficiencies for organochlorine pesticides in hair were in the order of powder >2 mm>5 mm. Also, the mean levels of EOCl and EPOCl in hair of the angioma babies were significantly higher than those in the control babies (P EOCl EPOCl <0.05), which implied the possible relationship between the environmental pollution and angioma. (author)

  13. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-05-01

    The presence of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products.

  14. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment by means of wood mice hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beernaert, Joke; Scheirs, Jan; Leirs, Herwig; Blust, Ronny; Verhagen, Ron

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were measured in hair, kidney, liver, lung and muscle tissue of wood mice captured along a pollution gradient. We found positive relationships between cadmium concentrations in hair and all internal tissues. Hair lead concentrations were positively correlated with lead contents in kidney and liver. Age had a significant effect on cadmium accumulation in all tissues and hair. Apart from a very weak relationship between zinc concentrations in hair and liver, no significant relation between copper or zinc content in hair and any of the internal organs was observed. In summary, our observations suggest that hair of wood mice can be used for monitoring exposure to non-essential metals like cadmium and lead, but not to homeostatically regulated metals such as copper or zinc. - Positive relationships between wood mice hair and internal organs for Cd and Pb suggest that hair is a suitable monitoring tool for non-essential metals

  15. Sorption of radiocalcium on human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakovic, M.; Pilecka, N.

    1987-01-01

    The sorption of 45 Ca on hair from a 45 CaCl 2 solution (2.5x10 -3 mol l -1 ) was studied. The calcium amounts sorbed in 1 min to 5 h range between 0.8 and 7.2% with respect to the originally present calcium in hair. (author) 3 refs

  16. Changes in the sebaceous gland in patients with male pattern hair loss (androgenic alopecia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kure, Katsuhiro; Isago, Tsukasa; Hirayama, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    The sebaceous gland and the follicular bulge region have important role in biology of the hair. They initiate destruction of the hair follicle both in human and animal models in certain conditions. The morphometric feature of the sebaceous gland is not well understood so as the distribution of the bulge stem cells in pathological conditions of male pattern hair loss or androgenic alopecia (AGA). The authors perform morphometric analysis of the sebaceous gland in AGA patients and also study distribution of the follicular stem cells in the bulge region in these populations. Two hundred and fifty cases of glass slide specimen from Japanese patients with male pattern hair loss were reviewed. Among these, 23 cases of the longitudinal (vertical) sections of the scalp skin with diagnosis of AGA were found and analyzed for the morphometric characteristics. Each sebaceous gland area was measured using NIH imagej system and statistically analyzed. For the identification of the follicular bulge region, an immunohistochemistry using anticytokeratin 15 (C8/144B clone) was carried out in the cases of AGA. The sebaceous gland area of the AGA group was noticeably increased, while the size of each sebaceous gland remains unchanged. It has more lobules in the hair follicular unit in the AGA population. In the immunohistochemistry, the follicular stem cells are present in the bulge regions in cases of AGA. The overgrowth (multilobulation) of the sebaceous gland and relative preservation of the follicular stem cells suggest that the changes in the sebaceous gland could be an important factor in the pathology of AGA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Hair Dye–DNA Interaction: Plausible Cause of Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Maiti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye is one of the most popular cosmetic products which are used more widely and frequently to improve an individual’s appearance. Although the genotoxic effects of dye ingredients are widely reported, hair dye in its usable form is not reported extensively. In this contribution, we report the possible mode of interaction of hair dye with DNA which leads to genotoxicity. The effect of dye DNA interaction was studied on the most popular and globally used hair dye with Calf Thymus DNA and plasmid DNA. This interaction of dye DNA was studied by spectroscopic analyses and gel electrophoresis. The result had shown positive interaction of dye with DNA. Gel electrophoresis study confirms the binding of dye with DNA which results in linearization and fragmentation of the plasmid DNA. Dye–DNA interaction causes fragmentation and oxidation of DNA in absence of any catalyst, implies high toxicity of commercial hair dyes. Thus, it can be deduced from the present studies that hair dye in its usable form may lead to its penetration through skin affecting genomic DNA possesses genotoxic property and can be treated as one of the most common mutagen.

  18. Plucked Human Hair Shafts and Biomolecular Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schembri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair follicle is a skin integument at the boundary between an organism and its immediate environment. The biological role of the human hair follicle has lost some of its ancestral importance. However, an indepth investigation of this miniorgan reveals hidden complexity with huge research potential. An essential consideration when dealing with human research is the awareness of potential harm and thus the absolute need not to harm—a rule aptly qualified by the Latin term “primum non nocere” (first do no harm. The plucked hair shaft offers such advantages. The use of stem cells found in hair follicles cells is gaining momentum in the field of regenerative medicine. Furthermore, current diagnostic and clinical applications of plucked hair follicles include their use as autologous and/or three-dimensional epidermal equivalents, together with their utilization as surrogate tissue in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies. Consequently, the use of noninvasive diagnostic procedures on hair follicle shafts, posing as a surrogate molecular model for internal organs in the individual patient for a spectrum of human disease conditions, can possibly become a reality in the near future.

  19. On the road to quantitative genetic/genomic analyses of root growth and development components underlying root architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draye, X.; Dorlodot, S. de; Lavigne, T.

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative genetic and functional genomic analyses of root development, growth and plasticity will be instrumental in revealing the major regulatory pathways of root architecture. Such knowledge, combined with in-depth consideration of root physiology (e.g. uptake, exsudation), form (space-time dynamics of soil exploration) and ecology (including root environment), will settle the bases for designing root ideotypes for specific environments, for low-input agriculture or for successful agricultural production with minimal impact on the environment. This report summarizes root research initiated in our lab between 2000 and 2004 in the following areas: quantitative analysis of root branching in bananas, high throughput characterisation of root morphology, image analysis, QTL mapping of detailed features of root architecture in rice, and attempts to settle a Crop Root Research Consortium. (author)

  20. A Guide to Studying Human Hair Follicle Cycling In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Won; Kloepper, Jennifer; Langan, Ewan A; Kim, Yongsoo; Yeo, Joongyeub; Kim, Min Ji; Hsi, Tsai-Ching; Rose, Christian; Yoon, Ghil Suk; Lee, Seok-Jong; Seykora, John; Kim, Jung Chul; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Moonkyu; Paus, Ralf; Plikus, Maksim V

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo lifelong cyclical transformations, progressing through stages of rapid growth (anagen), regression (catagen), and relative "quiescence" (telogen). Given that HF cycling abnormalities underlie many human hair growth disorders, the accurate classification of individual cycle stages within skin biopsies is clinically important and essential for hair research. For preclinical human hair research purposes, human scalp skin can be xenografted onto immunocompromised mice to study human HF cycling and manipulate long-lasting anagen in vivo. Although available for mice, a comprehensive guide on how to recognize different human hair cycle stages in vivo is lacking. In this article, we present such a guide, which uses objective, well-defined, and reproducible criteria, and integrates simple morphological indicators with advanced, (immuno)-histochemical markers. This guide also characterizes human HF cycling in xenografts and highlights the utility of this model for in vivo hair research. Detailed schematic drawings and representative micrographs provide examples of how best to identify human HF stages, even in suboptimally sectioned tissue, and practical recommendations are given for designing human-on-mouse hair cycle experiments. Thus, this guide seeks to offer a benchmark for human hair cycle stage classification, for both hair research experts and newcomers to the field. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Expressed sequence tag analysis of functional genes associated with adventitious rooting in Liriodendron hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Y D; Sun, X Y; Liu, E Y; Li, Y Q; Gao, Z; Yu, F X

    2016-06-24

    Liriodendron hybrids (Liriodendron chinense x L. tulipifera) are important landscaping and afforestation hardwood trees. To date, little genomic research on adventitious rooting has been reported in these hybrids, as well as in the genus Liriodendron. In the present study, we used adventitious roots to construct the first cDNA library for Liriodendron hybrids. A total of 5176 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated and clustered into 2921 unigenes. Among these unigenes, 2547 had significant homology to the non-redundant protein database representing a wide variety of putative functions. Homologs of these genes regulated many aspects of adventitious rooting, including those for auxin signal transduction and root hair development. Results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that AUX1, IRE, and FB1 were highly expressed in adventitious roots and the expression of AUX1, ARF1, NAC1, RHD1, and IRE increased during the development of adventitious roots. Additionally, 181 simple sequence repeats were identified from 166 ESTs and more than 91.16% of these were dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats. To the best of our knowledge, the present study reports the identification of the genes associated with adventitious rooting in the genus Liriodendron for the first time and provides a valuable resource for future genomic studies. Expression analysis of selected genes could allow us to identify regulatory genes that may be essential for adventitious rooting.

  2. LSD1 is Required for Hair Cell Regeneration in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingzi; Tang, Dongmei; Cai, Chengfu; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-05-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A) plays an important role in complex cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression. It has recently been demonstrated that during development, downregulation of LSD1 inhibits cell proliferation, modulates the expression of cell cycle regulators, and reduces hair cell formation in the zebrafish lateral line, which suggests that LSD1-mediated epigenetic regulation plays a key role in the development of hair cells. However, the role of LSD1 in hair cell regeneration after hair cell loss remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the effect of LSD1 on hair cell regeneration following neomycin-induced hair cell loss. We show that the LSD1 inhibitor trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (2-PCPA) significantly decreases the regeneration of hair cells in zebrafish after neomycin damage. In addition, immunofluorescent staining demonstrates that 2-PCPA administration suppresses supporting cell proliferation and alters cell cycle progression. Finally, in situ hybridization shows that 2-PCPA significantly downregulates the expression of genes related to Wnt/β-catenin and Fgf activation. Altogether, our data suggest that downregulation of LSD1 significantly decreases hair cell regeneration after neomycin-induced hair cell loss through inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin and Fgf signaling pathways. Thus, LSD1 plays a critical role in hair cell regeneration and might represent a novel biomarker and potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of hearing loss.

  3. Sensory hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lush, Mark E; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2014-10-01

    Damage or destruction of sensory hair cells in the inner ear leads to hearing or balance deficits that can be debilitating, especially in older adults. Unfortunately, the damage is permanent, as regeneration of the inner ear sensory epithelia does not occur in mammals. Zebrafish and other non-mammalian vertebrates have the remarkable ability to regenerate sensory hair cells and understanding the molecular and cellular basis for this regenerative ability will hopefully aid us in designing therapies to induce regeneration in mammals. Zebrafish not only possess hair cells in the ear but also in the sensory lateral line system. Hair cells in both organs are functionally analogous to hair cells in the inner ear of mammals. The lateral line is a mechanosensory system found in most aquatic vertebrates that detects water motion and aids in predator avoidance, prey capture, schooling, and mating. Although hair cell regeneration occurs in both the ear and lateral line, most research to date has focused on the lateral line due to its relatively simple structure and accessibility. Here we review the recent discoveries made during the characterization of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Sensory Hair Cells: An Introduction to Structure and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Duane R

    2018-06-18

    Sensory hair cells are specialized secondary sensory cells that mediate our senses of hearing, balance, linear acceleration, and angular acceleration (head rotation). In addition, hair cells in fish and amphibians mediate sensitivity to water movement through the lateral line system, and closely related electroreceptive cells mediate sensitivity to low-voltage electric fields in the aquatic environment of many fish species and several species of amphibian.Sensory hair cells share many structural and functional features across all vertebrate groups, while at the same time they are specialized for employment in a wide variety of sensory tasks. The complexity of hair cell structure is large, and the diversity of hair cell applications in sensory systems exceeds that seen for most, if not all, sensory cell types. The intent of this review is to summarize the more significant structural features and some of the more interesting and important physiological mechanisms that have been elucidated thus far. Outside vertebrates, hair cells are only known to exist in the coronal organ of tunicates. Electrical resonance, electromotility, and their exquisite mechanical sensitivity all contribute to the attractiveness of hair cells as a research subject.

  5. SENSORY HAIR CELL REGENERATION IN THE ZEBRAFISH LATERAL LINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lush, Mark E.; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Damage or destruction of sensory hair cells in the inner ear leads to hearing or balance deficits that can be debilitating, especially in older adults. Unfortunately, the damage is permanent, as regeneration of the inner ear sensory epithelia does not occur in mammals. Zebrafish and other non-mammalian vertebrates have the remarkable ability to regenerate sensory hair cells and understanding the molecular and cellular basis for this regenerative ability will hopefully aid us in designing therapies to induce regeneration in mammals. Zebrafish not only possess hair cells in the ear but also in the sensory lateral line system. Hair cells in both organs are functionally analogous to hair cells in the inner ear of mammals. The lateral line is a mechanosensory system found in most aquatic vertebrates that detects water motion and aids in predator avoidance, prey capture, schooling and mating. Although hair cell regeneration occurs in both the ear and lateral line, most research to date has focused on the lateral line due to its relatively simple structure and accessibility. Here we review the recent discoveries made during the characterization of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. PMID:25045019

  6. Serum drug level-related sodium valproate-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnappa, Suresh K; Belhekar, Mahesh N

    2013-01-01

    Sodium valproate is a well-established treatment in epilepsy and mood disorders. Its utility is compromised by its adverse effects such as tremor, weight gain, hair loss, and liver dysfunction. Hair loss may occur when drug is used in higher dose. Drug-induced hair loss is diffused and non-scarring, which is reversible upon withdrawal. But there are no case reports showing relation between serum levels of valproate and occurrence of hair loss. So we took interest in reporting this case report.

  7. Myc and Fgf Are Required for Zebrafish Neuromast Hair Cell Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Goo; Huang, Mingqian; Obholzer, Nikolaus D; Sun, Shan; Li, Wenyan; Petrillo, Marco; Dai, Pu; Zhou, Yi; Cotanche, Douglas A; Megason, Sean G; Li, Huawei; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Unlike mammals, the non-mammalian vertebrate inner ear can regenerate the sensory cells, hair cells, either spontaneously or through induction after hair cell loss, leading to hearing recovery. The mechanisms underlying the regeneration are poorly understood. By microarray analysis on a chick model, we show that chick hair cell regeneration involves the activation of proliferation genes and downregulation of differentiation genes. Both MYC and FGF are activated in chick hair cell regeneration. Using a zebrafish lateral line neuromast hair cell regeneration model, we show that the specific inhibition of Myc or Fgf suppresses hair cell regeneration, demonstrating that both pathways are essential to the process. Rapid upregulation of Myc and delayed Fgf activation during regeneration suggest a role of Myc in proliferation and Fgf in differentiation. The dorsal-ventral pattern of fgfr1a in the neuromasts overlaps with the distribution of hair cell precursors. By laser ablation, we show that the fgfr1a-positive supporting cells are likely the hair cell precursors that directly give rise to new hair cells; whereas the anterior-posterior fgfr1a-negative supporting cells have heightened proliferation capacity, likely to serve as more primitive progenitor cells to replenish lost precursors after hair cell loss. Thus fgfr1a is likely to mark compartmentalized supporting cell subtypes with different capacities in renewal proliferation and hair cell regeneration. Manipulation of c-MYC and FGF pathways could be explored for mammalian hair cell regeneration.

  8. Menkes Kinky Hair Syndrome: A Rare Neurodegenerative Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozil Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Menkes kinky hair disease is a rare X-linked recessive disease nearly exclusively affecting males who present at 2-3 months of age due to abnormal functioning of copper-dependent enzymes due to deficiency of copper. Here, we describe a completely worked-up case of a 4-month-old male infant with very typical history and radiological features confirmed by biochemical and trichoanalysis. The initially seen asymmetric cortical and subcortical T2 hyperintensities in cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres converted into symmetrical diffuse cerebral and predominantly cerebellar atrophy with uniform loss of both white and grey matter on follow-up MRI. Also, subdural hemorrhages of various sizes and different stages and tortuosity of larger proximal intracranial vessels with distal narrowing were identified. Ours is a completely worked-up proven case of Menkes kinky hair disease (MKHD with history, electroencephalography, biochemical, trichoanalysis, and MRI findings. This is a good teaching case and shows importance of clinical examination and biochemistry as complimentary to MRI. Tortuous intracranial arteries with blocked major vessels are found only in this disease, thus stressing the value of MR Angiography in these patients.

  9. Rapid detection of dermatophytes from skin and hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulati Anil

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dermatophytes are a group of closely related keratinophilic fungi that can invade keratinized humans and animals tissues such as skin, hair and nails causing dermatophytosis. They are an important cause of superficial fungal infection. Findings Conventional methods like potassium hydroxide (KOH microscopy and fungal culture lacks the ability to make an early and specific diagnosis. In this study we have evaluated nested Polymerase chain reaction (PCR using primers targeting dermatophyte specific sequence of chitin synthase 1 (CHS1 gene and compared with conventional test. A total of 155 patients clinically suspected with dermatophytosis were included in the study. Of which 105 specimens were skin scrapings and 50 were hair. KOH microscopy, fungal culture and first round and nested PCR were done on clinical specimens, and results compared. Nested PCR for dermatophytes was positive in 83.8% specimens, followed by KOH microscopy (70%, first round PCR (50.8 and fungal culture (25.8. Conclusion Results indicate that nested PCR may be considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of dermatophytosis and can aid the clinician in initiating prompt and appropriate antifungal therapy.

  10. Gravitational entropy and the cosmological no-hair conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2018-04-01

    The gravitational entropy and no-hair conjectures seem to predict contradictory future states of our Universe. The growth of the gravitational entropy is associated with the growth of inhomogeneity, while the no-hair conjecture argues that a universe dominated by dark energy should asymptotically approach a homogeneous and isotropic de Sitter state. The aim of this paper is to study these two conjectures. The investigation is based on the Simsilun simulation, which simulates the universe using the approximation of the Silent Universe. The Silent Universe is a solution to the Einstein equations that assumes irrotational, nonviscous, and insulated dust, with vanishing magnetic part of the Weyl curvature. The initial conditions for the Simsilun simulation are sourced from the Millennium simulation, which results with a realistically appearing but relativistic at origin simulation of a universe. The Simsilun simulation is evolved from the early universe (t =25 Myr ) until far future (t =1000 Gyr ). The results of this investigation show that both conjectures are correct. On global scales, a universe with a positive cosmological constant and nonpositive spatial curvature does indeed approach the de Sitter state. At the same time it keeps generating the gravitational entropy.

  11. Topical adenosine increases thick hair ratio in Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Y; Nagashima, T; Hanzawa, N; Ishino, A; Nakazawa, Y; Ogo, M; Iwabuchi, T; Tajima, M

    2015-12-01