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Sample records for root fungal colonization

  1. Soil Influences Colonization of Root-Associated Fungal Endophyte Communities of Maize, Wheat, and Their Progenitors

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    Deepak Bokati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root-associated fungal endophytes are vital component of root microbiome as some mitigate their host’s abiotic and biotic stress. We characterized root-associated fungal endophytes in cereal grains and their progenitors grown on two different soil-types. We aimed at determining how clay and desert soil affects the colonization of root fungal community. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were employed to identify endophytes that successfully colonized greenhouse-grown host plants. The Internal Transcriber Spacer region of fungal ribosomal DNA was utilized for identification purposes. This study revealed soil as a prominent factor influencing the composition of microfungal communities inhabiting the roots of maize (Zea mays subsp. mays and its conspecific progenitor, teosinte (Zea mays subsp. parviglumis. Similar results were found in wheat (Triticum aestivum subsp. aestivum and its progenitor (Triticum monococcum subsp. monococcum. The multidimensional comparisons of Morisita-Horn similarity values of fungal colonists of various host plant taxa indicated that soil plays a primary role in shaping the root fungal community; a secondary effect was plant host identity, even when the plant host is a conspecific. Future studies focused on characterizing root endophytes in other cereal grains, and studying the effect of edaphic factors on fungal colonization, can ultimately contribute to crop productivity.

  2. Strategies utilized by trophically diverse fungal species for Pinus sylvestris root colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Joanna; Guzicka, Marzenna; Ratajczak, Ewelina; Zadworny, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Physiological changes in host plants in response to the broad spectrum of fungal modes of infection are still not well understood. The current study was conducted to better understand the infection of in vitro cultures of Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings by three trophically diverse fungal species, Fusarium oxysporum E. F. Sm. & Swingle, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Bull.) Quél. Biochemical methods and microscopy were utilized to determine (i) which factors (apoplastic and cellular pH, reactive oxygen species, glutathione and cell death) play a role in the establishment of pathogenic, saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi, and (ii) whether cell death is a common response of conifer seedling tissues when they are exposed to trophically diverse fungi. Establishment of the pathogen, F. oxysporum, was observed more frequently in the meristematic region of root tips than in the elongation zone, which was in contrast to T. harzianum and H. crustuliniforme. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) hyphae, however, were occasionally observed in the studied root zone and caused small changes in the studied factors. Colonization of the meristematic zone occurred due to host cell death. Independently of the zone, changes in cellular pH resulting in an acidic cytoplasm conditioned the establishment of F. oxysporum. Additionally, cell death was negatively correlated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in roots challenged by a pathogenic fungus. Cell death was the only factor uniquely associated with the colonization of host roots by a saprotrophic fungus. The mechanism may differ, however, between the zones since apoplastic pH was negatively correlated with cell death in the elongation zone, whereas in the meristematic zone, none of the studied factors explained cell death. Colonization by the ECM fungus, H. crustuliniforme, was associated with a decreasing number of cells with acidic apoplast and by production of H2O2 in the elongation zone resulting in cell death. Saprotrophic

  3. Inoculation effects on root-colonizing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities spread beyond directly inoculated plants.

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    Martina Janoušková

    Full Text Available Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF may improve plant performance at disturbed sites, but inoculation may also suppress root colonization by native AMF and decrease the diversity of the root-colonizing AMF community. This has been shown for the roots of directly inoculated plants, but little is known about the stability of inoculation effects, and to which degree the inoculant and the inoculation-induced changes in AMF community composition spread into newly emerging seedlings that were not in direct contact with the introduced propagules. We addressed this topic in a greenhouse experiment based on the soil and native AMF community of a post-mining site. Plants were cultivated in compartmented pots with substrate containing the native AMF community, where AMF extraradical mycelium radiating from directly inoculated plants was allowed to inoculate neighboring plants. The abundances of the inoculated isolate and of native AMF taxa were monitored in the roots of the directly inoculated plants and the neighboring plants by quantitative real-time PCR. As expected, inoculation suppressed root colonization of the directly inoculated plants by other AMF taxa of the native AMF community and also by native genotypes of the same species as used for inoculation. In the neighboring plants, high abundance of the inoculant and the suppression of native AMF were maintained. Thus, we demonstrate that inoculation effects on native AMF propagate into plants that were not in direct contact with the introduced inoculum, and are therefore likely to persist at the site of inoculation.

  4. Inoculation effects on root-colonizing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities spread beyond directly inoculated plants.

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    Janoušková, Martina; Krak, Karol; Vosátka, Miroslav; Püschel, David; Štorchová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may improve plant performance at disturbed sites, but inoculation may also suppress root colonization by native AMF and decrease the diversity of the root-colonizing AMF community. This has been shown for the roots of directly inoculated plants, but little is known about the stability of inoculation effects, and to which degree the inoculant and the inoculation-induced changes in AMF community composition spread into newly emerging seedlings that were not in direct contact with the introduced propagules. We addressed this topic in a greenhouse experiment based on the soil and native AMF community of a post-mining site. Plants were cultivated in compartmented pots with substrate containing the native AMF community, where AMF extraradical mycelium radiating from directly inoculated plants was allowed to inoculate neighboring plants. The abundances of the inoculated isolate and of native AMF taxa were monitored in the roots of the directly inoculated plants and the neighboring plants by quantitative real-time PCR. As expected, inoculation suppressed root colonization of the directly inoculated plants by other AMF taxa of the native AMF community and also by native genotypes of the same species as used for inoculation. In the neighboring plants, high abundance of the inoculant and the suppression of native AMF were maintained. Thus, we demonstrate that inoculation effects on native AMF propagate into plants that were not in direct contact with the introduced inoculum, and are therefore likely to persist at the site of inoculation.

  5. Constitutive overexpression of the sucrose transporter SoSUT1 in potato plants increases arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal root colonization under high, but not under low, soil phosphorus availability.

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    Gabriel-Neumann, Elke; Neumann, Günter; Leggewie, Georg; George, Eckhard

    2011-06-15

    The sucrose transporter SUT1 functions in phloem loading of photoassimilates in solanaceous plant species. In the present study, wildtype and transgenic potato plants with either constitutive overexpression or antisense inhibition of SUT1 were grown under high or low phosphorus (P) fertilization levels in the presence or absence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices. At a low soil P fertilization level, the extent of AM fungal root colonization was not different among the genotypes. In all plants, the AM symbiosis contributed significantly to P uptake under these conditions. In response to a high soil P fertilization level, all genotypes showed a decrease in AM fungal root colonization, indicating that the expression level of SUT1 does not constitute a major mechanism of control over AM development in response to the soil P availability. However, plants with overexpression of SUT1 showed a higher extent of AM fungal root colonization compared with the other genotypes when the soil P availability was high. Whether an increased symbiotic C supply, alterations in the phytohormonal balance, or a decreased synthesis of antimicrobial compounds was the major cause for this effect requires further investigation. In plants with impaired phloem loading, a low C status of plant sink tissues did apparently not negatively affect plant C supply to the AM symbiosis. It is possible that, at least during vegetative and early generative growth, source rather than sink tissues exert control over amounts of C supplied to AM fungi. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Direct and indirect influences of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on phosphorus uptake by two root hemiparasitic Pedicularis species: do the fungal partners matter at low colonization levels?

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    Li, Ai-Rong; Guan, Kai-Yun; Stonor, Rebecca; Smith, Sally E; Smith, F Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Because most parasitic plants do not form mycorrhizal associations, the nutritional roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in them have hardly been tested. Some facultative root hemiparasitic Pedicularis species form AM associations and hence are ideal for testing both direct and indirect effects of AM fungi on their nutrient acquisition. The aim of this study was to test the influence of AM inoculation on phosphorus (P) uptake by Pedicularis rex and P. tricolor. (32)P labelling was used in compartmented pots to assess the contribution of the AM pathway and the influence of AM inoculation on P uptake from a host plant into the root hemiparasites. Laboratory isolates of fungal species (Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices) and the host species (Hordeum vulgare 'Fleet') to which the two Pedicularis species showed obvious responses in haustorium formation and growth in previous studies were used. The AM colonization of both Pedicularis spp. was low (plant P (fungi strongly interfered with P acquisition by both Pedicularis species from their host barley, almost certainly because the numbers of haustoria formed by the parasite were significantly reduced in AM plants. Roles of AM fungi in nutrient acquisition by root parasitic plants were quantitatively demonstrated for the first time. Evidence was obtained for a novel mechanism of preventing root parasitic plants from overexploiting host resources through AM fungal-induced suppression of the absorptive structures in the parasites.

  7. Investigation of fungal root colonizers of the invasive plant Vincetoxicum rossicum and co-occurring local native plants in a field and woodland area in Southern Ontario

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    Cindy Bongard

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal communities forming associations with plant roots have generally been described as ranging from symbiotic to parasitic. Disruptions to these associations consequently can have significant impacts on native plant communities. We examined how invasion by Vincetoxicum rossicum, a plant native to Europe, can alter both the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, as well as the general fungal communities associating with native plant roots in both field and woodland sites in Southern Ontario. In two different sites in the Greater Toronto Area, we took advantage of invasion by V. rossicum and neighbouring uninvaded sites to investigate the fungal communities associating with local plant roots, including goldenrod (Solidago spp., wild red raspberry (Rubus idaeus, Canada anemone (Anemone canadensis, meadow rue (Thalictrum dioicum, and wild ginger (Asarum canadense. Fungi colonizing roots were characterized with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis of amplified total fungal (TF and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF ribosomal fragments. We saw a significant effect of the presence of this invader on the diversity of TF phylotypes colonizing native plant roots, and a composition shift of both the TF and AMF community in native roots in both sites. In native communities invaded by V. rossicum, a significant increase in richness and colonization density of TF suggests that invaders such as V. rossicum may be able to influence the composition of soil fungi available to natives, possibly via mechanisms such as increased carbon provision or antibiosis attributable to unique root exudates.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity, root colonization, and soil alkaline phosphatase activity in response to maize-wheat rotation and no-tillage in North China.

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    Hu, Junli; Yang, Anna; Zhu, Anning; Wang, Junhua; Dai, Jue; Wong, Ming Hung; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-07-01

    Monitoring the effects of no-tillage (NT) in comparison with conventional tillage (CT) on soil microbes could improve our understanding of soil biochemical processes and thus help us to develop sound management strategies. The objective of this study was to compare the species composition and ecological function of soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi during the growth and rotation of crops under NT and CT. From late June 2009 to early June 2010, 32 topsoil (0-15 cm) samples from four individual plots per treatment (CT and NT) were collected at both the jointing and maturation stages of maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from a long-term experimental field that was established in an Aquic Inceptisol in North China in June 2006. The AM fungal spores were isolated and identified and then used to calculate species diversity indices, including the Shannon- Wiener index (H'), Evenness (E), and Simpson's index (D). The root mycorrhizal colonization and soil alkaline phosphatase activity were also determined. A total of 34 species of AM fungi within nine genera were recorded. Compared with NT, CT negatively affected the soil AM fungal community at the maize sowing stage, leading to decreases in the average diversity indices (from 2.12, 0.79, and 0.82 to 1.79, 0.72, and 0.74 for H', E, and D, respectively), root mycorrhizal colonization (from 28% to 20%), soil alkaline phosphatase activity (from 0.24 to 0.19 mg/g/24 h) and available phosphorus concentration (from 17.4 to 10.5 mg/kg) at the maize jointing stage. However, reductions in diversity indices of H', E, and D were restored to 2.20, 0.81, and 0.84, respectively, at the maize maturation stage. CT should affect the community again at the wheat sowing stage; however, a similar restoration in the species diversity of AM fungi was completed before the wheat jointing stage, and the highest Jaccard index (0.800) for similarity in the species composition of soil AM fungi between CT and NT was recorded at

  9. Effects of shading on photosynthesis, plant organic nitrogen uptake and root fungal colonization in a subarctic mire ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsrud, Hanna Maria Kerstin; Michelsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    deciduous and evergreen plant species decreased. Species dominance was correlated with uptake of 13C, i.e., the most productive species also took up the highest amount of glycine. The ecosystem exhibited a tendency towards lower colonization by ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes in hair...

  10. Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 Mutant with Enhanced Competitive Colonization Ability and Improved Biocontrol Activity against Fungal Root Pathogens ▿

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    Barahona, Emma; Navazo, Ana; Martínez-Granero, Francisco; Zea-Bonilla, Teresa; Pérez-Jiménez, Rosa María; Martín, Marta; Rivilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Motility is one of the most important traits for efficient rhizosphere colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens F113rif (F113). In this bacterium, motility is a polygenic trait that is repressed by at least three independent pathways, including the Gac posttranscriptional system, the Wsp chemotaxis-like pathway, and the SadB pathway. Here we show that the kinB gene, which encodes a signal transduction protein that together with AlgB has been implicated in alginate production, participates in swimming motility repression through the Gac pathway, acting downstream of the GacAS two-component system. Gac mutants are impaired in secondary metabolite production and are unsuitable as biocontrol agents. However, the kinB mutant and a triple mutant affected in kinB, sadB, and wspR (KSW) possess a wild-type phenotype for secondary metabolism. The KSW strain is hypermotile and more competitive for rhizosphere colonization than the wild-type strain. We have compared the biocontrol activity of KSW with those of the wild-type strain and a phenotypic variant (F113v35 [V35]) which is hypermotile and hypercompetitive but is affected in secondary metabolism since it harbors a gacS mutation. Biocontrol experiments in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici/Lycopersicum esculentum (tomato) and Phytophthora cactorum/Fragaria vesca (strawberry) pathosystems have shown that the three strains possess biocontrol activity. Biocontrol activity was consistently lower for V35, indicating that the production of secondary metabolites was the most important trait for biocontrol. Strain KSW showed improved biocontrol compared with the wild-type strain, indicating that an increase in competitive colonization ability resulted in improved biocontrol and that the rational design of biocontrol agents by mutation is feasible. PMID:21685161

  11. Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 mutant with enhanced competitive colonization ability and improved biocontrol activity against fungal root pathogens.

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    Barahona, Emma; Navazo, Ana; Martínez-Granero, Francisco; Zea-Bonilla, Teresa; Pérez-Jiménez, Rosa María; Martín, Marta; Rivilla, Rafael

    2011-08-01

    Motility is one of the most important traits for efficient rhizosphere colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens F113rif (F113). In this bacterium, motility is a polygenic trait that is repressed by at least three independent pathways, including the Gac posttranscriptional system, the Wsp chemotaxis-like pathway, and the SadB pathway. Here we show that the kinB gene, which encodes a signal transduction protein that together with AlgB has been implicated in alginate production, participates in swimming motility repression through the Gac pathway, acting downstream of the GacAS two-component system. Gac mutants are impaired in secondary metabolite production and are unsuitable as biocontrol agents. However, the kinB mutant and a triple mutant affected in kinB, sadB, and wspR (KSW) possess a wild-type phenotype for secondary metabolism. The KSW strain is hypermotile and more competitive for rhizosphere colonization than the wild-type strain. We have compared the biocontrol activity of KSW with those of the wild-type strain and a phenotypic variant (F113v35 [V35]) which is hypermotile and hypercompetitive but is affected in secondary metabolism since it harbors a gacS mutation. Biocontrol experiments in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici/Lycopersicum esculentum (tomato) and Phytophthora cactorum/Fragaria vesca (strawberry) pathosystems have shown that the three strains possess biocontrol activity. Biocontrol activity was consistently lower for V35, indicating that the production of secondary metabolites was the most important trait for biocontrol. Strain KSW showed improved biocontrol compared with the wild-type strain, indicating that an increase in competitive colonization ability resulted in improved biocontrol and that the rational design of biocontrol agents by mutation is feasible.

  12. A Study Of Fungal Colonization In Newborn

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    S Rashid Husain

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors responsible for fungal colonization in newborns?Objective: To study the pattern of and predisposing fac­tors for the development of superficial candidiasis and fungal colonization in the newborns.Study Design: Prospective study.Setting: Neonatology unitof the Paediatrics department of a teaching hospital.Participants: Randomly selected pregnant mothers admit­ted to the maternity ward and the newborns delivered to them.Sample Size: 120 pregnant mothers and the newborns delivered.Study Variables: Candida, Site of colonization.Statistical Analysis: By tests of significanceResults: Candida was isolated from 23 (19.16% infants on the first day increasing to 52 (43.33% infants on the sixth day. The most common site of colonization was oral cavity. Candida colonization was more common in prema­ture infants (p<0.05. Oral thrush was seen in 29 (24.17% infants during the study and a significant number of these infants showed colonization from the first day of life.Conclusions: Fungal colonization of the newborns due to Candida species is quite common, and in the first week of life predominantly occurred in the ora I cavity. Superficial clinical candidiasis, especially oral thrush is more common in those colonized on the first day of life.

  13. Root colonization of bait plants by indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities is not a suitable indicator of agricultural land-use legacy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansa, Jan; Řezáčová, Veronika; Šmilauer, P.; Oberholzer, H.-R.; Egli, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 231, SEPTEMBER (2016), s. 310-319 ISSN 0167-8809 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/1665; GA MŠk(CZ) LK11224 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Arbuscular mycorrhiza * Geography * Root colonization Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.099, year: 2016

  14. Crenarchaeota colonize terrestrial plant roots.

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    Simon, H M; Dodsworth, J A; Goodman, R M

    2000-10-01

    Microorganisms that colonize plant roots are recruited from, and in turn contribute substantially to, the vast and virtually uncharacterized phylogenetic diversity of soil microbiota. The diverse, but poorly understood, microorganisms that colonize plant roots mediate mineral transformations and nutrient cycles that are central to biosphere functioning. Here, we report the results of epifluorescence microscopy and culture-independent recovery of small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences showing that members of a previously reported clade of soil Crenarchaeota colonize both young and senescent plant roots at an unexpectedly high frequency, and are particularly abundant on the latter. Our results indicate that non-thermophilic members of the Archaea inhabit an important terrestrial niche on earth and direct attention to the need for studies that will determine their possible roles in mediating root biology.

  15. Effect of relative humidity on fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation.

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    Ezeonu, I M; Noble, J A; Simmons, R B; Price, D L; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    1994-06-01

    Fiberglass duct liners and fiberglass duct boards from eight buildings whose occupants complained of unacceptable or moldy odors in the air were found to be heavily colonized by fungi, particularly by Aspergillus versicolor. Unused fiberglass was found to be susceptible to fungal colonization in environmental chambers dependent upon relative humidity. No colonization was observed at relative humidities below 50%.

  16. Effect of relative humidity on fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ezeonu, I M; Noble, J A; Simmons, R B; D. L. Price; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    1994-01-01

    Fiberglass duct liners and fiberglass duct boards from eight buildings whose occupants complained of unacceptable or moldy odors in the air were found to be heavily colonized by fungi, particularly by Aspergillus versicolor. Unused fiberglass was found to be susceptible to fungal colonization in environmental chambers dependent upon relative humidity. No colonization was observed at relative humidities below 50%.

  17. The effect of fungal competition on colonization of soybeans by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of fungal competition on colonization of soybeans by moulds of the genus Aspergillus , Trichothecium and Fusarium and the ochratoxin A accumulation as related to temperature and moisture content.

  18. Colonización radical por endófitos fúngicos en Trithrinax campestris (Arecaceae de ecosistemas semiáridos del centro de Argentina Root colonization by fungal endophytes in Trithrinax campestris (Arecaceae from semiarid ecosystems from Central Argentine

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    Mónica A Lugo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En ecosistemas áridos y semiáridos las raíces de las plantas suelen formar simbiosis con hongos, los que les proporcionan nutrientes y agua. Poco se conoce sobre los hongos asociados a palmeras nativas y cómo éstos podrían estar relacionados entre ellos. Se describe y cuantifica la colonización radical de los simbiontes de Trithrinax campestris en poblaciones leve y fuertemente afectadas por el fuego. T. campestris fue colonizada por hongos micorrícico-arbusculares (HMA y endófitos septados oscuros (ESO. La colonización por HMA fue del tipo intermedio entre los tipos Arum y Paris. La colonización por HMA y ESO y la producción de pelos radicales, presentó diferencias entre las poblaciones estudiadas. Los resultados sugieren que en T. campestris la relación entre hongos simbiontes/producción de pelos radicales podrían estar relacionada con su alta tolerancia al fuego y la aridez.In arid and semiarid ecosystems, roots frequently form symbiosis with fungi that provides access to nutrients and water. Knowledge regarding the study of fungal symbionts colonizing native palms roots is still scarce. We described, quantified and compared fungal colonization in roots of Trithrinax campestris from two environmental situations: population with weak-burning-signs and population with strong-burning-signs. T. campestris was colonized by arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi (AMF and dark-septate-endophytes (DSE. AMF colonization was an intermediate type between Arum and Paris. The AMF and DSE colonization and root hair production differed between populations. Our results suggest that in T. campestris the relation between fungal-symbionts and root-hair-production might be related to tolerance to burning and aridity.

  19. Ecology of root colonizing Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae.

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    Maya Ofek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecologically meaningful classification of bacterial populations is essential for understanding the structure and function of bacterial communities. As in soils, the ecological strategy of the majority of root-colonizing bacteria is mostly unknown. Among those are Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae, a major group of rhizosphere and root colonizing bacteria of many plant species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The ecology of Massilia was explored in cucumber root and seed, and compared to that of Agrobacterium population, using culture-independent tools, including DNA-based pyrosequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR. Seed- and root-colonizing Massilia were primarily affiliated with other members of the genus described in soil and rhizosphere. Massilia colonized and proliferated on the seed coat, radicle, roots, and also on hyphae of phytopathogenic Pythium aphanidermatum infecting seeds. High variation in Massilia abundance was found in relation to plant developmental stage, along with sensitivity to plant growth medium modification (amendment with organic matter and potential competitors. Massilia absolute abundance and relative abundance (dominance were positively related, and peaked (up to 85% at early stages of succession of the root microbiome. In comparison, variation in abundance of Agrobacterium was moderate and their dominance increased at later stages of succession. CONCLUSIONS: In accordance with contemporary models for microbial ecology classification, copiotrophic and competition-sensitive root colonization by Massilia is suggested. These bacteria exploit, in a transient way, a window of opportunity within the succession of communities within this niche.

  20. Responses of fungal root colonization, plant cover and leaf nutrients to long-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 and warming in a subarctic birch forest understory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsrud, Maria; Carlsson, Bengt Å.; Svensson, Brita M.

    2010-01-01

    to the fungal symbionts. In this study, we investigated how ericoid mycorrhiza (ErM), fine endophytes (FE) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) in roots responded to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and warming in the dwarf shrub understory of a birch forest in the subarctic region of northern Sweden...

  1. Piriformospora indica Root Colonization Triggers Local and Systemic Root Responses and Inhibits Secondary Colonization of Distal Roots

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    Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Mueller, Martin J.; Waller, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Piriformosporaindica is a basidiomycete fungus colonizing roots of a wide range of higher plants, including crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that P. indica improves growth, and enhances systemic pathogen resistance in leaves of host plants. To investigate systemic effects within the root system, we established a hydroponic split-root cultivation system for Arabidopsis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that initial P. indica colonization triggers a local, transient response of several defense-related transcripts, of which some were also induced in shoots and in distal, non-colonized roots of the same plant. Systemic effects on distal roots included the inhibition of secondary P. indica colonization. Faster and stronger induction of defense-related transcripts during secondary inoculation revealed that a P. indica pretreatment triggers root-wide priming of defense responses, which could cause the observed reduction of secondary colonization levels. Secondary P. indica colonization also induced defense responses in distant, already colonized parts of the root. Endophytic fungi therefore trigger a spatially specific response in directly colonized and in systemic root tissues of host plants. PMID:23922705

  2. Piriformospora indica root colonization triggers local and systemic root responses and inhibits secondary colonization of distal roots.

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    Lorenzo Pedrotti

    Full Text Available Piriformosporaindica is a basidiomycete fungus colonizing roots of a wide range of higher plants, including crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that P. indica improves growth, and enhances systemic pathogen resistance in leaves of host plants. To investigate systemic effects within the root system, we established a hydroponic split-root cultivation system for Arabidopsis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that initial P. indica colonization triggers a local, transient response of several defense-related transcripts, of which some were also induced in shoots and in distal, non-colonized roots of the same plant. Systemic effects on distal roots included the inhibition of secondary P. indica colonization. Faster and stronger induction of defense-related transcripts during secondary inoculation revealed that a P. indica pretreatment triggers root-wide priming of defense responses, which could cause the observed reduction of secondary colonization levels. Secondary P. indica colonization also induced defense responses in distant, already colonized parts of the root. Endophytic fungi therefore trigger a spatially specific response in directly colonized and in systemic root tissues of host plants.

  3. Piriformospora indica root colonization triggers local and systemic root responses and inhibits secondary colonization of distal roots.

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    Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Mueller, Martin J; Waller, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Piriformosporaindica is a basidiomycete fungus colonizing roots of a wide range of higher plants, including crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that P. indica improves growth, and enhances systemic pathogen resistance in leaves of host plants. To investigate systemic effects within the root system, we established a hydroponic split-root cultivation system for Arabidopsis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that initial P. indica colonization triggers a local, transient response of several defense-related transcripts, of which some were also induced in shoots and in distal, non-colonized roots of the same plant. Systemic effects on distal roots included the inhibition of secondary P. indica colonization. Faster and stronger induction of defense-related transcripts during secondary inoculation revealed that a P. indica pretreatment triggers root-wide priming of defense responses, which could cause the observed reduction of secondary colonization levels. Secondary P. indica colonization also induced defense responses in distant, already colonized parts of the root. Endophytic fungi therefore trigger a spatially specific response in directly colonized and in systemic root tissues of host plants.

  4. The effect of fungal competition on colonization of soybeans by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of fungal competition on colonization of soybeans by moulds of the genus Aspergillus, Trichothecium and Fusarium and the ochratoxin A accumulation as related to temperature and moisture content. Lejla Duraković, Frane Delaš, Alma Tudić, Tihana Jergović-Gaši ...

  5. Imaging O2 changes induced in tomato roots by fungal pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubol, S.; Turco, E.; Rodeghiero, M.; Bellin, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the last decade, planar optodes have demonstrated to be a useful non-invasive tool to monitor real time oxygen concentrations in a wide range of applications. However, only limited investigations have been carried out to explore the use of optodes in plant respiration studies. In particular, their use to study plant-pathogen interactions has been not deeply investigated. Here, we present for the first time an in vitro experimental setup capable to depict the dynamical effects of the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) on tomato roots by the use of a recently developed optical non-invasive optode oxygen sensor (Visisens, Presens, Germany). Fol is a soil-borne pathogen and the causal agent of wilt in tomato plants, a destructive worldwide disease. The interaction Fol-tomato is widely accepted as a model system in plant pathology. In this work, oxygen concentrations are monitored continuously in time and considered a proxy for root respiration and metabolic activity. The experimental procedure reveals three different dynamic stages: 1) a uniform oxygen consumption in tomato roots earlier before pathogen colonization, 2) a progressive decrease in the oxygen concentration indicating a high metabolic activity as soon as the roots were surrounded and colonized by the fungal mycelium, and 3) absence of root respiration, as a consequence of root death. Our results suggest the ability of the fungal mycelium to move preferentially towards and along the root as a consequence of the recognition event.

  6. Root type and soil phosphate determine the taxonomic landscape of colonizing fungi and the transcriptome of field-grown maize roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; Wang, Chao; Baldauf, Jutta A; Tai, Huanhuan; Gutjahr, Caroline; Hochholdinger, Frank; Li, Chunjian

    2017-11-20

    Different root types of plants are colonized by a myriad of soil microorganisms, including fungi, which influence plant health and performance. The distinct functional and metabolic characteristics of these root types may influence root type-inhabiting fungal communities. We performed internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA profiling to determine the composition of fungal communities in field-grown axial and lateral roots of maize (Zea mays) and in response to two different soil phosphate (P) regimes. In parallel, these root types were subjected to transcriptome profiling by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). We demonstrated that fungal communities were influenced by soil P levels in a manner specific to root types. Moreover, maize transcriptome sequencing revealed root type-specific shifts in cell wall metabolism and defense gene expression in response to high P. Furthermore, lateral roots specifically accumulated defense-related transcripts at high P levels. This observation was correlated with a shift in fungal community composition, including a reduction in colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, as observed in ITS sequence data and microscopic evaluation of root colonization. Our findings suggest soil nutrient-dependent changes in functional niches within root systems and provide new insights into the interaction of individual root types with soil microbiota. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Bioreceptivity of dolostones to fungal colonization

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    Ascaso, C.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In many historic monuments in which signs of biodeterioration have been frequently reported, dolostones were used as dimension stone for their construction. In an effort to assess the influence of the texture of dolostones on their potential bioreceptivity, we characterized microbial colonization strategies in dolostone samples of predictably different textural features by scanning electron microscopy in back scattered electron mode (SEM-BSE, low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM, transmission light microscopy (TLM and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP. Fungi were the predominant microorganisms in the dolostones examined and their colonization showed three well defined stages with the final consequence of complete rock disaggregation. The results of this study indicate that porosity differences (mainly the extent and type were particularly relevant for determining the presence and extent of each colonization stage. As a determinant of bioreceptivity, the porosity of dolostones will also condition the decay processes associated with this colonization. These findings highlight the fact that the intrinsic properties of dolostones, such as texture, need to be considered when selecting this type of stone for future construction projects.La dolomía ha sido empleada como piedra de fábrica en la construcción de muchos monumentos históricos en los que se han detectado fenómenos de biodeterioro en numerosas ocasiones. En este trabajo se evalúa cómo influye la textura de las dolomías en las estrategias adoptadas por los microorganismos para colonizar estos materiales pétreos. Para ello se han caracterizado muestras de dolomías con diferentes texturas mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido en modo de electrones retrodispersados (SEM-BSE, microscopía electrónica de barrido a bajas temperaturas (LTSEM, microscopía de luz transmitida (TLM y porosimetría por intrusión de mercurio (MIP. De estas observaciones se deduce que

  8. Regulation of root morphogenesis in arbuscular mycorrhizae: what role do fungal exudates, phosphate, sugars and hormones play in lateral root formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusconi, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AMs) form a widespread root-fungus symbiosis that improves plant phosphate (Pi) acquisition and modifies the physiology and development of host plants. Increased branching is recognized as a general feature of AM roots, and has been interpreted as a means of increasing suitable sites for colonization. Fungal exudates, which are involved in the dialogue between AM fungi and their host during the pre-colonization phase, play a well-documented role in lateral root (LR) formation. In addition, the increased Pi content of AM plants, in relation to Pi-starved controls, as well as changes in the delivery of carbohydrates to the roots and modulation of phytohormone concentration, transport and sensitivity, are probably involved in increasing root system branching. This review discusses the possible causes of increased branching in AM plants. The differential root responses to Pi, sugars and hormones of potential AM host species are also highlighted and discussed in comparison with those of the non-host Arabidopsis thaliana. Fungal exudates are probably the main compounds regulating AM root morphogenesis during the first colonization steps, while a complex network of interactions governs root development in established AMs. Colonization and high Pi act synergistically to increase root branching, and sugar transport towards the arbusculated cells may contribute to LR formation. In addition, AM colonization and high Pi generally increase auxin and cytokinin and decrease ethylene and strigolactone levels. With the exception of cytokinins, which seem to regulate mainly the root:shoot biomass ratio, these hormones play a leading role in governing root morphogenesis, with strigolactones and ethylene blocking LR formation in the non-colonized, Pi-starved plants, and auxin inducing them in colonized plants, or in plants grown under high Pi conditions.

  9. Dynamics of fungal colonization in a new medical mycology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautour, M; Fournel, I; Dalle, F; Calinon, C; L'Ollivier, C; Goyer, M; Cachia, C; Aho, S; Sixt, N; Vagner, O; Cuisenier, B; Bonnin, A

    2012-03-01

    Study of the spatio-temporal fungal colonization in a new medical mycology laboratory. A 17-month survey of airborne fungal contamination was conducted in a new medical mycology laboratory at a tertiary care university hospital. This survey was implemented at three different periods: before the new premises were occupied (period A), during the move into the new laboratory (period B) and after resumption of the mycological activities in these new premises (period C). During period A, the airborne fungal load ranged from 2.3 to 6 cfu/m(3). The most frequently recovered airborne fungi were Penicillium spp. (75 to 100%). During period B, a dramatic increase in Penicillium chrysogenum conidia was observed in the air of the new laboratory (40 to 160 cfu/m(3)). During period C, the fungal load ranged from 4.5 to 8.4 cfu/m(3). Penicillium was the most common genus identified in rooms of the laboratory where no filamentous fungi were handled, while Aspergillus was clearly the predominant genus (78%) in the room dedicated to the culture of filamentous fungi. We suggest that the specific fungal ecology in air of the room dedicated to the culture of filamentous fungi is due to the handling of a large number of medical strains of A. fumigatus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of cloning and root-tip size on observations of fungal ITS sequences from Picea glauca roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Lindner; Mark T. Banik

    2009-01-01

    To better understand the effects of cloning on observations of fungal ITS sequences from Picea glauca (white spruce) roots two techniques were compared: (i) direct sequencing of fungal ITS regions from individual root tips without cloning and (ii) cloning and sequencing of fungal ITS regions from individual root tips. Effect of root tip size was...

  11. Regulation of root morphogenesis in arbuscular mycorrhizae: what role do fungal exudates, phosphate, sugars and hormones play in lateral root formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusconi, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AMs) form a widespread root–fungus symbiosis that improves plant phosphate (Pi) acquisition and modifies the physiology and development of host plants. Increased branching is recognized as a general feature of AM roots, and has been interpreted as a means of increasing suitable sites for colonization. Fungal exudates, which are involved in the dialogue between AM fungi and their host during the pre-colonization phase, play a well-documented role in lateral root (LR) formation. In addition, the increased Pi content of AM plants, in relation to Pi-starved controls, as well as changes in the delivery of carbohydrates to the roots and modulation of phytohormone concentration, transport and sensitivity, are probably involved in increasing root system branching. Scope This review discusses the possible causes of increased branching in AM plants. The differential root responses to Pi, sugars and hormones of potential AM host species are also highlighted and discussed in comparison with those of the non-host Arabidopsis thaliana. Conclusions Fungal exudates are probably the main compounds regulating AM root morphogenesis during the first colonization steps, while a complex network of interactions governs root development in established AMs. Colonization and high Pi act synergistically to increase root branching, and sugar transport towards the arbusculated cells may contribute to LR formation. In addition, AM colonization and high Pi generally increase auxin and cytokinin and decrease ethylene and strigolactone levels. With the exception of cytokinins, which seem to regulate mainly the root:shoot biomass ratio, these hormones play a leading role in governing root morphogenesis, with strigolactones and ethylene blocking LR formation in the non-colonized, Pi-starved plants, and auxin inducing them in colonized plants, or in plants grown under high Pi conditions. PMID:24227446

  12. Soil suppressiveness to fusarium disease: shifts in root microbiome associated with reduction of pathogen root colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eyal; Ofek, Maya; Katan, Jaacov; Minz, Dror; Gamliel, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Soil suppressiveness to Fusarium disease was induced by incubating sandy soil with debris of wild rocket (WR; Diplotaxis tenuifolia) under field conditions. We studied microbial dynamics in the roots of cucumber seedlings following transplantation into WR-amended or nonamended soil, as influenced by inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum. Disease symptoms initiated in nonamended soil 6 days after inoculation, compared with 14 days in WR-amended soil. Root infection by F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Target numbers were similar 3 days after inoculation for both WR-amended and nonamended soils, and were significantly lower (66%) 6 days after inoculation and transplanting into the suppressive (WR-amended) soil. This decrease in root colonization was correlated with a reduction in disease (60%) 21 days after inoculation and transplanting into the suppressive soil. Fungal community composition on cucumber roots was assessed using mass sequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer gene fragments. Sequences related to F. oxysporum, Fusarium sp. 14005, Chaetomium sp. 15003, and an unclassified Ascomycota composed 96% of the total fungal sequences in all samples. The relative abundances of these major groups were highly affected by root inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum, with a 10-fold increase in F. oxysporum sequences, but were not affected by the WR amendment. Quantitative analysis and mass-sequencing methods indicated a qualitative shift in the root's bacterial community composition in suppressive soil, rather than a change in bacterial numbers. A sharp reduction in the size and root dominance of the Massilia population in suppressive soil was accompanied by a significant increase in the relative abundance of specific populations; namely, Rhizobium, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Streptomyces spp. Composition of the Streptomyces community shifted

  13. Ecophylogeny of the endospheric root fungal microbiome of co-occurring Agrostis stolonifera

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    Amandine Lê Van

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Within the root endosphere, fungi are known to be important for plant nutrition and resistance to stresses. However, description and understanding of the rules governing community assembly in the fungal fraction of the plant microbiome remains scarce. Methods We used an innovative DNA- and RNA-based analysis of co-extracted nucleic acids to reveal the complexity of the fungal community colonizing the roots of an Agrostis stolonifera population. The normalized RNA/DNA ratio, designated the ‘mean expression ratio’, was used as a functional trait proxy. The link between this trait and phylogenetic relatedness was measured using the Blomberg’s K statistic. Results Fungal communities were highly diverse. Only ∼1.5% of the 635 OTUs detected were shared by all individuals, however these accounted for 33% of the sequence number. The endophytic fungal communities in plant roots exhibit phylogenetic clustering that can be explained by a plant host effect acting as environmental filter. The ‘mean expression ratio’ displayed significant but divergent phylogenetic signals between fungal phyla. Discussion These results suggest that environmental filtering by the host plant favours the co-existence of related and similar OTUs within the Basidiomycota community assembly, whereas the Ascomycota and Glomeromycota communities seem to be impacted by competitive interactions which promote the co-existence of phylogenetically related but ecologically dissimilar OTUs.

  14. ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION OF LARREA TRIDENTATA AND AMBROSIA DUMOSA ROOTS VARIES WITH PRECIPITATION AND SEASON IN THE MOJAVE DESERT

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    M. E. APPLE; C. I. THEE; V. L. SMITH-LONGOZO; C. R. COGAR; C. E. WELLS; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    The percentage of fine roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi varied with season and with species in the co-dominant shrubs Lurreu tridentutu and Ambrosia dumosu at a site adjacent to the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) in the Mojave Desert. We excavated downward and outward from the shrub bases in both species to collect and examine fine roots (< 1.0 mm diameter) at monthly intervals throughout 2001 and from October 2002 to September 2003. Fungal structures became visible in cleared roots stained with trypan blue. We quantified the percent colonization of roots by AM fungi via the line intercept method. In both years and for both species, colonization was highest in fall, relatively low in spring when root growth began, increased in late spring, and decreased during summer drought periods. Increases in colonization during summer and fall reflect corresponding increases in precipitation. Spring mycorrhizal colonization is low despite peaks in soil water availability and precipitation, indicating that precipitation is not the only factor influencing mycorrhizal colonization. Because the spring decrease in mycorrhizal colonization occurs when these shrubs initiate a major flush of fine root growth, other phenological events such as competing demands for carbon by fine root initiation, early season shoot growth, and flowering may reduce carbon availability to the fungus, and hence decrease colonization. Another possibility is that root growth exceeds the rate of mycorrhizal colonization.

  15. Inhibition of fungal colonization by Pseudoalteromonas tunicata provides a competitive advantage during surface colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, A; Egan, S; Holmström, C; James, S; Lappin-Scott, H; Kjelleberg, S

    2006-09-01

    The marine epiphytic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata produces a range of extracellular secondary metabolites that inhibit an array of common fouling organisms, including fungi. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the ability to inhibit fungi provides P. tunicata with an advantage during colonization of a surface. Studies on a transposon-generated antifungal-deficient mutant of P. tunicata, FM3, indicated that a long-chain fatty acid-coenzyme A ligase is involved in the production of a broad-range antifungal compound by P. tunicata. Flow cell experiments demonstrated that production of an antifungal compound provided P. tunicata with a competitive advantage against a marine yeast isolate during surface colonization. This compound enabled P. tunicata to disrupt an already established fungal biofilm by decreasing the number of yeast cells attached to the surface by 66% +/- 9%. For in vivo experiments, the wild-type and FM3 strains of P. tunicata were used to inoculate the surface of the green alga Ulva australis. Double-gradient denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that after 48 h, the wild-type P. tunicata had outcompeted the surface-associated fungal community, whereas the antifungal-deficient mutant had no effect on the fungal community. Our data suggest that P. tunicata is an effective competitor against fungal surface communities in the marine environment.

  16. Chitosan Increases Tomato Root Colonization by Pochonia chlamydosporia and Their Combination Reduces Root-Knot Nematode Damage

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    Nuria Escudero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of biological control agents could be a non-chemical alternative for management of Meloidogyne spp. [root-knot nematodes (RKN], the most damaging plant-parasitic nematodes for horticultural crops worldwide. Pochonia chlamydosporia is a fungal parasite of RKN eggs that can colonize endophytically roots of several cultivated plant species, but in field applications the fungus shows a low persistence and efficiency in RKN management. The combined use of P. chlamydosporia with an enhancer could help its ability to develop in soil and colonize roots, thereby increasing its efficiency against nematodes. Previous work has shown that chitosan enhances P. chlamydosporia sporulation and production of extracellular enzymes, as well as nematode egg parasitism in laboratory bioassays. This work shows that chitosan at low concentrations (up to 0.1 mg ml-1 do not affect the viability and germination of P. chlamydosporia chlamydospores and improves mycelial growth respect to treatments without chitosan. Tomato plants irrigated with chitosan (same dose limit increased root weight and length after 30 days. Chitosan irrigation increased dry shoot and fresh root weight of tomato plants inoculated with Meloidogyne javanica, root length when they were inoculated with P. chlamydosporia, and dry shoot weight of plants inoculated with both P. chlamydosporia and M. javanica. Chitosan irrigation significantly enhanced root colonization by P. chlamydosporia, but neither nematode infection per plant nor fungal egg parasitism was affected. Tomato plants cultivated in a mid-suppressive (29.3 ± 4.7% RKN egg infection non-sterilized clay loam soil and irrigated with chitosan had enhanced shoot growth, reduced RKN multiplication, and disease severity. Chitosan irrigation in a highly suppressive (73.7 ± 2.6% RKN egg infection sterilized-sandy loam soil reduced RKN multiplication in tomato. However, chitosan did not affect disease severity or plant growth irrespective of

  17. Local and distal effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization on direct pathway Pi uptake and root growth in Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts-Williams, Stephanie J; Jakobsen, Iver; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Grønlund, Mette

    2015-07-01

    Two pathways exist for plant Pi uptake from soil: via root epidermal cells (direct pathway) or via associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and the two pathways interact in a complex manner. This study investigated distal and local effects of AM colonization on direct root Pi uptake and root growth, at different soil P levels. Medicago truncatula was grown at three soil P levels in split-pots with or without AM fungal inoculation and where one root half grew into soil labelled with (33)P. Plant genotypes included the A17 wild type and the mtpt4 mutant. The mtpt4 mutant, colonized by AM fungi, but with no functional mycorrhizal pathway for Pi uptake, was included to better understand effects of AM colonization per se. Colonization by AM fungi decreased expression of direct Pi transporter genes locally, but not distally in the wild type. In mtpt4 mutant plants, direct Pi transporter genes and the Pi starvation-induced gene Mt4 were more highly expressed than in wild-type roots. In wild-type plants, less Pi was taken up via the direct pathway by non-colonized roots when the other root half was colonized by AM fungi, compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. Colonization by AM fungi strongly influenced root growth locally and distally, and direct root Pi uptake activity locally, but had only a weak influence on distal direct pathway activity. The responses to AM colonization in the mtpt4 mutant suggested that in the wild type, the increased P concentration of colonized roots was a major factor driving the effects of AM colonization on direct root Pi uptake. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Fungal colonization of air filters for use in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, R B; Crow, S A

    1995-01-01

    New and used cellulosic air filters for HVAC systems including those treated with antimicrobials were suspended in vessels with a range of relative humidities (55-99%) and containing non-sterile potting soil which stimulates fungal growth. Most filters yielded fungi prior to suspension in the chambers but only two of 14 nontreated filters demonstrated fungal colonization following use in HVAC systems. Filters treated with antimicrobials, particularly a phosphated amine complex, demonstrated markedly less fungal colonization than nontreated filters. In comparison with nontreated cellulosic filters, fungal colonization of antimicrobial-treated cellulosic filters was selective and delayed.

  19. Aspergillus flavus and Fusariumverticillioides Induce Tissue Specific Gene Expression of PRms and UGT in Maize Seed before Fungal Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus and Fusariumverticillioides are fungal pathogens that colonize maize seeds and contaminate them with mycotoxins. To investigate the plant microbe interactions, we conducted histological and molecular studies to characterize the internal colonization of maize seed by the two fungal...

  20. Hydraulic conductivity and aquaporin transcription in roots of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings colonized by Laccaria bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Cooke, Janice E K; Kemppainen, Minna; Pardo, Alejandro G; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2016-07-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi have been reported to increase root hydraulic conductivity (L pr) by altering apoplastic and plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP)-mediated cell-to-cell water transport pathways in associated roots, or to have little effect on root water transport, depending on the interacting species and imposed stresses. In this study, we investigated the water transport properties and PIP transcription in roots of aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings colonized by the wild-type strain of Laccaria bicolor and by strains overexpressing a major fungal water-transporting aquaporin JQ585595. Inoculation of aspen seedlings with L. bicolor resulted in about 30 % colonization rate of root tips, which developed dense mantle and the Hartig net that was restricted in the modified root epidermis. Transcript abundance of the aspen aquaporins PIP1;2, PIP2;1, and PIP2;2 decreased in colonized root tips. Root colonization by JQ585595-overexpressing strains had no significant impact on seedling shoot water potentials, gas exchange, or dry mass; however, it led to further decrease in transcript abundance of PIP1;2 and PIP2;3 and the significantly lower L pr than in non-inoculated roots. These results, taken together with our previous study that showed enhanced root water hydraulics of L. bicolor-colonized white spruce (Picea glauca), suggest that the impact of L. bicolor on root hydraulics varies by the ectomycorrhiza-associated tree species.

  1. Contrasting impacts of defoliation on root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate endophytic fungi of Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravesi, K; Ruotsalainen, A L; Cahill, J F

    2014-05-01

    Individual plants typically interact with multiple mutualists and enemies simultaneously. Plant roots encounter both arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi, while the leaves are exposed to herbivores. AMF are usually beneficial symbionts, while the functional role of DSE is largely unknown. Leaf herbivory may have a negative effect on root symbiotic fungi due to decreased carbon availability. However, evidence for this is ambiguous and no inoculation-based experiment on joint effects of herbivory on AM and DSE has been done to date. We investigated how artificial defoliation impacts root colonization by AM (Glomus intraradices) and DSE (Phialocephala fortinii) fungi and growth of Medicago sativa host in a factorial laboratory experiment. Defoliation affected fungi differentially, causing a decrease in arbuscular colonization and a slight increase in DSE-type colonization. However, the presence of one fungal species had no effect on colonization by the other or on plant growth. Defoliation reduced plant biomass, with this effect independent of the fungal treatments. Inoculation by either fungal species reduced root/shoot ratios, with this effect independent of the defoliation treatments. These results suggest AM colonization is limited by host carbon availability, while DSE may benefit from root dieback or exudation associated with defoliation. Reductions in root allocation associated with fungal inoculation combined with a lack of effect of fungi on plant biomass suggest DSE and AMF may be functional equivalent to the plant within this study. Combined, our results indicate different controls of colonization, but no apparent functional consequences between AM and DSE association in plant roots in this experimental setup.

  2. Fungal root endophyte associations of plants endemic to the Pamir Alay Mountains of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubek, Szymon; Nobis, Marcin; Błaszkowski, Janusz; Mleczko, Piotr; Nowak, Arkadiusz

    2011-06-01

    The fungal root endophyte associations of 16 species from 12 families of plants endemic to the Pamir Alay Mountains of Central Asia are presented. The plants and soil samples were collected in Zeravshan and Hissar ranges within the central Pamir Alay mountain system. Colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was found in 15 plant species; in 8 species it was of the Arum type and in 4 of the Paris type, while 3 taxa revealed intermediate arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) morphology. AMF colonization was found to be absent only in Matthiola integrifolia, the representative of the Brassicaceae family. The AM status and morphology are reported for the first time for all the species analyzed and for the genera Asyneuma, Clementsia, and Eremostachys. Mycelia of dark septate endophytes (DSE) accompanied the AMF colonization in ten plant species. The frequency of DSE occurrence in the roots was low in all the plants, with the exception of Spiraea baldschuanica. However, in the case of both low and higher occurrence, the percentage of DSE root colonization was low. Moreover, the sporangia of Olpidium spp. were sporadically found inside the root epidermal cells of three plant species. Seven AMF species (Glomeromycota) found in the trap cultures established with soils surrounding roots of the plants being studied were reported for the first time from this region of Asia. Our results provide information that might well be of use to the conservation and restoration programmes of these valuable plant species. The potential application of beneficial root-inhabiting fungi in active plant protection projects of rare, endemic and endangered plants is discussed.

  3. Fungal root endophytes from natural vegetation in Mediterranean environments with special reference to Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciá-Vicente, Jose G; Jansson, Hans-Börje; Abdullah, Samir K; Descals, Enric; Salinas, Jesus; Lopez-Llorca, Luis V

    2008-04-01

    Surveys (in 2002 and 2003) were performed for fungal endophytes in roots of 24 plant species growing at 12 sites (coastal and inland soils, both sandy soils and salt marshes) under either water or salt stress in the Alicante province (Southeast Spain). All plant species examined were colonized by endophytic fungi. A total of 1830 fungal isolates were obtained and identified by morphological and molecular [internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and translation elongation factor-1alpha gene region (TEF-1alpha) sequencing] techniques. One hundred and forty-two fungal species were identified, belonging to 57 genera. Sterile mycelia were assigned to 177 morphospecies. Fusarium and Phoma species were the most frequent genera, followed by Aspergillus, Alternaria and Acremonium. Fungal root endophytic communities were influenced by the soil type where their respective host plants grew, but not by location (coastal or inland sites). Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria chlamydospora contributed most to the differences found between endophytic communities from sandy and saline soils. Host preference was found for three Fusarium species studied. Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani were especially isolated from plants of the family Leguminosae, while Fusarium equiseti showed a preference for Lygeum spartum (Gramineae). In some cases, specificity could be related to intra-specific variability as shown by sequencing of the TEF-1alpha in the genus Fusarium.

  4. Are there benefits of simultaneous root colonization by different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansa, Jan; Smith, F Andrew; Smith, Sally E

    2008-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities were established in pots using fungal isolates from a single field in Switzerland. It was tested whether multispecies mixtures provided more phosphorus and supported greater plant growth than single AMF species. Two host plants, medic (Medicago truncatula) and leek (Allium porrum), were inoculated with three AMF species (Glomus mosseae, G. claroideum and G. intraradices), either separately or in mixtures. The composition of the AMF communities in the roots was assessed using real-time PCR to determine the copy number of large ribosomal subunit genes. Fungal communities in the roots were usually dominated by one AMF species (G. mosseae). The composition of the communities depended on both plant identity and the time of harvest. Leek colonized by a mixture of G. claroideum and G. intraradices acquired more P than with either of the two AMF separately. Direct evidence is provided for functional complementarity among species within the AMF community colonizing a single root system. Competition among the species poses a major challenge in interpreting experiments with mixed inoculations, but this is greatly facilitated by use of real-time PCR.

  5. Root colonization and spore abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in distinct successional stages from an Atlantic rainforest biome in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangaro, Waldemar; Rostirola, Leila Vergal; de Souza, Priscila Bochi; de Almeida Alves, Ricardo; Lescano, Luiz Eduardo Azevedo Marques; Rondina, Artur Berbel Lírio; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Carrenho, Rosilaine

    2013-04-01

    The influence of plant functional groups and moderate seasonality on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal status (root colonization and spore density) was investigated during 13 consecutive months in a chronosequence of succession in southern Brazil, consisting of grassland field, scrub vegetation, secondary forest and mature forest, in a region of transition from tropical to subtropical zones. AM root colonization and spore density decreased with advancing succession and were highest in early successional sites with grassland and scrub vegetation, intermediary in the secondary forest and lowest in the mature forest. They were little influenced by soil properties, but were sufficiently influenced by the fine root nutrient status and fine root traits among different functional plant groups. AM root colonization and spore density were higher during the favourable plant growth season (spring and summer) than during the less favourable plant growth season (autumn and winter). Spore density displayed significant seasonal variation at all sites, whilst root colonization displayed significant seasonal variation in grassland, scrub and secondary forest, but not in mature forest. The data suggest that (1) different plant functional groups display different relationships with AM fungi, influencing their abundance differentially; (2) plant species from early successional phases are more susceptible to AM root colonization and maintain higher AM sporulation than late successional species; (3) fine root traits and nutrient status influence these AM fungal attributes; and (4) higher AM spore production and root colonization is associated with the season of higher light incidence and temperature, abundant water in soil and higher plant metabolic activity.

  6. Succession of Fungal and Oomycete Communities in Glyphosate-Killed Wheat Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, Daniel; Burke, Ian; Paulitz, Timothy Carl

    2017-12-19

    The successional dynamics of root-colonizing microbes are hypothesized to be critical to displacing fungal pathogens that can proliferate after the use of some herbicides. Applications of glyphosate in particular, which compromises the plant defense system by interfering with the production of aromatic amino acids, is thought to promote a buildup of root pathogens and can result in a 'greenbridge' between weeds or volunteers and crop hosts. By planting two to three weeks after spraying, growers can avoid most negative impacts of the greenbridge by allowing pathogen populations to decline, but with the added cost of delayed planting dates. However, the specific changes in microbial communities during this period of root death and the microbial taxa likely to be involved in displacing pathogens are poorly characterized. Using high-throughput sequencing, we characterized fungal and oomycete communities in roots after applications of herbicides with different modes of action (glyphosate or clethodim) and tracked their dynamics over three weeks in both naturally infested soil and soil inoculated with Rhizoctonia solani AG-8. We found that many unexpected taxa were present at high relative abundance (eg. Pythium volutum and Myrmecridium species) in live and dying wheat roots and may play an under-recognized role in greenbridge dynamics. Moreover, communities were highly dynamic over time and had herbicide-specific successional patterns, but became relatively stable by two weeks after herbicide application. Network analysis of communities over time revealed patterns of interactions among taxa that were both common and unique to each herbicide treatment and identified two primary groups of taxa with many positive associations within-groups but negative associations between-groups, suggesting that these groups are antagonistic to one another in dying roots and may play a role in displacing pathogen populations during greenbridge dynamics.

  7. Mitigation of antagonistic effects on plant growth due to root co-colonization by dark septate endophytes and ectomycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Vanessa; Sieber, Thomas N

    2013-12-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are very common root colonizers of woody plant species. Ascomycetes of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acephala applanata species complex (PAC) are the main representatives of DSE fungi in forest ecosystems. PAC and mycorrhizal fungi share the same habitat, but interactions among PAC, mycorrhizal fungi and plants are poorly understood. We compared the effects of single and dual inoculation of Norway spruce seedlings with PAC and the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus Hebeloma crustuliniforme on host growth, degree of mycorrhization and density of endophytic PAC biomass. Single colonization by H. crustuliniforme or PAC significantly reduced plant biomass. Dual colonization reduced or neutralized plant growth depression caused by single fungal colonization. The degree of mycorrhization was independent on PAC colonization, and mycorrhization significantly reduced endophytic PAC biomass. Plant biomass of dually colonized plants positively correlated with PAC biomass. These results demonstrate the ability of dual inoculation of PAC and H. crustuliniforme to neutralize plant growth depression caused by single fungal inoculation. Our explanations of enhanced plant growth in dually inoculated plants are the inhibition of PAC during root colonization by the ECM mantle and ECM-mediated access to plant growth-promoting nutrients resulting from the mineralization of the potting medium by PAC. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Structure and species composition of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities colonizing seedlings and adult trees of Pinus montezumae in Mexican neotropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverchon, Frédérique; Ortega-Larrocea, María del Pilar; Bonilla-Rosso, Germán; Pérez-Moreno, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    Mexico is a center of diversity for pines, but few studies have examined the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities associated with pines in this country. We investigated the ECM communities associated with Pinus montezumae seedlings and mature trees in neotropical forests of central Mexico and compared their structure and species composition. Root tips were sampled on both planted seedlings and naturally occurring adult trees. A total of 42 ECM operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was found on P. montezumae. Diversity and similarity indices showed that community structure was similar for both plant growth stages, but phylogenetic diversity and Chao-estimated richness were higher for seedlings. Species composition differed between communities. The dominant OTUs belonged to the families Atheliaceae, Cortinariaceae, and Sebacinaceae, although different taxa appeared to colonize seedlings and adults. Only 12 OTUs were shared between seedlings and adults, which suggests that ECM fungi which colonize seedlings are still not fully incorporated into mycelial networks and that ECM taxa colonizing young individuals of P. montezumae are likely to come from fungal propagules. Intra-generic diversity could be an insurance mechanism to maintain forest productivity under stressed conditions. This is the first report describing the abundance of Atheliaceae in tree roots in neotropical ecosystems. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Colonization of silicate bacterium strain NBT in wheat roots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiafang

    2003-11-01

    The strain NBT of silicate bacterium was labelled with streptomycin, and a stable streptomycin resistance strain NBT was obtained. Its colonization dynamics and affecting factors in wheat rhizosphere were studied in agar plates and greenhouse pots were studied by counting the method with selective medium. The results of pot culture experiment showed that strain NBT could successfully colonize in the rhizosphere of wheat. In pot cultures of sterile soil, the highest colonization level (3.4 x 10(7) cfu.g-1 root soil) was reached on 9th day after seeds sown; at 54th day, the population of strain NBT tended to stable, and decreased to 1.4 x 10(4) cfu.g-1 root soil. In pot cultures of unsterile soil, the highest colonization level (3.8 x 10(7) cfu.g-1 root soil) was reached at 9th day, and the population of strain NBT tended to a stationary state at 60th day, with the numbers being 1.4 x 10(4) cfu.g-1 root soil. Some biological and abiotic factors could greatly influence the colonization of the beneficial microorganism.

  10. Invertebrate colonization of leaves and roots within sediments of intermittent coastal plain streams across hydrologic phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared benthic invertebrate assemblages colonizing three types of buried substrates (leaves, roots and plastic roots) among three intermittent Coastal Plain streams over a one year period. Invertebrate density was significantly lower in root litterbags than in plastic root l...

  11. In vitro plant development and root colonization of Coleus forskohlii by Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aparajita; Tripathi, Swati; Varma, Ajit

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted for optimization of in vitro substrates under aseptic conditions for interaction of Piriformospora indica with the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. It aims to test the effects of different substrates on P. indica colonization as well as growth parameters of the in vitro raised C. forskohlii. Interaction of in vitro C. forskohlii with root endophyte P. indica under aseptic condition resulted in increase in growth parameters in fungus colonized plants. It was observed that P. indica promoted the plant's growth in all irrespective of substrates used for co-culture study. The growth was found inferior in liquid compared to semisolid medium as well as there was problem of hyperhydricity in liquid medium. P. indica treated in vitro plantlets were better adapted for establishment under green house compared to the non treated plants due to fungal intervention.

  12. TEMPORALLY VARIABLE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTANCE EFFECTS CONTRIBUTE TO THE ASSEMBLY OF ROOT-ASSOCIATED FUNGAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James Barnes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Root-associated fungi are key contributors to ecosystem functioning, however the factors which determine community assembly are still relatively poorly understood. This study simultaneously quantified the roles of geographical distance, environmental heterogeneity and time in determining root-associated fungal community composition at the local scale within a short rotation coppice (SRC willow plantation. Culture independent molecular analyses of the root-associated fungal community suggested a strong but temporally variable effect of geographical distance between fungal communities on composition at the local geographical level. Whilst these distance effects were most prevalent on October communities, soil pH had an effect on structuring of the communities throughout the sampling period. Given the temporal variation in the effects of geographical distance and the environment for shaping root-associated fungal communities, there is clearly need for a temporal component to sampling strategies in future investigations of fungal biogeography.

  13. Temporally Variable Geographical Distance Effects Contribute to the Assembly of Root-Associated Fungal Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher J; van der Gast, Christopher J; Burns, Caitlin A; McNamara, Niall P; Bending, Gary D

    2016-01-01

    Root-associated fungi are key contributors to ecosystem functioning, however, the factors which determine community assembly are still relatively poorly understood. This study simultaneously quantified the roles of geographical distance, environmental heterogeneity and time in determining root-associated fungal community composition at the local scale within a short rotation coppice (SRC) willow plantation. Culture independent molecular analyses of the root-associated fungal community suggested a strong but temporally variable effect of geographical distance among fungal communities in terms of composition at the local geographical level. Whilst these distance effects were most prevalent on October communities, soil pH had an effect on structuring of the communities throughout the sampling period. Given the temporal variation in the effects of geographical distance and the environment for shaping root-associated fungal communities, there is clearly need for a temporal component to sampling strategies in future investigations of fungal ecology.

  14. Colonization of roots of cultivated Solanum lycopersicum by dark septate and other ascomycetous endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Linares, Diana Rocio; Grosch, Rita; Franken, Philipp; Rexer, Karl-Heinz; Kost, Gerhard; Restrepo, Silvia; de Garcia, Maria Caridad Cepero; Maximova, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) roots from four different crop sites in Colombia were surface sterilized and 51 fungal isolates were obtained and conserved for further analysis. Based on microscopical observations and growth characteristics, 20 fungal isolates corresponded to genus Fusarium, six presented asexual conidia different from Fusarium, eight were sterile mycelia, seven of which had dark septate hyphae and 17 did not continue to grow on plates after being recovered from conservation. Growth on different media, detailed morphological characterization and ITS region sequencing of the six sporulating and eight sterile isolates revealed that they belonged to different orders of Ascomycota and that the sterile dark septate endophytes did not correspond to the well known Phialocephala group. Interactions of nine isolates with tomato plantlets were assessed in vitro. No effect on shoot development was revealed, but three isolates caused brown spots in roots. Colonization patterns as analyzed by confocal microscopy differed among the isolates and ranged from epidermal to cortical penetration. Altogether 11 new isolates from root endophytic fungi were obtained, seven of which showed features of dark septate endophytes. Four known morphotypes were represented by five isolates, while six isolates belonged to five morphotypes of putative new unknown species.

  15. Demographic population structure and fungal associations of plants colonizing High Arctic glacier forelands, Petuniabukta, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Těšitel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of vegetation in Arctic glacier forelands has been described as unidirectional, non-replacement succession characterized by the gradual establishment of species typical for mature tundra with no species turnover. Our study focused on two early colonizers of High Arctic glacier forelands: Saxifraga oppositifolia (Saxifragaceae and Braya purpurascens (Brassicaceae. While the first species is a common generalist also found in mature old growth tundra communities, the second specializes on disturbed substrate. The demographic population structures of the two study species were investigated along four glacier forelands in Petuniabukta, north Billefjorden, in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Young plants of both species occurred exclusively on young substrate, implying that soil conditions are favourable for establishment only before soil crusts develop. We show that while S. oppositifolia persists from pioneer successional stages and is characterized by increased size and flowering, B. purpurascens specializes on disturbed young substrate and does not follow the typical unidirectional, non-replacement succession pattern. Plants at two of the forelands were examined for the presence of root-associated fungi. Fungal genus Olpidium (Fungus incertae sedis was found along a whole successional gradient in one of the forelands.

  16. Bark beetles and fungal associates colonizing white spruce in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten E. Haberkern; Barbara L. Illman; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2002-01-01

    We examined the major bark beetles and associated fungi colonizing subcortical tissues of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) in the Great Lakes region. Trees were felled at one northwestern Wisconsin site in a preliminary study in 1997 and at 10 sites throughout northern Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan in 1998. Fungal isolations were made from beetles...

  17. Efficacy of copper-silver ionization for controlling fungal colonization in water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Hua; Lin, Li-Chen; Chang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Chun-Eng; Soon, Maw-Soan; Huang, Ching-Shan

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of fungal colonization in water systems and to evaluate the effect of decreasing fungal colonization by a copper-silver ionization system. Environmental samples were collected for fungal culture prospectively during a 1-year period (2011-2012) at the study hospital. A total of 392 water samples were examined from five buildings on March 1, 2011 and February 29, 2012. Fungi were isolated in 13 (3.4%) of 392 water samples from five buildings. The prevalence of fungal colonization in buildings was decreased from 4.76% (9/189) to 1.97% (4/203), a reduction of more than 40%, in pre-ionization and post-ionization treatment (p ionized water samples (0.5% (1/203)) was statistically lower than those in nonionized (3.2% (6/189)) (p = 0.003). Our finding may determine if this ionization method can be applied for control of waterborne fungi colonization in hospital water systems.

  18. Former Land Use and Host Genotype Influence the Mycorrhizal Colonization of Poplar Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Gherghel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses the community structure of ectomycorrhiza (ECM and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM fungi associated with seven different poplar clone types growing in a patch system on soil from four different former land use types, originating from spruce forest, poplar stand, grassland and cornfield. We determined the extent to which ECM and AM play a role on the studied factors (genotype, former land use type and host growth. The diversity of ECM and AM fungal communities was estimated by morphological and molecular analyses of the 18S and ITS of the rDNA genes. Fifteen ECM fungal taxa and four AM groups were distinguished in the roots of the poplars grown for 18 months on soil originating from the respective land use types. The poplar clones showed significantly different rates of shoot length and AM colonization, especially concerning the occurrence of Glomus intraradices and Scutellospora sp. Populus deltoides had significantly higher Scutellospora sp. abundance. Although ECM abundance and diversity was high, no significant differences between the different land use types was found. However, some ECM fungi like Paxillus involutus, Laccaria proxima and Laccaria tortilis showed significant preferences for specific land use types. Our findings suggest that both factors, former land use type and poplar genotype, are important determinants of mycorrhizal colonization of the host plants.

  19. Actin organization during Eucalyptus root hair development and its response to fungal hypaphorine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dauphin, A.; Ruijter, de N.C.A.; Emons, A.M.C.; Legué, V.

    2006-01-01

    The fungus Pisolithus microcarpus establishes an ectomycorrhiza with Eucalyptus globulus. This symbiosis involves a fungal synthesis and secretion of hypaphorine, an indolic compound. Previous studies have shown that hypaphorine induces an alteration in the actin cytoskeleton of elongating root

  20. Fungal colonization of sago starch in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, A R; Shipton, W A; Blaney, B J; Warner, J M

    2007-11-01

    Sago starch is an important source of dietary carbohydrates in lowland Papua New Guinea. Over the past 30 years there have been sporadic reports of severe illness following consumption of sago starch. A common assumption is that fungal metabolites might be associated with the illness, leading to the need for a more thorough investigation of the mycoflora of sago starch. Sago starch was collected from areas of high sago consumption in Papua New Guinea for fungal analysis (69 samples). Storage methods and duration were recorded at the time of collection and pH on arrival at the laboratory. Yeasts were isolated from all samples except two, ranging from 1.2 x 10(3) to 8.3 x 10(7) cfu/g. Moulds were isolated from 65 of the 69 samples, ranging from 1.0 x 10(2) to 3.0 x 10(6) cfu/g. Of 44 samples tested for ergosterol content, 42 samples showed the presence of fungal biomass. Statistical analyses indicated that sago starch stored for greater than five weeks yielded significantly higher ergosterol content and higher numbers of moulds than sago stored for less than five weeks. The method of storage was also shown to influence mould numbers with storage in natural woven fibre containers returning significantly greater numbers than present in other storage methods tested. Potentially mycotoxigenic genera of moulds including Aspergillus and Penicillium were commonly isolated from sago starch, and as such storage factors that influence the growth of these and other filamentous fungi might contribute to the safety of traditional sago starch in PNG.

  1. Fungal endophyte communities in the temperate fern Polystichum munitum show early colonization and extensive temporal turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younginger, Brett S; Ballhorn, Daniel J

    2017-08-16

    Fungal endophytes have been shown to colonize all land plants, yet surprisingly little attention has been given to their community composition in ferns. We examined the diversity and temporal turnover of fungal endophytes in foliar tissue of the temperate western sword fern, Polystichum munitum, comparing taxa in newly emerged leaflets and in the same fronds after 1 mo of exposure in the field. Utilizing next-generation sequencing, we sampled pinnae from P. munitum in spring, 2-3 d after they emerged. We additionally sampled pinnae 30 d later from the same fern blades. From these samples, we sequenced fungal DNA to characterize the initial colonization and temporal turnover of endophytes in the host. We demonstrate that P. munitum is abundantly colonized by endophytes in newly emerged foliar tissue. However, 1 mo later, the community composition undergoes a marked shift: the overall richness of endophytes increases, but the evenness of the community wanes as a single taxon, Flagellospora fusarioides, comes to dominate. We conclude that P. munitum hosts a variety of fungal endophyte taxa, similarly to other land plants. However, the rapid shift of the endophyte community we report is an unprecedented observation. Therefore, we further conclude that repeated sampling should be the standard in endophyte studies, because single sampling events are not sufficient to capture the dynamic nature of these cryptic microfungi. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  2. Interspecific metabolic diversity of root-colonizing endophytic fungi revealed by enzyme activity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Dániel G; Kovács, Gábor M

    2016-12-01

    Although dark septate endophytes (DSE) represent a worldwide dispersed form group of root-colonizing endophytic fungi, our knowledge on their role in ecosystem functioning is far limited. In this study, we aimed to test if functional diversity exists among DSE fungi representing different lineages of root endophytic fungal community of semiarid sandy grasslands. To address this question and to gain general information on function of DSE fungi, we adopted api-ZYM and BioLog FF assays to study those non-sporulating filamentous fungi and characterized the metabolic activity of 15 different DSE species. Although there were striking differences among the species, all of the substrates tested were utilized by the DSE fungi. When endophytes characteristic to grasses and non-grass host plants were separately considered, we found that the whole substrate repertoire was used by both groups. This might illustrate the complementary functional diversity of the communities root endophytic plant-associated fungi. The broad spectra of substrates utilized by these root endophytes illustrate the functional importance of their diversity, which can play role not only in nutrient mobilization and uptake of plants from with nutrient poor soils, but also in general plant performance and ecosystem functioning. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Anti-colon cancer activity of endophytic fungal strains from Terminalia chebula Rezt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shoeb

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic microorganisms are fungi or bacteria that live inside the healthy tissues of the host plants causing no apparent symptoms of diseases. Five endophytic fungal strains labeled as IR-1, IR-2, IR-4, IR-6 and IR-7 (identified as Penicillium thiomii were isolated from the medicinal plant of Terminalia chebula Retz by culture and sub-culture. The ethyl acetate extract of fungal strains, IR-4, IR-6 and IR-7 inhibited the growth of CaCo-2 colon cancer cell lines in MTT assay with IC50 values of 55, 44 and 67 µg/mL, respectively.

  4. Fungi colonizing the soil and roots of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. plants treated with biological control agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato plants, cv. Rumba Ożarowska, grown in the greenhouse of the University of Warmia and Mazury, were protected in the form of alternate spraying (twice and watering (twice with 5% aqueous extracts of the following plant species: Aloe vulgaris Lam., Achillea millefolium L., Mentha piperita L., Polygonum aviculare L., Equisetum arvense L., Juglans regia L. and Urtica dioica L. Plants not treated with the extracts served as control. After fruit harvest, samples of roots and soil were collected. The roots were disinfected and next placed on PDA medium. Soil-colonizing fungi were cultured on Martin medium. Fungi were identified microscopically after incubation. Pathogenic fungal species, Colletotrichum coccodes, Fusarium equiseti, F. oxysporum and F. poae, accounted for over 60% of all isolates obtained from the roots of tomato plants. The soil fungal community was dominated by yeast-like fungi (75.4%, whereas pathogenic fungi were present in low numbers. The applied 5% aqueous plant extracts effectively reduced the abundance of fungi, including pathogenic species, colonizing tomato plants and soil. The extract from P. aviculare showed the highest efficacy, while the extract from J. regia was least effective. Fungi showing antagonistic activity against pathogens (Paecilomyces roseum and species of the genus Trichoderma were isolated in greatest abundance from the soil and the roots of tomato plants treated with A. millefolium, M. piperita and U. dioica extracts.

  5. Indole-3-acetaldoxime-derived compounds restrict root colonization in the beneficial interaction between Arabidopsis roots and the endophyte Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongbri, Pyniarlang L; Johnson, Joy Michal; Sherameti, Irena; Glawischnig, Erich; Halkier, Barbara Ann; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2012-09-01

    The growth-promoting and root-colonizing endophyte Piriformospora indica induces camalexin and the expression of CYP79B2, CYP79B3, CYP71A13, PAD3, and WRKY33 required for the synthesis of indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx)-derived compounds in the roots of Arabidopsis seedlings. Upregulation of the mRNA levels by P. indica requires cytoplasmic calcium elevation and mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 but not root-hair-deficient 2, radical oxygen production, or the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1/oxidative signal-inducible 1 pathway. Because P. indica-mediated growth promotion is impaired in cyp79B2 cyp79B3 seedlings, while pad3 seedlings-which do not accumulate camalexin-still respond to the fungus, IAOx-derived compounds other than camalexin (e.g., indole glucosinolates) are required during early phases of the beneficial interaction. The roots of cyp79B2 cyp79B3 seedlings are more colonized than wild-type roots, and upregulation of the defense genes pathogenesis-related (PR)-1, PR-3, PDF1.2, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and germin indicates that the mutant responds to the lack of IAOx-derived compounds by activating other defense processes. After 6 weeks on soil, defense genes are no longer upregulated in wild-type, cyp79B2 cyp79B3, and pad3 roots. This results in uncontrolled fungal growth in the mutant roots and reduced performance of the mutants. We propose that a long-term harmony between the two symbionts requires restriction of root colonization by IAOx-derived compounds.

  6. Niche differentiation of two sympatric species of Microdochium colonizing the roots of common reed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirsel Stefan GR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fungal endophyte communities are often comprised of many species colonizing the same host. However, little is known about the causes of this diversity. On the one hand, the apparent coexistence of closely related species may be explained by the traditional niche differentiation hypothesis, which suggests that abiotic and/or biotic factors mediate partitioning. For endophytes, such factors are difficult to identify, and are therefore in most cases unknown. On the other hand, there is the neutral hypothesis, which suggests that stochastic factors may explain high species diversity. There is a need to investigate to what extent each of these hypotheses may apply to endophytes. Results The niche partitioning of two closely related fungal endophytes, Microdochium bolleyi and M. phragmitis, colonizing Phragmites australis, was investigated. The occurrences of each species were assessed using specific nested-PCR assays for 251 field samples of common reed from Lake Constance, Germany. These analyses revealed niche preferences for both fungi. From three niche factors assessed, i.e. host habitat, host organ and season, host habitat significantly differentiated the two species. M. bolleyi preferred dry habitats, whereas M. phragmitis prevailed in flooded habitats. In contrast, both species exhibited a significant preference for the same host organ, i.e. roots. Likewise the third factor, season, did not significantly distinguish the two species. Differences in carbon utilization and growth temperature could not conclusively explain the niches. The inclusion of three unrelated species of Ascomycota, which also colonize P. australis at the same locations, indicated spatio-temporal niche partitioning between all fungi. None of the species exhibited the same preferences for all three factors, i.e. host habitat, host organ, and time of the season. Conclusions The fungal species colonizing common reed investigated in this study seem to

  7. Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Hoff; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Jonalea R. Tonn; Mee-Sook Kim; Paul J. Zambino; Paul F. Hessburg; J. D. Rodgers; T. L. Peever; L. M. Carris

    2004-01-01

    The fungal community inhabiting large woody roots of healthy conifers has not been well documented. To provide more information about such communities, a survey was conducted using increment cores from the woody roots of symptomless Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in dry forests...

  8. Sustained exposure to abscisic acid enhances the colonization potential of the mutualist fungus Piriformospora indica on Arabidopsis thaliana roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskan-Berghöfer, Tatjana; Vilches-Barro, Amaya; Müller, Teresa M; Glawischnig, Erich; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Rausch, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Root colonization by the beneficial fungus Piriformospora indica is controlled by plant innate immunity, but factors that channel this interaction into a mutualistic relationship are not known. We have explored the impact of abscisic acid (ABA) and osmotic stress on the P. indica interaction with Arabidopsis thaliana. The activation of plant innate immunity in roots was determined by measuring the concentration of the phytoalexin camalexin and expression of transcription factors regulating the biosynthesis of tryptophan-related defence metabolites. Furthermore, the impact of the fungus on the content of ABA, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid (JA) and JA-related metabolites was examined. We demonstrated that treatment with exogenous ABA or the ABA analogue pyrabactin increased fungal colonization efficiency without impairment of plant fitness. Concomitantly, ABA-deficient mutants of A. thaliana (aba1-6 and aba2-1) were less colonized, while plants exposed to moderate stress were more colonized than corresponding controls. Sustained exposure to ABA attenuated expression of transcription factors MYB51, MYB122 and WRKY33 in roots upon P. indica challenge or chitin treatment, and prevented an increase in camalexin content. The results indicate that ABA can strengthen the interaction with P. indica as a consequence of its impact on plant innate immunity. Consequently, ABA will be relevant for the establishment and outcome of the symbiosis under stress conditions. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Colonization of Greek olive cultivars' root system by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus: root morphology, growth, and mineral nutrition of olive plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theocharis Chatzistathis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rooted leafy cuttings of three Greek olive (Olea europaea L. cultivars (Koroneiki, Kothreiki and Chondrolia Chalkidikis were grown for six months in three soil types, in an experimental greenhouse, in order to investigate: i if their root system was colonized by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF genus and, ii if genotypic differences concerning growth and mineral nutrition of olive plants existed. Gigaspora sp. colonized the root system of the three cultivars studied, while Glomus sp. colonized only the root system of 'Koroneiki'. Furthermore, in most cases root colonization by AMF differed among cultivars and soil types. The maximum root colonization, in all soils, was found in 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis'. In the three soils studied, the ratio shoot dry weight (SDW/ root dry weight (RDW was higher in 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis' than in the other two cultivars. Furthermore, root system morphology of the three olive cultivars was completely different, irrespectively of soil type. Leaf Mn, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg, K and P concentrations, as well as total per plant nutrient content and nutrient use efficiency, differed among cultivars under the same soil conditions. These differences concerning root morphology, SDW/RDW, as well as nutrient uptake and use efficiency, could be possibly ascribed to the differential AMF colonization by Glomus sp. and Gigaspora sp.

  10. Co-existing ericaceous plant species in a subarctic mire community share fungal root endophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Olsrud, Maria; Michelsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, culture-independent identification tools have widened our knowledge of fungi colonizing ericaceous roots including ericoid mycorrhizal fungi. One focal interest has been to identify fungi, which simultaneously can establish ericoid and ectomycorrhiza, while knowledge about...

  11. Ethylene Supports Colonization of Plant Roots by the Mutualistic Fungus Piriformospora indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatabi, Behnam; Molitor, Alexandra; Lindermayr, Christian; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Durner, Jörg; von Wettstein, Diter; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The mutualistic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and thereby improves plant health and yield. Given the capability of P. indica to colonize a broad range of hosts, it must be anticipated that the fungus has evolved efficient strategies to overcome plant immunity and to establish a proper environment for nutrient acquisition and reproduction. Global gene expression studies in barley identified various ethylene synthesis and signaling components that were differentially regulated in P. indica-colonized roots. Based on these findings we examined the impact of ethylene in the symbiotic association. The data presented here suggest that P. indica induces ethylene synthesis in barley and Arabidopsis roots during colonization. Moreover, impaired ethylene signaling resulted in reduced root colonization, Arabidopsis mutants exhibiting constitutive ethylene signaling, -synthesis or ethylene-related defense were hyper-susceptible to P. indica. Our data suggest that ethylene signaling is required for symbiotic root colonization by P. indica. PMID:22536394

  12. Ethylene supports colonization of plant roots by the mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatabi, Behnam; Molitor, Alexandra; Lindermayr, Christian; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Durner, Jörg; von Wettstein, Diter; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The mutualistic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and thereby improves plant health and yield. Given the capability of P. indica to colonize a broad range of hosts, it must be anticipated that the fungus has evolved efficient strategies to overcome plant immunity and to establish a proper environment for nutrient acquisition and reproduction. Global gene expression studies in barley identified various ethylene synthesis and signaling components that were differentially regulated in P. indica-colonized roots. Based on these findings we examined the impact of ethylene in the symbiotic association. The data presented here suggest that P. indica induces ethylene synthesis in barley and Arabidopsis roots during colonization. Moreover, impaired ethylene signaling resulted in reduced root colonization, Arabidopsis mutants exhibiting constitutive ethylene signaling, -synthesis or ethylene-related defense were hyper-susceptible to P. indica. Our data suggest that ethylene signaling is required for symbiotic root colonization by P. indica.

  13. Ethylene supports colonization of plant roots by the mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Khatabi

    Full Text Available The mutualistic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and thereby improves plant health and yield. Given the capability of P. indica to colonize a broad range of hosts, it must be anticipated that the fungus has evolved efficient strategies to overcome plant immunity and to establish a proper environment for nutrient acquisition and reproduction. Global gene expression studies in barley identified various ethylene synthesis and signaling components that were differentially regulated in P. indica-colonized roots. Based on these findings we examined the impact of ethylene in the symbiotic association. The data presented here suggest that P. indica induces ethylene synthesis in barley and Arabidopsis roots during colonization. Moreover, impaired ethylene signaling resulted in reduced root colonization, Arabidopsis mutants exhibiting constitutive ethylene signaling, -synthesis or ethylene-related defense were hyper-susceptible to P. indica. Our data suggest that ethylene signaling is required for symbiotic root colonization by P. indica.

  14. Oral Yeast Colonization and Fungal Infections in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Pilot Study

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    Liliana Simões-Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritonitis and exit-site infections are important complications in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients that are occasionally caused by opportunistic fungi inhabiting distant body sites. In this study, the oral yeast colonization of PD patients and the antifungal susceptibility profile of the isolated yeasts were accessed and correlated with fungal infection episodes in the following 4 years. Saliva yeast colonization was accessed in 21 PD patients and 27 healthy controls by growth in CHROMagar-Candida® and 18S rRNA/ITS sequencing. PD patients presented a lower oral yeast prevalence when compared to controls, namely, Candida albicans. Other species were also isolated, Candida glabrata and Candida carpophila. The antifungal susceptibility profiles of these isolates revealed resistance to itraconazole, variable susceptibility to caspofungin, and higher MIC values of posaconazole compared to previous reports. The 4-year longitudinal evaluation of these patients revealed Candida parapsilosis and Candida zeylanoides as PD-related exit-site infectious agents, but no correlation was found with oral yeast colonization. This pilot study suggests that oral yeast colonization may represent a limited risk for fungal infection development in PD patients. Oral yeast isolates presented a variable antifungal susceptibility profile, which may suggest resistance to some second-line drugs, highlighting the importance of antifungal susceptibility assessment in the clinical practice.

  15. Bacterial and fungal colonization and decomposition of submerged plant litter: consequences for biogenic silica dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsson, Hanna; Clymans, Wim; Stadmark, Johanna; Conley, Daniel; Rousk, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    We studied bacterial and fungal colonization of submerged plant litter, using a known Si-accumulator (Equisetum arvense), in experimental microcosms during one month. We specifically addressed the microbial decomposer role concerning biogenic silica (bSiO2) dissolution from the degrading litter. To vary the rates and level of microbial colonization, the litter was combined with a range of mineral nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) supplements. Overall microbial growth on plant litter increased with higher levels of N and P. There was a tendency for higher relative bacterial than fungal stimulation with higher nutrient levels. Differences in microbial colonization of litter between treatments allowed us to test how Si remineralization from plants was influenced by microbial litter decomposition. Contrary to previous results and expectations, we observed a general reduction in Si release from plant litter colonized by a microbial community, compared with sterile control treatments. This suggested that microbial growth resulted in a reduction of dissolved Si concentrations, and we discuss candidate mechanisms to explain this outcome. Hence, our results imply that the microbial role in plant litter associated Si turnover is different from that commonly assumed based on bSiO2 dissolution studies in aquatic ecosystems. © FEMS 2016.

  16. Plant Phenotypic and Transcriptional Changes Induced by Volatiles from the Fungal Root Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani

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    Viviane Cordovez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial soil microorganisms can affect plant growth and resistance by the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Yet, little is known on how VOCs from soil-borne plant pathogens affect plant growth and resistance. Here we show that VOCs released from mycelium and sclerotia of the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani enhance growth and accelerate development of Arabidopsis thaliana. Seedlings briefly exposed to the fungal VOCs showed similar phenotypes, suggesting that enhanced biomass and accelerated development are primed already at early developmental stages. Fungal VOCs did not affect plant resistance to infection by the VOC-producing pathogen itself but reduced aboveground resistance to the herbivore Mamestra brassicae. Transcriptomics of A. thaliana revealed that genes involved in auxin signaling were up-regulated, whereas ethylene and jasmonic acid signaling pathways were down-regulated by fungal VOCs. Mutants disrupted in these pathways showed similar VOC-mediated growth responses as the wild-type A. thaliana, suggesting that other yet unknown pathways play a more prominent role. We postulate that R. solani uses VOCs to predispose plants for infection from a distance by altering root architecture and enhancing root biomass. Alternatively, plants may use enhanced root growth upon fungal VOC perception to sacrifice part of the root biomass and accelerate development and reproduction to survive infection.

  17. Plant Phenotypic and Transcriptional Changes Induced by Volatiles from the Fungal Root Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordovez, Viviane; Mommer, Liesje; Moisan, Kay; Lucas-Barbosa, Dani; Pierik, Ronald; Mumm, Roland; Carrion, Victor J.; Raaijmakers, Jos M.

    2017-01-01

    Beneficial soil microorganisms can affect plant growth and resistance by the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Yet, little is known on how VOCs from soil-borne plant pathogens affect plant growth and resistance. Here we show that VOCs released from mycelium and sclerotia of the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani enhance growth and accelerate development of Arabidopsis thaliana. Seedlings briefly exposed to the fungal VOCs showed similar phenotypes, suggesting that enhanced biomass and accelerated development are primed already at early developmental stages. Fungal VOCs did not affect plant resistance to infection by the VOC-producing pathogen itself but reduced aboveground resistance to the herbivore Mamestra brassicae. Transcriptomics of A. thaliana revealed that genes involved in auxin signaling were up-regulated, whereas ethylene and jasmonic acid signaling pathways were down-regulated by fungal VOCs. Mutants disrupted in these pathways showed similar VOC-mediated growth responses as the wild-type A. thaliana, suggesting that other yet unknown pathways play a more prominent role. We postulate that R. solani uses VOCs to predispose plants for infection from a distance by altering root architecture and enhancing root biomass. Alternatively, plants may use enhanced root growth upon fungal VOC perception to sacrifice part of the root biomass and accelerate development and reproduction to survive infection. PMID:28785271

  18. Plant host and soil origin influence fungal and bacterial assemblages in the roots of woody plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Gregory; Reynolds, Hannah; Robeson, Michael S; Nelson, Jessica; Hodkinson, Brendan P; Tuskan, Gerald; Schadt, Christopher W; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2014-07-01

    Microbial communities in plant roots provide critical links between above- and belowground processes in terrestrial ecosystems. Variation in root communities has been attributed to plant host effects and microbial host preferences, as well as to factors pertaining to soil conditions, microbial biogeography and the presence of viable microbial propagules. To address hypotheses regarding the influence of plant host and soil biogeography on root fungal and bacterial communities, we designed a trap-plant bioassay experiment. Replicate Populus, Quercus and Pinus plants were grown in three soils originating from alternate field sites. Fungal and bacterial community profiles in the root of each replicate were assessed through multiplex 454 amplicon sequencing of four loci (i.e., 16S, SSU, ITS, LSU rDNA). Soil origin had a larger effect on fungal community composition than did host species, but the opposite was true for bacterial communities. Populus hosted the highest diversity of rhizospheric fungi and bacteria. Root communities on Quercus and Pinus were more similar to each other than to Populus. Overall, fungal root symbionts appear to be more constrained by dispersal and biogeography than by host availability. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Indole derivative production by the root endophyte Piriformospora indica is not required for growth promotion but for biotrophic colonization of barley roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Magdalena; Voll, Lars M; Ding, Yi; Hofmann, Jörg; Sharma, Monica; Zuccaro, Alga

    2012-10-01

    Beneficial effects elicited by the root endophyte Piriformospora indica are widely known, but the mechanism by which these are achieved is still unclear. It is proposed that phytohormones produced by the fungal symbiont play a crucial role in the interaction with the plant roots. Biochemical analyses of the underlying biosynthetic pathways for auxin production have shown that, on tryptophan feeding, P. indica can produce the phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-lactate (ILA) through the intermediate indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA). Time course transcriptional analyses after exposure to tryptophan designated the piTam1 gene as a key player. A green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter study and transcriptional analysis of colonized barley roots showed that piTam1 is induced during the biotrophic phase. Piriformospora indica strains in which the piTam1 gene was silenced via an RNA interference (RNAi) approach were compromised in IAA and ILA production and displayed reduced colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots in the biotrophic phase, but the elicitation of growth promotion was not affected compared with the wild-type situation. Our results suggest that IAA is involved in the establishment of biotrophy in P. indica-barley symbiosis and might represent a compatibility factor in this system. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. A Root-Colonizing Pseudomonad Lessens Stress Responses in Wheat Imposed by CuO Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Wright

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle (NPs containing essential metals are being considered in formulations of fertilizers to boost plant nutrition in soils with low metal bioavailability. This paper addresses whether colonization of wheat roots by the bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 (PcO6, protected roots from the reduced elongation caused by CuO NPs. There was a trend for slightly elongated roots when seedlings with roots colonized by PcO6 were grown with CuO NPs; the density of bacterial cells on the root surface was not altered by the NPs. Accumulations of reactive oxygen species in the plant root cells caused by CuO NPs were little affected by root colonization. However, bacterial colonization did reduce the extent of expression of an array of genes associated with plant responses to stress induced by root exposure to CuO NPs. PcO6 colonization also reduced the levels of two important chelators of Cu ions, citric and malic acids, in the rhizosphere solution; presumably because these acids were used as nutrients for bacterial growth. There was a trend for lower levels of soluble Cu in the rhizosphere solution and reduced Cu loads in the true leaves with PcO6 colonization. These studies indicate that root colonization by bacterial cells modulates plant responses to contact with CuO NPs.

  1. [Effects of wheat root exudates on cucumber growth and soil fungal community structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng-Zhi; Li, Min; Cao, Peng; Ma, Ya-Fei; Wang, Li-Li

    2014-10-01

    With wheat as the donor plant and cucumber as the receptor plant, this study investigated the effects of root exudates from wheat cultivars with different allelopathic potentials (positive or negative) and companion cropping with wheat on soil fungal community structure by PCR-DGGE method and cucumber growth. Results showed that the wheat root exudates with positive allelopathic potential increased height and stem diameter of cucumber seedlings significantly, compared to the control seedlings (W) after 6 days and 12 days treatment, respectively. Also, wheat root exudates with both positive and negative allelopathic potential increased the seedling height of cucumber significantly after 18 days treatment. The wheat root exudates with different allelopathic potentials decreased the band number, Shannon and evenness indices of soil fungal community significantly in cucumber seedling rhizosphere, and those in the soil with the control seedlings (W) were also significantly higher than that in the control soil without seedlings (Wn) after 6 days treatment. The band number, Shannon and evenness indices in all the treatments were significantly higher than those in the control soil without seedlings (Wn) after 18 days treatment. Companion cropping with negative allelopathic potential wheat decreased the Shannon and evenness indices of soil fungi community significantly in the cucumber seedling rhizosphere, suggesting the wheat root exudates and companion cropping with wheat changed soil fungal community structure in the cucumber seedling rhizosphere. The results of DGGE map and the principal component analysis showed that companion cropping with wheat cultivars with different allelopathic potentials changed soil fungal community structure in cucumber seedling rhizosphere.

  2. Concentration of petroleum-hydrocarbon contamination shapes fungal endophytic community structure in plant roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume eBourdel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant-root inhabiting fungi are a universal phenomenon found in all ecosystems where plants are able to grow, even in harsh environments. Interactions between fungi and plant roots can vary widely from mutualism to parasitism depending on many parameters. The role of fungal endophytes in phytoremediation of polluted sites, and characterization of the endophytic diversity and community assemblages in contaminated areas remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the composition of endophytic fungal communities in the roots of two plant species growing spontaneously in petroleum-contaminated sedimentation basins of a former petro-chemical plant. The three adjacent basins showed a highly heterogeneous patterns of pollutant concentrations. We combined a culture-based isolation approach with the pyrosequencing of fungal ITS ribosomal DNA. We selected two species, Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. and Populus balsamifera L., and sampled three individuals of each species from each of three adjacent basins, each with a different concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. We found that contamination level significantly shaped endophytic fungal diversity and community composition in E. erythropoda, with only 9.9% of these fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs retrieved in all three basins. However, fungal community structure associated with P. balsamifera remained unaffected by the contamination level with 28.2% of fungal OTUs shared among all three basins. This could be explained by the smaller differences of pollutant concentrations in the soil around our set of P. balsamifera sampless compared to that around our set of E. erythropoda samples. Our culture-based approach allowed isolation of 11 and 30 fungal endophytic species from surface-sterilized roots of E. erythropoda and P. balsamifera, respectively. These isolates were ribotyped using ITS, and all were found in pyrosequensing datasets. Our results demonstrate that extreme levels of

  3. Effects of multiple but low pesticide loads on aquatic fungal communities colonizing leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talk, Anne; Kublik, Susanne; Uksa, Marie; Engel, Marion; Berghahn, Rüdiger; Welzl, Gerhard; Schloter, Michael; Mohr, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    In the first tier risk assessment (RA) of pesticides, risk for aquatic communities is estimated by using results from standard laboratory tests with algae, daphnids and fish for single pesticides such as herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides. However, fungi as key organisms for nutrient cycling in ecosystems as well as multiple pesticide applications are not considered in the RA. In this study, the effects of multiple low pesticide pulses using regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) on the dynamics of non-target aquatic fungi were investigated in a study using pond mesocosm. For that, fungi colonizing black alder (Alnus glutinosa) leaves were exposed to multiple, low pulses of 11 different pesticides over a period of 60days using a real farmer's pesticide application protocol for apple cropping. Four pond mesocosms served as treatments and 4 as controls. The composition of fungal communities colonizing the litter material was analyzed using a molecular fingerprinting approach based on the terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (t-RFLP) of the fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) gene(s). Our data indicated a clear fluctuation of fungal communities based on the degree of leaf litter degradation. However significant effects of the applied spraying sequence were not observed. Consequently also degradation rates of the litter material were not affected by the treatments. Our results indicate that the nutrient rich environment of the leaf litter material gave fungal communities the possibility to express genes that induce tolerance against the applied pesticides. Thus our data may not be transferred to other fresh water habitats with lower nutrient availability. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Antifungal genes expressed in transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) do not affect root colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Jagroop Gill; Jacobsen, Hans-Jörg; Cahill, James F; Hall, Linda M

    2017-06-12

    Genetically modified crops have raised concerns about unintended consequences on non-target organisms including beneficial soil associates. Pea transformed with four antifungal genes 1-3 β glucanase, endochitinase, polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins, and stilbene synthase is currently under field-testing for efficacy against fungal diseases in Canada. Transgenes had lower expression in the roots than leaves in greenhouse experiment. To determine the impact of disease-tolerant pea or gene products on colonization by non-target arbuscular mycorrhizae and nodulation by rhizobium, a field trial was established. Transgene insertion, as single gene or stacked genes, did not alter root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF) or root nodulation by rhizobium inoculation in the field. We found no effect of transgenes on the plant growth and performance although, having a dual inoculant with both AMF and rhizobium yielded higher fresh weight shoot-to-root ratio in all the lines tested. This initial risk assessment of transgenic peas expressing antifungal genes showed no deleterious effect on non-target organisms.

  5. Colonization of root cells and plant growth promotion by Piriformospora indica occurs independently of plant common symbiosis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banhara, Aline; Ding, Yi; Kühner, Regina; Zuccaro, Alga; Parniske, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi (Glomeromycota) form symbiosis with and deliver nutrients via the roots of most angiosperms. AM fungal hyphae are taken up by living root epidermal cells, a program which relies on a set of plant common symbiosis genes (CSGs). Plant root epidermal cells are also infected by the plant growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica (Basidiomycota), raising the question whether this interaction relies on the AM-related CSGs. Here we show that intracellular colonization of root cells and intracellular sporulation by P. indica occurred in CSG mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus and in Arabidopsis thaliana, which belongs to the Brassicaceae, a family that has lost the ability to form AM as well as a core set of CSGs. A. thaliana mutants of homologs of CSGs (HCSGs) interacted with P. indica similar to the wild-type. Moreover, increased biomass of A. thaliana evoked by P. indica was unaltered in HCSG mutants. We conclude that colonization and growth promotion by P. indica are independent of the CSGs and that AM fungi and P. indica exploit different host pathways for infection.

  6. Colonization of root cells and plant growth promotion by Piriformospora indica occurs independently of plant common symbiosis genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline eBanhara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM fungi (Glomeromycota form symbiosis with and deliver nutrients via the roots of most angiosperms. AM fungal hyphae are taken up by living root epidermal cells, a program which relies on a set of plant common symbiosis genes (CSGs. Plant root epidermal cells are also infected by the plant growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica (Basidiomycota, raising the question whether this interaction relies on the AM-related CSGs. Here we show that intracellular colonization of root cells and intracellular sporulation by P. indica occurred in CSG mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus and in Arabidopsis thaliana, which belongs to the Brassicaceae, a family that has lost the ability to form AM as well as a core set of CSGs. A. thaliana mutants of homologs of CSGs (HCSGs interacted with P. indica similar to the wild-type, suggesting that AM fungi and P. indica exploit different host pathways for infection. Moreover, increased biomass of A. thaliana evoked by P. indica was unaltered in HCSG mutants. We conclude that colonization and growth promotion by P. indica are independent of the CSGs.

  7. Resistance and resilience of root fungal communities to water limitation in a temperate agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furze, Jessie R; Martin, Adam R; Nasielski, Joshua; Thevathasan, Naresh V; Gordon, Andrew M; Isaac, Marney E

    2017-05-01

    Understanding crop resilience to environmental stress is critical in predicting the consequences of global climate change for agricultural systems worldwide, but to date studies addressing crop resiliency have focused primarily on plant physiological and molecular responses. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form mutualisms with many crop species, and these relationships are key in mitigating the effects of abiotic stress in many agricultural systems. However, to date there is little research examining whether (1) fungal community structure in agroecosystems is resistant to changing environmental conditions, specifically water limitation and (2) resilience of fungal community structure is moderated by agricultural management systems, namely the integration of trees into cropping systems. Here, we address these uncertainties through a rainfall reduction field experiment that manipulated short-term water availability in a soybean-based (Glycine max L. Merr.) agroforest in Southern Ontario, Canada. We employed terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to determine the molecular diversity of both general fungal and AMF communities in soybean roots under no stress, stress (rainfall shelters added), and poststress (rainfall shelters removed). We found that general fungal and AMF communities sampled from soybean roots were resistant to rainfall reduction in a monoculture, but not in an agroforest. While AMF communities were unchanged after stress removal, general fungal communities were significantly different poststress in the agroforest, indicating a capacity for resiliency. Our study indicates that generalist fungi and AMF are responsive to changes in environmental conditions and that agroecosystem management plays a key role in the resistance and resilience of fungal communities to water limitation.

  8. Tomato root colonization by fluorescent-tagged pathogenic and protective strains of Fusarium oxysporum in hydroponic culture differs from root colonization in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahalkova, Jarmila; Fatehi, Jamshid; Olivain, Chantal; Alabouvette, Claude

    2008-09-01

    The colonization process of tomato roots inoculated separately or/and simultaneously by a pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain Fol8 and the protective F. oxysporum strain Fo47, genetically tagged with the red and green fluorescent protein genes, respectively, was studied in a hydroponic culture. Plants were coinoculated with Fol8 and Fo47 at two conidial concentration ratios of 1/1 and 1/100, in which biological control was not effective or effective, respectively. First observation of fungi on root was possible 48 h after inoculation at a high inoculum level and 5 days post inoculation at the lower concentration of inoculum. The pattern of root colonization was similar for both strains with the initial development of hyphal network on the upper part of taproot, followed by the growth of hyphae towards the elongation zone, lateral roots and root apices. Finally, the whole elongation zone and root apex were invaded by both strains but no specific infection sites were observed. When coinoculated, both strains could grow very closely or even at the same spot on the root surface. At the nonprotective ratio, Fol8 was the successful colonizer, but application of Fo47 at a concentration 100 times >Fol8 delayed vessel colonization by the pathogen.

  9. Asymmetric response of root-associated fungal communities of an arbuscular mycorrhizal grass and an ectomycorrhizal tree to their coexistence in primary succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblochová, Tereza; Kohout, Petr; Püschel, David; Doubková, Pavla; Frouz, Jan; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Kukla, Jaroslav; Vosátka, Miroslav; Rydlová, Jana

    2017-11-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) grass Calamagrostis epigejos and predominantly ectomycorrhizal (EcM) tree Salix caprea co-occur at post-mining sites spontaneously colonized by vegetation. During succession, AM herbaceous vegetation is replaced by predominantly EcM woody species. To better understand the interaction of AM and EcM plants during vegetation transition, we studied the reciprocal effects of these species' coexistence on their root-associated fungi (RAF). We collected root and soil samples from three different microenvironments: stand of C. epigejos, under S. caprea canopy, and contact zone where roots of the two species interacted. RAF communities and mycorrhizal colonization were determined in sampled roots, and the soil was tested for EcM and AM inoculation potentials. Although the microenvironment significantly affected composition of the RAF communities in both plant species, the effect was greater in the case of C. epigejos RAF communities than in that of S. caprea RAF communities. The presence of S. caprea also significantly decreased AM fungal abundance in soil as well as AM colonization and richness of AM fungi in C. epigejos roots. Changes observed in the abundance and community composition of AM fungi might constitute an important factor in transition from AM-dominated to EcM-dominated vegetation during succession.

  10. Seasonal Dynamics of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities in Roots in a Seminatural Grassland▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-González, Juan C.; Finlay, Roger D.; Tehler, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been shown to influence both the diversity and productivity of grassland plant communities. These effects have been postulated to depend on the differential effects of individual mycorrhizal taxa on different plant species; however, so far there are few detailed studies of the dynamics of AMF colonization of different plant species. In this study, we characterized the communities of AMF colonizing the roots of two plant species, Prunella vulga...

  11. Extreme rainfall affects assembly of the root-associated fungal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher J; van der Gast, Christopher J; McNamara, Niall P; Rowe, Rebecca; Bending, Gary D

    2018-01-19

    Global warming is resulting in increased frequency of weather extremes. Root-associated fungi play important roles in terrestrial biogeochemical cycling processes, but the way in which they are affected by extreme weather is unclear. Here, we performed long-term field monitoring of the root-associated fungus community of a short rotation coppice willow plantation, and compared community dynamics before and after a once in 100 yr rainfall event that occurred in the UK in 2012. Monitoring of the root-associated fungi was performed over a 3-yr period by metabarcoding the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Repeated soil testing and continuous climatic monitoring supplemented community data, and the relative effects of environmental and temporal variation were determined on the root-associated fungal community. Soil saturation and surface water were recorded throughout the early growing season of 2012, following extreme rainfall. This was associated with a crash in the richness and relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal fungi, with each declining by over 50%. Richness and relative abundance of saprophytes and pathogens increased. We conclude that extreme rainfall events may be important yet overlooked determinants of root-associated fungal community assembly. Given the integral role of ectomycorrhizal fungi in biogeochemical cycles, these events may have considerable impacts upon the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Initial fungal colonizer affects mass loss and fungal community development in Picea abies logs 6 yr after inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Lindner; Rimvydas Vasaitis; Ariana Kubartova; Johan Allmer; Hanna Johannesson; Mark T. Banik; Jan. Stenlid

    2011-01-01

    Picea abies logs were inoculated with Resinicium bicolor, Fomitopsis pinicola or left un-inoculated and placed in an old-growth boreal forest. Mass loss and fungal community data were collected after 6 yr to test whether simplification of the fungal community via inoculation affects mass loss and fungal community development. Three...

  13. Enhancement of rutin production in Fagopyrum tataricum hairy root cultures with its endophytic fungal elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianglin; Xiang, Dabing; Peng, Lianxin; Zou, Liang; Wang, Yuehua; Zhao, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is a potentially important source of rutin, a natural bioactive flavonoid with antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties. This study examines the effects of endophytic fungi on rutin production in the hairy root cultures of F. tataricum. Without obvious changes in the appearance of the hairy roots, the exogenous fungal mycelia elicitors efficiently stimulated the hairy root growth and rutin biosynthesis, and the stimulation effect was mainly dependent on the mycelia elicitor species, as well as its treatment dose. Two endophytic fungal isolates Fat9 (Fusarium oxysporum) and Fat15 (Alternaria sp.) were screened as promising candidates for promoting F. tataricum hairy root growth and rutin production. With application of polysaccharide (PS) of endophyte Fat9 (200 mg/L), and PS of endophyte Fat15 (100 mg/L) to the hairy root cultures on day 25, the rutin yield was increased to 45.9 mg/L and 47.2 mg/L, respectively. That was about 3.1- to 3.2-fold in comparison with the control level of 14.6 mg/L. Moreover, the present study revealed that the accumulation of rutin resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by mycelia PS treatments. This may be an efficient strategy for enhancing rutin production in F. tataricum hairy root culture provided with its endophytic mycelia elicitors.

  14. How are plant and fungal communities linked to each other in belowground ecosystems? A massively parallel pyrosequencing analysis of the association specificity of root-associated fungi and their host plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Sato, Hirotoshi; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Kadowaki, Kohmei; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Nishimura, Osamu; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2013-01-01

    In natural forests, hundreds of fungal species colonize plant roots. The preference or specificity for partners in these symbiotic relationships is a key to understanding how the community structures of root-associated fungi and their host plants influence each other. In an oak-dominated forest in Japan, we investigated the root-associated fungal community based on a pyrosequencing analysis of the roots of 33 plant species. Of the 387 fungal taxa observed, 153 (39.5%) were identified on at least two plant species. Although many mycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi are shared between the plant species, the five most common plant species in the community had specificity in their association with fungal taxa. Likewise, fungi displayed remarkable variation in their association specificity for plants even within the same phylogenetic or ecological groups. For example, some fungi in the ectomycorrhizal family Russulaceae were detected almost exclusively on specific oak (Quercus) species, whereas other Russulaceae fungi were found even on “non-ectomycorrhizal” plants (e.g., Lyonia and Ilex). Putatively endophytic ascomycetes in the orders Helotiales and Chaetothyriales also displayed variation in their association specificity and many of them were shared among plant species as major symbionts. These results suggest that the entire structure of belowground plant–fungal associations is described neither by the random sharing of hosts/symbionts nor by complete compartmentalization by mycorrhizal type. Rather, the colonization of multiple types of mycorrhizal fungi on the same plant species and the prevalence of diverse root-endophytic fungi may be important features of belowground linkage between plant and fungal communities. PMID:24101998

  15. How are plant and fungal communities linked to each other in belowground ecosystems? A massively parallel pyrosequencing analysis of the association specificity of root-associated fungi and their host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Sato, Hirotoshi; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Kadowaki, Kohmei; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Nishimura, Osamu; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2013-09-01

    In natural forests, hundreds of fungal species colonize plant roots. The preference or specificity for partners in these symbiotic relationships is a key to understanding how the community structures of root-associated fungi and their host plants influence each other. In an oak-dominated forest in Japan, we investigated the root-associated fungal community based on a pyrosequencing analysis of the roots of 33 plant species. Of the 387 fungal taxa observed, 153 (39.5%) were identified on at least two plant species. Although many mycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi are shared between the plant species, the five most common plant species in the community had specificity in their association with fungal taxa. Likewise, fungi displayed remarkable variation in their association specificity for plants even within the same phylogenetic or ecological groups. For example, some fungi in the ectomycorrhizal family Russulaceae were detected almost exclusively on specific oak (Quercus) species, whereas other Russulaceae fungi were found even on "non-ectomycorrhizal" plants (e.g., Lyonia and Ilex). Putatively endophytic ascomycetes in the orders Helotiales and Chaetothyriales also displayed variation in their association specificity and many of them were shared among plant species as major symbionts. These results suggest that the entire structure of belowground plant-fungal associations is described neither by the random sharing of hosts/symbionts nor by complete compartmentalization by mycorrhizal type. Rather, the colonization of multiple types of mycorrhizal fungi on the same plant species and the prevalence of diverse root-endophytic fungi may be important features of belowground linkage between plant and fungal communities.

  16. Linking fungal communities in roots, rhizosphere, and soil to the health status of Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lihui; Ravnskov, Sabine; Larsen, John

    2012-01-01

    Changes in fungal communities associated with healthy and diseased pea roots were investigated using deep amplicon pyrosequencing in three spatial compartments: roots, rhizosphere, and surrounding soil. Thirty root systems were collected from three fields, half of which showing clear symptoms of ...

  17. Unexpectedly high beta-diversity of root-associated fungal communities in the Bolivian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Christopher James; Maldonado Goyzueta, Carla Brenda; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg

    2016-01-01

    in microbial diversity. Here we assess the genetic, taxonomic and functional diversity of root-associated fungi surrounding Cinchona calisaya calisaya trees, a typical element of the intermediate altitudes of the Bolivian Yungas. We determine the relative effects of edaphic properties, climate, and geography...... in regulating fungal community assembly. We show that α-diversity for these fungal communities was similar to temperate and arid ecosystems, averaging 90.1 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample, with reads predominantly assigned to the Ascomycota phylum and with a saprotrophic lifestyle. ß......-diversity was calculated as the distance-decay rate, and in contrast to α-diversity, was exceptionally high with a rate of -0.407. Soil properties (pH and P) principally regulated fungal community assembly in an analogous manner to temperate environments, with pH and phosphorus explaining 7.8 % and 7.2 % of community...

  18. Genetic Control of Plant Root Colonization by the Biocontrol agent, Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Benjamin J.; Fletcher, Meghan; Waters, Jordan; Wetmore, Kelly; Blow, Matthew J.; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Dangl, Jeffry L.; Visel, Axel

    2015-03-19

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a critical component of plant root ecosystems. PGPR promote plant growth by solubilizing inaccessible minerals, suppressing pathogenic microorganisms in the soil, and directly stimulating growth through hormone synthesis. Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-established PGPR isolated from wheat roots that can also colonize the root system of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We have created barcoded transposon insertion mutant libraries suitable for genome-wide transposon-mediated mutagenesis followed by sequencing (TnSeq). These libraries consist of over 105 independent insertions, collectively providing loss-of-function mutants for nearly all genes in the P.fluorescens genome. Each insertion mutant can be unambiguously identified by a randomized 20 nucleotide sequence (barcode) engineered into the transposon sequence. We used these libraries in a gnotobiotic assay to examine the colonization ability of P.fluorescens on A.thaliana roots. Taking advantage of the ability to distinguish individual colonization events using barcode sequences, we assessed the timing and microbial concentration dependence of colonization of the rhizoplane niche. These data provide direct insight into the dynamics of plant root colonization in an in vivo system and define baseline parameters for the systematic identification of the bacterial genes and molecular pathways using TnSeq assays. Having determined parameters that facilitate potential colonization of roots by thousands of independent insertion mutants in a single assay, we are currently establishing a genome-wide functional map of genes required for root colonization in P.fluorescens. Importantly, the approach developed and optimized here for P.fluorescens>A.thaliana colonization will be applicable to a wide range of plant-microbe interactions, including biofuel feedstock plants and microbes known or hypothesized to impact on biofuel-relevant traits including biomass productivity

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonize non-fixing root nodules of several legume species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheublin, T.R.; van der Heijden, M.G.A.

    2006-01-01

    • Many legumes form tripartite symbiotic associations with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Rhizobia are located in root nodules and provide the plant with fixed atmospheric nitrogen, while AMF colonize plant roots and deliver several essential nutrients to the plant. Recent studies

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonize nonfixing roots nodules of several legume species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheublin, T.R.; van der Heijden, M.G.A.

    2006-01-01

    • Many legumes form tripartite symbiotic associations with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Rhizobia are located in root nodules and provide the plant with fixed atmospheric nitrogen, while AMF colonize plant roots and deliver several essential nutrients to the plant. Recent studies

  1. Fungal endophytes associated with three South American Myrtae (Myrtaceae) exhibit preferences in the colonization at leaf level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Aline B M; da Costa, Andre G F C; Raad, Lucélia V V; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles

    2014-03-01

    Fungal endophytes associated with Myrtaceae from Brazil and Argentina were isolated at three levels of nesting: leaf, individual host trees, and site collection. The alternating logistic regression (ALR) was used to model the data because it offers a computationally convenient method for fitting regression structures involving large clusters. The objectives of this study were to determine: (i) whether the colonization pattern is influenced by environmental variables, (ii) if there is some leaf part they prefer to colonize; (iii) if there is some fungal endophyte aggregation between hierarchical levels; (iv) what the distance effect is on the fungal association. The environmental variables were statistically significant only for Xylaria, i.e., when the elevation and water precipitation increase and the temperature decreases, the odds ratio of finding another fungal endophyte of that genus previously found increases. Sordariomycetes, Xylariales, and Xylaria exhibited leaf fragment preference to petiole and tip. Fungal endophytes showed association within leaf. The horizontal transmission mode and the dispersal limitation may explain this association at the leaf level. Moreover, our results suggest that when a fungal endophyte infects a leaf or host tree individual, the odds ratio of dispersal inside them is greater. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rhizospheric soil and root endogenous fungal diversity and composition in response to continuous Panax notoginseng cropping practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yong; Cui, Yinshan; Li, Haoyu; Kuang, Anxiu; Li, Xiaoran; Wei, Yunlin; Ji, Xiuling

    2017-01-01

    Rhizosphere and endophytic fungal communities are considered critically important for plant health and soil fertility. In response to continuous cropping, Panax notoginseng becomes vulnerable to attack by fungal pathogens. In the present study, culture-independent Illumina MiSeq was used to investigate the rhizospheric and root endophytic fungi in response to continuous Panax notoginseng cropping practices. The results demonstrated that fungal diversity is increased inside the roots and in rhizospheric. Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were the dominant phyla detected during the continuous cropping of Panax notoginseng. The fungal diversity in the rhizospheric soil and roots of root-rot P. notoginseng plants are less than that of healthy plants in the same cultivating year, thus showing that root-rot disease also affects the community structure and diversity of rhizospheric and root endophytic fungi. Similarities in the major fungal components show that endophytic fungal communities are similar to rhizospheric soil fungal community based on a specialized subset of organisms. Canonical correspondence analysis on the fungal communities in root-rot rhizospheric from both healthy plants and rotation soils reveals that the soil pH and organic matter have the greatest impact upon the microbial community composition during continuous cropping, whereas soil nutrition status does not significantly affect the fungal community composition in response to continuous cropping practices. In addition, the results suggest that the unclassified genera Leotiomycetes, Cylindrocarpon, Fusarium and Mycocentrospora are shown as the potential pathogens which are responsible for the obstacles in continuous cropping of P. notoginseng. Further exploration of these potential pathogens might be useful for the biological control of continuous cropping of P. notoginseng. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in forest plant roots are simultaneously shaped by host characteristics and canopy-mediated light availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorem, Kadri; Tulva, Ingmar; Davison, John; Jairus, Teele; Öpik, Maarja; Vasar, Martti; Zobel, Martin; Moora, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The majority of terrestrial plant species associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, to exchange carbon compounds with nutrients. However, the factors that determine the composition of AM fungal communities in individual plant roots remain poorly understood. We

  4. Fungal Root Microbiome from Healthy and Brittle Leaf Diseased Date Palm Trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Reveals a Hidden Untapped Arsenal of Antibacterial and Broad Spectrum Antifungal Secondary Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefteh, Fedia B; Daoud, Amal; Chenari Bouket, Ali; Alenezi, Faizah N; Luptakova, Lenka; Rateb, Mostafa E; Kadri, Adel; Gharsallah, Neji; Belbahri, Lassaad

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explore and compare the composition, metabolic diversity and antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi colonizing internal tissues of healthy and brittle leaf diseased (BLD) date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) widely cultivated in arid zones of Tunisia. A total of 52 endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy and BLD roots of date palm trees, identified based on internal transcribed spacer-rDNA sequence analysis and shown to represent 13 species belonging to five genera. About 36.8% of isolates were shared between healthy and diseased root fungal microbiomes, whereas 18.4 and 44.7% of isolates were specific to healthy and BLD root fungal microbiomes, respectively. All isolates were able to produce at least two of the screened enzymes including amylase, cellulase, chitinase, pectinase, protease, laccase and lipase. A preliminary screening of the isolates using disk diffusion method for antibacterial activity against four Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and antifungal activities against three phytopathogenic fungi indicated that healthy and BLD root fungal microbiomes displayed interesting bioactivities against examined bacteria and broad spectrum bioactivity against fungal pathogens. Some of these endophytic fungi (17 isolates) were fermented and their extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial potential against bacterial and fungal isolates. Results revealed that fungal extracts exhibited antibacterial activities and were responsible for approximately half of antifungal activities against living fungi. These results suggest a strong link between fungal bioactivities and their secondary metabolite arsenal. EtOAc extracts of Geotrichum candidum and Thielaviopsis punctulata originating from BLD microbiome gave best results against Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 0.78 mg/mL) and minimum bactericidal concentration (6.25 mg/mL). G. candidum gave the best result against

  5. Fungal Root Microbiome from Healthy and Brittle Leaf Diseased Date Palm Trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Reveals a Hidden Untapped Arsenal of Antibacterial and Broad Spectrum Antifungal Secondary Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefteh, Fedia B.; Daoud, Amal; Chenari Bouket, Ali; Alenezi, Faizah N.; Luptakova, Lenka; Rateb, Mostafa E.; Kadri, Adel; Gharsallah, Neji; Belbahri, Lassaad

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explore and compare the composition, metabolic diversity and antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi colonizing internal tissues of healthy and brittle leaf diseased (BLD) date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) widely cultivated in arid zones of Tunisia. A total of 52 endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy and BLD roots of date palm trees, identified based on internal transcribed spacer-rDNA sequence analysis and shown to represent 13 species belonging to five genera. About 36.8% of isolates were shared between healthy and diseased root fungal microbiomes, whereas 18.4 and 44.7% of isolates were specific to healthy and BLD root fungal microbiomes, respectively. All isolates were able to produce at least two of the screened enzymes including amylase, cellulase, chitinase, pectinase, protease, laccase and lipase. A preliminary screening of the isolates using disk diffusion method for antibacterial activity against four Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and antifungal activities against three phytopathogenic fungi indicated that healthy and BLD root fungal microbiomes displayed interesting bioactivities against examined bacteria and broad spectrum bioactivity against fungal pathogens. Some of these endophytic fungi (17 isolates) were fermented and their extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial potential against bacterial and fungal isolates. Results revealed that fungal extracts exhibited antibacterial activities and were responsible for approximately half of antifungal activities against living fungi. These results suggest a strong link between fungal bioactivities and their secondary metabolite arsenal. EtOAc extracts of Geotrichum candidum and Thielaviopsis punctulata originating from BLD microbiome gave best results against Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 0.78 mg/mL) and minimum bactericidal concentration (6.25 mg/mL). G. candidum gave the best result against

  6. Bacillus subtilis Early Colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots Involves Multiple Chemotaxis Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard-Massicotte, Rosalie; Tessier, Laurence; Lécuyer, Frédéric; Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Lucier, Jean-François; Garneau, Daniel; Caudwell, Larissa; Vlamakis, Hera; Bais, Harsh P; Beauregard, Pascale B

    2016-11-29

    Colonization of plant roots by Bacillus subtilis is mutually beneficial to plants and bacteria. Plants can secrete up to 30% of their fixed carbon via root exudates, thereby feeding the bacteria, and in return the associated B. subtilis bacteria provide the plant with many growth-promoting traits. Formation of a biofilm on the root by matrix-producing B. subtilis is a well-established requirement for long-term colonization. However, we observed that cells start forming a biofilm only several hours after motile cells first settle on the plant. We also found that intact chemotaxis machinery is required for early root colonization by B. subtilis and for plant protection. Arabidopsis thaliana root exudates attract B. subtilis in vitro, an activity mediated by the two characterized chemoreceptors, McpB and McpC, as well as by the orphan receptor TlpC. Nonetheless, bacteria lacking these chemoreceptors are still able to colonize the root, suggesting that other chemoreceptors might also play a role in this process. These observations suggest that A. thaliana actively recruits B. subtilis through root-secreted molecules, and our results stress the important roles of B. subtilis chemoreceptors for efficient colonization of plants in natural environments. These results demonstrate a remarkable strategy adapted by beneficial rhizobacteria to utilize carbon-rich root exudates, which may facilitate rhizobacterial colonization and a mutualistic association with the host. Bacillus subtilis is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that establishes robust interactions with roots. Many studies have now demonstrated that biofilm formation is required for long-term colonization. However, we observed that motile B. subtilis mediates the first contact with the roots. These cells differentiate into biofilm-producing cells only several hours after the bacteria first contact the root. Our study reveals that intact chemotaxis machinery is required for the bacteria to reach the

  7. Colonization and community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in maize roots at different depths in the soil profile respond differently to phosphorus inputs on a long-term experimental site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; White, Philip J; Li, Chunjian

    2017-05-01

    Effects of soil depth and plant growth stages on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonization and community structure in maize roots and their potential contribution to host plant phosphorus (P) nutrition under different P-fertilizer inputs were studied. Research was conducted on a long-term field experiment over 3 years. AMF colonization was assessed by AM colonization rate and arbuscule abundances and their potential contribution to host P nutrition by intensity of fungal alkaline phosphatase (ALP)/acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and expressions of ZmPht1;6 and ZmCCD8a in roots from the topsoil and subsoil layer at different growth stages. AMF community structure was determined by specific amplification of 18S rDNA. Increasing P inputs up to 75-100 kg ha -1  yr -1 increased shoot biomass and P content but decreased AMF colonization and interactions between AMF and roots. AM colonization rate, intensity of fungal ACP/ALP activities, and expression of ZmPht1;6 in roots from the subsoil were greater than those from topsoil at elongation and silking but not at the dough stage when plants received adequate or excessive P inputs. Neither P input nor soil depth influenced the number of AMF operational taxonomic units (OTUs) present in roots, but P-fertilizer input, in particular, influenced community composition and relative AMF abundance. In conclusion, although increasing P inputs reduce AMF colonization and influence AMF community structure, AMF can potentially contribute to plant P nutrition even in well-fertilized soils, depending on the soil layer in which roots are located and the growth stage of host plants.

  8. Maize Fungal Growth Control with Scopoletin of Cassava Roots Produced in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiatou Ba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical contamination of food is among the main public health issues in developing countries. With a view to find new natural bioactive products against fungi responsible for chemical contamination of staple food such as maize, the antifungal activity tests of scopoletin extracted from different components of the cassava root produced in Benin were carried out. The dosage of scopoletin from parts of the root (first skin, second skin, whole root, and flesh was done by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The scopoletin extract was used to assess the activity of 12 strains (11 strains of maize and a reference strain. The presence of scopoletin was revealed in all components of the cassava root. Scopoletin extracted from the first skin cassava root was the most active both as inhibition of sporulation (52.29 to 87.91% and the mycelial growth (36.51–80.41%. Scopoletin extract from the cassava root skins showed significant inhibitory activity on the tested strains with fungicide concentration (MFC between 0.0125 mg/mL and 0.1 mg/mL. The antifungal scopoletin extracted from the cassava root skins may be well beneficial for the fungal control of the storage of maize.

  9. Evaluation of Mycorrhizal Fungi, Vermicompost and Humic Acid on Essence Yield and Root Colonization of Fennel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Akbari

    2016-02-01

    humic acid include: h1(no application and h2 (application. Each plot had 5 rows with row spacing of 50 cm and row length of 5 m was considered. Ten grams mycorrhizal fungi were added to the soil under each seed. Humic acid was sprayed in 3 stages (vegetative, reproductive and seed filling stage according to the recommended dose (200 mg per liter. Sampling and measuring of traits were done at the end of the season and after removal of border rows. A 50 gram sample of each plot milled and then essence collected with Clevenger for three hours using water distillation. Percent of fungal colonization obtained with Gridline Intersect Method. Finally, for analysis of data and drawing shapes, MSTAT-C software and Microsoft Excel were used. Comparison of the least significant difference test (LSD was conducted at the 5% level. Results and Discussion Results of this study showed the main effects of experimental factors on seed yield, essence percent and yield were significant. Comparison of mean results showed the highest seed yield (1119.37 kg ha-1 obtained from mycorrhizal colonization. With increasing vermicompost applying, seed yield also increased. So, the greatest and lowest seed yield obtained from 8 ton ha-1 vermicompost and control plots (1315 and 1016 kg ha-1, respectively. With humic acid foliar application, seed yield increased about 18 percent. In this experiment essence percent significantly increased due to mycorrhizal colonization. Essence percent of fennel seeds showed, the highest value of essence percent (2.83% obtained from 8 ton.ha-1 vermicompost and the lowest essence was obtained from control plots (2.15%. Seed essence percent significantly increased due to humic acid foliar application compared with control plots (2.6% and 2.4% respectively. Essence yield significantly increased due to mycorrhizal inoculation (31.67 kg ha-1. Vermicompost application increased essence yield about 64 and 25 percent compared with control plots. Compared to control, humic acid

  10. Growth of Arabidopsis seedlings on high fungal doses of Piriformospora indica has little effect on plant performance, stress, and defense gene expression in spite of elevated jasmonic acid and jasmonic acid-isoleucine levels in the roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Khabat; Camehl, Iris; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2013-11-01

    The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species including Arabidopsis and promotes their performance, biomass, and seed production as well as resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. Imbalances in the symbiotic interaction such as uncontrolled fungal growth result in the loss of benefits for the plants and activation of defense responses against the microbe. We exposed Arabidopsis seedlings to a dense hyphal lawn of P. indica. The seedlings continue to grow, accumulate normal amounts of chlorophyll, and the photosynthetic parameters demonstrate that they perform well. In spite of high fungal doses around the roots, the fungal material inside the roots was not significantly higher when compared with roots that live in a beneficial symbiosis with P. indica. Fifteen defense- and stress-related genes including PR2, PR3, PAL2, and ERF1 are only moderately upregulated in the roots on the fungal lawn, and the seedlings did not accumulate H2O2/radical oxygen species. However, accumulation of anthocyanin in P. indica-exposed seedlings indicates stress symptoms. Furthermore, the jasmonic acid (JA) and jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile) levels were increased in the roots, and consequently PDF1.2 and a newly characterized gene for a 2-oxoglurate and Fe2+ -dependent oxygenase were upregulated more than 7-fold on the dense fungal lawn, in a JAR1- and EIN3-dependent manner. We conclude that growth of A. thaliana seedlings on high fungal doses of P. indica has little effect on the overall performance of the plants although elevated JA and JA-Ile levels in the roots induce a mild stress or defense response.

  11. Characterization of rhizosphere and endophytic fungal communities from roots of Stipa purpurea in alpine steppe around Qinghai Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dengxue; Jin, Hui; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Denghong; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiuzhuang; Zhao, Yuhui; Han, Rongbing; Qin, Bo

    2016-08-01

    Stipa purpurea is among constructive endemic species in the alpine steppe on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. To reveal the fungal community structure and diversity in the rhizosphere and roots of this important grass and to analyze the potential influence of different habitats on the structure of fungal communities, we explored the root endophyte and the directly associated rhizosphere communities of S. purpurea by using internal transcribed spacer rRNA cloning and sequencing methods. We found that the roots of S. purpurea are associated with a diverse consortium of Basidiomycota (59.8%) and Ascomycota (38.5%). Most fungi obtained from rhizosphere soil in S. purpurea have been identified as Ascomycetes, while the high proportion detected in roots were basidiomycetous endophytes. The species richness, diversity, and evenness of fungal assemblages were higher in roots than in the rhizosphere soil. Fungi inhabiting the rhizosphere and roots of S. purpurea are significantly different, and the rhizosphere and endophyte communities are largely independent with little overlap in the dominant phyla or operational taxonomic units. Taken together, these results suggested that a wide variety of fungal communities are associated with the roots and rhizosphere soil of S. purpurea and that the fungal assemblages are strongly influenced by different habitats.

  12. PLANT MICROBIOME. Salicylic acid modulates colonization of the root microbiome by specific bacterial taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeis, Sarah L; Paredes, Sur Herrera; Lundberg, Derek S; Breakfield, Natalie; Gehring, Jase; McDonald, Meredith; Malfatti, Stephanie; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Jones, Corbin D; Tringe, Susannah G; Dangl, Jeffery L

    2015-08-21

    Immune systems distinguish "self" from "nonself" to maintain homeostasis and must differentially gate access to allow colonization by potentially beneficial, nonpathogenic microbes. Plant roots grow within extremely diverse soil microbial communities but assemble a taxonomically limited root-associated microbiome. We grew isogenic Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with altered immune systems in a wild soil and also in recolonization experiments with a synthetic bacterial community. We established that biosynthesis of, and signaling dependent on, the foliar defense phytohormone salicylic acid is required to assemble a normal root microbiome. Salicylic acid modulates colonization of the root by specific bacterial families. Thus, plant immune signaling drives selection from the available microbial communities to sculpt the root microbiome. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. root colonized by Glomus mosseae and Ralstonia solanacearum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-27

    Mar 27, 2012 ... belonging to the pathogen was observed in the complex treatment (G. mosseae + R. solanacearum). The study observations matched with those reported by Carlsen et al. (2008), who documented that Pythium ultimum was totally prevented due to the colonization of clover plants cv. Sonja by G. mosseae.

  14. Root exudate-induced alterations in Bacillus cereus cell wall contribute to root colonization and plant growth promotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnalee Dutta

    Full Text Available The outcome of an interaction between plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and plants may depend on the chemical composition of root exudates (REs. We report the colonization of tobacco, and not groundnut, roots by a non-rhizospheric Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430. There was a differential alteration in the cell wall components of B. cereus in response to the REs from tobacco and groundnut. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy revealed a split in amide I region of B. cereus cells exposed to tobacco-root exudates (TRE, compared to those exposed to groundnut-root exudates (GRE. In addition, changes in exopolysaccharides and lipid-packing were observed in B. cereus grown in TRE-amended minimal media that were not detectable in GRE-amended media. Cell-wall proteome analyses revealed upregulation of oxidative stress-related alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, and DNA-protecting protein chain (Dlp-2, in response to GRE and TRE, respectively. Metabolism-related enzymes like 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase and 2-methylcitrate dehydratase and a 60 kDa chaperonin were up-regulated in response to TRE and GRE. In response to B. cereus, the plant roots altered their exudate-chemodiversity with respect to carbohydrates, organic acids, alkanes, and polyols. TRE-induced changes in surface components of B. cereus may contribute to successful root colonization and subsequent plant growth promotion.

  15. Ethylene Supports Colonization of Plant Roots by the Mutualistic Fungus Piriformospora indica

    OpenAIRE

    Khatabi, Behnam; Molitor, Alexandra; Lindermayr, Christian; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Durner, Jörg; von Wettstein, Diter; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The mutualistic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and thereby improves plant health and yield. Given the capability of P. indica to colonize a broad range of hosts, it must be anticipated that the fungus has evolved efficient strategies to overcome plant immunity and to establish a proper environment for nutrient acquisition and reproduction. Global gene expression studies in barley identified various ethylene synthesis and signaling compo...

  16. Local and distal effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization on direct pathway Pi uptake and root growth in Medicago truncatula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watts-Williams, Stephanie J.; Jakobsen, Iver; Cavagnaro, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    Two pathways exist for plant Pi uptake from soil: via root epidermal cells (direct pathway) or via associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and the two pathways interact in a complex manner. This study investigated distal and local effects of AM colonization on direct root Pi uptake...... fungi, but with no functional mycorrhizal pathway for Pi uptake, was included to better understand effects of AM colonization per se. Colonization by AM fungi decreased expression of direct Pi transporter genes locally, but not distally in the wild type. In mtpt4 mutant plants, direct Pi transporter...... genes and the Pi starvation-induced gene Mt4 were more highly expressed than in wild-type roots. In wild-type plants, less Pi was taken up via the direct pathway by non-colonized roots when the other root half was colonized by AM fungi, compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. Colonization by AM fungi...

  17. Root colonization with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP concentration in hypoxic soils in natural CO2 springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Maček

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Changed ratios of soil gases that lead to hypoxia are most often present in waterlogged soils, but can also appear in soils not saturated with water. In natural CO2 springs (mofettes, gases in soil air differ from those in typical soils. In this study, plant roots from the mofette area Stavešinci (Slovenia were sampled in a spatial scale and investigated for AM fungal colonization. AM fungi were found in roots from areas with high geological CO2 concentration, however mycorrhizal intensity was relatively low and no correlation between AM fungal colonization and soil pattern of CO2/O2 concentrations (up to 37% CO2 was found. The relatively high abundance of arbuscules in root cortex indicated existence of functional symbiosis at much higher CO2 concentrations than normally found in soils. In addition, concentration of two different glomalin-related soil protein fractions – EE-GRSP and TG-GRSP – was measured. No significant correlation between any of the fractions and soil gases was found, however the concentration of both fractions was significantly higher in the upper 0–5 cm, compared to the 5–10 cm layer of the soil.

  18. Plant and fungal gene expression in mycorrhizal protocorms of the orchid Serapias vomeracea colonized by Tulasnella calospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Nerva, Luca; Sillo, Fabiano; Girlanda, Mariangela; Perotto, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Little is known on the molecular bases of plant-fungal interactions in orchid mycorrhiza. We developed a model system to investigate gene expression in mycorrhizal protocorms of Serapias vomeracea colonised by Tulasnella calospora. Our recent results with a small panel of genes as indicators of plant response to mycorrhizal colonization indicate that genes related with plant defense were not significantly up-regulated in mycorrhizal tissues. Here, we used laser microdissection to investigate whether expression of some orchid genes was restricted to specific cell types. Results showed that SvNod1, a S. vomeracea nodulin-like protein containing a plastocyanin-like domain, is expressed only in protocorm cells containing intracellular fungal hyphae. In addition, we investigated a family of fungal zinc metallopeptidases (M36). This gene family has expanded in the T. calospora genome and RNA-Seq experiments indicate that some members of the M36 metallopeptidases family are differentially regulated in orchid mycorrhizal protocorms.

  19. A fungal symbiont of plant-roots modulates mycotoxin gene expression in the pathogen Fusarium sambucinum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Ismail

    Full Text Available Fusarium trichothecenes are fungal toxins that cause disease on infected plants and, more importantly, health problems for humans and animals that consume infected fruits or vegetables. Unfortunately, there are few methods for controlling mycotoxin production by fungal pathogens. In this study, we isolated and characterized sixteen Fusarium strains from naturally infected potato plants in the field. Pathogenicity tests were carried out in the greenhouse to evaluate the virulence of the strains on potato plants as well as their trichothecene production capacity, and the most aggressive strain was selected for further studies. This strain, identified as F. sambucinum, was used to determine if trichothecene gene expression was affected by the symbiotic Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF Glomus irregulare. AMF form symbioses with plant roots, in particular by improving their mineral nutrient uptake and protecting plants against soil-borne pathogens. We found that that G. irregulare significantly inhibits F. sambucinum growth. We also found, using RT-PCR assays to assess the relative expression of trichothecene genes, that in the presence of the AMF G. irregulare, F. sambucinum genes TRI5 and TRI6 were up-regulated, while TRI4, TRI13 and TRI101 were down-regulated. We conclude that AMF can modulate mycotoxin gene expression by a plant fungal pathogen. This previously undescribed effect may be an important mechanism for biological control and has fascinating implications for advancing our knowledge of plant-microbe interactions and controlling plant pathogens.

  20. Ergosterol content in ericaceous hair roots correlates with dark septate endophytes but not with ericoid mycorrhizal colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsrud, Maria; Michelsen, Anders; Wallander, Håkon

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between ergosterol content in ericaceous hair roots and ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) colonization versus dark septate endophytic (DSE) hyphal colonization was examined in a dwarf shrub-dominated subarctic mire in Northern Sweden. Ergosterol content in hair roots did not correlate...

  1. Root environment is a key determinant of fungal entomopathogen endophytism following seed treatment in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bean is the most important food legume in the world. We examined the potential of the fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae applied as seed treatments for their endophytic establishment in the common bean. Endophytic colonization in sterile sand:peat average...

  2. Interactions of Root-Feeding Insects with Fungal and Oomycete Plant Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsey, Telsa; Chatterton, Syama; Cárcamo, Héctor

    2017-01-01

    Soilborne fungal and oomycete pathogens are the causal agents of several important plant diseases. Infection frequently co-occurs with herbivory by root-feeding insects, facilitating tripartite interactions that modify plant performance and mortality. In an agricultural context, interactions between pathogens, herbivores, and plants can have important consequences for yield protection. However, belowground interactions are inherently difficult to observe and are often overlooked. Here, we review the impact of direct and indirect interactions between root-associated insects, fungi, and oomycetes on the development of plant disease. We explore the relationship between insect feeding injury and pathogen infection, as well as the role of insects as vectors of fungal and oomycete pathogens. Synergistic interactions between insects and phytopathogens may be important in weed suppression, and we highlight several promising candidates for biocontrol. Bridging the gap between entomological and pathological research is a critical step in understanding how interactions between insects and microorganisms modify the community structure of the rhizosphere, and how this impacts plant functioning. Furthermore, the identification of belowground interactions is required to develop effective pest monitoring and management strategies.

  3. Interactions of Root-Feeding Insects with Fungal and Oomycete Plant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telsa Willsey

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soilborne fungal and oomycete pathogens are the causal agents of several important plant diseases. Infection frequently co-occurs with herbivory by root-feeding insects, facilitating tripartite interactions that modify plant performance and mortality. In an agricultural context, interactions between pathogens, herbivores, and plants can have important consequences for yield protection. However, belowground interactions are inherently difficult to observe and are often overlooked. Here, we review the impact of direct and indirect interactions between root-associated insects, fungi, and oomycetes on the development of plant disease. We explore the relationship between insect feeding injury and pathogen infection, as well as the role of insects as vectors of fungal and oomycete pathogens. Synergistic interactions between insects and phytopathogens may be important in weed suppression, and we highlight several promising candidates for biocontrol. Bridging the gap between entomological and pathological research is a critical step in understanding how interactions between insects and microorganisms modify the community structure of the rhizosphere, and how this impacts plant functioning. Furthermore, the identification of belowground interactions is required to develop effective pest monitoring and management strategies.

  4. Root colonization dynamics of two ectomycorrhizal fungi of contrasting life history strategies are mediated by

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik A. Lilleskov; Thomas D. Bruns

    2003-01-01

    -Here we investigated whether root colonization dynamics of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) of contrasting life history strategies (i.e. early vs late successional dominants) were affected by resource availability, as mediated either directly via the soil, or indirectly via host nutrition. -In a two phase experiment, Pinusm muricata seedlings were co-...

  5. Colonization of Tomato Root by Antagonistic Bacterial Strains to Fusarium Wilt of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Wibowo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol is an important disease in tomato which cause a significant loss of yield in major growing regions of the world. This study examined the ability of bacterial strains antagonistic to F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (H5, H22, H63, H71, Burkholderia cepacia strain 65 and 526 to colonize tomato seedlings and the effect of plant growth. The effect of bacterial population size and air temperature on the bacterial colonization and their spread along the root systems was also assessed.The results of this study showed that the bacterial population at 28°/23° C day/night temperature 14 days after planting was significantly greater than 23°/18° C for 4 of 6 strains tested. Although there was no significant effect of temperature on bacterial population observed in this study, the ability of the baacterial strains to colonize the rhizosphere was significantly different. Three strains (H5, B. cepacia strain 65 and 526 survived well in the rhizosphere and at 4 weeks after planting rhizosphere populations per gram fresh root were not significantly different from those recovered 2 weeks after planting. The largest population of the bacterial inoculants developed in the basal region of the roots and this differed between strains by log10 2.7 cfu/cm root. The bacterial populations in other parts of the root were also strain dependent. Strain H71, for example, was able to colonize the root segments at a high population level. However strain H63 was recovered only in small number in all root segments.

  6. Quantity and distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal storage organs within dead roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Anja; Ngwene, Benard; Peiter, Edgar; George, Eckhard

    2017-04-01

    The formation of storage organs, such as spores and vesicles, is a central part of the life cycle of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), but the conditions under which this occurs in AMF are not well understood. Here, quantity and distribution of storage organs formed by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae within dead (excised) roots were characterised. 'Trap roots' (TR), separated from the growth substrate by a 30-μm mesh, supported hyphal growth and formation of storage organs of the AMF. Hyphae developed both inside and on the outside of the TR and also within air gaps of surrounding nylon mesh compartments, but formation of vesicles and spores was confined to the interior and to the surface of the TR. Up to 20 % of the TR length harboured newly formed storage organs, resulting in a number of about 60 per mg TR dry weight. The portion of TR length containing storage organs was greater in coarse (diameter >300 μm) than in thin (storage organs within dead roots in preference to air space in the substrate. Dead roots may indirectly supply nutrients to AMF (once they have been mineralised) or represent a protected space for the fungal structures to develop. The experimental technique described here allows for the preparation of AMF spores and vesicles of F. mosseae free of any mineral substrate.

  7. Investigations into rhizosphere microflora. IV. Fungal association in different root regions of some rainy-season crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-rhizosphere, rhizosphere and rhizoplane microflora of the crown and distal regions of Echinochloa crusgalli (L. Beauv. and Paspalum scrobiculatum L. were studied from seedling stage to the harvest. The variation in bacterial and fungal flora in relation to host species, stage of development and żonę of the rhizosphere were studied. The differences between fungal and bacterial flora are described. The relation between rhizosphere microflora and roots exudates is described.

  8. Location, Root Proximity, and Glyphosate-Use History Modulate the Effects of Glyphosate on Fungal Community Networks of Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, Daniel C; Yin, Chuntao; Burke, Ian; Hulbert, Scot; Paulitz, Timothy

    2017-12-07

    Glyphosate is the most-used herbicide worldwide and an essential tool for weed control in no-till cropping systems. However, concerns have been raised regarding the long-term effects of glyphosate on soil microbial communities. We examined the impact of repeated glyphosate application on bulk and rhizosphere soil fungal communities of wheat grown in four soils representative of the dryland wheat production region of Eastern Washington, USA. Further, using soils from paired fields, we contrasted the response of fungal communities that had a long history of glyphosate exposure and those that had no known exposure. Soil fungal communities were characterized after three cycles of wheat growth in the greenhouse followed by termination with glyphosate or manual clipping of plants. We found that cropping system, location, year, and root proximity were the primary drivers of fungal community compositions, and that glyphosate had only small impacts on fungal community composition or diversity. However, the taxa that responded to glyphosate applications differed between rhizosphere and bulk soil and between cropping systems. Further, a greater number of fungal OTUs responded to glyphosate in soils with a long history of glyphosate use. Finally, fungal co-occurrence patterns, but not co-occurrence network characteristics, differed substantially between glyphosate-treated and non-treated communities. Results suggest that most fungi influenced by glyphosate are saprophytes that likely feed on dying roots.

  9. Effect of a fungal infection on the profile of volatile organic compounds emitted by plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiers, M; Lognay, G; Wathelet, J P; Fauconnier, M L; Jijakli, M H

    2012-01-01

    It is known since few years that the aerial and underground parts of the plants emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can interact with other organisms of the environment. They are involved in the attraction of seed dispersers and pollinators, the repellence of enemies via direct or indirect mechanisms and the induction of defence systems in other parts of the same plant or in other plants in the vicinity (Dudareva et al., 2006). It has been shown previously that the VOCs spectrum emitted by plants hardly depends on their physiological state (Kant et al., 2009). However those phenomenons were poorly studied at the edaphic level. Thus, the Rhizovol project, a multidisciplinary project in Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech was set up to study the emissions of VOCs by plant roots and their interactions with other organisms of the rhizosphere. As a partner of this project, the Plant Pathology Unit of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech chose to study the effect of a fungal infection on the profile of VOCs emitted by plant roots, based on three model organisms, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), since it is a major crop in Belgium that can suffer a large range of aggressions, and two pathogenic fungi, Cochliobolus sativus and Fusarium culmorum, responsible for root and foot rots and seedling blight on cereals (Wiese, 1977). Later in the development, C. sativus produces elongate brown-black lesions (spot blotch) and F. culmorum induces head blight and produces mycotoxins that make the grain unsuitable for consumption (Nielsen et al., 2011). The objective of this work was to identify the VOCs emitted during the dual interactions between barley roots and a pathogenic fungus. The study was performed in two steps; first, the independent analyses of the VOCs emitted by each of the partners (C. sativus, F. culmorum and healthy barley roots), then the analyses of the VOCs spectrum emitted during dual interactions.

  10. Root-associated fungal community response to drought-associated changes in vegetation community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Sarah L; Warnock, Daniel D; Litvak, Marcy E; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Sinsabaugh, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Recent droughts in southwestern USA have led to large-scale mortality of piñon (Pinus edulis) in piñon-juniper woodlands. Piñon mortality alters soil moisture, nutrient and carbon availability, which could affect the root-associated fungal (RAF) communities and therefore the fitness of the remaining plants. We collected fine root samples at a piñon-juniper woodland and a juniper savannah site in central New Mexico. Roots were collected from piñon and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) trees whose nearest neighbors were live piñon, live juniper or dead piñon. RAF communities were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing of the universal fungal ITS region. The most common taxa were Hypocreales and Chaetothyriales. More than 10% of ITS sequences could not be assigned taxonomy at the phylum level. Two of the unclassified OTUs significantly differed between savanna and woodland, had few like sequences in GenBank and formed new fungal clades with other unclassified RAF from arid plants, highlighting how little study has been done on the RAF of arid ecosystems. Plant host or neighbor did not affect RAF community composition. However, there was a significant difference between RAF communities from woodland vs. savanna, indicating that abiotic factors such as temperature and aridity might be more important in structuring these RAF communities than biotic factors such as plant host or neighbor identity. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EM) were present in juniper as well as piñon in the woodland site, in contrast with previous research, but did not occur in juniper savanna, suggesting a potential shared EM network with juniper. RAF richness was lower in hosts that were neighbors of the opposite host. This may indicate competitive exclusion between fungi from different hosts. Characterizing these communities and their responses to environment and plant neighborhood is a step toward understanding the effects of drought on a biome that spans 19,000,000 ha of southwestern USA. © 2015 by The

  11. Early Lotus japonicus root transcriptomic responses to symbiotic and pathogenic fungal exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eGiovannetti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate Lotus japonicus transcriptomic responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM germinated spore exudates (GSE, responsible for activating nuclear Ca2+ spiking in plant root epidermis. A microarray experiment was performed comparing gene expression in Lotus rootlets treated with GSE or water after 24 h and 48 h. The transcriptional pattern of selected genes that resulted to be regulated in the array was further evaluated upon different treatments and timings. In particular, Lotus rootlets were treated with: GSE from the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum trifolii; short chitin oligomers (acknowledged AM fungal signals and long chitin oligomers (as activators of pathogenic responses. This experimental set up has revealed that AM GSE generates a strong transcriptomic response in Lotus roots with an extensive defense-related response after 24 hours and a subsequent downregulation after 48 hours. A similar subset of defense-related genes resulted to be upregulated also upon treatment with C. trifolii GSE, although with an opposite trend. Surprisingly, long chitin oligomers activated both defense-like and symbiosis-related genes. Among the genes regulated in the microarray, promoter-GUS assay showed that LjMATE1 activates in epidermal cells and root hairs.

  12. Fungal colonization and/or infection in non-neutropenic critically ill patients: results of the EPCAN observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, C; Alvarez-Lerma, F; Ruiz-Santana, S; León, M A; Nolla, J; Jordá, R; Saavedra, P; Palomar, M

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the incidence of fungal colonization and infection in non-neutropenic critically ill patients and to identify factors favoring infection by Candida spp. A total of 1,655 consecutive patients (>18 years of age) admitted for > or = 7 days to 73 medical-surgical Spanish intensive care units (ICUs) participated in an observational prospective cohort study. Surveillance samples were obtained once a week. One or more fungi were isolated in different samples in 59.2% of patients, 94.2% of which were Candida spp. There were 864 (52.2%) patients with Candida spp. colonization and 92 (5.5%) with proven Candida infection. In the logistic regression analysis risk factors independently associated with Candida spp. infection were sepsis (odds ratio [OR] = 8.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.07-13.6), multifocal colonization (OR = 3.49, 95% CI 1.74-7.00), surgery (OR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.27-3.30), and the use of total parenteral nutrition (OR = 4.37, 95% CI 2.16-8.33). Patients with Candida spp. infection showed significantly higher in-hospital and intra-ICU mortality rates than those colonized or non-colonized non-infected (P colonization, mainly due to Candida spp., was documented in nearly 60% of non-neutropenic critically ill patients admitted to the ICU for more than 7 days. Proven candidal infection was diagnosed in 5.5% of cases. Risk factors independently associated with Candida spp. infection were sepsis, multifocal colonization, surgery, and the use of total parenteral nutrition.

  13. Biofertilization and Biocontrol in the fight against soilborne fungal root pathogens in Australian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sarah; Agnew, Linda; Pereg, Lily

    2015-04-01

    Control of soilborne fungal root pathogens that severely compromise cotton production and other crops worldwide has historically been through the use of synthetic fungicides and fertilizers, these often have hazardous implications for environmental and soil health. The search for sustainable alternatives has lead to heightened interest in biocontrol, using soil microorganisms that suppress the growth of phytopathogens directly and biofertilization, the use of microorganisms to increasing the nutrient availability in soils, increasing seedling vigour. Soil properties and consequently soil microbial properties are strongly impacted by agricultural practices, therefore we are isolating indigenous microorganisms from soils collected from ten different geographical locations within the Australian cotton-growing region. These differ vastly in soil type and management practices. Soils are being analysed to compare the abundance of phosphate solubilising, auxin producing and nitrogen cycling bacteria. Rhizospheric bacteria capable of plant growth promoting through a multiple actions are being isolated. In addition, a method for isolating soilborne fungal suppressive microbes directly from soil samples has been designed and is currently being used. Comparisons between agricultural practices and the plant growth promoting microbial component of soil microbiome will be reported on. We will discuss the microbial isolates identified, their modes of action and their potential use as biocontrol agents and/or biofertilizers in Australian cotton growing soils.

  14. Trichoderma-Induced Acidification Is an Early Trigger for Changes in Arabidopsis Root Growth and Determines Fungal Phytostimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelagio-Flores, Ramón; Esparza-Reynoso, Saraí; Garnica-Vergara, Amira; López-Bucio, José; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are common rhizosphere inhabitants widely used as biological control agents and their role as plant growth promoting fungi has been established. Although soil pH influences several fungal and plant functional traits such as growth and nutrition, little is known about its influence in rhizospheric or mutualistic interactions. The role of pH in the Trichoderma–Arabidopsis interaction was studied by determining primary root growth and lateral root formation, root meristem status and cell viability, quiescent center (QC) integrity, and auxin inducible gene expression. Primary root growth phenotypes in wild type seedlings and STOP1 mutants allowed identification of a putative root pH sensing pathway likely operating in plant–fungus recognition. Acidification by Trichoderma induced auxin redistribution within Arabidopsis columella root cap cells, causing root tip bending and growth inhibition. Root growth stoppage correlated with decreased cell division and with the loss of QC integrity and cell viability, which were reversed by buffering the medium. In addition, stop1, an Arabidopsis mutant sensitive to low pH, was oversensitive to T. atroviride primary root growth repression, providing genetic evidence that a pH root sensing mechanism reprograms root architecture during the interaction. Our results indicate that root sensing of pH mediates the interaction of Trichoderma with plants. PMID:28567051

  15. Trichoderma-Induced Acidification Is an Early Trigger for Changes in Arabidopsis Root Growth and Determines Fungal Phytostimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Pelagio-Flores

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma spp. are common rhizosphere inhabitants widely used as biological control agents and their role as plant growth promoting fungi has been established. Although soil pH influences several fungal and plant functional traits such as growth and nutrition, little is known about its influence in rhizospheric or mutualistic interactions. The role of pH in the Trichoderma–Arabidopsis interaction was studied by determining primary root growth and lateral root formation, root meristem status and cell viability, quiescent center (QC integrity, and auxin inducible gene expression. Primary root growth phenotypes in wild type seedlings and STOP1 mutants allowed identification of a putative root pH sensing pathway likely operating in plant–fungus recognition. Acidification by Trichoderma induced auxin redistribution within Arabidopsis columella root cap cells, causing root tip bending and growth inhibition. Root growth stoppage correlated with decreased cell division and with the loss of QC integrity and cell viability, which were reversed by buffering the medium. In addition, stop1, an Arabidopsis mutant sensitive to low pH, was oversensitive to T. atroviride primary root growth repression, providing genetic evidence that a pH root sensing mechanism reprograms root architecture during the interaction. Our results indicate that root sensing of pH mediates the interaction of Trichoderma with plants.

  16. Evidence of differences between the communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing galls and roots of Prunus persica infected by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Roldán, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play important roles as plant protection agents, reducing or suppressing nematode colonization. However, it has never been investigated whether the galls produced in roots by nematode infection are colonized by AMF. This study tested whether galls produced by Meloidogyne incognita infection in Prunus persica roots are colonized by AMF. We also determined the changes in AMF composition and biodiversity mediated by infection with this root-knot nematode. DNA from galls and roots of plants infected by M. incognita and from roots of noninfected plants was extracted, amplified, cloned, and sequenced using AMF-specific primers. Phylogenetic analysis using the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) data set revealed 22 different AMF sequence types (17 Glomus sequence types, 3 Paraglomus sequence types, 1 Scutellospora sequence type, and 1 Acaulospora sequence type). The highest AMF diversity was found in uninfected roots, followed by infected roots and galls. This study indicates that the galls produced in P. persica roots due to infection with M. incognita were colonized extensively by a community of AMF, belonging to the families Paraglomeraceae and Glomeraceae, that was different from the community detected in roots. Although the function of the AMF in the galls is still unknown, we hypothesize that they act as protection agents against opportunistic pathogens.

  17. Arabidopsis thaliana and Pisum sativum models demonstrate that root colonization is an intrinsic trait of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Quist, J Cristian; O'Sullivan, Louise A; Desert, Annaëlle; Fivian-Hughes, Amanda S; Millet, Coralie; Jones, T Hefin; Weightman, Andrew J; Rogers, Hilary J; Berry, Colin; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2014-02-01

    Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) bacteria possess biotechnologically useful properties that contrast with their opportunistic pathogenicity. The rhizosphere fitness of Bcc bacteria is central to their biocontrol and bioremediation activities. However, it is not known whether this differs between species or between environmental and clinical strains. We investigated the ability of 26 Bcc strains representing nine different species to colonize the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and Pisum sativum (pea). Viable counts, scanning electron microscopy and bioluminescence imaging were used to assess root colonization, with Bcc bacteria achieving mean (±sem) levels of 2.49±0.23×10(6) and 5.16±1.87×10(6) c.f.u. per centimetre of root on the A. thaliana and P. sativum models, respectively. The A. thaliana rhizocompetence model was able to reveal loss of colonization phenotypes in Burkholderia vietnamiensis G4 transposon mutants that had only previously been observed in competition experiments on the P. sativum model. Different Bcc species colonized each plant model at different rates, and no statistical difference in root colonization was observed between isolates of clinical or environmental origin. Loss of the virulence-associated third chromosomal replicon (>1 Mb DNA) did not alter Bcc root colonization on A. thaliana. In summary, Bcc bacteria possess intrinsic root colonization abilities irrespective of their species or source. As Bcc rhizocompetence does not require their third chromosomal replicon, the possibility of using synthetic biology approaches to engineer virulence-attenuated biotechnological strains is tractable.

  18. Broad-spectrum suppression of innate immunity is required for colonization of Arabidopsis roots by the fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sophie; Zechmann, Bernd; Molitor, Alexandra; Trujillo, Marco; Petutschnig, Elena; Lipka, Volker; Likpa, Volker; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    Piriformospora indica is a root-colonizing basidiomycete that confers a wide range of beneficial traits to its host. The fungus shows a biotrophic growth phase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots followed by a cell death-associated colonization phase, a colonization strategy that, to our knowledge, has not yet been reported for this plant. P. indica has evolved an extraordinary capacity for plant root colonization. Its broad host spectrum encompasses gymnosperms and monocotyledonous as well as dicotyledonous angiosperms, which suggests that it has an effective mechanism(s) for bypassing or suppressing host immunity. The results of our work argue that P. indica is confronted with a functional root immune system. Moreover, the fungus does not evade detection but rather suppresses immunity triggered by various microbe-associated molecular patterns. This ability to suppress host immunity is compromised in the jasmonate mutants jasmonate insensitive1-1 and jasmonate resistant1-1. A quintuple-DELLA mutant displaying constitutive gibberellin (GA) responses and the GA biosynthesis mutant ga1-6 (for GA requiring 1) showed higher and lower degrees of colonization, respectively, in the cell death-associated stage, suggesting that P. indica recruits GA signaling to help establish proapoptotic root cell colonization. Our study demonstrates that mutualists, like pathogens, are confronted with an effective innate immune system in roots and that colonization success essentially depends on the evolution of strategies for immunosuppression.

  19. Effect of IAA on in vitro growth and colonization of Nostoc in plant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Anwar; Shah, Syed T.; Rahman, Hazir; Irshad, Muhammad; Iqbal, Amjad

    2015-01-01

    Nostoc is widely known for its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen and the establishment of symbiotic relationship with a wide range of plants from various taxonomic groups. Several strains of Nostoc produce phytohormones that promote growth of its plant partners. Nostoc OS-1 was therefore selected for study because of the presence of putative ipdC gene that encodes a key enzyme to produce Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The results indicated that both cellular and released IAA was found high with increasing incubation time and reached to a peak value (i.e., 21 pmol mg-1ch-a) on the third week as determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Also the Nostoc OS-1 strain efficiently colonized the roots and promoted the growth of rice as well as wheat under axenic conditions and induced ipdC gene that suggested the possible involvement of IAA in these phenotypes. To confirm the impact of IAA on root colonization efficiency and plant promoting phenotypes of Nostoc OS-1, an ipdC knockout mutant was generated by homologous recombinant method. The amount of releasing IAA, in vitro growth, root colonization, and plant promoting efficiency of the ipdC knockout mutant was observed significantly lower than wild type strain under axenic conditions. Importantly, these phenotypes were restored to wild-type levels when the ipdC knockout mutant was complemented with wild type ipdC gene. These results together suggested that ipdC and/or synthesized IAA of Nostoc OS-1 is required for its efficient root colonization and plant promoting activity. PMID:25699072

  20. A novel interaction between plant-beneficial rhizobacteria and roots: colonization induces corn resistance against the root herbivore Diabrotica speciosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Santos

    Full Text Available A number of soil-borne microorganisms, such as mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria, establish mutualistic interactions with plants, which can indirectly affect other organisms. Knowledge of the plant-mediated effects of mutualistic microorganisms is limited to aboveground insects, whereas there is little understanding of what role beneficial soil bacteria may play in plant defense against root herbivory. Here, we establish that colonization by the beneficial rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense affects the host selection and performance of the insect Diabrotica speciosa. Root larvae preferentially orient toward the roots of non-inoculated plants versus inoculated roots and gain less weight when feeding on inoculated plants. As inoculation by A. brasilense induces higher emissions of (E-β-caryophyllene compared with non-inoculated plants, it is plausible that the non-preference of D. speciosa for inoculated plants is related to this sesquiterpene, which is well known to mediate belowground insect-plant interactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that a beneficial rhizobacterium inoculant indirectly alters belowground plant-insect interactions. The role of A. brasilense as part of an integrative pest management (IPM program for the protection of corn against the South American corn rootworm, D. speciosa, is considered.

  1. Colonization of root cells and plant growth promotion by Piriformospora indica occurs independently of plant common symbiosis genes

    OpenAIRE

    Banhara, Aline; Ding, Yi; Kühner, Regina; Zuccaro, Alga; Parniske, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi (Glomeromycota) form symbiosis with and deliver nutrients via the roots of most angiosperms. AM fungal hyphae are taken up by living root epidermal cells, a program which relies on a set of plant common symbiosis genes (CSGs). Plant root epidermal cells are also infected by the plant growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica (Basidiomycota), raising the question whether this interaction relies on the AM-related CSGs. Here we show that intracellular coloniz...

  2. Variation in Candida albicans EFG1 expression enables host-dependent changes in colonizing fungal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jessica V; Kumamoto, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    To understand differences in host-Candida albicans interactions that occur during colonization of healthy or compromised hosts, production of phenotypic variants and colonization of healthy or immunodeficient mice by C. albicans were studied. We showed that activity of the transcription factor Efg1p exhibited cell-to-cell variability and identified Efg1p as a major regulator of colonization. In C. albicans populations colonizing the murine gastrointestinal tract, average expression of EFG1 differed depending on the immune status of the host. We propose that cellular heterogeneity in Efg1p activity allows the C. albicans colonizing population to differ depending on the immune status of the host, because selective pressure from a healthy host alters the composition of the population. These data are the first demonstration that differences in host immune status are associated with differences in gene expression in colonizing C. albicans cells. Altered gene expression in organisms colonizing immunocompromised hosts may begin the transition of C. albicans from a commensal to a pathogen. In healthy people, the fungus Candida albicans colonizes the gastrointestinal tract and other sites without producing obvious pathology. In an immunocompromised patient, the organism can cause serious disease. The demonstration that the expression and activity of the C. albicans transcription factor Efg1p differs during colonization of healthy or immunocompromised mice shows that the organism adjusts its physiology when colonizing different hosts. Further, the effects of a healthy host on a heterogeneous C. albicans population containing cells with different levels of Efg1p activity show that selective pressure in the host can change the makeup of the population, allowing the population to respond to host immune status. The ability to sense host status may be key to the ability of C. albicans to colonize as a harmless commensal in some hosts but become a deadly pathogen in others.

  3. Seasonal dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in roots in a seminatural grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-González, Juan C; Finlay, Roger D; Tehler, Anders

    2007-09-01

    Symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been shown to influence both the diversity and productivity of grassland plant communities. These effects have been postulated to depend on the differential effects of individual mycorrhizal taxa on different plant species; however, so far there are few detailed studies of the dynamics of AMF colonization of different plant species. In this study, we characterized the communities of AMF colonizing the roots of two plant species, Prunella vulgaris and Antennaria dioica, in a Swedish seminatural grassland at different times of the year. The AMF small subunit rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Nineteen discrete sequence types belonging to Glomus groups A and B and to the genus Acaulospora were distinguished. No significant seasonal changes in the species compositions of the AMF communities as a whole were observed. However, the two plant species hosted significantly different AMF communities. P. vulgaris hosted a rich AMF community throughout the entire growing season. The presence of AMF in A. dioica decreased dramatically in autumn, while an increased presence of Ascomycetes species was detected.

  4. Seasonal Dynamics of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities in Roots in a Seminatural Grassland▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-González, Juan C.; Finlay, Roger D.; Tehler, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been shown to influence both the diversity and productivity of grassland plant communities. These effects have been postulated to depend on the differential effects of individual mycorrhizal taxa on different plant species; however, so far there are few detailed studies of the dynamics of AMF colonization of different plant species. In this study, we characterized the communities of AMF colonizing the roots of two plant species, Prunella vulgaris and Antennaria dioica, in a Swedish seminatural grassland at different times of the year. The AMF small subunit rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Nineteen discrete sequence types belonging to Glomus groups A and B and to the genus Acaulospora were distinguished. No significant seasonal changes in the species compositions of the AMF communities as a whole were observed. However, the two plant species hosted significantly different AMF communities. P. vulgaris hosted a rich AMF community throughout the entire growing season. The presence of AMF in A. dioica decreased dramatically in autumn, while an increased presence of Ascomycetes species was detected. PMID:17630308

  5. Root colonization and phytostimulation by phytohormones producing entophytic Nostoc sp. AH-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Anwar; Hamayun, Muhammad; Shah, Syed Tariq

    2013-11-01

    Nostoc, a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, has great potential to make symbiotic associations with a wide range of plants and benefit its hosts with nitrogen in the form of nitrates. It may also use phytohormones as a tool to promote plant growth. Phytohormones [cytokinin (Ck) and IAA] were determined in the culture of an endophytic Nostoc isolated from rice roots. The strain was able to accumulate as well as release phytohormones to the culture media. Optimum growth conditions for the production of zeatin and IAA were a temperature of 25 °C and a pH of 8.0. Time-dependent increase in the accumulation and release of phytohormones was recorded. To evaluate the impact of cytokinins, an ipt knockout mutant in the background of Nostoc was generated by homologous recombination method. A sharp decline (up to 80 %) in the zeatin content was observed in the culture of mutant strain Nostoc AHM-12. Association of the mutant and wild type strain with rice and wheat roots was studied under axenic conditions. The efficacy of Nostoc to colonize plant root was significantly reduced (P Nostoc to colonize plant root and promote its growth.

  6. Probiotics Prevent Candida Colonization and Invasive Fungal Sepsis in Preterm Neonates: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hua-Jian; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Qiao; Shakya, Shristi; Li, Zhong-Yue

    2017-04-01

    To investigate whether probiotic supplementation could reduce the risk of fungal infection in preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on the effect of probiotics on fungal infection in preterm neonates. The outcomes of interest were Candida colonization and invasive fungal sepsis. Seven trials involving 1371 preterm neonates were included. Meta-analysis (fixed-effects model) showed that probiotic supplementation was significantly associated with a lower risk of Candida colonization (2 RCTs, n = 329; relative risk (RR), 0.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.27-0.67; p = 0.0002; I 2  = 0%), and invasive fungal sepsis (7 RCTs, n = 1371; RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46-0.88; p = 0.006; I 2  = 13%). After excluding one study with a high baseline incidence (75%) of fungal sepsis, the effect of probiotics on invasive fungal sepsis became statistically insignificant (RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.44-1.78; p = 0.72; I 2  = 15%). When using the random-effects model, the effect of probiotics remained favorable for Candida colonization (RR, 0.43; 95% CI 0.27-0.68; p = 0.0002; I 2  = 0%) but not for fungal sepsis (RR, 0.64; 95% CI 0.38-1.08; p = 0.10; I 2  = 13%). Current evidence indicates that probiotics can reduce the risk of Candida colonization in preterm neonates in NICUs. Limited data support that probiotic supplementation prevents invasive fungal sepsis in preterm neonates. High-quality and adequately powered RCTs are warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The exopolysaccharide of Rhizobium sp. YAS34 is not necessary for biofilm formation on Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica napus roots but contributes to root colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaella, Catherine; Schue, Mathieu; Berge, Odile; Heulin, Thierry; Achouak, Wafa

    2008-01-01

    Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) play key roles in plant–microbe interactions, such as biofilm formation on plant roots and legume nodulation by rhizobia. Here, we focused on the function of an EPS produced by Rhizobium sp. YAS34 in the colonization and biofilm formation on non-legume plant roots (Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica napus). Using random transposon mutagenesis, we isolated an EPS-deficient mutant of strain YAS34 impaired in a glycosyltransferase gene (gta). Wild type and mutant strains were tagged with a plasmid-born GFP and, for the first time, the EPS produced by the wild-type strain was seen in the rhizosphere using selective carbohydrate probing with a fluorescent lectin and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. We show for the fist time that Rhizobium forms biofilms on roots of non-legumes, independently of the EPS synthesis. When produced by strain YAS34 wild type, EPS is targeted at specific parts of the plant root system. Nutrient fluctuations, root exudates and bacterial growth phase can account for such a production pattern. The EPS synthesis in Rhizobium sp. YAS34 is not essential for biofilm formation on roots, but is critical to colonization of the basal part of the root system and increasing the stability of root-adhering soil. Thus, in Rhizobium sp. YAS34 and non-legume interactions, microbial EPS is implicated in root–soil interface, root colonization, but not in biofilm formation. PMID:18507672

  8. A multifactor analysis of fungal and bacterial community structure of the root microbiome of mature Populus deltoides trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakya, Migun [ORNL; Gottel, Neil R [ORNL; Castro Gonzalez, Hector F [ORNL; Yang, Zamin [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Bonito, Gregory [Duke University; Vilgalys, Rytas [Duke University; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal communities associated with plant roots are central to the host- health, survival and growth. However, a robust understanding of root-microbiome and the factors that drive host associated microbial community structure have remained elusive, especially in mature perennial plants from natural settings. Here, we investigated relationships of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of the riparian tree species Populus deltoides, and the influence of soil parameters, environmental properties (host phenotype and aboveground environmental settings), host plant genotype (Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers), season (Spring vs. Fall) and geographic setting (at scales from regional watersheds to local riparian zones) on microbial community structure. Each of the trees sampled displayed unique aspects to it s associated community structure with high numbers of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) specific to an individual trees (bacteria >90%, fungi >60%). Over the diverse conditions surveyed only a small number of OTUs were common to all samples within rhizosphere (35 bacterial and 4 fungal) and endosphere (1 bacterial and 1 fungal) microbiomes. As expected, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were dominant in root communities (>50%) while other higher-level phylogenetic groups (Chytridiomycota, Acidobacteria) displayed greatly reduced abundance in endosphere compared to the rhizosphere. Variance partitioning partially explained differences in microbiome composition between all sampled roots on the basis of seasonal and soil properties (4% to 23%). While most variation remains unattributed, we observed significant differences in the microbiota between watersheds (Tennessee vs. North Carolina) and seasons (Spring vs. Fall). SSR markers clearly delineated two host populations associated with the samples taken in TN vs. NC, but overall genotypic distances did not have a significant effect on corresponding communities that could be

  9. A multifactor analysis of fungal and bacterial community structure in the root microbiome of mature Populus deltoides trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Migun; Gottel, Neil; Castro, Hector; Yang, Zamin K; Gunter, Lee; Labbé, Jessy; Muchero, Wellington; Bonito, Gregory; Vilgalys, Rytas; Tuskan, Gerald; Podar, Mircea; Schadt, Christopher W

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal communities associated with plant roots are central to the host health, survival and growth. However, a robust understanding of the root-microbiome and the factors that drive host associated microbial community structure have remained elusive, especially in mature perennial plants from natural settings. Here, we investigated relationships of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of the riparian tree species Populus deltoides, and the influence of soil parameters, environmental properties (host phenotype and aboveground environmental settings), host plant genotype (Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers), season (Spring vs. Fall) and geographic setting (at scales from regional watersheds to local riparian zones) on microbial community structure. Each of the trees sampled displayed unique aspects to its associated community structure with high numbers of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) specific to an individual trees (bacteria >90%, fungi >60%). Over the diverse conditions surveyed only a small number of OTUs were common to all samples within rhizosphere (35 bacterial and 4 fungal) and endosphere (1 bacterial and 1 fungal) microbiomes. As expected, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were dominant in root communities (>50%) while other higher-level phylogenetic groups (Chytridiomycota, Acidobacteria) displayed greatly reduced abundance in endosphere compared to the rhizosphere. Variance partitioning partially explained differences in microbiome composition between all sampled roots on the basis of seasonal and soil properties (4% to 23%). While most variation remains unattributed, we observed significant differences in the microbiota between watersheds (Tennessee vs. North Carolina) and seasons (Spring vs. Fall). SSR markers clearly delineated two host populations associated with the samples taken in TN vs. NC, but overall host genotypic distances did not have a significant effect on corresponding communities that

  10. A multifactor analysis of fungal and bacterial community structure in the root microbiome of mature Populus deltoides trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migun Shakya

    Full Text Available Bacterial and fungal communities associated with plant roots are central to the host health, survival and growth. However, a robust understanding of the root-microbiome and the factors that drive host associated microbial community structure have remained elusive, especially in mature perennial plants from natural settings. Here, we investigated relationships of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of the riparian tree species Populus deltoides, and the influence of soil parameters, environmental properties (host phenotype and aboveground environmental settings, host plant genotype (Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR markers, season (Spring vs. Fall and geographic setting (at scales from regional watersheds to local riparian zones on microbial community structure. Each of the trees sampled displayed unique aspects to its associated community structure with high numbers of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs specific to an individual trees (bacteria >90%, fungi >60%. Over the diverse conditions surveyed only a small number of OTUs were common to all samples within rhizosphere (35 bacterial and 4 fungal and endosphere (1 bacterial and 1 fungal microbiomes. As expected, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were dominant in root communities (>50% while other higher-level phylogenetic groups (Chytridiomycota, Acidobacteria displayed greatly reduced abundance in endosphere compared to the rhizosphere. Variance partitioning partially explained differences in microbiome composition between all sampled roots on the basis of seasonal and soil properties (4% to 23%. While most variation remains unattributed, we observed significant differences in the microbiota between watersheds (Tennessee vs. North Carolina and seasons (Spring vs. Fall. SSR markers clearly delineated two host populations associated with the samples taken in TN vs. NC, but overall host genotypic distances did not have a significant effect on corresponding communities

  11. Effect of soil-spraying time on root-colonization ability of antagonistic Streptomyces griseoviridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. KORTEMAA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The root-colonization ability of Streptomyces griseoviridis Anderson et al. was tested on turnip rape (Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera DC. and carrot (Daucus carota L. by the sand-tube method. Non-sterile sand was sprayed with a microbial suspension immediately or 7 days after the seed had been sown. Results expressed as population frequencies and densities indicated that S. griseoviridis effectively colonizes the rhizosphere when the microbe is applied immediately after sowing but less effectively when it is applied 7 days later. Detection values of S. griseoviridis were higher for turnip rape than for carrot. In sterile sand, S. griseoviridis invaribly colonized the rhizosphere of turnip rape after each of the two applications. These findings indicate that S. griseoviridis can compete with indigenous soil microbes in the rhizosphere if it is sufficiently abundant in the soil before the seed emerges. If applied later, however, it competes rather poorly. In root-free nonsterile sand, S. griseoviridis dispersed and survived well.;

  12. Impact of Bacterial-Fungal Interactions on the Colonization of the Endosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Saikkonen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Research on different endophyte taxa and the related scientific disciplines have largely developed separately, and comprehensive community-level studies on bacterial and fungal interactions and their importance are lacking. Here, we discuss the transmission modes of bacteria and fungi and the

  13. Alfalfa snakin-1 prevents fungal colonization and probably coevolved with rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Araceli Nora; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Fox, Ana Romina; Gómez, María Cristina; Diéguez, María José; Pagano, Elba María; Berini, Carolina Andrea; Muschietti, Jorge Prometeo; Soto, Gabriela

    2014-09-17

    The production of antimicrobial peptides is a common defense strategy of living cells against a wide range of pathogens. Plant snakin peptides inhibit bacterial and fungal growth at extremely low concentrations. However, little is known of their molecular and ecological characteristics, including origin, evolutionary equivalence, specific functions and activity against beneficial microbes. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize snakin-1 from alfalfa (MsSN1). Phylogenetic analysis showed complete congruence between snakin-1 and plant trees. The antimicrobial activity of MsSN1 against bacterial and fungal pathogens of alfalfa was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Transgenic alfalfa overexpressing MsSN1 showed increased antimicrobial activity against virulent fungal strains. However, MsSN1 did not affect nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains only when these had an alfalfa origin. The results reported here suggest that snakin peptides have important and ancestral roles in land plant innate immunity. Our data indicate a coevolutionary process, in which alfalfa exerts a selection pressure for resistance to MsSN1 on rhizobial bacteria. The increased antimicrobial activity against virulent fungal strains without altering the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis observed in MsSN1-overexpressing alfalfa transgenic plants opens the way to the production of effective legume transgenic cultivars for biotic stress resistance.

  14. Nitrate Assimilation Contributes to Ralstonia solanacearum Root Attachment, Stem Colonization, and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsing, Beth L.

    2014-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, an economically important plant pathogen, must attach, grow, and produce virulence factors to colonize plant xylem vessels and cause disease. Little is known about the bacterial metabolism that drives these processes. Nitrate is present in both tomato xylem fluid and agricultural soils, and the bacterium's gene expression profile suggests that it assimilates nitrate during pathogenesis. A nasA mutant, which lacks the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of R. solanacearum's sole assimilatory nitrate reductase, did not grow on nitrate as a sole nitrogen source. This nasA mutant exhibited reduced virulence and delayed stem colonization after soil soak inoculation of tomato plants. The nasA virulence defect was more severe following a period of soil survival between hosts. Unexpectedly, once bacteria reached xylem tissue, nitrate assimilation was dispensable for growth, virulence, and competitive fitness. However, nasA-dependent nitrate assimilation was required for normal production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), a major virulence factor. Quantitative analyses revealed that EPS production was significantly influenced by nitrate assimilation when nitrate was not required for growth. The plant colonization delay of the nasA mutant was externally complemented by coinoculation with wild-type bacteria but not by coinoculation with an EPS-deficient epsB mutant. The nasA mutant and epsB mutant did not attach to tomato roots as well as wild-type strain UW551. However, adding either wild-type cells or cell-free EPS improved the root attachment of these mutants. These data collectively suggest that nitrate assimilation promotes R. solanacearum virulence by enhancing root attachment, the initial stage of infection, possibly by modulating EPS production. PMID:24363343

  15. Nitrate assimilation contributes to Ralstonia solanacearum root attachment, stem colonization, and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsing, Beth L; Allen, Caitilyn

    2014-03-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, an economically important plant pathogen, must attach, grow, and produce virulence factors to colonize plant xylem vessels and cause disease. Little is known about the bacterial metabolism that drives these processes. Nitrate is present in both tomato xylem fluid and agricultural soils, and the bacterium's gene expression profile suggests that it assimilates nitrate during pathogenesis. A nasA mutant, which lacks the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of R. solanacearum's sole assimilatory nitrate reductase, did not grow on nitrate as a sole nitrogen source. This nasA mutant exhibited reduced virulence and delayed stem colonization after soil soak inoculation of tomato plants. The nasA virulence defect was more severe following a period of soil survival between hosts. Unexpectedly, once bacteria reached xylem tissue, nitrate assimilation was dispensable for growth, virulence, and competitive fitness. However, nasA-dependent nitrate assimilation was required for normal production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), a major virulence factor. Quantitative analyses revealed that EPS production was significantly influenced by nitrate assimilation when nitrate was not required for growth. The plant colonization delay of the nasA mutant was externally complemented by coinoculation with wild-type bacteria but not by coinoculation with an EPS-deficient epsB mutant. The nasA mutant and epsB mutant did not attach to tomato roots as well as wild-type strain UW551. However, adding either wild-type cells or cell-free EPS improved the root attachment of these mutants. These data collectively suggest that nitrate assimilation promotes R. solanacearum virulence by enhancing root attachment, the initial stage of infection, possibly by modulating EPS production.

  16. Endophytic colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia reveals plant growth promotion and a general defense and stress transcriptomic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larriba, Eduardo; Jaime, María D L A; Nislow, Corey; Martín-Nieto, José; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2015-07-01

    Plant crop yields are negatively conditioned by a large set of biotic and abiotic factors. An alternative to mitigate these adverse effects is the use of fungal biological control agents and endophytes. The egg-parasitic fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia has been traditionally studied because of its potential as a biological control agent of plant-parasitic nematodes. This fungus can also act as an endophyte in monocot and dicot plants, and has been shown to promote plant growth in different agronomic crops. An Affymetrix 22K Barley GeneChip was used in this work to analyze the barley root transcriptomic response to P. chlamydosporia root colonization. Functional gene ontology (GO) and gene set enrichment analyses showed that genes involved in stress response were enriched in the barley transcriptome under endophytism. An 87.5% of the probesets identified within the abiotic stress response group encoded heat shock proteins. Additionally, we found in our transcriptomic analysis an up-regulation of genes implicated in the biosynthesis of plant hormones, such as auxin, ethylene and jasmonic acid. Along with these, we detected induction of brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BR1) and other genes related to effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Our study supports at the molecular level the growth-promoting effect observed in plants endophytically colonized by P. chlamydosporia, which opens the door to further studies addressing the capacity of this fungus to mitigate the negative effects of biotic and abiotic factors on plant crops.

  17. Exogenous auxin affects the oxidative burst in barley roots colonized by Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Magdalena; Nostadt, Robin; Zuccaro, Alga

    2013-04-01

    Beside a cardinal role in coordination of many developmental processes in the plant, the phytohormone auxin has been recognized as a regulator of plant defense. The molecular mechanisms involved are still largely unknown. Using a sensitive chemiluminescence assay, which measures the oxidation of luminol in the presence of H₂O₂ by horseradish peroxidase (HRP), we report here on the ability of exogenously added indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to enhance the suppressive effect of the root endophyte Piriformospora indica on the chitin-elicited oxidative burst in barley roots. Thus, the potential of P. indica to produce free IAA during the early colonization phase in barley might provide the symbiont with a means to interfere with the microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMP)-triggered immunity.

  18. Habitat- and soil-related drivers of the root-associated fungal community of Quercus suber in the Northern Moroccan forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghnia, Fatima Zahra; Abbas, Younes; Mahé, Frédéric; Kerdouh, Benaissa; Tournier, Estelle; Ouadji, Mohamed; Tisseyre, Pierre; Prin, Yves; El Ghachtouli, Naïma; Bakkali Yakhlef, Salah Eddine; Duponnois, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Soil fungi associated with plant roots, notably ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi, are central in above- and below-ground interactions in Mediterranean forests. They are a key component in soil nutrient cycling and plant productivity. Yet, major disturbances of Mediterranean forests, particularly in the Southern Mediterranean basin, are observed due to the greater human pressures and climate changes. These disturbances highly impact forest cover, soil properties and consequently the root-associated fungal communities. The implementation of efficient conservation strategies of Mediterranean forests is thus closely tied to our understanding of root-associated fungal biodiversity and environmental rules driving its diversity and structure. In our study, the root-associated fungal community of Q. suber was analyzed using high-throughput sequencing across three major Moroccan cork oak habitats. Significant differences in root-associated fungal community structures of Q. suber were observed among Moroccan cork oak habitats (Maâmora, Benslimane, Chefchaoun) subjected to different human disturbance levels (high to low disturbances, respectively). The fungal community structure changes correlated with a wide range of soil properties, notably with pH, C:N ratio (P = 0.0002), and available phosphorus levels (P = 0.0001). More than 90 below-ground fungal indicators (P ectomycorrhiza (Tomentella, Russula, Cenococcum), and putative sclerotia-associated/ericoid mycorrhizal fungal taxa (Cladophialophora, Oidiodendron) in the Moroccan cork oak forest, and their intraspecific variability regarding their response to land use and soil characteristics. PMID:29155841

  19. Growth Promotion-Related miRNAs in Oncidium Orchid Roots Colonized by the Endophytic Fungus Piriformospora indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuling; Chen, Peng-Jen; Xu, Xuming; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2014-01-01

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica. PMID:24409313

  20. Growth promotion-related miRNAs in Oncidium orchid roots colonized by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Shen, Chin-Hui; Lin, Yuling; Chen, Peng-Jen; Xu, Xuming; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2014-01-01

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica.

  1. Growth promotion-related miRNAs in Oncidium orchid roots colonized by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ye

    Full Text Available Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica.

  2. Molecular diversity and distribution of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal communities colonizing roots of two different winter cover crops in response to their root proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Masao; Isobe, Katsunori; Miyazawa, Yusuke; Matsuda, Yukiya; Drijber, Rhae A; Torigoe, Yoichi

    2016-02-01

    A clear understanding of how crop root proliferation affects the distribution of the spore abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the composition of AMF communities in agricultural fields is imperative to identify the potential roles of AMF in winter cover crop rotational systems. Toward this goal, we conducted a field trial using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) or red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) grown during the winter season. We conducted a molecular analysis to compare the diversity and distribution of AMF communities in roots and spore abundance in soil cropped with wheat and red clover. The AMF spore abundance, AMF root colonization, and abundance of root length were investigated at three different distances from winter crops (0 cm, 7.5 cm, and 15 cm), and differences in these variables were found between the two crops. The distribution of specific AMF communities and variables responded to the two winter cover crops. The majority of Glomerales phylotypes were common to the roots of both winter cover crops, but Gigaspora phylotypes in Gigasporales were found only in red clover roots. These results also demonstrated that the diversity of the AMF colonizing the roots did not significantly change with the three distances from the crop within each rotation but was strongly influenced by the host crop identity. The distribution of specific AMF phylotypes responded to the presence of wheat and red clover roots, indicating that the host crop identity was much more important than the proliferation of crop roots in determining the diversity of the AMF communities.

  3. Experimental warming decreases arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization in prairie plants along a Mediterranean climate gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Wilson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF provide numerous services to their plant symbionts. Understanding climate change effects on AMF, and the resulting plant responses, is crucial for predicting ecosystem responses at regional and global scales. We investigated how the effects of climate change on AMF-plant symbioses are mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics. Methods: We used a combination of a greenhouse experiment and a manipulative climate change experiment embedded within a Mediterranean climate gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA to examine this question. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to determine the direct and indirect effects of experimental warming on AMF colonization. Results: Warming directly decreased AMF colonization across plant species and across the climate gradient of the study region. Other positive and negative indirect effects of warming, mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics, canceled each other out. Discussion: A warming-induced decrease in AMF colonization would likely have substantial consequences for plant communities and ecosystem function. Moreover, predicted increases in more intense droughts and heavier rains for this region could shift the balance among indirect causal pathways, and either exacerbate or mitigate the negative, direct effect of increased temperature on AMF colonization.

  4. A method to quantify infection and colonization of holm oak (Quercus ilex) roots by Phytophthora cinnamomi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gómez, Francisco J; Sánchez-Cuesta, Rafael; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M; Pérez-de-Luque, Alejandro

    2012-09-13

    Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. is an important root rot pathogen widely distributed in the north hemisphere, with a large host range. Among others diseases, it is known to be a principal factor in the decline of holm oak and cork oak, the most important tree species in the "dehesa" ecosystem of south-western Spain. Previously, the focus of studies on P. cinnamomi and holm oak have been on molecular tools for identification, functional responses of the host, together with other physiological and morphological host variables. However, a microscopic index to describe the degree of infection and colonization in the plant tissues has not yet been developed. A colonization or infection index would be a useful tool for studies that examine differences between individuals subjected to different treatments or to individuals belonging to different breeding accessions, together with their specific responses to the pathogen. This work presents a methodology based on the capture and digital treatment of microscopic images, using simple and accessible software, together with a range of variables that quantify the infection and colonization process.

  5. A method to quantify infection and colonization of holm oak (Quercus ilex roots by Phytophthora cinnamomi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Gómez Francisco J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. is an important root rot pathogen widely distributed in the north hemisphere, with a large host range. Among others diseases, it is known to be a principal factor in the decline of holm oak and cork oak, the most important tree species in the “dehesa” ecosystem of south-western Spain. Previously, the focus of studies on P. cinnamomi and holm oak have been on molecular tools for identification, functional responses of the host, together with other physiological and morphological host variables. However, a microscopic index to describe the degree of infection and colonization in the plant tissues has not yet been developed. A colonization or infection index would be a useful tool for studies that examine differences between individuals subjected to different treatments or to individuals belonging to different breeding accessions, together with their specific responses to the pathogen. This work presents a methodology based on the capture and digital treatment of microscopic images, using simple and accessible software, together with a range of variables that quantify the infection and colonization process.

  6. Effect of Fungal Colonization of Wheat Grains with Fusarium spp. on Food Choice, Weight Gain and Mortality of Meal Beetle Larvae (Tenebrio molitor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiqing; Döll, Katharina; Dastjerdi, Raana; Karlovsky, Petr; Dehne, Heinz-Wilhelm; Altincicek, Boran

    2014-01-01

    Species of Fusarium have significant agro-economical and human health-related impact by infecting diverse crop plants and synthesizing diverse mycotoxins. Here, we investigated interactions of grain-feeding Tenebrio molitor larvae with four grain-colonizing Fusarium species on wheat kernels. Since numerous metabolites produced by Fusarium spp. are toxic to insects, we tested the hypothesis that the insect senses and avoids Fusarium-colonized grains. We found that only kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or Beauveria bassiana (an insect-pathogenic fungal control) were avoided by the larvae as expected. Kernels colonized with F. proliferatum, F. poae or F. culmorum attracted T. molitor larvae significantly more than control kernels. The avoidance/preference correlated with larval feeding behaviors and weight gain. Interestingly, larvae that had consumed F. proliferatum- or F. poae-colonized kernels had similar survival rates as control. Larvae fed on F. culmorum-, F. avenaceum- or B. bassiana-colonized kernels had elevated mortality rates. HPLC analyses confirmed the following mycotoxins produced by the fungal strains on the kernels: fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin by F. proliferatum, enniatins and beauvericin by F. poae, enniatins by F. avenaceum, and deoxynivalenol and zearalenone by F. culmorum. Our results indicate that T. molitor larvae have the ability to sense potential survival threats of kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or B. bassiana, but not with F. culmorum. Volatiles potentially along with gustatory cues produced by these fungi may represent survival threat signals for the larvae resulting in their avoidance. Although F. proliferatum or F. poae produced fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin during kernel colonization, the larvae were able to use those kernels as diet without exhibiting increased mortality. Consumption of F. avenaceum-colonized kernels, however, increased larval mortality; these kernels had higher enniatin levels than F

  7. Effect of fungal colonization of wheat grains with Fusarium spp. on food choice, weight gain and mortality of meal beetle larvae (Tenebrio molitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Guo

    Full Text Available Species of Fusarium have significant agro-economical and human health-related impact by infecting diverse crop plants and synthesizing diverse mycotoxins. Here, we investigated interactions of grain-feeding Tenebrio molitor larvae with four grain-colonizing Fusarium species on wheat kernels. Since numerous metabolites produced by Fusarium spp. are toxic to insects, we tested the hypothesis that the insect senses and avoids Fusarium-colonized grains. We found that only kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or Beauveria bassiana (an insect-pathogenic fungal control were avoided by the larvae as expected. Kernels colonized with F. proliferatum, F. poae or F. culmorum attracted T. molitor larvae significantly more than control kernels. The avoidance/preference correlated with larval feeding behaviors and weight gain. Interestingly, larvae that had consumed F. proliferatum- or F. poae-colonized kernels had similar survival rates as control. Larvae fed on F. culmorum-, F. avenaceum- or B. bassiana-colonized kernels had elevated mortality rates. HPLC analyses confirmed the following mycotoxins produced by the fungal strains on the kernels: fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin by F. proliferatum, enniatins and beauvericin by F. poae, enniatins by F. avenaceum, and deoxynivalenol and zearalenone by F. culmorum. Our results indicate that T. molitor larvae have the ability to sense potential survival threats of kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or B. bassiana, but not with F. culmorum. Volatiles potentially along with gustatory cues produced by these fungi may represent survival threat signals for the larvae resulting in their avoidance. Although F. proliferatum or F. poae produced fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin during kernel colonization, the larvae were able to use those kernels as diet without exhibiting increased mortality. Consumption of F. avenaceum-colonized kernels, however, increased larval mortality; these kernels had higher enniatin

  8. Transcriptional regulation of defence genes and involvement of the WRKY transcription factor in arbuscular mycorrhizal potato root colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallou, Adrien; Declerck, Stéphane; Cranenbrouck, Sylvie

    2012-03-01

    The establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal associations causes major changes in plant roots and affects significantly the host in term of plant nutrition and resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. As a consequence, major changes in root transcriptome, especially in plant genes related to biotic stresses, are expected. Potato microarray analysis, followed by real-time quantitative PCR, was performed to detect the wide transcriptome changes induced during the pre-, early and late stages of potato root colonization by Glomus sp. MUCL 41833. The microarray analysis revealed 526 up-regulated and 132 down-regulated genes during the pre-stage, 272 up-regulated and 109 down-regulated genes during the early stage and 734 up-regulated and 122 down-regulated genes during the late stage of root colonization. The most important class of regulated genes was associated to plant stress and in particular to the WRKY transcription factors genes during the pre-stage of root colonization. The expression profiling clearly demonstrated a wide transcriptional change during the pre-, early and late stages of root colonization. It further suggested that the WRKY transcription factor genes are involved in the mechanisms controlling the arbuscular mycorrhizal establishment by the regulation of plant defence genes.

  9. Immunolocalization of hydrophobin HYDPt-1 from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Pisolithus tinctorius during colonization of Eucalyptus globulus roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tagu, D; De Bellis, R; Balestrini, R; De Vries, OMH; Piccoli, G; Stocchi, [No Value; Bonfante, P; Martin, F

    The immunolocalization of one of the hydrophobins of Pisolithus tinctorius (HYDPt-1) is reported. Hydrophobin proteins play key roles in adhesion and aggregation of fungal hyphae, and it is already known that formation of ectomycorrhizas on eucalypt roots enhances the accumulation of hydrophobin

  10. Epidemiology and Resistance Patterns of Bacterial and Fungal Colonization of Biliary Plastic Stents: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Lübbert

    Full Text Available Plastic stents used for the treatment of biliary obstruction will become occluded over time due to microbial colonization and formation of biofilms. Treatment of stent-associated cholangitis is often not effective because of inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents or antimicrobial resistance. We aimed to assess the current bacterial and fungal etiology of stent-associated biofilms, with particular emphasis on antimicrobial resistance.Patients with biliary strictures requiring endoscopic stent placement were prospectively enrolled. After the retrieval of stents, biofilms were disrupted by sonication, microorganisms were cultured, and isolates were identified by matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and/or biochemical typing. Finally, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined for various antimicrobial agents. Selected stents were further analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH.Among 120 patients (62.5% males, median age 64 years with biliary strictures (35% malignant, 65% benign, 113 double pigtail polyurethane and 100 straight polyethylene stents were analyzed after a median indwelling time of 63 days (range, 1-1274 days. The stent occlusion rate was 11.5% and 13%, respectively, being associated with a significantly increased risk of cholangitis (38.5% vs. 9.1%, P<0.001. Ninety-five different bacterial and 13 fungal species were detected; polymicrobial colonization predominated (95.8% vs. 4.2%, P<0.001. Enterococci (79.3%, Enterobacteriaceae (73.7%, and Candida spp. (55.9% were the leading pathogens. Candida species were more frequent in patients previously receiving prolonged antibiotic therapy (63% vs. 46.7%, P = 0.023. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci accounted for 13.7%, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae with co-resistance to ciprofloxacin accounted for 13.9%, and azole-resistant Candida spp. accounted for 32.9% of the respective

  11. Effect of Preservative Treatment on Fungal Colonization of Teak, Redwood, and Western Red Cedar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera Orozco, Yohanna; Freitag, F.; Morrell, Jeffrey J.

    . Sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcriber spacer (ITS) region showed the taxa represented 56 ascomycetes, 17 basidiomycetes, 1 zygomycete and 10 unknowns. Basidiomycetes were mainly found in samples treated to the lowest biocide concentrations or non-treated samples, while there were...... no consistent isolation patterns with ascomycetes. Overall, treatment did not appear to affect community structure. Our results highlight (i) the need for caution in designating taxonomic units (species) based on culture or ITS BLAST matches, (ii) the utility of fungal culturing followed by molecular...

  12. Biodeterioration of Pompeian mural paintings: fungal colonization favoured by the presence of volcanic material residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneranda, Marco; Prieto-Taboada, Nagore; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Maguregui, Maite; Morillas, Hector; Marcaida, Iker; Castro, Kepa; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Osanna, Massimo

    2017-08-01

    This work was focused on the study of the biodegradation processes jeopardizing a mural painting conserved in the basement of Ariadne House (archaeological site of Pompeii, Italy). The fresco stood out for its peculiar state of preservation: the upper part, recovered in 1988, was just barely colonized by microorganisms. On the contrary, the lower part (excavated in 2005) was almost completely covered by extensive biological patinas. The genomic characterization carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) highlighted the presence of seven different fungi strains on the mural surface. Beside, in situ and laboratory analyses were performed with the purpose of identifying the causes of the heterogeneous spatial distribution of the biopatinas. The in situ Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectroscopy measurements excluded any link between the heterogeneous colonization and the original materials present in the wall. On the other side, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on microsamples proved the presence of a thin volcanic material layer overlying the lower part of the fresco. Considering that most of the biofilms of the studied mural painting only growth over these residues, it was confirmed the role of volcanic material as a suitable support for biological colonization. Thanks to the obtained results, this research helped to understand more in depth an important degradation pathway threatening the artworks from one of the most important archaeological sites in the world.

  13. Selection of Infective Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Isolates for Field Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pellegrino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi play a key role in host plant growth and health, nutrient and water uptake, plant community diversity and dynamics. AM fungi differ in their symbiotic performance, which is the result of the interaction of two fungal characters, infectivity and efficiency. Infectivity is the ability of a fungal isolate to establish rapidly an extensive mycorrhizal symbiosis and is correlated with pre-symbiotic steps of fungal life cycle, such as spore germination and hyphal growth. Here, different AM fungal isolates were tested, with the aim of selecting infective endophytes for field inoculation. Greenhouse and microcosm experiments were performed in order to assess the ability of 12 AM fungal isolates to produce spores, colonize host roots and to perform initial steps of symbiosis establishment, such as spore germination and hyphal growth. AM fungal spore production and root colonization were significantly different among AM fungal isolates. Spore and sporocarp densities ranged from 0.8 to 7.4 and from 0.6 to 2.0 per gram of soil, respectively, whereas root colonization ranged from 2.9 to 72.2%. Percentage of spore or sporocarp germination ranged from 5.8 to 53.3% and hyphal length from 4.7 to 79.8 mm. The ordination analysis (Redundancy Analysis, RDA showed that environmental factors explained about 60% of the whole variance and their effect on fungal infectivity variables was significant (P = 0.002. The biplot clearly showed that variables which might be used to detect infective AM fungal isolates were hyphal length and root colonization. Such analysis may allow the detection of the best parameters to select efficient AM fungal isolates to be used in agriculture.

  14. Temporal Dynamics of Bacterial and Fungal Colonization on Plastic Debris in the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tender, Caroline; Devriese, Lisa I; Haegeman, Annelies; Maes, Sara; Vangeyte, Jürgen; Cattrijsse, André; Dawyndt, Peter; Ruttink, Tom

    2017-07-05

    Despite growing evidence that biofilm formation on plastic debris in the marine environment may be essential for its biodegradation, the underlying processes have yet to be fully understood. Thus, far, bacterial biofilm formation had only been studied after short-term exposure or on floating plastic, yet a prominent share of plastic litter accumulates on the seafloor. In this study, we explored the taxonomic composition of bacterial and fungal communities on polyethylene plastic sheets and dolly ropes during long-term exposure on the seafloor, both at a harbor and an offshore location in the Belgian part of the North Sea. We reconstructed the sequence of events during biofilm formation on plastic in the harbor environment and identified a core bacteriome and subsets of bacterial indicator species for early, intermediate, and late stages of biofilm formation. Additionally, by implementing ITS2 metabarcoding on plastic debris, we identified and characterized for the first time fungal genera on plastic debris. Surprisingly, none of the plastics exposed to offshore conditions displayed the typical signature of a late stage biofilm, suggesting that biofilm formation is severely hampered in the natural environment where most plastic debris accumulates.

  15. Effect of four dental varnishes on the colonization of cariogenic bacteria on exposed sound root surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenbäck, S B; Linder, L E; Lönnies, H

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of four different dental varnishes on the colonization of mutans streptococci, total streptococci and lactobacilli on exposed sound root surfaces. Sixty-five individuals were randomly allotted to one of four groups for treatment with Cervitec((R) ) varnish containing 1% chlorhexidine and 1% thymol, a thymol varnish or one of two different fluoride varnishes, Fluor Protector and Duraphat. The varnish was applied to three buccal root surfaces in each patient at baseline and after 1 week. Dental plaque from the root surfaces was collected and analysed on four different occasions: at baseline, after 1 week, 1 month and 6 months. The Cervitec varnish caused a statistically significant reduction in the number of mutans streptococci over time. The reduction was significant at 1 week and 1 month relative to baseline. The numbers of total streptococci and lactobacilli were not significantly affected by treatment with Cervitec. No statistically significant difference over time was found for mutans streptococci, lactobacilli or total streptococci after treatment with the fluoride varnishes or the thymol varnish.

  16. Trichoderma-Plant Root Colonization: Escaping Early Plant Defense Responses and Activation of the Antioxidant Machinery for Saline Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Yariv; Landau, Udi; Cuadros-Inostroza, Álvaro; Takayuki, Tohge; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Chet, Ilan; Viterbo, Ada; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts which can colonize the apoplast of plant roots. Microarrays analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana roots inoculated with Trichoderma asperelloides T203, coupled with qPCR analysis of 137 stress responsive genes and transcription factors, revealed wide gene transcript reprogramming, proceeded by a transient repression of the plant immune responses supposedly to allow root colonization. Enhancement in the expression of WRKY18 and WRKY40, which stimulate JA-signaling via suppression of JAZ repressors and negatively regulate the expression of the defense genes FMO1, PAD3 and CYP71A13, was detected in Arabidopsis roots upon Trichoderma colonization. Reduced root colonization was observed in the wrky18/wrky40 double mutant line, while partial phenotypic complementation was achieved by over-expressing WRKY40 in the wrky18 wrky40 background. On the other hand increased colonization rate was found in roots of the FMO1 knockout mutant. Trichoderma spp. stimulate plant growth and resistance to a wide range of adverse environmental conditions. Arabidopsis and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants treated with Trichoderma prior to salt stress imposition show significantly improved seed germination. In addition, Trichoderma treatment affects the expression of several genes related to osmo-protection and general oxidative stress in roots of both plants. The MDAR gene coding for monodehydroascorbate reductase is significantly up-regulated and, accordingly, the pool of reduced ascorbic acid was found to be increased in Trichoderma treated plants. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase silenced Trichoderma mutants were less effective in providing tolerance to salt stress, suggesting that Trichoderma, similarly to ACC deaminase producing bacteria, can ameliorate plant growth under conditions of abiotic stress, by lowering ameliorating increases in ethylene levels as well as promoting an elevated antioxidative capacity

  17. Utilization of Biopore Infiltration Hole and Cross Drain Technology to Improve Root Geometry and Mycorrhizal Colonization in Skidding Road

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Prameswari; Supriyanto .; Bambang Hero Saharjo; Basuki Wasis; Prijanto Pamoengkas

    2014-01-01

    Root geometry is important factor in planting in skidding roads. Soil compaction, lack of mycorrhizal population and stunted seedling growth are the common problem in skidding road for reforestation success. Implementation of bio-pore infiltration hole (BIH) and cross drain (CD) technology may improve the skidding road problems. The aim of the study was to examine the use of BIH and CD technology to improve root geometry and mycorrhizal colonization in skidding roads. Shorealeprosula and Sh...

  18. The Medicago truncatula MtRbohE gene is activated in arbusculated cells and is involved in root cortex colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmondo, Simone; Calcagno, Cristina; Genre, Andrea; Puppo, Alain; Pauly, Nicolas; Lanfranco, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Our study demonstrated that the NAPDH oxidase gene MtRbohE is expressed in arbusculated cells and plays a role in arbuscule development. Plant NADPH oxidases, known as respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOH), belong to a multigenic family that plays an important role in the regulation of plant development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we monitored the expression profiles of five Rboh genes (MtRbohA, MtRbohB, MtRbohE, MtRbohG, MtRbohF) in the roots of the model species Medicago truncatula upon colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. A complementary cellular and molecular approach was used to monitor changes in mRNA abundance and localize transcripts in different cell types from mycorrhizal roots. Rboh transcript levels did not drastically change in total RNA extractions from whole mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots. Nevertheless, the analysis of laser microdissected cells and Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed roots expressing a GUS transcriptional fusion construct highlighted the MtRbohE expression in arbuscule-containing cells. Furthermore, the down regulation of MtRbohE by an RNAi approach generated an altered colonization pattern in the root cortex, when compared to control roots, with fewer arbuscules and multiple penetration attempts. Altogether our data indicate a transient up-regulation of MtRbohE expression in cortical cells colonized by arbuscules and suggest a role for MtRbohE in arbuscule accommodation within cortical cells.

  19. Dry matter and root colonization of plants by indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with physical fractions of dry olive mill residue inoculated with saprophytic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, E.; Sampredro, I.; Diaz, R.; Garcia-Sanchez, M.; Siles, J. A.; Ocampo, J. A.; Garcia-Romera, I.

    2010-07-01

    We studied the influence of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and saprobe fungi on the phytotoxicity of the physical fractions of dry olive mill residue (DOR). The physical extractions of DOR gave an aqueous (ADOR) and an exhausted (SDOR) fraction with less phytotoxicity for tomato than the original samples. The indigenous AM were able to decrease the phytotoxicity of SDOR inoculated with Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus on tomato. However, incubation of ADOR with both saprophytic fungi did not decrease its phytotoxicity in presence of the indigenous AM fungi. The percentage of root length colonized by indigenous AM strongly decreased in presence of DOR, around 80% of decrease at dose of 25 g kg-1of DOR, but the level of mycorrhization was higher in presence of ADOR or SDOR (38% and 44% of decrease respectively at the same dose). There were no relationships between the effects of the physical fractions of DOR incubated with the saprobe fungi on AM colonization and on plant dry weight of tomato. Our results suggest that the phytotoxicity of the olive residues can be eliminated by the combination of physical extraction and by saprobe fungal inoculation and the use of this agrowaste as organic amendment in agricultural soil may be possible. (Author) 33 refs.

  20. A fungal endophyte helps plants to tolerate root herbivory through changes in gibberellin and jasmonate signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebeca Cosme, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413319393

    2016-01-01

    Plant–microbe mutualisms can improve plant defense, but the impact of root endophytes on below-ground herbivore interactions remains unknown. We investigated the effects of the root endophyte Piriformospora indica on interactions between rice (Oryza sativa) plants and its root herbivore rice water

  1. Influence of soil type, cultivar and Verticillium dahliae on the structure of the root and rhizosphere soil fungal microbiome of strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallanchakravarthula, Srivathsa; Mahmood, Shahid; Alström, Sadhna; Finlay, Roger D

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable management of crop productivity and health necessitates improved understanding of the ways in which rhizosphere microbial populations interact with each other, with plant roots and their abiotic environment. In this study we examined the effects of different soils and cultivars, and the presence of a soil-borne fungal pathogen, Verticillium dahliae, on the fungal microbiome of the rhizosphere soil and roots of strawberry plants, using high-throughput pyrosequencing. Fungal communities of the roots of two cultivars, Honeoye and Florence, were statistically distinct from those in the rhizosphere soil of the same plants, with little overlap. Roots of plants growing in two contrasting field soils had high relative abundance of Leptodontidium sp. C2 BESC 319 g whereas rhizosphere soil was characterised by high relative abundance of Trichosporon dulcitum or Cryptococcus terreus, depending upon the soil type. Differences between different cultivars were not as clear. Inoculation with the pathogen V. dahliae had a significant influence on community structure, generally decreasing the number of rhizosphere soil- and root-inhabiting fungi. Leptodontidium sp. C2 BESC 319 g was the dominant fungus responding positively to inoculation with V. dahliae. The results suggest that 1) plant roots select microorganisms from the wider rhizosphere pool, 2) that both rhizosphere soil and root inhabiting fungal communities are influenced by V. dahliae and 3) that soil type has a stronger influence on both of these communities than cultivar.

  2. Effect of heavy metal contaminated shooting range soils on mycorrhizal colonization of roots and metal uptake by leek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafar, A; Ruh, R; Klingel, P; Gamper, H; Egli, S; Frossard, E

    2002-10-01

    We grew leek (Allium porrum) in soils of two shooting ranges heavily contaminated with heavy metals in the towns of Zuchwil and Oberuzwil in Switzerland as a bioassay to test the activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in these soils. Soil samples were taken from (1) front of the shooting house (HOUSE), (2) the area between house and target (FIELD) and (3) the berm (BACKSTOP). Samples of Ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) growing naturally within the shooting ranges were also collected and the colonization of its roots by mycorrhizal fungi was measured. The number of AM spores in the soils was significantly reduced concomitant with the increase in the degree of soil contamination with metals. In Zuchwil, mycorrhizal fungi equally colonized roots of Ribwort plantain sampled from BACKSTOP and HOUSE. In Oberuzwil, however, plants from BACKSTOP had lower colonization when compared with those sampled from HOUSE. Colonization of leek was strongly reduced in the BACKSTOP soil of Zuchwil and slightly reduced in the BACKSTOP soil of Oberuzwil when compared with plants grown in respective HOUSE soil. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the leaves of leek grown in the BACKSTOP soil was within the range considered toxic for human consumption. This points to the high degree of bioavailability of these metal in these soils. Significant decrease in the number of mycorrhizal spores in the BACKSTOP soils in Zuchwil and the low colonization of leek roots grown in these soils point to possible changes in the species diversity of mycorrhizal fungi in these soils.

  3. Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, Edwin Rene; Glenn, Anthony Elbie; Hinton, Dorothy Mae; Bacon, Charles Wilson

    2013-09-01

    Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspergilli produce important mycotoxins, ochratoxins A, and the fumonisins. To facilitate the study of the black aspergilli-maize interactions with maize during the early stages of infections, we developed a method that used the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and the monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) to transform A. niger and A. carbonarius, respectively. The results were constitutive expressions of the fluorescent genes that were stable in the cytoplasms of hyphae and conidia under natural environmental conditions. The hyphal in planta distribution in 21-day-old seedlings of maize were similar wild type and transformants of A. niger and A. carbonarius. The in planta studies indicated that both wild type and transformants internally colonized leaf, stem and root tissues of maize seedlings, without any visible disease symptoms. Yellow and red fluorescent strains were capable of invading epidermal cells of maize roots intercellularly within the first 3 days after inoculation, but intracellular hyphal growth was more evident after 7 days of inoculation. We also tested the capacity of fluorescent transformants to produce ochratoxin A and the results with A. carbonarius showed that this transgenic strain produced similar concentrations of this secondary metabolite. This is the first report on the in planta expression of fluorescent proteins that should be useful to study the internal plant colonization patterns of two ochratoxigenic species in the Aspergillus section Nigri. © 2013.

  4. Root colonization and growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter sp. Fs-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Ali, Saira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    An Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 was isolated from sunflower rhizosphere, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank accession no. GQ179978) and studied for its root colonization and growth promotion ability in sunflower. Morphologically, it was rod shaped Gram-negative, motile

  5. Induction of root colonization by Piriformospora indica leads to enhanced asiaticoside production in Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesan, Jisha; Narayanan, Anith K; Sakunthala, Manjula

    2012-04-01

    Centella asiatica (Indian pennywort) has wide application in Indian and Chinese traditional medicines with documented evidence for wound healing and neuroprotective and anti-aging potential. Asiaticoside, a trisaccharide triterpene, is the most medicinally active compound in the plant. β-Amyrin synthase and squalene synthase have been identified as the two key genes in the triterpenoid pathway which regulate the production of asiaticoside in C. asiatica. The paper reports salient findings of our study utilizing the growth-promoting endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica to successfully colonize roots of C. asiatica in vitro cultures for investigating the effect of the mutualistic association on asiaticoside production. Co-cultivation of P. indica resulted in the rapid enhancement of root and shoot biomass of host plant, which was visible after 7 days of culture and continued up to 45 days. P. indica co-cultivation also favored the synthesis of asiaticosides, as evidenced by HPLC analysis which indicated about twofold increase (0.53% (w/w) in leaves and 0.23% (w/w) in whole plant) over control (0.33% (w/w) in leaves and 0.14% (w/w) in whole plant). Real-time PCR results confirmed the strong upregulation of squalene synthase and β-amyrin synthase transcripts in P. indica-challenged plants compared with the control. Our data demonstrate the potential use of P. indica as a means to enhance plant secondary metabolite production in planta with scope for further field evaluation. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  6. Quantitative evaluation of protocorm growth and fungal colonization in Bletilla striata (Orchidaceae) reveals less-productive symbiosis with a non-native symbiotic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuki; Miura, Chihiro; Fuji, Masako; Nagata, Shotaro; Otani, Yuria; Yagame, Takahiro; Yamato, Masahide; Kaminaka, Hironori

    2017-02-21

    In nature, orchid plants depend completely on symbiotic fungi for their nutrition at the germination and the subsequent seedling (protocorm) stages. However, only limited quantitative methods for evaluating the orchid-fungus interactions at the protocorm stage are currently available, which greatly constrains our understanding of the symbiosis. Here, we aimed to improve and integrate quantitative evaluations of the growth and fungal colonization in the protocorms of a terrestrial orchid, Blettila striata, growing on a plate medium. We achieved both symbiotic and asymbiotic germinations for the terrestrial orchid B. striata. The protocorms produced by the two germination methods grew almost synchronously for the first three weeks. At week four, however, the length was significantly lower in the symbiotic protocorms. Interestingly, the dry weight of symbiotic protocorms did not significantly change during the growth period, which implies that there was only limited transfer of carbon compounds from the fungus to the protocorms in this relationship. Next, to evaluate the orchid-fungus interactions, we developed an ink-staining method to observe the hyphal coils in protocorms without preparing thin sections. Crushing the protocorm under the coverglass enables us to observe all hyphal coils in the protocorms with high resolution. For this observation, we established a criterion to categorize the stages of hyphal coils, depending on development and degradation. By counting the symbiotic cells within each stage, it was possible to quantitatively evaluate the orchid-fungus symbiosis. We describe a method for quantitative evaluation of orchid-fungus symbiosis by integrating the measurements of plant growth and fungal colonization. The current study revealed that although fungal colonization was observed in the symbiotic protocorms, the weight of the protocorm did not significantly increase, which is probably due to the incompatibility of the fungus in this symbiosis. These

  7. Does warming by open-top chambers induce change in the root-associated fungal community of the arctic dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona (Ericaceae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorberau, Kelsey Erin; Botnen, Synnøve Smebye; Mundra, Sunil; Aas, Anders Bjørnsgaard; Rozema, Jelte; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken; Kauserud, Håvard

    2017-07-01

    Climate change may alter mycorrhizal communities, which impact ecosystem characteristics such as carbon sequestration processes. These impacts occur at a greater magnitude in Arctic ecosystems, where the climate is warming faster than in lower latitudes. Cassiope tetragona (L.) D. Don is an Arctic plant species in the Ericaceae family with a circumpolar range. C. tetragona has been reported to form ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) as well as ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbioses. In this study, the fungal taxa present within roots of C. tetragona plants collected from Svalbard were investigated using DNA metabarcoding. In light of ongoing climate change in the Arctic, the effects of artificial warming by open-top chambers (OTCs) on the fungal root community of C. tetragona were evaluated. We detected only a weak effect of warming by OTCs on the root-associated fungal communities that was masked by the spatial variation between sampling sites. The root fungal community of C. tetragona was dominated by fungal groups in the Basidiomycota traditionally classified as either saprotrophic or ECM symbionts, including the orders Sebacinales and Agaricales and the genera Clavaria, Cortinarius, and Mycena. Only a minor proportion of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) could be annotated as ErM-forming fungi. This indicates that C. tetragona may be forming mycorrhizal symbioses with typically ECM-forming fungi, although no characteristic ECM root tips were observed. Previous studies have indicated that some saprophytic fungi may also be involved in biotrophic associations, but whether the saprotrophic fungi in the roots of C. tetragona are involved in biotrophic associations remains unclear. The need for more experimental and microscopy-based studies to reveal the nature of the fungal associations in C. tetragona roots is emphasized.

  8. Fungal colonization of seeds of three lupine species in different regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The health status of seeds of three lupine species (white lupine, narrow-leaved lupine, and yellow lupine from different regions of Poland was investigated. Seeds were analyzed by microscopic method and PCR. The examined lupine seeds were colonized by saprotrophic fungi of the genera Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Penicillium, and pathogenic fungi of the genera Fusarium, Botrytis, Mycosphaerella, and Colletotrichum. The relative frequency (RF of fungi detected on lupine seeds from the regions of Kujawy, Wielkopolska, Lower Silesia, and Warmia and Mazury was determined. The highest RF values of pathogenic fungi were noted in Lower Silesia in 2012 and 2013, and in Warmia and Mazury in 2011. The RF values of pathogenic and saprotrophic fungi on lupine seeds harvested in different regions of Poland were affected by weather conditions. PCR analyses revealed the presence of Tri genes in the seeds of narrow-leaved lupine. The analyzed seeds were relatively free of pathogenic fungi and could be used for sowing and feed production.

  9. Effect of soil moisture on root-associated fungal communities of Erica dominans in Drakensberg mountains in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, Petr; Tedersoo, Leho

    2017-05-01

    Ericoid mycorrhiza represents a key adaptation of the Ericaceae plants to facilitate their establishment in harsh conditions. The Ericaceae are a large family of flowering plants, with global distribution. However, our current knowledge about the ericoid mycorrhizal fungal diversity and ecology largely relates to the Northern Hemisphere. Our study focused on the assembly of root-associated fungal (RAF) communities of Erica dominans in two types of microhabitats of contrasting moisture along an elevation gradient in Drakensberg mountains in South Africa. RAF communities were determined by 454-sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA. The majority of RAF showed affinity to the orders Helotiales, Pezizales, and Pleosporales. Microhabitat type as well as elevation had significant but weak effect on RAF community composition. We identified two putative ericoid mycorrhizal fungi, the ecological niches of which were differentiated between the studied microhabitats. Our study also provides one of the first comprehensive data about RAF communities of Ericaceae on African continent and shows the occurrence of the most studied ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Pezoloma ericae (belonging to P. ericae aggregate) in roots of Ericaceae host plant in Africa.

  10. Assessment of Ustilago maydis as a fungal model for root infection studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri-Naeini, Mahta; Sabbagh, Seyed Kazem; Martinez, Yves; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Roux, Christophe

    2015-03-01

    Ustilago maydis is a fungus infecting aerial parts of maize to form smutted galls. Due to its interest as a genetic tool in plant pathology, we evaluated its ability to penetrate into plant roots. The fungus can penetrate between epidermic root cells, forming inter and intracellular pseudohyphae. Root infection didn't provoke gall formation on the maize lines tested, and targeted PCR detection showed that U. maydis, unlike the other maize smut fungus Sporisorium reilianum, has a weak aptitude to grow from the roots up to the aerial part of maize. We also observed that U. maydis can infect Medicago truncatula hairy roots as an alternative host. This plant species is a model host to study root symbiosis, and this pathosystem can provide new insights on root-microbe interactions. Considering that U. maydis could be a soil fungus, we tested its responsiveness to GR24, a strigolactone analogue. Strigolactones are root exuded molecules which activate mitochondrial metabolism of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Physiologic and molecular analysis revealed that GR24 also increases cell respiration of U. maydis. This result points out that strigolactones could have an incidence on several rhizospheric microbes. These data provide evidences that the biotrophic pathogen U. maydis has to be considered for studying root infection. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of antifungal genes expressed in transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) on root colonization with Glomus intraradices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Fathi; Noorian, Mojgan Sharifi; Jacobsen, Hans-Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi have always been a major problem in agriculture. One of the effective methods for controlling pathogen fungi to date is the introduction of resistance genes into the genome of crops. It is interesting to find out whether the induced resistance in crops will have a negative effect on non-target organisms such as root colonization with the AM fungi.   The objective of the present research was to study the influence of producing antifungal molecules by four transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) lines expressing PGIP gene from raspberry, VST-stilbene synthase from vine, a hybrid of PGIP/VST and bacterial Chitinase gene (Chit30) from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis respectively on the colonization potential of Glomus intraradices. Four different experiments were done in greenhouse and climate chamber, colonization was observed in all replications. The following parameters were used for evaluation: frequency of mycorrhization, the intensity of mycorrhization, the average presence of arbuscules within the colonized areas and the presence of arbuscules in the whole root system which showed insignificant difference between transgenic and non-transgenic plants. The root/shoot ratio exhibited different values according to the experiment condition. Compared with negative non-transgenic control all transgenic lines showed the ability to establish symbiosis and the different growth parameters had insignificant effect due to mycorrhization. The results of the present study proved that the introduced pathogen resistance genes did not affect the mycorrhization allocations in pea.

  12. Fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation in the air distribution system of a multi-story office building: VOC production and possible relationship to a sick building syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Crow, S. A.; Simmons, R. B.; Price, D. L.; Noble, J. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Complaints characteristic of those for sick building syndrome prompted mycological investigations of a modern multi-story office building on the Gulf coast in the Southeastern United States (Houston-Galveston area). The air handling units and fiberglass duct liner of the heating, ventilating and air conditioning system of the building, without a history of catastrophic or chronic water damage, demonstrated extensive colonization with Penicillium spp and Cladosporium herbarum. Although dense fungal growth was observed on surfaces within the heating-cooling system, most air samples yielded fewer than 200 CFU m-3. Several volatile compounds found in the building air were released also from colonized fiberglass. Removal of colonized insulation from the floor receiving the majority of complaints of mouldy air and continuous operation of the units supplying this floor resulted in a reduction in the number of complaints.

  13. Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 can produce a second flagellar apparatus, which is important for root colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Barahona

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The genomic sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 has shown the presence of a 41 kb cluster of genes that encode the production of a second flagellar apparatus. Among 2535 pseudomonads strains with sequenced genomes, these genes are only present in the genomes of F113 and other six strains, all but one belonging to the P. fluorescens cluster of species, in the form of a genetic island. The genes are homologous to the flagellar genes of the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii. Regulation of these genes is mediated by the flhDC master operon, instead of the typical regulation in pseudomonads, which is through fleQ. Under laboratory conditions, F113 does not produce this flagellum and the flhDC operon is not expressed. However, ectopic expression of the flhDC operon is enough for its production, resulting in a hypermotile strain. This flagellum is also produced under laboratory conditions by the kinB and algU mutants. Genetic analysis has shown that kinB strongly represses the expression of the flhDC operon. This operon is activated by the Vfr protein probably in a c-AMP dependent way. The strains producing this second flagellum are all hypermotile and present a tuft of polar flagella instead of the single polar flagellum produced by the wild-type strain. Phenotypic variants isolated from the rhizosphere produce this flagellum and mutation of the genes encoding it, results in a defect in competitive colonization, showing its importance for root colonization.

  14. Data from: Root biomass and exudates link plant diversity with soil bacterial and fungal biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Strecker, Tanja; Lanoue, Arnaud; Scheu, Stefan; Steinauer, Katja; Thakur, Madhav P.; Mommer, L.

    2017-01-01

    Plant diversity has been shown to determine the composition and functioning of soil biota. Although root-derived organic inputs are discussed as the main drivers of soil communities, experimental evidence is scarce. While there is some evidence that higher root biomass at high plant diversity

  15. Root biomass and exudates link plant diversity with soil bacterial and fungal biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Lanoue, Arnaud; Strecker, Tanja; Scheu, Stefan; Steinauer, Katja; Thakur, Madhav P.; Mommer, Liesje

    2017-01-01

    Plant diversity has been shown to determine the composition and functioning of soil biota. Although root-derived organic inputs are discussed as the main drivers of soil communities, experimental evidence is scarce. While there is some evidence that higher root biomass at high plant diversity

  16. Fungal assemblages associated with roots of halophytic and non-halophytic plant species vary differentially along a salinity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciá-Vicente, Jose G; Ferraro, Valeria; Burruano, Santella; Lopez-Llorca, Luis V

    2012-10-01

    Structure of fungal communities is known to be influenced by host plants and environmental conditions. However, in most cases, the dynamics of these variation patterns are poorly understood. In this work, we compared richness, diversity, and composition between assemblages of endophytic and rhizospheric fungi associated to roots of two plants with different lifestyles: the halophyte Inula crithmoides and the non-halophyte I. viscosa (syn. Dittrichia viscosa L.), along a spatially short salinity gradient. Roots and rhizospheric soil from these plants were collected at three points between a salt marsh and a sand dune, and fungi were isolated and characterized by ITS rDNA sequencing. Isolates were classified in a total of 90 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), belonging to 17 fungal orders within Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Species composition of endophytic and soil communities significantly differed across samples. Endophyte communities of I. crithmoides and I. viscosa were only similar in the intermediate zone between the salt marsh and the dune, and while the latter displayed a single, generalist association of endophytes, I. crithmoides harbored different assemblages along the gradient, adapted to the specific soil conditions. In the lower salt marsh, root assemblages were strongly dominated by a single dark septate sterile fungus, also prevalent in other neighboring salt marshes. Interestingly, although its occurrence was positively correlated to soil salinity, in vitro assays revealed a strong inhibition of its growth by salts. Our results suggest that host lifestyle and soil characteristics have a strong effect on endophytic fungi and that environmental stress may entail tight plant-fungus relationships for adaptation to unfavorable conditions.

  17. Impact of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-regulated defences on root colonization by Trichoderma harzianum T-78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Appels, Freek V W; van Wees, Saskia C M

    2017-08-03

    We recently found that the beneficial fungus Trichoderma harzianum T-78 primes tomato plants for salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-regulated defenses, resulting in enhanced resistance against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. By using SA- and JA-impaired mutant lines and exogenous hormonal application, here we investigated whether the SA- and JA-pathways also have a role in T-78 root colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana. Endophytic colonization by T-78 was faster in the SA-impaired mutant sid2 than in the wild type. Moreover, elicitation of SA-dependent defenses by SA application reduced T-78 colonization, indicating that the SA-pathway affects T-78 endophytism. In contrast, elicitation of the JA-pathway, which antagonized SA-dependent defenses, resulted in enhanced endophytic colonization by T-78. These findings are in line with our previous observation that SA-dependent defenses are repressed by T-78, which likely aids colonization by the endophytic fungus.

  18. Phytohormone production and colonization of canola (Brassica napus L.) roots by Pseudomonas fluorescens 6-8 under gnotobiotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallai, Rajash; Hynes, Russell K; Verma, Brij; Nelson, Louise M

    2012-02-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens 6-8, a rhizosphere isolate previously shown to enhance root elongation of canola ( Brassica napus L.), was characterized for its ability to produce indole-3-acetic acid and cytokinins in pure culture and in the rhizosphere of canola under gnotobiotic conditions in comparison with the cytokinin-producing strain P. fluorescens G20-18 and its mutant CNT2. Strain 6-8 produced isopentenyl adenosine, zeatin riboside, and dihydroxyzeatin riboside at levels similar to those of G20-18, but only very low concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid. In a gnotobiotic assay canola inoculated with 6-8 and G20-18 had higher concentrations of isopentenyl adenosine and zeatin riboside in the rhizosphere and greater root length than the noninoculated control. The ability of strain 6-8 to colonize canola roots was assessed following transformation with the green fluorescent protein and inoculation onto canola seed in a gnotobiotic assay. Higher populations of strain 6-8 were observed on the proximal region of the root closest to the seed than on the mid and distal portions 9 days after seed inoculation. The ability of P. fluorescens 6-8 to produce cytokinins, colonize the roots of canola seedlings, and enhance root elongation may contribute to its ability to survive in the rhizosphere and may benefit seedling growth.

  19. Differential gene expression in Rhododendron fortunei roots colonized by an ericoid mycorrhizal fungus and increased nitrogen absorption and plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangying Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM fungi are specifically symbiotic with plants in the family Ericaceae. Little is known thus far about their symbiotic establishment and subsequent nitrogen (N uptake at the molecular level. The present study devised a system for establishing a symbiotic relationship between Rhododendron fortunei Lindl. and an ERM fungus (Oidiodendron maius var. maius strain Om19, quantified seedling growth and N uptake, and compared transcriptome profiling between colonized and uncolonized roots using RNA-Seq. The Om19 colonization induced 16,892 genes that were differentially expressed in plant roots, of which 14,364 were upregulated and 2,528 were downregulated. These genes included those homologous to ATP-binding cassette transporters, calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases, and symbiosis receptor-like kinases. N metabolism was particularly active in Om19-colonized roots, and 51 genes were upregulated, such as nitrate transporters, nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, ammonium transporters, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase. Transcriptome analysis also identified a series of genes involving endocytosis, Fc-gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and GnRH signal pathway that have not been reported previously. Their roles in the symbiosis require further investigation. The Om19 colonization significantly increased N uptake and seedling growth. Total N content and dry weight of colonized seedlings were 36.6% and 46.6% greater than control seedlings. This is the first transcriptome analysis of a species from the family Ericaceae colonized by an ERM fungus. The findings from this study will shed light on the mechanisms underlying symbiotic relationships of ericaceous species with ERM fungi and the symbiosis-resultant N uptake and plant growth.

  20. Utilization of Root-Colonizing Bacteria to Protect Hot-Pepper Against Tobacco Mosaic Tobamovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI ASMIRA DAMAYANTI

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco Mosaic Tobamovirus (TMV is one of many important viruses infecting Solanaceous plants including hot pepper in Indonesia. To accomplish and improve the effectiveness of virus management, we used root-colonizing bacteria (rhizobacteria isolated from healthy hot pepper. Eight rhizobacteria isolates were selected and their capacity in enhancing plant growth and inducing systemic resistance (ISR against TMV in greenhouse trials were evaluated. The rhizobacteria was applied as seed treatment and soil drench. Bacterized-seedling showed a better growth vigor, fitness and a milder symptom than non-bacterized control plants. The protective effect of rhizobacteria was more pronounced after challenging inoculation by TMV, especially for plants treated by isolates I-6, I-16, and I-35. However, TMV accumulation was slightly affected by bacterial treatment. The rhizobacteria might improved ISR by increasing peroxidase enzyme activity but this depends on the species. Based on whole results, isolate I-35 was the potential plant growth promotion rhizobacteria (PGPR. The I-35 was identified as Bacillus cereus based on morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequences of 16S r-RNA.

  1. Effects of Colonization of the Roots of Domestic Rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Amaroo) by Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasertsincharoen, Noppadol; Constantinoiu, Constantin; Gardiner, Christopher; Warner, Jeffrey; Elliman, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophytic bacterium that causes melioidosis and is often isolated from rice fields in Southeast Asia, where the infection incidence is high among rice field workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between this bacterium and rice through growth experiments where the effect of colonization of domestic rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Amaroo) roots by B. pseudomallei could be observed. When B. pseudomallei was exposed to surface-sterilized seeds, the growth of both the root and the aerosphere was retarded compared to that in controls. The organism was found to localize in the root hairs and endodermis of the plant. A biofilm formed around the root and root structures that were colonized. Growth experiments with a wild rice species (Oryza meridionalis) produced similar retardation of growth, while another domestic cultivar (O. sativa L. cv Koshihikari) did not show retarded growth. Here we report B. pseudomallei infection and inhibition of O. sativa L. cv Amaroo, which might provide insights into plant interactions with this important human pathogen. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Effects of Colonization of the Roots of Domestic Rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Amaroo) by Burkholderia pseudomallei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinoiu, Constantin; Gardiner, Christopher; Warner, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophytic bacterium that causes melioidosis and is often isolated from rice fields in Southeast Asia, where the infection incidence is high among rice field workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between this bacterium and rice through growth experiments where the effect of colonization of domestic rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Amaroo) roots by B. pseudomallei could be observed. When B. pseudomallei was exposed to surface-sterilized seeds, the growth of both the root and the aerosphere was retarded compared to that in controls. The organism was found to localize in the root hairs and endodermis of the plant. A biofilm formed around the root and root structures that were colonized. Growth experiments with a wild rice species (Oryza meridionalis) produced similar retardation of growth, while another domestic cultivar (O. sativa L. cv Koshihikari) did not show retarded growth. Here we report B. pseudomallei infection and inhibition of O. sativa L. cv Amaroo, which might provide insights into plant interactions with this important human pathogen. PMID:25911477

  3. Broad-Spectrum Suppression of Innate Immunity Is Required for Colonization of Arabidopsis Roots by the Fungus Piriformospora indica1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sophie; Zechmann, Bernd; Molitor, Alexandra; Trujillo, Marco; Petutschnig, Elena; Lipka, Volker; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is a root-colonizing basidiomycete that confers a wide range of beneficial traits to its host. The fungus shows a biotrophic growth phase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots followed by a cell death-associated colonization phase, a colonization strategy that, to our knowledge, has not yet been reported for this plant. P. indica has evolved an extraordinary capacity for plant root colonization. Its broad host spectrum encompasses gymnosperms and monocotyledonous as well as dicotyledonous angiosperms, which suggests that it has an effective mechanism(s) for bypassing or suppressing host immunity. The results of our work argue that P. indica is confronted with a functional root immune system. Moreover, the fungus does not evade detection but rather suppresses immunity triggered by various microbe-associated molecular patterns. This ability to suppress host immunity is compromised in the jasmonate mutants jasmonate insensitive1-1 and jasmonate resistant1-1. A quintuple-DELLA mutant displaying constitutive gibberellin (GA) responses and the GA biosynthesis mutant ga1-6 (for GA requiring 1) showed higher and lower degrees of colonization, respectively, in the cell death-associated stage, suggesting that P. indica recruits GA signaling to help establish proapoptotic root cell colonization. Our study demonstrates that mutualists, like pathogens, are confronted with an effective innate immune system in roots and that colonization success essentially depends on the evolution of strategies for immunosuppression. PMID:21474434

  4. Impaired colonization and infection of tomato roots by the Deltafrp1 mutant of Fusarium oxysporum correlates with reduced CWDE gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkers, Wilfried; Rodrigues, Christopher D Andrade; Rep, Martijn

    2009-05-01

    The vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici efficiently invades roots and colonizes vascular tissues of its host tomato. For these processes, the F-box protein Frp1 is required. The Fusarium oxysporum Deltafrp1 mutant was characterized in detail to uncover the cause of its colonization defect. Using growth assays, we could attribute poor root colonization to reduced assimilation of organic acids, amino acids (except proline), or polysaccharides, singly or in combination. External root colonization by the Deltafrp1 mutant is restored by the addition of 0.1% glucose or proline but infection still does not occur. This is due to the inability of the Deltafrp1 mutant to penetrate the roots, as demonstrated by the lack of expression of SIX1 in the Deltafrp1 strain, which is a gene exclusively expressed inside roots, and loss of cell wall-degrading enzyme (CWDE) gene expression. Many of the metabolic defects of the Deltafrp1 strain can be attributed to reduced expression of the ICL1 (isocitrate lyase) gene. Strikingly, an Deltaicl1 mutant is still fully pathogenic and capable of external root colonization. We conclude that the inability of the Deltafrp1 strain to colonize and invade roots is not primarily due to metabolic defects but can be attributed to reduced expression of several CWDE genes.

  5. Metabolomic compounds identified in Piriformospora indica-colonized Chinese cabbage roots delineate symbiotic functions of the interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Mo Da-Sang; Senthil Kumar, Rajendran; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Tian, Zhihong; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2017-08-24

    Root colonization by endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica facilitating growth/development and stress tolerance has been demonstrated in various host plants. However, global metabolomic studies are rare. By using high-throughput gas-chromatography-based mass spectrometry, 549 metabolites of 1,126 total compounds observed were identified in colonized and uncolonized Chinese cabbage roots, and hyphae of P. indica. The analyses demonstrate that the host metabolomic compounds and metabolite pathways are globally reprogrammed after symbiosis with P. indica. Especially, γ-amino butyrate (GABA), oxylipin-family compounds, poly-saturated fatty acids, and auxin and its intermediates were highly induced and de novo synthesized in colonized roots. Conversely, nicotinic acid (niacin) and dimethylallylpyrophosphate were strongly decreased. In vivo assays with exogenously applied compounds confirmed that GABA primes plant immunity toward pathogen attack and enhances high salinity and temperature tolerance. Moreover, generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species stimulated by nicotinic acid is repressed by P. indica, and causes the feasibility of symbiotic interaction. This global metabolomic analysis and the identification of symbiosis-specific metabolites may help to understand how P. indica confers benefits to the host plant.

  6. Autophagy provides nutrients for nonassimilating fungal structures and is necessary for plant colonization but not for infection in the necrotrophic plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Lone; Droce, Aida; Sondergaard, Teis Esben

    2012-01-01

    The role of autophagy in necrotrophic fungal physiology and infection biology is poorly understood. We have studied autophagy in the necrotrophic plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum in relation to development of nonassimilating structures and infection. We identified an ATG8 homolog F. graminearum...... starvation is severely inhibited in the Delta Fgatg8 strain demonstrating autophagy-dependent lipid utilization, lipophagy, in fungi. Radial growth rate of the Delta Fgatg8 strain is reduced compared with the wild type and the mutant does not grow over inert plastic surfaces in contrast to the wild type...... a pivotal role for supplying nutrients to nonassimilating structures necessary for growth and is important for plant colonization. This also indicates that autophagy is a central mechanism for fungal adaptation to nonoptimal C/N ratios....

  7. Root rot peas in the Netherlands : fungal pathogens, inoculum potential and soil receptivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyarzun, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fungi associated to pea (Pisum sativum L.) root rot were studied. Fusarium and Oomycetes were most common. Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, Fsp, was widely distributed and the most frequent

  8. Nonlegumes, legumes, and root nodules harbor different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheublin, T.R.; Ridgway, K.P.; Young, J.P.W.; van der Heijden, M.G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Legumes are an important plant functional group since they can form a tripartite symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria and phosphorus-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). However, not much is known about AMF community composition in legumes and their root nodules. In this study,

  9. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity in populations of plant-probiotic Pseudomonas spp. colonizing roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Christine; Bosco, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Several soil microorganisms colonizing roots are known to naturally promote the health of plants by controlling a range of plant pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. The use of theses antagonistic microorganisms, recently named plant-probiotics, to control plant-pathogenic fungi is receiving increasing attention, as they may represent a sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides. Many years of research on plant-probiotic microorganisms (PPM) have indicated that fluorescent pseudomonads producing antimicrobial compounds are largely involved in the suppression of the most widespread soilborne pathogens. Phenotype and genotype analysis of plant-probiotic fluorescent pseudomonads (PFP) have shown considerable genetic variation among these types of strains. Such variability plays an important role in the rhizosphere competence and the biocontrol ability of PFP strains. Understanding the mechanisms by which genotypic and phenotypic diversity occurs in natural populations of PFP could be exploited to choose those agricultural practices which best exploit the indigenous PFP populations, or to isolate new plant-probiotic strains for using them as inoculants. A number of different methods have been used to study diversity within PFP populations. Because different resolutions of the existing microbial diversity can be revealed depending on the approach used, this review first describes the most important methods used for the assessment of fluorescent Pseudomonas diversity. Then, we focus on recent data relating how differences in genotypic and phenotypic diversity within PFP communities can be attributed to geographic location, climate, soil type, soil management regime, and interactions with other soil microorganisms and host plants. It becomes evident that plant-related parameters exert the strongest influence on the genotypic and phenotypic variations in PFP populations.

  10. Azorhizobium caulinodans Transmembrane Chemoreceptor TlpA1 Involved in Host Colonization and Nodulation on Roots and Stems

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    Wei Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 is a motile soil bacterium that interacts symbiotically with legume host Sesbania rostrata, forming nitrogen-fixing root and stem nodules. Bacterial chemotaxis plays an important role in establishing this symbiotic relationship. To determine the contribution of chemotaxis to symbiosis in A. caulinodans ORS571-S. rostrata, we characterized the function of TlpA1 (transducer-like protein in A. caulinodans, a chemoreceptor predicted by SMART (Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool, containing two N-terminal transmembrane regions. The tlpA1 gene is located immediately upstream of the unique che gene cluster and is transcriptionally co-oriented. We found that a ΔtlpA1 mutant is severely impaired for chemotaxis to various organic acids, glycerol and proline. Furthermore, biofilm forming ability of the strain carrying the mutation is reduced under certain growth conditions. Interestingly, competitive colonization ability on S. rostrata root surfaces is impaired in the ΔtlpA1 mutant, suggesting that chemotaxis of the A. caulinodans ORS571 contributes to root colonization. We also found that TlpA1 promotes competitive nodulation not only on roots but also on stems of S. rostrata. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that TlpA1 is a transmembrane chemoreceptor involved in A. caulinodans-S. rostrata symbiosis.

  11. Metarhizium robertsii produces an extracellular invertase (MrINV that plays a pivotal role in rhizospheric interactions and root colonization.

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    Xinggang Liao

    Full Text Available As well as killing pest insects, the rhizosphere competent insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii also boosts plant growth by providing nitrogenous nutrients and increasing resistance to plant pathogens. Plant roots secrete abundant nutrients but little is known about their utilization by Metarhizium spp. and the mechanistic basis of Metarhizium-plant associations. We report here that M. robertsii produces an extracellular invertase (MrInv on plant roots. Deletion of MrInv (ΔMrInv reduced M. robertsii growth on sucrose and rhizospheric exudates but increased colonization of Panicum virgatum and Arabidopsis thaliana roots. This could be accounted for by a reduction in carbon catabolite repression in ΔMrInv increasing production of plant cell wall-degrading depolymerases. A non-rhizosphere competent scarab beetle specialist Metarhizium majus lacks invertase which suggests that rhizospheric competence may be related to the sugar metabolism of different Metarhizium species.

  12. Metarhizium robertsii produces an extracellular invertase (MrINV) that plays a pivotal role in rhizospheric interactions and root colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xinggang; Fang, Weiguo; Lin, Liangcai; Lu, Hsiao-Ling; St Leger, Raymond J

    2013-01-01

    As well as killing pest insects, the rhizosphere competent insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii also boosts plant growth by providing nitrogenous nutrients and increasing resistance to plant pathogens. Plant roots secrete abundant nutrients but little is known about their utilization by Metarhizium spp. and the mechanistic basis of Metarhizium-plant associations. We report here that M. robertsii produces an extracellular invertase (MrInv) on plant roots. Deletion of MrInv (ΔMrInv) reduced M. robertsii growth on sucrose and rhizospheric exudates but increased colonization of Panicum virgatum and Arabidopsis thaliana roots. This could be accounted for by a reduction in carbon catabolite repression in ΔMrInv increasing production of plant cell wall-degrading depolymerases. A non-rhizosphere competent scarab beetle specialist Metarhizium majus lacks invertase which suggests that rhizospheric competence may be related to the sugar metabolism of different Metarhizium species.

  13. Colonization process of olive tissues by Verticillium dahliae and its in planta interaction with the biocontrol root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pilar; Navarro‐Raya, Carmen; Valverde‐Corredor, Antonio; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Dobinson, Katherine F.; Mercado‐Blanco, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Summary The colonization process of Olea europaea by the defoliating pathotype of Verticillium dahliae, and the in planta interaction with the endophytic, biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 were determined. Differential fluorescent protein tagging was used for the simultaneous visualization of P. fluorescens PICF7 and V. dahliae in olive tissues. Olive plants were bacterized with PICF7 and then transferred to V. dahliae‐infested soil. Monitoring olive colonization events by V. dahliae and its interaction with PICF7 was conducted using a non‐gnotobiotic system, confocal laser scanner microscopy and tissue vibratoming sections. A yellow fluorescently tagged V. dahliae derivative (VDAT‐36I) was obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens‐mediated transformation. Isolate VDAT‐36I quickly colonized olive root surface, successfully invaded root cortex and vascular tissues via macro‐ and micro‐breakages, and progressed to the aerial parts of the plant through xylem vessel cells. Strain PICF7 used root hairs as preferred penetration site, and once established on/in root tissues, hindered pathogen colonization. For the first time using this approach, the entire colonization process of a woody plant by V. dahliae is reported. Early and localized root surface and root endophytic colonization by P. fluorescens PICF7 is needed to impair full progress of verticillium wilt epidemics in olive. PMID:21255281

  14. ZnO nanoparticles and root colonization by a beneficial pseudomonad influence essential metal responses in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkpa, Christian O; Hansen, Trevor; Stewart, Jacob; McLean, Joan E; Britt, David W; Anderson, Anne J

    2015-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) incorporated into commercial products are reactive on plants. Here, the influence of a root-associated bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 (PcO6) on the responses of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to commercial ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was examined. ZnO NPs (250-1000 mg Zn/kg) significantly (p = 0.05) impacted root elongation after 7 days; only at 1000 mg/kg was shoot growth significantly inhibited. Zn solubilized from ZnO NPs correlated with root growth inhibition (r(2 )= 0.8709); solubility of Fe (r(2 )= 0.916) and Mn (r(2 )= 0.997), and shoot accumulation of Zn (r(2 )= 0.9095), Fe (r(2 )= 0.9422) and Mn (r(2 )= 0.789). Root ferric reductase activity diminished 31% in NP-exposed plants. Amendments with Zn ions at 6 mg/kg, corresponding to Zn solubilized from the NPs, did not replicate the responses, suggesting a nano-specific contribution of the ZnO. Neither NPs (500 mg Zn/kg) nor Zn ions affected root colonization by PcO6. Siderophore production by PcO6 increased 17% by exposure to NPs and 11% with Zn ions (18 mg/kg). PcO6 restored plant ferric reduction under NP exposure, but decreased uptake of Zn and Fe, 58 and 18%, respectively, suggesting soil bacteria could reduce plant accumulation of metals under toxic exposure levels, while negatively affecting uptake of essential elements. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that growth and balance of essential metals in bean exposed to ZnO NPs were influenced by the NPs and bacterial colonization of NP-exposed roots, indicating subtle effects of NPs in plant nutrition.

  15. Dandruff is associated with disequilibrium in the proportion of the major bacterial and fungal populations colonizing the scalp.

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    Cécile Clavaud

    Full Text Available The bacterial and fungal communities associated with dandruff were investigated using culture-independent methodologies in the French subjects. The major bacterial and fungal species inhabiting the scalp subject's were identified by cloning and sequencing of the conserved ribosomal unit regions (16S for bacterial and 28S-ITS for fungal and were further quantified by quantitative PCR. The two main bacterial species found on the scalp surface were Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, while Malassezia restricta was the main fungal inhabitant. Dandruff was correlated with a higher incidence of M. restricta and S. epidermidis and a lower incidence of P. acnes compared to the control population (p<0.05. These results suggested for the first time using molecular methods, that dandruff is linked to the balance between bacteria and fungi of the host scalp surface.

  16. Dandruff Is Associated with Disequilibrium in the Proportion of the Major Bacterial and Fungal Populations Colonizing the Scalp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavaud, Cécile; Jourdain, Roland; Bar-Hen, Avner; Tichit, Magali; Bouchier, Christiane; Pouradier, Florence; El Rawadi, Charles; Guillot, Jacques; Ménard-Szczebara, Florence; Breton, Lionel; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Mouyna, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial and fungal communities associated with dandruff were investigated using culture-independent methodologies in the French subjects. The major bacterial and fungal species inhabiting the scalp subject’s were identified by cloning and sequencing of the conserved ribosomal unit regions (16S for bacterial and 28S-ITS for fungal) and were further quantified by quantitative PCR. The two main bacterial species found on the scalp surface were Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, while Malassezia restricta was the main fungal inhabitant. Dandruff was correlated with a higher incidence of M. restricta and S. epidermidis and a lower incidence of P. acnes compared to the control population (p<0.05). These results suggested for the first time using molecular methods, that dandruff is linked to the balance between bacteria and fungi of the host scalp surface. PMID:23483996

  17. The biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 induces systemic defense responses in aerial tissues upon colonization of olive roots

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    Carmen eGómez-Lama Cabanás

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, a native olive root endophyte and effective biocontrol agent (BCA against Verticillium wilt of olive, is able to trigger a broad range of defense responses in root tissues of this woody plant. In order to elucidate whether strain PICF7 also induces systemic defense responses in above-ground organs, aerial tissues of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after root bacterization with this endophytic BCA. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library, enriched in up-regulated genes, was generated. This strategy enabled the identification of 376 ESTs (99 contigs and 277 singlets, many of them related to response to different stresses. Five ESTs, involved in defense responses, were selected to carry out time-course quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR experiments aiming to: (i validate the induction of these genes, and (ii shed light on their expression pattern along time (from 1 to 15 days. Induction of olive genes potentially coding for lypoxigenase 2, catalase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase and phenylananine ammonia-lyase was thus confirmed at some time points. Computational analysis also revealed that different transcription factors were up-regulated in olive aerial tissues (i.e. jerf, bHLH, WRKYs, as previously reported for roots. Results confirmed that root colonization by this endophytic bacterium does not only trigger defense responses in this organ but also mount a wide array of systemic defense responses in distant tissues (stems, leaves. This sheds light on how olive plants respond to the ‘non-hostile’ colonization by a bacterial endophyte and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of strain PICF7.

  18. Influence of soil organic matter decomposition on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in terms of asymbiotic hyphal growth and root colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryndler, Milan; Hrselová, Hana; Cajthaml, Tomás; Havránková, Marie; Rezácová, Veronika; Gryndlerová, Hana; Larsen, John

    2009-04-01

    Soil organic matter is known to influence arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, but limited information is available on the chemical components in the organic matter causing these effects. We studied the influence of decomposing organic matter (pure cellulose and alfalfa shoot and root material) on AM fungi after 30, 100, and 300 days of decomposition in nonsterile soil with and without addition of mineral N and P. Decomposing organic matter affected maize root length colonized by the AM fungus Glomus claroideum in a similar manner as other plant growth parameters. Colonized root length was slightly increased by both nitrogen and phosphorus application and plant materials, but not by application of cellulose. In vitro hyphal growth of Glomus intraradices was increased by soil extracts from the treatments with all types of organic materials independently of mineral N and P application. Pyrolysis of soil samples from the different decomposition treatments revealed in total 266 recognizable organic compounds and in vitro hyphal growth of G. intraradices in soil extract positively correlated with 33 of these compounds. The strongest correlation was found with 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid methyl ester. This compound is a typical product of pyrolysis of phenolic compounds produced by angiosperm woody plants, but in our experiment, it was produced mainly from cellulose by some components of the soil microflora. In conclusion, our results indicate that mycelia of AM fungi are influenced by organic matter decomposition both via compounds released during the decomposition process and also by secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms involved in organic matter decomposition.

  19. Plant growth promotion and root colonization by EPS producing Enterobacter sp. RZS5 under heavy metal contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyed, R Z; Patel, P R; Shaikh, S S

    2015-02-01

    The heavy metal resistant bacterium isolated from field soil and identified as Enterobacter sp. RZS5 tolerates a high concentration (100-2000 μM) of various heavy metal ions such as Mn2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, CO2+ and Fe2+ when grown in such environment and produces exopolysaccharides (EPS). Here, we have demonstrated EPS production by Enterobacter sp. RZS5 during 60 h of growth in yeast extract mannitol broth (YEMB). The yield increased by two fold after the addition of 60 μM of Ca2+; 50 μM of Fe2+ and 60 μM of Mg2+ ions in YEMB, and the optimization of physico-chemical parameters. EPS was extracted with 30% (v/v) of isopropanol as against the commonly used 50% (v/v) isopropanol method. EPS-rich broth promoted seed germination, shoot height, root length, number of leaves and chlorophyll content of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seed and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seed. The higher colony-forming unit of Enterobacter sp. in soil inoculated with EPS rich broth of Enterobacter sp. indicated the root colonizing potential and rhizosphere competence of the isolate. The FTIR spectra of the EPS extract confirmed the presence of the functional group characteristics of EPS known to exhibit a high binding affinity towards certain metal ions. This overall growth and vigour in plants along with the effective root colonization, reflected the potential of the isolate as an efficient bio-inoculant in bioremediation.

  20. Genetic responses induced in olive roots upon colonization by the biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7.

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    Elisabetta Schilirò

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the genetic basis underlying interactions between beneficial bacteria and woody plants is still very limited, and totally absent in the case of olive. We aimed to elucidate genetic responses taking place during the colonization of olive roots by the native endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, an effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium wilt of olive. Roots of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after PICF7 inoculation. A Suppression Subtractive Hybridization cDNA library enriched in induced genes was generated. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis validated the induction of selected olive genes. Computational analysis of 445 olive ESTs showed that plant defence and response to different stresses represented nearly 45% of genes induced in PICF7-colonized olive roots. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis confirmed induction of lipoxygenase, phenylpropanoid, terpenoids and plant hormones biosynthesis transcripts. Different classes of transcription factors (i.e., bHLH, WRKYs, GRAS1 were also induced. This work highlights for the first time the ability of an endophytic Pseudomonas spp. strain to mount a wide array of defence responses in an economically-relevant woody crop such as olive, helping to explain its biocontrol activity.

  1. Genetic Responses Induced in Olive Roots upon Colonization by the Biocontrol Endophytic Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilirò, Elisabetta; Ferrara, Massimo; Nigro, Franco; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge on the genetic basis underlying interactions between beneficial bacteria and woody plants is still very limited, and totally absent in the case of olive. We aimed to elucidate genetic responses taking place during the colonization of olive roots by the native endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, an effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium wilt of olive. Roots of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after PICF7 inoculation. A Suppression Subtractive Hybridization cDNA library enriched in induced genes was generated. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis validated the induction of selected olive genes. Computational analysis of 445 olive ESTs showed that plant defence and response to different stresses represented nearly 45% of genes induced in PICF7-colonized olive roots. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirmed induction of lipoxygenase, phenylpropanoid, terpenoids and plant hormones biosynthesis transcripts. Different classes of transcription factors (i.e., bHLH, WRKYs, GRAS1) were also induced. This work highlights for the first time the ability of an endophytic Pseudomonas spp. strain to mount a wide array of defence responses in an economically-relevant woody crop such as olive, helping to explain its biocontrol activity. PMID:23144916

  2. Behavior of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in soil: Effects of rhizosphere and mycorrhizal colonization of ryegrass roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Sen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Shuzhen, E-mail: szzhang@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Huang, Honglin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Christie, Peter [Agri-Environment Branch, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    A rhizobox experiment was conducted to investigate degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in the rhizosphere of ryegrass and the influence of root colonization with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus. BDE-209 dissipation in soil varied with its proximity to the roots and was enhanced by AM inoculation. A negative correlation (P < 0.001, R{sup 2} = 0.66) was found between the residual BDE-209 concentration in soil and soil microbial biomass estimated as the total phospholipid fatty acids, suggesting a contribution of microbial degradation to BDE-209 dissipation. Twelve and twenty-four lower brominated PBDEs were detected in soil and plant samples, respectively, with a higher proportion of di- through hepta-BDE congeners in the plant tissues than in the soils, indicating the occurrence of BDE-209 debromination in the soil-plant system. AM inoculation increased the levels of lower brominated PBDEs in ryegrass. These results provide important information about the behavior of BDE-209 in the soil-plant system. - Research highlights: > BDE-209 dissipation in soil was affected by the proximity to the roots. > Microbial degradation contributes greatly to BDE-209 dissipation in the soil. > Twelve and twenty-four lower brominated PBDEs were detected in soil and plant samples. > AM inoculation increased root uptake and accumulation of BDE-209. - BDE-209 dissipation and degradation in soil were affected by both its proximity to ryegrass roots and inoculation with an AM fungus.

  3. Inoculation with microorganisms of Lolium perenne L.: evaluation of plant growth parameters and endophytic colonization of roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggìa, Francesca; Baffoni, Loredana; Di Gioia, Diana; Accorsi, Mattia; Bosi, Sara; Marotti, Ilaria; Biavati, Bruno; Dinelli, Giovanni

    2013-09-25

    Turfgrasses are not only designed for recreation activities, but they also provide beneficial environmental effects and positively influence the human wellness. Their major problems are predisposition to tearing out and microbial diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the inoculation of microorganisms can be effective to improve plant growth and root development of perennial ryegrass, to evaluate new sustainable practice for green preservation. A microorganism-based commercial product was used to amend hydroponically grown Lolium perenne L. and results compared with the use of the same filtered product, a phytohormone solution and an untreated control. Plants were grown for five weeks, shoots cut and measured at one-week interval and, at the end, roots were measured for length and weight. Shoot resistance to tearing out was also tested. Moreover, the main microbial groups present in the product were characterized and the microbial profile of sand and root samples was investigated by PCR-DGGE. The plants treated with the product showed an increased resistance to tearing out with respect to other treatments and roots were longer with respect to the control. Microbial analyses of the product evidenced bacterial and yeast species with plant growth promoting activity, such as Stenothrophomonas maltophilia, Candida utilis and several Lactobacillus species. Some Lactobacillus strains were also found to be able to colonize plant roots. In conclusion, the treatment with microorganisms has a great potential for the maintenance and increased performance of turfgrass surfaces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Combined Bacterial-Fungal Penetration After Obturation with AH 26 and AH Plus Root Canal Sealers

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    S. Khedmat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the coronal microleakage between Streptococcus sanguis per se and a mixture suspension of E. faecalis and C. albicans in root canals filled with Gutta-percha and either AH 26 or AH Plus sealer.Materials and Methods: One-hundred and ten extracted human teeth were decoronated to a standardized root length of 14 mm and prepared using Mtwo nickel-titanium (Ni-Tiinstruments to a master apical file size 35, 0.04 taper and obturated with gutta-percha andeither AH 26 or AH Plus sealers by lateral condensation. After setting of the sealers, the teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=50 and two control groups(n=5. The coronal chambers of half the teeth in each experimental group (n=25 were inoculated with 0.5 ml of Brain Heart Infusion agar containing approximately 3×108 of each microorganism in every ml of Candida albicans (ATCC10231 and Enterococcus faecalis(ATCC29212 using a sterile micropipette. The other half of the teeth of each experimental group were inoculated with Streptococcus sanguis (ATCC10556 with the same concentration.The days of microbial penetration were noted for evaluation. The data werestatistically analyzed using Kaplan Meier and log-rank tests.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the four experimental groups regarding the leakage rate (P=0.130.Conclusion: Under the conditions of this study, there was no difference in the microbial penetration of AH 26 and AH Plus sealers at 60 days.

  5. Root colonization and growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter sp. Fs-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Ali, Saira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-08-01

    An Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 was isolated from sunflower rhizosphere, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank accession no. GQ179978) and studied for its root colonization and growth promotion ability in sunflower. Morphologically, it was rod shaped Gram-negative, motile bacterium, producing 4.5 μg mL(-1) indole acetic acid in tryptophan-supplemented medium. It utilized 27 out of 95 substrates in BIOLOG GN2 micro plate system. It was able to convert insoluble tri-calcium phosphate to soluble phosphorus up to 43.5 μg mL(-1) with decrease in pH of the medium up to 4.5 after 10 days incubation at 28 ± 2 °C in the Pikovskaya's broth. High performance liquid chromatography of cell free supernatant showed that Fs-11 produced malic acid and gluconic acid (2.43 and 16.64 μg mL(-1), respectively) in Pikovskaya's broth. Analysis of 900 bp fragment of pyrroloquinoline quinine pqqE gene sequence showed 98 % homology with that of E. cloacae pqqE gene. Confocal laser scanning microscope revealed strong colonization of fluorescently labeled Fs-11 with sunflower roots. Sunflower inoculation with Fs-11 and its rifampicin resistant derivative in sterile sand and natural soil showed that Fs-11 colonized sunflower roots up to 30 days after transplanting in both sterile sand as well as natural soil. Moreover, Fs-11 inoculation resulted in increased plant height, fresh weight, dry weight and total phosphorus contents as compared to un-inoculated plants. The data showed that Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 is an efficient phosphate solubilizing and plant growth promoting rhizobacterium and has great potential to be used as bio-inoculant for sunflower under phosphorus deficient conditions.

  6. Neonatal maternal deprivation sensitizes voltage-gated sodium channel currents in colon-specific dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shufen; Xiao, Ying; Zhu, Liyan; Li, Lin; Hu, Chuang-Ying; Jiang, Xinghong; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2013-02-15

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain in association with altered bowel movements. The underlying mechanisms of visceral hypersensitivity remain elusive. This study was designed to examine the role for sodium channels in a rat model of chronic visceral hyperalgesia induced by neonatal maternal deprivation (NMD). Abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores were performed on adult male rats. Colon-specific dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were labeled with DiI and acutely dissociated for measuring excitability and sodium channel current under whole-cell patch-clamp configurations. The expression of Na(V)1.8 was analyzed by Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR. NMD significantly increased AWR scores, which lasted for ~6 wk in an association with hyperexcitability of colon DRG neurons. TTX-resistant but not TTX-sensitive sodium current density was greatly enhanced in colon DRG neurons in NMD rats. Compared with controls, activation curves showed a leftward shift in NMD rats whereas inactivation curves did not differ significantly. NMD markedly accelerated the activation time of peak current amplitude without any changes in inactivation time. Furthermore, NMD remarkably enhanced expression of Na(V)1.8 at protein levels but not at mRNA levels in colon-related DRGs. The expression of Na(V)1.9 was not altered after NMD. These data suggest that NMD enhances TTX-resistant sodium activity of colon DRG neurons, which is most likely mediated by a leftward shift of activation curve and by enhanced expression of Na(V)1.8 at protein levels, thus identifying a specific molecular mechanism underlying chronic visceral pain and sensitization in patients with IBS.

  7. Root Fungal Endophytes Enhance Heavy-Metal Stress Tolerance of Clethra barbinervis Growing Naturally at Mining Sites via Growth Enhancement, Promotion of Nutrient Uptake and Decrease of Heavy-Metal Concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Yamaji

    Full Text Available Clethra barbinervis Sieb. et Zucc. is a tree species that grows naturally at several mine sites and seems to be tolerant of high concentrations of heavy metals, such as Cu, Zn, and Pb. The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism(s underlying this species' ability to tolerate the sites' severe heavy-metal pollution by considering C. barbinervis interaction with root fungal endophytes. We measured the heavy metal concentrations of root-zone soil, leaves, branches, and fine roots collected from mature C. barbinervis at Hitachi mine. We isolated fungal endophytes from surface-sterilized root segments, and we examined the growth, and heavy metal and nutrient absorption of C. barbinervis seedlings growing in sterilized mine soil with or without root fungal endophytes. Field analyses showed that C. barbinervis contained considerably high amounts of Cu, Zn, and Pb in fine roots and Zn in leaves. The fungi, Phialocephala fortinii, Rhizodermea veluwensis, and Rhizoscyphus sp. were frequently isolated as dominant fungal endophyte species. Inoculation of these root fungal endophytes to C. barbinervis seedlings growing in sterilized mine soil indicated that these fungi significantly enhanced the growth of C. barbinervis seedlings, increased K uptake in shoots and reduced the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb in roots. Without root fungal endophytes, C. barbinervis could hardly grow under the heavy-metal contaminated condition, showing chlorosis, a symptom of heavy-metal toxicity. Our results indicate that the tree C. barbinervis can tolerate high heavy-metal concentrations due to the support of root fungal endophytes including P. fortinii, R. veluwensis, and Rhizoscyphus sp. via growth enhancement, K uptake promotion and decrease of heavy metal concentrations.

  8. Root Fungal Endophytes Enhance Heavy-Metal Stress Tolerance of Clethra barbinervis Growing Naturally at Mining Sites via Growth Enhancement, Promotion of Nutrient Uptake and Decrease of Heavy-Metal Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Keiko; Watanabe, Yumiko; Masuya, Hayato; Shigeto, Arisa; Yui, Hiroshi; Haruma, Toshikatsu

    2016-01-01

    Clethra barbinervis Sieb. et Zucc. is a tree species that grows naturally at several mine sites and seems to be tolerant of high concentrations of heavy metals, such as Cu, Zn, and Pb. The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism(s) underlying this species' ability to tolerate the sites' severe heavy-metal pollution by considering C. barbinervis interaction with root fungal endophytes. We measured the heavy metal concentrations of root-zone soil, leaves, branches, and fine roots collected from mature C. barbinervis at Hitachi mine. We isolated fungal endophytes from surface-sterilized root segments, and we examined the growth, and heavy metal and nutrient absorption of C. barbinervis seedlings growing in sterilized mine soil with or without root fungal endophytes. Field analyses showed that C. barbinervis contained considerably high amounts of Cu, Zn, and Pb in fine roots and Zn in leaves. The fungi, Phialocephala fortinii, Rhizodermea veluwensis, and Rhizoscyphus sp. were frequently isolated as dominant fungal endophyte species. Inoculation of these root fungal endophytes to C. barbinervis seedlings growing in sterilized mine soil indicated that these fungi significantly enhanced the growth of C. barbinervis seedlings, increased K uptake in shoots and reduced the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb in roots. Without root fungal endophytes, C. barbinervis could hardly grow under the heavy-metal contaminated condition, showing chlorosis, a symptom of heavy-metal toxicity. Our results indicate that the tree C. barbinervis can tolerate high heavy-metal concentrations due to the support of root fungal endophytes including P. fortinii, R. veluwensis, and Rhizoscyphus sp. via growth enhancement, K uptake promotion and decrease of heavy metal concentrations.

  9. The interactive effect of phosphorus and nitrogen on "in vitro" spore germination of Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann, root growth and mycorrhizal colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bressan Wellington

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of P and N amendment and its interactions on spore germination, root growth and colonized root length by Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann (INVAM S329 was studied "in vitro" in RiT - DNA transformed roots of Anthylis vulneraria sub sp. Sampaiana (Kidney vetch. Three N media concentrations (5, 10 and 50 mg/l at P constant level (2 mg/l and three P media concentrations (2, 10 and 20 mg/l at N constant level (5 mg/l were utilized as a treatment. Bécard & Fortin medium was used as a basal medium for root growth and colonized root length, and water/agar (0.8% media was the control for spore germination. Spore germination of G. etunicatum at low P level was reduced by N addition in relation to the control media, and at low N level addition of P stimulated spore germination. Total root length was stimulated by N addtion at low P level, but no significant difference (p£0.05 was observed between 10 and 50 mg/l of N. P addition at low N level media also stimulated total root growth, and a significant difference (p£0.05 was observed among P concentrations. Colonized root length by G. etunicatum increased significantly (p£0.05 with P additions at low N levels. Under low P level no significant differences was found between 10 and 50 mg/l of N. These results demonstrate that the interaction between P and N affect differently spore germination, root growth and colonized root lenght.

  10. The novel lipopeptide Poaeamide of the endophyte Pseudomonas poae RE*1-1-14 is involved in pathogen suppression and root colonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zachow, Christin; Jahanshah, Ghazaleh; de Bruijn, Irene; Song, Chunxu; Ianni, Federica; Pataj, Zoltán; Gerhardt, Heike; Pianet, Isabelle; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Berg, Gabriele; Gross, Harald; Raaijmakers, Jos M.

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic Pseudomonas poae strain RE*1-1-14 was originally isolated from internal root tissue of sugar beet plants and shown to suppress growth of the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani both in vitro and in the field. To identify genes involved in its biocontrol activity, RE*1-1-14 random

  11. The novel lipopeptide poaeamide of the endophyte Pseudomonas poae RE*1-1-14 is involved in pathogen suppression and root colonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zachow, C.; Jahanshah, G.; Bruijn, de I.; Song, C.; Ianni, F.; Pataj, Z.; Gerhardt, H.; Pianet, I.; Lämmerhofer, M.; Berg, G.; Gross, H.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic Pseudomonas poae strain RE*1-1-14 was originally isolated from internal root tissue of sugar beet plants and shown to suppress growth of the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani both in vitro and in the field. To identify genes involved in its biocontrol activity, RE*1-1-14 random

  12. Depletion of soil mineral N by roots of ¤Cucumis sativus¤ L. colonized or not by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, A.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted where Cucumis sativus were grown in uncompartmented pots either alone or in symbiosis with Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith (Experiment 1) or Glomus sp. (Experiment 2) in order to investigate if root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has an effect....... Dry weight of plant parts, total root length, mycorrhizal colonization rate and soil concentration of NH4+ and NO3- were recorded at five sequential harvest events: 21, 24, 30, 35 and 42 days (Experiment 1) and 22, 25, 28, 31 and 35 days (Experiment 2) after planting. In Experiment 1, plants were also...... analysed for total content of N and N-15. The mycorrhizal colonization rate increased during time: from 25 to 40% in Experiment 1 and from 50 to 60% in Experiment 2. Plant dry matter accumulation was unaffected by mycorrhizal colonization, except in Experiment 1 where shoot dry weights were slightly...

  13. Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculants on subsequent arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization in pot-cultured field pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongyan; Germida, James J; Walley, Fran L

    2013-01-01

    The use of commercial inoculants containing non-resident arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is an emerging technology in field crop production in Canada. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of AMF inoculants containing either a single species (Glomus irregulare) or mixed species (G. irregulare, Glomus mosseae, and Glomus clarum) on AMF root colonization and consequent plant growth parameters of field pea grown using pot cultures. Field pea was grown in both sterilized and non-sterile (i.e., natural) field-collected soil containing resident AMF and received three inoculation treatments: uninoculated control, G. irregulare only, and a mixture of AMF species of G. irregulare, G. mosseae, and G. clarum. After 42 days, the AMF community assembled in field pea roots was assessed by cloning and sequencing analysis on the LSU-ITS-SSU rDNA gene, together with a microscopic assessment of colonization, biomass production, nutrient uptake, and N(2) fixation. The identity of AMF inoculants had a significant effect on field pea performance. The mixed species AMF inoculant performed better than the single species G. irregulare alone by promoting mycorrhizal colonization, field pea biomass, N and P uptake, and N(2) fixation and did not result in a significant compositional change of the AMF community that subsequently assembled in field pea roots. In contrast, the single species G. irregulare inoculant did not significantly enhance field pea biomass, N and P uptake, and N(2) fixation, although a significant compositional change of the subsequent AMF community was observed. No significant interactions affecting these measurements were detected between the resident AMF and the introduced AMF inoculants. The observation that the mixed species AMF inoculant promoted plant growth parameters without necessarily affecting the subsequent AMF community may have important implications regarding the use of non-resident AMF inoculants in agricultural production.

  14. Fungal pathogens and antagonists in root-soil zone in organic and integrated systems of potato production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenc Leszek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of culturable Fungi and Oomycota in root-soil habitat of potato cv. Owacja in organic and integrated production systems at Osiny (northern Poland was compared in 2008-2010. The densities of both pathogens were significantly greater in the organic system. The eudominant fungal taxa (with frequency > 10% in at least one habitat included species of Fusarium + Gibberella + Haematonectria, Penicillium, Phoma and Trichoderma. The dominant taxa (with frequency 5-10% included species from 13 genera. In the rhizoplane, rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil, the total density of potential pathogens was greater in the integrated system, and of potential antagonists in the organic system. Among eudominant and dominant pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and Gibellulopsis nigrescens occurred at greater density in the integrated system and Haematonectria haematococca and Phoma spp. in the organic system. Among eudominant antagonists, Trichoderma species occurred at greater density in the organic system. The organic system provided more disease suppressive habitat than the integrated system. The occurrence of brown leaf spot and potato blight was however similar in both systems. The mean yield of organic potatoes (24.9 t · ha-1 was higher than the mean organic potato yield in Poland (21.0 t · ha-1 and similar to the mean in other European countries (Germany 25.1 t · ha-1, Great Britain 25.0 t · ha-1. The organic system, based on a 5-year rotation, with narrow-leafed lupin, white mustard and buckwheat as a cover crop, inorganic fertilization based on ground rock phosphate + potassium sulphate, and biological and chemical control of insects and diseases (Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. tenebrionis + copper hydroxide + copper oxychloride, may be recommended for use in central Europe.

  15. Bacillus simplex—A Little Known PGPB with Anti-Fungal Activity—Alters Pea Legume Root Architecture and Nodule Morphology When Coinoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Hirsch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two strains, 30N-5 and 30VD-1, identified as Bacillus simplex and B. subtilis, were isolated from the rhizospheres of two different plants, a Podocarpus and a palm, respectively, growing in the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden. B. subtilis is a well-known plant-growth promoting bacterial species, but B. simplex is not. B. simplex 30N-5 was initially isolated on a nitrogen-free medium, but no evidence for nitrogen fixation was found. Nevertheless, pea plants inoculated with B. simplex showed a change in root architecture due to the emergence of more lateral roots. When Pisum sativum carrying a DR5::GUSA construct, an indicator for auxin response, was inoculated with either B. simplex 30N-5 or its symbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53, GUS expression in the roots was increased over the uninoculated controls. Moreover, when pea roots were coinoculated with either B. simplex 30N-5 or B. subtilis 30VD-1 and R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53, the nodules were larger, clustered, and developed more highly branched vascular bundles. Besides producing siderophores and solubilizing phosphate, the two Bacillus spp., especially strain 30VD-1, exhibited anti-fungal activity towards Fusarium. Our data show that combining nodulating, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia with growth-promoting bacteria enhances plant development and strongly supports a coinoculation strategy to improve nitrogen fixation, increase biomass, and establish greater resistance to fungal disease.

  16. Increases in soil aggregation following phosphorus additions in a tropical premontane forest are not driven by root and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal abundances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa eCamenzind

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical ecosystems have an important role in global change scenarios, in part because they serve as a large terrestrial carbon pool. Carbon protection is mediated by soil aggregation processes, whereby biotic and abiotic factors influence the formation and stability of aggregates. Nutrient additions may affect soil structure indirectly by simultaneous shifts in biotic factors, mainly roots and fungal hyphae, but also via impacts on abiotic soil properties. Here, we tested the hypothesis that soil aggregation will be affected by nutrient additions primarily via changes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF hyphae and root length in a pristine tropical forest system. Therefore, the percentage of water-stable macroaggregates (> 250µm (WSA and the soil mean weight diameter (MWD was analyzed, as well as nutrient contents, pH, root length and AMF abundance. Phosphorus additions significantly increased the amount of WSA, which was consistent across two different sampling times. Despite a positive effect of phosphorus additions on extraradical AMF biomass, no relationship between WSA and extra-radical AMF nor roots was revealed by regression analyses, contrary to the proposed hypothesis. These findings emphasize the importance of analyzing soil structure in understudied tropical systems, since it might be affected by increasing nutrient deposition expected in the future.

  17. Arabidopsis ROP1 and ROP6 influence germination time, root morphology, the formation of F-actin bundles, and symbiotic fungal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venus, Yvonne; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2013-05-01

    The RHO-related GTPases ROP1 and ROP6 and the ROP1-interacting protein RIC4 in Arabidopsis are involved in various processes of F-actin dynamics, cell growth, and plant/microbe interactions. The knockout rop1 and rop1 rop6 seeds germinate earlier and are impaired in root hair development. Also root hair branching is strongly affected by manipulation of the RHO-related GTPase (ROP) levels. Furthermore, in the double knockout line rop1 rop6, no actin bundle formation can be detected. We demonstrate that these proteins are required for establishing a mutualistic interaction between the root-colonizing endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica and Arabidopsis. The fungus promotes growth of wild-type plants. rop1, rop6, rop1 rop6, ric4, 35S::ROP1, and 35S::ROP6 seedlings are impaired in the response to the fungus. Since the different root architectures have no effect on root colonization, the impaired response to P. indica should be caused by ROP-mediated events in the root cells. In wild-type roots, P. indica stimulates the formation of F-actin bundles and this does not occur in the rop1 rop6 knockout line. Furthermore, the fungus stimulates the expression of the calmodulin-binding protein gene Cbp60g, and this response is severely reduced in the rop mutants. We propose that ROP1 and ROP6 are required for F-actin bundle formation in the roots, which is required for P. indica-mediated growth promotion in Arabidopsis.

  18. Fungal Root Microbiome from Healthy and Brittle Leaf Diseased Date Palm Trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Reveals a Hidden Untapped Arsenal of Antibacterial and Broad Spectrum Antifungal Secondary Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Mefteh, Fedia B.; Amal DAOUD; Chenari Bouket, Ali; Alenezi, Faizah N.; Luptakova, Lenka; Rateb, Mostafa E.; Kadri, Adel; Gharsallah, Neji; Belbahri, Lassaad

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explore and compare the composition, metabolic diversity and antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi colonizing internal tissues of healthy and brittle leaf diseased (BLD) date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) widely cultivated in arid zones of Tunisia. A total of 52 endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy and BLD roots of date palm trees, identified based on internal transcribed spacer-rDNA sequence analysis and shown to represent 13 species belonging to...

  19. Functional Characteristics of an Endophyte Community Colonizing Rice Roots as Revealed by Metagenomic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sessitsch, A.; Hardoim, P.R.; Doring, J.; Weilharter, A.; Krause, A.; Woyke, T.; Mitter, B.; Hauberg-Lotte, L.; Friedrich, F.; Rahalkar, M.; Hurek, T.; Sarkar, A.; Bodrossy, L.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Brar, D.; Elsas, J.D.; Reinhold-Hurek, B.

    2012-01-01

    Roots are the primary site of interaction between plants and microorganisms. To meet food demands in changing climates, improved yields and stress resistance are increasingly important, stimulating efforts to identify factors that affect plant productivity. The role of bacterial endophytes that

  20. Functional Characteristics of an Endophyte Community Colonizing Rice Roots as Revealed by Metagenomic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sessitsch, A.; Hardoim, P.; Doering, J.; Weilharter, A.; Krause, A.; Woyke, T.; Mitter, B.; Hauberg-Lotte, L.; Friedrich, F.; Rahalkar, M.; Hurek, T.; Sarkar, A.; Bodrossy, L.; van Overbeek, L.; Brar, D.; van Elsas, J. D.; Reinhold-Hurek, B.

    Roots are the primary site of interaction between plants and microorganisms. To meet food demands in changing climates, improved yields and stress resistance are increasingly important, stimulating efforts to identify factors that affect plant productivity. The role of bacterial endophytes that

  1. Effectiveness of mycorrhizal inoculation in the nursery on root colonization, growth, and nutrient uptake of aspen and balsam poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quoreshi, A.M.; Khasa, D.P. [Symbiotech Research Inc. 201, 509-11 Avenue, Nisku, AB (Canada); Forest Biology Research Centre, University of Laval, Quebec (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Aspen and balsam poplar seedlings were inoculated with six species of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Hebeloma longicaudum, Laccaria bicolor, Paxillus involutus, Pisolithus tinctorius, Rhizopogon vinicolor, and Suillus tomentosus), one species of endomycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices), two species of bacteria (Agrobacterium sp. and Burkholderia cepacia), treated with a growth hormone (SR3), and co-inoculated with a combination of Paxillus and Burkholderia. The seedlings were grown in a greenhouse under three different fertility regimes. Bacterial inoculation alone did not affect seedling growth and nutrition as observed when co-inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungus. The biomass and root collar diameter of aspen and balsam poplar were significantly increased when adequate mycorrhizas are formed and more prominent when co-inoculated with P. involutus and B. cepacia and grown at the 67% fertilizer level. Except for R. vinicolor and S. tomentosus, the other four species of ectomycorrhizal fungi and G. intraradices formed symbiotic associations with both plant species. Both ectomycorrhizal and endomycorrhizal colonization were observed at all fertilizer levels and fertilizer applications did not affect the colonization rates. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were significantly improved in both aspen and balsam poplar compared with control only when co-inoculated with P. involutus and B. cepacia. However, plant net nitrogen uptake (content) increased significantly in all successful inoculation treatments and co-inoculated treatment when compared with control. These results hold promise for incorporation of inoculation of Populus sp. with appropriate mycorrhizal fungi and selected bacteria into commercial nursery system to improve the establishment of Populus in various sites. (author)

  2. Piriformospora indica, a Cultivable Plant-Growth-Promoting Root Endophyte

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, Ajit; Savita Verma; Sudha; Sahay, Nirmal; Bütehorn, Britta; Franken, Philipp

    1999-01-01

    Piriformospora indica (Hymenomycetes, Basidiomycota) is a newly described cultivable endophyte that colonizes roots. Inoculation with the fungus and application of fungal culture filtrate promotes plant growth and biomass production. Due to its ease of culture, this fungus provides a model organism for the study of beneficial plant-microbe interactions and a new tool for improving plant production systems.

  3. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Dark Septate Endophyte Fungal Associations in South Indian Aquatic and Wetland Macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Seerangan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the prevalence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM and dark septate endophyte (DSE fungal symbioses are limited for plants growing in tropical aquatic and wetland habitats compared to those growing on terrestrial moist or dry habitats. Therefore, we assessed the incidence of AM and DSE symbiosis in 8 hydrophytes and 50 wetland plants from four sites in south India. Of the 58 plant species examined, we found AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in 21 and five species, respectively. We reported for the first time AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in seven and five species, respectively. Intermediate-type AM morphology was common, and AM morphology is reported for the first time in 16 plant species. Both AM and DSE fungal colonization varied significantly across plant species and sites. Intact and identifiable AM fungal spores occurred in root zones of nine plant species, but AM fungal species richness was low. Though no clear relationship between AM and DSE fungal colonization was recognized, a significant negative correlation between AM colonization and spore numbers was established. Our study suggests that the occurrence of AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in plants growing in hydrophytic and wetland habitats is not as common as in terrestrial habitats.

  4. Consequences of pre-inoculation with native arbuscular mycorrhizae on root colonization and survival of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) seedlings after transplanting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Eugene Davidson

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation of seedlings with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is a common practice aimed at improving seedling establishment. The success of this practice largely depends on the ability of the inoculum to multiply and colonize the growing root system after transplanting. These events were investigated in Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush...

  5. The Mutualistic Fungus Piriformospora indica Colonizes Arabidopsis Roots by Inducing an Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress–Triggered Caspase-Dependent Cell Death[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Xiaoyu; Zechmann, Bernd; Reitz, Marco U.; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana roots, the mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica initially colonizes living cells, which die as the colonization proceeds. We aimed to clarify the molecular basis of this colonization-associated cell death. Our cytological analyses revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) swelling and vacuolar collapse in invaded cells, indicative of ER stress and cell death during root colonization. Consistent with this, P. indica–colonized plants were hypersensitive to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin. By clear contrast, ER stress sensors bZIP60 and bZIP28 as well as canonical markers for the ER stress response pathway, termed the unfolded protein response (UPR), were suppressed at the same time. Arabidopsis mutants compromised in caspase 1–like activity, mediated by cell death–regulating vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs), showed reduced colonization and decreased cell death incidence. We propose a previously unreported microbial invasion strategy during which P. indica induces ER stress but inhibits the adaptive UPR. This disturbance results in a VPE/caspase 1–like-mediated cell death, which is required for the establishment of the symbiosis. Our results suggest the presence of an at least partially conserved ER stress–induced caspase-dependent cell death pathway in plants as has been reported for metazoans. PMID:22337916

  6. The mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes Arabidopsis roots by inducing an endoplasmic reticulum stress-triggered caspase-dependent cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Xiaoyu; Zechmann, Bernd; Reitz, Marco U; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana roots, the mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica initially colonizes living cells, which die as the colonization proceeds. We aimed to clarify the molecular basis of this colonization-associated cell death. Our cytological analyses revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) swelling and vacuolar collapse in invaded cells, indicative of ER stress and cell death during root colonization. Consistent with this, P. indica-colonized plants were hypersensitive to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin. By clear contrast, ER stress sensors bZIP60 and bZIP28 as well as canonical markers for the ER stress response pathway, termed the unfolded protein response (UPR), were suppressed at the same time. Arabidopsis mutants compromised in caspase 1-like activity, mediated by cell death-regulating vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs), showed reduced colonization and decreased cell death incidence. We propose a previously unreported microbial invasion strategy during which P. indica induces ER stress but inhibits the adaptive UPR. This disturbance results in a VPE/caspase 1-like-mediated cell death, which is required for the establishment of the symbiosis. Our results suggest the presence of an at least partially conserved ER stress-induced caspase-dependent cell death pathway in plants as has been reported for metazoans.

  7. Oak protein profile alterations upon root colonization by an ectomycorrhizal fungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebastiana, Mónica; Martins, Joana; Figueiredo, Andreia

    2017-01-01

    An increased knowledge on the real impacts of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in forest species is needed to optimize forest sustainable productivity and thus to improve forest services and their capacity to act as carbon sinks. In this study, we investigated the response of an oak species to ectomycor......An increased knowledge on the real impacts of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in forest species is needed to optimize forest sustainable productivity and thus to improve forest services and their capacity to act as carbon sinks. In this study, we investigated the response of an oak species...... to ectomycorrhizae formation using a proteomics approach complemented by biochemical analysis of carbohydrate levels. Comparative proteome analysis between mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal cork oak plants revealed no differences at the foliar level. However, the protein profile of 34 unique oak proteins was altered...... in the roots. Consistent with the results of the biochemical analysis, the proteome analysis of the mycorrhizal roots suggests a decreasing utilization of sucrose for the metabolic activity of mycorrhizal roots which is consistent with an increased allocation of carbohydrates from the plant to the fungus...

  8. α-Conotoxin Vc1.1 inhibits human dorsal root ganglion neuroexcitability and mouse colonic nociception via GABAB receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Joel; Harrington, Andrea M; Garcia-Caraballo, Sonia; Maddern, Jessica; Grundy, Luke; Zhang, Jingming; Page, Guy; Miller, Paul E; Craik, David J; Adams, David J; Brierley, Stuart M

    2017-06-01

    α-Conotoxin Vc1.1 is a small disulfide-bonded peptide from the venom of the marine cone snail Conus victoriae. Vc1.1 has antinociceptive actions in animal models of neuropathic pain, but its applicability to inhibiting human dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuroexcitability and reducing chronic visceral pain (CVP) is unknown. We determined the inhibitory actions of Vc1.1 on human DRG neurons and on mouse colonic sensory afferents in healthy and chronic visceral hypersensitivity (CVH) states. In mice, visceral nociception was assessed by neuronal activation within the spinal cord in response to noxious colorectal distension (CRD). Quantitative-reverse-transcription-PCR, single-cell-reverse-transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry determined γ-aminobutyric acid receptor B (GABABR) and voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV2.2, CaV2.3) expression in human and mouse DRG neurons. Vc1.1 reduced the excitability of human DRG neurons, whereas a synthetic Vc1.1 analogue that is inactive at GABABR did not. Human DRG neurons expressed GABABR and its downstream effector channels CaV2.2 and CaV2.3. Mouse colonic DRG neurons exhibited high GABABR, CaV2.2 and CaV2.3 expression, with upregulation of the CaV2.2 exon-37a variant during CVH. Vc1.1 inhibited mouse colonic afferents ex vivo and nociceptive signalling of noxious CRD into the spinal cord in vivo, with greatest efficacy observed during CVH. A selective GABABR antagonist prevented Vc1.1-induced inhibition, whereas blocking both CaV2.2 and CaV2.3 caused inhibition comparable with Vc1.1 alone. Vc1.1-mediated activation of GABABR is a novel mechanism for reducing the excitability of human DRG neurons. Vc1.1-induced activation of GABABR on the peripheral endings of colonic afferents reduces nociceptive signalling. The enhanced antinociceptive actions of Vc1.1 during CVH suggest it is a novel candidate for the treatment for CVP. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  9. Dual RNA-seq transcriptional analysis of wheat roots colonized by Azospirillum brasilense reveals up-regulation of nutrient acquisition and cell cycle genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilios-Neto, Doumit; Bonato, Paloma; Wassem, Roseli; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Z; Brusamarello-Santos, Liziane C C; Valdameri, Glaucio; Donatti, Lucélia; Faoro, Helisson; Weiss, Vinicius A; Chubatsu, Leda S; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Souza, Emanuel M

    2014-05-16

    The rapid growth of the world's population demands an increase in food production that no longer can be reached by increasing amounts of nitrogenous fertilizers. Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) might be an alternative to increase nitrogenous use efficiency (NUE) in important crops such wheat. Azospirillum brasilense is one of the most promising PGPB and wheat roots colonized by A. brasilense is a good model to investigate the molecular basis of plant-PGPB interaction including improvement in plant-NUE promoted by PGPB. We performed a dual RNA-Seq transcriptional profiling of wheat roots colonized by A. brasilense strain FP2. cDNA libraries from biological replicates of colonized and non-inoculated wheat roots were sequenced and mapped to wheat and A. brasilense reference sequences. The unmapped reads were assembled de novo. Overall, we identified 23,215 wheat expressed ESTs and 702 A. brasilense expressed transcripts. Bacterial colonization caused changes in the expression of 776 wheat ESTs belonging to various functional categories, ranging from transport activity to biological regulation as well as defense mechanism, production of phytohormones and phytochemicals. In addition, genes encoding proteins related to bacterial chemotaxi, biofilm formation and nitrogen fixation were highly expressed in the sub-set of A. brasilense expressed genes. PGPB colonization enhanced the expression of plant genes related to nutrient up-take, nitrogen assimilation, DNA replication and regulation of cell division, which is consistent with a higher proportion of colonized root cells in the S-phase. Our data support the use of PGPB as an alternative to improve nutrient acquisition in important crops such as wheat, enhancing plant productivity and sustainability.

  10. Studies on mycoflora colonizing raw keratin wastes in arable soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Korniłłowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present studies showed that feathers placed in soil demonstrated the succesion of physiologically differentiated communities of micromycetes. The first colonizers were sugar fungi. The second phase of feather colonization showed the prevalence of nutritively undeveloped polyphages and "root" celulolytic fungi. The final phase of colonization was dominated by keratinophilic fungi together with microflora that involved the forms known mainly for their strong proteolytic abilities. It was found that both the Chemical structure of substrate and soil properties with its pH determined the qualitative composition of fungal flora.

  11. Colonization and plant growth promoting characterization of endophytic Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain Zong1 isolated from Sophora alopecuroides root nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Fei Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic strain Zong1 isolated from root nodules of the legume Sophora alopecuroides was characterized by conducting physiological and biochemical tests employing gfp-marking, observing their plant growth promoting characteristics (PGPC and detecting plant growth parameters of inoculation assays under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that strain Zong1 had an effective growth at 28 ºC after placed at 4-60 ºC for 15 min, had a wide range pH tolerance of 6.0-11.0 and salt tolerance up to 5% of NaCl. Zong1 was resistant to the following antibiotics (µg/mL: Phosphonomycin (100, Penicillin (100 and Ampicillin (100. It could grow in the medium supplemented with 1.2 mmol/L Cu, 0.1% (w/v methylene blue and 0.1-0.2% (w/v methyl red, respectively. Zong1 is closely related to Pseudomonas chlororaphis based on analysis the sequence of 16S rRNA gene. Its expression of the gfp gene indicated that strain Zong1 may colonize in root or root nodules and verified by microscopic observation. Furthermore, co-inoculation with Zong1 and SQ1 (Mesorhizobium sp. showed significant effects compared to single inoculation for the following PGPC parameters: siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, organic acid production, IAA production and antifungal activity in vitro. These results suggest strains P. chlororaphi Zong1 and Mesorhizobium sp. SQ1 have better synergistic or addictive effect. It was noteworthy that each growth index of co-inoculated Zong1+SQ1 in growth assays under greenhouse conditions is higher than those of single inoculation, and showed a significant difference (p < 0.05 when compared to a negative control. Therefore, as an endophyte P. chlororaphis Zong1 may play important roles as a potential plantgrowth promoting agent.

  12. Plant interspecific differences in arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization as a result of soil carbon addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschen, René; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2013-01-01

    Soil nutrient availability and colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are important and potentially interacting factors shaping vegetation composition and succession. We investigated the effect of carbon (C) addition, aimed at reducing soil nutrient availability, on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Seedlings of 27 plant species with different sets of life-history traits (functional group affiliation, life history strategy and nitrophilic status) were grown in pots filled with soil from a nutrient-rich set-aside field and amended with different amounts of C. Mycorrhizal colonization was progressively reduced along the gradient of increasing C addition in 17 out of 27 species, but not in the remaining species. Grasses had lower colonization levels than forbs and legumes and the decline in AM fungal colonization was more pronounced in legumes than in other forbs and grasses. Mycorrhizal colonization did not differ between annual and perennial species, but decreased more rapidly along the gradient of increasing C addition in plants with high Ellenberg N values than in plants with low Ellenberg N values. Soil C addition not only limits plant growth through a reduction in available nutrients, but also reduces mycorrhizal colonization of plant roots. The effect of C addition on mycorrhizal colonization varies among plant functional groups, with legumes experiencing an overproportional reduction in AM fungal colonization along the gradient of increasing C addition. We therefore propose that for a better understanding of vegetation succession on set-aside fields one may consider the interrelationship between plant growth, soil nutrient availability and mycorrhizal colonization of plant roots.

  13. Host and habitat filtering in seedling root-associated fungal communities: taxonomic and functional diversity are altered in 'novel' soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Brian J; Gorzelak, Monika A; Green, D Scott; Egger, Keith N; Massicotte, Hugues B

    2015-10-01

    Climatic and land use changes have significant consequences for the distribution of tree species, both through natural dispersal processes and following management prescriptions. Responses to these changes will be expressed most strongly in seedlings near current species range boundaries. In northern temperate forest ecosystems, where changes are already being observed, ectomycorrhizal fungi contribute significantly to successful tree establishment. We hypothesised that communities of fungal symbionts might therefore play a role in facilitating, or limiting, host seedling range expansion. To test this hypothesis, ectomycorrhizal communities of interior Douglas-fir and interior lodgepole pine seedlings were analysed in a common greenhouse environment following growth in five soils collected along an ecosystem gradient. Currently, Douglas-fir's natural distribution encompasses three of the five soils, whereas lodgepole pine's extends much further north. Host filtering was evident amongst the 29 fungal species encountered: 7 were shared, 9 exclusive to Douglas-fir and 13 exclusive to lodgepole pine. Seedlings of both host species formed symbioses with each soil fungal community, thus Douglas-fir did so even where those soils came from outside its current distribution. However, these latter communities displayed significant taxonomic and functional differences to those found within the host distribution, indicative of habitat filtering. In contrast, lodgepole pine fungal communities displayed high functional similarity across the soil gradient. Taxonomic and/or functional shifts in Douglas-fir fungal communities may prove ecologically significant during the predicted northward migration of this species; especially in combination with changes in climate and management operations, such as seed transfer across geographical regions for forestry purposes.

  14. Endophytic hyphal compartmentalization is required for successful symbiotic Ascomycota association with root cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatif, Lobna; Bouzid, Sadok; Kaminskyj, Susan; Vujanovic, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Root endophytic fungi are seen as promising alternatives to replace chemical fertilizers and pesticides in sustainable and organic agriculture systems. Fungal endophytes structure formations play key roles in symbiotic intracellular association with plant-roots. To compare the morphologies of Ascomycete endophytic fungi in wheat, we analyzed growth morphologies during endophytic development of hyphae within the cortex of living vs. dead root cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to characterize fungal cell morphology within lactofuchsin-stained roots. Cell form regularity Ireg and cell growth direction Idir, indexes were used to quantify changes in fungal morphology. Endophyte fungi in living roots had a variable Ireg and Idir values, low colonization abundance and patchy colonization patterns, whereas the same endophyte species in dead (gamma-irradiated) roots had consistent form of cells and mostly grew parallel to the root axis. Knot, coil and vesicle structures dominated in living roots, as putative symbiotic functional organs. Finally, an increased hypha septation in living roots might indicate local specialization within endophytic Ascomycota. Our results suggested that the applied method could be expanded to other septate fungal symbionts (e.g. Basidiomycota). The latter is discussed in light of our results and other recent discoveries.

  15. Poly-γ-Glutamic Acids Contribute to Biofilm Formation and Plant Root Colonization in Selected Environmental Isolates of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yiyang; Yan, Fang; Chen, Yun; Jin, Christopher; Guo, Jian-Hua; Chai, Yunrong

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is long known to produce poly-γ-glutamic acids (γ-PGA) as one of the major secreted polymeric substances. In B. subtilis, the regulation of γ-PGA production and its physiological role are still unclear. B. subtilis is also capable of forming structurally complex multicellular communities, or biofilms, in which an extracellular matrix consisting of secreted proteins and polysaccharides holds individual cells together. Biofilms were shown to facilitate B. subtilis-plant interactions. In this study, we show that different environmental isolates of B. subtilis, all capable of forming biofilms, vary significantly in γ-PGA production. This is possibly due to differential regulation of γ-PGA biosynthesis genes. In many of those environmental isolates, γ-PGA seems to contribute to robustness and complex morphology of the colony biofilms, suggesting a role of γ-PGA in biofilm formation. Our evidence further shows that in selected B. subtilis strains, γ-PGA also plays a role in root colonization by the bacteria, pinpointing a possible function of γ-PGA in B. subtilis-plant interactions. Finally, we found that several pathways co-regulate both γ-PGA biosynthesis genes and genes for the biofilm matrix in B. subtilis, but in an opposing fashion. We discussed potential biological significance of that.

  16. Poly-γ-Glutamic Acids Contribute to Biofilm Formation and Plant Root Colonization in Selected Environmental Isolates of Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yiyang; Yan, Fang; Chen, Yun; Jin, Christopher; Guo, Jian-Hua; Chai, Yunrong

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is long known to produce poly-γ-glutamic acids (γ-PGA) as one of the major secreted polymeric substances. In B. subtilis, the regulation of γ-PGA production and its physiological role are still unclear. B. subtilis is also capable of forming structurally complex multicellular communities, or biofilms, in which an extracellular matrix consisting of secreted proteins and polysaccharides holds individual cells together. Biofilms were shown to facilitate B. subtilis–plant interactions. In this study, we show that different environmental isolates of B. subtilis, all capable of forming biofilms, vary significantly in γ-PGA production. This is possibly due to differential regulation of γ-PGA biosynthesis genes. In many of those environmental isolates, γ-PGA seems to contribute to robustness and complex morphology of the colony biofilms, suggesting a role of γ-PGA in biofilm formation. Our evidence further shows that in selected B. subtilis strains, γ-PGA also plays a role in root colonization by the bacteria, pinpointing a possible function of γ-PGA in B. subtilis–plant interactions. Finally, we found that several pathways co-regulate both γ-PGA biosynthesis genes and genes for the biofilm matrix in B. subtilis, but in an opposing fashion. We discussed potential biological significance of that. PMID:27891125

  17. Fungal symbiosis unearthed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Cullen

    2008-01-01

    Associations between plant roots and fungi are a feature of many terrestrial ecosystems. The genome sequence of a prominent fungal partner opens new avenues for studying such mycorrhizal interactions....

  18. Effect of nicotine from tobacco root exudates on chemotaxis, growth, biocontrol efficiency, and colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa NXHG29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Zheng, Shuai Chao; Zhang, Ti Kun; Liu, Zi Yi; Wang, Xue Jian; Zhou, Xing Kui; Yang, Cheng Gang; Duo, Jin Ling; Mo, Ming He

    2018-02-03

    Accumulated evidence suggests that root exudates have a major role in mediating plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere. Here, we characterized tobacco root exudates (TREs) by GC-MS and nicotine, scopoletin, and octadecane were identified as three main components of TREs. Qualitative and quantitative chemotaxis assays revealed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa NXHG29 with antagonistic activity displayed positive chemotactic responses towards TREs and their three main components (nicotine, scopoletin, octadecane) and its enhanced chemotaxis were induced by these substances in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, following GC-MS and chemotaxis analysis, nicotine was selected as the target for evaluation of the effect on NXHG29 regarding antagonism, growth, root colonization and biocontrol efficiency. Results of in vitro studies showed that nicotine as a sole carbon source could enhance growth of NXHG29 and significantly increased the antagonism of NXHG29. We also demonstrated that nicotine exerted enhancing effects on the colonization ability of NXHG29 on tobacco roots by combining CLSM observations with investigation of population level dynamics by selective dilution plating method. Results from greenhouse experiments suggested nicotine exhibited stimulatory effects on the biocontrol efficiency of NXHG29 against bacterial wilt and black shank on tobacco. The stimulatory effect of nicotine was affected by the concentration and timing of nicotine application and further supported by the results of population level of NXHG29 on tobacco roots. This is the first report on the enhancement effect of nicotine from TREs on an antagonistic bacterium for its root colonization, control of soil-borne pathogens, regarding the chemotaxis and in vitro antagonism and growth.

  19. Piriformospora indica antagonizes cyst nematode infection and development in Arabidopsis roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshkhah, R.; Cabello, S.; Rozanska, E.; Sobczak, M.; Grundler, F. M. W.; Wieczorek, K.; Hofmann, J.

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Its colonization promotes plant growth, development, and seed production as well as resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present work, P. indica was tested as potential antagonist of the sedentary plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. This biotrophic cyst-forming nematode induces severe host plant damage by changing the morphogenesis and physiology of infected roots. Here it is shown that P. indica colonization, as well as the application of fungal exudates and cell-wall extracts, significantly affects the vitality, infectivity, development, and reproduction of H. schachtii. PMID:23956413

  20. Piriformospora indica antagonizes cyst nematode infection and development in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshkhah, R; Cabello, S; Rozanska, E; Sobczak, M; Grundler, F M W; Wieczorek, K; Hofmann, J

    2013-09-01

    The beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Its colonization promotes plant growth, development, and seed production as well as resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present work, P. indica was tested as potential antagonist of the sedentary plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. This biotrophic cyst-forming nematode induces severe host plant damage by changing the morphogenesis and physiology of infected roots. Here it is shown that P. indica colonization, as well as the application of fungal exudates and cell-wall extracts, significantly affects the vitality, infectivity, development, and reproduction of H. schachtii.

  1. The effect of H. pylori infection, aging and consumption of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs on fungal colonization in the stomach of dyspeptic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh eMassarrat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of coinfection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and Candida albicans (C. albicans in the development of gastric diseases is not known. In this study, the frequency of concurrent infection of H. pylori and C. albicans in dyspeptic patients was assessed while considering age, gender and PPI consumption of patients. Methods: Gastric biopsies were taken from 74 yeast-positive dyspeptic patients and gastric disease, age, gender and proton pump inhibitor (PPI consumption of subjects were recorded. One antral biopsy was used for rapid urease test (RUT and one for H. pylori and yeast cultivation and smear preparation. Bacterial isolates were identified according to spiral morphology and the biochemical characteristics. Yeast isolates were identified on Chromagar and by the Nested-PCR amplification of C. albicans-specific topoisomerase II gene. Twenty seven biopsy smears were Gram-stained and examined by the light microscope for observing H. pylori and yeast cells.Results: Fifty four (73% of patients were >40 yr. Of 68 patients with PPI consumption record, 46 (67.6% consumed PPI (p=0. Comparison of patients in peptic ulcer group (12, 16.2% with (6, 8.1% or without (6, 8.1% H. pylori or in gastritis group (62, 83.8% with (25, 33.8% or without (37, 50% H. pylori showed no significant difference (p>0.05. Of the 46 patients who consumed PPI, 13 (17.5% were H. pylori-positive and 33 (44.6% H. pylori-negative (p=0. Ten out of 27 smears showed the occurrence of H. pylori cells, including three with yeast cells. Of the 17 H. pylori-negative smears, three showed the occurrence of yeast cells only. Yeasts stained Gram- positive or Gram- negative and appeared as single or budding cells.Conclusion: The older age and PPI consumption could favor fungal colonization in the human stomach. The occurrence of a considerable number of H. pylori-positive or H. pylori-negative patients with gastritis or peptic ulcer shows that co-infection of

  2. Endophytic Fungal Flora from Roots and Fruits of an Indian Neem Plant Azadirachta indica A. Juss., and Impact of Culture Media on their Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vijay C; Gond, Surendra K; Kumar, Anuj; Kharwar, Ravindra N; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Strobel, Gary A

    2011-10-01

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem), native to India, is well known worldwide for its insecticidal and ethanopharmacological properties. Although endophytic microbes are known from this plant as only leaves and stems were the subjects of past reports. Now, a variety of procedures and a number of different media were used to isolate the maximum number of endophytic fungi from unripe fruits and roots. A total of 272 isolates of 29 filamentous fungal taxa were isolated at rate of 68.0% from 400 samples of three different individual trees (at locations-Az1, Az2, Az3). Mycological agar (MCA) medium yielded the highest number of isolates (95, with a 14.50% isolation rate) with the greatest species richness. Mycelia Sterilia (1, 2, 3) accounted for 11.06%, Coelomycetes 7.25%, while Hyphomycetes showed the maximum number of representative isolates (81.69%). Mycelia-Sterilia (1, 2, 3), based on their 5.8S ITS 1, ITS2 and partial 18S and 28S rDNA sequences were identified as Fusarium solani (99%), Chaetomium globosum (93%) and Chaetomium globosum (93%) respectively. Humicola, Drechslera, Colletotrichum, and Scytalidium sp. were some of the peculiar fungal endophytes recovered from this plant.

  3. Fungal transcript pattern during the preinfection stage (12 h) of ectomycorrhiza formed between Pisolithus tinctorius and Castanea sativa roots, identified using cDNA microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acioli-Santos, Bartolomeu; Sebastiana, Mónica; Pessoa, Fernando; Sousa, Lisete; Figueiredo, Andreia; Fortes, Ana Margarida; Baldé, Aladje; Maia, Leonor C; Pais, Maria S

    2008-12-01

    Transcriptional changes in Pisolithus tinctorius leading to ectomycorrhizal formation in P. tinctorius- Castanea sativa were investigated using a 12-h fungal interaction in vitro system. Using a 3107-cDNA clone microarray, 34 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were found to be differentially expressed. These ESTs represent 14 known genes, 5 upregulated and 9 downregulated, and 20 orphan sequences. Some transcripts of upregulated genes (with unknown function) were previously identified in other mycorrhizal Pisolithus spp. associations. ESTs for S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase and several orphan sequences were identified in our system. The identified transcript of downregulated genes involved hydrophobins, 5S, 18S, and 28S ribosomal RNA genes, large subunits of ribosomal RNA (mitochondrial gene), and two types of heat shock proteins. This study demonstrates the high complexity of molecular events involved in the preinfection steps and suggests the utilization of different fungal gene repertories before ectomycorrhizal formation. These data constitute a first contribution for the molecular understanding of early signaling events between P. tinctorius and C. sativa roots during ectomycorrhizal formation.

  4. Study of genes modifying morphology, pathogen interactions and MEP-derived metabolites during barley root colonization by Piriformospora indica via stable root transformation system

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Liang

    2012-01-01

    In agricultural cropping systems, roots are frequently subjected to a series of abiotic stress as well as biotic stress caused by microbial pathogens and pests which lead seriously yield reduction for crop food. The significance of the root for plant health is in disagreement with the availability of root systems for functional studies. This is more alarming as our knowledge and technology on protective cultivation methods, resistant germplasms, or chemical control strategies to ward off root...

  5. Molecular characterization of endophytic fungi associated with the roots of Chenopodium quinoa inhabiting the Atacama Desert, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, M; Vilo, C; Bascuñán-Godoy, L

    2017-03-01

    Plant roots can be highly colonized by fungal endophytes. This seems to be of particular importance for the survival of plants inhabiting stressful habitats. This study focused on the Identification of the fungal endophytic community associated with the roots of quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa) growing near the salt lakes of the Atacama Desert, Chile. One hundred endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy quinoa roots, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was sequenced for phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis. The isolates were classified into eleven genera and 21 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Despite a relatively high diversity of root endophytic fungi associated with quinoa plants, the fungal community was dominated by only the Ascomycota phyla. In addition, the most abundant genera were Penicillium, Phoma and Fusarium, which are common endophytes reported in plant roots. This study shows that roots of C. quinoa harbor a diverse group of endophytic fungi. Potential roles of these fungi in plant host tolerance to stressful conditions are discussed.

  6. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. mature trees and seedlings in the neotropical coastal forests of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles)

    OpenAIRE

    Séne, S.; Avril, R.; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Geoffroy, A.; Ndiaye, C.; Diedhiou, A. G.; SADIO, O.; Courtecuisse, R.; Sylla, S.; Selosse, M.A.; Bâ, Amadou

    2015-01-01

    We studied belowground and aboveground diversity and distribution of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal species colonizing Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (seagrape) mature trees and seedlings naturally regenerating in four littoral forests of the Guadeloupe island (Lesser Antilles). We collected 546 sporocarps, 49 sclerotia, and morphotyped 26,722 root tips from mature trees and seedlings. Seven EM fungal species only were recovered among sporocarps (Cantharellus cinnabarinus, Amanita arenicola, Russula ...

  7. Phytohormones in plant-endophyte interactions: investigating the role of these compounds in the recruitment of tomato root fungal endophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzotti, Andrea; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Collinge, David B.

    Endophytes are microbes capable of colonizing the inner part of different plant tissues without causing disease symptoms. In some cases, they have beneficial effects for the host plant. The role of endophytes in biological control of plant pathogens, in induction of plant abiotic stress tolerance...... and in enhancement of plant growth has strongly increased the focus on the isolation of novel endophytic species. In order to implement the use of specific endophytes in agriculture, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in the plant-endophyte interactions. Phytohormones play a significant role...... in this interaction, but little is known about the specific way by which they influence the recruitment and the colonization of the host tissues. The aim of the current project is to go deeper into the role of these signalling compounds in plant-endophyte interactions. The isolation of endophytic fungi from tomato...

  8. A Carotenoid-Deficient Mutant in Pantoea sp. YR343, a Bacteria Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Populus deltoides, Is Defective in Root Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Amber N; Fletcher, Sarah J; Pelletier, Dale A; Schadt, Christopher W; Jawdy, Sara S; Weston, David J; Engle, Nancy L; Tschaplinski, Timothy; Masyuko, Rachel; Polisetti, Sneha; Bohn, Paul W; Coutinho, Teresa A; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    The complex interactions between plants and their microbiome can have a profound effect on the health and productivity of the plant host. A better understanding of the microbial mechanisms that promote plant health and stress tolerance will enable strategies for improving the productivity of economically important plants. Pantoea sp. YR343 is a motile, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from the roots of Populus deltoides that possesses the ability to solubilize phosphate and produce the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Pantoea sp. YR343 readily colonizes plant roots and does not appear to be pathogenic when applied to the leaves or roots of selected plant hosts. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in plant association and rhizosphere survival by Pantoea sp. YR343, we constructed a mutant in which the crtB gene encoding phytoene synthase was deleted. Phytoene synthase is responsible for converting geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to phytoene, an important precursor to the production of carotenoids. As predicted, the ΔcrtB mutant is defective in carotenoid production, and shows increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. Moreover, we find that the ΔcrtB mutant is impaired in biofilm formation and production of IAA. Finally we demonstrate that the ΔcrtB mutant shows reduced colonization of plant roots. Taken together, these data suggest that carotenoids are important for plant association and/or rhizosphere survival in Pantoea sp. YR343.

  9. A carotenoid-deficient mutant in Pantoea sp. YR343, a bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Populus deltoides, is defective in root colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber N Bible

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The complex interactions between plants and their microbiome can have a profound effect on the health and productivity of the plant host. A better understanding of the microbial mechanisms that promote plant health and stress tolerance will enable strategies for improving the productivity of economically-important plants. Pantoea sp. YR343 is a motile, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from the roots of Populus deltoides that possesses the ability to solubilize phosphate and produce the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid. Pantoea sp. YR343 readily colonizes plant roots and does not appear to be pathogenic when applied to the leaves or roots of selected plant hosts. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in plant association and rhizosphere survival by Pantoea sp. YR343, we constructed a mutant in which the crtB gene encoding phytoene synthase was deleted. Phytoene synthase is responsible for converting geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to phytoene, an important precursor to the production of carotenoids. As predicted, the ΔcrtB mutant is defective in carotenoid production, and shows increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. Moreover, we find that the ΔcrtB mutant is impaired in biofilm formation and production of indole-3-acetic acid. Finally we demonstrate that the ΔcrtB mutant shows reduced colonization of plant roots. Taken together, these data suggest that carotenoids are important for plant association and/or rhizosphere survival in Pantoea sp. YR343.

  10. Early impacts of forest restoration treatments on the ectomycorrhizal fungal community and fine root biomass in a mixed conifer forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane E. Smith; Donaraye McKay; Greg Brenner; Jim McIver; Joseph W. Spatafora

    2005-01-01

    1. The obligate symbiosis formed between ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) and roots of tree species in the Pinaceae influences nutrient uptake and surrounding soil structure. Understanding how EMF respond to prescribed fire and thinning will assist forest managers in selecting fuel-reducing restoration treatments that maintain critical soil processes and site productivity....

  11. Adaptive expression of host cell wall degrading enzymes in fungal disease: an example from Fusarium root rot of medicinal Coleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, A

    2013-12-15

    Quantity of extracellular proteins and activities two cell wall degrading enzymes pectinase and cellulase were determined in the culture filtrate of Fusarium solani, the causal organism of root rot of Coleus forskohlii. Substitution of carbon source in the medium with either pectin or carboxymethyl cellulose led to the increased production of extracellular proteins by the fungus. Pectinase and cellulase activity in the culture filtrate was detected only when the growth medium contained substituted carbon source in the form of pectin and CMC, respectively. Pectinase activity was highest after 5 days incubation and then decreased gradually with time but cellulase activity showed a steady time dependent increase. In vitro virulence study showed the requirement of both the enzymes for complete expression of rot symptoms on Coleus plants. Thus the present study established the adaptive, substrate dependent expression of the two enzymes by the fungus and also their involvement in the root rot disease of Coleus forskohlii.

  12. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. mature trees and seedlings in the neotropical coastal forests of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séne, Seynabou; Avril, Raymond; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Geoffroy, Alexandre; Ndiaye, Cheikh; Diédhiou, Abdala Gamby; Sadio, Oumar; Courtecuisse, Régis; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Selosse, Marc-André; Bâ, Amadou

    2015-10-01

    We studied belowground and aboveground diversity and distribution of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal species colonizing Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (seagrape) mature trees and seedlings naturally regenerating in four littoral forests of the Guadeloupe island (Lesser Antilles). We collected 546 sporocarps, 49 sclerotia, and morphotyped 26,722 root tips from mature trees and seedlings. Seven EM fungal species only were recovered among sporocarps (Cantharellus cinnabarinus, Amanita arenicola, Russula cremeolilacina, Inocybe littoralis, Inocybe xerophytica, Melanogaster sp., and Scleroderma bermudense) and one EM fungal species from sclerotia (Cenococcum geophilum). After internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing, the EM root tips fell into 15 EM fungal taxa including 14 basidiomycetes and 1 ascomycete identified. Sporocarp survey only weakly reflected belowground assessment of the EM fungal community, although 5 fruiting species were found on roots. Seagrape seedlings and mature trees had very similar communities of EM fungi, dominated by S. bermudense, R. cremeolilacina, and two Thelephoraceae: shared species represented 93 % of the taxonomic EM fungal diversity and 74 % of the sampled EM root tips. Furthermore, some significant differences were observed between the frequencies of EM fungal taxa on mature trees and seedlings. The EM fungal community composition also varied between the four investigated sites. We discuss the reasons for such a species-poor community and the possible role of common mycorrhizal networks linking seagrape seedlings and mature trees in regeneration of coastal forests.

  13. Carbon cost of the fungal symbiont relative to net leaf P accumulation in a split-root VA mycorrhizal symbiosis. [Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck; Glomus intraradices Schenk and Smith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douds, D.D. Jr.; Johnson, C.R.; Koch, K.E. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))

    1988-02-01

    Translocation of {sup 14}C-photosynthates to mycorrhizal (++), half mycorrhizal (0+), and nonmycorrhizal (00) split-root systems was compared to P accumulation in leaves of the host plant. Carrizo citrange seedlings (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. {times} Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) were inoculated with the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith. Plants were exposed to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} for 10 minutes and ambient air for 2 hours. Three to 4% of recently labeled photosynthate was allocated to metabolism of the mycorrhiza in each inoculated root half independent of shoot P concentration, growth response, and whether one or both root halves were colonized. Nonmycorrhizal roots respired more of the label translocated to them than did mycorrhizal roots. Label recovered in the potting medium due to exudation or transport into extraradical hyphae was 5 to 6 times greater for (++) versus (00) plants. In low nutrient media, roots of (0+) and (++) plants transported more P to leaves per root weight than roots of (00) plants. However, when C translocated to roots utilized for respiration, exudation, etc., as well as growth is considered, (00) plant roots were at least as efficient at P uptake (benefit) per C utilized (cost) as (0+) and (++) plants. Root systems of (++) plants did not supply more P to leaves than (0+) plants in higher nutrient media, yet they still allocated twice the {sup 14}C-photosynthate to the mycorrhiza as did (0+) root systems.

  14. First evidence of root morphological and architectural variations in young Posidonia oceanica plants colonizing different substrate typologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Elena; de Battisti, Davide; Vallerini, Flavia; Lardicci, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    Root morphology and root system architecture of young Posidonia oceanica plants established on two contrasting substrate types, sand and rock, were examined to provide insights into the strategy of adaptation of seagrasses to their environment. After germination, seedlings were planted on sandy patches and on rock within the same area, and survived plants were collected five years later for measurements of the size of the entire root complex and analysis of individual morphological and architectural root traits. Collected plants exhibited up to nine highly intermingled root systems and approx. 2.5 m of total root length. Maximum horizontal extension, total biomass and total length of roots were not significantly affected by substrate. However, on sand roots grew vertically reaching up to 13 cm, while on rock they extended more horizontally and did not penetrate deeper than 5-7 cm leading to the formation of a shallow, densely packed root complex. On rock, the number and the length of second-order laterals on an individual root system were reduced and the topological index higher than on sand (0.8 vs. 0.7) reflecting a more simple (herringbone) branching pattern. Again, root diameter was greater than on sand. The results suggest that P. oceanica can adjust root traits early during plant development according to substrate typology to maximize anchorage and substrate exploration efficiency. This plasticity enables the species to establish and persist also on rocky bottoms which generally prevent establishment of the majority of seagrasses.

  15. A rhamnose-deficient lipopolysaccharide mutant of Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 is defective in root colonization and beneficial interactions with its flooding-tolerant hosts Sesbania cannabina and wetland rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Shubhajit; Mukherjee, Arijit; Wiley-Kalil, Audrey; Das, Seema; Owen, Heather; Reddy, Pallavolu M; Ané, Jean-Michel; James, Euan K; Gyaneshwar, Prasad

    2016-10-01

    Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 develops a classical nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the aquatic legume Sesbania cannabina (Retz.). It also promotes the growth of wetland rice (Oryza sativa L.), but little is known about the rhizobial determinants important for these interactions. In this study, we analyzed the colonization of S. cannabina and rice using a strain of Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 dually marked with β-glucuronidase and the green fluorescent protein. This bacterium colonized S. cannabina by crack entry and through root hair infection under flooded and non-flooded conditions, respectively. Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 colonized the surfaces of wetland rice roots, but also entered them at the base of lateral roots. It became endophytically established within intercellular spaces in the rice cortex, and intracellularly within epidermal and hypodermal cells. A mutant of Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 altered in the synthesis of the rhamnose-containing O-antigen exhibited significant defects, not only in nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation with S. cannabina, but also in rice colonization and plant growth promotion. Supplementation with purified lipopolysaccharides from the wild-type strain, but not from the mutant, restored the beneficial colonization of rice roots, but not fully effective nodulation of S. cannabina Commonalities and differences in the rhizobial colonization of the roots of wetland legume and rice hosts are discussed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The impact of ecosystem degradation on the diversity of AM fungal communities associated to shrub species from the semiarid Spanish southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barea, J. M.; Palenzuela, J.; Sánchez-Castro, I.; López-García, A.; Ferrol, M.; Azcón-Aguilar, C.

    2012-04-01

    Both the incidence of some soil environmental factors and the disturbance of natural plant communities, are often accompanied or preceded by loss of key physical-chemical and biological soil properties. In particular, plant community degradation causes disturbance of AM inoculum potential which is a critical ecological factor to help further plant developments in degraded habitats. The effect of disturbance of the vegetation cover on AM fungal population (number and diversity), is particularly relevant in the case of shrub communities, characteristics of semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems. In this context, a series of experiments have been carried out based on five representative communities of shrub species from southeast Spain. Both morphological and molecular approaches were followed for characterization of AM fungi associated to the target plant species, either as spores, extra-radical mycelia or actually colonizing their roots. The experiments can be grouped into three categories: (i) Analyzing the effect of plant cover degradation status. We demonstrated that degradation affects negatively the density and diversity of AM fungi as spores. (ii) Analyzing the community composition, and the temporal colonization dynamics, of AM fungi colonizing the roots of representative shrub species. It was found that the different co-occurring plant species are colonized by AM fungal communities of different composition, and that many AM fungal sequences detected in plant roots cannot be related to known AM fungal taxa present as spores in the rhizosphere soil. (iii) Assessing the effect of soil disturbance on AM fungal populations. It was found that, in spite of the induced perturbation, the phylotype diversity of AM fungi in receptor plants exclusively colonized by the AM propagules from the altered soil was not reduced in comparison to that of plants exclusively colonized from donor plants taken from the target ecosystem, used as inoculum source. The results will be

  17. Paleomycology of the Princeton Chert II. Dark-septate fungi in the aquatic angiosperm Eorhiza arnoldii indicate a diverse assemblage of root-colonizing fungi during the Eocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymiuk, Ashley A; Taylor, Thomas N; Taylor, Edith L; Krings, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Tissues of the extinct aquatic or emergent angiosperm, Eorhiza arnoldii incertae sedis, were extensively colonized by microfungi, and in this study we report the presence of several types of sterile mycelia. In addition to inter- and intracellular proliferation of regular septate hyphae, the tissues contain monilioid hyphae with intercalary branching. These filamentous mycelia are spatially associated with two distinct morphotypes of intracellular microsclerotia. These quiescent structures are morphologically similar to loose and cerebriform microsclerotia found within the living tissues of some plants, which have been attributed to an informal assemblage of dematiaceous ascomycetes, the dark-septate endophytes. While there are significant challenges to interpreting the ecology of fossilized fungi, these specimens provide evidence for asymptomatic endophytic colonization of the rooting structures of a 48.7 million year old aquatic angiosperm.

  18. Evaluating the bioreducing potential of the leaves, knobs and roots of Zanthoxylum capense (small knobwood) for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles, applicable to in vitro fungal contamination control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodede, Olusola; Shaik, Shakira; Govinden, Roshini; Moodley, Roshila

    2017-12-01

    In this study we report on the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extracts from selected morphological parts of Zanthoxylum capense. UV-vis spectra of the biosynthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) revealed absorption peaks at around 450 nm, indicative of the nanoparticles’ surface plasmon resonance, whilst infrared vibrational frequencies indicated the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and free and bonded sugars which could be responsible for the reduction and stabilisation of the AgNPs. 1H-NMR fingerprinting of the aqueous knob extract confirmed the active bio-reducing phytochemical of the knobs to be 6-O-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside. The nature, shape and morphology of the biosynthesised AgNPs were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis. Z. capense AgNPs were mostly spherical in shape with particle sizes in the range of 4-28 nm, 7-20 nm and 4-32 nm for leaves, knobs and roots, respectively. Leaf extracts were the most efficient in the synthesis of AgNPs with an average yield of 0.027 g AgNPs per g of plant (dry mass). The AgNPs were more effective than sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) in the control of in vitro fungal contamination in nodal explants of Z. capense up to two weeks. Shoots induced from the surface sterilised explants were further used for shoot multiplication on benzyl aminopurine (BAP) and kinetin (KIN). BAP at 0.5 mg l-1 gave the highest percentage (88.6%) of explants bearing shoots with an average of 4.78 shoots per explant. A total of 15 fungal endophyte strains associated with Z. capense were identified using molecular methods.

  19. Diversity of root-associated arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in a rubber tree plantation chronosequence in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Laetitia; Lesueur, Didier; Bräu, Lambert; Davison, John; Jairus, Teele; Robain, Henri; Robin, Agnès; Vasar, Martti; Wiriyakitnateekul, Wanpen; Öpik, Maarja

    2016-11-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is of major economic importance in Southeast Asia and for small land holders in Thailand in particular. Due to the high value of latex, plantations are expanding into unsuitable areas, such as the northeast province of Thailand where soil fertility is very low and therefore appropriate management practices are of primary importance. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) contribute to plant growth through a range of mechanisms and could play a key role in a more sustainable management of the rubber plantations. We described the diversity of AMF associated with rubber tree roots in Northeast Thailand in relation to tree age and soil parameters along a chronosequence of rubber tree plantations. Cassava fields were included for comparison. Rubber tree and cassava roots harbored high diversity of AMF (111 Virtual Taxa, VT), including 20 novel VT. AMF VT richness per sample was consistently high (per site mean 16 to 21 VT per sample) along the chronosequence and was not related to soil properties. The composition of AMF communities differed between cassava and rubber tree plantations and was influenced by soil texture and nutrient content (sand, K, P, Ca). AMF community composition gradually shifted with the age of the trees. Our results suggest that the high diversity of AMF in this region is potentially significant for maintaining high functionality of AMF communities.

  20. Fungal Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Fungal Keratitis Sections What is Fungal Keratitis? Fungal Keratitis Causes ... Keratitis Symptoms Fungal Keratitis Treatment What is Fungal Keratitis? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es la Queratitis Fúngica? ...

  1. Gene expression patterns and dynamics of the colonization of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by highly virulent and weakly virulent strains of Fusarium oxysporum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño-Sánchez, Jonathan; Tello, Vega; Casado-del Castillo, Virginia; Thon, Michael R.; Benito, Ernesto P.; Díaz-Mínguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of root and hypocotyl colonization, and the gene expression patterns of several fungal virulence factors and plant defense factors have been analyzed and compared in the interaction of two Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli strains displaying clear differences in virulence, with a susceptible common bean cultivar. The growth of the two strains on the root surface and the colonization of the root was quantitatively similar although the highly virulent (HV) strain was more efficient reaching the central root cylinder. The main differences between both strains were found in the temporal and spatial dynamics of crown root and hypocotyl colonization. The increase of fungal biomass in the crown root was considerably larger for the HV strain, which, after an initial stage of global colonization of both the vascular cylinder and the parenchymal cells, restricted its growth to the newly differentiated xylem vessels. The weakly virulent (WV) strain was a much slower and less efficient colonizer of the xylem vessels, showing also growth in the intercellular spaces of the parenchyma. Most of the virulence genes analyzed showed similar expression patterns in both strains, except SIX1, SIX6 and the gene encoding the transcription factor FTF1, which were highly upregulated in root crown and hypocotyl. The response induced in the infected plant showed interesting differences for both strains. The WV strain induced an early and strong transcription of the PR1 gene, involved in SAR response, while the HV strain preferentially induced the early expression of the ethylene responsive factor ERF2. PMID:25883592

  2. Montagnuphilones A-G, Azaphilones from Montagnulaceae sp. DM0194, a Fungal Endophyte of Submerged Roots of Persicaria amphibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-Guang; Xu, Ya-Ming; Sandberg, Dustin C; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2017-01-27

    Seven azaphilones, montagnuphilones A-G (1-7), together with previously known azaphilones 8-11, were encountered in Montagnulaceae sp. DM0194, an endophytic fungus isolated from submerged roots of Persicaria amphibia. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated on the basis of their MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and ability to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Among these, none were found to be cytotoxic to RAW264.7 cells up to 100.0 μM, but 8, 5, and 2 showed NO inhibitory activity with IC 50 values of 9.2 ± 0.9, 25.5 ± 1.1, and 39.6 ± 1.8 μM, respectively.

  3. Assessment of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in the natural habitats of Tuber magnatum (Ascomycota, Pezizales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, M; Iotti, M; Oddis, M; Lalli, G; Pacioni, G; Leonardi, P; Maccherini, S; Perini, C; Salerni, E; Zambonelli, A

    2013-07-01

    The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities of four natural Tuber magnatum truffle grounds, located in different Italian regions (Abruzzo, Emilia-Romagna, Molise, and Tuscany), were studied. The main objective of this study was to characterize and compare the ECM fungal communities in the different regions and in productive (where T. magnatum ascomata were found) and nonproductive points. More than 8,000 (8,100) colonized root tips were counted in 73 soil cores, and 129 operational taxonomic units were identified using morphological and molecular methods. Although the composition of the ECM fungal communities studied varied, we were able to highlight some common characteristics. The most plentiful ECM fungal taxa belong to the Thelephoraceae and Sebacinaceae families followed by Inocybaceae and Russulaceae. Although several ectomycorrhizas belonging to Tuber genus were identified, no T. magnatum ectomycorrhizas were found. The putative ecological significance of some species is discussed.

  4. Components of Antagonism and Mutualism in Ips pini–Fungal Interactions: Relationship to a Life History of Colonizing Highly Stressed and Dead Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Kopper; Kier D. Klepzig; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to describe the complex relationships between bark beetles and the ophiostomatoid (stain) fungi they transport have largely resulted in a dichotomous classification. These symbioses have been viewed as either mutualistic (i.e., fungi help bark beetles colonize living trees by overcoming tree defenses or by providing nutrients after colonization in return for...

  5. Pyramiding taro cystatin and fungal chitinase genes driven by a synthetic promoter enhances resistance in tomato to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuan-Li; He, Yong; Hsiao, Tsen-Tsz; Wang, Chii-Jeng; Tian, Zhihong; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2015-02-01

    Meloidogyne incognita, one of the major root-knot nematode (RKN) species in agriculture, attacks many plant species, causing severe economic losses. Genetic engineering of plants with defense-responsive genes has been demonstrated to control RKN. These studies, however, focused on controlling RKN at certain growth stages. In the present study, a dual gene overexpression system, utilizing a plant cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CeCPI) and a fungal chitinase (PjCHI-1), was used to transform tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in order to provide protection from all growth stages of RKN. A synthetic promoter, pMSPOA, containing NOS-like and SP8a elements, was employed to drive the expression of introduced genes. Gall formation and the proportion of female nematodes in the population, as well as effects on the reproduction of RKN, were monitored in both transgenic and control plants. RKN eggs collected from transgenic plants displayed reduced chitin content and retardation in embryogenesis. The results demonstrated that transgenic plants had inhibitory effects on RKN that were superior to plants transformed with a single gene. The pyramiding expression system produced synergistic effects by the two defense-responsive genes, leading to a detrimental effect on all growth stages of RKN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diversity and composition of ectomycorrhizal community on seedling roots: the role of host preference and soil origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qiong; Liang, Yu; Legendre, Pierre; He, Xin-Hua; Pei, Ke-Quan; Du, Xiao-Jun; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2011-11-01

    As the main source of inocula, ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal propagules are critical for root colonization and seedling survival in deforested areas. It is essential to know factors that may affect the diversity and composition of ECM fungal community on roots of seedlings planted in deforest areas during reforestation. We quantitatively evaluated the effect of host plant and soil origin on ECM fungal propagule community structure established on roots of Castanopsis fargesii, Lithocarpus harlandii, Pinus armandii, and Pinus massoniana growing in soils from local natural forests and from sites deforested by clear-cut logging in the 1950s and 1960s. ECM root tips were sampled in April, July, and October of 2006, and ECM fungal communities were determined using ECM root morphotyping, internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-RFLP, and ITS sequencing. A total of 36 ECM fungal species were observed in our study, and species richness varied with host species and soil origin. Decreased colonization rates were found in all host species except for L. harlandii, and reduced species richness was found in all host species except for P. armandii in soil from the deforested site, which implied the great changes in ECM fungal community composition. Our results showed that 33.3% variance in ECM fungal community composition could be explained by host plant species and 4.6% by soil origin. Results of indicator species analysis demonstrated that 14 out of 19 common ECM fungal species showed significant preference to host plant species, suggesting that the host preference of ECM fungi was one of the most important mechanisms in structuring ECM fungal community. Accordingly, the host plant species should be taken into account in the reforestation of deforested areas due to the strong and commonly existed host preference of ECM fungi.

  7. Oxalotrophy, a widespread trait of plant-associated Burkholderia species, is involved in successful root colonization of lupin and maize by Burkholderia phytofirmans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Thomas; Stopnisek, Nejc; Agnoli, Kirsty; Eberl, Leo; Weisskopf, Laure

    2014-01-01

    Plant roots and shoots harbor complex bacterial communities. Early seed and plantlet colonization plays a key role in determining which bacterial populations will successfully invade plant tissues, yet the mechanisms enabling plants to select for beneficial rather than harmful populations are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a role of oxalate as a determinant in this selection process, using members of the genus Burkholderia as model organisms. Oxalotrophy, i.e., the ability to use oxalate as a carbon source, was found to be a property strictly associated with plant-beneficial species of the Burkholderia genus, while plant pathogenic (B. glumae, B. plantarii) or human opportunistic pathogens (Burkholderia cepacia complex strains) were unable to degrade oxalate. We further show that oxalotrophy is required for successful plant colonization by the broad host endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN: an engineered Δoxc mutant, which lost the ability to grow on oxalate, was significantly impaired in early colonization of both lupin and maize compared with the wild-type. This work suggests that in addition to the role of oxalate in heavy metal tolerance of plants and in virulence of phytopathogenic fungi, it is also involved in specifically recruiting plant-beneficial members from complex bacterial communities.

  8. Oxalotrophy, a widespread trait of plant-associated Burkholderia species, is involved in successful root colonization of lupin and maize by Burkholderia phytofirmans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eKost

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots and shoots harbour complex bacterial communities. Early seed and plantlet colonization plays a key role in determining which bacterial populations will successfully invade plant tissues, yet the mechanisms enabling plants to select for beneficial rather than harmful populations are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a role of oxalate as a determinant in this selection process, using members of the genus Burkholderia as model organisms. Oxalotrophy, i.e. the ability to use oxalate as a carbon source, was found to be a property strictly associated with plant-beneficial species of the Burkholderia genus, while plant pathogenic (B. glumae, B. plantarii or human opportunistic pathogens (Burkholderia cepacia complex strains were unable to degrade oxalate. We further show that oxalotrophy is required for successful plant colonization by the broad host endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN: an engineered Δoxc mutant, which lost the ability to grow on oxalate, was significantly impaired in early colonization of both lupin and maize compared with the wild-type. This work suggests that in addition to the role of oxalate in heavy metal tolerance of plants and in virulence of phytopathogenic fungi, it is also involved in specifically recruiting plant-beneficial members from complex bacterial communities.

  9. Anatomically and morphologically unique dark septate endophytic association in the roots of the Mediterranean endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohník, Martin; Borovec, Ondřej; Župan, Ivan; Vondrášek, David; Petrtýl, Miloslav; Sudová, Radka

    2015-11-01

    Roots of terrestrial plants host a wide spectrum of soil fungi that form various parasitic, neutral and mutualistic associations. A similar trend is evident in freshwater aquatic plants and plants inhabiting salt marshes or mangroves. Marine vascular plants (seagrasses), by contrast, seem to lack specific root-fungus symbioses. We examined roots of two Mediterranean seagrasses, Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa, in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea for fungal colonization using light and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We found that P. oceanica, but not C. nodosa, is regularly associated with melanized septate hyphae in a manner resembling colonization by the ubiquitous dark septate endophytes (DSE) in roots of most terrestrial plants. P. oceanica roots were found to be colonized by sparse dematiaceous running hyphae as well as dense parenchymatous nets/hyphal sheaths on the root surface, intracellular melanized microsclerotia and occasionally also intra- and intercellular hyphae. The colonization was most prominent in the thick-walled hypodermis of the thinnest healthy looking roots, and the mycobiont seemed to colonize both living and dead host cells. Dark septate hyphae infrequently occurred also inside rhizodermal cells, but never colonized vascular tissues. The biological significance of this overlooked marine symbiosis remains unknown, but its morphology, extent, distribution across the NW Mediterranean Sea and absence in C. nodosa indicate an intriguing relationship between the dominant Mediterranean seagrass and its dark septate root mycobionts.

  10. Coexistência de colonização fúngica intracavitária (bola fúngica e tuberculose ativa Coexistence of intracavitary fungal colonization (fungus ball and active tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Unis

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Embora a tuberculose pulmonar seja o principal fator predisponente para o surgimento de colonização fúngica em cavidade saneada, a coexistência das duas doenças é rara. A simultaneidade de colonização fúngica e micobacteriose ativa na mesma cavidade (bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes entre as massas de hifas é excepcional. OBJETIVO: Descrever achados clínicos, diagnósticos, radiológicos, condições associadas e evolução em pacientes com tuberculose e colonização fúngica intracavitária pulmonar. MÉTODO: Foram avaliadas, retrospectivamente, fichas clínicas de 625 pacientes, entre os anos de 1974 e 2002, com bola fúngica diagnosticada por imunodifusão e/ou estudo micológico. O critério de inclusão foi baciloscopia positiva no escarro ou em histopatologia. RESULTADOS: Foram selecionados catorze pacientes. Todos apresentaram hemoptise, seguida de tosse com expectoração, dispnéia, emagrecimento, febre, astenia e dor torácica. Em dois casos, um colonizado por Aspergillus niger e outro por Scedosporium apiospermum (Teleomorfo, Pseudallescheria boydii, houve concomitância lesional da tuberculose ativa e bola fúngica. Nos demais, a micobactéria foi encontrada em parênquima circunjacente ou em pulmão contralateral. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo corrobora o antagonismo entre A. fumigatus e Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A possibilidade de concomitância de colonização fúngica e micobacteriose é demonstrada em outros agentes fúngicos, particularmente S. apiospermum (P. boydii e A. niger.BACKGROUND: Although pulmonary tuberculosis is the principal predisposing factor for intracavitary fungal colonization, the coexistence of the two diseases is rare. Simultaneity of fungal colonization and active mycobacteriosis in the same cavity (acid-fast bacilli found among hyphal masses is highly unusual. OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical findings, diagnostic procedures, radiographic aspects, accompanying conditions and

  11. Friends or foes? Emerging insights from fungal interactions with plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Susanne; Gupta, Vijai K.; Dahms, Tanya E. S.; Silva, Roberto N.; Singh, Harikesh B.; Upadhyay, Ram S.; Gomes, Eriston Vieira; Tsui, Clement Kin-Ming; Nayak, S Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Fungi interact with plants in various ways, with each interaction giving rise to different alterations in both partners. While fungal pathogens have detrimental effects on plant physiology, mutualistic fungi augment host defence responses to pathogens and/or improve plant nutrient uptake. Tropic growth towards plant roots or stomata, mediated by chemical and topographical signals, has been described for several fungi, with evidence of species-specific signals and sensing mechanisms. Fungal partners secrete bioactive molecules such as small peptide effectors, enzymes and secondary metabolites which facilitate colonization and contribute to both symbiotic and pathogenic relationships. There has been tremendous advancement in fungal molecular biology, omics sciences and microscopy in recent years, opening up new possibilities for the identification of key molecular mechanisms in plant–fungal interactions, the power of which is often borne out in their combination. Our fragmentary knowledge on the interactions between plants and fungi must be made whole to understand the potential of fungi in preventing plant diseases, improving plant productivity and understanding ecosystem stability. Here, we review innovative methods and the associated new insights into plant–fungal interactions. PMID:26591004

  12. Fungal diversity in adult date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Chobba, Ines; Elleuch, Amine; Ayadi, Imen; Khannous, Lamia; Namsi, Ahmed; Cerqueira, Frederique; Drira, Noureddine; Gharsallah, Néji; Vallaeys, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic flora plays a vital role in the colonization and survival of host plants, especially in harsh environments, such as arid regions. This flora may, however, contain pathogenic species responsible for various troublesome host diseases. The present study is aimed at investigating the diversity of both cultivable and non-cultivable endophytic fungal floras in the internal tissues (roots and leaves) of Tunisian date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera). Accordingly, 13 isolates from both root and leaf samples, exhibiting distinct colony morphology, were selected from potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and identified by a sequence match search wherein their 18S–28S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were compared to those available in public databases. These findings revealed that the cultivable root and leaf isolates fell into two groups, namely Nectriaceae and Pleosporaceae. Additionally, total DNA from palm roots and leaves was further extracted and ITS fragments were amplified. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the ITS from 200 fungal clones (leaves: 100; roots: 100) using HaeIII restriction enzyme revealed 13 distinct patterns that were further sequenced and led to the identification of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Davidiella (Cladosporium teleomorph), Pythium, Curvularia, and uncharacterized fungal endophytes. Both approaches confirmed that while the roots were predominantly colonized by Fusaria (members of the Nectriaceae family), the leaves were essentially colonized by Alternaria (members of the Pleosporaceae family). Overall, the findings of the present study constitute, to the authors’ knowledge, the first extensive report on the diversity of endophytic fungal flora associated with date palm trees (P. dactylifera). PMID:24302709

  13. Composition of fungal soil communities varies with plant abundance and geographic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Vanessa; Martinez-Garcia, Laura B; Sanderson, Laura; Antunes, Pedro M

    2015-09-14

    Interactions of belowground fungal communities with exotic and native plant species may be important drivers of plant community structure in invaded grasslands. However, field surveys linking plant community structure with belowground fungal communities are missing. We investigated whether a selected number of abundant and relatively rare plants, either native or exotic, from an old-field site associate with different fungal communities. We also assessed whether these plants showed different symbiotic relationships with soil biota through their roots. We characterized the plant community and collected roots to investigate fungal communities using 454 pyrosequencing and assessed arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and enemy-induced lesions. Differences in fungal communities were considered based on the assessment of α- and β diversity depending on plant 'abundance' and 'origin'. Plant abundance and origin determined the fungal community. Fungal richness was higher for native abundant as opposed to relatively rare native plant species. However, this was not observed for exotics of contrasting abundance. Regardless of their origin, β diversity was higher for rare than for abundant species. Abundant exotics in the community, which happen to be grasses, were the least mycorrhizal whereas rare natives were most susceptible to enemy attack. Our results suggest that compared with exotics, the relative abundance of remnant native plant species in our old-field site is still linked to the structure of belowground fungal communities. In contrast, exotic species may act as a disturbing agent contributing towards the homogenization of soil fungal communities, potentially changing feedback interactions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  14. Heterobasidion annosum root and butt rot of Norway spruce, Picea abies: Colonization by the fungus and its impact on tree growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz-Hellgren, M. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1997-12-31

    Diameter growth losses associated with decay were quantified on a nationwide scale, and volume growth losses were measured in two stands. Diameter growth losses were 8-10% during a 5-year period in the nationwide study and 23% in one of the stands, whereas in the other stand, no volume losses could be attributed to decay. The effects of stump moisture content, temperature and time elapsed between felling and inoculation on the establishment of H. annosum spore infections in stumps were investigated among stumps resulting from thinnings and clear-cuttings. Furthermore, inoculations with H. annosum conidia were made between 0 hours and 4 weeks after thinning. The incidence of stump infections was lower on clear-cut areas than in thinned stands, but high enough to warrant stump treatment on clear-cuttings. A positive relation was found between heartwood moisture content and the proportion of heartwood infected, whereas the opposite relation was found for sapwood. The establishment of new conidiospore infections decreased with time, and it appeared that stumps were no longer susceptible to infection after 3 weeks had elapsed since felling. Roots of stumps and trees on forest land or former arable land were inoculated with H. annosum treated sawdust. The growth rate of H. annosum in roots of stumps was 25 cm/year, corresponding to 2.5 to 3 times the growth rate in tree roots. Previous land use did not affect the fungal rate of spread. Also, the average initial spread rate of H. annosum in naturally infected Norway spruce stems was estimated at 30 cm/year 156 refs, 9 figs

  15. Mycorrhizal stimulation of leaf gas exchange in relation to root colonization, shoot size, leaf phosphorus and nitrogen: a quantitative analysis of the literature using meta-regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Augé

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis often stimulates gas exchange rates of the host plant. This may relate to mycorrhizal effects on host nutrition and growth rate, or the influence may occur independently of these. Using meta-regression, we tested the strength of the relationship between AM-induced increases in gas exchange, and AM size and leaf mineral effects across the literature. With only a few exceptions, AM stimulation of carbon exchange rate (CER, stomatal conductance (gs and transpiration rate (E has been significantly associated with mycorrhizal stimulation of shoot dry weight, leaf phosphorus, leaf nitrogen: phosphorus ratio and percent root colonization. The sizeable mycorrhizal stimulation of CER, by 49% over all studies, has been about twice as large as the mycorrhizal stimulation of gs and E (28% and 26%, respectively. Carbon exchange rate has been over twice as sensitive as gs and four times as sensitive as E to mycorrhizal colonization rates. The AM-induced stimulation of CER increased by 19% with each AM-induced doubling of shoot size; the AM effect was about half as large for gs and E. The ratio of leaf N to leaf P has been more closely associated with mycorrhizal influence on leaf gas exchange than leaf P alone. The mycorrhizal influence on CER has declined markedly over the 35 years of published investigations.

  16. Mycorrhizal Stimulation of Leaf Gas Exchange in Relation to Root Colonization, Shoot Size, Leaf Phosphorus and Nitrogen: A Quantitative Analysis of the Literature Using Meta-Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augé, Robert M.; Toler, Heather D.; Saxton, Arnold M.

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis often stimulates gas exchange rates of the host plant. This may relate to mycorrhizal effects on host nutrition and growth rate, or the influence may occur independently of these. Using meta-regression, we tested the strength of the relationship between AM-induced increases in gas exchange, and AM size and leaf mineral effects across the literature. With only a few exceptions, AM stimulation of carbon exchange rate (CER), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (E) has been significantly associated with mycorrhizal stimulation of shoot dry weight, leaf phosphorus, leaf nitrogen:phosphorus ratio, and percent root colonization. The sizeable mycorrhizal stimulation of CER, by 49% over all studies, has been about twice as large as the mycorrhizal stimulation of gs and E (28 and 26%, respectively). CER has been over twice as sensitive as gs and four times as sensitive as E to mycorrhizal colonization rates. The AM-induced stimulation of CER increased by 19% with each AM-induced doubling of shoot size; the AM effect was about half as large for gs and E. The ratio of leaf N to leaf P has been more closely associated with mycorrhizal influence on leaf gas exchange than leaf P alone. The mycorrhizal influence on CER has declined markedly over the 35 years of published investigations. PMID:27524989

  17. [Fungal sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, H

    2011-06-01

    The incidence of fungal sinusitis is subjected to significant geographical variation. Basically, invasive and non-invasive fungal sinusitis is distinguished. Invasive fungal sinusitis is observed mainly in immunocompromised hosts. The diagnopsis is based on positive fungus detection combined with characteristic clinical features. The treatment of invasive fungal sinusitis is based on surgical debridement and systemic antifungal therapy. Non-invasive fungal sinusitis is either treated with surgery alone or surgery combined with systemic steroid therapy. The majority of studies showed no benefit of postoperative antimycotic medical treatment in patients with non-invasive fungal sinusitis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Experimental soil warming shifts the fungal community composition at the alpine treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solly, Emily F; Lindahl, Björn D; Dawes, Melissa A; Peter, Martina; Souza, Rômulo C; Rixen, Christian; Hagedorn, Frank

    2017-07-01

    Increased CO2 emissions and global warming may alter the composition of fungal communities through the removal of temperature limitation in the plant-soil system, faster nitrogen (N) cycling and changes in the carbon (C) allocation of host plants to the rhizosphere. At a Swiss treeline featuring Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata, the effects of multiple years of CO2 enrichment and experimental soil warming on the fungal community composition in the organic horizons were analysed using 454-pyrosequencing of ITS2 amplicons. Sporocarp production and colonization of ectomycorrhizal root tips were investigated in parallel. Fungal community composition was significantly altered by soil warming, whereas CO2 enrichment had little effect. Tree species influenced fungal community composition and the magnitude of the warming responses. The abundance of ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa was positively correlated with N availability, and ectomycorrhizal taxa specialized for conditions of high N availability proliferated with warming, corresponding to considerable increases in inorganic N in warmed soils. Traits related to N utilization are important in determining the responses of ectomycorrhizal fungi to warming in N-poor cold ecosystems. Shifts in the overall fungal community composition in response to higher temperatures may alter fungal-driven processes with potential feedbacks on ecosystem N cycling and C storage at the alpine treeline. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Gibberellins Interfere with Symbiosis Signaling and Gene Expression and Alter Colonization by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Lotus japonicus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Naoya; Handa, Yoshihiro; Tsuzuki, Syusaku; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a mutualistic plant-fungus interaction that confers great advantages for plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi enter the host root and form symbiotic structures that facilitate nutrient supplies between the symbionts. The gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones known to inhibit AM fungal infection. However, our transcriptome analysis and phytohormone quantification revealed GA accumulation in the roots of Lotus japonicus infected with AM fungi, suggesting that de novo GA synthesis plays a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza development. We found pleiotropic effects of GAs on the AM fungal infection. In particular, the morphology of AM fungal colonization was drastically altered by the status of GA signaling in the host root. Exogenous GA treatment inhibited AM hyphal entry into the host root and suppressed the expression of Reduced Arbuscular Mycorrhization1 (RAM1) and RAM2 homologs that function in hyphal entry and arbuscule formation. On the other hand, inhibition of GA biosynthesis or suppression of GA signaling also affected arbuscular mycorrhiza development in the host root. Low-GA conditions suppressed arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced subtilisin-like serine protease1 (SbtM1) expression that is required for AM fungal colonization and reduced hyphal branching in the host root. The reduced hyphal branching and SbtM1 expression caused by the inhibition of GA biosynthesis were recovered by GA treatment, supporting the theory that insufficient GA signaling causes the inhibitory effects on arbuscular mycorrhiza development. Most studies have focused on the negative role of GA signaling, whereas our study demonstrates that GA signaling also positively interacts with symbiotic responses and promotes AM colonization of the host root. PMID:25527715

  20. Gibberellins interfere with symbiosis signaling and gene expression and alter colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Naoya; Handa, Yoshihiro; Tsuzuki, Syusaku; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a mutualistic plant-fungus interaction that confers great advantages for plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi enter the host root and form symbiotic structures that facilitate nutrient supplies between the symbionts. The gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones known to inhibit AM fungal infection. However, our transcriptome analysis and phytohormone quantification revealed GA accumulation in the roots of Lotus japonicus infected with AM fungi, suggesting that de novo GA synthesis plays a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza development. We found pleiotropic effects of GAs on the AM fungal infection. In particular, the morphology of AM fungal colonization was drastically altered by the status of GA signaling in the host root. Exogenous GA treatment inhibited AM hyphal entry into the host root and suppressed the expression of Reduced Arbuscular Mycorrhization1 (RAM1) and RAM2 homologs that function in hyphal entry and arbuscule formation. On the other hand, inhibition of GA biosynthesis or suppression of GA signaling also affected arbuscular mycorrhiza development in the host root. Low-GA conditions suppressed arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced subtilisin-like serine protease1 (SbtM1) expression that is required for AM fungal colonization and reduced hyphal branching in the host root. The reduced hyphal branching and SbtM1 expression caused by the inhibition of GA biosynthesis were recovered by GA treatment, supporting the theory that insufficient GA signaling causes the inhibitory effects on arbuscular mycorrhiza development. Most studies have focused on the negative role of GA signaling, whereas our study demonstrates that GA signaling also positively interacts with symbiotic responses and promotes AM colonization of the host root. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prep Fungal Smear, Culture, Antigen and Antibody Tests Mycology Tests Fungal Molecular Tests Potassium Hydroxide Preparation Calcofluor ... February 7, Modified). Calcofluor White with 10% KOH. Mycology Online [On-line information]. Available online at http:// ...

  2. Fungal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Fungal Meningitis Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... the brain or spinal cord. Investigation of Fungal Meningitis, 2012 In September 2012, the Centers for Disease ...

  3. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma; Colon carcinoma ... eat may play a role in getting colon cancer. Colon cancer may be linked to a high-fat, ...

  4. Opprimo ergo sum--evasion and suppression in the root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahrmann, Urs; Zuccaro, Alga

    2012-06-01

    The genetically tractable endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica is able to colonize the root cortex of a great variety of different plant species with beneficial effects to its hosts, and it represents a suitable model system to study symbiotic interactions. Recent cytological studies in barley and Arabidopsis showed that, upon penetration of the root, P. indica establishes a biotrophic interaction during which fungal cells are encased by the host plasma membrane. Large-scale transcriptional analyses of fungal and plant responses have shown that perturbance of plant hormone homeostasis and secretion of fungal lectins and other small proteins (effectors) may be involved in the evasion and suppression of host defenses at these early colonization steps. At later stages, P. indica is found more often in moribund host cells where it secretes a large variety of hydrolytic enzymes that degrade proteins. This strategy of colonizing plants is reminiscent of that of hemibiotrophic fungi, although a defined shift to necrotrophy with massive host cell death is missing. Instead, the association with the plant root leads to beneficial effects for the host such as growth promotion, increased resistance to root as well as leaf pathogens, and increased tolerance to abiotic stresses. This review describes current advances in understanding the components of the P. indica endophytic lifestyle from molecular and genomic analyses.

  5. Symbiosis-related pea genes modulate fungal and plant gene expression during the arbuscule stage of mycorrhiza with Glomus intraradices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Seddas-Dozolme, Pascale M A; Arnould, Christine; Tollot, Marie; van Tuinen, Diederik; Borisov, Alexey; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne

    2010-08-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhiza association results from a successful interaction between genomes of the plant and fungal symbiotic partners. In this study, we analyzed the effect of inactivation of late-stage symbiosis-related pea genes on symbiosis-associated fungal and plant molecular responses in order to gain insight into their role in the functional mycorrhizal association. The expression of a subset of ten fungal and eight plant genes, previously reported to be activated during mycorrhiza development, was compared in Glomus intraradices-inoculated wild-type and isogenic genotypes of pea mutated for the PsSym36, PsSym33, and PsSym40 genes where arbuscule formation is inhibited or fungal turnover modulated, respectively. Microdissection was used to corroborate arbuscule-related fungal gene expression. Molecular responses varied between pea genotypes and with fungal development. Most of the fungal genes were downregulated when arbuscule formation was defective, and several were upregulated with more rapid fungal development. Some of the plant genes were also affected by inactivation of the PsSym36, PsSym33, and PsSym40 loci, but in a more time-dependent way during root colonization by G. intraradices. Results indicate a role of the late-stage symbiosis-related pea genes not only in mycorrhiza development but also in the symbiotic functioning of arbuscule-containing cells.

  6. The colonization patterns of different fungi on roots of Cymbidium hybridum plantlets and their respective inoculation effects on growth and nutrient uptake of orchid plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Lan; Yang, Jing-Ze; Liu, Shu; Chen, Chun-Li; Zhu, Hai-Yan; Cao, Jun-Xi

    2014-07-01

    Cymbidium hybridum is one of the most popular pot orchids and cut flowers worldwide. However, the long vegetative growth period and the discordant blooming retarded its mass production. The mixotrophic nutritional mode of some chlorophyllous Cymbidium suggested the essential role of mycorrhizal fungi in the growth of adult green orchids. Here 34 root-associated endophytes were obtained from wild and cultivated Cymbidium and eight strains exhibited obvious growth-promoting effects on the C. hybridum plantlets with increasing root number, root diameter or new bud initiation. Among these, three isolates CL01, ZH3A-3 and CY5-1 with distinct cultural traits and colonization patterns showed better growth-promoting effects. Internal transcribed spacer sequence analyses and morphological observation revealed isolate CL01 belonged to Tulasnella-like Rhizoctonia, ZH3A-3, Umbelopsis nana and CY5-1, Scytalidium lignicola. Microscopic study showed isolate CL01 formed typical orchid mycorrhiza and isolate CY5-1 formed pseudo-mycorrhiza with orchid, whereas hyphae of isolate ZH3A-3 aggregated in the host velamen cells at regular intervals and caused the hypertrophied nucleus and aggregated cytoplasm of neighboring host cell. These three isolates significantly enhanced the increased percentage of total fresh weight of plantlets compared with un-inoculated control (83, 99 and 75%, respectively). In addition, isolate CL01 increased the N, P, Zn, Cu, Fe contents and ZH3A-3 significantly improved K, Ca, Cu, Mn contents of the symbiotic plantlets compared with control. These results suggested that the mass production of C. hybridum and related orchids could be improved by different beneficial fungi from its parents.

  7. Inoculation of drought-stressed strawberry with a mixed inoculum of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: effects on population dynamics of fungal species in roots and consequential plant tolerance to water deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Louisa Robinson; Brain, Philip; Xu, Xiang-Ming; Jeffries, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The effect of inoculation with two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth and drought tolerance of cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) was studied. Three treatments (a single treatment either of Funneliformis mosseae BEG25, Funneliformis geosporus BEG11 or a 50:50 mixed inoculation treatment of both species) were compared to uninoculated plants. Species-specific primers for qPCR quantification of F. geosporus and F. mosseae DNA were developed to quantify the relative abundance of each fungus in roots of strawberry under different conditions of water stress. Co-occupation of the same root by both species was shown to commonly occur, but their relative abundance varied with water stress (reduced irrigation of up to 40%). Greater root colonisation was observed microscopically under water stress, but this increased colonisation was often accompanied with decreased amounts of fungal DNA in the root. F. mosseae tended to become more abundant under water stress relative to F. geosporus. There was significant correlation in the fungal colonisation measurements from the microscopic and qPCR methods under some conditions, but the nature of this relationship varied greatly with AMF inoculum and abiotic conditions. Single-species inoculation treatments gave similar benefits to the host to the mixed inoculation treatment regardless of irrigation regime; here, amount of colonisation was of greater importance than functional diversity. The addition of AMF inocula to plants subjected to reduced irrigation restored plant growth to the same or higher values as the non-mycorrhizal, fully-watered plants. The water use efficiency of plants was greater under the regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) regime and in AMF-inoculated plants, but there were no significant differences between plants inoculated with the single or combined inoculum. This study demonstrated that the increase in plant growth was directly influenced by an increase in root colonisation by AMF when

  8. Direct and indirect effects of glomalin, mycorrhizal hyphae, and roots on aggregate stability in rhizosphere of trifoliate orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Cao, Ming-Qin; Zou, Ying-Ning; He, Xin-hua

    2014-07-25

    To test direct and indirect effects of glomalin, mycorrhizal hyphae, and roots on aggregate stability, perspex pots separated by 37-μm nylon mesh in the middle were used to form root-free hyphae and root/hyphae chambers, where trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings were colonized by Funneliformis mosseae or Paraglomus occultum in the root/hyphae chamber. Both fungal species induced significantly higher plant growth, root total length, easily-extractable glomalin-related soil protein (EE-GRSP) and total GRSP (T-GRSP), and mean weight diameter (an aggregate stability indicator). The Pearson correlation showed that root colonization or soil hyphal length significantly positively correlated with EE-GRSP, difficultly-extractable GRSP (DE-GRSP), T-GRSP, and water-stable aggregates in 2.00-4.00, 0.50-1.00, and 0.25-0.50 mm size fractions. The path analysis indicated that in the root/hyphae chamber, aggregate stability derived from a direct effect of root colonization, EE-GRSP or DE-GRSP. Meanwhile, the direct effect was stronger by EE-GRSP or DE-GRSP than by mycorrhizal colonization. In the root-free hyphae chamber, mycorrhizal-mediated aggregate stability was due to total effect but not direct effect of soil hyphal length, EE-GRSP and T-GRSP. Our results suggest that GRSP among these tested factors may be the primary contributor to aggregate stability in the citrus rhizosphere.

  9. A continental view of pine-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal spore banks: a quiescent functional guild with a strong biogeographic pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Sydney I; Peay, Kabir G; Talbot, Jennifer M; Smith, Dylan P; Chung, Judy A; Taylor, John W; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bruns, Thomas D

    2015-03-01

    Ecologists have long acknowledged the importance of seed banks; yet, despite the fact that many plants rely on mycorrhizal fungi for survival and growth, the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal spore banks remains poorly understood. The primary goal of this study was to assess the geographic structure in pine-associated ECM fungal spore banks across the North American continent. Soils were collected from 19 plots in forests across North America. Fresh soils were pyrosequenced for fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicons. Adjacent soil cores were dried and bioassayed with pine seedlings, and colonized roots were pyrosequenced to detect resistant propagules of ECM fungi. The results showed that ECM spore banks correlated strongly with biogeographic location, but not with the identity of congeneric plant hosts. Minimal community overlap was found between resident ECM fungi vs those in spore banks, and spore bank assemblages were relatively simple and dominated by Rhizopogon, Wilcoxina, Cenococcum, Thelephora, Tuber, Laccaria and Suillus. Similar to plant seed banks, ECM fungal spore banks are, in general, depauperate, and represent a small and rare subset of the mature forest soil fungal community. Yet, they may be extremely important in fungal colonization after large-scale disturbances such as clear cuts and forest fires. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Possible involvement of hyphal phosphatase in phosphate efflux from intraradical hyphae isolated from mycorrhizal roots colonized by Gigaspora margarita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Tomoko; Saito, Masanori

    2004-06-01

    We developed a method for separating physiologically active intraradical hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi from mycorrhizal roots, allowing the hyphae to be used for physiological and biochemical experiments. In the present study, the phosphate efflux from the intraradical hyphae in vitro was examined in relation to hyphal phosphatase activity. Onion seedlings (Allium cepa) were planted in the soil inoculated with Gigaspora margarita. Six weeks after transplanting, the intraradical hyphae were isolated from the mycorrhizal roots using plant cell-wall digestion enzymes. The hyphae were incubated briefly at 25 degrees C in a buffer solution (50 mM Tris/HCl, pH 7.4), then incubated for 2 h and gently shaken with various inhibitors. Phosphate efflux, the amount of phosphate released to the buffer, was analysed by EnzChek phosphate assay kit. Hyphal phosphatase activity was stained histochemically and the proportion of phosphatase-active arbuscules was examined for each inhibitor. Phosphate effluxes were to some degree reduced by all inhibitors used, while the phosphatase inhibitor, BeSO4, greatly reduced the efflux. The degree of inhibition in the arbuscular phosphatase by each chemical was closely correlated to the decrease in the phosphate efflux. These results suggest that hyphal phosphatase may be partially involved in the phosphate efflux process from intraradical hyphae.

  11. Salicylic acid prevents Trichoderma harzianum from entering the vascular system of roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Ramírez, Ana; Poveda, Jorge; Martín, Ignacio; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Nicolás, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Trichoderma is a soil-borne fungal genus that includes species with a significant impact on agriculture and industrial processes. Some Trichoderma strains exert beneficial effects in plants through root colonization, although little is known about how this interaction takes place. To better understand this process, the root colonization of wild-type Arabidopsis and the salicylic acid (SA)-impaired mutant sid2 by a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-marked Trichoderma harzianum strain was followed under confocal microscopy. Trichoderma harzianum GFP22 was able to penetrate the vascular tissue of the sid2 mutant because of the absence of callose deposition in the cell wall of root cells. In addition, a higher colonization of sid2 roots by GFP22 compared with that in Arabidopsis wild-type roots was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results, together with differences in the expression levels of plant defence genes in the roots of both interactions, support a key role for SA in Trichoderma early root colonization stages. We observed that, without the support of SA, plants were unable to prevent the arrival of the fungus in the vascular system and its spread into aerial parts, leading to later collapse. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  12. Presymbiotic factors released by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita induce starch accumulation in Lotus japonicus roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutjahr, Caroline; Novero, Mara; Guether, Mike; Montanari, Ombretta; Udvardi, Michael; Bonfante, Paola

    2009-01-01

    * Nutrient exchange is the key symbiotic feature of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). As evidence is accumulating that plants sense presymbiotic factors from AM fungi and prepare for colonization, we investigated whether modifications in plant sugar metabolism might be part of the precolonization program. * Inoculation of Lotus japonicus roots in a double Millipore sandwich with the AM fungus Gigaspora margarita prevented contact between the symbionts but allowed exchange of signal molecules. Starch content was used as a marker for root carbohydrate status. * Mycorrhizal colonization of L. japonicus roots led to a decrease in starch concentration. In roots inoculated in the double sandwich, the polysaccharide accumulated after 1 wk and persisted for at least 4 wk. The response was absent in the castor myc(-) mutant, sym4-2, while transcript levels of both CASTOR and POLLUX were slightly enhanced in the wild-type L. japonicus roots, suggesting a requirement of the corresponding proteins for the starch-accumulation response. Exudates obtained from fungal spores germinated in the absence of the plant also induced starch accumulation in wild-type L. japonicus roots. * We conclude that factors released from germinating AM fungal spores induce changes in the root carbon status, possibly by enhancing sugar import, which leads to starch accumulation when colonization is prevented.

  13. Shoot- and root-borne cytokinin influences arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Marco; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Franken, Philipp; Schmülling, Thomas; Wurst, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is functionally important for the nutrition and growth of most terrestrial plants. Nearly all phytohormones are employed by plants to regulate the symbiosis with AM fungi, but the regulatory role of cytokinin (CK) is not well understood. Here, we used transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) with a root-specific or constitutive expression of CK-degrading CKX genes and the corresponding wild-type to investigate whether a lowered content of CK in roots or in both roots and shoots influences the interaction with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. Our data indicates that shoot CK has a positive impact on AM fungal development in roots and on the root transcript level of an AM-responsive phosphate transporter gene (NtPT4). A reduced CK content in roots caused shoot and root growth depression following AM colonization, while neither the uptake of phosphorus or nitrogen nor the root transcript levels of NtPT4 were significantly affected. This suggests that root CK may restrict the C availability from the roots to the fungus thus averting parasitism by AM fungi. Taken together, our study indicates that shoot- and root-borne CK have distinct roles in AM symbiosis. We propose a model illustrating how plants may employ CK to regulate nutrient exchange with the ubiquitous AM fungi.

  14. A new fungal endophyte, Scolecobasidium humicola, promotes tomato growth under organic nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Rola S; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    A new fungal endophyte, Scolecobasidium humicola, was identified as a common dark septate endophytic fungal (DSE) species under both natural and agricultural conditions. This fungus was found to grow endophylically in the roots of tomato seedlings. Light microscopy of cross-sections of colonized tomato roots showed that the intercellular, pigmented hyphae of the fungus were mostly limited to the epidermal layer and formed outer mantle-like structures. Two isolates of S. humicola, H2-2 and F1-3, have shown the ability to increase plant biomass with an organic nitrogen source. This finding is the first report of S. humicola as an endophyte and could help to improve plant growth with organic nitrogen sources.

  15. A new fungal endophyte, Scolecobasidium humicola, promotes tomato growth under organic nitrogen conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rola S Mahmoud

    Full Text Available A new fungal endophyte, Scolecobasidium humicola, was identified as a common dark septate endophytic fungal (DSE species under both natural and agricultural conditions. This fungus was found to grow endophylically in the roots of tomato seedlings. Light microscopy of cross-sections of colonized tomato roots showed that the intercellular, pigmented hyphae of the fungus were mostly limited to the epidermal layer and formed outer mantle-like structures. Two isolates of S. humicola, H2-2 and F1-3, have shown the ability to increase plant biomass with an organic nitrogen source. This finding is the first report of S. humicola as an endophyte and could help to improve plant growth with organic nitrogen sources.

  16. The Phenylpropanoid Pathway and Lignin in Defense against Ganoderma boninense Colonized Root Tissues in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha T. Govender

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Basal stem rot, caused by the basidiomycete fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is an economically devastating disease in Malaysia. Our study investigated the changes in lignin content and composition along with activity and expression of the phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes and genes in oil palm root tissues during G. boninense infection. We sampled control (non-inoculated and infected (inoculated seedlings at seven time points [1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-inoculation (wpi] in a randomized design. The expression profiles of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, and peroxidase (POD genes were monitored at 1, 2, and 3 wpi using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Seedlings at 4, 8, and 12 wpi were screened for lignin content, lignin composition, enzyme activities (PAL, CAD, and POD, growth (weight and height, and disease severity (DS. Gene expression analysis demonstrated up-regulation of PAL, CAD, and POD genes in the infected seedlings, relative to the control seedlings at 1, 2, and 3 wpi. At 2 and 3 wpi, CAD showed highest transcript levels compared to PAL and POD. DS increased progressively throughout sampling, with 5, 34, and 69% at 4, 8, and 12 wpi, respectively. Fresh weight and height of the infected seedlings were significantly lower compared to the control seedlings at 8 and 12 wpi. Lignin content of the infected seedlings at 4 wpi was significantly higher than the control seedlings, remained elicited with no change at 8 wpi, and then collapsed with a significant reduction at 12 wpi. The nitrobenzene oxidation products of oil palm root lignin yielded both syringyl and guaiacyl monomers. Accumulation of lignin in the infected seedlings was in parallel to increased syringyl monomers, at 4 and 8 wpi. The activities of PAL and CAD enzymes in the infected seedlings at DS = 5–34% were significantly higher than the control seedlings and thereafter collapsed at DS = 69%.

  17. The Phenylpropanoid Pathway and Lignin in Defense against Ganoderma boninense Colonized Root Tissues in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Nisha T; Mahmood, Maziah; Seman, Idris A; Wong, Mui-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Basal stem rot, caused by the basidiomycete fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is an economically devastating disease in Malaysia. Our study investigated the changes in lignin content and composition along with activity and expression of the phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes and genes in oil palm root tissues during G. boninense infection. We sampled control (non-inoculated) and infected (inoculated) seedlings at seven time points [1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-inoculation (wpi)] in a randomized design. The expression profiles of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and peroxidase (POD) genes were monitored at 1, 2, and 3 wpi using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Seedlings at 4, 8, and 12 wpi were screened for lignin content, lignin composition, enzyme activities (PAL, CAD, and POD), growth (weight and height), and disease severity (DS). Gene expression analysis demonstrated up-regulation of PAL, CAD, and POD genes in the infected seedlings, relative to the control seedlings at 1, 2, and 3 wpi. At 2 and 3 wpi, CAD showed highest transcript levels compared to PAL and POD. DS increased progressively throughout sampling, with 5, 34, and 69% at 4, 8, and 12 wpi, respectively. Fresh weight and height of the infected seedlings were significantly lower compared to the control seedlings at 8 and 12 wpi. Lignin content of the infected seedlings at 4 wpi was significantly higher than the control seedlings, remained elicited with no change at 8 wpi, and then collapsed with a significant reduction at 12 wpi. The nitrobenzene oxidation products of oil palm root lignin yielded both syringyl and guaiacyl monomers. Accumulation of lignin in the infected seedlings was in parallel to increased syringyl monomers, at 4 and 8 wpi. The activities of PAL and CAD enzymes in the infected seedlings at DS = 5-34% were significantly higher than the control seedlings and thereafter collapsed at DS = 69%.

  18. The Phenylpropanoid Pathway and Lignin in Defense against Ganoderma boninense Colonized Root Tissues in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Nisha T.; Mahmood, Maziah; Seman, Idris A.; Wong, Mui-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Basal stem rot, caused by the basidiomycete fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is an economically devastating disease in Malaysia. Our study investigated the changes in lignin content and composition along with activity and expression of the phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes and genes in oil palm root tissues during G. boninense infection. We sampled control (non-inoculated) and infected (inoculated) seedlings at seven time points [1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-inoculation (wpi)] in a randomized design. The expression profiles of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and peroxidase (POD) genes were monitored at 1, 2, and 3 wpi using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Seedlings at 4, 8, and 12 wpi were screened for lignin content, lignin composition, enzyme activities (PAL, CAD, and POD), growth (weight and height), and disease severity (DS). Gene expression analysis demonstrated up-regulation of PAL, CAD, and POD genes in the infected seedlings, relative to the control seedlings at 1, 2, and 3 wpi. At 2 and 3 wpi, CAD showed highest transcript levels compared to PAL and POD. DS increased progressively throughout sampling, with 5, 34, and 69% at 4, 8, and 12 wpi, respectively. Fresh weight and height of the infected seedlings were significantly lower compared to the control seedlings at 8 and 12 wpi. Lignin content of the infected seedlings at 4 wpi was significantly higher than the control seedlings, remained elicited with no change at 8 wpi, and then collapsed with a significant reduction at 12 wpi. The nitrobenzene oxidation products of oil palm root lignin yielded both syringyl and guaiacyl monomers. Accumulation of lignin in the infected seedlings was in parallel to increased syringyl monomers, at 4 and 8 wpi. The activities of PAL and CAD enzymes in the infected seedlings at DS = 5–34% were significantly higher than the control seedlings and thereafter collapsed at DS = 69%. PMID:28861093

  19. Quantitation of fungal mRNAs in complex substrates by reverse transcription PCR and its application to Phanerochaete chrysosporium-colonized soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, R T; Schoenike, B; Vanden Wymelenberg, A; Stewart, P; Dietrich, D M; Cullen, D

    1995-06-01

    Thorough analysis of fungi in complex substrates has been hampered by inadequate experimental tools for assessing physiological activity and estimating biomass. We report a method for the quantitative assessment of specific fungal mRNAs in soil. The method was applied to complex gene families of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a white-rot fungus widely used in studies of organopollutant degradation. Among the genes implicated in pollutant degradation, two closely related lignin peroxidase transcripts were detected in soil. The pattern of lignin peroxidase gene expression was unexpected; certain transcripts abundant in defined cultures were not detected in soil cultures. Transcripts encoding cellobiohydrolases and beta-tubulin were also detected. The method will aid in defining the roles of specific genes in complex biological processes such as organopollutant degradation, developing strategies for strain improvement, and identifying specific fungi in environmental samples.

  20. Long-term no-till: A major driver of fungal communities in dryland wheat cropping systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Sharma-Poudyal

    Full Text Available In the dryland Pacific Northwest wheat cropping systems, no-till is becoming more prevalent as a way to reduce soil erosion and fuel inputs. Tillage can have a profound effect on microbial communities and soilborne fungal pathogens, such as Rhizoctonia. We compared the fungal communities in long-term no-till (NT plots adjacent to conventionally tilled (CT plots, over three years at two locations in Washington state and one location in Idaho, US. We used pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS gene and identified 422 OTUs after rarefication. Fungal richness was higher in NT compared to CT, in two of the locations. Humicola nigrescens, Cryptococcus terreus, Cadophora spp. Hydnodontaceae spp., and Exophiala spp. were more abundant in NT, while species of Glarea, Coniochaetales, Mycosphaerella tassiana, Cryptococcus bhutanensis, Chaetomium perlucidum, and Ulocladium chartarum were more abundant in CT in most locations. Other abundant groups that did not show any trends were Fusarium, Mortierella, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Macroventuria. Plant pathogens such as Rhizoctonia (Ceratobasidiaceae were not abundant enough to see tillage differences, but Microdochium bolleyi, a weak root pathogen, was more abundant in NT. Our results suggest that NT fungi are better adapted at utilizing intact, decaying roots as a food source and may exist as root endophytes. CT fungi can utilize mature plant residues that are turned into the soil with tillage as pioneer colonizers, and then produce large numbers of conidia. But a larger proportion of the fungal community is not affected by tillage and may be niche generalists.

  1. A review of the influence of root-associating fungi and root exudates on the success of invasive plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Bongard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant-fungal interactions are essential for understanding the distribution and abundance of plants species. Recently, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF partners of non-indigenous invasive plants have been hypothesized to be a critical factor influencing the invasion processes. AMF are known to improve nutrient and moisture uptake, as well as disrupt parasitic and pathogenic microbes in the host plant. Such benefits may enable invaders to establish significant and persistent populations in environments previously dominated by natives. Coupling these findings with studies on invader pathogen-disrupting root exudates is not well documented in the literature describing plant invasion strategies. The interaction effects of altered AMF associations and the impact of invader root exudates would be more relevant than understanding the AMF dynamics or the phytochemistry of successful invaders in isolation, particularly given that AMF and root exudates can have a similar role in pathogen control but function quite differently. One means to achieve this goal is to assess these strategies concurrently by characterizing both the general (mostly pathogens or commensals and AM-specific fungal colonization patterns found in field collected root samples of successful invaders, native plants growing within dense patches of invaders, and native plants growing separately from invaders. In this review I examine the emerging evidence of the ways in which AMF-plant interactions and the production of defensive root exudates provide pathways to invasive plant establishment and expansion, and conclude that interaction studies must be pursued to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of successful plant invasion.

  2. Plant Functional Traits Associated with Mycorrhizal Root Foraging in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Ectomycorrhizal Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissenstat, D. M.; Chen, W.; Cheng, L.; Liu, B.; Koide, R. T.; Guo, D.

    2016-12-01

    Root foraging for nutrient "hot spots" is a key strategy by which some plants maximize nutrient gain from their carbon investment in root and mycorrhizal hyphae. Foraging strategies may depend on costs of root construction, with thick roots generally costing more per unit length than thin roots. Investment in mycorrhizal hyphae, which are considerably thinner than roots, may represent an alternative strategy for cost-effective nutrient foraging, especially for thick-root species. Type of mycorrhiza may matter, as ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are more associated with longer hyphae and ability to mineralize organic matter than arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Among AM trees in both subtropical forests in SE China and in temperate forests in central Pennsylvania, USA, we found that tree species with thin roots proliferated their roots in soil patches enriched with mineral nutrients to a greater extent than species with thick roots. In addition, thick-root species were consistently colonized more heavily with mycorrhizal fungi than thin root species, although nutrient addition tended to diminish colonization. In a common garden in central Pennsylvania of both AM and EM tree species, we found that nutrient patches enriched with organic materials resulted in greater root and mycorrhizal fungal proliferation compared to those enriched with inorganic nutrients and that thick-root species proliferated more with their mycorrhizal fungi whereas thin-root species proliferated more with their roots. We further examined with many more species, patterns of root and mycorrhizal fungal proliferation in organic-nutrient-enriched patches. Foraging precision, or the extent that roots or mycorrhizal hyphae grew in the enriched patch relative to the unenriched patch, was related to both root thickness and type of mycorrhiza. In both AM and EM trees, thick-root species were not selective foragers of either their roots or hyphae. In thin-root species, there was strong selectivity in

  3. Changes in fungal community composition in response to experimental soil warming at the alpine treeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solly, Emily; Lindahl, Bjorn; Dawes, Melissa; Peter, Martina; Souza, Romulo; Rixen, Christian; Hagedorn, Frank

    2017-04-01

    data and the colonization of ectomycorrhizal root tips. Several fungal taxa known to be involved in needle degradation responded positively to the warming treatment by increasing in their relative abundance. These findings provide novel insights into the spatial distribution of functional groups of fungi both vertically in the soil and between different rhizospheres of trees. Moreover, they indicate that traits related to nitrogen utilization are important in determining responses of ectomycorrhizal fungi to warming in cold regions, such as high-elevation ecosystems, with low N availability. Shifts in the overall fungal community composition in response to higher temperatures may alter fungal-driven processes with potential feedbacks on ecosystem nitrogen cycling and carbon storage at the alpine treeline.

  4. Co-inoculation of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus to study fungal invasion, colonization, and competition in maize kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana eHruska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A currently utilized pre-harvest biocontrol method involves field inoculations with non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strains, a tactic shown to strategically suppress native aflatoxin-producing strains and effectively decrease aflatoxin contamination in corn. The present in situ study focuses on tracking the invasion and colonization of an aflatoxigenic A. flavus strain (AF70, labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP, in the presence of a non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus biocontrol strain (AF36 to better understand the competitive interaction between these two strains in seed tissue of corn (Zea mays. Corn kernels that had been co-inoculated with GFP-labeled AF70 and wild-type AF36 were cross-sectioned and observed under UV and blue light to determine the outcome of competition between these strains. After imaging, all kernels were analyzed for aflatoxin levels. There appeared to be a population difference between the co-inoculated AF70-GFP+AF36 and the individual AF70-GFP tests, both visually and with pixel count analysis. The GFP allowed us to observe that AF70-GFP inside the kernels was suppressed up to 82% when co-inoculated with AF36 indicating that AF36 inhibited progression of AF70-GFP. This was in agreement with images taken of whole kernels where AF36 exhibited a more robust external growth compared to AF70-GFP. The suppressed growth of AF70-GFP was reflected in a corresponding (up to 73% suppression in aflatoxin levels. Our results indicate that the decrease in aflatoxin production correlated with population depression of the aflatoxigenic fungus by the biocontrol strain supporting the theory of competitive exclusion through robust propagation and fast colonization by the non-aflatoxigenic fungus.

  5. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Ectomycorrhizal Inocula to Promote Growth and Root Ectomycorrhizal Colonization in Pinus patula Seedlings Using the Most Probable Number Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Restrepo-Llano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of Pinus patula seedlings to two inocula types: soil from a Pinus plantation (ES and an in vitro produced inoculum (EM. The most probable number method (MPN was used to quantify ectomycorrhizal propagule density (EPD in both inocula in a 7-order dilution series ranging from 100 (undiluted inoculum to 10−6 (the most diluted inoculum. The MPN method allowed establishing differences in the number of infective ectomycorrhizal propagules’ density (EPD (ES=34 per g; EM=156 per g. The results suggest that the EPD of an inoculum may be a key factor that influences the successfulness of the inoculation. The low EPD of the ES inoculum suggests that soil extracted from forest plantations had very low effectiveness for promoting root colonization and plant growth. In contrast, the high EPD found in the formulated inoculum (EM reinforced the idea that it is better to use proven high quality inocula for forest nurseries than using soil from a forestry plantation.

  6. Disproportionate abundance between ectomycorrhizal root tips and their associated mycelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    at the times of insertion and retrieval of the mesh bags. Ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer region. In total, 20, 31 and 24 ectomycorrhizal species were recorded from the two root-tip harvests and from the mesh bags, respectively. Boletoid species were......Extensive knowledge of various ectomycorrhizal fungal communities has been obtained over the past 10 years based on molecular identification of the fungi colonizing fine roots. In contrast, only limited information exists about the species composition of ectomycorrhizal hyphae in soil. This study...... compared the ectomycorrhizal external mycelial community with the adjacent root-tip community in a Danish beech forest. Sand-filled in-growth mesh bags were used to trap external mycelia by incubating the mesh bags in the soil for 70 days. The adjacent ectomycorrhizal root-tip communities were recorded...

  7. Antagonistic effect of fungi from Scots pine stump roots against Heterobasidion annosum and Armillaria ostoyae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kwaśny

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study presents quantitative and qualitative aspects of fungal colonization of the 2-year-old stump roots of the 30- and 49-year-old Scots pines, and biotic relations between fungi inhabiting the stump roots and major agent s of butt and root rot in Poland, i.e.: H. annosum and A. ostoyae. Compared to the live roots, the increase in density of fungi communities as well as the frequency of the fungi antagonistic towards H. annosum and A. ostoyae, particularly of Trichoderma species. in pine stump roots resulted in the increase of the suppressive effect of these communities towards both pathogens, studied in vitro. This finding may suggest a stronger resistance of pine stump roots to H. annosum and A. ostoyae what under forest conditions may be the example of natural control of both pathogens.

  8. Unusual fungal niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, S A; Dianese, J C; Fell, J; Gunde-Cimerman, N; Zalar, P

    2011-01-01

    Fungi are found in all aerobic ecosystems, colonizing a diversity of substrates and performing a wide diversity of functions, some of which are not well understood. Many spices of fungi are cosmopolitan and generalists or habitats. Unusual fungal niches are habitats where extreme conditions would be expected to prevent the development of a mycobiota. In this review we describe five unusual fungal habitats in which fungi occupy poorly understood niches: Antarctic dry valleys, high Arctic glaciers, salt flats and salterns, hypersaline microbial mats and plant trichomes. Yeasts, black yeast-like fungi, melanized filamentous species as well as representatives of Aspergillus and Penicillium seem to be dominant among the mycobiota adapted to cold and saline niches. Plant trichomes appear to be a taxa. The advent of new sequencing technologies is helping to elucidate the microbial diversity in many ecosystems, but more studies are needed to document the functional role of fungi in the microbial communities thriving in these unusual environments.

  9. Differential effects of fenpropimorph and fenhexamid, two sterol biosynthesis inhibitor fungicides, on arbuscular mycorrhizal development and sterol metabolism in carrot roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnac, Estelle; Fontaine, Joël; Sahraoui, Anissa Lounès-Hadj; Laruelle, Frédéric; Durand, Roger; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne

    2008-12-01

    Sterols composition of transformed carrot roots incubated in presence of increasing concentrations of fenpropimorph (0.02; 0.2; 2mgl(-1)) and fenhexamid (0.02; 0.2; 2; 20mgl(-1)), colonized or not by Glomus intraradices was determined. In mycorrhizal roots treated with fenpropimorph, normal Delta(5)-sterols were replaced by unusual compounds such as 9beta,19-cyclopropylsterols (24-methylpollinastanol), Delta(8,14)-sterols (ergosta-8,14-dienol, stigmasta-8,14-dienol), Delta(8)-sterols (Delta(8) sitosterol) and Delta(7)-sterols (ergosta-7,22-dienol). After application of fenpropimorph, a drastic reduction of the mycorrhizal root growth, root colonization and extraradical fungal development was observed. Application of fenhexamid did not modify sterol profiles and the total colonization of roots. But the arbuscule frequency of the fungal partner was significantly affected. Comparison of the effects caused by the tested fungicides indicates that the usual phytosterols may be involved in symbiosis development. Indeed, observed modifications of root sterols composition could explain the high fenpropimorph toxicity to the AM symbiosis. However, the absence of sterolic modifications in the roots treated with fenhexamid could account for its more limited impact on mycorrhization.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis 3A-25B, a Strain with Biocontrol Activity against Fungal and Oomycete Root Plant Phytopathogens, Isolated from Grassland Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Raudales, Inés; De La Cruz-Rodríguez, Yumiko; Vega-Arreguín, Julio; Alvarado-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Fraire-Mayorga, Atzin; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Balderas-Hernández, Victor; Gómez-Soto, José Manuel; Fraire-Velázquez, Saúl

    2017-09-28

    Here, we present the draft genome of Bacillus velezensis 3A-25B, which totaled 4.01 Mb with 36 contigs, 3,948 genes, and a GC content of 46.34%. This strain, which demonstrates biocontrol activity against root rot causal phytopathogens in horticultural crops and friendly interactions in roots of pepper plantlets, was obtained from grassland soil in Zacatecas Province, Mexico. Copyright © 2017 Martínez-Raudales et al.

  11. PRODUCTION OF FUNGAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS THROUGH SOLID STATE FERMENTATION: A CASE STUDY ON PAECILOMYCES LILACINUS AGAINST ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES

    OpenAIRE

    D. Brand; C. R. Soccol; A. Sabu; S. Roussos

    2010-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes cause annual losses of about USD $100 billion worldwide. Development of natural resistance to nematicides by nematodes and the tendency to withdraw chemical pesticides/nematicides from the market led to the search for new methods of control. Biological control of root-knot nematodes with Paecilomyces lilacinus is being investigated thoroughly, but there is a lack of information on the production systems. Solid state fermentation is a suitable ecofriendly biological process...

  12. The Subcellular Localization of Tubby-Like Proteins and Participation in Stress Signaling and Root Colonization by the Mutualist Piriformospora indica1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Marco Uwe; Bissue, Jeff Kweku; Zocher, Kathleen; Attard, Agnès; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Becker, Katja; Imani, Jafargholi; Eichmann, Ruth; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tubby and Tubby-like proteins (TLPs) were first discovered in mammals, where they are involved in the development and function of neuronal cells. Due to their importance as plasma membrane (PM)-tethered transcription factors or mediators of vesicle trafficking, their lack causes obesity and other disease syndromes. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate binding of the carboxyl-terminal Tubby domain attaches these proteins to the PM and vesicles and is essential for function. TLPs are conserved across eukaryotic kingdoms including plants, suggesting fundamental biological functions of TLPs. Plant TLPs possess an amino-terminal F-box domain that distinguishes them from other eukaryotic TLPs. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) encodes 11 AtTLPs that fall into six phylogenetic clades. We identified the significance of AtTLPs for root colonization of Arabidopsis by the mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica. Our results further indicate conserved phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-binding sites in the Tubby domains that are required for PM anchoring of AtTLPs. More detailed studies revealed phospholipase C-triggered release of AtTLP3 from the PM, indicating a conserved mechanism as reported for mammalian Tubby and TLP3. We further show that hydrogen peroxide stimulates the release of AtTLP3 from the PM, presumably for activating downstream events. Different from mammalian homologs, the amino-terminal part of almost all AtTLPs has nucleocytosolic and plastidial localization patterns. Thus, it is tempting to assume that TLPs translate reactive oxygen species currents into signaling not only for transcriptional regulation in the nucleus but also affect plastid-associated functions after release from the PM. PMID:22751378

  13. The subcellular localization of Tubby-like proteins and participation in stress signaling and root colonization by the mutualist Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Marco Uwe; Bissue, Jeff Kweku; Zocher, Kathleen; Attard, Agnès; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Becker, Katja; Imani, Jafargholi; Eichmann, Ruth; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-09-01

    Tubby and Tubby-like proteins (TLPs) were first discovered in mammals, where they are involved in the development and function of neuronal cells. Due to their importance as plasma membrane (PM)-tethered transcription factors or mediators of vesicle trafficking, their lack causes obesity and other disease syndromes. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate binding of the carboxyl-terminal Tubby domain attaches these proteins to the PM and vesicles and is essential for function. TLPs are conserved across eukaryotic kingdoms including plants, suggesting fundamental biological functions of TLPs. Plant TLPs possess an amino-terminal F-box domain that distinguishes them from other eukaryotic TLPs. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) encodes 11 AtTLPs that fall into six phylogenetic clades. We identified the significance of AtTLPs for root colonization of Arabidopsis by the mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica. Our results further indicate conserved phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-binding sites in the Tubby domains that are required for PM anchoring of AtTLPs. More detailed studies revealed phospholipase C-triggered release of AtTLP3 from the PM, indicating a conserved mechanism as reported for mammalian Tubby and TLP3. We further show that hydrogen peroxide stimulates the release of AtTLP3 from the PM, presumably for activating downstream events. Different from mammalian homologs, the amino-terminal part of almost all AtTLPs has nucleocytosolic and plastidial localization patterns. Thus, it is tempting to assume that TLPs translate reactive oxygen species currents into signaling not only for transcriptional regulation in the nucleus but also affect plastid-associated functions after release from the PM.

  14. Ectomycorrhizal identification in environmental samples of tree roots by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica ePena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Roots of forest trees are associated with various ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungal species that are involved in nutrient exchange between host plant and the soil compartment. The identification of ECM fungi in small environmental samples is difficult. The present study tested the feasibility of attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy followed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA to discriminate in situ collected ECM fungal species. Root tips colonized by distinct ECM fungal species, i.e., Amanita rubescens, Cenococcum geophilum, Lactarius subdulcis, Russula ochroleuca, and Xerocomus pruinatus were collected in mono-specific beech (Fagus sylvatica and mixed deciduous forests in different geographic areas to investigate the environmental variability of the ECM FTIR signatures.A clear HCA discrimination was obtained for ECM fungal species independent of individual provenance. Environmental variability neither limited the discrimination between fungal species nor provided sufficient resolution to discern species sub-clusters for different sites. However, the de-convoluted FTIR spectra contained site-related spectral information for fungi with wide nutrient ranges, but not for Lactarius subdulcis, a fungus residing only in the litter layer. Specific markers for distinct ECM were identified in spectral regions associated with carbohydrates (i.e. mannans, lipids, and secondary protein structures. The present results support that FTIR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis is a reliable and fast method to identify ECM fungal species in minute environmental samples. Moreover, our data suggest that the FTIR spectral signatures contain information on physiological and functional traits of ECM fungi.

  15. Girdling affects ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity and reveals functional differences in EMF community composition in a beech forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Rodica; Offermann, Christine; Simon, Judy; Naumann, Pascale Sarah; Gessler, Arthur; Holst, Jutta; Dannenmann, Michael; Mayer, Helmut; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Rennenberg, Heinz; Polle, Andrea

    2010-03-01

    The relationships between plant carbon resources, soil carbon and nitrogen content, and ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity in a monospecific, old-growth beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest were investigated by manipulating carbon flux by girdling. We hypothesized that disruption of the carbon supply would not affect diversity and EMF species numbers if EM fungi can be supplied by plant internal carbohydrate resources or would result in selective disappearance of EMF taxa because of differences in carbon demand of different fungi. Tree carbohydrate status, root demography, EMF colonization, and EMF taxon abundance were measured repeatedly during 1 year after girdling. Girdling did not affect root colonization but decreased EMF species richness of an estimated 79 to 90 taxa to about 40 taxa. Cenococcum geophilum, Lactarius blennius, and Tomentella lapida were dominant, colonizing about 70% of the root tips, and remained unaffected by girdling. Mainly cryptic EMF species disappeared. Therefore, the Shannon-Wiener index (H') decreased but evenness was unaffected. H' was positively correlated with glucose, fructose, and starch concentrations of fine roots and also with the ratio of dissolved organic carbon to dissolved organic nitrogen (DOC/DON), suggesting that both H' and DOC/DON were governed by changes in belowground carbon allocation. Our results suggest that beech maintains numerous rare EMF species by recent photosynthate. These EM fungi may constitute biological insurance for adaptation to changing environmental conditions. The preservation of taxa previously not known to colonize beech may, thus, form an important reservoir for future forest development.

  16. Colonization of exopolysaccharide-producing Paenibacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterium colonized plant roots and were able to migrate downward with the root as it elongated. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of one month plants from seeds previously inoculated with P.polymyxa revealed dense colonization on the roots. Moreover, significant increases in activities of plant defense ...

  17. Gene expression patterns and dynamics of the colonization of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. by highly virulent and weakly virulent strains of Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eNiño-Sánchez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of root and hypocotyl colonization, and the gene expression patterns of several fungal virulence factors and plant defense factors have been analyzed and compared in the interaction of two F. oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli strains displaying clear differences in virulence, with a susceptible common bean cultivar. The growth of the two strains on the root surface and the colonization of the root was cuantitatively similar although the highly virulent strain was more efficient reaching the central root cylinder. The main differences between both strains were found in the temporal and spatial dynamics of crown root and hypocotyl colonization. The increase of fungal biomass in the crown root was considerably larger for the highly virulent strain, which, after an initial stage of global colonization of both the vascular cylinder and the parenchymal cells, restricted its growth to the newly differentiated xylem vessels. The weakly virulent strain was a much slower and less efficient colonizer of the xylem vessels, showing also growth in the intercellular spaces of the parenchyma. Most of the virulence genes analyzed showed similar expression patterns in both strains, except SIX1, SIX6 and the gene encoding the transcription factor FTF1, which were highly upregulated in root crown and hypocotyl. The response induced in the infected plant showed interesting differences for both strains. The weakly virulent strain induced an early and strong transcription of the PR1 gene, involved in SAR response, while the highly virulent strain preferentially induced the early expression of the ethylene responsive factor ERF2.

  18. Fungal keratitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tuli, Sonal S

    2011-01-01

    What is the most appropriate management of fungal keratitis? Traditionally, topical Natamycin is the most commonly used medication for filamentous fungi while Amphotericin B is most commonly used for yeast...

  19. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... at http://www.thoracic.org/education/breathing-in-america/resources/chapter-9-fungal-lung-disease.pdf. Accessed ...

  20. Fungal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... September 6, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  1. Does fungal infection is the main cause for persistent middle ear otorrhea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazama Mohamad

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The incident of fungal colonization in persistent otorrhea is low (7%. The fungal isolated were Aspergillus flavus, Candida parapsilosis and Penicillium spp. Bacteria are still the most common microorganism in persistent otorrhea.

  2. Transcriptional profiling of arbuscular mycorrhizal roots exposed to high levels of phosphate reveals the repression of cell cycle-related genes and secreted protein genes in Rhizophagus irregularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Yusaku; Saito, Katsuharu

    2017-02-01

    The development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is strongly suppressed under high-phosphate (Pi) conditions. To investigate AM fungal responses during the suppression of AM by high Pi, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of Rhizophagus irregularis colonizing Lotus japonicus roots at different levels of Pi (20, 100, 300, and 500 μM). AM fungal colonization decreased markedly under high-Pi conditions. In total, 163 fungal genes were differentially expressed among the four Pi treatments. Among these genes, a cell cycle-regulatory gene, cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1, and several DNA replication- and mitosis-related genes were repressed under high-Pi conditions. More than 20 genes encoding secreted proteins were also downregulated by high-Pi conditions, including the strigolactone-induced putative secreted protein 1 gene that enhances AM fungal colonization. In contrast, the expression of genes related to aerobic respiration and transport in R. irregularis were largely unaffected. Our data suggest that high Pi suppresses the expression of genes associated with fungal cell cycle progression or that encode secreted proteins that may be required for intercellular hyphal growth and arbuscule formation. However, high Pi has little effect on the transcriptional regulation of the primary metabolism or transport in preformed fungal structures.

  3. Ethylene and jasmonic acid act as negative modulators during mutualistic symbiosis between Laccaria bicolor and Populus roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plett, Jonathan M; Khachane, Amit; Ouassou, Malika; Sundberg, Björn; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis

    2014-04-01

    The plant hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid have interconnecting roles during the response of plant tissues to mutualistic and pathogenic symbionts. We used morphological studies of transgenic- or hormone-treated Populus roots as well as whole-genome oligoarrays to examine how these hormones affect root colonization by the mutualistic ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor S238N. We found that genes regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid were regulated in the late stages of the interaction between L. bicolor and poplar. Both ethylene and jasmonic acid treatments were found to impede fungal colonization of roots, and this effect was correlated to an increase in the expression of certain transcription factors (e.g. ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1) and a decrease in the expression of genes associated with microbial perception and cell wall modification. Further, we found that ethylene and jasmonic acid showed extensive transcriptional cross-talk, cross-talk that was opposed by salicylic acid signaling. We conclude that ethylene and jasmonic acid pathways are induced late in the colonization of root tissues in order to limit fungal growth within roots. This induction is probably an adaptive response by the plant such that its growth and vigor are not compromised by the fungus. © 2013 The Authors New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Surprising spectra of root-associated fungi in submerged aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, Petr; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Ctvrtlíková, Martina; Rydlová, Jana; Suda, Jan; Vohník, Martin; Sudová, Radka

    2012-04-01

    Similarly to plants from terrestrial ecosystems, aquatic species harbour wide spectra of root-associated fungi (RAF). However, comparably less is known about fungal diversity in submerged roots. We assessed the incidence and diversity of RAF in submerged aquatic plants using microscopy, culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. We studied RAF of five submerged isoetid species collected in four oligotrophic freshwater lakes in Norway. Levels of dark septate endophytes (DSE) colonization differed among the lakes and were positively related to the organic matter content and negatively related to pH. In total, we identified 41 fungal OTUs using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, belonging to Mucoromycotina, Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota as well as Basidiomycota. Sequences corresponding to aquatic hyphomycetes (e.g. Nectria lugdunensis, Tetracladium furcatum and Varicosporium elodeae) were obtained. Eight arbuscular mycorrhizal taxa belonging to the orders Archaeosporales, Diversisporales and Glomerales were also detected. However, the vast majority of the fungal species detected (e.g. Ceratobasidium sp., Cryptosporiopsis rhizophila, Leptodontidium orchidicola, and Tuber sp.) have previously been known only from roots of terrestrial plants. The abundance and phylogenetic distribution of mycorrhizal as well as nonmycorrhizal fungi in the roots of submerged plants have reshaped our views on the fungal diversity in aquatic environment. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of fire severity on ectomycorrhizal colonization and morphometric features in Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vásquez-Gassibe, P.; Oria-de-Rueda, J.A.; Santos-del-Blanco, L.; Martín-Pinto, P.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Mycorrhizal fungi in Mediterranean forests play a key role in the complex process of recovery after wildfires. A broader understanding of an important pyrophytic species as Pinus pinaster and its fungal symbionts is thus necessary for forest restoration purposes. This study aims to assess the effects of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis on maritime pine seedlings and how fire severity affects fungal colonization ability. Area of study: Central Spain, in a Mediterranean region typically affected by wildfires dominated by Pinus pinaster, a species adapted to fire disturbance. Material and Methods: We studied P. pinaster root apexes from seedlings grown in soils collected one year after fire in undisturbed sites, sites moderately affected by fire and sites highly affected by fire. Natural ectomycorrhization was observed at the whole root system level as well as at two root vertical sections (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm). We also measured several morphometric traits (tap root length, shoot length, dry biomass of shoots and root/shoot ratio), which were used to test the influence of fire severity and soil chemistry upon them. Main results: Ectomycorrhizal colonization in undisturbed soils for total and separated root vertical sections was higher than in soils that had been affected by fire to some degree. Inversely, seedling vegetative size increased according to fire severity. Research highlights: Fire severity affected soil properties and mycorrhizal colonization one year after occurrence, thus affecting plant development. These findings can contribute to a better knowledge of the factors mediating successful establishment of P. pinaster in Mediterranean forests after wildfires. (Author)

  6. Short-term effects of seasonal prescribed burning on the ectomycorrhizal fungal community and fine root biomass in ponderosa pine stands in the Blue Mountains of Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Smith; D. McKay; C.G. Niwa; W.G. Thies; G. Brenner; J.W. Spatafora

    2004-01-01

    The effects of seasonal prescribed fire on the belowground ectomycorrhizal community and live fine root biomass were investigated before, 1 year after, and 2 years after prescribed underburning. Ectomycorrhizas were sampled from four replications of three treatments (fall underburning, spring underburning, and a nonburned.control) in a randomized complete block design...

  7. Interactions between abundant fungal species influence the fungal community assemblage on limestone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Morón-Ríos

    Full Text Available The assembly of fungal communities on stone materials is mainly influenced by the differential bioreceptivity of such materials and environmental conditions. However, little is known about the role of fungal interactions in the colonization and establishment of fungal species. We analyzed the effects of intra- and interspecific interactions between 11 species of fungi in oligotrophic and copiotrophic media and on limestone coupons. In a previous study, these species were the most frequently isolated in the epilithic biofilms of limestone walls exposed to a subtropical climate. In the culture media, we found a greater frequency of intra- and interspecific inhibitory effects in the oligotrophic medium than in the copiotrophic medium. On the limestone coupons, all fungi were able to establish; however, the colonization success rate varied significantly. Cladosporium cladosporioides had a less extensive colonization in isolation (control than in dual interactions (coexistence with other species. Phoma eupyrena exhibited the highest colonization success rate and competitive dominance among all tested species. X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM analyses revealed that Pestalotiopsis maculans and Paraconiothyrium sp. produced calcium oxalate crystals during their growth on coupon surfaces, both in isolation and in dual interactions. Our results demonstrate that interactions between abundant fungal species influence the fungal colonization on substrates, the biomineralization and the fungal community assemblage growing in limestone biofilms.

  8. Interactions between abundant fungal species influence the fungal community assemblage on limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón-Ríos, Alejandro; Ortega-Morales, Benjamin Otto; De la Rosa-García, Susana; Partida-Martínez, Laila Pamela; Quintana, Patricia; Alayón-Gamboa, José Armando; Cappello-García, Silvia; González-Gómez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    The assembly of fungal communities on stone materials is mainly influenced by the differential bioreceptivity of such materials and environmental conditions. However, little is known about the role of fungal interactions in the colonization and establishment of fungal species. We analyzed the effects of intra- and interspecific interactions between 11 species of fungi in oligotrophic and copiotrophic media and on limestone coupons. In a previous study, these species were the most frequently isolated in the epilithic biofilms of limestone walls exposed to a subtropical climate. In the culture media, we found a greater frequency of intra- and interspecific inhibitory effects in the oligotrophic medium than in the copiotrophic medium. On the limestone coupons, all fungi were able to establish; however, the colonization success rate varied significantly. Cladosporium cladosporioides had a less extensive colonization in isolation (control) than in dual interactions (coexistence) with other species. Phoma eupyrena exhibited the highest colonization success rate and competitive dominance among all tested species. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses revealed that Pestalotiopsis maculans and Paraconiothyrium sp. produced calcium oxalate crystals during their growth on coupon surfaces, both in isolation and in dual interactions. Our results demonstrate that interactions between abundant fungal species influence the fungal colonization on substrates, the biomineralization and the fungal community assemblage growing in limestone biofilms. PMID:29211748

  9. Fungal genes related to calcium homeostasis and signalling are upregulated in symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhiza interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Arnould, Christine; Wipf, Daniel; Zhao, Bin; van Tuinen, Diederik

    2013-01-01

    Fluctuations in intracellular calcium levels generate signalling events and regulate different cellular processes. Whilst the implication of Ca(2+) in plant responses during arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) interactions is well documented, nothing is known about the regulation or role of this secondary messenger in the fungal symbiont. The spatio-temporal expression pattern of putatively Ca(2+)-related genes of Glomus intraradices BEG141 encoding five proteins involved in membrane transport and one nuclear protein kinase, was investigated during the AM symbiosis. Expression profiles related to successful colonization of host roots were observed in interactions of G. intraradices with roots of wild-type Medicago truncatula (line J5) compared to the mycorrhiza-defective mutant dmi3/Mtsym13. Symbiotic fungal activity was monitored using stearoyl-CoA desaturase and phosphate transporter genes. Laser microdissection based-mapping of fungal gene expression in mycorrhizal root tissues indicated that the Ca(2+)-related genes were differentially upregulated in arbuscules and/or in intercellular hyphae. The spatio-temporal variations in gene expression suggest that the encoded proteins may have different functions in fungal development or function during symbiosis development. Full-length cDNA obtained for two genes with interesting expression profiles confirmed a close similarity with an endoplasmic reticulum P-type ATPase and a Vcx1-like vacuolar Ca(2+) ion transporter functionally characterized in other fungi and involved in the regulation of cell calcium pools. Possible mechanisms are discussed in which Ca(2+)-related proteins G. intraradices BEG141 may play a role in mobilization and perception of the intracellular messenger by the AM fungus during symbiotic interactions with host roots. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanical soil disturbance as a determinant of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in semi-natural grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnoor, Tim Krone; Lekberg, Ylva; Rosendahl, Søren

    2011-01-01

    While the effect of disturbance on overall abundance and community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has been researched in agricultural fields, less is known about the impact in semi-natural grasslands. We sampled two AM plant species, Festuca brevipila and Plantago lanceolata, from...... an ongoing grassland restoration experiment that contained replicated plowed and control plots. The AM fungal community in roots was determined using nested PCR and LSU rDNA primers. We identified 38 phylotypes within the Glomeromycota, of which 29 belonged to Glomus A, six to Glomus B, and three...... the control or disturbed plots. We found no evidence of host preference in this system, except for one phylotype that preferentially seemed to colonize Festuca. Our results show that disturbance imposed a stronger structuring force for AM fungal communities than did host plants in this semi-natural grassland....

  11. Fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal S Tuli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sonal S TuliUniversity of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA  Clinical question: What is the most appropriate management of fungal keratitis?Results: Traditionally, topical Natamycin is the most commonly used medication for filamentous fungi while Amphotericin B is most commonly used for yeast. Voriconazole is rapidly becoming the drug of choice for all fungal keratitis because of its wide spectrum of coverage and increased penetration into the cornea.Implementation: Repeated debridement of the ulcer is recommended for the penetration of topical medications. While small, peripheral ulcers may be treated in the community, larger or central ulcers, especially if associated with signs suggestive of anterior chamber penetration should be referred to a tertiary center. Prolonged therapy for approximately four weeks is usually necessary.Keywords: fungal keratitis, keratomycosis, antifungal medications, debridement

  12. Fungal Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaorong; Alspaugh, J. Andrew; Liu, Haoping; Harris, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Morphogenesis in fungi is often induced by extracellular factors and executed by fungal genetic factors. Cell surface changes and alterations of the microenvironment often accompany morphogenetic changes in fungi. In this review, we will first discuss the general traits of yeast and hyphal morphotypes and how morphogenesis affects development and adaptation by fungi to their native niches, including host niches. Then we will focus on the molecular machinery responsible for the two most fundamental growth forms, yeast and hyphae. Last, we will describe how fungi incorporate exogenous environmental and host signals together with genetic factors to determine their morphotype and how morphogenesis, in turn, shapes the fungal microenvironment. PMID:25367976

  13. Growth and Nutrition of Eucalypt Rooted Cuttings Promoted by Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in Commercial Nurseries

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    Andrezza Mara Martins Gandini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF may improve the adaptation of eucalypts saplings to field conditions and allow more efficient fertilizer use. The effectiveness of EMF inoculum application in promoting fungal colonization, plant growth, nutrient uptake, and the quality of rooted cuttings was evaluated forEucalyptus urophylla under commercial nursery conditions. For inoculated treatments, fertilization of the sapling substrate was reduced by 50 %. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement, wherein the factors were inoculum application rates of 0 (control, 5, 10, and 15 gel beads of calcium alginate containing the vegetative mycelium of Amanita muscaria, Elaphomyces antracinus, Pisolithus microcarpus, andScleroderma areolatum, plus a non-inoculated treatment without fertilization reduction in the substrate (commercial. Ectomycorrhizal fungi increased plant growth and fungal colonization as well as N and K uptake evenly. The best plant growth and fungal colonization were observed for the highest application rate. The greatest growth and fungal colonization and contents of P, N, and K were observed at the 10-bead rate. Plant inoculation with Amanita muscaria, Elaphomyces anthracinus, and Scleroderma areolatum increased P concentrations and contents in a differential manner. The Dickson Quality Index was not affected by the type of fungi or by inoculum application rates. Eucalypt rooted cuttings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi and under half the amount of commercial fertilization had P, N, and K concentrations and contents greater than or equal to those of commercial plants and have high enough quality to be transplanted after 90 days.

  14. Identification of two fungal endophytes associated with the endangered orchid Orchis militaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramin, Elena; Gastaldo, Andrea; Tondello, Alessandra; Baldan, Barbara; Villani, Mariacristina; Squartini, Andrea

    2010-03-01

    A survey of the endangered orchid Orchis militaris populations was carried out in north-eastern Italy. The occurrence of fungal root endophytes was investigated by light and electron microscopies and molecular techniques. Two main sites of presence were individuated in the Euganean Hills, differing as to the percentage of flowering individuals and of capsules completing maturity. Fluorescence microscopy revealed an intracellular cortical colonization by hyphal pelotons. Two ITS PCR products co-amplified. Sequencing revealed for the former an identity and a high similarity (99%) with a Tulasnellaceae (Basidiomycota) fungus found within tissues of the same host in independent studies in Hungary and Estonia, suggesting an interesting case of tight specificity throughout the Eurosiberian home range. The second amplicon had 99% similarity with Tetracladium species (Ascomycota) recently demonstrated as potential endophytes. TEM revealed two different hyphal structures. Double fungal colonization appears to occur in Orchis militaris and the possible requirement of a specific fungal partner throws light on the causes of this plant's rarity and threatened status.

  15. Combined effects of fungal inoculants and the cytokinin-like growth regulator thidiazuron on growth, phytohormone contents and endophytic root fungi in Miscanthus × giganteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christoph Stephan; Mrnka, Libor; Frantík, Tomaš; Motyka, Václav; Dobrev, Petre I; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2017-11-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate main effects and interactions between symbiotic fungi and the cytokinin-like growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ) in Miscanthus × giganteus. The arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Rhizophagus intraradices (AMF) and the endophyte Piriformospora indica (PI) were chosen as model symbionts. The fungal inoculants and TDZ had no significant effect on plant growth but modulated phytohormone levels in the leaves. TDZ induced accumulation of salicylic acid in controls, but not in plants inoculated with fungi. Leaf concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) derivatives, auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) precursors and catabolites and numerous cytokinins were increased by R. intraradices but lowered by P. indica. TDZ raised concentrations of ABA compounds, the non-indole auxin phenylacetic acid, jasmonate and some cytokinins, but decreased cis-zeatin and N(6)-(Δ(2)-isopentenyl)adenine levels. Inoculation with AMF reduced abundance of endogenous clampless endophytes. TDZ application strongly reduced formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza and increased occurrence of clamped mycelia (i.e. basidiomycetous endophytes). Our study provides a thorough outline of the phytohormone homeostasis under the combined influence of beneficial inoculants and a growth regulator, highlighting the necessity to study their interaction in the whole plant-microbial context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular characterization of endophytic fungi associated with the roots of Chenopodium quinoa inhabiting the Atacama Desert, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. González-Teuber

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots can be highly colonized by fungal endophytes. This seems to be of particular importance for the survival of plants inhabiting stressful habitats. This study focused on the Identification of the fungal endophytic community associated with the roots of quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa growing near the salt lakes of the Atacama Desert, Chile. One hundred endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy quinoa roots, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region was sequenced for phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis. The isolates were classified into eleven genera and 21 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs. Despite a relatively high diversity of root endophytic fungi associated with quinoa plants, the fungal community was dominated by only the Ascomycota phyla. In addition, the most abundant genera were Penicillium, Phoma and Fusarium, which are common endophytes reported in plant roots. This study shows that roots of C. quinoa harbor a diverse group of endophytic fungi. Potential roles of these fungi in plant host tolerance to stressful conditions are discussed.

  17. The maturation zone is an important target of Piriformospora indica in Chinese cabbage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sheqin; Tian, Zhihong; Chen, Peng Jen; Senthil Kumar, Rajendran; Shen, Chin Hui; Cai, Daguang; Oelmüllar, Ralf; Yeh, Kai Wun

    2013-11-01

    The mutualistic symbiont Piriformospora indica exhibits a great potential in agriculture. The interaction between P. indica and Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris cv. Chinensis) results in growth and biomass promotion of the host plant and in particular in root hair development. The resulting highly bushy root phenotype of colonized Chinese cabbage seedlings differs substantially from reports of other plant species, which prompted the more detailed study of this symbiosis. A large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) data set was obtained from a double-subtractive EST library, by subtracting the cDNAs of Chinese cabbage root tissue and of P. indica mycelium from those of P. indica-colonized root tissue. The analysis revealed ~700 unique genes rooted in 141 clusters and 559 singles. A total of 66% of the sequences could be annotated in the NCBI GenBank. Genes which are stimulated by P. indica are involved in various types of transport, carbohydrate metabolism, auxin signalling, cell wall metabolism, and root development, including the root hair-forming phosphoinositide phosphatase 4. For 20 key genes, induction by fungal colonization was confirmed kinetically during the interaction by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Moreover, the auxin concentration increases transiently after exposure of the roots to P. indica. Microscopic analyses demonstrated that the development of the root maturation zone is the major target of P. indica in Chinese cabbage. Taken together, the symbiotic interaction between Chinese cabbage and P. indica is a novel model to study root growth promotion which, in turn, is important for agriculture and plant biotechnology.

  18. A plasma membrane zinc transporter from ¤Medicago truncatula¤ is up-regulated in roots by Zn fertilization, yet down-regulated by arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burleigh, S.H.; Kristensen, B.K.; Bechmann, I.E.

    2003-01-01

    Here we present a Zn transporter cDNA named MtZIP2 from the model legume Medicago truncatula. MtZIP2 encodes a putative 37 kDa protein with 8-membrane spanning domains and has moderate amino acid identity with the Arabidopsis thaliana Zn transporter AtZIP2p. MtZIP2 complemented a Zn-uptake mutant...... of yeast implying that the protein encoded by this gene can transport Zn across the yeast's plasma membrane. The product of a MtZIP2-GFP fusion construct introduced into onion cells by particle bombardment likewise localized to the plasma membrane. The MtZIP2 gene was expressed in roots and stems......, but not in leaves of M. truncatula and, in contrast to all other plant Zn transporters characterized thus far, MtZIP2 was up-regulated in roots by Zn fertilization. Expression was highest in roots exposed to a toxic level of Zn. MtZIP2 expression was also examined in the roots of M. truncatula when colonized...

  19. Direct plantlet inoculation with soil or insect-associated fungi may control cabbage root fly maggots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razinger, Jaka; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Palmisano, Marilena; Wohler, Christian; Urek, Gregor; Grunder, Jürg

    2014-07-01

    A potential Delia radicum biological control strategy involving cauliflower plantlet inoculation with various fungi was investigated in a series of laboratory and glasshouse experiments. In addition to entomopathogenic fungi, fungi with a high rhizosphere competence and fungi with the ability to survive as saprotrophs in soil were tested. The following fungal species were evaluated in the experiments: Trichoderma atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. gamsii, Beauveria bassiana, Metharhizium anisopliae, M. brunneum and Clonostachys solani. A commercial carbosulfan-based insecticide was used as a positive control. Additionally, two commercial products, one based on B. bassiana (Naturalis) and one on Bacillus thuringiensis (Delfin) were used as reference biocontrol agents. The aims were (i) to assess the pathogenicity of the selected fungal isolates to Delia radicum, (ii) to evaluate the fungal isolates' rhizosphere competence, with the emphasis on the persistence of the original inoculum on the growing roots, (iii) to assess possible endophytic plant tissue colonization, and (iv) to evaluate potential plant growth stimulating effects of the added inoculi. Significant pathogenicity of tested fungi against Delia radicum was confirmed in in vitro and glasshouse experiments. All tested fungi persisted on cauliflower rhizoplane. More importantly, the added fungi were found on thoroughly washed roots outside the original point of inoculation. This provided us with evidence that our tested fungi could be transferred via or grow with the elongating roots. In addition to colonizing the rhizoplane, some fungi were found inside the plant root or stem tissue, thus exhibiting endophytic characteristics. The importance of fungal ecology as a criterion in appropriate biological control agent selection is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of warming on ectomycorrhizal colonization and nitrogen nutrition of Picea asperata seedlings grown in two contrasting forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuejiao; Sun, Didi; Li, Dandan; Xu, Zhenfeng; Zhao, Chunzhang; Lin, Honghui; Liu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Ectomycorrhiza (ECM) plays an important role in plant nitrogen (N) nutrition and regulates plant responded to climate warming. We conducted a field experiment in a natural forest and a plantation in the eastern Tibetan Plateau to estimate the warming effects of open-top chambers (OTC) on ECM and N nutrition of Picea asperata seedlings. Four-year warming significantly decreased ECM colonization, ECM fungal biomass, fine root vigor, and the N concentration of leaf, stem and coarse root, but significantly increased fine root N concentration and N content of leaf, stem, fine root and whole plant in natural forest. Contrarily, warming induced no obvious change in most of these parameters in plantation. Moreover, warming decreased rhizospheric soil inorganic N content in both forests. Our results showed that four-year warming was not beneficial for ECM colonization of P. asperata seedlings in the two forests, and the seedlings in natural forest were more sensitive and flexible to experimental warming than in plantation. The changes of ECM colonization and fine root biomass for effective N uptake would be good for plant growth and remit N leaching under future warming in natural forest. PMID:26655633

  1. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  2. Fungi from the roots of the common terrestrial orchid Gymnadenia conopsea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Christiane; Babik, Wiesław; Durka, Walter

    2009-09-01

    The fungal community associated with the terrestrial photosynthetic orchid Gymnadenia conopsea was characterized through PCR-amplification directly from root extracted DNA and cloning of the PCR products. Six populations in two geographically distinct regions in Germany were investigated. New ITS-primers amplifying a wide taxonomic range including Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes revealed a high taxonomic and ecological diversity of fungal associates, including typical orchid mycorrhizas of the Tulasnellaceae and Ceratobasidiaceae as well as several ectomycorrhizal taxa of the Pezizales. The wide spectrum of potential mycorrhizal partners may contribute to this orchid's ability to colonize different habitat types with their characteristic microbial communities. The fungal community of G. conopsea showed a clear spatial structure. With 43 % shared taxa the species composition of the two regions showed only little overlap. Regardless of regions, populations were highly variable concerning taxon richness, varying between 5 and 14 taxa per population. The spatial structure and the continuous presence of mycorrhizal taxa on the one hand and the low specificity towards certain fungal taxa on the other hand suggest that the fungal community associated with G. conopsea is determined by multiple factors. In this context, germination as well as pronounced morphological and genetic differentiation within G. conopsea deserve attention as potential factors affecting the composition of the fungal community.

  3. An endophytic fungus isolated from finger millet (Eleucine coracona produces anti-fungal natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Finger millet is an ancient African cereal crop, domesticated 7000 years ago in Ethiopia, reaching India at 3000 BC. Finger millet is reported to be resistant to various fungal pathogens including Fusarium sp. We hypothesized that finger millet may host beneficial endophytes (plant-colonizing microbes that contribute to the antifungal activity. Here we report the first isolation of endophyte(s from finger millet. Five distinct fungal species were isolated from roots and predicted taxonomically based on 18S rDNA sequencing. Extracts from three putative endophytes inhibited growth of F. graminearum and three other pathogenic Fusarium species. The most potent anti-Fusarium strain (WF4, predicted to be a Phoma sp. was confirmed to behave as an endophyte using pathogenicity and confocal microscopy experiments. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the WF4 extract identified four anti-fungal compounds, viridicatol, tenuazonic acid, alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. All the purified compounds caused dramatic breakage of F. graminearum hyphae in vitro. These compounds have not previously been reported to have anti-Fusarium activity. None of the compounds, except for tenuazonic acid, have previously been reported to be produced by Phoma. We conclude that the ancient, disease-tolerant crop, finger millet, is a novel source of endophytic anti-fungal natural products. This paper suggests the value of the crops grown by subsistence farmers as sources of endophytes and their natural products. Application of these natural chemicals to solve real world problems will require further validation.

  4. An endophytic fungus isolated from finger millet (Eleusine coracana) produces anti-fungal natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Walaa K; Schwan, Adrian; Davidson, Jeffrey; Strange, Philip; Liu, Huaizhi; Zhou, Ting; Auzanneau, France-Isabelle; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    Finger millet is an ancient African cereal crop, domesticated 7000 years ago in Ethiopia, reaching India at 3000 BC. Finger millet is reported to be resistant to various fungal pathogens including Fusarium sp. We hypothesized that finger millet may host beneficial endophytes (plant-colonizing microbes) that contribute to the antifungal activity. Here we report the first isolation of endophyte(s) from finger millet. Five distinct fungal species were isolated from roots and predicted taxonomically based on 18S rDNA sequencing. Extracts from three putative endophytes inhibited growth of F. graminearum and three other pathogenic Fusarium species. The most potent anti-Fusarium strain (WF4, predicted to be a Phoma sp.) was confirmed to behave as an endophyte using pathogenicity and confocal microscopy experiments. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the WF4 extract identified four anti-fungal compounds, viridicatol, tenuazonic acid, alternariol, and alternariol monomethyl ether. All the purified compounds caused dramatic breakage of F. graminearum hyphae in vitro. These compounds have not previously been reported to have anti-Fusarium activity. None of the compounds, except for tenuazonic acid, have previously been reported to be produced by Phoma. We conclude that the ancient, disease-tolerant crop, finger millet, is a novel source of endophytic anti-fungal natural products. This paper suggests the value of the crops grown by subsistence farmers as sources of endophytes and their natural products. Application of these natural chemicals to solve real world problems will require further validation.

  5. Colonization of exopolysaccharide-producing Paenibacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... homopolysaccharide, which is consisting of various sugars such as glucose, galactose, mannose and xylose. ... pods and seeds as well as increased root colonization with bacteria. ... polymyxa colonization on peanut roots growing from ... followed by ethanol precipitation again in 10% NaCl solution. After.

  6. Root Endophyte Colletotrichum tofieldiae Confers Plant Fitness Benefits that Are Phosphate Status Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Kei; Gerlach, Nina; Sacristán, Soledad; Nakano, Ryohei Thomas; Hacquard, Stéphane; Kracher, Barbara; Neumann, Ulla; Ramírez, Diana; Bucher, Marcel; O’Connell, Richard J.; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Summary A staggering diversity of endophytic fungi associate with healthy plants in nature, but it is usually unclear whether these represent stochastic encounters or provide host fitness benefits. Although most characterized species of the fungal genus Colletotrichum are destructive pathogens, we show here that C. tofieldiae (Ct) is an endemic endophyte in natural Arabidopsis thaliana populations in central Spain. Colonization by Ct initiates in roots but can also spread systemically into shoots. Ct transfers the macronutrient phosphorus to shoots, promotes plant growth, and increases fertility only under phosphorus-deficient conditions, a nutrient status that might have facilitated the transition from pathogenic to beneficial lifestyles. The host’s phosphate starvation response (PSR) system controls Ct root colonization and is needed for plant growth promotion (PGP). PGP also requires PEN2-dependent indole glucosinolate metabolism, a component of innate immune responses, indicating a functional link between innate immunity and the PSR system during beneficial interactions with Ct. PMID:26997485

  7. Mutualism-parasitism paradigm synthesized from results of root-endophyte models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandyam, Keerthi G; Jumpponen, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Plant tissues host a variety of fungi. One important group is the dark septate endophytes (DSEs) that colonize plant roots and form characteristic intracellular structures - melanized hyphae and microsclerotia. The DSE associations are common and frequently observed in various biomes and plant taxa. Reviews suggest that the proportion of plant species colonized by DSE equal that colonized by AM and microscopic studies show that the proportion of the root system colonized by fungi DSE can equal, or even exceed, the colonization by AM fungi. Despite the high frequency and suspected ecological importance, the effects of DSE colonization on plant growth and performance have remained unclear. Here, we draw from over a decade of experimentation with the obscure DSE symbiosis and synthesize across large bodies of published and unpublished data from Arabidopsis thaliana and Allium porrum model systems as well as from experiments that use native plants to better resolve the host responses to DSE colonization. The data indicate similar distribution of host responses in model and native plant studies, validating the use of model plants for tractable dissection of DSE symbioses. The available data also permit empirical testing of the environmental modulation of host responses to DSE colonization and refining the "mutualism-parasitism-continuum" paradigm for DSE symbioses. These data highlight the context dependency of the DSE symbioses: not only plant species but also ecotypes vary in their responses to populations of conspecific DSE fungi - environmental conditions further shift the host responses similar to those predicted based on the mutualism-parasitism-continuum paradigm. The model systems provide several established avenues of inquiry that permit more detailed molecular and functional dissection of fungal endophyte symbioses, identifying thus likely mechanisms that may underlie the observed host responses to endophyte colonization.

  8. Mutualism-parasitism paradigm synthesized from results of root-endophyte models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthi Gomatam Mandyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant tissues host a variety of fungi. One important group is the dark septate endophytes (DSE that colonize plant roots and form characteristic intracellular structures – melanized hyphae and microsclerotia. The DSE associations are common and frequently observed in various biomes and plant taxa. Reviews suggest that the proportion of plant species colonized by DSE equal that colonized by AM and microscopic studies show that the proportion of the root system colonized by fungi DSE can equal, or even exceed, the colonization by AM fungi. Despite the high frequency and suspected ecological importance, the effects of DSE colonization on plant growth and performance have remained unclear. Here, we draw from over a decade of experimentation with the obscure DSE symbiosis and synthesize across large bodies of published and unpublished data from Arabidopsis thaliana and Allium porrum model systems as well as from experiments that use native plants to better resolve the host responses to DSE colonization. The data indicate similar distribution of host responses in model and native plant studies, validating the use of model plants for tractable dissection of DSE symbioses. The available data also permit empirical testing of the environmental modulation of host responses to DSE colonization and refining the mutualism-parasitism-continuum paradigm for DSE symbioses. These data highlight the context dependency of the DSE symbioses: not only plant species but also ecotypes vary in their responses to populations of conspecific DSE fungi – environmental conditions further shift the host responses similar to those predicted based on the mutualism-parasitism-continuum paradigm. The model systems provide several established avenues of inquiry that permit more detailed molecular and functional dissection of fungal endophyte symbioses, identifying thus likely mechanisms that may underlie the observed host responses to endophyte colonization.

  9. Increased amount of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum and Megasphaera elsdenii in the colonic microbiota of pigs fed a swine dysentery preventive diet containing chicory roots and sweet lupine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Lars; Thomsen, L.E.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To investigate which specific bacterial species that were stimulated or inhibited in the proximal colon of pigs when a fructan-rich diet was compared with a diet that contained resistant carbohydrates. The study focussed especially on Bifidobacterial species by using a noncultureable approa...

  10. Factors influencing the effectiveness of non-pathogenic Fusarium solani strain Fs5 in the suppression of root-knot nematode in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Siddiqui

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the effectiveness of Fusarium solani strain Fs5 against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. The effect of population densities of M. javanica, various application rates of F. solani, moisture regimes and levels of benzaldehyde, a volatile compound of plant origin affecting the plant-nematode-fungus interaction, were also studied. F. solani parasitized eggs and females of M. javanica and thereby reduced root-knot severity in tomato. Although the fungus was frequently isolated from root tissues, it did not produce phytotoxic symptoms; instead, there was enhanced plant growth. At higher nematode densities, inner root colonization by the fungus increased. The rates of fungal infection on M. javanica eggs and females also increased with increasing nematode densities and fungal inoculum levels. Nematode invasion and subsequent root-knot increased with increasing soil moisture, in both F. solani-treated and untreated plants. However, root-knot development was lower at all moisture regimes when F. solani was applied to the soil. Root colonization by F. solani and parasitism on female nematodes was highest at 50% moisture holding capacity (MHC whereas egg parasitism by the fungus was greatest at 75% MHC. With increasing concentration of benzaldehyde in soil, nematode penetration and subsequent root-knot infection were progressively reduced. Root colonization by F. solani was greatest in soil treated with benzaldehyde at 2 µg g-1 of soil in the presence of M. javanica. Increasing benzaldehyde concentrations resulted in increased parasitism of M. javanica females by F. solani but in lower parasitism of the eggs. Treatments with F. solani led to better plant growth when they were combined with benzaldehyde at 2 µg g-1 of soil.

  11. Phosphorus effects on the mycelium and storage structures of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus as studied in the soil and roots by analysis of fatty acid signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, P.A.; Bååth, E.; Jakobsen, I.

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus between soil and roots, and between mycelial and storage structures, was studied by use of the fatty acid signature 16:1 omega 5. Increasing the soil phosphorus level resulted in a decrease in the level of the fatty acid 16:1 omega 5...... in the soil and roots. A similar decrease was detected by microscopic measurements of root colonization and of the length of AM fungal hyphae in the soil. The fatty acid 16:1 omega 5 was estimated from two types of lipids, phospholipids and neutral lipids, which mainly represent membrane lipids and storage...... lipids, respectively. The numbers of spores of the AM fungus formed in the soil correlated most closely, with neutral lipid fatty acid 16:1 omega 5, whereas the hyphal length in the soil correlated most closely with phospholipid fatty acid 16:1 omega 5. The fungal neutral lipid/phospholipid ratio...

  12. A systematic review of oral fungal infections in patients receiving cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalla, Rajesh V.; Latortue, Marie C.; Hong, Catherine H.; Ariyawardana, Anura; D'Amato-Palumbo, Sandra; Fischer, Dena J.; Martof, Andrew; Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Patton, Lauren L.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Brennan, Michael T.

    The aims of this systematic review were to determine, in patients receiving cancer therapy, the prevalence of clinical oral fungal infection and fungal colonization, to determine the impact on quality of life and cost of care, and to review current management strategies for oral fungal infections.

  13. Effect of ginger root on cyclooxygenase-1 and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase expression in colonic mucosa of humans at normal and increased risk of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Turgeon, D. Kim; Wright, Benjamin D.; Sidahmed, Elkhansa; Ruffin, Mack T.; Brenner, Dean E.; Sen, Ananda; Zick, Suzanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Elevated tissue levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), produced by cyclooxygenase (COX) are an early event in colorectal cancer (CRC). Data suggest the efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs) drugs, which inhibit COX activity, as cancer preventives; however, side effects of NSAIDs indicate unacceptable limitations. Ginger has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activities with significant CRC preventive potential. We investigated if consumption of 2.0 g ginger daily regulated the level of two key enzymes, which control PGE2 production, COX-1 and NAD+- dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH). Methods Thirty participants at normal and twenty participants at increased risk of CRC were randomized and given 2.0 g/day ginger or placebo for 28 days. Flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to obtain colon biopsies at baseline and end of the study. Tissue level of COX-1 and 15-PGDH were assessed using Western Blotting. Results After ginger consumption participants at increased risk of CRC, had significantly reduced colonic COX-1 protein level (23.8%± 41) compared to the placebo group (18.9%± 52; p=0.03). Protein levels of 15-PGDH in the colon were unchanged. In normal risk for CRC participants, neither protein levels of COX-1 nor 15-PGDH in the colon were altered by ginger consumption. Conclusion Ginger significantly lowered COX-1 protein expression in increased risk participants, but not in normal risk participants at normal for CRC. Ginger did not alter 15-PGDH protein expression in either increased or normal risk participants. Further investigation, in larger studies with a longer ginger intervention is needed to examine the ability of ginger to impact tissue level of prostaglandin. PMID:23222413

  14. Sensitivity of jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) to phosphate, phosphite, and arsenate pulses as influenced by fungal symbiotic associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariman, Khalil; Barker, Susan J; Jost, Ricarda; Finnegan, Patrick M; Tibbett, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Many plant species adapted to P-impoverished soils, including jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata), develop toxicity symptoms when exposed to high doses of phosphate (Pi) and its analogs such as phosphite (Phi) and arsenate (AsV). The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of fungal symbionts Scutellospora calospora, Scleroderma sp., and Austroboletus occidentalis on the response of jarrah to highly toxic pulses (1.5 mmol kg(-1) soil) of Pi, Phi, and AsV. S. calospora formed an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis while both Scleroderma sp. and A. occidentalis established a non-colonizing symbiosis with jarrah plants. All these interactions significantly improved jarrah growth and Pi uptake under P-limiting conditions. The AM fungal colonization naturally declines in AM-eucalypt symbioses after 2-3 months; however, in the present study, the high Pi pulse inhibited the decline of AM fungal colonization in jarrah. Four weeks after exposure to the Pi pulse, plants inoculated with S. calospora had significantly lower toxicity symptoms compared to non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants, and all fungal treatments induced tolerance against Phi toxicity in jarrah. However, no tolerance was observed for AsV-treated plants even though all inoculated plants had significantly lower shoot As concentrations than the NM plants. The transcript profile of five jarrah high-affinity phosphate transporter (PHT1 family) genes in roots was not altered in response to any of the fungal species tested. Interestingly, plants exposed to high Pi supplies for 1 day did not have reduced transcript levels for any of the five PHT1 genes in roots, and transcript abundance of four PHT1 genes actually increased. It is therefore suggested that jarrah, and perhaps other P-sensitive perennial species, respond positively to Pi available in the soil solution through increasing rather than decreasing the expression of selected PHT1 genes. Furthermore, Scleroderma sp. can be considered as a fungus with

  15. Colonization with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Promotes the Growth of Morus alba L. Seedlings under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Morus alba L. is an important tree species planted widely in China because of its economic value. In this report, we investigated the influence of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF species, Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices, alone and together, on the growth of M. alba L. seedlings under greenhouse conditions. The growth parameters and physiological performance of M. alba L. seedlings were evaluated 90 days after colonization with the fungi. The growth and physiological performance of M. alba L. seedlings were significantly affected by the AMF species. The mycorrhizal seedlings were taller, had longer roots, more leaves and a greater biomass than the non-mycorrhizae-treated seedlings. In addition, the AMF species-inoculated seedlings had increased root activity and a higher chlorophyll content compared to non-inoculated seedlings. Furthermore, AMF species colonization increased the phosphorus and nitrogen contents of the seedlings. In addition, simultaneous root colonization by the two AMF species did not improve the growth of M. alba L. seedlings compared with inoculation with either species alone. Based on these results, these AMF species may be applicable to mulberry seedling cultivation.

  16. Endophytic Life Strategies Decoded by Genome and Transcriptome Analyses of the Mutualistic Root Symbiont Piriformospora indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro, Alga; Lahrmann, Urs; Güldener, Ulrich; Langen, Gregor; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Biedenkopf, Dagmar; Wong, Philip; Samans, Birgit; Grimm, Carolin; Basiewicz, Magdalena; Murat, Claude; Martin, Francis; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Recent sequencing projects have provided deep insight into fungal lifestyle-associated genomic adaptations. Here we report on the 25 Mb genome of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica (Sebacinales, Basidiomycota) and provide a global characterization of fungal transcriptional responses associated with the colonization of living and dead barley roots. Extensive comparative analysis of the P. indica genome with other Basidiomycota and Ascomycota fungi that have diverse lifestyle strategies identified features typically associated with both, biotrophism and saprotrophism. The tightly controlled expression of the lifestyle-associated gene sets during the onset of the symbiosis, revealed by microarray analysis, argues for a biphasic root colonization strategy of P. indica. This is supported by a cytological study that shows an early biotrophic growth followed by a cell death-associated phase. About 10% of the fungal genes induced during the biotrophic colonization encoded putative small secreted proteins (SSP), including several lectin-like proteins and members of a P. indica-specific gene family (DELD) with a conserved novel seven-amino acids motif at the C-terminus. Similar to effectors found in other filamentous organisms, the occurrence of the DELDs correlated with the presence of transposable elements in gene-poor repeat-rich regions of the genome. This is the first in depth genomic study describing a mutualistic symbiont with a biphasic lifestyle. Our findings provide a significant advance in understanding development of biotrophic plant symbionts and suggest a series of incremental shifts along the continuum from saprotrophy towards biotrophy in the evolution of mycorrhizal association from decomposer fungi. PMID:22022265

  17. Endophytic life strategies decoded by genome and transcriptome analyses of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro, Alga; Lahrmann, Urs; Güldener, Ulrich; Langen, Gregor; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Biedenkopf, Dagmar; Wong, Philip; Samans, Birgit; Grimm, Carolin; Basiewicz, Magdalena; Murat, Claude; Martin, Francis; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Recent sequencing projects have provided deep insight into fungal lifestyle-associated genomic adaptations. Here we report on the 25 Mb genome of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica (Sebacinales, Basidiomycota) and provide a global characterization of fungal transcriptional responses associated with the colonization of living and dead barley roots. Extensive comparative analysis of the P. indica genome with other Basidiomycota and Ascomycota fungi that have diverse lifestyle strategies identified features typically associated with both, biotrophism and saprotrophism. The tightly controlled expression of the lifestyle-associated gene sets during the onset of the symbiosis, revealed by microarray analysis, argues for a biphasic root colonization strategy of P. indica. This is supported by a cytological study that shows an early biotrophic growth followed by a cell death-associated phase. About 10% of the fungal genes induced during the biotrophic colonization encoded putative small secreted proteins (SSP), including several lectin-like proteins and members of a P. indica-specific gene family (DELD) with a conserved novel seven-amino acids motif at the C-terminus. Similar to effectors found in other filamentous organisms, the occurrence of the DELDs correlated with the presence of transposable elements in gene-poor repeat-rich regions of the genome. This is the first in depth genomic study describing a mutualistic symbiont with a biphasic lifestyle. Our findings provide a significant advance in understanding development of biotrophic plant symbionts and suggest a series of incremental shifts along the continuum from saprotrophy towards biotrophy in the evolution of mycorrhizal association from decomposer fungi.

  18. Endophytic life strategies decoded by genome and transcriptome analyses of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alga Zuccaro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent sequencing projects have provided deep insight into fungal lifestyle-associated genomic adaptations. Here we report on the 25 Mb genome of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica (Sebacinales, Basidiomycota and provide a global characterization of fungal transcriptional responses associated with the colonization of living and dead barley roots. Extensive comparative analysis of the P. indica genome with other Basidiomycota and Ascomycota fungi that have diverse lifestyle strategies identified features typically associated with both, biotrophism and saprotrophism. The tightly controlled expression of the lifestyle-associated gene sets during the onset of the symbiosis, revealed by microarray analysis, argues for a biphasic root colonization strategy of P. indica. This is supported by a cytological study that shows an early biotrophic growth followed by a cell death-associated phase. About 10% of the fungal genes induced during the biotrophic colonization encoded putative small secreted proteins (SSP, including several lectin-like proteins and members of a P. indica-specific gene family (DELD with a conserved novel seven-amino acids motif at the C-terminus. Similar to effectors found in other filamentous organisms, the occurrence of the DELDs correlated with the presence of transposable elements in gene-poor repeat-rich regions of the genome. This is the first in depth genomic study describing a mutualistic symbiont with a biphasic lifestyle. Our findings provide a significant advance in understanding development of biotrophic plant symbionts and suggest a series of incremental shifts along the continuum from saprotrophy towards biotrophy in the evolution of mycorrhizal association from decomposer fungi.

  19. Mycorrhizal Fungal Community of Poplars Growing on Pyrite Tailings Contaminated Site near the River Timok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Katanić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Mycorrhizal fungi are of high importance for functioning of forest ecosystems and they could be used as indicators of environmental stress. The aim of this research was to analyze ectomycorrhizal community structure and to determine root colonization rate with ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi of poplars growing on pyrite tailings contaminated site near the river Timok (Eastern Serbia. Materials and Methods: Identification of ectomycorrhizal types was performed by combining morphological and anatomical characterization of ectomycorrhizae with molecular identification approach, based on sequencing of the nuclear ITS rRNA region. Also, colonization of poplar roots with ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septated endophytic fungi were analysed with intersection method. Results and Conclusions: Physico-chemical analyses of soil from studied site showed unfavourable water properties of soil, relatively low pH and high content of heavy metals (copper and zinc. In investigated samples only four different ectomycorrhizal fungi were found. To the species level were identified Thelephora terrestris and Tomentella ellisi, while two types remained unidentified. Type Thelephora terrestris made up 89% of all ectomycorrhizal roots on studied site. Consequently total values of Species richness index and Shannon-Weaver diversity index were 0.80 and 0.43, respectively. No structures of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were recorded. Unfavourable environmental conditions prevailing on investigated site caused decrease of ectomycorrhizal types diversity. Our findings point out that mycorrhyzal fungal community could be used as an appropriate indicator of environmental changes.

  20. Endophytic fungal communities of Polygonum acuminatum and Aeschynomene fluminensis are influenced by soil mercury contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietro-Souza, William; Mello, Ivani Souza; Vendruscullo, Suzana Junges; Silva, Gilvan Ferreira da; Cunha, Cátia Nunes da; White, James Francis; Soares, Marcos Antônio

    2017-01-01

    The endophytic fungal communities of Polygonum acuminatum and Aeschynomene fluminensis were examined with respect to soil mercury (Hg) contamination. Plants were collected in places with and without Hg+2 for isolation and identification of their endophytic root fungi. We evaluated frequency of colonization, number of isolates and richness, indices of diversity and similarity, functional traits (hydrolytic enzymes, siderophores, indoleacetic acid, antibiosis and metal tolerance) and growth promotion of Aeschynomene fluminensis inoculated with endophytic fungi on soil with mercury. The frequency of colonization, structure and community function, as well as the abundant distribution of taxa of endophytic fungi were influenced by mercury contamination, with higher endophytic fungi in hosts in soil with mercury. The presence or absence of mercury in the soil changes the profile of the functional characteristics of the endophytic fungal community. On the other hand, tolerance of lineages to multiple metals is not associated with contamination. A. fluminensis depends on its endophytic fungi, since plants free of endophytic fungi grew less than expected due to mercury toxicity. In contrast plants containing certain endophytic fungi showed good growth in soil containing mercury, even exceeding growth of plants cultivated in soil without mercury. The data obtained confirm the hypothesis that soil contamination by mercury alters community structure of root endophytic fungi in terms of composition, abundance and species richness. The inoculation of A. fluminensis with certain strains of stress tolerant endophytic fungi contribute to colonization and establishment of the host and may be used in processes that aim to improve phytoremediation of soils with toxic concentrations of mercury.

  1. Production of glucosinolates, phenolic compounds and associated gene expression profiles of hairy root cultures in turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2016-12-01

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) is an important vegetable crop producing glucosinolates (GSLs) and phenolic compounds. The GSLs, phenolic compound contents and transcript levels in hairy root cultures, as well as their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity were studied in turnip. Transgenic hairy root lines were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR. GSLs levels (glucoallysin, glucobrassicanapin, gluconasturtiin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin) and their gene expression levels (BrMYB28, BrMYB29, BrMYB34, BrMYB51, BrMYB122, CYP79 and CYP83) significantly increased in hairy roots compared with that in non-transformed roots. Furthermore, hairy roots efficiently produced several important individual phenolic compounds (flavonols, hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids). Colorimetric analysis revealed that the highest levels of total phenol, flavonoid contents, and their gene expression levels (PAL, CHI and FLS) in hairy roots than non-transformed roots. Our study provides beneficial information on the molecular and physiological active processes that are associated with the phytochemical content and biosynthetic gene expression in turnip. Moreover, antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH scavenging activity, reducing potential, phosphomolybdenum and ferrous ion chelating ability assays was significantly higher in hairy roots. Hairy root extracts exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal species. The extract of hairy roots showed inhibition of human breast and colon cancer cell lines.

  2. Host and Non-Host roots in rice: cellular and molecular approaches reveal differential responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eFiorilli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oryza sativa, a model plant for Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis, has both host and non-host roots. Large lateral (LLR and fine lateral (FLR roots display opposite responses: LLR support AM colonization, but FLR do not. Our research aimed to study the molecular, morphological and physiological aspects related to the non-host behavior of FLR. RNA-seq analysis revealed that LLR and FLR displayed divergent expression profiles, including changes in many metabolic pathways. Compared with LLR, FLR showed down-regulation of genes instrumental for AM establishment and gibberellin signaling, and a higher expression of nutrient transporters. Consistent with the transcriptomic data, FLR had higher phosphorus content. Light and electron microscopy demonstrated that, surprisingly, in the Selenio cultivar, FLR have a two-layered cortex, which is theoretically compatible with AM colonization. According to RNA-seq, a gibberellin inhibitor treatment increased anticlinal divisions leading to a higher number of cortex cells in FLR.We propose that some of the differentially regulated genes that lead to the anatomical and physiological properties of the two root types also function as genetic factors regulating fungal colonization. The rice root apparatus offers a unique tool to study AM symbiosis, allowing direct comparisons of host and non-host roots in the same individual plant.

  3. Independent signalling cues underpin arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and large lateral root induction in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chai Hao; Choi, Jeongmin; Paszkowski, Uta

    2017-11-30

    Perception of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) triggers distinct plant signalling responses for parallel establishment of symbiosis and induction of lateral root formation. Rice receptor kinase CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (CERK1) and α/β-fold hydrolase DWARF14-LIKE (D14L) are involved in pre-symbiotic fungal perception. After 6 wk post-inoculation with Rhizophagus irregularis, root developmental responses, fungal colonization and transcriptional responses were monitored in two independent cerk1 null mutants; a deletion mutant lacking D14L, and with D14L complemented as well as their respective wild-type cultivars (cv Nipponbare and Nihonmasari). Here we show that although essential for symbiosis, D14L is dispensable for AMF-induced root architectural modulation, which conversely relies on CERK1. Our results demonstrate uncoupling of symbiosis and the symbiotic root developmental signalling during pre-symbiosis with CERK1 required for AMF-induced root architectural changes. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. The occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soil and root of medicinal plants in Bu-Ali Sina garden in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Safari Sinegani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study of symbiotic relationship between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and medicinal plants is very important. Information about the symbiosis of medicinal plant species with AMF in the semi-arid regions of Iran is rare. This information allows increasing knowledge of the biology and ecology of these plant species. Materials and methods: The existence of AM symbiosis in 48 medicinal plant species (belonging to 9 families was studied by root staining. Soil around the root of each species was sampled and analyzed for all soil properties which may be interrelated to AM symbiosis. The importance of different soil properties in AMF and plant biological relationship and the dependency of root colonization and spore formation by AMF on soil properties were statistically analyzed. Results: Among them Lepidium sativum, Brassica oleracea, Cheiranthus cheiri, Beta vulgaris, Spinacia oleracea, Malva sylvestris, Zygophyllum fabago, Arctium Lappa have not been colonized by AM fungi. Colonization and spore density of perennial plants were slightly higher than those of annual plants and were varied among different plant families. Soil texture and available phosphorous were the most important soil properties affecting fungal root colonization and spore numbers. Discussion and conclusion: Although in accordance with other researches, most of the medicinal plants from Brassicaceae family had no mycorrhizal symbiosis, a few of them had this type of symbiosis. Dependency of spore formation by AM fungi on soil properties was higher than dependency of root colonization percentage on soil properties. Increasing root colonization and spore numbers with increasing the percentage of sand and decreasing the percentage of clay and available phosphorous in soils show that plants are more depended on mycorrhizal symbiosis in hard environments and less productive soils.

  5. Development of the Poplar-Laccaria bicolor Ectomycorrhiza Modifies Root Auxin Metabolism, Signaling, and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayssières, Alice; Pěnčík, Ales; Felten, Judith; Kohler, Annegret; Ljung, Karin; Martin, Francis; Legué, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    Root systems of host trees are known to establish ectomycorrhizae (ECM) interactions with rhizospheric fungi. This mutualistic association leads to dramatic developmental modifications in root architecture, with the formation of numerous short and swollen lateral roots ensheathed by a fungal mantle. Knowing that auxin plays a crucial role in root development, we investigated how auxin metabolism, signaling, and response are affected in poplar (Populus spp.)-Laccaria bicolor ECM roots. The plant-fungus interaction leads to the arrest of lateral root growth with simultaneous attenuation of the synthetic auxin response element DR5. Measurement of auxin-related metabolites in the free-living partners revealed that the mycelium of L. bicolor produces high concentrations of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Metabolic profiling showed an accumulation of IAA and changes in the indol-3-pyruvic acid-dependent IAA biosynthesis and IAA conjugation and degradation pathways during ECM formation. The global analysis of auxin response gene expression and the regulation of AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX PROTEIN5, AUXIN/IAA, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR expression in ECM roots suggested that symbiosis-dependent auxin signaling is activated during the colonization by L. bicolor. Taking all this evidence into account, we propose a model in which auxin signaling plays a crucial role in the modification of root growth during ECM formation. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Development of the Poplar-Laccaria bicolor Ectomycorrhiza Modifies Root Auxin Metabolism, Signaling, and Response1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayssières, Alice; Pěnčík, Ales; Felten, Judith; Kohler, Annegret; Ljung, Karin; Martin, Francis; Legué, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Root systems of host trees are known to establish ectomycorrhizae (ECM) interactions with rhizospheric fungi. This mutualistic association leads to dramatic developmental modifications in root architecture, with the formation of numerous short and swollen lateral roots ensheathed by a fungal mantle. Knowing that auxin plays a crucial role in root development, we investigated how auxin metabolism, signaling, and response are affected in poplar (Populus spp.)-Laccaria bicolor ECM roots. The plant-fungus interaction leads to the arrest of lateral root growth with simultaneous attenuation of the synthetic auxin response element DR5. Measurement of auxin-related metabolites in the free-living partners revealed that the mycelium of L. bicolor produces high concentrations of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Metabolic profiling showed an accumulation of IAA and changes in the indol-3-pyruvic acid-dependent IAA biosynthesis and IAA conjugation and degradation pathways during ECM formation. The global analysis of auxin response gene expression and the regulation of AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX PROTEIN5, AUXIN/IAA, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR expression in ECM roots suggested that symbiosis-dependent auxin signaling is activated during the colonization by L. bicolor. Taking all this evidence into account, we propose a model in which auxin signaling plays a crucial role in the modification of root growth during ECM formation. PMID:26084921

  7. Real-time PCR and microscopy: are the two methods measuring the same unit of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal abundance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamper, Hannes A; Young, J Peter W; Jones, David L; Hodge, Angela

    2008-05-01

    To enable quantification of mycelial abundance in mixed-species environments, eight new TaqMan((R)) real-time PCR assays were developed for five arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF, Glomeromycota) taxa. The assays targeted genes encoding 18S rRNA or actin, and were tested on DNA from cloned gene fragments, from spores, mycelia, and from root-free soil, and on reverse-transcribed rRNA templates from entire mycelia and from colonized roots. The assays showed high specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility, enabling reliable quantitation over broad ranges of template molecules. From cultured mycelia, DNA and RNA measures both correlated with spore number rather than extraradical hyphal length, and epifluorescence microscopy identified pronounced heterogeneity in vitality and nuclear distribution in hyphae. Root colonization was also spatially heterogeneous, as shown by a mixing experiment with root fragments of different length. Therefore, although real-time PCR can reproducibly and accurately quantify AMF nucleic acids, these are poorly correlated with visual measures because of spatial heterogeneity.

  8. Relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes in driving arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal assemblage during the spreading of a toxic plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guoxi; Liu, Yongjun; Mao, Lin; Jiang, Shengjing; Zhang, Qi; Cheng, Gang; An, Lizhe; Du, Guozhen; Feng, Huyuan

    2014-01-01

    Both deterministic and stochastic processes are expected to drive the assemblages of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, but little is known about the relative importance of these processes during the spreading of toxic plants. Here, the species composition and phylogenetic structure of AM fungal communities colonizing the roots of a toxic plant, Ligularia virgaurea, and its neighborhood plants, were analyzed in patches with different individual densities of L. virgaurea (represents the spreading degree). Community compositions of AM fungi in both root systems were changed significantly by the L. virgaurea spreading, and also these communities fitted the neutral model very well. AM fungal communities in patches with absence and presence of L. virgaurea were phylogenetically random and clustered, respectively, suggesting that the principal ecological process determining AM fungal assemblage shifted from stochastic process to environmental filtering when this toxic plant was present. Our results indicate that deterministic and stochastic processes together determine the assemblage of AM fungi, but the dominant process would be changed by the spreading of toxic plants, and suggest that the spreading of toxic plants in alpine meadow ecosystems might be involving the mycorrhizal symbionts.

  9. Relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes in driving arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal assemblage during the spreading of a toxic plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxi Shi

    Full Text Available Both deterministic and stochastic processes are expected to drive the assemblages of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi, but little is known about the relative importance of these processes during the spreading of toxic plants. Here, the species composition and phylogenetic structure of AM fungal communities colonizing the roots of a toxic plant, Ligularia virgaurea, and its neighborhood plants, were analyzed in patches with different individual densities of L. virgaurea (represents the spreading degree. Community compositions of AM fungi in both root systems were changed significantly by the L. virgaurea spreading, and also these communities fitted the neutral model very well. AM fungal communities in patches with absence and presence of L. virgaurea were phylogenetically random and clustered, respectively, suggesting that the principal ecological process determining AM fungal assemblage shifted from stochastic process to environmental filtering when this toxic plant was present. Our results indicate that deterministic and stochastic processes together determine the assemblage of AM fungi, but the dominant process would be changed by the spreading of toxic plants, and suggest that the spreading of toxic plants in alpine meadow ecosystems might be involving the mycorrhizal symbionts.

  10. Colonização radicular de plantas cultivadas por Ralstonia solanacearum biovares 1, 2 e 3 Root colonization of cultivated plants inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 1, 2 and 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Magno Martins Bringel

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A murcha bacteriana causada por Ralstonia solanacearum é considerada a principal doença de origem bacteriana no mundo. Centenas de espécies de plantas pertencentes a mais de 50 famílias botânicas têm sido relatadas como hospedeiras. Foi avaliada, em condições de casa de vegetação, a colonização radicular de alface, arroz, cebolinha, ervilha, pepino e soja, por seis isolados de Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs, biovares 1, 2 e 3. Estirpes dos isolados de Rs com resistência múltipla aos antibióticos estreptomicina, rifampicina e cloranfenicol foram utilizadas. A colonização foi avaliada 45 dias após a inoculação, através do plaqueamento de suspensão de trituração em meio de cultura semi-seletivo. A ervilha comportou-se como hospedeira de todos os isolados mas, apenas um isolado da biovar 3 foi patogênico a esta espécie. A soja apresentou populações elevadas de quatro isolados distribuídos entre as três biovares e o pepino, de apenas dois isolados das biovares 1 e 3. Exceto para o isolado que foi patogênico à ervilha, as plantas não apresentaram sintomas da doença, comportando-se como hospedeiras não suscetível. O arroz apresentou populações muito baixas de todos os isolados. Alface e cebolinha não hospedaram nenhum dos isolados inoculados. Os resultados mostram a capacidade de Rs colonizar e sobreviver em diferentes espécies de plantas como rizobactérias.Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is considered the main plant disease of bacterial origin in the world, where hundreds of plant species in more than 50 botanical families are host plants. Root colonization of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, rice (Oryza sativa, spring onion (Allium fistulosum, pea (Pisum sativum, cucumber (Cucumis sativus, and soybean (Glycine max by six isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs biovars 1, 2 and 3 was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Bacterial strains resistant to streptomycin, rifampicin and chloranfenicol were used

  11. Fungal activity in Mangalvan: an estuarine mangrove ecosystem

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Prabhakaran, N.; Gupta, R.; Kutty, M.K.

    of the mangrove vegetation by these fungi the detritus load is increased, contributing substantially to the food web of this important estuarine ecosystem. Thirty-one fungal isolates were recorded from the soil and 27 from decaying leaves, stems, roots...

  12. Pilot clinical study of the effects of ginger root extract on eicosanoids in colonic mucosa of subjects at increased risk for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Suzanna M; Turgeon, D Kim; Ren, Jianwei; Ruffin, Mack T; Wright, Benjamin D; Sen, Ananda; Djuric, Zora; Brenner, Dean E

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a significant cause of mortality. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX) and thus prostaglandin E2, are promising CRC preventives, but have significant toxicities. Ginger has been shown to inhibit COX, to decrease the incidence and multiplicity of adenomas, and decrease PGE2 concentrations in subjects at normal risk for CRC. This study was conducted to determine the effects of 2.0 g/d of ginger given orally on the levels of PGE2, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids, and 5-, 12-, & 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, in the colonic mucosa of subjects at increased risk for CRC. We randomized 20 subjects to 2.0 g/d ginger or placebo for 28 d. At baseline and Day 28, a flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to obtain colon biopsies. A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method was used to determine eicosanoid levels in the biopsies, and levels were expressed per amount of protein or free arachidonic acid (AA). There was a significant decrease in AA between baseline and Day 28 (P = 0.05) and significant increase in LTB4 (P = 0.04) when normalized to protein, in subjects treated with ginger versus placebo. No other changes in eicosanoids were observed. There was no difference between the groups in total adverse events (AE; P = 0.06). Ginger lacks the ability to decrease eicosanoid levels in people at increased risk for CRC. Ginger did appear to be both tolerable and safe; and could have chemopreventive effects through other mechanisms. Further investigation should focus on other markers of CRC risk in those at increased CRC risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Exo-metabolome of some fungal isolates growing on cork-based medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreto, M. C.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2011-01-01

    Fungal species colonize the cork slabs during the manufacturing of cork stoppers process. The most important fungal species that colonizes cork slabs immediately after boiling is Chrysonilia sitophila. Other fungal species may germinate replacing the C. sitophila mycelium on the cork slabs when...... are produced by the studied fungal species, both in cork medium or in cork medium added with C. sitophila extracts. However, the addition of C. sitophila extract to the cork medium enhanced the growth of the other studied fungal isolates and altered the respective exo-metabolome profile, leading...... to the assumption that in their natural habitat, the late cork colonizers like Penicillium spp. and Aspergilus spp. could take advantage from an earlier C. sitophila development as a result of its metabolism and/or mycelium remains. Fungal successions may thus not only be a function of time and substrate, but also...

  14. The mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica protects barley roots from a loss of antioxidant capacity caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Fusarium culmorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrach, Borbála D; Baltruschat, Helmut; Barna, Balázs; Fodor, József; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2013-05-01

    Fusarium culmorum causes root rot in barley (Hordeum vulgare), resulting in severely reduced plant growth and yield. Pretreatment of roots with chlamydospores of the mutualistic root-colonizing basidiomycete Piriformospora indica (subdivision Agaricomycotina) prevented necrotization of root tissues and plant growth retardation commonly associated with Fusarium root rot. Quantification of Fusarium infections with a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay revealed a correlation between root rot symptoms and the relative amount of fungal DNA. Fusarium-infected roots showed reduced levels of ascorbate and glutathione (GSH), along with reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, GSH reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase. Consistent with this, Fusarium-infected roots showed elevated levels of lipid hydroperoxides and decreased ratios of reduced to oxidized forms of ascorbate and GSH. In clear contrast, roots treated with P. indica prior to inoculation with F. culmorum showed levels of ascorbate and GSH that were similar to controls. Likewise, lipid peroxidation and the overall reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities were largely attenuated by P. indica in roots challenged by F. culmorum. These results suggest that P. indica protects roots from necrotrophic pathogens, at least partly, through activating the plant's antioxidant capacity.

  15. Lymphocyte depletion after alemtuzumab induction disrupts intestinal fungal microbiota in cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiurong; Wang, Chenyang; Tang, Chun; He, Qin; Li, Jieshou

    2014-11-15

    The interactions of specific fungal phylotypes with immune cells have been recently documented; however, little is known whether gut fungal microbiota is influenced by aberrant immune response in immunosuppressive state. This study aimed to define the biologic impact of lymphocyte depletion on gut fungal microbiota and their relationship. Fifteen male cynomolgus monkeys with CD52 antigen negative on erythrocytes were administered intravenously with a single dose (3.0 mg kg body weight) of alemtuzumab. Depletion and repopulation of circulating and mucosal lymphocytes were determined. The dynamic variations of intestinal fungal microbiota were characterized using 18S ribosomal DNA-based molecular techniques. The fungal microbiota in colonal mucosa was perturbed during lymphocyte depletion, characterized by increased diversity and colonization of Candida albicans, Aspergillus clavatus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The diversity of the fecal fungal population decreased markedly after mucosal lymphocyte depletion, and specific fungal phylotypes, especially Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Botryotinia fuckeliana, were expanded (Pmicrobiota were both recovered. A close association of the community diversity and Candida albicans colonization with T lymphocyte subsets was also identified. Our findings demonstrate that mucosal lymphocyte depletion leads to the dysbiosis of gut fungal microbiota, suggesting its role in maintaining host-fungus homeostasis. The pathophysiologic consequences of this altered fungal colonization might provide novel clues to uncover the underlying mechanism of enteric fungal infection in immunosuppressive therapies.

  16. Reciprocal trade of Carbon and Nitrogen at the root-fungus interface in ectomycorrhizal beech plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Christina; Mayerhofer, Werner; Dietrich, Marlies; Gorka, Stefan; Schintlmeister, Arno; Reipert, Siegfried; Schweiger, Peter; Weidinger, Marieluise; Wiesenbauer, Julia; Martin, Victoria; Richter, Andreas; Woebken, Dagmar

    2017-04-01

    collected mycorrhizal root-tips, the variability of which was seemingly influenced by fungal colonization pattern. Within a cross-section of an individual root-tip, however, NanoSIMS imaging revealed not only a high spatial heterogeneity of 13C and 15N across plant and fungal cells, but also a strong spatial correlation between 13C and 15N in both, plant cells and fungal cells of the Hartig Net, the fungal mantle and external hyphae. Intriguingly, individual 'hotspots' of external fungal hyphae that were highly enriched in 15N (delivering high amounts of the added 15N to the plant), were also always extraordinarily enriched in 13C (receiving more 13C in return). Our results provide first evidence for a reciprocal exchange of C for N between plants and ectomycorrhizal fungi at the subcellular scale. This indicates that a mechanism at the cellular level exists, that (i) either allows plants to direct their C flow into N-delivering parts of the mycorrhizal hyphal network or (ii) allow the fungus to 'draw' more C from the plant (develop a higher sink strength) when it has access to N. While such a mechanism still remains to be elucidated, our study shows, for the first time, direct evidence for its existence.

  17. Microbial biomass in compost during colonization of Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Aurin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413574636; Heijboer, Amber|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370734645; Boschker, Henricus T. S.; Bonnet, Barbara; Lugones, Luis|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/173863949; Wosten, Han|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/120693186

    2017-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus mushrooms are commercially produced on a microbe rich compost. Here, fungal and bacterial biomass was quantified in compost with and without colonization by A. bisporus. Chitin content, indicative of total fungal biomass, increased during a 26-day period from 576 to 779 nmol

  18. Microbial biomass in compost during colonization of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, Aurin M.; Heijboer, Amber; Boschker, Henricus T. S.; Bonnet, Barbara; Luis G Lugones; W?sten, Han A. B.

    2017-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus mushrooms are commercially produced on a microbe rich compost. Here, fungal and bacterial biomass was quantified in compost with and without colonization by A. bisporus. Chitin content, indicative of total fungal biomass, increased during a 26-day period from 576 to 779?nmol N-acetylglucosamine?g?1 compost in the absence of A. bisporus (negative control). A similar increase was found in the presence of this mushroom forming fungus. The fungal phospholipid-derived fatty acid ...

  19. Colonic angiodysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, C.; Legmann, P.; Garnier, T.; Levesque, M.; Favriel, J.M.

    1984-11-01

    The main clinical, endoscopic and radiographic findings in thirty documented cases of colonic angiodysplasia or vacular ectasia are described. We emphasise the association with colonic diverticulosis and cardiovascular pathology, describe the histological changes, summarize the present physiopathological hypothesis, and consider the various therapeutic approaches.

  20. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi are common root associates of a Mediterranean ectomycorrhizal plant (Quercus ilex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergero, R; Perotto, S; Girlanda, M; Vidano, G; Luppi, A M

    2000-10-01

    Mycorrhiza samples of neighbouring Quercus ilex and Erica arborea plants collected in a postcutting habitat were processed to see whether plants differing in mycorrhizal status harbour the same root endophytes. Three experiments were performed in parallel: (i) isolation, identification and molecular characterization of fungi from surface-sterilized roots of both plant species; (ii) re-inoculation of fungal isolates on axenic E. arborea and Q. ilex seedlings; (iii) direct inoculation of field-collected Q. ilex ectomycorrhizas onto E. arborea seedlings. About 70 and 150 fungal isolates were obtained from roots of Q. ilex and E. arborea, respectively. Among them, Oidiodendron species and five cultural morphotypes of sterile isolates formed typical ericoid mycorrhizas on E. arborea in vitro. Fungi with such mycorrhizal ability were derived from both host plants. Isolates belonging to one of these morphotypes (sd9) also exhibited an unusual pattern of colonization, with an additional extracellular hyphal net. Ericoid mycorrhizas were also readily obtained by direct inoculation of E. arborea seedlings with Q. ilex ectomycorrhizal tips. Polymerase chain-restriction fragment length polymorphism and random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses of the shared sterile morphotypes demonstrate, in the case of sd9, the occurrence of the same genet on the two host plants. These results indicate that ericoid mycorrhizal fungi associate with ectomycorrhizal roots, and the ecological significance of this finding is discussed.

  1. Impact of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus versus a mixed microbial inoculum on the transcriptome reprogramming of grapevine roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Salvioli, Alessandra; Dal Molin, Alessandra; Novero, Mara; Gabelli, Giovanni; Paparelli, Eleonora; Marroni, Fabio; Bonfante, Paola

    2017-07-01

    Grapevine, cultivated for both fruit and beverage production, represents one of the most economically important fruit crops worldwide. With the aim of better understanding how grape roots respond to beneficial microbes, a transcriptome sequencing experiment has been performed to evaluate the impact of a single arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal species (Funneliformis mosseae) versus a mixed inoculum containing a bacterial and fungal consortium, including different AM species, on Richter 110 rootstock. Results showed that the impact of a single AM fungus and of a complex microbial inoculum on the grapevine transcriptome differed. After 3 months, roots exclusively were colonized after the F. mosseae treatment and several AM marker genes were found to be upregulated. The mixed inoculum led only to traces of colonization by AM fungi, but elicited an important transcriptional regulation. Additionally, the expression of genes belonging to categories such as nutrient transport, transcription factors, and cell wall-related genes was significantly altered in both treatments, but the exact genes affected differed in the two conditions. These findings advance our understanding about the impact of soil beneficial microbes on the root system of a woody plant, also offering the basis for novel approaches in grapevine cultivation.

  2. An L-system model for root system mycorrhization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Schweiger, Peter; Jansa, Jan; Leitner, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Mineral phosphate fertilisers are a non-renewable resource; rock phosphate reserves are estimated to be depleted in 50 to 100 years. In order to prevent a severe phosphate crisis in the 21st century, there is a need to decrease agricultural inputs such as P fertilisers by making use of plant mechanisms that increase P acquisition efficiency. Most plants establish mycorrhizal symbiosis as an adaptation to increase/economize their P acquisition from the soil. However, there is a great functional diversity in P acquisition mechanisms among different fungal species that colonize the roots (Thonar et al. 2011), and the composition of mycorrhizal community is known to depend strongly on agricultural management practices. Thus, the agroecosystem management may substantially affect the mycorrhizal functioning and also the use of P fertilizers. To date, it is still difficult to quantify the potential input savings for the agricultural crops through manipulation of their symbiotic microbiome, mainly due to lack of mechanistic understanding of P uptake dynamics by the fungal hyphae. In a first attempt, Schnepf et al. (2008b) have used mathematical modelling to show on the single root scale how different fungal growth pattern influence root P uptake. However, their approach was limited by the fact that it was restricted to the scale of a single root. The goal of this work is to advance the dynamic, three-dimensional root architecture model of Leitner et al. (2010) to include root system infection with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and growth of external mycelium. The root system infection model assumes that there is an average probability of infection (primary infection), that the probability of infection of a new root segment immediately adjacent to an existing infection is much higher than the average (secondary infection), that infected root segments have entry points that are the link between internal and external mycelium, that only uninfected root segments are susceptible

  3. Development of a high-efficient transformation system of Bacillus pumilus strain DX01 to facilitate gene isolation via gfp-tagged insertional mutagenesis and visualize bacterial colonization of rice roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinqian; Chen, Yunpeng; Liu, Tong; Hu, Xiaolu; Gu, Zhenfang

    2013-09-01

    A Tn5 transposition vector, pMOD-tet-egfp, was constructed and used for the random insertional mutagenesis of Bacillus pumilus. Various parameters were investigated to increase the transformation efficiency B. pumilus DX01 via Tn5 transposition complexes (transposome): bacterial growth phase, type of electroporation buffer, electric field strength, and recovery medium. Transformation efficiency was up to 3 × 10(4) transformants/μg of DNA under the optimized electroporation conditions, and a total of 1,467 gfp-tagged transformants were obtained. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis showed that all gfp-tagged bacterial cells expressed GFP, indicating that foreign DNA has been successfully integrated into the genome of B. pumilus and expressed. Finally, flanking DNA sequences were isolated from several transformants and colonization of rice roots by B. pumilus DX01 was also studied. The method developed here will be useful for creating an insertion mutant library of gram-positive bacteria, thus facilitating their molecular genetic and cytological studies.

  4. Enzymes and fungal virulence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may be common across a variety of fungal pathogens. Most fungal pathogens and ... Fungi utilize the food substances in their immediate vicinity to .... digestion of the fungal secreted enzymes thereby denying access to the host cell. For a pathogen to be successful, it mttst be able to circumvent or overcome these antifungal ...

  5. Understanding colonization and proliferation potential of endophytes and pathogen in planta via plating, polymerase chain reaction, and ergosterol assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiing Yng Chow

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish the colonization behavior and proliferation potential of three endophytes and one pathogen Ganoderma boninense (Gb introduced into oil palm ramets (host model. The endophytes selected were Diaporthe phaseolorum (WAA02, Trichoderma asperellum (T2, and Penicillium citrinum (BTF08. Ramets were first inoculated with 100 mL of fungal cells (106 cfu mL−1 via soil drenching. For the next 7 days, ramets were sampled and subjected to three different assays to detect and identify fungal colonization, and establish their proliferation potential in planta. Plate assay revealed the presence of endophytes in root, stem and leaf tissues within 7 days after inoculation. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR detected and identified the isolates from the plant tissues. The ergosterol assay (via high-performance liquid chromatography, HPLC confirmed the presence of endophytes and Gb in planta. The increase in ergosterol levels throughout 49 days was however insignificant, suggesting that proliferation may be absent or may occur very slowly in planta. This study strongly suggests that the selected endophytes could colonize the host upon inoculation, but proliferation occurs at a slower rate, which may subsequently influence the biocontrol expression of endophytes against the pathogen.

  6. Factors affecting "in vitro" plant development and root colonization of sweet potato by Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd Fatores que afetam o desenvolvimento da planta e a colonização radicular "in vitro", da batata doce por Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Bressan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients media (Murashige & Skoog, Hoagland & Arnon and White's media supplemented or not with sucrose and substrates (vermiculite, agar and natrosol were tested for their effects on plant development and root colonization of micropropagated sweet potato, cv. White Star, by Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann (isolate INVAM FL S329. Addition of sucrose (3% did not affect plant development. However, hyphal growth and root colonization were depressed. Contrasting responses to media nutrient concentration were observed for plant height, root colonization, and hyphal growth. The highest concentration of nutrients in Murashige & Skoog medium improved plant development, but this medium decreased hypha growth and inhibited root colonization. Plants growing in vermiculite substrate had higher (p£0.05 development and mycorrhizal root colonization than those growing in agar or natrosol. The results indicate that colonization of micropropagated sweet potato by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is affected by media composition and type of substrate.Os meios de Murashige e Skoog, Hoagland, Arnon e White, suplementados ou não com sacorose, e tendo como substratos vermiculita, ágar ou natrosol foram utilizados para avaliar seus efeitos sobre o desenvolvimento da batata doce, c.v. White Star, e sua colonização por Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd. (isolado INVAM FL S329. A adição de sacorose (3% ao meio não afetou o desenvolvimento da planta, porém reduziu o crescimento das hifas de G. etunicatum e a colonização das raízes. A concentração de nutrientes dos meios utilizados mostrou efeitos contrastantes entre altura da planta, crescimento das hifas e colonização das raízes por G. etunicatum. A alta concentração de nutrientes no meio Murashige e Skoog estimulou o crescimento das plantas, reduziu o desenvolvimento das hifas e inibiu a colonização das raízes pelo fungo micorrízico. Plantas desenvolvidas em vermiculita mostraram maior

  7. Comparative response of six grapevine rootstocks to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi based on root traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogiatzis, Antreas; Bowen, Pat; Hart, Miranda; Holland, Taylor; Klironomos, John

    2017-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis has been proven to be essential in grapevines, sustaining plant growth especially under abiotic and biotic stressors. The mycorrhizal growth response of young grapevines varies among rootstock cultivars and the underlying mechanisms involved in this variation are unknown. We predicted that this variation in mycorrhizal response may be explained by differences in root traits among rootstocks. We analyzed the entire root system of six greenhouse-grown rootstocks (Salt Creek, 3309 Couderc, Riparia Gloire, 101-14 Millardet et de Grasset, Swarzmann, Teleki 5C), with and without AM fungal inoculation (Rhizophagus irregularis) and characterized their morphological and architectural responses. Twenty weeks after the inoculation, aboveground growth was enhanced by AM colonization. The rootstock varieties were distinctly different in their response to AM fungi, with Salt Creek receiving the highest growth benefit, while Schwarzmann and 5C Teleki receiving the lowest. Plant responsiveness to AM fungi was negatively correlated with branching intensity (fine roots per root length). Furthermore, there was evidence that mycorrhizas can influence the expression of root traits, inducing a higher branching intensity and a lower root to shoot ratio. The results of this study will help to elucidate how interactions between grapevine rootstocks and AM fungi may benefit the establishment of new vineyards.

  8. Epidemiology of fungal infections and risk factors in newborn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Manzoni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of fungal infections among newborn babies is increasing, owing mainly to the in­creased ability to care and make survive immature infants at higher specific risk for fungal infections. The risk is higher in infants with very low and extremely low birth weight, in babies receiving total parenteral nutrition, in neonates with limited barrier effect in the gut, or with central venous catheter or other devices where fungal biofilms can originate. Also neonates receiving broad spectrum antibiotics, born through caesarian section or non-breastfed can feature an increased, specific risk. Most fungal infections in neonatology occur in premature children, are of nosocomial origin, and are due to Candida species. Colonization is a preliminary step, and some factors must be considered for the diagnosis and grading process: the iso­lation site, the number of colonized sites, the intensity of colonization, and the Candida subspecies. The most complicated patients are at greater risk of fungal infections, and prophylaxis or pre-emptive therapy should often be considered. A consistent decisional tree in neonatology is yet to be defined, but some efforts have been made in order to identify characteristics that should guide the prophylaxis or treatment choices. A negative blood culture and the absence of symptoms aren’t enough to rule out the diagnosis of fungal infections in newborn babies. Similarly, laboratory tests have been validated only for adults. The clinical judgement is of utmost importance in the diagnostic process, and should take into account the presence of clinical signs of infection, of a severe clinical deterioration, as well as changes in some laboratory tests, and also the presence and characteristics of a pre-existing fungal colonization.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v14i1S.856

  9. [Anatomical study of pelvic colon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Y E; Tchangai, B; Kassegne, I; Keke, K; James, K D

    2016-12-01

    Identifying the different kinds of anatomical sigmoid colon in our environment and determine what exposes the most to the occurrence of pelvic colon volvulus. This is a transverse prospective study from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2012 on a series of 63 patients (33 men and 30 women) who underwent laparotomy for non-colonic pathologies. For all patients, the following parameters were recorded: C1: total length of the pelvic colon; C2: the length of the root of the meso-sigmoid; C3: the height of the meso-sigmoid; C4: maximum width of the meso-sigmoid. C1 through the entire series was 61,3cm. C2 average was 5.5cm. C3 height and maximum width C4 were on average 14,6cm and 7.6cm, respectively. Comparison of parameters in men and women showed no significant difference. This study allows us to know the different types of pelvic colons among the population of our operated patients. The measurements performed on the pelvic colon of patients presenting volvulus will help to attribute objectively the true authorship of this surgical emergency to an anatomical type of pelvic colon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolic and transcriptional response of central metabolism affected by root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica under salinity in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Mohammad Reza; Ghabooli, Mehdi; Khatabi, Behnam; Hajirezaei, Mohammad Reza; Schweizer, Patrick; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2016-04-01

    The root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica enhances plant adaptation to environmental stress based on general and non-specific plant species mechanisms. In the present study, we integrated the ionomics, metabolomics, and transcriptomics data to identify the genes and metabolic regulatory networks conferring salt tolerance in P. indica-colonized barley plants. To this end, leaf samples were harvested at control (0 mM NaCl) and severe salt stress (300 mM NaCl) in P. indica-colonized and non-inoculated barley plants 4 weeks after fungal inoculation. The metabolome analysis resulted in an identification of a signature containing 14 metabolites and ions conferring tolerance to salt stress. Gene expression analysis has led to the identification of 254 differentially expressed genes at 0 mM NaCl and 391 genes at 300 mM NaCl in P. indica-colonized compared to non-inoculated samples. The integration of metabolome and transcriptome analysis indicated that the major and minor carbohydrate metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and ethylene biosynthesis pathway might play a role in systemic salt-tolerance in leaf tissue induced by the root-colonized fungus.

  11. Triggers for driving treatment of at-risk patients with invasive fungal disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drgona, L.; Colita, A.; Klimko, N.; Rahav, G.; Ozcan, M.A.; Donnelly, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Timing of treatment for invasive fungal disease (IFD) is critical for making appropriate clinical decisions. Historically, many centres have treated at-risk patients prior to disease detection to try to prevent fungal colonization or in response to antibiotic-resistant fever. Many studies have

  12. Effect of poplar genotypes on mycorrhizal infection and secreted enzyme activities in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courty, P. E.; Labbé, J.; Kohler, A.; Marçais, B.; Bastien, C.; Churin, J. L.; Garbaye, J.; Le Tacon, F.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of ectomycorrhiza formation on the secretion of exoenzymes by the host plant and the symbiont is unknown. Thirty-eight F1 individuals from an interspecific Populus deltoides (Bartr.)×Populus trichocarpa (Torr. & A. Gray) controlled cross were inoculated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor. The colonization of poplar roots by L. bicolor dramatically modified their ability to secrete enzymes involved in organic matter breakdown or organic phosphorus mobilization, such as N-acetylglucosaminidase, β-glucuronidase, cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, β-xylosidase, laccase, and acid phosphatase. The expression of genes coding for laccase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, and acid phosphatase was studied in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal root tips. Depending on the genes, their expression was regulated upon symbiosis development. Moreover, it appears that poplar laccases or phosphatases contribute poorly to ectomycorrhiza metabolic activity. Enzymes secreted by poplar roots were added to or substituted by enzymes secreted by L. bicolor. The enzymatic activities expressed in mycorrhizal roots differed significantly between the two parents, while it did not differ in non-mycorrhizal roots. Significant differences were found between poplar genotypes for all enzymatic activities measured on ectomycorrhizas except for laccases activity. In contrast, no significant differences were found between poplar genotypes for enzymatic activities of non-mycorrhizal root tips except for acid phosphatase activity. The level of enzymes secreted by the ectomycorrhizal root tips is under the genetic control of the host. Moreover, poplar heterosis was expressed through the enzymatic activities of the fungal partner. PMID:20881013

  13. Order of arrival structures arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, G.D.A.; Kiers, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    Priority effects - the impact of a species' arrival on subsequent community development - have been shown to influence species composition in many organisms. Whether priority effects among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) structure fungal root communities is not well understood. Here, we

  14. Highlights in pathogenic fungal biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, Janaina De Cássia Orlandi; Pitangui, Nayla De Souza; Rodríguez-Arellanes, Gabriela; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of fungi have demonstrated the ability to colonize surfaces and form biofilms. Most studies on fungal biofilms have focused on Candida albicans and more recently, several authors have reported the involvement of other genera of yeasts and Candida species, as well as of filamentous fungi in the formation of biofilms, including: Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus gattii, Rhodotorula species, Aspergillus fumigatus, Malassezia pachydermatis, Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Pneumocystis species, Coccidioides immitis, Fusarium species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichosporon asahii, Mucorales and Blastoschizomyces. There is a current interest in describing the particular characteristics of the biofilm formation by of these fungi. A major concern is the control of biofilms, requiring knowledge of the biofilm mechanisms. However, our knowledge of these microbial communities is limited, due to the complexity of these systems and metabolic interactions that remain unknown. This mini-review aims to highlight recently discovered fungal biofilms and to compare them with the current knowledge on biofilms. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid change of AM fungal community in a rain-fed wheat field with short-term plastic film mulching practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjun; Mao, Lin; He, Xinhua; Cheng, Gang; Ma, Xiaojun; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan

    2012-01-01

    Plastic film mulching (PFM) is a widely used agricultural practice in the temperate semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. However, how beneficial soil microbes, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in particular, respond to the PFM practice is not known. Here, a field experiment was performed to study the effects of a 3-month short-term PFM practice on AM fungi in plots planted with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Dingxi-2) in the Loess Plateau. AM colonization, spore density, wheat spike weight, and grain phosphorus (P) content were significantly increased in the PFM treatments, and these changes were mainly attributable to changes in soil properties such as available P and soil moisture. Alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher in PFM soils, but levels of AM fungal-related glomalin were similar between treatments. A total of nine AM fungal phylotypes were detected in root samples based on AM fungal SSU rDNA analyses, with six and five phylotypes in PFM and no-PFM plots, respectively. Although AM fungal phylotype richness was not statistically different between treatments, the community compositions were different, with four and three specific phylotypes in the PFM and no-PFM plots, respectively. A significant and rapid change in AM fungal, wheat, and soil variables following PFM suggested that the functioning of the AM symbiosis had been changed in the wheat field under PFM. Future studies are needed to investigate whether PFM applied over a longer term has a similar effect on the AM fungal community and their functioning in an agricultural ecosystem.

  16. RbohB, a Phaseolus vulgaris NADPH oxidase gene, enhances symbiosome number, bacteroid size, and nitrogen fixation in nodules and impairs mycorrhizal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Nava, Noreide; Santana, Olivia; Cárdenas, Luis; Quinto, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by respiratory burst oxidative homologs (Rbohs) are involved in numerous plant cell signaling processes, and have critical roles in the symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Previously, down-regulation of RbohB in Phaseolus vulgaris was shown to suppress ROS production and abolish Rhizobium infection thread (IT) progression, but also to enhance arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonization. Thus, Rbohs function both as positive and negative regulators. Here, we assessed the effect of enhancing ROS concentrations, by overexpressing PvRbohB, on the P. vulgaris--rhizobia and P. vulgaris--AMF symbioses. We estimated superoxide concentrations in hairy roots overexpressing PvRbohB, determined the status of early and late events of both Rhizobium and AMF interactions in symbiont-inoculated roots, and analyzed the nodule ultrastructure of transgenic plants overexpressing PvRbohB. Overexpression of PvRbohB significantly enhanced ROS production, the formation of ITs, nodule biomass, and nitrogen-fixing activity, and increased the density of symbiosomes in nodules, and the density and size of bacteroides in symbiosomes. Furthermore, PvCAT, early nodulin, PvSS1, and PvGOGAT transcript abundances were elevated in these nodules. By contrast, mycorrhizal colonization was reduced in roots that overexpressed RbohB. Overexpression of PvRbohB augmented nodule efficiency by enhancing nitrogen fixation and delaying nodule senescence, but impaired AMF colonization. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  18. Fungal pulmonary complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, S F; Sarosi, G A

    1996-12-01

    With AIDS has come a new level of T-cell immunosuppression, beyond that previously seen. The impact of the HIV pandemic on the field of fungal infections includes a major increase in the number of serious fungal infections, an increase in the severity of those infections, and even some entirely new manifestations of fungal illness. In this article fungal pulmonary complications of AIDS are discussed. T-cell opportunists including Cryptococcus neoformans and the endemic mycoses are the most important pathogens. Phagocyte opportunists, including Aspergillus species and agents of mucormycosis, are less important.

  19. Fungal production of volatiles during growth on fiberglass.

    OpenAIRE

    Ezeonu, I M; D. L. Price; Simmons, R B; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    1994-01-01

    Acoustic and thermal fiberglass insulation materials used in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems were colonized with fungi in laboratory chambers. The mixed fungal population, principally Aspergillus versicolor, Acremonium obclavatum, and Cladosporium herbarum, produced odoriferous volatiles, including 2-ethyl hexanol, cyclohexane, and benzene. These volatiles may be related to poor indoor air quality and the sick building syndrome.

  20. Systemic and local regulation of phosphate and nitrogen transporter genes by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianfeng; Tian, Hui; Drijber, Rhae A; Gao, Yajun

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have reported that the expression of phosphate (Pi) or nitrogen (N) transporter genes in roots of plants could be regulated by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, but little is known whether the regulation is systemic or not. The present study investigated the systemic and local regulation of multiple phosphate and nitrogen transporter genes by four AM fungal species belonging to four genera in the roots of winter wheat. A split-root culture system with AM inoculated (MR) and non-inoculated root compartments (NR) was used to investigate the systemic or local responses of phosphate and nitrogen transporter genes to colonization by four AM fungi in the roots of wheat. The expression of four Pi transporter, five nitrate transporter, and three ammonium transporter genes was quantified using real-time PCR. Of the four AM fungi tested, all locally increased expression of the AM-inducible Pi transporter genes, and most locally decreased expression of a Pi-starvation inducible Pi transporter gene. The addition of N in soil increased the expression of either Pi starvation inducible Pi transporters or AM inducible Pi transporters. Inoculation with AM fungi either had no effect, or could locally or systemically down-regulate expression of nitrogen transporter genes depending on gene type and AM fungal species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of PAHs on the development of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, G. Intraradices, on the colonization of chicory and carrot grown in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdin, A.; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, A.; Fontaine, J.; Grandmougin-Ferjani, A.; Durand, R. [Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Lab. de Mycologie/Phytopathologie/Environnement, 62 - Calais (France)

    2005-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and persistent pollutants found in many environments as result of the incomplete combustion of organic matter, and some of them are of great environmental concern due to their highly cytotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic properties for mammals. PAHs are thermodynamically stable and recalcitrant to microbial degradation, due to their aromatic nature and low aqueous solubility. Ecologically and economically speaking, plants have tremendous potential for bio-remediation of PAH-contaminated soils. The effect of plant roots on the dissipation of organic pollutants has mainly been attributed to an increase in microbial population and selection of specialized microbial communities in the rhizosphere, and also by improving physical and chemical soil conditions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi living in symbiosis with plant roots play an essential role in plant nutrition and stress tolerance. AM plants are known to be involved in the biodegradation of pollutants such as PAHs. The role of AM fungi concerns two aspects: the improvement of the establishment and development of plants on polluted soil and the enhancement of PAHs degradation levels. AM colonization of different plant species is negatively affected when the plants are grown in contaminated soils. Nevertheless the AM colonization was shown to enhance plant survival and growth. Objectives of this work was to study the impact of PAHs on the development of G. intraradices and on the colonization of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Monoxenous root cultures have obvious advantages over traditional systems. This technique provides unique visualization of extra-radical fungus development and also allows an important production of extra-radical hyphae, spores and colonized roots free of any other microorganisms. These aspects are important to evaluate direct impact of PAHs on AM fungal

  2. In Winter Wheat, No-Till Increases Mycorrhizal Colonization thus Reducing the Need for Nitrogen Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Verzeaux

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF play a major role in the uptake of nutrients by agricultural plants. Nevertheless, some agricultural practices can interrupt fungal-plant signaling and thus impede the establishment of the mycorrhizal symbiosis. A field experiment performed over a 5-year period demonstrated that both the absence of tillage and of nitrogen (N fertilization improved AMF colonization of wheat roots. Moreover, under no-till conditions, N uptake and aboveground biomass production did not vary significantly between N-fertilized and N-unfertilized plots. In contrast, both N uptake and above ground biomass were much lower when N fertilizer was not added during conventional tillage. This finding strongly suggests that for wheat, no-till farming is a sustainable agricultural system that allows a gradual reduction in N fertilizer use by promoting AMF functionality and at the same time increasing N uptake.

  3. A systematic review of oral fungal infections in patients receiving cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latortue, Marie C.; Hong, Catherine H.; Ariyawardana, Anura; D’Amato-Palumbo, Sandra; Fischer, Dena J.; Martof, Andrew; Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Patton, Lauren L.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Brennan, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this systematic review were to determine, in patients receiving cancer therapy, the prevalence of clinical oral fungal infection and fungal colonization, to determine the impact on quality of life and cost of care, and to review current management strategies for oral fungal infections. Methods Thirty-nine articles that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria were independently reviewed by two calibrated reviewers, each using a standard form. Information was extracted on a number of variables, including study design, study population, sample size, interventions, blinding, outcome measures, methods, results, and conclusions for each article. Areas of discrepancy between the two reviews were resolved by consensus. Studies were weighted as to the quality of the study design, and recommendations were based on the relative strength of each paper. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the weighted prevalence of clinical oral fungal infection and fungal colonization. Results For all cancer treatments, the weighted prevalence of clinical oral fungal infection was found to be 7.5% pretreatment, 39.1% during treatment, and 32.6% after the end of cancer therapy. Head and neck radiotherapy and chemotherapy were each independently associated with a significantly increased risk for oral fungal infection. For all cancer treatments, the prevalence of oral colonization with fungal organisms was 48.2% before treatment, 72.2% during treatment, and 70.1% after treatment. The prophylactic use of fluconazole during cancer therapy resulted in a prevalence of clinical fungal infection of 1.9%. No information specific to oral fungal infections was found on quality of life or cost of care. Conclusions There is an increased risk of clinically significant oral fungal infection during cancer therapy. Systemic antifungals are effective in the prevention of clinical oral fungal infection in patients receiving cancer therapy. Currently available topical antifungal

  4. Plant and fungal biodiversity from metal mine wastes under remediation at Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Larrocea, Maria del Pilar [Departamento de Edafologia, Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) (Mexico); Xoconostle-Cazares, Beatriz [Departamento de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. IPN 2508, Zacatenco 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E. [Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigacion para el Desarrollo Integral Regional (CIIDIR)-Instituto Politecnico Nacional - Unidad Sinaloa, Blvd. Juan de Dios Batiz Paredes No. 250, Guasave, Sinaloa 81101 (Mexico); Carrillo-Gonzalez, Rogelio [Programa de Edafologia, Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agricolas, Campus Montecillo, Carretera Mexico-Texcoco, km 36.5, Texcoco, Estado de Mexico 56230 (Mexico); Hernandez-Hernandez, Jani [Departamento de Edafologia, Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) (Mexico); Garduno, Margarita Diaz [Universidad Autonoma Chapingo, Carretera Mexico-Texcoco, km 38.5, Chapingo, Estado de Mexico 56230 (Mexico); Lopez-Meyer, Melina [Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigacion para el Desarrollo Integral Regional (CIIDIR)-Instituto Politecnico Nacional - Unidad Sinaloa, Blvd. Juan de Dios Batiz Paredes No. 250, Guasave, Sinaloa 81101 (Mexico); Gomez-Flores, Lydia [Departamento de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. IPN 2508, Zacatenco 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Chavez, Ma. del Carmen A., E-mail: carmeng@colpos.m [Programa de Edafologia, Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agricolas, Campus Montecillo, Carretera Mexico-Texcoco, km 36.5, Texcoco, Estado de Mexico 56230 (Mexico)

    2010-05-15

    Plant establishment, presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and other rhizospheric fungi were studied in mine wastes from Zimapan, Hidalgo state, Mexico, using a holistic approach. Two long-term afforested and three non-afforested mine tailings were included in this research. Fifty-six plant species belonging to 29 families were successfully established on the afforested sites, while unmanaged tailings had only a few native plant species colonizing the surrounding soils. Almost all plant roots collected were associated to AMF in these sites. The genus Glomus was the most abundant AMF species found in their rhizosphere; however, the Acaulospora genus was also observed. Other rhizospheric fungi were identified by 18S rDNA sequencing analysis. Their role in these substrates, i.e. biocontrol, pollutant- and organic matter-degradation, and aides that increase plant metal tolerance is discussed. Our results advance the understanding of fungal diversity in sites polluted with metals and present alternative plants for remediation use. - Rhizospheric fungi and organic matter encourage plant vegetation of tailings by pioneers and colonizing species.

  5. Enhanced hyphal growth of arbuscular mycorrhizae by root exudates derived from high R/FR treated Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Maki; Yamamoto, Naoya; Miyamoto, Taro; Shimomura, Aya; Arima, Susumu; Hirsch, Ann M; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2016-06-02

    Red/Far Red (R/FR) sensing positively influences the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis of both legume and nonlegume plants through jasmonic acid (JA) and strigolactone signaling. We previously reported that root exudates obtained from high R/FR-grown plants contained more strigolactone than low R/FR-grown plants. To determine whether JA and JA derivatives were secreted from roots, we investigated the expression levels of JA-responsive genes in L. japonicus Miyakojima MG20 plants treated with root exudates prepared from either high or low R/FR light-treated plants. The root exudates from high R/FR light-treated plants were found to enhance the expression levels of JA-responsive genes significantly. Moreover, exogenous JA increased AM fungal hyphal elongation as did the root exudates derived from high R/FR-grown L. japonicus plants. We conclude that increased JA accumulation and secretion into root exudates from high R/FR light-grown plants is the best explanation for increased colonization and enhanced mycorrhization under these conditions.

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization alters subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in Medicago sativa L. and resists cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanpeng; Huang, Jing; Gao, Yanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Some plants can tolerate and even detoxify soils contaminated with heavy metals. This detoxification ability may depend on what chemical forms of metals are taken up by plants and how the plants distribute the toxins in their tissues. This, in turn, may have an important impact on phytoremediation. We investigated the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus intraradices, on the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium (Cd) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) that were grown in Cd-added soils. The fungus significantly colonized alfalfa roots by day 25 after planting. Colonization of alfalfa by G. intraradices in soils contaminated with Cd ranged from 17% to 69% after 25-60 days and then decreased to 43%. The biomass of plant shoots with AM fungi showed significant 1.7-fold increases compared to no AM fungi addition under the treatment of 20 mg kg(-1) Cd. Concentrations of Cd in the shoots of alfalfa under 0.5, 5, and 20 mgkg(-1) Cd without AM fungal inoculation are 1.87, 2.92, and 2.38 times higher, respectively, than those of fungi-inoculated plants. Fungal inoculation increased Cd (37.2-80.5%) in the cell walls of roots and shoots and decreased in membranes after 80 days of incubation compared to untreated plants. The proportion of the inactive forms of Cd in roots was higher in fungi-treated plants than in controls. Furthermore, although fungi-treated plants had less overall Cd in subcellular fragments in shoots, they had more inactive Cd in shoots than did control plants. These results provide a basis for further research on plant-microbe symbioses in soils contaminated with heavy metals, which may potentially help us develop management regimes for phytoremediation.

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce growth and infect roots of the non-host plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Rita S L; Faccio, Antonella; Genre, Andrea; Pieterse, Corné M J; Bonfante, Paola; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

    2013-11-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is widespread throughout the plant kingdom and important for plant nutrition and ecosystem functioning. Nonetheless, most terrestrial ecosystems also contain a considerable number of non-mycorrhizal plants. The interaction of such non-host plants with AM fungi (AMF) is still poorly understood. Here, in three complementary experiments, we investigated whether the non-mycorrhizal plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the model organism for plant molecular biology and genetics, interacts with AMF. We grew A. thaliana alone or together with a mycorrhizal host species (either Trifolium pratense or Lolium multiflorum) in the presence or absence of the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis. Plants were grown in a dual-compartment system with a hyphal mesh separating roots of A. thaliana from roots of the host species, avoiding direct root competition. The host plants in the system ensured the presence of an active AM fungal network. AM fungal networks caused growth depressions in A. thaliana of more than 50% which were not observed in the absence of host plants. Microscopy analyses revealed that R. irregularis supported by a host plant was capable of infecting A. thaliana root tissues (up to 43% of root length colonized), but no arbuscules were observed. The results reveal high susceptibility of A. thaliana to R. irregularis, suggesting that A. thaliana is a suitable model plant to study non-host/AMF interactions and the biological basis of AM incompatibility. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A fungal conserved gene from the basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum is essential for efficient ectomycorrhiza formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, Jeanne; Marmeisse, Roland; Combier, Jean-Philippe; Gay, Gilles

    2014-10-01

    We used Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis to identify genes in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum that are essential for efficient mycorrhiza formation. One of the mutants presented a dramatically reduced ability to form ectomycorrhizas when grown in the presence of Pinus pinaster. It failed to form mycorrhizas in the presence of glucose at 0.5 g liter(-1), a condition favorable for mycorrhiza formation by the wild-type strain. However, it formed few mycorrhizas when glucose was replaced by fructose or when glucose concentration was increased to 1 g liter(-1). Scanning electron microscopy examination of these mycorrhizas revealed that this mutant was unable to differentiate true fungal sheath and Hartig net. Molecular analyses showed that the single-copy disrupting T-DNA was integrated 6,884 bp downstream from the start codon, of an open reading frame potentially encoding a 3,096-amino-acid-long protein. This gene, which we named HcMycE1, has orthologs in numerous fungi as well as different other eukaryotic microorganisms. RNAi inactivation of HcMycE1 in the wild-type strain also led to a mycorrhizal defect, demonstrating that the nonmycorrhizal phenotype of the mutant was due to mutagenic T-DNA integration in HcMycE1. In the wild-type strain colonizing P. pinaster roots, HcMycE1 was transiently upregulated before symbiotic structure differentiation. Together with the inability of the mutant to differentiate these structures, this suggests that HcMycE1 plays a crucial role upstream of the fungal sheath and Hartig net differentiation. This study provides the first characterization of a fungal mutant altered in mycorrhizal ability.

  9. Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  10. Fine root chemistry and decomposition in model communities of north-temperate tree species show little response to elevated atmospheric CO2 and varying soil resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J S; Pregitzer, K S; Zak, D R; Holmes, W E; Schmidt, K

    2005-12-01

    availability), however, biosynthetically distinct compounds (lignin, starch, condensed tannins) did not always respond as predicted. We found that mycorrhizal colonization of fine roots was not strongly affected by atmospheric [CO2] or soil resource availability, as indicated by root ergosterol contents. Overall, absolute changes in root chemical composition in response to increases in C and soil resource availability were small and had no effect on soil fungal biomass or specific rates of fine root decomposition. We conclude that root contributions to soil carbon cycling will mainly be influenced by fine root production and turnover responses to rising atmospheric [CO2], rather than changes in substrate chemistry.

  11. Fungal DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping

    2016-11-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in both natural and human-made environments. They play important roles in the health of plants, animals, and humans, and in broad ecosystem functions. Thus, having an efficient species-level identification system could significantly enhance our ability to treat fungal diseases and to monitor the spatial and temporal patterns of fungal distributions and migrations. DNA barcoding is a potent approach for rapid identification of fungal specimens, generating novel species hypothesis, and guiding biodiversity and ecological studies. In this mini-review, I briefly summarize (i) the history of DNA sequence-based fungal identification; (ii) the emergence of the ITS region as the consensus primary fungal barcode; (iii) the use of the ITS barcodes to address a variety of issues on fungal diversity from local to global scales, including generating a large number of species hypothesis; and (iv) the problems with the ITS barcode region and the approaches to overcome these problems. Similar to DNA barcoding research on plants and animals, significant progress has been achieved over the last few years in terms of both the questions being addressed and the foundations being laid for future research endeavors. However, significant challenges remain. I suggest three broad areas of research to enhance the usefulness of fungal DNA barcoding to meet the current and future challenges: (i) develop a common set of primers and technologies that allow the amplification and sequencing of all fungi at both the primary and secondary barcode loci; (ii) compile a centralized reference database that includes all recognized fungal species as well as species hypothesis, and allows regular updates from the research community; and (iii) establish a consensus set of new species recognition criteria based on barcode DNA sequences that can be applied across the fungal kingdom.

  12. Root anatomy, morphology, and longevity among root orders in Vaccinium corymbosum (Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Estrada, Luis R; Vera-Caraballo, Vivianette; Ruth, Leah E; Eissenstat, David M

    2008-12-01

    Understanding root processes at the whole-plant or ecosystem scales requires an accounting of the range of functions within a root system. Studying root traits based on their branching order can be a powerful approach to understanding this complex system. The current study examined the highly branched root system of the ericoid plant, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (highbush blueberry) by classifying its root orders with a modified version of the morphometric approach similar to that used in hydrology for stream classification. Root anatomy provided valuable insight into variation in root function across orders. The more permanent portion of the root system occurred in 4th- and higher-order roots. Roots in these orders had radial growth; the lowest specific root length, N:C ratios, and mycorrhizal colonization; the highest tissue density and vessel number; and the coarsest root diameter. The ephemeral portion of the root system was mainly in the first three root orders. First- and 2nd-order roots were nearly anatomically identical, with similar mycorrhizal colonization and diameter, and also, despite being extremely fine, median lifespans were not very short (115-120 d; estimated with minirhizotrons). Our research underscores the value of examining root traits by root order and its implications to understanding belowground processes.

  13. Colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) with Salmonella enterica and Listeria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutter, Stefan; Hartmann, Anton; Schmid, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Colonization of barley plants by the food-borne pathogens Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and three Listeria spp. (L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, L. innocua) was investigated in a monoxenic system. Herbaspirillum sp. N3 was used as a positive control and Escherichia coli HB101 as a negative control for endophytic root colonization. Colonization of the plants was tested 1-4 weeks after inoculation by determination of CFU, specific PCR assays and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with fluorescently labelled oligonucleotide probes in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Both S. enterica strains were found as endophytic colonizers of barley roots and reached up to 2.3 x 10(6) CFU per g root fresh weight after surface sterilization. The three Listeria strains had 10-fold fewer cell numbers after surface sterilization on the roots and therefore were similar to the results of nonendophytic colonizers, such as E. coli HB101. The FISH/CSLM approach demonstrated not only high-density colonization of the root hairs and the root surface by S. enterica but also a spreading to subjacent rhizodermis layers and the inner root cortex. By contrast, the inoculated Listeria spp. colonized the root hair zone but did not colonize other parts of the root surface. Endophytic colonization of Listeria spp. was not observed. Finally, a systemic spreading of S. enterica to the plant shoot (stems and leaves) was demonstrated using a specific PCR analysis and plate count technique.

  14. Sm2, a paralog of the Trichoderma cerato-platanin elicitor Sm1, is also highly important for plant protection conferred by the fungal-root interaction of Trichoderma with maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaderer, Romana; Lamdan, Netta L; Frischmann, Alexa; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena

    2015-01-16

    The proteins Sm1 and Sm2 from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens belong to the cerato-platanin protein family. Members of this family are small, secreted proteins that are abundantly produced by filamentous fungi with all types of life-styles. Some species of the fungal genus Trichoderma are considered as biocontrol fungi because they are mycoparasites and are also able to directly interact with plants, thereby stimulating plant defense responses. It was previously shown that the cerato-platanin protein Sm1 from T. virens - and to a lesser extent its homologue Epl1 from Trichoderma atroviride - induce plant defense responses. The plant protection potential of other members of the cerato-platanin protein family in Trichoderma, however, has not yet been investigated. In order to analyze the function of the cerato-platanin protein Sm2, sm1 and sm2 knockout strains were generated and characterized. The effect of the lack of Sm1 and Sm2 in T. virens on inducing systemic resistance in maize seedlings, challenged with the plant pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus, was tested. These plant experiments were also performed with T. atroviride epl1 and epl2 knockout strains. In our plant-pathogen system T. virens was a more effective plant protectant than T. atroviride and the results with both Trichoderma species showed concordantly that the level of plant protection was more strongly reduced in plants treated with the sm2/epl2 knockout strains than with sm1/epl1 knockout strains. Although the cerato-platanin genes sm1/epl1 are more abundantly expressed than sm2/epl2 during fungal growth, Sm2/Epl2 are, interestingly, more important than Sm1/Epl1 for the promotion of plant protection conferred by Trichoderma in the maize-C. heterostrophus pathosystem.

  15. Fungal association and utilization of phosphate by plants: Success, limitations and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kumar Johri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is a major macronutrient for plant health and development. The available form of P is generally low in the rhizosphere even in fertile soils. A major proportion of applied phosphate (Pi fertilizers in the soil become fixed into insoluble, unavailable forms, which restricts crop production throughout the world. Roots possess two distinct modes of P uptake from the soil, direct and indirect uptake. The direct uptake of P is facilitated by the plant’s own Pi transporters while indirect uptake occurs via mycorrhizal symbiosis, where the host plant obtains P primarily from the fungal partner, while the fungus benefits from plant-derived reduced carbon. So far, only one Pi transporter has been characterized from the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme (GvPT. As arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi cannot be cultured axenically, their Pi transporter network is difficult to exploite for large scale sustainable agriculture. Alternatively, the root-colonizing endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica can grow axenically and provides strong growth-promoting activity during its symbiosis with a broad spectrum of plants. P. indica contains a high affinity Pi transporter (PiPT involved in improving Pi nutrition levels in the host plant under P limiting conditions. As P. indica can be manipulated genetically, it opens new vistas to be used in P deficient fields.

  16. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  17. Who Gets Fungal Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... January 25, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  18. Fungal Diseases: Ringworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... August 16, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  19. Fungal Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... December 6, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  20. Fungi colonizing various organs of thyme Thymus vulgaris L. cultivated in the region of Lublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1998-2001, the healthiness of thyme cultivated in the region of Lublin was examined. Surveys were made on the one-year-old plantations of thyme at a stage of 6-week-old seedlings and just before the first harvest of the crop, as well as on the two-year-old plantations in spring and before the last harvest. The percentage of the plants showing fungal disease symptoms and the index of infection with fungi were determined. The fungi were isolated from superficially disinfected plant fragments namely from roots, bases of stem and leaves, separately, using mineral culture medium. PDA and SNA media were used to culture Fusarium spp., malt-agar and Czapek-Dox ones to culture Penicillium spp. and malt-agar, oat-agar and cherry-agar ones to culture Phoma spp. The percentage of plant infected with the fungi ranged within 12.18 and 23.05, in case of the one-year-old plantations, and within 29.91 and 43.65 in the two-year-old ones, whereas values of the index of infection ranged within 11.56 and 24.69 and within 20.75 and 43,28, respectively. Necroses were observed on roots and base of stems on one-year-old and two-year-old plantations, but in the last period of vegetation of thyme close to harvest. very often stems and leaves showed symptoms of a complete necrosis. It was found that base of stems and roots of thyme in the first and the second year of cultivation were colonized by a complex of pathogenic fungi:Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, Thielaviopsis basicola were obtained from the major part of diseased plants. Among the Fusarium species colonizing bases of stems F.culmorum, F.avenaceum, F.equiseti and F.oxysporum dominated, but from roots of thyme most often F.oxysporum, F.equiseti and F.culmorum were isolated. From stems, and particularly from leaves of thyme showing dark spots, commonly Alternaria alternata was obtained. On the other hand, shoots and leaves, but rarely roots of thyme, were colonized by various species of Phoma, particularly

  1. E151 (sym15), a pleiotropic mutant of pea (Pisum sativum L.), displays low nodule number, enhanced mycorrhizae, delayed lateral root emergence, and high root cytokinin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James M C; Clairmont, Lindsey; Macdonald, Emily S; Weiner, Catherine A; Emery, R J Neil; Guinel, Frédérique C

    2015-07-01

    In legumes, the formation of rhizobial and mycorrhizal root symbioses is a highly regulated process which requires close communication between plant and microorganism. Plant mutants that have difficulties establishing symbioses are valuable tools for unravelling the mechanisms by which these symbioses are formed and regulated. Here E151, a mutant of Pisum sativum cv. Sparkle, was examined to characterize its root growth and symbiotic defects. The symbioses in terms of colonization intensity, functionality of micro-symbionts, and organ dominance were compared between the mutant and wild type. The endogenous cytokinin (CK) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels and the effect of the exogenous application of these two hormones were determined. E151 was found to be a low and delayed nodulator, exhibiting defects in both the epidermal and cortical programmes though a few mature and functional nodules develop. Mycorrhizal colonization of E151 was intensified, although the fungal functionality was impaired. Furthermore, E151 displayed an altered lateral root (LR) phenotype compared with that of the wild type whereby LR emergence is initially delayed but eventually overcome. No differences in ABA levels were found between the mutant and the wild type, but non-inoculated E151 exhibited significantly high CK levels. It is hypothesized that CK plays an essential role in differentially mediating the entry of the two micro-symbionts into the cortex; whereas it would inhibit the entry of the rhizobia in that tissue, it would promote that of the fungus. E151 is a developmental mutant which may prove to be a useful tool in further understanding the role of hormones in the regulation of beneficial root symbioses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Mid-Infrared and near-infrared spectral properties of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Francisco J; Acosta-Martinez, Veronica; Douds, David D; Reeves, James B; Vigil, Merle F

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the Fourier-transformed mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic properties of mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) carrot roots with the goal of finding infrared markers for colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The roots were cultured with or without the AM fungus Glomus intraradices under laboratory conditions. A total of 50 M and NM samples were produced after pooling subsamples. The roots were dried, ground, and scanned separately for the NIR and MIR analyses. The root samples were analyzed for fatty acid composition in order to confirm mycorrhizal infection and to determine the presence of fatty acid markers. Besides the roots, fatty acid standards, pure cultures of saprophytic fungi, and chitin were also scanned in order to identify spectral bands likely to be found in M samples. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to illustrate spectral differences between the M and NM root samples. The NIR analysis achieved good resolution with the raw spectral data and no pretreatment was needed to obtain good resolution in the PCA analysis of the NIR data. Standard normal variate and detrending pretreatment improved the resolution between M and NM in the MIR range. The PCA loadings and/or the spectral subtraction of selected samples showed that M roots are characterized by absorbances at or close to 400 cm(-1), 1100-1170 cm(-1), 1690 cm(-1), 2928 cm(-1), and 5032 cm(-1). The NM samples had characteristic absorbances at or near 1734 cm(-1), 3500 cm(-1), 4000 cm(-1), 4389 cm(-1), and 4730 cm(-1). Some of the bands that differentiate M from NM roots are prominent in the spectra of pure fungal cultures, chitin, and fatty acids. Our results show that mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal root tissues can be differentiated via MIR and NIR spectra with the advantage that the same samples can then be used for other analyses.

  3. Populus trichocarpa and Populus deltoides exhibit different metabolomic responses to colonization by the symbiotic fungus Laccaria bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Plett, Jonathan M; Engle, Nancy L; Deveau, Aurelie; Cushman, Katherine C; Martin, Madhavi Z; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Tuskan, Gerald A; Brun, Annick; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis

    2014-06-01

    Within boreal and temperate forest ecosystems, the majority of trees and shrubs form beneficial relationships with mutualistic ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi that support plant health through increased access to nutrients as well as aiding in stress and pest tolerance. The intimate interaction between fungal hyphae and plant roots results in a new symbiotic "organ" called the ECM root tip. Little is understood concerning the metabolic reprogramming that favors the formation of this hybrid tissue in compatible interactions and what prevents the formation of ECM root tips in incompatible interactions. We show here that the metabolic changes during favorable colonization between the ECM fungus Laccaria bicolor and its compatible host, Populus trichocarpa, are characterized by shifts in aromatic acid, organic acid, and fatty acid metabolism. We demonstrate that this extensive metabolic reprogramming is repressed in incompatible interactions and that more defensive compounds are produced or retained. We also demonstrate that L. bicolor can metabolize a number of secreted defensive compounds and that the degradation of some of these compounds produces immune response metabolites (e.g., salicylic acid from salicin). Therefore, our results suggest that the metabolic responsiveness of plant roots to L. bicolor is a determinant factor in fungus-host interactions.

  4. Expanding Fungal Diets Through Synthetic Algal-Fungal Mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alaisha; Galazka, Jonathan (Editor)

    2015-01-01

    Fungi can synthesize numerous molecules with important properties, and could be valuable production platforms for space exploration and colonization. However, as heterotrophs, fungi require reduced carbon. This limits their efficiency in locations such as Mars, where reduced carbon is scarce. We propose a system to induce mutualistic symbiosis between the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the filamentous fungi Neurospora crassa. This arrangement would mimic natural algal-fungal relationships found in lichens, but have added advantages including increased growth rate and genetic tractability. N. crassa would metabolize citrate (C6H5O7 (sup -3)) and release carbon dioxide (CO2) that C. reinhardtii would assimilate into organic sugars during photosynthesis. C. reinhardtii would metabolize nitrate (NO3-) and release ammonia (NH3) as a nitrogen source for N. crassa. A N. crassa mutant incapable of reducing nitrate will be used to force this interaction. This system eliminates the need to directly supply its participants with carbon dioxide and ammonia. Furthermore, the release of oxygen by C. reinhardtii via photosynthesis would enable N. crassa to respire. We hope to eventually create a system closer to lichen, in which the algae transfers not only nitrogen but reduced carbon, as organic sugars, to the fungus for growth and production of valuable compounds.

  5. Mycorrhiza-induced lower oxidative burst is related with higher antioxidant enzyme activities, net H2O2 effluxes, and Ca2+ influxes in trifoliate orange roots under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying-Ning; Huang, Yong-Ming; Wu, Qiang-Sheng; He, Xin-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Mechanisms of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM)-induced lower oxidative burst of host plants under drought stress (DS) are not elucidated. A noninvasive microtest technology (NMT) was used to investigate the effects of Funneliformis mosseae on net fluxes of root hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and calcium ions (Ca2+) in 5-month-old Poncirus trifoliata, in combination with catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities as well as tissue superoxide radical (O2•-) and H2O2 concentrations under DS and well-watered (WW) conditions. A 2-month DS (55% maximum water holding capacity of growth substrates) significantly inhibited AM fungal root colonization, while AM symbiosis significantly increased plant biomass production, irrespective of water status. F. mosseae inoculation generally increased SOD and CAT activity but decreased O2•- and H2O2 concentrations in leaves and roots under WW and DS. Compared with non-AM seedlings, roots of AM seedlings had significantly higher net H2O2 effluxes and net Ca2+ influxes, especially in the meristem zone, but lower net H2O2 efflux in the elongation zone. Net Ca2+ influxes into roots were significantly positively correlated with root net H2O2 effluxes but negatively with root H2O2 concentrations. Results from this study suggest that AM-induced lower oxidative burst is related with higher antioxidant enzyme activities, root net H2O2 effluxes, and Ca2+ influxes under WW and DS.

  6. Root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grierson, C.; Nielsen, E.; Ketelaar, T.; Schiefelbein, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair

  7. The plasma membrane proteome of Medicago truncatula roots as modified by arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Achref; Recorbet, Ghislaine; Lemaître-Guillier, Christelle; Mounier, Arnaud; Balliau, Thierry; Zivy, Michel; Wipf, Daniel; Dumas-Gaudot, Eliane

    2017-07-19

    In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) roots, the plasma membrane (PM) of the host plant is involved in all developmental stages of the symbiotic interaction, from initial recognition to intracellular accommodation of intra-radical hyphae and arbuscules. Although the role of the PM as the agent for cellular morphogenesis and nutrient exchange is especially accentuated in endosymbiosis, very little is known regarding the PM protein composition of mycorrhizal roots. To obtain a global overview at the proteome level of the host PM proteins as modified by symbiosis, we performed a comparative protein profiling of PM fractions from Medicago truncatula roots either inoculated or not with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. PM proteins were isolated from root microsomes using an optimized discontinuous sucrose gradient; their subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (MS) identified 674 proteins. Cross-species sequence homology searches combined with MS-based quantification clearly confirmed enrichment in PM-associated proteins and depletion of major microsomal contaminants. Changes in protein amounts between the PM proteomes of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots were monitored further by spectral counting. This workflow identified a set of 82 mycorrhiza-responsive proteins that provided insights into the plant PM response to mycorrhizal symbiosis. Among them, the association of one third of the mycorrhiza-responsive proteins with detergent-resistant membranes pointed at partitioning to PM microdomains. The PM-associated proteins responsive to mycorrhization also supported host plant control of sugar uptake to limit fungal colonization, and lipid turnover events in the PM fraction of symbiotic roots. Because of the depletion upon symbiosis of proteins mediating the replacement of phospholipids by phosphorus-free lipids in the plasmalemma, we propose a role of phosphate nutrition in the PM composition of mycorrhizal roots.

  8. Biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 inhibits germination of Fusarium oxysporum spores in tomato root exudate as well as subsequent formation of new spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilova, Faina; Lamers, Gerda; Lugtenberg, Ben

    2008-09-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.radicis-licopersici (Forl) is a soilborne pathogenic fungus which can cause tomato foot and root rot (TFRR). Tomato root exudate is a good source of nutrients for both Forl and the TFRR-suppressing biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain WCS365. Incubation of Forl microconidia in tomato root exudate stimulates their germination. This phenomenon is observed, to a lesser extent, upon incubation in plant nutrient solution supplemented with citrate or glucose, the major organic acid and sugar components, respectively, of tomato root exudate. Here we show that induction of germination of microconidia is significantly reduced in the presence of P. fluorescens WCS365 in all tested media. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that P. fluorescens WCS365 colonizes developing hyphae. Efficient colonization correlates with low nutrient availability. Eventually, new microconidia are formed. The presence of P. fluorescens WCS365 reduces the number of newly formed microconidia. This reduction does not depend on physical contact between bacteria and hyphae. We discuss that the ability of P. fluorescens WCS365 to slow down the processes of microconidia germination and development of new microconidia of the phytopathogen, and therefore the ability to reduce fungal dissemination, is likely to contribute to the biocontrol efficacy of this strain.

  9. Fungal invasion of the rhizosphere microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Emilie; Mendes, Rodrigo; Bakker, Peter A H M; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2016-01-01

    The rhizosphere is the infection court where soil-borne pathogens establish a parasitic relationship with the plant. To infect root tissue, pathogens have to compete with members of the rhizosphere microbiome for available nutrients and microsites. In disease-suppressive soils, pathogens are strongly restricted in growth by the activities of specific rhizosphere microorganisms. Here, we sequenced metagenomic DNA and RNA of the rhizosphere microbiome of sugar beet seedlings grown in a soil suppressive to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. rRNA-based analyses showed that Oxalobacteraceae, Burkholderiaceae, Sphingobacteriaceae and Sphingomonadaceae were significantly more abundant in the rhizosphere upon fungal invasion. Metatranscriptomics revealed that stress-related genes (ppGpp metabolism and oxidative stress) were upregulated in these bacterial families. We postulate that the invading pathogenic fungus induces, directly or via the plant, stress responses in the rhizobacterial community that lead to shifts in microbiome composition and to activation of antagonistic traits that restrict pathogen infection.

  10. Saprotrophic fungal mycorrhizal symbionts in achlorophyllous orchids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Florent; Perry, Brian A; Padamsee, Mahajabeen; Roy, Mélanie; Pailler, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Mycoheterotrophic plants are achlorophyllous plants that obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi. They are usually considered to associate with fungi that are (1) specific of each mycoheterotrophic species and (2) mycorrhizal on surrounding green plants, which are the ultimate carbon source of the entire system. Here we review recent works revealing that some mycoheterotrophic plants are not fungal-specific, and that some mycoheterotrophic orchids associate with saprophytic fungi. A re-examination of earlier data suggests that lower specificity may be less rare than supposed in mycoheterotrophic plants. Association between mycoheterotrophic orchids and saprophytic fungi arose several times in the evolution of the two partners. We speculate that this indirectly illustrates why transition from saprotrophy to mycorrhizal status is common in fungal evolution. Moreover, some unexpected fungi occasionally encountered in plant roots should not be discounted as ‘molecular scraps’, since these facultatively biotrophic encounters may evolve into mycorrhizal symbionts in some other plants. PMID:20061806

  11. Spatial Distribution of Fungal Communities in an Arable Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Julia; Hoppe, Björn; König, Stephan; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are prominent drivers of ecological processes in soils, so that fungal communities across different soil ecosystems have been well investigated. However, for arable soils taxonomically resolved fine-scale studies including vertical itemization of fungal communities are still missing. Here, we combined a cloning/Sanger sequencing approach of the ITS/LSU region as marker for general fungi and of the partial SSU region for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to characterize the microbiome in different maize soil habitats. Four compartments were analyzed over two annual cycles 2009 and 2010: a) ploughed soil in 0-10 cm, b) rooted soil in 40-50 cm, c) root-free soil in 60-70 cm soil depth and d) maize roots. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum across all compartments. Fungal communities including yeasts and AMF differed strongly between compartments. Inter alia, Tetracladium, the overall largest MOTU (molecular operational taxonomic unit), occurred in all compartments, whereas Trichosporon dominated all soil compartments. Sequences belonging to unclassified Helotiales were forming the most abundant MOTUs exclusively present in roots. This study gives new insights on spatial distribution of fungi and helps to link fungal communities to specific ecological properties such as varying resources, which characterize particular niches of the heterogeneous soil environment.

  12. Spatial Distribution of Fungal Communities in an Arable Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Moll

    Full Text Available Fungi are prominent drivers of ecological processes in soils, so that fungal communities across different soil ecosystems have been well investigated. However, for arable soils taxonomically resolved fine-scale studies including vertical itemization of fungal communities are still missing. Here, we combined a cloning/Sanger sequencing approach of the ITS/LSU region as marker for general fungi and of the partial SSU region for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF to characterize the microbiome in different maize soil habitats. Four compartments were analyzed over two annual cycles 2009 and 2010: a ploughed soil in 0-10 cm, b rooted soil in 40-50 cm, c root-free soil in 60-70 cm soil depth and d maize roots. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum across all compartments. Fungal communities including yeasts and AMF differed strongly between compartments. Inter alia, Tetracladium, the overall largest MOTU (molecular operational taxonomic unit, occurred in all compartments, whereas Trichosporon dominated all soil compartments. Sequences belonging to unclassified Helotiales were forming the most abundant MOTUs exclusively present in roots. This study gives new insights on spatial distribution of fungi and helps to link fungal communities to specific ecological properties such as varying resources, which characterize particular niches of the heterogeneous soil environment.

  13. The endophytic strain Fusarium oxysporum Fo47: a good candidate for priming the defense responses in tomato roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimé, Sébastien; Alabouvette, Claude; Steinberg, Christian; Olivain, Chantal

    2013-08-01

    The protective Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo47 is effective in controlling Fusarium wilt in tomato. Previous studies have demonstrated the role of direct antagonism and involvement of induced resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether priming of plant defense responses is a mechanism by which Fo47 controls Fusarium wilt. An in vitro design enabled inoculation of the tap root with Fo47 and the pathogenic strain (Fol8) at different locations and different times. The expression levels of six genes known to be involved in tomato defense responses were quantified using reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Three genes-CHI3, GLUA, and PR-1a-were overexpressed in the root preinoculated with Fo47, and then challenged with Fol8. The genes GLUA and PR-1a were upregulated in cotyledons after inoculation of Fo47. Fungal growth in the root was assessed by qPCR, using specific markers for Fo47 and Fol8. Results showed a reduction of the pathogen growth in the root of the tomato plant preinoculated with Fo47. This study demonstrated that priming of tomato defense responses is one of the mechanisms of action of Fo47, which induces a reduced colonization of the root by the pathogen.

  14. Spore density and root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in preserved or disturbed Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. ecosystems Densidade de esporos e colonização radicular por fungos microrrízicos arbusculares em ecossistemas de Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. preservados e impactados