Sample records for root character evolution

  1. Automatic schema evolution in Root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, R.; Rademakers, F.


    ROOT version 3 (spring 2001) supports automatic class schema evolution. In addition this version also produces files that are self-describing. This is achieved by storing in each file a record with the description of all the persistent classes in the file. Being self-describing guarantees that a file can always be read later, its structure browsed and objects inspected, also when the library with the compiled code of these classes is missing. The schema evolution mechanism supports the frequent case when multiple data sets generated with many different class versions must be analyzed in the same session. ROOT supports the automatic generation of C++ code describing the data objects in a file

  2. Evolution of specialization and ecological character displacement: metabolic plasticity matters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egas, C.J.M.; Reydon, Th.A.C.; Hemerik, L.


    An important question in evolutionary biology, especially with respect to herbivorous arthropods, is the evolution of specialization. In a previous paper, the combined evolutionary dynamics of specialization and ecological character displacement was studied, focusing on the role of herbivore

  3. Character evolution and missing (morphological) data across Asteridae. (United States)

    Stull, Gregory W; Schori, Melanie; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S


    Our current understanding of flowering plant phylogeny provides an excellent framework for exploring various aspects of character evolution through comparative analyses. However, attempts to synthesize this phylogenetic framework with extensive morphological data sets have been surprisingly rare. Here, we explore character evolution in Asteridae (asterids), a major angiosperm clade, using an extensive morphological data set and a well-resolved phylogeny. We scored 15 phenotypic characters (spanning chemistry, vegetative anatomy, and floral, fruit, and seed features) across 248 species for ancestral state reconstruction using a phylogenetic framework based on 73 plastid genes and the same 248 species. Iridoid production, unitegmic ovules, and cellular endosperm were all reconstructed as synapomorphic for Asteridae. Sympetaly, long associated with asterids, shows complex patterns of evolution, suggesting it arose several times independently within the clade. Stamens equal in number to the petals is likely a synapomorphy for Gentianidae, a major asterid subclade. Members of Lamianae, a major gentianid subclade, are potentially diagnosed by adnate stamens, unilacunar nodes, and simple perforation plates. The analyses presented here provide a greatly improved understanding of character evolution across Asteridae, highlighting multiple characters potentially synapomorphic for major clades. However, several important parts of the asterid tree are poorly known for several key phenotypic features (e.g., degree of petal fusion, integument number, nucellus type, endosperm type, iridoid production). Further morphological, anatomical, developmental, and chemical investigations of these poorly known asterids are critical for a more detailed understanding of early asterid evolution. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  4. Evolution of the placenta and associated reproductive characters in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M; Mess, Andrea


    Recent advances in molecular phylogenetics indicate that the order Chiroptera is monophyletic and that one of four lineages of microbats (Rhinolophoidea) shares a common origin with megabats. Against this background we undertook a comprehensive analysis of placental evolution in bats. We defined...... that characterize higher-level clades within Chiroptera, i.e. the megabats and the four lineages of microbats. The character condition occurring in the last common ancestor of Chiroptera was unequivocal for 21 of the 25 characters included in the analysis. The data did not offer support for a megabat...

  5. Correlations of Vegetative and Reproductive Characters with Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An understanding of the relationship between traits related to plant performance is advantageous in rice breeding for tolerance to drought and increase in grain yield. Correlations studies involving root, vegetative and reproductive traits were carried out with sixteen rice genotypes under differing soil moisture through a ...

  6. Adult Moyamoya disease angiographic images evolutive characters and treatment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jiangnan; Ling Feng


    Objective: To discuss the angiographic images with evolutional characters and the treatment methods of the Moyamoya disease. Methods: The clinical manifestations, the radiographic changes and the comparative analysis between medicine treatment and surgery treatment, together with the laboratory tests findings were analyzed in one cases adult Moyamoya disease during six years. Conclusions: The angiographic characteristics of MMD show the supplied artery trunk stenosis, and followed by occlusion, with later appearance of vascular smoking sign. Medical treatment proved to be of null. Direct or indirect intra or extra cranial vascular anastomosis are effective for treatment

  7. The evolution of lycopsid rooting structures: conservatism and disparity. (United States)

    Hetherington, Alexander J; Dolan, Liam


    Contents 538 I. 538 II. 539 III. 541 IV. 542 543 References 543 SUMMARY: The evolution of rooting structures was a crucial event in Earth's history, increasing the ability of plants to extract water, mine for nutrients and anchor above-ground shoot systems. Fossil evidence indicates that roots evolved at least twice among vascular plants, in the euphyllophytes and independently in the lycophytes. Here, we review the anatomy and evolution of lycopsid rooting structures. Highlighting recent discoveries made with fossils we suggest that the evolution of lycopsid rooting structures displays two contrasting patterns - conservatism and disparity. The structures termed roots have remained structurally similar despite hundreds of millions of years of evolution - an example of remarkable conservatism. By contrast, and over the same time period, the organs that give rise to roots have diversified, resulting in the evolution of numerous novel and disparate organs. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Modelling rate distributions using character compatibility: implications for morphological evolution among fossil invertebrates. (United States)

    Wagner, Peter J


    Rate distributions are important considerations when testing hypotheses about morphological evolution or phylogeny. They also have implications about general processes underlying character evolution. Molecular systematists often assume that rates are Poisson processes with gamma distributions. However, morphological change is the product of multiple probabilistic processes and should theoretically be affected by hierarchical integration of characters. Both factors predict lognormal rate distributions. Here, a simple inverse modelling approach assesses the best single-rate, gamma and lognormal models given observed character compatibility for 115 invertebrate groups. Tests reject the single-rate model for nearly all cases. Moreover, the lognormal outperforms the gamma for character change rates and (especially) state derivation rates. The latter in particular is consistent with integration affecting morphological character evolution.

  9. The geophysical character of southern Alaska - Implications for crustal evolution (United States)

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.; Wilson, Frederic H.


    The southern Alaska continental margin has undergone a long and complicated history of plate convergence, subduction, accretion, and margin-parallel displacements. The crustal character of this continental margin is discernible through combined analysis of aeromagnetic and gravity data with key constraints from previous seismic interpretation. Regional magnetic data are particularly useful in defining broad geophysical domains. One of these domains, the south Alaska magnetic high, is the focus of this study. It is an intense and continuous magnetic high up to 200 km wide and ∼1500 km long extending from the Canadian border in the Wrangell Mountains west and southwest through Cook Inlet to the Bering Sea shelf. Crustal thickness beneath the south Alaska magnetic high is commonly 40–50 km. Gravity analysis indicates that the south Alaska magnetic high crust is dense. The south Alaska magnetic high spatially coincides with the Peninsular and Wrangellia terranes. The thick, dense, and magnetic character of this domain requires significant amounts of mafic rocks at intermediate to deep crustal levels. In Wrangellia these mafic rocks are likely to have been emplaced during Middle and (or) Late Triassic Nikolai Greenstone volcanism. In the Peninsular terrane, the most extensive period of mafic magmatism now known was associated with the Early Jurassic Talkeetna Formation volcanic arc. Thus the thick, dense, and magnetic character of the south Alaska magnetic high crust apparently developed as the response to mafic magmatism in both extensional (Wrangellia) and subduction-related arc (Peninsular terrane) settings. The south Alaska magnetic high is therefore a composite crustal feature. At least in Wrangellia, the crust was probably of average thickness (30 km) or greater prior to Triassic mafic magmatism. Up to 20 km (40%) of its present thickness may be due to the addition of Triassic mafic magmas. Throughout the south Alaska magnetic high, significant crustal growth

  10. The evolution of brachiation in ateline primates, ancestral character states and history. (United States)

    Jones, Andrea L


    This study examines how brachiation locomotion evolved in ateline primates using recently-developed molecular phylogenies and character reconstruction algorithms, and a newly-collected dataset including the fossils Protopithecus, Caipora, and Cebupithecia. Fossils are added to two platyrrhine molecular phylogenies to create several phylogenetic scenarios. A generalized least squares algorithm reconstructs ateline and atelin ancestral character states for 17 characters that differentiate between ateline brachiators and nonbrachiators. Histories of these characters are mapped out on these phylogenies, producing two scenarios of ateline brachiation evolution that have four commonalities: First, many characters change towards the Ateles condition on the ateline stem lineage before Alouatta splits off from the atelins, suggesting that an ateline energy-maximizing strategy began before the atelines diversified. Second, the ateline last common ancestor is always reconstructed as an agile quadruped, usually with suspensory abilities. It is never exactly like Alouatta and many characters reverse and change towards the Alouatta condition after Alouatta separates from the atelins. Third, most characters undergo homoplastic change in all ateline lineages, especially on the Ateles and Brachyteles terminal branches. Fourth, ateline character evolution probably went through a hindlimb suspension with tail-bracing phase. The atelines most likely diversified via a quick adaptive radiation, with bursts of punctuated change occurring in their postcranial skeletons, due to changing climatic conditions, which may have caused competition among the atelines and between atelines and pitheciines.

  11. Color pattern evolution in Vanessa butterflies (Nymphalidae: Nymphalini): non-eyespot characters. (United States)

    Abbasi, Roohollah; Marcus, Jeffrey M


    A phylogenetic approach was used to study color pattern evolution in Vanessa butterflies. Twenty-four color pattern elements from the Nymphalid ground plan were identified on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the fore- and hind wings. Eyespot characters were excluded and will be examined elsewhere. The evolution of each character was traced over a Bayesian phylogeny of Vanessa reconstructed from 7750 DNA base pairs from 10 genes. Generally, the correspondence between character states on the same surface of the two wings is stronger on the ventral side compared to the dorsal side. The evolution of character states on both sides of a wing correspond with each other in most extant species, but the correspondence between dorsal and ventral character states is much stronger in the forewing than in the hindwing. The dorsal hindwing of many species of Vanessa is covered with an extended Basal Symmetry System and the Discalis I pattern element is highly variable between species, making this wing surface dissimilar to the other wing surfaces. The Basal Symmetry System and Discalis I may contribute to behavioral thermoregulation in Vanessa. Overall, interspecific directional character state evolution of non-eyespot color patterns is relatively rare in Vanessa, with a majority of color pattern elements showing non-variable, non-directional, or ambiguous character state evolution. The ease with which the development of color patterns can be modified, including character state reversals, has likely made important contributions to the production of color pattern diversity in Vanessa and other butterfly groups. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Mosaicism may explain the evolution of social characters in haplodiploid Hymenoptera with female workers. (United States)

    Morpurgo, Giorgio; Babudri, Nora; Fioretti, Bernard; Catacuzzeno, Luigi


    The role of haplodiploidy in the evolution of eusocial insects and why in Hymenoptera males do not perform any work is presently unknown. We show here that within-colony conflict caused by the coexistence of individuals of the same caste expressing the same character in different ways can be fundamental in the evolution of social characters in species that have already reached the eusocial condition. Mosaic colonies, composed by individuals expressing either the wild-type or a mutant phenotype, inevitably occurs during the evolution of advantageous social traits in insects. We simulated the evolution of an advantageous social trait increasing colony fitness in haplodiploid and diplodiploid species considering all possible conditions, i.e. dominance/recessivity of the allele determining the new social character, sex of the castes, and influence of mosaicism on the colony fitness. When mosaicism lowered colony fitness below that of the colony homogeneous for the wild type allele, the fixation of an advantageous social character was possible only in haplodiploids with female castes. When mosaicism caused smaller reductions in colony fitness, reaching frequencies of 90% was much faster in haplodiploids with female castes and dominant mutations. Our results suggest that the evolution of social characters is easier in haplodiploid than in diplodiploid species, provided that workers are females.

  13. Non-linear character of dose dependences of chromosome aberration frequency in radiation-damaged root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, E.A.; Berezhnaya, V.V.; Sakada, V.I.; Rashidov, N.M.; Grodzinskij, D.M.; Kravets, E.A.; Berezhnaya, V.V.; Sakada, V.I.; Rashidov, N.M.; Grodzinskij, D.M.


    The dose dependences of the aberrant anaphases in the root meristem in 48 hours after the irradiation have non-linear character and a plateau in the region about 6-8 Gy. The plateau indicates the activation of recovery processes. In the plateau range, the level of damages for this genotype is 33% for aberrant anaphases (FAA), 2.3 aberrations per aberrant anaphase (A/AC), and 0.74 aberrations for the total number of anaphases. At 10 Gy, the dose curve forms the exponential region caused by the involvement of the large number of new cells with unrepaired damages in the mutation process. The increase of A/AC to 1.1 indicate the ''criticality'' of the meristem radiation damage.

  14. Identifying hidden rate changes in the evolution of a binary morphological character: the evolution of plant habit in campanulid angiosperms. (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; O'Meara, Brian C; Donoghue, Michael J


    The growth of phylogenetic trees in scope and in size is promising from the standpoint of understanding a wide variety of evolutionary patterns and processes. With trees comprised of larger, older, and globally distributed clades, it is likely that the lability of a binary character will differ significantly among lineages, which could lead to errors in estimating transition rates and the associated inference of ancestral states. Here we develop and implement a new method for identifying different rates of evolution in a binary character along different branches of a phylogeny. We illustrate this approach by exploring the evolution of growth habit in Campanulidae, a flowering plant clade containing some 35,000 species. The distribution of woody versus herbaceous species calls into question the use of traditional models of binary character evolution. The recognition and accommodation of changes in the rate of growth form evolution in different lineages demonstrates, for the first time, a robust picture of growth form evolution across a very large, very old, and very widespread flowering plant clade.

  15. CoMET: A Mesquite package for comparing models of continuous character evolution on phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunghau Lee


    Full Text Available Continuously varying traits such as body size or gene expression level evolve during the history of species or gene lineages. To test hypotheses about the evolution of such traits, the maximum likelihood (ML method is often used. Here we introduce CoMET (Continuous-character Model Evaluation and Testing, which is module for Mesquite that automates likelihood computations for nine different models of trait evolution. Due to its few restrictions on input data, CoMET is applicable to testing a wide range of character evolution hypotheses. The CoMET homepage, which links to freely available software and more detailed usage instructions, is located at

  16. Rooting human parechovirus evolution in time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benschop Kimberley


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Picornaviridae family contains a number of important pathogenic viruses, among which the recently reclassified human parechoviruses (HPeVs. These viruses are widespread and can be grouped in several types. Understanding the evolutionary history of HPeV could answer questions such as how long the circulating lineages last shared a common ancestor and how the evolution of this viral species is shaped by its population dynamics. Using both strict and relaxed clock Bayesian phylogenetics we investigated 1 the substitutions rates of the structural P1 and capsid VP1 regions and 2 evolutionary timescale of currently circulating HPeV lineages. Results Our estimates reveal that human parechoviruses exhibit high substitution rates for both structural P1 and capsid VP1 regions, respectively 2.21 × 10-3 (0.48 – 4.21 × 10-3 and 2.79 × 10-3 (2.05 – 3.66 × 10-3 substitutions per site per year. These are within the range estimated for other picornaviruses. By employing a constant population size coalescent prior, the date of the most recent common ancestor was estimated to be at around 1600 (1427–1733. In addition, by looking at the frequency of synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions within the VP1 gene we show that purifying selection constitutes the dominating evolutionary force leading to strong amino acid conservation. Conclusion In conclusion, our estimates provide a timescale for the evolution of HPeVs and suggest that genetic diversity of current circulating HPeV types has arisen about 400 years ago.

  17. [Screening strains for Trichoderma spp. for strong antagonism against ginseng root pathogens and study on their biological characters]. (United States)

    Zhao, A-Na; Ding, Wan-Long; Zhu, Dian-Long


    To screen the Trichodenna spp. for strong antagonist against ginseng root pathogens. The biological characters of ten Trichoderma strains were compared by culturing on different media. And their antagonistic activity against Phytophthora cactorum, Cylindrocarpon destructans and Rhizoctonia solani were measured on PDA. Tv04-2 and Th3080 showed a good growth on soil solution medium and PDA, and also showed high inhibitory efficacy to the three pathogens. The two Trichoderma strains showed different growth rate under light conditions and pH. Trichoderma strains were sensitive to most fungicides used in ginseng root disease controlling, however Tv04-2 was not sensitive to the fungicide Junchong Jueba.

  18. An attempt to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships within Caribbean nummulitids: simulating relationships and tracing character evolution (United States)

    Eder, Wolfgang; Ives Torres-Silva, Ana; Hohenegger, Johann


    Phylogenetic analysis and trees based on molecular data are broadly applied and used to infer genetical and biogeographic relationship in recent larger foraminifera. Molecular phylogenetic is intensively used within recent nummulitids, however for fossil representatives these trees are only of minor informational value. Hence, within paleontological studies a phylogenetic approach through morphometric analysis is of much higher value. To tackle phylogenetic relationships within the nummulitid family, a much higher number of morphological character must be measured than are commonly used in biometric studies, where mostly parameters describing embryonic size (e.g., proloculus diameter, deuteroloculus diameter) and/or the marginal spiral (e.g., spiral diagrams, spiral indices) are studied. For this purpose 11 growth-independent and/or growth-invariant characters have been used to describe the morphological variability of equatorial thin sections of seven Carribbean nummulitid taxa (Nummulites striatoreticulatus, N. macgillavry, Palaeonummulites willcoxi, P.floridensis, P. soldadensis, P.trinitatensis and P.ocalanus) and one outgroup taxon (Ranikothalia bermudezi). Using these characters, phylogenetic trees were calculated using a restricted maximum likelihood algorithm (REML), and results are cross-checked by ordination and cluster analysis. Square-change parsimony method has been run to reconstruct ancestral states, as well as to simulate the evolution of the chosen characters along the calculated phylogenetic tree and, independent - contrast analysis was used to estimate confidence intervals. Based on these simulations, phylogenetic tendencies of certain characters proposed for nummulitids (e.g., Cope's rule or nepionic acceleration) can be tested, whether these tendencies are valid for the whole family or only for certain clades. At least, within the Carribean nummulitids, phylogenetic trends along some growth-independent characters of the embryo (e.g., first

  19. Phylogeny of the non-monophyletic Cayratia Juss. (Vitaceae) and implications for character evolution and biogeography. (United States)

    Lu, Limin; Wang, Wei; Chen, Zhiduan; Wen, Jun


    Cayratia consists of ca. 60 species primarily distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Australia, and Africa. It is an excellent candidate for exploring the evolution of intercontinental disjunct distributions in the Old World. Previous phylogenetic work of Vitaceae with a few species of Cayratia sampled showed that Cayratia was not monophyletic and was closely related to Cyphostemma and Tetrastigma. We herein expanded taxon sampling of Cayratia (25/60 species) with its allied genera Cyphostemma (39/150 species), Tetrastigma (27/95 species), and other related genera from Vitaceae represented, employing five plastid markers (atpB-rbcL, rps16, trnC-petN, trnH-psbA, and trnL-F), to investigate the phylogeny, character evolution and biogeography of Cayratia. The phylogenetic analyses have confirmed the monophyly of the Cayratia-Cyphostemma-Tetrastigma (CCT) clade and resolved Cayratia into three lineages: the African Cayratia clade, subg. Cayratia, and subg. Discypharia. The African Cayratia was supported as the first diverging lineage within the CCT clade and Tetrastigma is resolved as sister to subg. Discypharia. Character optimizations suggest that the presence/absence of a membrane enclosing the ventral infolds in seeds is an important character for the taxonomy of Cayratia. The presence of bracts on the lower part of the inflorescence axis is inferred to have arisen only once in Cayratia, but this character evolved several times in Tetrastigma. Both the branching pattern of tendrils and the leaf architecture are suggested as important infrageneric characters, but should be used cautiously because some states evolved multiple times. Ancestral area reconstruction and molecular dating suggest that the CCT clade originated from continental Africa in the late Cretaceous, and it then reached Asia twice independently in the late Cretaceous and late Oligocene, respectively. Several dispersals are inferred from Asia to Australia since the Eocene

  20. Variation of root system characters in collection of semi-dwarf spring barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrot, M.; Zbieszczyk, J.; Maluszynski, M.


    The collection of 371 semi-dwarf mutants, derived from 12 spring barley varieties has been used as material for analysis of root system. The mutants have been obtained after mutagenic treatment with N-methyl-N-nitroso urea (MNH), sodium azide (NaN3), gamma-rays and fast neutrons. The following analysis of root system were performed: seminal root growth of 8-day old seedlings, seminal and adventitious root growth of 6-week old plants and dynamics of root growth during first 6 weeks of plant growth. Seminal root length, root number and the length of the first leaf in barley mutants were investigated with the use of paper rollers. Root system analysis of 6-week old plants was performed on genotypes grown in PVC tubes filled with sand, supplemented with 1 mineral salts of MS medium. The following measurements were made: the length of the longest seminal root and the longest adventitious root, the number of adventitious roots and the number of tillers. Analysis of dynamics of root growth during the first six weeks of vegetation was performed at the end of each 7-day growth period in the PVC tubes filled with sand. Great variability in the seminal root length was found in analysed 8-day old seedling population. Almost half of the analysed mutants showed significant root length reduction, but about ten percent of semi-dwarf mutants developed roots with an increased length in comparison to parents. No significant differences were found between analysed mutants and corresponding parent varieties regarding the number of seminal roots. After six weeks of growth, the selected mutants showed differences in the reduction of root length in comparison to the 8-day old seedlings. The results of root growth dynamics indicated that analysed mutants had different patterns in comparison to the parent variety. Differences in the growth dynamics were also observed among the parent varieties. The observed differences in pattern of root growth between mutants and corresponding parents

  1. Phylogenetic relationships, character evolution, and taxonomic implications within the slipper lobsters (Crustacea: Decapoda: Scyllaridae). (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Hui; Bracken-Grissom, Heather; Kim, Dohyup; Crandall, Keith A; Chan, Tin-Yam


    The slipper lobsters belong to the family Scyllaridae which contains a total of 20 genera and 89 species distributed across four subfamilies (Arctidinae, Ibacinae, Scyllarinae, and Theninae). We have collected nucleotide sequence data from regions of five different genes (16S, 18S, COI, 28S, H3) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among 54 species from the Scyllaridae with a focus on the species rich subfamily Scyllarinae. We have included in our analyses at least one representative from all 20 genera in the Scyllaridae and 35 of the 52 species within the Scyllarinae. Our resulting phylogenetic estimate shows the subfamilies are monophyletic, except for Ibacinae, which has paraphyletic relationships among genera. Many of the genera within the Scyllarinae form non-monophyletic groups, while the genera from all other subfamilies form well supported clades. We discuss the implications of this history on the evolution of morphological characters and ecological transitions (nearshore vs. offshore) within the slipper lobsters. Finally, we identify, through ancestral state character reconstructions, key morphological features diagnostic of the major clades of diversity within the Scyllaridae and relate this character evolution to current taxonomy and classification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Phylogeny, character evolution, and biogeography of Cuscuta (dodders; Convolvulaceae) inferred from coding plastid and nuclear sequences. (United States)

    García, Miguel A; Costea, Mihai; Kuzmina, Maria; Stefanović, Saša


    The parasitic genus Cuscuta, containing some 200 species circumscribed traditionally in three subgenera, is nearly cosmopolitan, occurring in a wide range of habitats and hosts. Previous molecular studies, on subgenera Grammica and Cuscuta, delimited major clades within these groups. However, the sequences used were unalignable among subgenera, preventing the phylogenetic comparison across the genus. We conducted a broad phylogenetic study using rbcL and nrLSU sequences covering the morphological, physiological, and geographical diversity of Cuscuta. We used parsimony methods to reconstruct ancestral states for taxonomically important characters. Biogeographical inferences were obtained using statistical and Bayesian approaches. Four well-supported major clades are resolved. Two of them correspond to subgenera Monogynella and Grammica. Subgenus Cuscuta is paraphyletic, with section Pachystigma sister to subgenus Grammica. Previously described cases of strongly supported discordance between plastid and nuclear phylogenies, interpreted as reticulation events, are confirmed here and three new cases are detected. Dehiscent fruits and globose stigmas are inferred as ancestral character states, whereas the ancestral style number is ambiguous. Biogeographical reconstructions suggest an Old World origin for the genus and subsequent spread to the Americas as a consequence of one long-distance dispersal. Hybridization may play an important yet underestimated role in the evolution of Cuscuta. Our results disagree with scenarios of evolution (polarity) previously proposed for several taxonomically important morphological characters, and with their usage and significance. While several cases of long-distance dispersal are inferred, vicariance or dispersal to adjacent areas emerges as the dominant biogeographical pattern.

  3. The First Comprehensive Phylogeny of Coptis (Ranunculaceae) and Its Implications for Character Evolution and Classification (United States)

    Xiang, Kun-Li; Wu, Sheng-Dan; Yu, Sheng-Xian; Liu, Yang; Jabbour, Florian; Erst, Andrey S.; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Zhi-Duan


    Coptis (Ranunculaceae) contains 15 species and is one of the pharmaceutically most important plant genera in eastern Asia. Understanding of the evolution of morphological characters and phylogenetic relationships within the genus is very limited. Here, we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus based on two plastid and one nuclear markers. The phylogeny was reconstructed using Bayesian inference, as well as maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. The Swofford-Olsen-Waddell-Hillis and Bayesian tests were used to assess the strength of the conflicts between traditional taxonomic units and those suggested by the phylogenetic inferences. Evolution of morphological characters was inferred using Bayesian method to identify synapomorphies for the infrageneric lineages. Our data recognize two strongly supported clades within Coptis. The first clade contains subgenus Coptis and section Japonocoptis of subgenus Metacoptis, supported by morphological characters, such as traits of the central leaflet base, petal color, and petal shape. The second clade consists of section Japonocoptis of subgenus Metacoptis. Coptis morii is not united with C. quinquefolia, in contrast with the view that C. morii is a synonym of C. quinquefolia. Two varieties of C. chinensis do not cluster together. Coptis groenlandica and C. lutescens are reduced to C. trifolia and C. japonica, respectively. Central leaflet base, sepal shape, and petal blade carry a strong phylogenetic signal in Coptis, while leaf type, sepal and petal color, and petal shape exhibit relatively higher levels of evolutionary flexibility. PMID:27044035

  4. Molecular phylogeny and character evolution of the chthamaloid barnacles (Cirripedia:Thoracica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Crandall, Keith A.


    surrounded by whorls of small imbricating plates; but this hypothesis has never been subjected to a rigorous phylogenetic test. Here we used multilocus sequence data and extensive taxon sampling to build a comprehensive phylogeny of the Chthamaloidea as a basis for understanding their morphological evolution......The Chthamaloidea (Balanomorpha) present the most plesiomorphic characters in shell plates and cirri, mouthparts, and oral cone within the acorn barnacles (Thoracica: Sessilia). Due to their importance in understanding both the origin and diversification of the Balanomorpha, the evolution...... of the Chthamaloidea has been debated since Darwin's seminal monographs. Theories of morphological and ontogenetic evolution suggest that the group could have evolved multiple times from pedunculated relatives and that shell plate number diminished gradually (8¿6¿4) from an ancestral state with eight wall plates...

  5. EREM: Parameter Estimation and Ancestral Reconstruction by Expectation-Maximization Algorithm for a Probabilistic Model of Genomic Binary Characters Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran Carmel


    Full Text Available Evolutionary binary characters are features of species or genes, indicating the absence (value zero or presence (value one of some property. Examples include eukaryotic gene architecture (the presence or absence of an intron in a particular locus, gene content, and morphological characters. In many studies, the acquisition of such binary characters is assumed to represent a rare evolutionary event, and consequently, their evolution is analyzed using various flavors of parsimony. However, when gain and loss of the character are not rare enough, a probabilistic analysis becomes essential. Here, we present a comprehensive probabilistic model to describe the evolution of binary characters on a bifurcating phylogenetic tree. A fast software tool, EREM, is provided, using maximum likelihood to estimate the parameters of the model and to reconstruct ancestral states (presence and absence in internal nodes and events (gain and loss events along branches.

  6. EREM: Parameter Estimation and Ancestral Reconstruction by Expectation-Maximization Algorithm for a Probabilistic Model of Genomic Binary Characters Evolution. (United States)

    Carmel, Liran; Wolf, Yuri I; Rogozin, Igor B; Koonin, Eugene V


    Evolutionary binary characters are features of species or genes, indicating the absence (value zero) or presence (value one) of some property. Examples include eukaryotic gene architecture (the presence or absence of an intron in a particular locus), gene content, and morphological characters. In many studies, the acquisition of such binary characters is assumed to represent a rare evolutionary event, and consequently, their evolution is analyzed using various flavors of parsimony. However, when gain and loss of the character are not rare enough, a probabilistic analysis becomes essential. Here, we present a comprehensive probabilistic model to describe the evolution of binary characters on a bifurcating phylogenetic tree. A fast software tool, EREM, is provided, using maximum likelihood to estimate the parameters of the model and to reconstruct ancestral states (presence and absence in internal nodes) and events (gain and loss events along branches).

  7. Effects of ridge tillage on photosynthesis and root characters of rice

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    Yao Yuan-zhi


    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is an important crop and breeding has not been able to improve yield. Root characteristics of hybrid rice 'Zhuliangyou 02' under conventional tillage and ridge tillage were studied in a Calcisols in Huaihua, China, from 2011 to 2013 to find better tillage methods to resolve massive water consumption, improve yield, and enhance productivity of agricultural labor for rice cultivation. Results showed ridge tillage increased photosynthetic parameters such as photosynthetic rate (P N, stomatal conductance (g s, and water use efficiency (WUE. It also significantly enhanced rice root number, root activity, and antioxidant enzyme activities; it also increased effective panicle number and actual yield by 22.12% and 15.18%, respectively, and enhanced aerenchymae during the early growth stage. Overall, ridge tillage could promote hybrid rice yields by enhancing root absorption, gas exchange, and reducing water consumption. It could be widely used in rice cultivation.

  8. Inferring speciation modes in a clade of Iberian chafers from rates of morphological evolution in different character systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahrens Dirk


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of speciation mode based on phylogenies usually test the predicted effect on diversification patterns or on geographical distribution of closely related species. Here we outline an approach to infer the prevalent speciation mode in Iberian Hymenoplia chafers through the comparison of the evolutionary rates of morphological character systems likely to be related to sexual or ecological selection. Assuming that mitochondrial evolution is neutral and not related to measured phenotypic differences among the species, we contrast hypothetic outcomes of three speciation modes: 1 geographic isolation with subsequent random morphological divergence, resulting in overall change proportional to the mtDNA rate; 2 sexual selection on size and shape of the male intromittent organs, resulting in an evolutionary rate decoupled to that of the mtDNA; and 3 ecological segregation, reflected in character systems presumably related to ecological or biological adaptations, with rates decoupled from that of the mtDNA. Results The evolutionary rate of qualitative external body characters was significantly correlated to that of the mtDNA both for the overall root-to-tip patristic distances and the individual inter-node branches, as measured with standard statistics and the randomization of a global comparison metric (the z-score. The rate of the body morphospace was significantly correlated to that of the mtDNA only for the individual branches, but not for the patristic distances, while that of the paramere outline was significantly correlated with mtDNA rates only for the patristic distances but not for the individual branches. Conclusion Structural morphological characters, often used for species recognition, have evolved at a rate proportional to that of the mtDNA, with no evidence of directional or stabilising selection according to our measures. The change in body morphospace seems to have evolved randomly at short term, but the overall

  9. Evolution of wood anatomical characters in Nepenthes and close relatives of Caryophyllales. (United States)

    Schwallier, Rachel; Gravendeel, Barbara; de Boer, Hugo; Nylinder, Stephan; van Heuven, Bertie Joan; Sieder, Anton; Sumail, Sukaibin; van Vugt, Rogier; Lens, Frederic


    Nepenthes attracts wide attention with its spectacularly shaped carnivorous pitchers, cultural value and horticultural curiosity. Despite the plant's iconic fascination, surprisingly little anatomical detail is known about the genus beyond its modified leaf tip traps. Here, the wood anatomical diversity of Nepenthes is explored. This diversity is further assessed with a phylogenetic framework to investigate whether the wood characters within the genus are relevant from an evolutionary or ecological perspective, or rather depend on differences in developmental stages, growth habits, substrates or precipitation. Observations were performed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Ancestral states of selected wood and pith characters were reconstructed using an existing molecular phylogeny for Nepenthes and a broader Caryophyllales framework. Pairwise comparisons were assessed for possible relationships between wood anatomy and developmental stages, growth habits, substrates and ecology. Wood anatomy of Nepenthes is diffuse porous, with mainly solitary vessels showing simple, bordered perforation plates and alternate intervessel pits, fibres with distinctly bordered pits (occasionally septate), apotracheal axial parenchyma and co-occurring uni- and multiseriate rays often including silica bodies. Precipitation and growth habit (stem length) are linked with vessel density and multiseriate ray height, while soil type correlates with vessel diameter, vessel element length and maximum ray width. For Caryophyllales as a whole, silica grains, successive cambia and bordered perforation plates are the result of convergent evolution. Peculiar helical sculpturing patterns within various cell types occur uniquely within the insectivorous clade of non-core Caryophyllales. The wood anatomical variation in Nepenthes displays variation for some characters dependent on soil type, precipitation and stem length, but is largely conservative. The helical-banded fibre

  10. Molecular phylogenetic evaluation of classification and scenarios of character evolution in calcareous sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Voigt

    Full Text Available Calcareous sponges (Phylum Porifera, Class Calcarea are known to be taxonomically difficult. Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. Therefore, we extended the available taxa and character set by sequencing the complete small subunit (SSU rDNA and the almost complete large subunit (LSU rDNA of additional key species and complemented this dataset by substantially increasing the length of available LSU sequences. Phylogenetic analyses provided new hypotheses about the relationships of Calcarea and about the evolution of certain morphological characters. We tested our phylogeny against competing phylogenetic hypotheses presented by previous classification systems. Our data reject the current order-level classification by again finding non-monophyletic Leucosolenida, Clathrinida and Murrayonida. In the subclass Calcinea, we recovered a clade that includes all species with a cortex, which is largely consistent with the previously proposed order Leucettida. Other orders that had been rejected in the current system were not found, but could not be rejected in our tests either. We found several additional families and genera polyphyletic: the families Leucascidae and Leucaltidae and the genus Leucetta in Calcinea, and in Calcaronea the family Amphoriscidae and the genus Ute. Our phylogeny also provided support for the vaguely suspected close relationship of several members of Grantiidae with giantortical diactines to members of Heteropiidae. Similarly, our analyses revealed several unexpected affinities, such as a sister group relationship between Leucettusa (Leucaltidae and Leucettidae and between Leucascandra (Jenkinidae and Sycon carteri (Sycettidae. According to our results, the taxonomy of Calcarea is in

  11. Flash signal evolution in Photinus fireflies: character displacement and signal exploitation in a visual communication system. (United States)

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F; Lloyd, James E


    Animal communication is an intriguing topic in evolutionary biology. In this comprehensive study of visual signal evolution, we used a phylogenetic approach to study the evolution of the flash communication system of North American fireflies. The North American firefly genus Photinus contains 35 described species with simple ON-OFF visual signals, and information on habitat types, sympatric congeners, and predators. This makes them an ideal study system to test hypotheses on the evolution of male and female visual signal traits. Our analysis of 34 Photinus species suggests two temporal pattern generators: one for flash duration and one for flash intervals. Reproductive character displacement was a main factor for signal divergence in male flash duration among sympatric Photinus species. Male flash pattern intervals (i.e., the duration of the dark periods between signals) were positively correlated with the number of sympatric Photuris fireflies, which include predators of Photinus. Females of different Photinus species differ in their response preferences to male traits. As in other communication systems, firefly male sexual signals seem to be a compromise between optimizing mating success (sexual selection) and minimizing predation risk (natural selection). An integrative model for Photinus signal evolution is proposed. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Colour pattern homology and evolution in Vanessa butterflies (Nymphalidae: Nymphalini): eyespot characters. (United States)

    Abbasi, R; Marcus, J M


    Ocelli are serially repeated colour patterns on the wings of many butterflies. Eyespots are elaborate ocelli that function in predator avoidance and deterrence as well as in mate choice. A phylogenetic approach was used to study ocelli and eyespot evolution in Vanessa butterflies, a genus exhibiting diverse phenotypes among these serial homologs. Forty-four morphological characters based on eyespot number, arrangement, shape and the number of elements in each eyespot were defined and scored. Ocelli from eight wing cells on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the forewing and hindwing were evaluated. The evolution of these characters was traced over a phylogeny of Vanessa based on 7750 DNA base pairs from 10 genes. Our reconstruction predicts that the ancestral Vanessa had 5 serially arranged ocelli on all four wing surfaces. The ancestral state on the dorsal forewing and ventral hindwing was ocelli arranged in two heterogeneous groups. On the dorsal hindwing, the ancestral state was either homogenous or ocelli arranged in two heterogeneous groups. On the ventral forewing, we determined that the ancestral state was organized into three heterogeneous groups. In Vanessa, almost all ocelli are individuated and capable of independent evolution relative to other colour patterns except for the ocelli in cells -1 and 0 on the dorsal and ventral forewings, which appear to be constrained to evolve in parallel. The genus Vanessa is a good model system for the study of serial homology and the interaction of selective forces with developmental architecture to produce diversity in butterfly colour patterns. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity and environmental tolerance of a labile quantitative character in a fluctuating environment. (United States)

    Lande, R


    Quantitative genetic models of evolution of phenotypic plasticity are used to derive environmental tolerance curves for a population in a changing environment, providing a theoretical foundation for integrating physiological and community ecology with evolutionary genetics of plasticity and norms of reaction. Plasticity is modelled for a labile quantitative character undergoing continuous reversible development and selection in a fluctuating environment. If there is no cost of plasticity, a labile character evolves expected plasticity equalling the slope of the optimal phenotype as a function of the environment. This contrasts with previous theory for plasticity influenced by the environment at a critical stage of early development determining a constant adult phenotype on which selection acts, for which the expected plasticity is reduced by the environmental predictability over the discrete time lag between development and selection. With a cost of plasticity in a labile character, the expected plasticity depends on the cost and on the environmental variance and predictability averaged over the continuous developmental time lag. Environmental tolerance curves derived from this model confirm traditional assumptions in physiological ecology and provide new insights. Tolerance curve width increases with larger environmental variance, but can only evolve within a limited range. The strength of the trade-off between tolerance curve height and width depends on the cost of plasticity. Asymmetric tolerance curves caused by male sterility at high temperature are illustrated. A simple condition is given for a large transient increase in plasticity and tolerance curve width following a sudden change in average environment. © 2014 The Author. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Morphometric relationship, phylogenetic correlation, and character evolution in the species-rich genus Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

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    Hyojoong Kim


    Full Text Available The species-rich genus Aphis consists of more than 500 species, many of them host-specific on a wide range of plants, yet very similar in general appearance due to convergence toward particular morphological types. Most species have been historically clustered into four main phenotypic groups (gossypii, craccivora, fabae, and spiraecola groups. To confirm the morphological hypotheses between these groups and to examine the characteristics that determine them, multivariate morphometric analyses were performed using 28 characters measured/counted from 40 species. To infer whether the morphological relationships are correlated with the genetic relationships, we compared the morphometric dataset with a phylogeny reconstructed from the combined dataset of three mtDNA and one nuclear DNA regions.Based on a comparison of morphological and molecular datasets, we confirmed morphological reduction or regression in the gossypii group unlike in related groups. Most morphological characteristics of the gossypii group were less variable than for the other groups. Due to these, the gossypii group could be morphologically well separated from the craccivora, fabae, and spiraecola groups. In addition, the correlation of the rates of evolution between morphological and DNA datasets was highly significant in their diversification.The morphological separation between the gossypii group and the other species-groups are congruent with their phylogenetic relationships. Analysis of trait evolution revealed that the morphological traits found to be significant based on the morphometric analyses were confidently correlated with the phylogeny. The dominant patterns of trait evolution resulting in increased rates of short branches and temporally later evolution are likely suitable for the modality of Aphis speciation because they have adapted species-specifically, rapidly, and more recently on many different host plants.

  15. Molecular phylogeny and character evolution in terete-stemmed Andean opuntias (Cactaceae-Opuntioideae). (United States)

    Ritz, C M; Reiker, J; Charles, G; Hoxey, P; Hunt, D; Lowry, M; Stuppy, W; Taylor, N


    The cacti of tribe Tephrocacteae (Cactaceae-Opuntioideae) are adapted to diverse climatic conditions over a wide area of the southern Andes and adjacent lowlands. They exhibit a range of life forms from geophytes and cushion-plants to dwarf shrubs, shrubs or small trees. To confirm or challenge previous morphology-based classifications and molecular phylogenies, we sampled DNA sequences from the chloroplast trnK/matK region and the nuclear low copy gene phyC and compared the resulting phylogenies with previous data gathered from nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences. The here presented chloroplast and nuclear low copy gene phylogenies were mutually congruent and broadly coincident with the classification based on gross morphology and seed micro-morphology and anatomy. Reconstruction of hypothetical ancestral character states suggested that geophytes and cushion-forming species probably evolved several times from dwarf shrubby precursors. We also traced an increase of embryo size at the expense of the nucellus-derived storage tissue during the evolution of the Tephrocacteae, which is thought to be an evolutionary advantage because nutrients are then more rapidly accessible for the germinating embryo. In contrast to these highly concordant phylogenies, nuclear ribosomal DNA data sampled by a previous study yielded conflicting phylogenetic signals. Secondary structure predictions of ribosomal transcribed spacers suggested that this phylogeny is strongly influenced by the inclusion of paralogous sequence probably arisen by genome duplication during the evolution of this plant group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Root evolution at the base of the lycophyte clade: insights from an Early Devonian lycophyte (United States)

    Matsunaga, Kelly K. S.; Tomescu, Alexandru M. F.


    Background and Aims The evolution of complex rooting systems during the Devonian had significant impacts on global terrestrial ecosystems and the evolution of plant body plans. However, detailed understanding of the pathways of root evolution and the architecture of early rooting systems is currently lacking. We describe the architecture and resolve the structural homology of the rooting system of an Early Devonian basal lycophyte. Insights gained from these fossils are used to address lycophyte root evolution and homology. Methods Plant fossils are preserved as carbonaceous compressions at Cottonwood Canyon (Wyoming), in the Lochkovian–Pragian (∼411 Ma; Early Devonian) Beartooth Butte Formation. We analysed 177 rock specimens and documented morphology, cuticular anatomy and structural relationships, as well as stratigraphic position and taphonomic conditions. Key Results The rooting system of the Cottonwood Canyon lycophyte is composed of modified stems that bear fine, dichotomously branching lateral roots. These modified stems, referred to as root-bearing axes, are produced at branching points of the above-ground shoot system. Root-bearing axes preserved in growth position exhibit evidence of positive gravitropism, whereas the lateral roots extend horizontally. Consistent recurrence of these features in successive populations of the plant preserved in situ demonstrates that they represent constitutive structural traits and not opportunistic responses of a flexible developmental programme. Conclusions This is the oldest direct evidence for a rooting system preserved in growth position. These rooting systems, which can be traced to a parent plant, include some of the earliest roots known to date and demonstrate that substantial plant–substrate interactions were under way by Early Devonian time. The morphological relationships between stems, root-bearing axes and roots corroborate evidence that positive gravitropism and root identity were evolutionarily

  17. Generic phylogeny, historical biogeography and character evolution of the cosmopolitan aquatic plant family Hydrocharitaceae. (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Yun; Chen, Jin-Ming; Gituru, Robert Wahiti; Wang, Qing-Feng


    Hydrocharitaceae is a fully aquatic monocot family, consists of 18 genera with approximately 120 species. The family includes both fresh and marine aquatics and exhibits great diversity in form and habit including annual and perennial life histories; submersed, partially submersed and floating leaf habits and linear to orbicular leaf shapes. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution and is well represented in the Tertiary fossil record in Europe. At present, the historical biogeography of the family is not well understood and the generic relationships remain controversial. In this study we investigated the phylogeny and biogeography of Hydrocharitaceae by integrating fossils and DNA sequences from eight genes. We also conducted ancestral state reconstruction for three morphological characters. Phylogenetic analyses produced a phylogeny with most branches strongly supported by bootstrap values greater than 95 and Bayesian posterior probability values of 1.0. Stratiotes is the first diverging lineage with the remaining genera in two clades, one clade consists of Lagarosiphon, Ottelia, Blyxa, Apalanthe, Elodea and Egeria; and the other consists of Hydrocharis-Limnobium, Thalassia, Enhalus, Halophila, Najas, Hydrilla, Vallisneria, Nechamandra and Maidenia. Biogeographic analyses (DIVA, Mesquite) and divergence time estimates (BEAST) resolved the most recent common ancestor of Hydrocharitaceae as being in Asia during the Late Cretaceous and Palaeocene (54.7-72.6 Ma). Dispersals (including long-distance dispersal and migrations through Tethys seaway and land bridges) probably played major roles in the intercontinental distribution of this family. Ancestral state reconstruction suggested that in Hydrocharitaceae evolution of dioecy is bidirectional, viz., from dioecy to hermaphroditism, and from hermaphroditism to dioecy, and that the aerial-submerged leaf habit and short-linear leaf shape are the ancestral states. Our study has shed light on the previously controversial

  18. Parallel evolution of storage roots in Morning Glories (Convolvulaceae) (United States)

    Storage roots are an ecologically and agriculturally important plant trait. In morning glories, storage roots are well characterized in the crop species sweetpotato. Storage roots have evolved numerous times across the morning glory family. This study aims to understand whether this was through para...

  19. Generic phylogeny, historical biogeography and character evolution of the cosmopolitan aquatic plant family Hydrocharitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ling-Yun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrocharitaceae is a fully aquatic monocot family, consists of 18 genera with approximately 120 species. The family includes both fresh and marine aquatics and exhibits great diversity in form and habit including annual and perennial life histories; submersed, partially submersed and floating leaf habits and linear to orbicular leaf shapes. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution and is well represented in the Tertiary fossil record in Europe. At present, the historical biogeography of the family is not well understood and the generic relationships remain controversial. In this study we investigated the phylogeny and biogeography of Hydrocharitaceae by integrating fossils and DNA sequences from eight genes. We also conducted ancestral state reconstruction for three morphological characters. Results Phylogenetic analyses produced a phylogeny with most branches strongly supported by bootstrap values greater than 95 and Bayesian posterior probability values of 1.0. Stratiotes is the first diverging lineage with the remaining genera in two clades, one clade consists of Lagarosiphon, Ottelia, Blyxa, Apalanthe, Elodea and Egeria; and the other consists of Hydrocharis-Limnobium, Thalassia, Enhalus, Halophila, Najas, Hydrilla, Vallisneria, Nechamandra and Maidenia. Biogeographic analyses (DIVA, Mesquite and divergence time estimates (BEAST resolved the most recent common ancestor of Hydrocharitaceae as being in Asia during the Late Cretaceous and Palaeocene (54.7-72.6 Ma. Dispersals (including long-distance dispersal and migrations through Tethys seaway and land bridges probably played major roles in the intercontinental distribution of this family. Ancestral state reconstruction suggested that in Hydrocharitaceae evolution of dioecy is bidirectional, viz., from dioecy to hermaphroditism, and from hermaphroditism to dioecy, and that the aerial-submerged leaf habit and short-linear leaf shape are the ancestral states. Conclusions

  20. Phylogeny, historical biogeography and characters evolution of the drought resistant fern Pyrrosia Mirbel (Polypodiaceae) inferred from plastid and nuclear markers. (United States)

    Wei, Xueping; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Xianchun; Luo, Li; Shang, Hui; Wei, Ran; Liu, Haitao; Zhang, Bengang


    Pyrrosia s.l. comprises ca. 60 species with a disjunct Africa/Asia and Australia distribution. The infrageneric classification of Pyrrosia s.l. is controversial based on the phylogenetic analyses of chloroplast markers and morphology. Based on the expanded taxon sampling of Pyrrosia s.l. (51 species), we investigated its phylogeny, biogeography, character evolution and environmental adaptation by employing five chloroplastid markers (rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH, and rps4 + rps4-trnS) and one single (low)-copy nuclear gene, LEAFY. Pyrrosia s.l. was divided into six major clades and eight subclades. Reticulate evolution was revealed both among clades and among species in Pyrrosia s.l. Ancestral character state optimization revealed high levels of homoplastic evolution of the diagnostic characters in Pyrrosia s.l., while the crassulacean acid metabolism pathway seems to have an independent origin. Molecular dating and biogeographic diversification analyses suggested that Pyrrosia s.l. originated no later than the Oligocene and the main clades diversified during the Oligocene and Miocene, with southern Asia, the Indo-China Peninsula and southwestern and southern China as the most likely ancestral areas. Transoceanic long-distance dispersal, rather than vicariance, contributed to the intercontinental disjunction. Diversification scenarios of Pyrrosia s.l. under geological movements and climate fluctuation are also discussed.

  1. Evolution of specialization and ecological character displacement along a gradient of plant quality.


    Egas, C.J.M.; Sabelis, M.W.; Dieckmann, U.


    We study the combined evolutionary dynamics of herbivore specialization and eco-logical character displacement, taking into account foraging behavior of the herbivores, and a quality gradient of plant types. Herbivores can adapt by changing two adaptive traits: their level of specialization in feeding efficiency and their point of maximum feeding efficiency along the plant gradient. The number of herbivore phenotypes, their levels of specialization, and the amount of character displacement am...

  2. Harmonic hopping, and both punctuated and gradual evolution of acoustic characters in Selasphorus hummingbird tail-feathers.

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    Christopher James Clark

    Full Text Available Models of character evolution often assume a single mode of evolutionary change, such as continuous, or discrete. Here I provide an example in which a character exhibits both types of change. Hummingbirds in the genus Selasphorus produce sound with fluttering tail-feathers during courtship. The ancestral character state within Selasphorus is production of sound with an inner tail-feather, R2, in which the sound usually evolves gradually. Calliope and Allen's Hummingbirds have evolved autapomorphic acoustic mechanisms that involve feather-feather interactions. I develop a source-filter model of these interactions. The 'source' comprises feather(s that are both necessary and sufficient for sound production, and are aerodynamically coupled to neighboring feathers, which act as filters. Filters are unnecessary or insufficient for sound production, but may evolve to become sources. Allen's Hummingbird has evolved to produce sound with two sources, one with feather R3, another frequency-modulated sound with R4, and their interaction frequencies. Allen's R2 retains the ancestral character state, a ∼1 kHz "ghost" fundamental frequency masked by R3, which is revealed when R3 is experimentally removed. In the ancestor to Allen's Hummingbird, the dominant frequency has 'hopped' to the second harmonic without passing through intermediate frequencies. This demonstrates that although the fundamental frequency of a communication sound may usually evolve gradually, occasional jumps from one character state to another can occur in a discrete fashion. Accordingly, mapping acoustic characters on a phylogeny may produce misleading results if the physical mechanism of production is not known.

  3. Evolution of specialization and ecological character displacement along a gradient of plant quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egas, C.J.M.; Sabelis, M.W.; Dieckmann, U.


    We study the combined evolutionary dynamics of herbivore specialization and eco-logical character displacement, taking into account foraging behavior of the herbivores, and a quality gradient of plant types. Herbivores can adapt by changing two adaptive traits: their level of specialization in

  4. Molecular phylogenetics and character evolution of morphologically diverse groups, Dendrobium section Dendrobium and allies (United States)

    Takamiya, Tomoko; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Sathapattayanon, Apirada; Tajima, Natsuko; Suzuki, Shunichiro; Kitamura, Saki; Shioda, Nao; Handa, Takashi; Kitanaka, Susumu; Iijima, Hiroshi; Yukawa, Tomohisa


    It is always difficult to construct coherent classification systems for plant lineages having diverse morphological characters. The genus Dendrobium, one of the largest genera in the Orchidaceae, includes ∼1100 species, and enormous morphological diversification has hindered the establishment of consistent classification systems covering all major groups of this genus. Given the particular importance of species in Dendrobium section Dendrobium and allied groups as floriculture and crude drug genetic resources, there is an urgent need to establish a stable classification system. To clarify phylogenetic relationships in Dendrobium section Dendrobium and allied groups, we analysed the macromolecular characters of the group. Phylogenetic analyses of 210 taxa of Dendrobium were conducted on DNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of 18S–26S nuclear ribosomal DNA and the maturase-coding gene (matK) located in an intron of the plastid gene trnK using maximum parsimony and Bayesian methods. The parsimony and Bayesian analyses revealed 13 distinct clades in the group comprising section Dendrobium and its allied groups. Results also showed paraphyly or polyphyly of sections Amblyanthus, Aporum, Breviflores, Calcarifera, Crumenata, Dendrobium, Densiflora, Distichophyllae, Dolichocentrum, Holochrysa, Oxyglossum and Pedilonum. On the other hand, the monophyly of section Stachyobium was well supported. It was found that many of the morphological characters that have been believed to reflect phylogenetic relationships are, in fact, the result of convergence. As such, many of the sections that have been recognized up to this point were found to not be monophyletic, so recircumscription of sections is required. PMID:25107672

  5. Support for significant evolutions of the user data model in ROOT files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canal, Ph; Russo, P; Brun, R; Janyst, L; Fine, V; Lauret, J


    One of the main strengths of ROOT input and output (I/O) is its inherent support for schema evolution. Two distinct modes are supported, one manual via a hand coded streamer function and one fully automatic via the ROOT StreamerInfo. One draw back of the streamer functions is that they are not usable by TTree objects in split mode. Until now, the user could not customize the automatic schema evolution mechanism and the only mechanism to go beyond the default rules was to revert to using the streamer function. In ROOT 5.22/00, we introduced a new mechanism which allows user provided extensions of the automatic schema evolution that can be used in object-wise, member-wise and split modes. This paper will describe the many possibilities ranging from the simple assignment of transient members to the complex reorganization of the user's object model.

  6. Rapid evolution of troglomorphic characters suggests selection rather than neutral mutation as a driver of eye reduction in cave crabs. (United States)

    Klaus, Sebastian; Mendoza, José C E; Liew, Jia Huan; Plath, Martin; Meier, Rudolf; Yeo, Darren C J


    This study asked whether reductive traits in cave organisms evolve at a slower pace (suggesting neutral evolution under relaxed selection) than constructive changes, which are likely to evolve under directional selection. We investigated 11 subterranean and seven surface populations of Sundathelphusa freshwater crabs on Bohol Island, Philippines, and examined constructive traits associated with improved food finding in darkness (increased leg and setae length) and reductive traits (reduced cornea size and eyestalk length). All changes occurred rapidly, given that the age of the most recent common ancestor was estimated to be 722-271 ka based on three mitochondrial markers. In order to quantify the speed of character change, we correlated the degree of morphological change with genetic distances between surface and subterranean individuals. The temporal pattern of character change following the transition to subterranean life was indistinguishable for constructive and reductive traits, characterized by an immediate onset and rapid evolutionary change. We propose that the evolution of these reductive traits-just like constructive traits-is most likely driven by strong directional selection.

  7. New insights into the phylogenetic relationships, character evolution, and phytogeographic patterns of Calceolaria (Calceolariaceae). (United States)

    Cosacov, Andrea; Sérsic, Alicia N; Sosa, Victoria; De-Nova, J Arturo; Nylinder, Stephan; Cocucci, Andrea A


    Biogeographical patterns and diversification processes in Andean and Patagonian flora are not yet well understood. Calceolaria is a highly diversified genus of these areas, representing one of the most specialized plant-pollinator systems because flowers produce nonvolatile oils, a very unusual floral reward. Phylogenetic analyses with molecular (ITS and matK) and morphological characters from 103 Calceolaria species were conducted to examine relationships, to understand biogeographic patterns, and to detect evolutionary patterns of floral and ecological characters. Total evidence analysis retrieved three major clades, which strongly correspond to the three previously recognized subgenera, although only subgenus Rosula was retrieved as a monophyletic group. A single historical event explains the expansion from the southern to central Andes, while different parallel evolutionary lines show a northward expansion from the central to northern Andes across the Huancabamba Deflection, an important geographical barrier in northern Peru. Polyploidy, acquisition of elaiophores, and a nototribic pollination mechanism are key aspects of the evolutionary history of Calceolaria. Pollination interactions were more frequently established with Centris than with Chalepogenus oil-collecting bee species. The repeated loss of the oil gland and shifts to pollen as the only reward suggest an evolutionary tendency from highly to moderately specialized pollination systems.


    Fishman, Lila; Wyatt, Robert


    Ecological factors that reduce the effectiveness of cross-pollination are likely to play a role in the frequent evolution of routine self-fertilization in flowering plants. However, we lack empirical evidence linking the reproductive assurance value of selfing in poor pollination environments to evolutionary shifts in mating system. Here, we investigated the adaptive significance of prior selfing in the polymorphic annual plant Arenaria uniflora (Caryophyllaceae), in which selfer populations occur only in areas of range overlap with congener A. glabra. To examine the hypothesis that secondary contact between the two species contributed to the evolution and maintenance of selfing, we used field competition experiments and controlled hand-pollinations to measure the female fitness consequences of pollinator-mediated interspecific interactions. Uniformly high fruit set by selfers in the naturally pollinated field arrays confirmed the reproductive assurance value of selfing, whereas substantial reductions in outcrosser fruit set (15%) and total seed production (20-35%) in the presence of A. glabra demonstrated that pollinator-mediated interactions can provide strong selection for self-pollination. Heterospecific pollen transfer, rather than competition for pollinator service, appears to be the primary mechanism of pollinator-mediated competition in Arenaria. Premating barriers to hybridization between outcrossers and A. glabra are extremely weak. The production of a few inviable hybrid seeds after heterospecific pollination and intermediate seed set after mixed pollinations indicates that A. glabra pollen can usurp A. uniflora ovules. Thus, any visit to A. uniflora by shared pollinators carries a potential female fitness cost. Moreover, patterns of fruit set and seed set in the competition arrays relative to controls were consistent with the receipt of mixed pollen loads, rather than a lack of pollinator visits. Competition through pollen transfer favors preemptive

  9. Effects of aluminum on nucleoli in root tip cells and selected physiological and biochemical characters in Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. (United States)

    Qin, Rong; Jiao, Yunqiu; Zhang, Shanshan; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua


    Increased Al concentration causes reduction of mitotic activity, induction of nucleolar alteration, increase of the production of ROS and alteration of several antioxidant enzyme activities in plant cells. Allium cepa is an excellent plant and a useful biomarker for environmental monitoring. Limited information is available about the effects of Al on nucleoli, antioxidant enzyme system, contents of MDA and soluble protein in A. cepa. Therefore, we carried out the investigation in order to better understand the effects of Al on the growth, nucleoli in root tip cells and selected physiological and biochemical characters. The results showed that the root growth exposed to 50 μM Al was inhibited significantly. 50 μM Al could induce some particles of argyrophilic proteins scattered in the nuclei and extruded from the nucleoli into the cytoplasm. The nucleolus did not disaggregate normally and still remained its characteristic structure during metaphase. Nucleolar reconstruction was inhibited. 50 μM Al induced high activities of SOD and POD in leaves and roots significantly (P nucleoli and the alterations of antioxidant enzyme activities, MDA and soluble protein contents in Allium cepa can serve as useful biomarkers, which can provide valuable information for monitoring and forecasting effects of exposure to Al in real scenarios conditions. Among the antioxidant enzymes SOD and POD appear to play a key role in the antioxidant defense mechanism under Al toxicity condition. Data from MDA concentration show that Al indirectly produces superoxide radicals, resulting in increased lipid peroxidative products and oxidative stress.

  10. On the distribution of interspecies correlation for Markov models of character evolution on Yule trees. (United States)

    Mulder, Willem H; Crawford, Forrest W


    Efforts to reconstruct phylogenetic trees and understand evolutionary processes depend fundamentally on stochastic models of speciation and mutation. The simplest continuous-time model for speciation in phylogenetic trees is the Yule process, in which new species are "born" from existing lineages at a constant rate. Recent work has illuminated some of the structural properties of Yule trees, but it remains mostly unknown how these properties affect sequence and trait patterns observed at the tips of the phylogenetic tree. Understanding the interplay between speciation and mutation under simple models of evolution is essential for deriving valid phylogenetic inference methods and gives insight into the optimal design of phylogenetic studies. In this work, we derive the probability distribution of interspecies covariance under Brownian motion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models of phenotypic change on a Yule tree. We compute the probability distribution of the number of mutations shared between two randomly chosen taxa in a Yule tree under discrete Markov mutation models. Our results suggest summary measures of phylogenetic information content, illuminate the correlation between site patterns in sequences or traits of related organisms, and provide heuristics for experimental design and reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phylogeny and character evolution of the fern genus Tectaria (Tectariaceae) in the Old World inferred from chloroplast DNA sequences. (United States)

    Ding, Hui-Hui; Chao, Yi-Shan; Callado, John Rey; Dong, Shi-Yong


    In this study we provide a phylogeny for the pantropical fern genus Tectaria, with emphasis on the Old World species, based on sequences of five plastid regions (atpB, ndhF plus ndhF-trnL, rbcL, rps16-matK plus matK, and trnL-F). Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference are used to analyze 115 individuals, representing ca. 56 species of Tectaria s.l. and 36 species of ten related genera. The results strongly support the monophyly of Tectaria in a broad sense, in which Ctenitopsis, Hemigramma, Heterogonium, Psomiocarpa, Quercifilix, Stenosemia, and Tectaridium should be submerged. Such broadly circumscribed Tectaria is supported by the arising pattern of veinlets and the base chromosome number (x=40). Four primary clades are well resolved within Tectaria, one from the Neotropic (T. trifoliata clade) and three from the Old World (T. subtriphylla clade, Ctenitopsis clade, and T. crenata clade). Tectaria crenata clade is the largest one including six subclades. Of the genera previously recognized as tectarioid ferns, Ctenitis, Lastreopsis, and Pleocnemia, are confirmed to be members in Dryopteridaceae; while Pteridrys and Triplophyllum are supported in Tectariaceae. To infer morphological evolution, 13 commonly used characters are optimized on the resulting phylogenetic trees and in result, are all homoplastic in Tectaria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reconstruction of the feeding apparatus in Postgaardi mariagerensis provides evidence for character evolution within the Symbiontida (Euglenozoa). (United States)

    Yubuki, Naoji; Simpson, Alastair G B; Leander, Brian S


    Microbial eukaryotes living in low oxygen environments often have novel physiological and morphological features that facilitate symbiotic relationships with bacteria and other means for acquiring nutrients. Comparative studies of these features provide evidence for phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history. Postgaardi mariagerensis, for instance, is a euglenozoan that lives in low oxygen environments and is enveloped by episymbiotic bacteria. The general ultrastructure of P. mariagerensis was described more than a decade ago and no further studies have been carried out since, mainly because these cells are difficult to obtain. Postgaardi lacks the diagnostic features found in other major euglenozoan lineages (e.g., pellicle strips and kinetoplast-like mitochondrial inclusions) and no molecular data are available, so the phylogenetic position of this genus within the Euglenozoa remains unclear. We re-examined and reconstructed the ultrastructural organization of the feeding apparatus in Postgaardi by serial sectioning an existing block of resin-embedded cells. Postgaardi possesses distinctive finger-like projections within the feeding apparatus; this system has only been found in one other highly distinctive flagellate, namely the symbiontid Calkinsia. Detailed comparisons of the cytoskeleton in Postgaardi and in two symbiontids, Calkinsia and Bihospites, provided new evidence for phylogenetic relationships and character evolution in all three genera. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Systematics, biogeography, and character evolution of the legume tribe Fabeae with special focus on the middle-Atlantic island lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer Hanno


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tribe Fabeae comprises about 380 legume species, including some of the most ancient and important crops like lentil, pea, and broad bean. Breeding efforts in legume crops rely on a detailed knowledge of closest wild relatives and geographic origin. Relationships within the tribe, however, are incompletely known and previous molecular results conflicted with the traditional morphology-based classification. Here we analyse the systematics, biogeography, and character evolution in the tribe based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Results Phylogenetic analyses including c. 70% of the species in the tribe show that the genera Vicia and Lathyrus in their current circumscription are not monophyletic: Pisum and Vavilovia are nested in Lathyrus, the genus Lens is nested in Vicia. A small, well-supported clade including Vicia hirsuta, V. sylvatica, and some Mediterranean endemics, is the sister group to all remaining species in the tribe. Fabeae originated in the East Mediterranean region in the Miocene (23–16 million years ago (Ma and spread at least 39 times into Eurasia, seven times to the Americas, twice to tropical Africa and four times to Macaronesia. Broad bean (V. faba and its sister V. paucijuga originated in Asia and might be sister to V. oroboides. Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris is of Mediterranean origin and together with eight very close relatives forms a clade that is nested in the core Vicia, where it evolved c. 14 Ma. The Pisum clade is nested in Lathyrus in a grade with the Mediterranean L. gloeosperma, L. neurolobus, and L. nissolia. The extinct Azorean endemic V. dennesiana belongs in section Cracca and is nested among Mediterranean species. According to our ancestral character state reconstruction results, ancestors of Fabeae had a basic chromosome number of 2n=14, an annual life form, and evenly hairy, dorsiventrally compressed styles. Conclusions Fabeae evolved in the Eastern Mediterranean in the

  14. Systematics, biogeography, and character evolution of the legume tribe Fabeae with special focus on the middle-Atlantic island lineages. (United States)

    Schaefer, Hanno; Hechenleitner, Paulina; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Menezes de Sequeira, Miguel; Pennington, R Toby; Kenicer, Gregory; Carine, Mark A


    Tribe Fabeae comprises about 380 legume species, including some of the most ancient and important crops like lentil, pea, and broad bean. Breeding efforts in legume crops rely on a detailed knowledge of closest wild relatives and geographic origin. Relationships within the tribe, however, are incompletely known and previous molecular results conflicted with the traditional morphology-based classification. Here we analyse the systematics, biogeography, and character evolution in the tribe based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses including c. 70% of the species in the tribe show that the genera Vicia and Lathyrus in their current circumscription are not monophyletic: Pisum and Vavilovia are nested in Lathyrus, the genus Lens is nested in Vicia. A small, well-supported clade including Vicia hirsuta, V. sylvatica, and some Mediterranean endemics, is the sister group to all remaining species in the tribe. Fabeae originated in the East Mediterranean region in the Miocene (23-16 million years ago (Ma)) and spread at least 39 times into Eurasia, seven times to the Americas, twice to tropical Africa and four times to Macaronesia. Broad bean (V. faba) and its sister V. paucijuga originated in Asia and might be sister to V. oroboides. Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris) is of Mediterranean origin and together with eight very close relatives forms a clade that is nested in the core Vicia, where it evolved c. 14 Ma. The Pisum clade is nested in Lathyrus in a grade with the Mediterranean L. gloeosperma, L. neurolobus, and L. nissolia. The extinct Azorean endemic V. dennesiana belongs in section Cracca and is nested among Mediterranean species. According to our ancestral character state reconstruction results, ancestors of Fabeae had a basic chromosome number of 2n=14, an annual life form, and evenly hairy, dorsiventrally compressed styles. Fabeae evolved in the Eastern Mediterranean in the middle Miocene and spread from there across Eurasia, into

  15. Low-copy nuclear gene and McGISH resolves polyploid history of Eleusine coracana and morphological character evolution in Eleusine


    LIU, Qing; JIANG, Bin; WEN, Jun; PETERSON, Paul Michael


    Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn. (finger millet) is the third most important cereal crop in semiarid regions of the world, but the degree of relatedness of finger millet with other species in the genus is unverified. The study of morphological character evolution in Eleusine Gaertn. has lagged behind due to lack of relevant research. Polyploidy history of finger millet was analyzed using waxy sequences together with multicolor genomic in situ hybridization (McGISH). In the waxy phylogenetic tre...

  16. Data set incongruence and correlated character evolution: An example of functional convergence in the hind-limbs of stifftail diving ducks (United States)

    McCracken, K.G.; Harshman, J.; Mcclellan, D.A.; Afton, A.D.


    The unwitting inclusion of convergent characters in phylogenetic estimates poses a serious problem for efforts to recover phylogeny. Convergence is not inscrutable, however, particularly when one group of characters tracks phylogeny and another set tracks adaptive history. In such cases, convergent characters may be correlated with one or a few functional anatomical units and readily identifiable by using comparative methods. Stifftail ducks (Oxyurinae) offer one such opportunity to study correlated character evolution and function in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction. Morphological analyses place stifftail ducks as part of a large clade of diving ducks that includes the sea ducks (Mergini), Hymenolaimus, Merganetta, and Tachyeres, and possibly the pochards (Aythyini). Molecular analyses, on the other hand, place stifftails far from other diving ducks and suggest, moreover, that stifftails are polyphyletic. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of eight stifftail species traditionally supposed to form a clade were compared with each other and with sequences from 50 other anseriform and galliform species. Stifftail ducks are not the sister group of sea ducks but lie outside the typical ducks (Anatinae). Of the four traditional stifftail genera, monophyly of Oxyura and its sister group relationship with Nomonyx are strongly supported. Heteronetta probably is the sister group of that clade, but support is weak. Biziura is not a true stifftail. Within Oxyura, Old World species (O. australis, O. leucocephala, O. mnccoa) appear to form a clade, with New World species (O. jamaicensis, O. vittata) branching basally. Incongruence between molecules and morphology is interpreted to be the result of adaptive specialization and functional convergence in the hind limbs of Biziura and true stifftails. When morphological characters are divided into classes, only hind-limb characters are significantly in conflict with the molecular tree. Likewise, null models of

  17. Short Rotations in Forest Plantations Accelerate Virulence Evolution in Root-Rot Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Soularue


    Full Text Available As disease outbreaks in forest plantations are causing concern worldwide, a clear understanding of the influence of silvicultural practices on the development of epidemics is still lacking. Importantly, silvicultural practices are likely to simultaneously affect epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of pathogen populations. We propose a genetically explicit and individual-based model of virulence evolution in a root-rot pathogenic fungus spreading across forest landscapes, taking the Armillaria ostoyae–Pinus pinaster pathosystem as reference. We used the model to study the effects of rotation length on the evolution of virulence and the propagation of the fungus within a forest landscape composed of even-aged stands regularly altered by clear-cutting and thinning operations. The life cycle of the fungus modeled combines asexual and sexual reproduction modes, and also includes parasitic and saprotrophic phases. Moreover, the tree susceptibility to the pathogen is primarily determined by the age of the stand. Our simulations indicated that the shortest rotation length accelerated both the evolution of virulence and the development of the epidemics, whatever the genetic variability in the initial fungal population and the asexuality rate of the fungal species

  18. Generic boundaries and evolution of characters in the Arctium group: a nuclear and chloroplast DNA analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna, A.


    Full Text Available Generic delineation within the Arctium group (Compositae, Carduceae-Carduinae, formed by the genera Arctium, Cousinia, Hypacanthium and Schamalhausenia, has proven a complicated task. In particular, the precise limits between Arctium and Cousinia are very difficult to establish. Therefore, we have carried out a molecular survey of DNA sequences of two regions, the chloroplast gene matK and the nuclear-ribosomal spacers ITS 1 and 2, of a representation of all the genera of the group (in the case of Cousinia, centered in the species more obviously related to Arctiium. Our results show a precise correlation between molecular phylogeny and two very important characters, pollen type and chromosome numbers: all the investigated species with the Arctiastrum pollen type and x= 18, characteristics of Arctium sensu stricto, form a monophyletic clade, sister of another monophyletic clade formed by all the investigated species of Cousinia sensu slricto. However, the resulting "Arctioid" clade cannot be defined on macroscopic morphologic characters, because the main trait for segregating Arctium and Cousinia, the spiny pinnatifid-pinnatisect leaves of Cousinia, is adaptative and of scarce systematic relevance. In fact, our results suggest that spines have appeared at least in two different lineages: the genera Hypacanthium and Schamalhausenia, spiny and thus morphologically closer to Cousinia, are unambiguously related to the unarmed genus Arctium. An hypothesis on the evolution of morphology, pollen and chromosome numbers in the group is formulated. The systematic implications of this incongruence between molecular, pollen and karyology, on the one hand, and morphology, on the other hand, are evaluated. Some possible solutions are proposed, but none of them is totally satisfactory: more studies are necessary with the inclusion

  19. A phylogenetic framework for root lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus (Nematoda): Evidence from 18S and D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S ribosomal RNA genes and morphological characters. (United States)

    Subbotin, Sergei A; Ragsdale, Erik J; Mullens, Teresa; Roberts, Philip A; Mundo-Ocampo, Manuel; Baldwin, James G


    The root lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 are migratory endoparasites of plant roots, considered among the most widespread and important nematode parasites in a variety of crops. We obtained gene sequences from the D2 and D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA partial and 18S rRNA from 31 populations belonging to 11 valid and two unidentified species of root lesion nematodes and five outgroup taxa. These datasets were analyzed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. The alignments were generated using the secondary structure models for these molecules and analyzed with Bayesian inference under the standard models and the complex model, considering helices under the doublet model and loops and bulges under the general time reversible model. The phylogenetic informativeness of morphological characters is tested by reconstruction of their histories on rRNA based trees using parallel parsimony and Bayesian approaches. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of the 28S D2-D3 dataset with 145 accessions for 28 species and 18S dataset with 68 accessions for 15 species confirmed among large numbers of geographical diverse isolates that most classical morphospecies are monophyletic. Phylogenetic analyses revealed at least six distinct major clades of examined Pratylenchus species and these clades are generally congruent with those defined by characters derived from lip patterns, numbers of lip annules, and spermatheca shape. Morphological results suggest the need for sophisticated character discovery and analysis for morphology based phylogenetics in nematodes.

  20. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    It is perhaps a facet of human nature that makes a person want to beking, and to control others. The character "王" was originally"王",symbolizing the emerald prayer beads worn exclusively by the king. Inthe course of this character’s evolution, however, new connotations were

  1. Aortic root replacement in 372 Marfan patients: evolution of operative repair over 30 years. (United States)

    Cameron, Duke E; Alejo, Diane E; Patel, Nishant D; Nwakanma, Lois U; Weiss, Eric S; Vricella, Luca A; Dietz, Harry C; Spevak, Philip J; Williams, Jason A; Bethea, Brian T; Fitton, Torin P; Gott, Vincent L


    We reviewed the evolution of practice and late results of aortic root replacement (ARR) in Marfan syndrome patients at our institution. A retrospective clinical review of Marfan patients undergoing ARR at our institution was performed. Follow-up data were obtained from hospital and office records and from telephone contact with patients or their physicians. Between September 1976 and September 2006, 372 Marfan syndrome patients underwent ARR: 269 had a Bentall composite graft, 85 had valve-sparing ARR, 16 had ARR with homografts, and 2 had ARR with porcine xenografts. In the first 24 years of the study, 85% received a Bentall graft; during the last 8 years, 61% had a valve-sparing procedure. There was no operative or hospital mortality among the 327 patients who underwent elective repair; there were 2 deaths among the 45 patients (4.4%) who underwent emergent or urgent operative repair. There were 74 late deaths (70 Bentalls, 2 homograft, and 2 valve-sparing ARRs). The most frequent causes of late death were dissection or rupture of the residual aorta (10 of 74) and arrhythmia (9 of 74). Of the 85 patients who had a valve-sparing procedure, 40 had a David II remodeling operation; there was 1 late death in this group, and 5 patients required late aortic valve replacement for aortic insufficiency. A David I reimplantation procedure using the De Paulis Valsalva graft has been used exclusively since May 2002. All 44 patients in this last group have 0 to 1+ aortic insufficiency. Prophylactic surgical replacement of the ascending aorta in patients with Marfan syndrome has low operative risk and can prevent aortic catastrophe in most patients. Valve-sparing procedures, particularly using the reimplantation technique with the Valsalva graft, show promise but have not yet proven as durable as the Bentall.

  2. Rooting the archaebacterial tree: the pivotal role of Thermococcus celer in archaebacterial evolution (United States)

    Achenbach-Richter, L.; Gupta, R.; Zillig, W.; Woese, C. R.


    The sequence of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene from the archaebacterium Thermococcus celer shows the organism to be related to the methanogenic archaebacteria rather than to its phenotypic counterparts, the extremely thermophilic archaebacteria. This conclusion turns on the position of the root of the archaebacterial phylogenetic tree, however. The problems encountered in rooting this tree are analyzed in detail. Under conditions that suppress evolutionary noise both the parsimony and evolutionary distance methods yield a root location (using a number of eubacterial or eukaryotic outgroup sequences) that is consistent with that determined by an "internal rooting" method, based upon an (approximate) determination of relative evolutionary rates.

  3. Evolution of grain boundary character distributions in alloy 825 tubes during high temperature annealing: Is grain boundary engineering achieved through recrystallization or grain growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Qin; Zhao, Qing; Xia, Shuang; Wang, Baoshun; Zhou, Bangxin; Su, Cheng


    Grain boundary engineering (GBE) of nickel-based alloy 825 tubes was carried out with different cold drawing deformations by using a draw-bench on a factory production line and subsequent annealing at various temperatures. The microstructure evolution of alloy 825 during thermal-mechanical processing (TMP) was characterized by means of the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique to study the TMP effects on the grain boundary network and the evolution of grain boundary character distributions during high temperature annealing. The results showed that the proportion of ∑ 3 n coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries of alloy 825 tubes could be increased to > 75% by the TMP of 5% cold drawing and subsequent annealing at 1050 °C for 10 min. The microstructures of the partially recrystallized samples and the fully recrystallized samples suggested that the proportion of low ∑ CSL grain boundaries depended on the annealing time. The frequency of low ∑ CSL grain boundaries increases rapidly with increasing annealing time associating with the formation of large-size highly-twinned grains-cluster microstructure during recrystallization. However, upon further increasing annealing time, the frequency of low ∑ CSL grain boundaries decreased markedly during grain growth. So it is concluded that grain boundary engineering is achieved through recrystallization rather than grain growth. - Highlights: •The grain boundary engineering (GBE) is applicable to 825 tubes. •GBE is achieved through recrystallization rather than grain growth. •The low ∑ CSL grain boundaries in 825 tubes can be increased to > 75%.

  4. A plastid phylogeny and character evolution of the Old World fern genus Pyrrosia (Polypodiaceae) with the description of a new genus: Hovenkampia (Polypodiaceae). (United States)

    Zhou, Xin-Mao; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Cheng-Wei; Li, Chun-Xiang; Huang, Yao-Moan; Chen, De-Kui; Lu, Ngan Thi; Cicuzza, Daniele; Knapp, Ralf; Luong, Thien Tam; Nitta, Joel H; Gao, Xin-Fen; Zhang, Li-Bing


    The Old World fern genus Pyrrosia (Polypodiaceae) offers a rare system in ferns to study morphological evolution because almost all species of this genus are well studied for their morphology, anatomy, and spore features, and various hypotheses have been proposed in terms of the phylogeny and evolution in this genus. However, the molecular phylogeny of the genus lags behind. The monophyly of the genus has been uncertain and a modern phylogenetic study of the genus based on molecular data has been lacking. In the present study, DNA sequences of five plastid markers of 220 accessions of Polypodiaceae representing two species of Drymoglossum, 14 species of Platycerium, 50 species of Pyrrosia, and the only species of Saxiglossum (subfamily Platycerioideae), and 12 species of other Polypodiaceae representing the remaining four subfamilies are used to infer a phylogeny of the genus. Major results and conclusions of this study include: (1) Pyrrosia as currently circumscribed is paraphyletic in relation to Platycerium and can be divided into two genera: Pyrrosia s.s. and Hovenkampia (gen. nov.), with Hovenkampia and Platycerium forming a strongly supported clade sister to Pyrrosia s.s.; (2) Subfamily Platycerioideae should contain three genera only, Hovenkampia, Platycerium, and Pyrrosia s.s.; (3) Based on the molecular phylogeny, macromorphology, anatomical features, and spore morphology, four major clades in the genus are identified and three of the four are further resolved into four, four, and six subclades, respectively; (4) Three species, P. angustissima, P. foveolata, and P. mannii, not assigned to any groups by Hovenkamp (1986) because of their unusual morphology, each form monospecific clades; (5) Drymoglossum is not monophyletic and those species previously assigned to this genus are resolved in two different subclades; (6) Saxiglossum is resolved as the first lineage in the Niphopsis clade; and (7) The evolution of ten major morphological characters in the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYBEKE


    Full Text Available Specific understanding of root anatomy plasticity under salt stress is lacking and requires creation of efficient screening techniques for stress condition s. To fill this gap, this study aimed to determine the anatomical plasticity in root chracteristics of 31 different rice cultivars (from ‘Best’ to ‘Low’ yielding grown under real field conditions (saline and non-saline from planting to harvesting and to reveal detailed root anatomical parameters that can be used to select and breed salt-tolerant rice. Anatomical and histochemical features of all cultivars and thin structures of the apoplastic barriers were investigated. The amount of silica (Si, 35 different anatomical characteristics, anatomical plasticity characteristics, plasticity rates, plasticity trends and changes and strategies of each group under saline and non-saline conditions were compared. The results showed that protective anatomical characters improved/remained equal to, and worsened/remained equal to those of the controls, in the ‘Best’ and other groups, respectively, from non-saline to saline conditions. Anatomical plasticity is essentially directly related to apoplastic barrier features. High genotypic variation was observed in root anatomy in all cultivars, but foremost traits were as follows: (1 cell size, (2 Si presence, (3 Si accumulation shape, (4 Si distribution towards root stele, (5 xylem arch features, (6 lignification-suberization properties in apoplastic barriers and their degrees, (7 presence/absence of idioblast cells filled with gummic and phenolic substances and (8 moderate anatomical plasticity. Cultivars with the most stabile anatomy under saline and non-saline conditions should be used to select and breed salt-resistant rice.

  6. Character & Cane (United States)

    Sartorius, Tara Cady


    They say first impressions can be deceiving. The difficulty of getting to know someone increases when that person is mostly fictional. Whatever the author writes is all readers can know. Whatever they read about the character is all they have to go on. Now take it another step back, and imagine a portrait drawing, painting or print of that…

  7. Believable Characters (United States)

    El-Nasr, Magy Seif; Bishko, Leslie; Zammitto, Veronica; Nixon, Michael; Vasiliakos, Athanasios V.; Wei, Huaxin

    The interactive entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1996, the U.S. entertainment software industry reported 2.6 billion in sales revenue, this figure has more than tripled in 2007 yielding 9.5 billion in revenues [1]. In addition, gamers, the target market for interactive entertainment products, are now reaching beyond the traditional 8-34 year old male to include women, Hispanics, and African Americans [2]. This trend has been observed in several markets, including Japan, China, Korea, and India, who has just published their first international AAA title (defined as high quality games with high budget), a 3D third person action game: Ghajini - The Game [3]. The topic of believable characters is becoming a central issue when designing and developing games for today's game industry. While narrative and character were considered secondary to game mechanics, games are currently evolving to integrate characters, narrative, and drama as part of their design. One can see this pattern through the emergence of games like Assassin's Creed (published by Ubisoft 2008), Hotel Dusk (published by Nintendo 2007), and Prince of Persia series (published by Ubisoft), which emphasized character and narrative as part of their design.

  8. When outgroups fail; phylogenomics of rooting the emerging pathogen, Coxiella burnetii. (United States)

    Pearson, Talima; Hornstra, Heidie M; Sahl, Jason W; Schaack, Sarah; Schupp, James M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; O'Neill, Matthew W; Priestley, Rachael A; Champion, Mia D; Beckstrom-Sternberg, James S; Kersh, Gilbert J; Samuel, James E; Massung, Robert F; Keim, Paul


    Rooting phylogenies is critical for understanding evolution, yet the importance, intricacies and difficulties of rooting are often overlooked. For rooting, polymorphic characters among the group of interest (ingroup) must be compared to those of a relative (outgroup) that diverged before the last common ancestor (LCA) of the ingroup. Problems arise if an outgroup does not exist, is unknown, or is so distant that few characters are shared, in which case duplicated genes originating before the LCA can be used as proxy outgroups to root diverse phylogenies. Here, we describe a genome-wide expansion of this technique that can be used to solve problems at the other end of the evolutionary scale: where ingroup individuals are all very closely related to each other, but the next closest relative is very distant. We used shared orthologous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 10 whole genome sequences of Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever in humans, to create a robust, but unrooted phylogeny. To maximize the number of characters informative about the rooting, we searched entire genomes for polymorphic duplicated regions where orthologs of each paralog could be identified so that the paralogs could be used to root the tree. Recent radiations, such as those of emerging pathogens, often pose rooting challenges due to a lack of ingroup variation and large genomic differences with known outgroups. Using a phylogenomic approach, we created a robust, rooted phylogeny for C. burnetii. [Coxiella burnetii; paralog SNPs; pathogen evolution; phylogeny; recent radiation; root; rooting using duplicated genes.].

  9. Disturbance is an important factor in the evolution and distribution of root-sprouting species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Jitka; Herben, Tomáš; Martínková, Jana


    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2017), s. 387-399 ISSN 0269-7653 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-19245S; GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : disturbance * root-sprouting species * bud bank Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.818, year: 2016

  10. Morphological evolution of TiO2 nanotube arrays with lotus-root-shaped nanostructure (United States)

    Yu, Dongliang; Song, Ye; Zhu, Xufei; Yang, Ruiquan; Han, Aijun


    TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) with lotus-root-shaped nanostructure have been fabricated by a modified two-step electrochemical anodization method. In the present work, different morphologies formed under different anodizing voltages are investigated in detail by field-emission scanning electron microscope. The results show that the concaves left by the first-step anodization can guide the uniform growth of TNAs in some degree as the second-step anodizing voltage is the same with that in the first step, however, when lower voltages are adopted in the second-step anodization, no guidance can be achieved, and different morphological TNAs with lotus-root-shaped nanostructure are fabricated. And we find that the nanotube diameters are directly proportional to the applied voltage in the second-step anodization. Furthermore, a possible mechanism for the growth of the TiO2 nanotubes with the special morphology is proposed for the first time, which depends on both the oxygen bubble mold and the viscous flow of the barrier oxide from the pore base to the pore wall.

  11. Morphological evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays with lotus-root-shaped nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Dongliang; Song, Ye; Zhu, Xufei, E-mail:; Yang, Ruiquan; Han, Aijun


    TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNAs) with lotus-root-shaped nanostructure have been fabricated by a modified two-step electrochemical anodization method. In the present work, different morphologies formed under different anodizing voltages are investigated in detail by field-emission scanning electron microscope. The results show that the concaves left by the first-step anodization can guide the uniform growth of TNAs in some degree as the second-step anodizing voltage is the same with that in the first step, however, when lower voltages are adopted in the second-step anodization, no guidance can be achieved, and different morphological TNAs with lotus-root-shaped nanostructure are fabricated. And we find that the nanotube diameters are directly proportional to the applied voltage in the second-step anodization. Furthermore, a possible mechanism for the growth of the TiO{sub 2} nanotubes with the special morphology is proposed for the first time, which depends on both the oxygen bubble mold and the viscous flow of the barrier oxide from the pore base to the pore wall.

  12. Evolution of cytotoxicity, antioxidant, and antimicrobial studies of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum) roots extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliq, M.; Riaz, M.; Kanwal, N.; Mahmood, I.; Khan, A.


    For health care over three-quarters of the world population mainly relies on plants and plant extracts. In this research work percentage yield, qualitative and quantitative analysis of phytochemicals, antioxidant ability, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effects of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) root extracts were analyzed. Roots of selected plant were extracted by socking in polarity base solvents i.e. n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and methanol. As a result of the qualitative determination of phytochemicals flavonoids, saponin, tannins and phlobatannins found to be present, while alkaloids, steroids, cardiac glycosides and terpenoids found to be absent. Spectroscopic methods were used to determine total phenolic contents 7.58-126.04 Gallic acid equivalent mg/100g of dry extracts and flavonoid contents 1.71-25.4 Catechin equivalent mg/100g of dry extracts. The antioxidant capacity of plant extracts of free radical scavenging by DPPH, percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and reducing power assays were carried out. BHT was used as a positive control in the percentage scavenging assay. The percentage free radical scavenging by DPPH (having concentration 0.025 g/L) was found in the range of 80.13-86.74 %. The percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation was also analysed. Antimicrobial activity was studied in all extracts against selected bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis) and fungal strains (Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus solani). Hemolytic activity was also determined in plant extracts and maximum percentage of lysis was found as 1.582 % by methanol extract, while the minimum percentage of lysis was 0.010 % for n-hexane extract. (author)

  13. Systematics and morphological evolution within the moss family Bryaceae: a comparison between parsimony and Bayesian methods for reconstruction of ancestral character states. (United States)

    Pedersen, Niklas; Holyoak, David T; Newton, Angela E


    The Bryaceae are a large cosmopolitan moss family including genera of significant morphological and taxonomic complexity. Phylogenetic relationships within the Bryaceae were reconstructed based on DNA sequence data from all three genomic compartments. In addition, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference were employed to reconstruct ancestral character states of 38 morphological plus four habitat characters and eight insertion/deletion events. The recovered phylogenetic patterns are generally in accord with previous phylogenies based on chloroplast DNA sequence data and three major clades are identified. The first clade comprises Bryum bornholmense, B. rubens, B. caespiticium, and Plagiobryum. This corroborates the hypothesis suggested by previous studies that several Bryum species are more closely related to Plagiobryum than to the core Bryum species. The second clade includes Acidodontium, Anomobryum, and Haplodontium, while the third clade contains the core Bryum species plus Imbribryum. Within the latter clade, B. subapiculatum and B. tenuisetum form the sister clade to Imbribryum. Reconstructions of ancestral character states under maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference suggest fourteen morphological synapomorphies for the ingroup and synapomorphies are detected for most clades within the ingroup. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian reconstructions of ancestral character states are mostly congruent although Bayesian inference shows that the posterior probability of ancestral character states may decrease dramatically when node support is taken into account. Bayesian inference also indicates that reconstructions may be ambiguous at internal nodes for highly polymorphic characters.

  14. The Evolution of Eupathics: The Historical Roots of Subjective Measures of Wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Angner


    Full Text Available

    This paper traces the historical roots of subjective measures of wellbeing, that is, measures designed to represent happiness, satisfaction, or other “positive” or desirable mental states. While it is often suggested that these measures are a modern invention, I argue that they have a long and rich history that conforms to Theodore M. Porter’s general account of measurement in social and behavioral science. Subjective measures emerged in marital success studies, educational psychology, and personality psychology in the 1920s and 30s, and were further shaped by the epidemiology of mental health, gerontology, and the social indicator movement in the 1960s and 70s. Consistent with Porter’s account, these measures emerged in applied rather than theoretical branches of social and behavioral science, and they did so not as a result of physics envy, but rather as a result of a moral impulse to improve society; quantification was intended to make up for perceived deficiencies in unaided human judgment; and radical disagreements about the nature of wellbeing did not impede efforts to measure it – indeed, in time, there was considerably more agreement about how to measure wellbeing than about how to define it.

  15. Edge-rich MoS_2 Naonosheets Rooting into Polyaniline Nanofibers as Effective Catalyst for Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Nan; Ma, Weiguang; Wu, Tongshun; Wang, Haoyu; Han, Dongxue; Niu, Li


    Graphical abstract: For the first time polyaniline (PANI) was employed as an admirable substrate to construct the hierarchical integrative hybrid with MoS_2 (MoS_2/PANI) for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), which achieved great active edges exposure and excellent HER performance. - Highlights: • PANI is first applied as the support of MoS_2 for enhanced HER performance. • Great active edges exposure of the hybrid significantly benefits the HER activity. • Superior HER activity and excellent stability of MoS_2/PANI have been achieved. - Abstract: Conductive polymer polyaniline (PANI) with abundant protonated sites which are beneficial to hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), was applied as the support of MoS_2 for enhanced HER performance for the first time. The novel three dimensional (3D) HER catalyst (MoS_2/PANI) was constructed with two dimensional (2D) MoS_2 building blocks rooting into the integrative nanowires. PANI nanofibers acted as excellent substrates for the uniform, dense and approximate vertical growth of MoS_2 nanosheets exposing abundant active edges. Consequently, excellent HER performance has been achieved with a low onset overpotential of 100 mV and a small Tafel slope of 45 mV dec"−"1. Most importantly, it only needed 200 and 247 mV overpotential to reach the current density of 30 and 100 mA/cm"2 respectively. Additionally, MoS_2/PANI has achieved superior stability over other MoS_2-polymer-based HER electrocatalyst. In general, for the first time, employing PANI for the construction of the edge-rich integrative hybrid has successfully achieved an outstanding HER performance.

  16. Species tree phylogeny and character evolution in the genus Centipeda (Asteraceae): evidence from DNA sequences from coding and non-coding loci from the plastid and nuclear genomes. (United States)

    Nylinder, Stephan; Cronholm, Bodil; de Lange, Peter J; Walsh, Neville; Anderberg, Arne A


    A species tree phylogeny of the Australian/New Zealand genus Centipeda (Asteraceae) is estimated based on nucleotide sequence data. We analysed sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ETS, ITS) and three plasmid loci (ndhF, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F) using the multi-species coalescent module in BEAST. A total of 129 individuals from all 10 recognised species of Centipeda were sampled throughout the species distribution ranges, including two subspecies. We conclude that the inferred species tree topology largely conform previous assumptions on species relationships. Centipeda racemosa (Snuffweed) is the sister to remaining species, which is also the only consistently perennial representative in the genus. Centipeda pleiocephala (Tall Sneezeweed) and C. nidiformis (Cotton Sneezeweed) constitute a species pair, as does C. borealis and C. minima (Spreading Sneezeweed), all sharing the symplesiomorphic characters of spherical capitulum and convex receptacle with C. racemosa. Another species group comprising C. thespidioides (Desert Sneezeweed), C. cunninghamii (Old man weed, or Common sneeze-weed), C. crateriformis is well-supported but then include the morphologically aberrant C. aotearoana, all sharing the character of having capitula that mature more slowly relative the subtending shoot. Centipeda elatinoides takes on a weakly supported intermediate position between the two mentioned groups, and is difficult to relate to any of the former groups based on morphological characters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Characters with personality!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Brandenburgh, A.; Muller, T.J.; Heuvelink, A.


    Serious games offer an opportunity for learning communication skills by practicing conversations with one or more virtual characters, provided that the character(s) behave in accordance with their assigned properties and strate-gies. This paper presents an approach for developing virtual characters


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Widjoyo


    Full Text Available Advertisement by using spokes-characters have potency to alter the choice of consumer brand with the compared to bigger impact which do not use the spokes-character. A lot of producer which hence spokes-character to increase assess to sell from a product. Spokes-Characters experience of the evolution from time to time keep abreast of the era%2C now emerge the new type of spokes-character and its application. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Iklan dengan spokes-characters berpotensi mengubah pilihan merek konsumen dengan dampak lebih besar dibanding yang tidak menggunakan spokes-character. Banyak produsen yang memakai spokes-character untuk meningkatkan nilai jual dari sebuah produk. Spokes-characters mengalami evolusi dari masa ke masa mengikuti perkembangan jaman%2C sekarang muncul jenis baru spokes-character dan aplikasinya. spokes-characters%2C advertising%2C branding.

  19. Phylogeny, evolution and host-parasite relationships of the order Proteocephalidea (Eucestoda) as revealed by combined analysis and secondary structure characters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hypša, Václav; Škeříková, Andrea; Scholz, Tomáš


    Roč. 130, č. 3 (2005), s. 359-371 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : phylogeny * co-evolution * Proteocephalidea Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.703, year: 2005

  20. Actor/Character Dualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Johannes


    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  1. Inheritance of characters in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    David and Adam, 1988). The plant belongs to the order Malvales, the family Malvaceae and the genus Hibiscus ... The varieties in relation to the character studied are as follows: NRG-NG-R5: Pink flowers with resistance to root ...

  2. Head capsule characters in the Hymenoptera and their phylogenetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Vilhelmsen


    Full Text Available The head capsule of a taxon sample of three outgroup and 86 ingroup taxa is examined for characters of possible phylogenetic significance within Hymenoptera. 21 morphological characters are illustrated and scored, and their character evolution explored by mapping them onto a phylogeny recently produced from a large morphological data set. Many of the characters are informative and display unambiguous changes. Most of the character support demonstrated is supportive at the superfamily or family level. In contrast, only few characters corroborate deeper nodes in the phylogeny of Hymenoptera.

  3. Relationship between C2H2 reduction, H2 evolution and 15N2 fixation in root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif


    for N2 reduction, is often stated as the relative efficiency (1-H2/C2H2). This factor varied significantly (P 2 and N2, expressed as the H2/N2 ratio, was independent of plant age, however. This discrepancy and the observation......The quantitative relationship between C2H2 reduction, H2 evolution and 15N2 fixation was investigated in excised root nodules from pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Bodil) grown under controlled conditions. The C2H2/N2 conversion factor varied from 3.31 to 5.12 between the 32nd and the 67th day...... after planting. After correction for H2 evolution in air, the factor (C2H2-H2)/N2 decreased to values near the theoretical value 3, or in one case to a value significantly (P 2 production but used...

  4. Recent breakthroughs in metabolomics promise to reveal the cryptic chemical traits that mediate plant community composition, character evolution and lineage diversification. (United States)

    Sedio, Brian E


    Contents 952 I. 952 II. 953 III. 955 IV. 956 V. 957 957 References 957 SUMMARY: Much of our understanding of the mechanisms by which biotic interactions shape plant communities has been constrained by the methods available to study the diverse secondary chemistry that defines plant relationships with other organisms. Recent innovations in analytical chemistry and bioinformatics promise to reveal the cryptic chemical traits that mediate plant ecology and evolution by facilitating simultaneous structural comparisons of hundreds of unknown molecules to each other and to libraries of known compounds. Here, I explore the potential for mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics to enable unprecedented tests of seminal, but largely untested hypotheses that propose a fundamental role for plant chemical defenses against herbivores and pathogens in the evolutionary origins and ecological coexistence of plant species diversity. © 2017 The Author. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Philosophical Roots of Cosmology (United States)

    Ivanovic, M.


    We shall consider the philosophical roots of cosmology in the earlier Greek philosophy. Our goal is to answer the question: Are earlier Greek theories of pure philosophical-mythological character, as often philosophers cited it, or they have scientific character. On the bases of methodological criteria, we shall contend that the latter is the case. In order to answer the question about contemporary situation of the relation philosophy-cosmology, we shall consider the next question: Is contemporary cosmology completely independent of philosophical conjectures? The answer demands consideration of methodological character about scientific status of contemporary cosmology. We also consider some aspects of the relation contemporary philosophy-cosmology.

  6. Essays on Character & Opportunity (United States)

    Center on Children and Families at Brookings, 2014


    These essays provide richer set of writings on the philosophical, empirical and practical issues raised by a focus on character, and in particular its relationship to questions of opportunity. Each one is an intellectual pemmican: sharp and to the point. Two scholars draw attention to the gendered nature of character formation (Segal and Lexmond);…

  7. Social character of materialism. (United States)

    Chatterjee, A; Hunt, J M; Kernan, J B


    Scores for 170 undergraduates on Richins and Dawson's Materialism scale were correlated with scores on Kassarjian's Social Preference Scale, designed to measure individuals' character structure. A correlation of .26 between materialism and other-directed social character suggested that an externally oriented reference system guides materialists' perceptions, judgments, acquisitions, and possessions.

  8. Character Development in Adolescents. (United States)

    Kessler, Glenn R.; And Others


    Explored the effects of a program consisting of communication and counseling skills, assertiveness training and moral dilemmas on the character development of high school students. The results demonstrated that the character development of the students in the experimental treatment group was affected significantly over time by the program.…

  9. Root rots (United States)

    Kathryn Robbins; Philip M. Wargo


    Root rots of central hardwoods are diseases caused by fungi that infect and decay woody roots and sometimes also invade the butt portion of the tree. By killing and decaying roots, root rotting fungi reduce growth, decrease tree vigor, and cause windthrow and death. The most common root diseases of central hardwoods are Armillaria root rot, lnonotus root rot, and...

  10. Madness in Shakespeare's Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Borja-Santos


    Full Text Available This paper begins with an introduction where the aims are explained: a psychopathological analysis of a Shakespearean character - Othello – followed by the discussion of the English dramatist’s importance in helping us understand madness in the emergent world of Renaissance. The main characteristics of Othello’s personality, which allowed the development of his jealousy delusion, are described. Finally, the conclusions underline the overlap of the symptoms developed by the character with the DSM-IV classification.

  11. Character, attitude and disposition


    Webber, Jonathan


    Recent debate over the empirical psychological presuppositions of virtue ethics has focused on reactive behavioural dispositions. But there are many character traits that cannot be understood properly in this way. Such traits are well described by attitude psychology. Moreover, the findings of attitude psychology support virtue ethics in three ways. First, they confirm the role of habituation in the development of character. Further, they show virtue ethics to be compatible with the situation...

  12. Eco-physiolgoical role of root-sourced signal in three genotypes of spring wheat cultivars: a cue of evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Kong, H.Y.; Sun, G.J.; Cheng, Z.G.; Batool, A.; Jiang, H.M.


    Non-hydraulic root-sourced signal (nHRS) is so far affirmed to be a unique and positive early-warning response of plant to drying soil, but its functional role and potential evolutionary implication is little known in dryland wheat. Three spring wheat cultivars, Monkhead (1940-1960s), Dingxi 24 (1970-1980s) and Longchun 8139 (1990-present) with different drought sensitivity were chosen as materials for the research. Physiological and agronomic parameters were measured and analyzed in two relatively separated but closely related trials under environment-controlled conditions. The results showed that characteristics of nHRS and its eco-physiological effects varied from cultivars. Threshold ranges (TR) of soil moisture at which nHRS was switched on and off were 60.1-51.4% (% of FWC) in Monkhead, 63.8-47.3% in Dingxi 24 and 66.5-44.8% in Longchun 8139 respectively, suggesting that earlier onset of nHRS took place in modern cultivars. Leaf abscisic acid (ABA) concentration was significantly greater and increased more rapidly in old cultivars, Monkhead and Dingxi 24 than that of Longchun 8139 during the operation of nHRS. As a result of nHRS regulation, maintenance rate of grain yield was 43.4%, 60.8% and 79.3%, and water use efficiency was 1.47, 1.65 and 2.25 g/L in Monkhead, Dingxi 24 and Longchun 8139 respectively. In addition, drought susceptibility indices were 0.8858, 0.6037 and 0.3182 for the three cultivars, respectively. This suggests that earlier trigger of nHRS led to lower ABA-led signal intensity and better drought adaptability. It can be argued that the advances in yield performance and drought tolerance might be made by targeted selection for an earlier onset of nHRS. Finally, we attempted developing a conceptual model regarding root-sourced signal weakening and its evolutionary cue in dryland wheat. (author)

  13. Knowing Chinese character grammar. (United States)

    Myers, James


    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [The root of the deep and fast ongoing evolution of both structure and methodology of clinical research]. (United States)

    Tavazzi, Luigi


    The growing scientific knowledge and technology development are leading to radical changes in biological and medical research. The prevalent lines of development deal with a pragmatic evolution of controlled clinical trials, a massive diffusion of observational research, which is progressively incorporated in clinical practice, new models and designs of clinical research, the systematic use of information technology to build up vast networks of medical centers producing huge amounts of shared data to be managed through the big data methodology, personalized as well as precision medicine, a reshaped physician-patient relationship based on a co-working principle. All this is leading to profound changes in public health governance, a renewal of clinical epidemiology and prevention, a modified structure of several specific sectors of medical care, hopefully guided by scientific evidences. A few aspects of such an evolving picture are discussed in this article.

  15. Ancient, recurrent phage attacks and recombination shaped dynamic sequence-variable mosaics at the root of phytoplasma genome evolution. (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Davis, Robert E; Jomantiene, Rasa; Zhao, Yan


    Mobile genetic elements have impacted biological evolution across all studied organisms, but evidence for a role in evolutionary emergence of an entire phylogenetic clade has not been forthcoming. We suggest that mobile element predation played a formative role in emergence of the phytoplasma clade. Phytoplasmas are cell wall-less bacteria that cause numerous diseases in plants. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that these transkingdom parasites descended from Gram-positive walled bacteria, but events giving rise to the first phytoplasma have remained unknown. Previously we discovered a unique feature of phytoplasmal genome architecture, genes clustered in sequence-variable mosaics (SVMs), and suggested that such structures formed through recurrent, targeted attacks by mobile elements. In the present study, we discovered that cryptic prophage remnants, originating from phages in the order Caudovirales, formed SVMs and comprised exceptionally large percentages of the chromosomes of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris'-related strains OYM and AYWB, occupying nearly all major nonsyntenic sections, and accounting for most of the size difference between the two genomes. The clustered phage remnants formed genomic islands exhibiting distinct DNA physical signatures, such as dinucleotide relative abundance and codon position GC values. Phytoplasma strain-specific genes identified as phage morons were located in hypervariable regions within individual SVMs, indicating that prophage remnants played important roles in generating phytoplasma genetic diversity. Because no SVM-like structures could be identified in genomes of ancestral relatives including Acholeplasma spp., we hypothesize that ancient phage attacks leading to SVM formation occurred after divergence of phytoplasmas from acholeplasmas, triggering evolution of the phytoplasma clade.

  16. Optical Character Recognition. (United States)

    Converso, L.; Hocek, S.


    This paper describes computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems, focusing on their components (the computer, the scanner, the OCR, and the output device); how the systems work; and features to consider in selecting a system. A list of 26 questions to ask to evaluate systems for potential purchase is included. (JDD)

  17. Cinematography and character depiction


    William Francis Nicholson


    This essay investigates the ways in which cinematography can be used in depicting characters effectively in the motion picture medium. Since an aspiring filmmaker may be overwhelmed by the expansive field of cinematography, this essay aims to demystify and systematise this aspect of filmmaking. It combines information from written sources (mostly text books on filmmaking and cinematography) with observations made from viewing recent and older feature films. The knowledge is organised under th...

  18. Determinate primary root growth as an adaptation to aridity in Cactaceae: towards an understanding of the evolution and genetic control of the trait. (United States)

    Shishkova, Svetlana; Las Peñas, María Laura; Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Matvienko, Marta; Kozik, Alex; Montiel, Jesús; Patiño, Anallely; Dubrovsky, Joseph G


    Species of Cactaceae are well adapted to arid habitats. Determinate growth of the primary root, which involves early and complete root apical meristem (RAM) exhaustion and differentiation of cells at the root tip, has been reported for some Cactoideae species as a root adaptation to aridity. In this study, the primary root growth patterns of Cactaceae taxa from diverse habitats are classified as being determinate or indeterminate, and the molecular mechanisms underlying RAM maintenance in Cactaceae are explored. Genes that were induced in the primary root of Stenocereus gummosus before RAM exhaustion are identified. Primary root growth was analysed in Cactaceae seedlings cultivated in vertically oriented Petri dishes. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified after reverse northern blots of clones from a suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA library. All species analysed from six tribes of the Cactoideae subfamily that inhabit arid and semi-arid regions exhibited determinate primary root growth. However, species from the Hylocereeae tribe, which inhabit mesic regions, exhibited mostly indeterminate primary root growth. Preliminary results suggest that seedlings of members of the Opuntioideae subfamily have mostly determinate primary root growth, whereas those of the Maihuenioideae and Pereskioideae subfamilies have mostly indeterminate primary root growth. Seven selected transcripts encoding homologues of heat stress transcription factor B4, histone deacetylase, fibrillarin, phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase, cytochrome P450 and gibberellin-regulated protein were upregulated in S. gummosus root tips during the initial growth phase. Primary root growth in Cactoideae species matches their environment. The data imply that determinate growth of the primary root became fixed after separation of the Cactiodeae/Opuntioideae and Maihuenioideae/Pereskioideae lineages, and that the genetic regulation of RAM maintenance and its loss in Cactaceae is



    Swati Tomar*1 & Amit Kishore2


    This paper presents detailed review in the field of Optical Character Recognition. Various techniques are determine that have been proposed to realize the center of character recognition in an optical character recognition system. Even though, sufficient studies and papers are describes the techniques for converting textual content from a paper document into machine readable form. Optical character recognition is a process where the computer understands automatically the image of handwritten ...

  20. Actualism and Fictional Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leclerc


    Full Text Available In what follows, I present only part of a program that consists in developing a version of actualism as an adequate framework for the metaphysics of intentionality. I will try to accommodate in that framework suggestions found in Kripke’s works and some positions developed by Amie Thomasson. What should we change if we accept “fictional entities” in the domain of the actual world? Actualism is the thesis that everything that exists belongs to the domain of the actual world and that there are no possibilia. I shall defend that there are abstract artefacts, like fictional characters, and institutions. My argument could be seen as a version of Moore’s paradox: it is paradoxical to say: “I made (created it, but I do not believe it exists”. Moreover, there are true sentences about them. I will examine what it means to include abstract artefacts in the domain of the actual world. I favour a use of “exist” that includes beings with no concrete occupation of tri-dimensional space; to exist, it is enough to have been introduced at some moment in history. Abstract artefacts, like fictional characters, exist in that sense. I argue that it is important to distinguish two perspectives (internal and external in order to clarify the kind of knowledge we have of fictional characters. However, their existence presupposes a relation of dependence to a material basis and the mental activities of many people.

  1. The typeface character

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie


    Research from the fields of neuroscience and psychology, shows that typefaces can carry different semantic associations. However, to be able to read a text, the reader can no longer focus on the character of the typeface, as the human mind is incapable of simultaneously giving full attention to d...... to different matters. This results in the inherent conflict of typefaces that they on one hand need to draw attention to themselves, and on the other hand need to let go of this attention for the content to be read....

  2. "I Had to Live, Breathe, and Write My Character": Character Selection and Student Engagement in an Online Role-Play Simulation (United States)

    Rector-Aranda, Amy; Raider-Roth, Miriam; Glaser, Noah; Behrman, Matthew


    This study explores the relationship between character selection and student engagement in the Jewish Court of All Time (JCAT), an online and classroom-based role-playing simulation of a current events court case with Jewish historical roots. Analyzing students' responses to three questions posed in an out-of-character JCAT discussion forum, we…

  3. Rooting gene trees without outgroups: EP rooting. (United States)

    Sinsheimer, Janet S; Little, Roderick J A; Lake, James A


    Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167-181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301-316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60-76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489-493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763-766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255-260).

  4. WARACS: Wrappers to Automate the Reconstruction of Ancestral Character States. (United States)

    Gruenstaeudl, Michael


    Reconstructions of ancestral character states are among the most widely used analyses for evaluating the morphological, cytological, or ecological evolution of an organismic lineage. The software application Mesquite remains the most popular application for such reconstructions among plant scientists, even though its support for automating complex analyses is limited. A software tool is needed that automates the reconstruction and visualization of ancestral character states with Mesquite and similar applications. A set of command line-based Python scripts was developed that (a) communicates standardized input to and output from the software applications Mesquite, BayesTraits, and TreeGraph2; (b) automates the process of ancestral character state reconstruction; and (c) facilitates the visualization of reconstruction results. WARACS provides a simple tool that streamlines the reconstruction and visualization of ancestral character states over a wide array of parameters, including tree distribution, character state, and optimality criterion.

  5. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios


    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  6. Correlations of Vegetative and Reproductive Characters with Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    the location had shown that rice plants require an average of 1.6 litres per plant per week at the maximum tillering, 2.4 .... ensuring simultaneous increase in tolerance to limiting soil water condition and improvement of grain yield. .... chambers and exposed to contrasting water deficit regimes II. Mapping quantitative trait loci.

  7. Maya Studio Projects Photorealistic Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd


    Create realistic characters with Maya tools and this project-based book Maya character generation tools are extremely sophisticated, and there's no better way to learn all their capabilities than by working through the projects in this hands-on book. This official guide focuses on understanding and implementing Maya's powerful tools for creating realistic characters for film, games, and TV. Use a variety of tools to create characters from skeleton to clothing, including hairstyles and facial hair, and learn how to use Performance Capture. A DVD includes supplementary videos, project support fi

  8. Character combinations, convergence and diversification in ectoparasitic arthropods. (United States)

    Poulin, Robert


    Different lineages of organisms diversify over time at different rates, in part as a consequence of the characteristics of the species in these lineages. Certain suites of traits possessed by species within a clade may determine rates of diversification, with some particular combinations of characters acting synergistically to either limit or promote diversification; the most successful combinations may also emerge repeatedly in different clades via convergent evolution. Here, the association between species characters and diversification is investigated amongst 21 independent lineages of arthropods ectoparasitic on vertebrate hosts. Using nine characters (each with two to four states) that capture general life history strategy, transmission mode and host-parasite interaction, each lineage was described by the set of character states it possesses. The results show, firstly, that most possible pair-wise combinations of character states have been adopted at least once, sometimes several times independently by different lineages; thus, ectoparasitic arthropods have explored most of the life history character space available to them. Secondly, lineages possessing commonly observed combinations of character states are not necessarily the ones that have experienced the highest rates of diversification (measured as a clade's species-per-genus ratio). Thirdly, some specific traits are associated with higher rates of diversification. Using more than one host per generation, laying eggs away from the host and intermediate levels of fecundity are features that appear to have promoted diversification. These findings indicate that particular species characters may be evolutionary drivers of diversity, whose effects could also apply in other taxa.

  9. Genotypic diversity of root and shoot characteristics of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali ganjali


    Full Text Available Root and shoot characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. genotypes are believed to be important in drought tolerance. There is a little information about the response of genotypes root growth in hydroponics and greenhouse culture, also the relationships between root size and drought tolerance. This study was conducted to observe whether genotypes differ in root size, and to see that root size is associated with drought tolerance during early vegetative growth. We found significant differences (p0.01 in root dry weight, total root length, tap root length, root area, leaf dry weight, leaf area and shoot biomass per plant among 30 genotypes of chickpea grown in hydroponics culture for three weeks. Each of these parameters correlated with all others, positively. Among 30 genotypes, 10 genotypes with different root sizes were selected and were grown in a greenhouse in sand culture experiment under drought stress (FC %30 for three weeks. There were not linear or non-linear significant correlations between root characters in hydroponics and greenhouse environments. It seems that environmental factors are dominant on genetic factors in seedling stage and so, the expression of genotypics potential for root growth characteristics of genotypes are different in hydroponic and greenhouse conditions. In this study, the selection of genotypes with vigorous roots system in hydroponic condition did not lead to genotypes with the same root characters in greenhouse environment. The genotype×drought interactions for root characters of chickpea seedlings in 30 days were not significant (p

  10. The evolution of Root effect hemoglobins in the absence of intracellular pH protection of the red blood cell: insights from primitive fishes. (United States)

    Regan, Matthew D; Brauner, Colin J


    The Root effect, a reduction in blood oxygen (O(2)) carrying capacity at low pH, is used by many fish species to maximize O(2) delivery to the eye and swimbladder. It is believed to have evolved in the basal actinopterygian lineage of fishes, species that lack the intracellular pH (pH(i)) protection mechanism of more derived species' red blood cells (i.e., adrenergically activated Na(+)/H(+) exchangers; betaNHE). These basal actinopterygians may consequently experience a reduction in blood O(2) carrying capacity, and thus O(2) uptake at the gills, during hypoxia- and exercise-induced generalized blood acidoses. We analyzed the hemoglobins (Hbs) of seven species within this group [American paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula), bowfin (Amia calva), mooneye (Hiodon tergisus), and pirarucu (Arapaima gigas)] for their Root effect characteristics so as to test the hypothesis of the Root effect onset pH value being lower than those pH values expected during a generalized acidosis in vivo. Analysis of the haemolysates revealed that, although each of the seven species displayed Root effects (ranging from 7.3 to 40.5% desaturation of Hb with O(2), i.e., Hb O(2) desaturation), the Root effect onset pH values of all species are considerably lower (ranging from pH 5.94 to 7.04) than the maximum blood acidoses that would be expected following hypoxia or exercise (pH(i) 7.15-7.3). Thus, although these primitive fishes possess Hbs with large Root effects and lack any significant red blood cell betaNHE activity, it is unlikely that the possession of a Root effect would impair O(2) uptake at the gills following a generalized acidosis of the blood. As well, it was shown that both maximal Root effect and Root effect onset pH values increased significantly in bowfin over those of the more basal species, toward values of similar magnitude to those of most of the more derived

  11. Which "Character" Should Sport Develop? (United States)

    Rudd, Andy


    For years, strong claims have been made that sport builds character. Despite such claims, a "winning at all cost" mentality can frequently be seen within all of sport. The reason for this paradox may relate to confusion around what it means to demonstrate character. The purpose of this article is to show that there are indeed two distinct types of…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Pala


    Full Text Available Character education is a national movement creatingschools that foster ethical,responsible and caring young people by modelling and teaching good characterthrough emphasis on universal values that we all share. It is the intentional,proactive effort by schools, districts and states to instil in their students importantcore ethical values such as caring, honesty, fairness, responsibility and respect forself and others.Good character is not formed automatically; it is developed over time through asustained process of teaching, example, learning and practice. It is developedthrough character education. The intentional teaching of good character isparticularly important in today’s society since ouryouth face many opportunitiesand dangers unknown to earlier generations. They are bombarded with many morenegative influences through the media and other external sources prevalent intoday’s culture. Since children spend about 900 hours a year in school, it isessential that schools resume a proactive role in assisting families andcommunities by developing caring, respectful environments where students learncore, ethical values. When a comprehensive approachto character education isused, a positive moral culture is created in the school—a total school environmentthat supports the values taught in the classroom (Character Education Partnership,2010.The aim of this study is to provide guidelines forthe elements need for effectiveand comprehensive character education. And to emphasize the need of charactereducation to help students develop good character, which includes knowing,caring about and acting upon core ethical values such as respect, responsibility,honesty, fairness and compassion.

  13. Character of decay instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polovin, R.V.; Demutskii, V.P.


    If the initial wave is unstable in the upper half plane Im ω>0 and there are no branch points of the quasiwave number, or if waves traveling in the same direction coalesce at a branch point, the instability is convective. On the other hand, if a branch point k(ω) does exist in the upper half-plane Im ω>0, and not all the waves that merge at this point travel in the same direction, the instability is absolute. A Green's function that describes the evolution of the perturbations of the initial wave in space and in time is constructed. The growth rates of the decay instability of the harmonics are determined. The produced waves are richer in harmonics than the initial waves. It is shown that the decay instability of an Alfven wave is absolute

  14. Holistic Processing of Chinese Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Chun-Nang Wong


    Full Text Available Enhanced holistic processing (obligatory attention to all parts of an object has been associated with different types of perceptual expertise involving faces, cars, fingerprints, musical notes, English words, etc. Curiously Chinese characters are regarded as an exception, as indicated by the lack of holistic processing found for experts (Hsiao and Cottrell, 2009. The ceiling performance of experts, however, may have caused this null effect. We revisit this issue by adopting the often-used face-composite sequential-matching task to two-part Chinese characters. Participants matched the target halves (left or right of two characters while ignoring the irrelevant halves. Both Chinese readers (experts and non-Chinese readers (novices showed holistic processing. Follow-up experiments suggested different origins of the effects for the two groups. For experts, holistic processing was sensitive to the amount of experience with the characters, as it was larger for words than non-words (formed by swapping the two parts of a valid character. Novices, however, showed similar degree of holistic processing to words and non-words, suggesting that their effects were more related to their inefficient decomposition of a complex, character-like pattern into parts. Overall these findings suggest that holistic processing may be a marker of expertise with Chinese characters, contrary to previous claims.

  15. Roots & Hollers


    Kollman, Patrick L; Gorman, Thomas A


    Roots & Hollers, 2011 A documentary by Thomas Gorman & Patrick Kollman Master’s Project Abstract: Roots & Hollers uncovers the wild American ginseng trade, revealing a unique intersection between Asia and rural America. Legendary in Asia for its healing powers, ginseng helps sustain the livelihoods of thousands in Appalachia. A single root can sell for thousands of dollars at auction. Shot on-location in the mountains of Kentucky and West Virginia, this student doc...

  16. Root patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, Ben; Laskowski, Marta


    The mechanisms that pattern lateral root primordial are essential for the elaboration of root system architecture, a trait of key importance for future crop breeding. But which are most important: periodic or local cues? In this issue of Journal of Experimental Botany (pages 1411-1420), Kircher

  17. Character profiles and life satisfaction. (United States)

    Park, Hwanjin; Suh, Byung Seong; Kim, Won Sool; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Kounseok


    There is a surge of interest in subjective well-being (SWB), which concerns how individuals feel about their happiness. Life satisfaction tends to be influenced by individual psychological traits and external social factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual character and SWB. Data from 3522 university students were analyzed in this study. Character profiles were evaluated using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short version (TCI-RS). Life satisfaction was assessed using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). All statistical tests regarding the correlations between each character profile and life satisfaction were conducted using ANOVAs, t-tests, multiple linear regression models and correlation analyses. The creative (SCT) profile was associated with the highest levels of life satisfaction, whereas the depressive (sct) profile was associated with the lowest levels of life satisfaction. Additionally, high self-directedness, self-transcendence and cooperation were associated with high life satisfaction. The results of gender-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that the effects of self-directedness were the strongest in the assessment of one's quality of life, followed by self-transcendence and cooperativeness, in that order. All of the three-character profiles were significantly correlated with one's quality of life, and the character profiles of TCI-RS explained 27.6% of life satisfaction in total. Among the three-character profiles, the self-directedness profile was most associated with life satisfaction. Our study was cross-sectional, and self-reported data from students at a single university were analyzed. The results of this study showed that, among the character profiles, the effects of self-directedness were the strongest for predicting life satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Moral character in the workplace. (United States)

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong


    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment.

  19. Evolutionary transformations of fetal membrane characters in Eutheria with special reference to Afrotheria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mess, Andrea; Carter, Anthony M.


    in traditional systematics. In the present study, we attempted a reconstruction of the evolution of characters associated with placentation, the fetal membranes and the female reproductive tract. The evolutionary history of 21 characters has been traced, based on a current hypothesis of eutherian relationships...

  20. Parallel Evolution in Science: The Historical Roots and Central Concepts of General Systems Theory; and "General Systems Theory,""Modern Organizational Theory," and Organizational Communication. (United States)

    Lederman, Linda Costigan; Rogers, Don

    The two papers in this document focus on general systems theory. In her paper, Linda Lederman discusses the emergence and evolution of general systems theory, defines its central concepts, and draws some conclusions regarding the nature of the theory and its value as an epistemology. Don Rogers, in his paper, relates some of the important features…

  1. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger


    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost...... processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has...

  2. A Chinese character teaching system using structure theory and morphing technology. (United States)

    Sun, Linjia; Liu, Min; Hu, Jiajia; Liang, Xiaohui


    This paper proposes a Chinese character teaching system by using the Chinese character structure theory and the 2D contour morphing technology. This system, including the offline phase and the online phase, automatically generates animation for the same Chinese character from different writing stages to intuitively show the evolution of shape and topology in the process of Chinese characters teaching. The offline phase builds the component models database for the same script and the components correspondence database for different scripts. Given two or several different scripts of the same Chinese character, the online phase firstly divides the Chinese characters into components by using the process of Chinese character parsing, and then generates the evolution animation by using the process of Chinese character morphing. Finally, two writing stages of Chinese characters, i.e., seal script and clerical script, are used in experiment to show the ability of the system. The result of the user experience study shows that the system can successfully guide students to improve the learning of Chinese characters. And the users agree that the system is interesting and can motivate them to learn.

  3. A Chinese character teaching system using structure theory and morphing technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjia Sun

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Chinese character teaching system by using the Chinese character structure theory and the 2D contour morphing technology. This system, including the offline phase and the online phase, automatically generates animation for the same Chinese character from different writing stages to intuitively show the evolution of shape and topology in the process of Chinese characters teaching. The offline phase builds the component models database for the same script and the components correspondence database for different scripts. Given two or several different scripts of the same Chinese character, the online phase firstly divides the Chinese characters into components by using the process of Chinese character parsing, and then generates the evolution animation by using the process of Chinese character morphing. Finally, two writing stages of Chinese characters, i.e., seal script and clerical script, are used in experiment to show the ability of the system. The result of the user experience study shows that the system can successfully guide students to improve the learning of Chinese characters. And the users agree that the system is interesting and can motivate them to learn.

  4. Factorized combinations of Virasoro characters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytsko, A.G.; Fring, A.


    We investigate linear combinations of characters for minimal Virasoro models which are representable as a product of several basic blocks. Our analysis is based on consideration of asymptotic behaviour of the characters in the quasi-classical limit. In particular, we introduce a notion of the secondary effective central charge. We find all possible cases for which factorization occurs on the base of the Gauss-Jacobi or the Watson identities. Exploiting these results, we establish various types of identities between different characters. In particular, we present several identities generalizing the Rogers-Ramanujan identities. Applications to quasi-particle representations, modular invariant partition functions, super-conformal theories and conformal models with boundaries are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  5. Personality, temperament and character in Erich Fromm's theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić Saduša F.


    Full Text Available The character of the man is the substitute for instincts that animals have. In reality characters are not found in pure form, as specified orientation, but as a mixture of types. The social character of Fromm has an ethical and heuristic importance. Human passions are rooted in character and are a way to give meaning to existence, to respond to the human existential situation. If we are not able to respond through the love, then, in the absence of, we turn to destructiveness. According to Fromm, the most important goal of society should be human development. He lays down a rational belief in critical thought coupled with love of life. Although the development of personality is largely determined by social structure, Fromm concludes it is not entirely passive, that a man has the opportunity, space and power to use his mind to react to the alienation and inhumane living conditions. Through analysis of the social character From is giving a kind of critique of modern, market-oriented society, based on the principles of humanistic ethics. .

  6. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony


    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  7. Suitability of Root and Rhizome Anatomy for Taxonomic Classification and Reconstruction of Phylogenetic Relationships in the Tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae (Asteraceae). (United States)

    Ginko, Elisabeth; Dobeš, Christoph; Saukel, Johannes


    The value of root and rhizome anatomy for the taxonomic characterisation of 59 species classified into 34 genera and 12 subtribes from the Asteraceae tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae was assessed. In addition, the evolutionary history of anatomical characters was reconstructed using a nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence-based phylogeny of the Cichorieae. Taxa were selected with a focus on pharmaceutically relevant species. A binary decision tree was constructed and discriminant function analyses were performed to extract taxonomically relevant anatomical characters and to infer the separability of infratribal taxa, respectively. The binary decision tree distinguished 33 species and two subspecies, but only five of the genera (sampled for at least two species) by a unique combination of hierarchically arranged characters. Accessions were discriminated-except for one sample worthy of discussion-according to their subtribal affiliation in the discriminant function analyses (DFA). However, constantly expressed subtribe-specific characters were almost missing and even in combination, did not discriminate the subtribes. Most anatomical characters showed at least some degree of homoplasious evolution limiting their suitability as phylogenetically informative characters.

  8. A Study of Character among Collegiate Athletes (United States)

    Heupel, Jill D.


    The idea that sport builds character has been around for a long time. However, sports may not build the type of character once thought. Character of athletes was defined based on differing views held by sport scholars, coaches, athletes, and sport enthusiast. Sport scholars tend to view character of athletes from a moral perspective. Coaches,…

  9. Building Character through Literacy with Children's Literature (United States)

    Almerico, Gina M.


    Character education is described as curriculum specifically developed to teach children about the quality and traits of good character. One means in which children can learn about good character is through the pages of high quality children's literature. In this study, the author defines the characteristics of an effective character development…

  10. A comparison of biological and cultural evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the intellectual and moral characters of man have emerged as results of biological ..... tural selection is at least partly based on conscious action. In cultural evolution .... Transfer of information in biological and cultural evolution. In biological.

  11. Identification Of Minangkabau Landscape Characters (United States)

    Asrina, M.; Gunawan, A.; Aris, Munandar


    Minangkabau is one of cultures in indonesia which occupies landscape intact. Landscape of Minangkabau have a very close relationship with the culture of the people. Uniqueness of Minangkabau culture and landscape forming an inseparable characterunity. The landscape is necessarily identified to know the inherent landscape characters. The objective of this study was to identify the character of the Minangkabau landscape characterizes its uniqueness. The study was conducted by using descriptive method comprised literature review and field observasion. Observed the landscape characters comprised two main features, they were major and minor features. Indetification of the features was conducted in two original areas (darek) of the Minangkabau traditional society. The research results showed that major features or natural features of the landscape were predominantly landform, landcover, and hidrology. All luhak (districts) of Minangkabau showed similar main features such as hill, canyon, lake, valley, and forest. The existence of natural features such as hills, canyon and valleys characterizes the nature of minangkabau landscape. Minor features formed by Minangkabau cultural society were agricultural land and settlement. Rumah gadang (big house) is one of famous minor features characterizes the Minangkabau culture. In addition, several historical artefacts of building and others structure may strengthen uniqueness of the Minangkabau landscape character, such as The royal palace, inscription, and tunnels.

  12. Recognition of isolated handprinted characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo


    Handprinted characters are of unequal complexity and a common description of all alphabet symbols seems therefore unobtainable. However, letters which confuse human beings and man-made OCR systems usually have approximately the same appearance and may therefore be modeled jointly. We part the set...

  13. Understanding Agency and Educating Character (United States)

    Roth, Klas


    How can we understand human agency, and what does it mean to educate character? In this essay Klas Roth develops a Kantian notion, one that suggests we render ourselves efficacious and autonomous in education and elsewhere. This requires, among other things, that we are successful in bringing about the intended result through our actions and the…

  14. Character Toys as Psychological Tools (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena O.


    The main characteristic of children's play is its mental aspect--the fact that it is based on thoughts and feelings and not on objective reality. During imaginary play, children go beyond the limits of reality, and toys are tools that help them to do this. Children need character toys--toys that play the role of companion or partner--in the early…

  15. Can Youth Sport Build Character? (United States)

    Shields, David Light; Bredemeier, Brenda Light; Power, F. Clark


    Participation and competition in some sports are associated with lower stages of moral reasoning. Coaches can foster moral development by starting with the right mental model, holding benchmark meetings about team values, setting goals for physical and character skills, making time for guided discussion sessions, building community, modeling…

  16. Braille Character Recognition Using Artificial Neural Network


    Subur, Joko; Sardjono, Tri Arief; Mardiyanto, Ronny


    Braille letter is characters designed for the blind, consist of six embossed points, arranged in a standard braille character. Braille letters is touched and read using fingers, therefore the sensitivity of the fingers is important. Those characters need to be memorized, so it is very difficult to be learned. The aim of this research is to create a braille characters recognition system and translate it to alpha-numeric text. Webcam camera is used to capture braille image from braille characte...

  17. Root (Botany) (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer


    Plant roots can contribute significantly to the stability of steep slopes. They can anchor through the soil mass into fractures in bedrock, can cross zones of weakness to more stable soil, and can provide interlocking long fibrous binders within a weak soil mass. In deep soil, anchoring to bedrock becomes negligible, and lateral reinforcement predominates

  18. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer" (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel


    Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent

  19. On characters of finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Broué, Michel


    This book explores the classical and beautiful character theory of finite groups. It does it by using some rudiments of the language of categories. Originally emerging from two courses offered at Peking University (PKU), primarily for third-year students, it is now better suited for graduate courses, and provides broader coverage than books that focus almost exclusively on groups. The book presents the basic tools, notions and theorems of character theory (including a new treatment of the control of fusion and isometries), and introduces readers to the categorical language at several levels. It includes and proves the major results on characteristic zero representations without any assumptions about the base field. The book includes a dedicated chapter on graded representations and applications of polynomial invariants of finite groups, and its closing chapter addresses the more recent notion of the Drinfeld double of a finite group and the corresponding representation of GL_2(Z).

  20. Diradical character of some fluoranthenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available It is shown that some Kekuléan fluoranthenes are diradicals and that their ground state is a triplet. In the energetically less favorable singlet state, these hydrocarbons also exhibit pronounced diradical character. The diradical character y of the compounds under investigation was estimated using the unrestricted symmetry-broken (yPUHF and complete active space (yNOON methods. It was found that the yPUHF values better reproduce the diradical character of the investigated hydrocarbons. It was shown that singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO and SOMO-1 of a diradical structure occupy different parts of space with a small shared region, resulting in a spin density distribution over the entire molecule. The spatial diradical distribution in the singlet diradical structures was examined by inspecting the HOMOs and LUMOs for a and b spin electrons. It was shown that the a-HOMO and the b-LUMO (as well as the b-HOMO and the a-LUMO occupy practically the same part of space. In this way, there are no unpaired electrons in a singlet diradical structure, yet two of them occupy different parts of space, thus allowing the p-electrons to delocalize.

  1. A Nonstationary Markov Model Detects Directional Evolution in Hymenopteran Morphology. (United States)

    Klopfstein, Seraina; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Ronquist, Fredrik


    Directional evolution has played an important role in shaping the morphological, ecological, and molecular diversity of life. However, standard substitution models assume stationarity of the evolutionary process over the time scale examined, thus impeding the study of directionality. Here we explore a simple, nonstationary model of evolution for discrete data, which assumes that the state frequencies at the root differ from the equilibrium frequencies of the homogeneous evolutionary process along the rest of the tree (i.e., the process is nonstationary, nonreversible, but homogeneous). Within this framework, we develop a Bayesian approach for testing directional versus stationary evolution using a reversible-jump algorithm. Simulations show that when only data from extant taxa are available, the success in inferring directionality is strongly dependent on the evolutionary rate, the shape of the tree, the relative branch lengths, and the number of taxa. Given suitable evolutionary rates (0.1-0.5 expected substitutions between root and tips), accounting for directionality improves tree inference and often allows correct rooting of the tree without the use of an outgroup. As an empirical test, we apply our method to study directional evolution in hymenopteran morphology. We focus on three character systems: wing veins, muscles, and sclerites. We find strong support for a trend toward loss of wing veins and muscles, while stationarity cannot be ruled out for sclerites. Adding fossil and time information in a total-evidence dating approach, we show that accounting for directionality results in more precise estimates not only of the ancestral state at the root of the tree, but also of the divergence times. Our model relaxes the assumption of stationarity and reversibility by adding a minimum of additional parameters, and is thus well suited to studying the nature of the evolutionary process in data sets of limited size, such as morphology and ecology. © The Author

  2. Artificial Neural Network Based Optical Character Recognition


    Vivek Shrivastava; Navdeep Sharma


    Optical Character Recognition deals in recognition and classification of characters from an image. For the recognition to be accurate, certain topological and geometrical properties are calculated, based on which a character is classified and recognized. Also, the Human psychology perceives characters by its overall shape and features such as strokes, curves, protrusions, enclosures etc. These properties, also called Features are extracted from the image by means of spatial pixel-...

  3. Understanding the Properties of Interactive Televised Characters (United States)

    Claxton, Laura J.; Ponto, Katelyn C.


    Children's television programming frequently uses interactive characters that appear to directly engage the viewers. These characters encourage children to answer questions and perform actions to help the characters solve problems in the televised world. Children readily engage in these interactions; however, it is unclear why they do so. To…

  4. A Review of Virtual Character's Emotion Model (United States)

    Liu, Zhen


    Emotional virtual characters are essential to digital entertainment, an emotion is related to virtual environment and a virtual character's inner variables, emotion model of virtual character is a hot topic in many fields, domain knowledge is very important for modeling emotion, and the current research of emotion expression in the world was also summarized, and some new research directions of emotion model are presented.

  5. Promoting Character Development through Coach Education (United States)

    Power, F. Clark; Seroczynski, A. D.


    Can youth sports build character? Research suggests that the answer to this question leads to 2 further questions: (1) can youth sport coaches be effectively prepared to become character educators, and (2) can character education take place in today's competitive youth sport environment? (Bredemeier & Shields, 2006; Power, 2015; Power &…

  6. Locally Finite Root Supersystems


    Yousofzadeh, Malihe


    We introduce the notion of locally finite root supersystems as a generalization of both locally finite root systems and generalized root systems. We classify irreducible locally finite root supersystems.

  7. Systematic Identification, Evolution and Expression Analysis of the Zea mays PHT1 Gene Family Reveals Several New Members Involved in Root Colonization by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi. (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Yunjian; Jiang, Huanhuan; Jiang, Chaosheng; Du, Yibin; Gong, Cheng; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Suwen; Han, Guomin; Cheng, Beijiu


    The Phosphate Transporter1 (PHT1) family of genes plays pivotal roles in the uptake of inorganic phosphate from soils. However, there is no comprehensive report on the PHT1 family in Zea mays based on the whole genome. In the present study, a total of 13 putative PHT1 genes (ZmPHT1;1 to 13) were identified in the inbred line B73 genome by bioinformatics methods. Then, their function was investigated by a yeast PHO84 mutant complementary experiment and qRT-PCR. Thirteen ZmPHT1 genes distributed on six chromosomes (1, 2, 5, 7, 8 and 10) were divided into two paralogues (Class A and Class B). ZmPHT1;1/ZmPHT1;9 and ZmPHT1;9/ZmPHT1;13 are produced from recent segmental duplication events. ZmPHT1;1/ZmPHT1;13 and ZmPHT1;8/ZmPHT1;10 are produced from early segmental duplication events. All 13 putative ZmPHT1s can completely or partly complement the yeast Pi-uptake mutant, and they were obviously induced in maize under low Pi conditions, except for ZmPHT1;1 (p < 0.01), indicating that the overwhelming majority of ZmPHT1 genes can respond to a low Pi condition. ZmPHT1;2, ZmPHT1;4, ZmPHT1;6, ZmPHT1;7, ZmPHT1;9 and ZmPHT1;11 were up-regulated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), implying that these genes might participate in mediating Pi absorption and/or transport. Analysis of the promoters revealed that the MYCS and P1BS element are widely distributed on the region of different AMF-inducible ZmPHT1 promoters. In light of the above results, five of 13 ZmPHT1 genes were newly-identified AMF-inducible high-affinity phosphate transporters in the maize genome. Our results will lay a foundation for better understanding the PHT1 family evolution and the molecular mechanisms of inorganic phosphate transport under AMF inoculation.

  8. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bencharef


    Full Text Available The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character.

  9. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G


    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  10. Deep phylogeny and character evolution in thecostraca (Crustacea: Maxillopoda)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Crandall, Keith A.


    published since Darwin's seminal monographs, few studies have tested evolutionary hypotheses about Thecostraca within a phylogenetic context. In this review, we combine a Bayesian phylogenetic method and multilocus sequence data to reconstruct the evolutionary history of 12 key thecostracan phenotypic...

  11. Handwritten Sindhi Character Recognition Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Ahmed Awan


    Full Text Available OCR (OpticalCharacter Recognition is a technology in which text image is used to understand and write text by machines. The work on languages containing isolated characters such as German, English, French and others is at its peak. The OCR and ICR (Intelligent Character Recognition research in Sindhi script is currently at in starting stages and not sufficient work have been cited in this area even though Sindhi language is rich in culture and history. This paper presents one of the initial steps in recognizing Sindhi handwritten characters. The isolated characters of Sindhi script written by thesubjects have been recognized. The various subjects were asked to write Sindhi characters in unconstrained form and then the written samples were collected and scanned through a flatbed scanner. The scanned documents were preprocessedwith the help of binary conversion, removing noise by pepper noise and the lines were segmented with the help of horizontal profile technique. The segmented lines were used to extract characters from scanned pages.This character segmentation was done by vertical projection. The extracted characters have been used to extract features so that the characters can be classified easily. Zoning was used for the feature extraction technique. For the classification, neural network has been used. The recognized characters converted into editable text with an average accuracy of 85%.

  12. Marvel and DC Characters Inspired by Arachnids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiomar Ribeiro Da-Silva


    Full Text Available This article compares arachnid-based Marvel and DC comics characters. The composition of a comic book character often has interesting ‘real-life’ influences. Given the strong connection between arachnids (especially spiders, scorpions and mites, all belonging to the zoological class 'Arachnida' and human beings it is not surprising that they have inspired many fictional characters. We recorded 84 Marvel Comics characters and 40 DC Comics characters, detailed in the dataset that accompanies the article (Da-Silva 2014. Most characters have been created recently, since the 1990s. Marvel has significantly more arachnid characters than DC. As for taxonomic classification, the characters were based mostly on spiders (zoological order 'Araneae'. Of the total characters, the majority are human beings, but an overwhelming number have at least some typical arachnid features. Villains (60.91% of total are significantly more numerous, considering the sum of the two publishers. Arachnids have bad reputation for being dangerous (Thorp and Woodson 1976; Ruppert and Barnes 1996. Since the public usually considers spiders, scorpions and mites “harmful” in general, we expected a larger contingent of villains. However, there was no statistical difference between the amount of villains and heroes in Marvel characters. It did not happen probably due to the success of one character: the Amazing Spider-Man.

  13. Degraded character recognition based on gradient pattern (United States)

    Babu, D. R. Ramesh; Ravishankar, M.; Kumar, Manish; Wadera, Kevin; Raj, Aakash


    Degraded character recognition is a challenging problem in the field of Optical Character Recognition (OCR). The performance of an optical character recognition depends upon printed quality of the input documents. Many OCRs have been designed which correctly identifies the fine printed documents. But, very few reported work has been found on the recognition of the degraded documents. The efficiency of the OCRs system decreases if the input image is degraded. In this paper, a novel approach based on gradient pattern for recognizing degraded printed character is proposed. The approach makes use of gradient pattern of an individual character for recognition. Experiments were conducted on character image that is either digitally written or a degraded character extracted from historical documents and the results are found to be satisfactory.

  14. Structural fluctuation governed dynamic diradical character in pentacene. (United States)

    Yang, Hongfang; Chen, Mengzhen; Song, Xinyu; Bu, Yuxiang


    We unravel intriguing dynamical diradical behavior governed by structural fluctuation in pentacene using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. In contrast to static equilibrium configuration of pentacene with a closed-shell ground state without diradical character, due to structural fluctuation, some of its dynamical snapshot configurations exhibit an open-shell broken-symmetry singlet ground state with diradical character, and such diradical character presents irregular pulsing behavior in time evolution. Not all structural changes can lead to diradical character, only those involving the shortening of cross-linking C-C bonds and variations of the C-C bonds in polyacetylene chains are the main contributors. This scenario about diradicalization is distinctly different from that in long acenes. The essence is that structural distortion cooperatively raises the HOMO and lowers the LUMO, efficiently reducing the HOMO-LUMO and singlet-triplet energy gaps, which facilitate the formation of a broken-symmetry open-shell singlet state. The irregular pulsing behavior originates from the mixing of normal vibrations in pentacene. This fascinating behavior suggests the potential application of pentacene as a suitable building block in the design of new electronic devices due to its magnetism-controllability through energy induction. This work provides new insight into inherent electronic property fluctuation in acenes.

  15. Character animation fundamentals developing skills for 2D and 3D character animation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Steve


    Expand your animation toolkit and remain competitive in the industry with this leading resource for 2D and 3D character animation techniques. Apply the industry's best practices to your own workflows and develop 2D, 3D and hybrid characters with ease. With side by side comparisons of 2D and 3D character design, improve your character animation and master traditional principles and processes including weight and balance, timing and walks. Develop characters inspired by humans, birds, fish, snakes and four legged animals. Breathe life into your character and develop a characters personality w

  16. Choosing the best ancestral character state reconstruction method. (United States)

    Royer-Carenzi, Manuela; Pontarotti, Pierre; Didier, Gilles


    Despite its intrinsic difficulty, ancestral character state reconstruction is an essential tool for testing evolutionary hypothesis. Two major classes of approaches to this question can be distinguished: parsimony- or likelihood-based approaches. We focus here on the second class of methods, more specifically on approaches based on continuous-time Markov modeling of character evolution. Among them, we consider the most-likely-ancestor reconstruction, the posterior-probability reconstruction, the likelihood-ratio method, and the Bayesian approach. We discuss and compare the above-mentioned methods over several phylogenetic trees, adding the maximum-parsimony method performance in the comparison. Under the assumption that the character evolves according a continuous-time Markov process, we compute and compare the expectations of success of each method for a broad range of model parameter values. Moreover, we show how the knowledge of the evolution model parameters allows to compute upper bounds of reconstruction performances, which are provided as references. The results of all these reconstruction methods are quite close one to another, and the expectations of success are not so far from their theoretical upper bounds. But the performance ranking heavily depends on the topology of the studied tree, on the ancestral node that is to be inferred and on the parameter values. Consequently, we propose a protocol providing for each parameter value the best method in terms of expectation of success, with regard to the phylogenetic tree and the ancestral node to infer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim


    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  18. WARACS: Wrappers to Automate the Reconstruction of Ancestral Character States1 (United States)

    Gruenstaeudl, Michael


    Premise of the study: Reconstructions of ancestral character states are among the most widely used analyses for evaluating the morphological, cytological, or ecological evolution of an organismic lineage. The software application Mesquite remains the most popular application for such reconstructions among plant scientists, even though its support for automating complex analyses is limited. A software tool is needed that automates the reconstruction and visualization of ancestral character states with Mesquite and similar applications. Methods and Results: A set of command line–based Python scripts was developed that (a) communicates standardized input to and output from the software applications Mesquite, BayesTraits, and TreeGraph2; (b) automates the process of ancestral character state reconstruction; and (c) facilitates the visualization of reconstruction results. Conclusions: WARACS provides a simple tool that streamlines the reconstruction and visualization of ancestral character states over a wide array of parameters, including tree distribution, character state, and optimality criterion. PMID:26949580

  19. Building innovative and creative character through mathematics (United States)

    Suyitno, Hardi; Suyitno, Amin


    21st century is predicted as the century with rapid development in all aspects of life. People require creative and innovative character to exist. Specifically, mathematics has been given to students from the kindergarten until the middle school. Thus, building character through mathematics should begin since the early age. The problem is how to build creative and innovative character through mathematics education? The goal expected from this question is to build innovative and creative characters to face the challenges of the 21st century. This article discusses the values of mathematics, the values in mathematics education, innovative and creative character, and the integration of these values in teaching mathematics that support the innovative and creative character building, and applying the values in structurely programmed, measurable, and applicable learning activities.

  20. Seedling root targets (United States)

    Diane L. Haase


    Roots are critical to seedling performance after outplanting. Although root quality is not as quick and simple to measure as shoot quality, target root characteristics should be included in any seedling quality assessment program. This paper provides a brief review of root characteristics most commonly targeted for operational seedling production. These are: root mass...

  1. Abusive families and character formation. (United States)

    McCarthy, J B


    Family research studies confirm that abusive parents tend to be undifferentiated partners who compete with each other and with their children for attention and nurturance. More or less healthy parents make demands on children to counteract their own injured narcissism, but they do so largely without devaluation and the sadistic use of projective identification. Under sufficient stress abusive parents attack the child who fails to gratify their needs, thereby giving vent to longstanding frustrations and feelings of being threatened by the child's individuation and competency. The emotional atmosphere in such families facilitates ego deficits like those of the borderline personality as it molds the child's efforts to avoid anxiety. Devaluation, loss, and defenses against mourning partially account for depression and paranoid traits in abused youngsters. Early neglect and abuse exposes them to influential models who act out rage and primitive defenses. Some abused individuals project their rage and later become paranoid or antisocial, whereas others fragment or retain infantile defenses. The destructiveness of severe psychological abuse lies in the constriction of the experiencing self and healthy character development, together with the conditioning to repeat abusive relationships and to avoid intimacy. Achieving individuation under these circumstances entails overcoming the internalized abusive relationships and relinquishing the unconscious wish to be transformed from the abused into the abuser.

  2. On the character of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto eAnnila


    Full Text Available The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature’s hierarchy.

  3. Partially incorrect fossil data augment analyses of discrete trait evolution in living species. (United States)

    Puttick, Mark N


    Ancestral state reconstruction of discrete character traits is often vital when attempting to understand the origins and homology of traits in living species. The addition of fossils has been shown to alter our understanding of trait evolution in extant taxa, but researchers may avoid using fossils alongside extant species if only few are known, or if the designation of the trait of interest is uncertain. Here, I investigate the impacts of fossils and incorrectly coded fossils in the ancestral state reconstruction of discrete morphological characters under a likelihood model. Under simulated phylogenies and data, likelihood-based models are generally accurate when estimating ancestral node values. Analyses with combined fossil and extant data always outperform analyses with extant species alone, even when around one quarter of the fossil information is incorrect. These results are especially pronounced when model assumptions are violated, such as when there is a trend away from the root value. Fossil data are of particular importance when attempting to estimate the root node character state. Attempts should be made to include fossils in analysis of discrete traits under likelihood, even if there is uncertainty in the fossil trait data. © 2016 The Authors.

  4. Rooting human parechovirus evolution in time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria, Nuno R.; de Vries, Michel; van Hemert, Formijn J.; Benschop, Kimberley; van der Hoek, Lia


    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Picornaviridae family contains a number of important pathogenic viruses, among which the recently reclassified human parechoviruses (HPeVs). These viruses are widespread and can be grouped in several types. Understanding the evolutionary history of HPeV could answer

  5. Tracing Cultural Evolution Through Memetics


    Tiktik Dewi Sartika


    Viewing human being, as a part of evolution process is still a controversial issue for some people, in fact the evolution runs. As a sociocultural entity, human being has distinctive characters in its evolution process. A Theory inherited from Darwin may have only been able to answer how a simple unit such genes evolve to such complex animal like human. Yet, how among those complex animals interact, communicate, and replicate idea in so forth formed a such self-organized sociocultural complex...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Due to the suitable climatic conditions, Iran is one of the most important growing centre for wild and domesticated species/varieties of almond. Because of the adaptability of wild almond species to severe environmental conditions and resistance to drought, salinity and some pest and diseases, these can be used as rootstock for almond cultivars and in breeding programs for rootstock improvement in Iran. In this study, seeds of Amygdalous scoparia, A.webbii and A. orientalis were planted. The analysis of variance showed a significant difference between species. However, A. scoparia had highest stem height and leaf length. At the end of the experiment, the thickest stems were developed by A. scoparia, whereas the thinnest stems by A. orientalis. A. webbii produced more number and longer roots per seedling than the other two species. The correlation between various morphological traits showed that a few shoot characters were significantly correlated with root traits. However, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, root number and root diameter for P. webbii, and leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, petiole length and root number characters for P.scoparia, and stem height, leaf number, leaf length, petiole length, internode length and root number for P. orientalis were found to be important morphological traits to evaluate seedling charactristics of wild almond genotypes before their nursery test.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    position, level of education, character and habits of a character are reflected in the speech .... Dictators are averse to any form of ... breaks out shouting slogans of praises of himself. ..... Task easier if I can get all the Obas settled before our.

  8. Character order processing in Chinese reading. (United States)

    Gu, Junjuan; Li, Xingshan; Liversedge, Simon P


    We explored how character order information is encoded in isolated word processing or Chinese sentence reading in 2 experiments using a masked priming paradigm and a gaze-contingent display-change paradigm. The results showed that response latencies in the lexical decision task and reading times on the target word region were longer in the unrelated condition (the prime or the preview was unrelated with the target word) than the transposed-character condition (the prime or the preview was a transposition of the 2 characters of the target word), which were respectively longer than in the identity condition (the prime or preview was identical to the target word). These results show that character order is encoded at an early stage of processing in Chinese reading, but character position encoding was not strict. We also found that character order encoding was similar for single-morpheme and multiple-morpheme words, suggesting that morphemic status does not affect character order encoding. The current results represent an early contribution to our understanding of character order encoding during Chinese reading.

  9. Aristotelian versus Virtue Ethical Character Education (United States)

    Curren, Randall


    This article examines some central aspects of Kristján Kristjánsson's book, "Aristotelian Character Education," beginning with the claim that contemporary virtue ethics provides methodological, ontological, epistemological, and moral foundations for Aristotelian character education. It considers three different formulations of what…

  10. Relationships between Character Education and School Climate (United States)

    Karaburk, Hasan


    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between character education and school climate based on the lived experiences and beliefs of teachers. The research was conducted in a public middle school to explore understandings and beliefs of teachers about character education and its perceived impact on school climate. Social…

  11. A database application for wilderness character monitoring (United States)

    Ashley Adams; Peter Landres; Simon Kingston


    The National Park Service (NPS) Wilderness Stewardship Division, in collaboration with the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute and the NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program, developed a database application to facilitate tracking and trend reporting in wilderness character. The Wilderness Character Monitoring Database allows consistent, scientifically based...

  12. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport (United States)

    Gaines, Stacey A.


    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  13. On character amenability of semigroup algebras | Maepa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We study the character amenability of semigroup algebras. We work on general semigroups and certain semigroups such as inverse semigroups with a nite number of idempotents, inverse semigroups with uniformly locally nite idempotent set, Brandt and Rees semigroup and study the character amenability of the ...

  14. First Course in Japanese: Character Workbook. (United States)

    Niwa, Tamako

    This character workbook is an introduction to Japanese writing designed to be used in conjunction with Parts One and Two of this introductory course in Japanese. All the "hiragana", several "katakana", and 88 Japanese characters are introduced in this text. The workbook, consisting of 30 lessons, is divided into three parts.…

  15. Landscape Character of Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area (United States)

    Kusumoarto, A.; Gunawan, A.; Machfud; Hikmat, A.


    Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area has a diverse landscape character as a potential landscape resources for the development of ecotourism destination. This area is part of the Mount of Botol Resort, Halimun Salak National Park (HSNP). This area also has a fairly high biodiversity. This study aims to identify and analysis the category of landscape character in the Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area for the development of ecotourism destination. This study used a descriptive approach through field surveys and interviews, was carried out through two steps : 1) identify the landscape character, and 2) analysis of the landscape character. The results showed that in areas set aside for ecotourism destination in Pongkor Mining, landscape character category scattered forests, tailing ponds, river, plain, and the built environment. The Category of landscape character most dominant scattered in the area is forest, here is the river, plain, tailing ponds, the built environment, and plain. The landscape character in a natural environment most preferred for ecotourism activities. The landscape character that spread in the natural environment and the built environment is a potential that must be protected and modified such as elimination of incongruous element, accentuation of natural form, alteration of the natural form, intensification and enhanced visual quality intensively to be developed as a ecotourism destination area.

  16. Do Rural Schools Need Character Education? (United States)

    Reynolds, Janice Carner

    Studies suggest that the challenge of violence in public schools can be met through character education, whether by providing a school culture in which core values are practiced or some form of moral training (indoctrination). To assess the need for character education in rural schools, small-school superintendents and board members in central…

  17. Moral character effects in endorser perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Joseph W.


    Full Text Available This research consists of two experimental studies investigating the influence of moral character on endorser perception, and the influence of perceiver characteristics on tarnished endorser perception and brand evaluations. Perceiver characteristics are discussed from the perspectives of dispositional tendency, innate moral intuitions and self-location. The first study compared the influences of moral character and warmth on endorser perception. The second study examined the impact of perceiver characteristics on tarnished endorsers and brand evaluations. The findings reveal that moral character is more influential than warmth on endorser evaluations. Tarnished endorsers with immoral character exert more negative influence than tarnished endorsers with coldness character on brand evaluations. Innate moral intuitions and self-location moderate brand evaluations. High-morality consumers and heart-locators are more vulnerable than low-morality and brain-locators to the brands endorsed by tarnished endorsers, respectively.

  18. Character Education and Students Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu A. Kamaruddin


    Full Text Available

    In an educational environment, in the form of character education program has been done both formally and informally. It's intended as one of the supporting ideas for follow-up in the form of design activities. Character education should basically refers to the vision and mission of the institution concerned. It shows the orientation of the two things in the character of the students are: aspects of human character and individual learners hallmark institution. In this paper, these two aspects is the author trying to ideas by referring to some other writings. The end result, the authors expect the birth of a design patent as early referral to spearhead a character development program learners.

  19. A Missing Piece of the Contemporary Character Education Puzzle: The Individualisation of Moral Character (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lin


    The different sorts of virtuous people who display various virtues to a remarkable degree have brought the issue of individualisation of moral character to the forefront. It signals a more personal dimension of character development which is notoriously ignored in the current discourse on character education. The case is made that since in…

  20. Character Recognition Using Genetically Trained Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, C.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.


    Computationally intelligent recognition of characters and symbols addresses a wide range of applications including foreign language translation and chemical formula identification. The combination of intelligent learning and optimization algorithms with layered neural structures offers powerful techniques for character recognition. These techniques were originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories for pattern and spectral analysis; however, their ability to optimize vast amounts of data make them ideal for character recognition. An adaptation of the Neural Network Designer soflsvare allows the user to create a neural network (NN_) trained by a genetic algorithm (GA) that correctly identifies multiple distinct characters. The initial successfid recognition of standard capital letters can be expanded to include chemical and mathematical symbols and alphabets of foreign languages, especially Arabic and Chinese. The FIN model constructed for this project uses a three layer feed-forward architecture. To facilitate the input of characters and symbols, a graphic user interface (GUI) has been developed to convert the traditional representation of each character or symbol to a bitmap. The 8 x 8 bitmap representations used for these tests are mapped onto the input nodes of the feed-forward neural network (FFNN) in a one-to-one correspondence. The input nodes feed forward into a hidden layer, and the hidden layer feeds into five output nodes correlated to possible character outcomes. During the training period the GA optimizes the weights of the NN until it can successfully recognize distinct characters. Systematic deviations from the base design test the network's range of applicability. Increasing capacity, the number of letters to be recognized, requires a nonlinear increase in the number of hidden layer neurodes. Optimal character recognition performance necessitates a minimum threshold for the number of cases when genetically training the net. And, the

  1. A comparison of ancestral state reconstruction methods for quantitative characters. (United States)

    Royer-Carenzi, Manuela; Didier, Gilles


    Choosing an ancestral state reconstruction method among the alternatives available for quantitative characters may be puzzling. We present here a comparison of seven of them, namely the maximum likelihood, restricted maximum likelihood, generalized least squares under Brownian, Brownian-with-trend and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models, phylogenetic independent contrasts and squared parsimony methods. A review of the relations between these methods shows that the maximum likelihood, the restricted maximum likelihood and the generalized least squares under Brownian model infer the same ancestral states and can only be distinguished by the distributions accounting for the reconstruction uncertainty which they provide. The respective accuracy of the methods is assessed over character evolution simulated under a Brownian motion with (and without) directional or stabilizing selection. We give the general form of ancestral state distributions conditioned on leaf states under the simulation models. Ancestral distributions are used first, to give a theoretical lower bound of the expected reconstruction error, and second, to develop an original evaluation scheme which is more efficient than comparing the reconstructed and the simulated states. Our simulations show that: (i) the distributions of the reconstruction uncertainty provided by the methods generally make sense (some more than others); (ii) it is essential to detect the presence of an evolutionary trend and to choose a reconstruction method accordingly; (iii) all the methods show good performances on characters under stabilizing selection; (iv) without trend or stabilizing selection, the maximum likelihood method is generally the most accurate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Video Game Characters. Theory and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Schröter


    Full Text Available This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experience as three ways in which players perceive video game characters and their representations, and, third, between three dimensions of video game characters as ‘intersubjective constructs’, which usually are to be analyzed not only as fictional beings with certain diegetic properties but also as game pieces with certain ludic properties and, in those cases in which they function as avatars in the social space of a multiplayer game, as representations of other players. Having established these basic distinctions, we proceed to analyze their realization and interrelation by reference to the character of Martin Walker from the third-person shooter Spec Ops: The Line (Yager Development 2012, the highly customizable player-controlled characters from the role-playing game The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim (Bethesda 2011, and the complex multidimensional characters in the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Star Wars: The Old Republic (BioWare 2011-2014.

  3. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng


    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  4. A structural query system for Han characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skala, Matthew


    The IDSgrep structural query system for Han character dictionaries is presented. This dictionary search system represents the spatial structure of Han characters using Extended Ideographic Description Sequences (EIDSes), a data model and syntax based on the Unicode IDS concept. It includes a query...... language for EIDS databases, with a freely available implementation and format translation from popular third-party IDS and XML character databases. The system is designed to suit the needs of font developers and foreign language learners. The search algorithm includes a bit vector index inspired by Bloom...... filters to support faster query operations. Experimental results are presented, evaluating the effect of the indexing on query performance....

  5. Submatrices of character tables and basic sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling


    In this investigation of character tables of nite groups we study basic sets and associated representation theoretic data for complementary sets of conjugacy lasses. For the symmetric groups we nd unexpected properties of characters on restricted sets of conjugacy classes, like beautiful...... combinatorial determinant formulae for submatrices of the character table and Cartan matrices with respect to basic sets; we observe that similar phenomena occur for the transition matrices between power sum symmetric functions to bounded partitions and the k-Schur functions dened by Lapointe and Morse...

  6. On Hemingway’s Literary Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Miruna Ciocoi-Pop


    Full Text Available The present paper is a brief outline of Hemingway’s characters and the way in which they correspond to the author himself. It is known for a fact that Hemingway evinced a tendency to imitate his characters when they were coming to grips with diverse situations. Thus I have tried to briefly pinpoint the fading boundaries between reality and imagination in his work. By doing so, I have focused on both male and female characters, underlining the major dissimilarities between these two categories, as well as their main features.

  7. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoshima, Kazumitsu; Nishiura, Iwao; Koyama, Tsunemaro


    Several kinds of the lumbosacral nerve root anomalies have already been recognized, and the conjoined nerve roots is the most common among them. It does not make symptoms by itself, but if there is a causation of neural entrapment, for example, disc herniation, lateral recessus stenosis, spondylolisthesis, etc., so called ''biradicular syndrome'' should occur. Anomalies of the lumbosacral nerve roots, if not properly recognized, may lead to injury of these nerves during operation of the lumbar spine. Recently, the chance of finding these anomalous roots has been increased more and more with the use of metrizamide myelography and metrizamide CT, because of the improvement of the opacification of nerve roots. We describe the findings of the anomalous roots as revealed by these two methods. They demonstrate two nerve roots running parallel and the asymmetrical wide root sleeve. Under such circumstances, it is important to distinguish the anomalous roots from the normal ventral and dorsal roots. (author)

  8. Emasculation of male characters as seen through Sula by Toni Morrison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand KPOHOUE


    Full Text Available Emasculation is a drawback of slavery as it was practiced in the Americas. Men are limited in their power in order to be exploited without strong reactions. This aspect appears in Sula where female characters play the main roles. Male characters are shaped to be absent, irresponsible or insane. Female characters take care of the household and fight for their own survival. Children are educated by the female characters, male characters are regularly absent, some of them have deserted the household. The objective of this paper is to explain, through the emasculation system, the behaviors of some male characters such as Shadrack, Plum Peace, BoyBoy, Jude and Ajax (Albert Jacks in Sula in order to provide deeper understanding to Toni Morrison’s skills to deal with the conditions of Blacks in the South of the USA.  This can help to understand more Sula which is deeply rooted in the black community with its traditions and realities.

  9. Root canal irrigants


    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu


    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  10. How jurors use and misuse character evidence. (United States)

    Hunt, Jennifer S; Budesheim, Thomas Lee


    The Federal Rules of Evidence allow defendants to offer testimony about their good character, but that testimony can be impeached with cross-examination or a rebuttal witness. It is assumed that jurors use the defense's character evidence (CE) to form guilt and conviction judgments but use impeachment evidence only to assess the character witness's credibility. Two experiments tested these assumptions by presenting mock jurors with various forms of CE and impeachment. Participants made trait ratings for the character witness and defendant and guilt and conviction judgments. Positive CE did not affect guilt or conviction judgments, but cross-examination caused a backlash in which judgments were harsher than when no CE was given. Using path analysis, the authors tested a model of the process by which CE and impeachment affect defendant and witness impressions and guilt and conviction judgments. Implications for juror decision making are discussed.

  11. Molecular characters and recombinant expression of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 7, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Molecular characters ... 1State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of .... Characterization and model building of the 3-D.

  12. Some Correlates of the Arab Character. (United States)

    Moracco, John


    Describes cultural correlates of the Arab character in terms of family patterns, international relations, and implications for therapists and other human service personnel. Discusses the Bedouin influence and religious values and suggests that cultural stereotypes may restrict true understanding. (JAC)

  13. Alterations in subspecific characters of groundnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouli, C.; Patil, S.H.; Kale, D.M.


    Recombination of beneficial characters associated in the cultivars of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) belonging to the two subspecies hypogaea and fastigiata had little success in conventional breeding programme. The cultures of ssp. hypogaea have the desirable characters for the crop improvement viz; various growth habits, profuse branching, large pod, seed dormancy and stress tolerance. Sequential flowering, early maturity, compact fruiting habit and high kernel outturn are the other useful characters present in ssp. fastigiata cultures. Mutation research in a popular variety, Spanish Improved belonging to ssp. fastigiata led to the selection of various mutants. One among the mutants had large pod, a characteristic of hypogaea ssp. Hybridization among the mutants and improved cultivars as well as radiation treatment of selected cultures resulted in the isolation of cultures having not only combinations and alterations of characters in both subspecies, but also modifications. These cultures are classified into major groups and their significance in the groundnut improvement is discussed. (author)

  14. Brains with character: Reading and writing neuronarrative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaczo, T.F.


    Brains with Character: Reading and Writing Neuronarrative tracks the concept of neuronarrative by analyzing the reciprocal and catalytic relationships between neuroscience and literary media. Crucial to understanding the contemporary stakes in these two cultural endeavors is how their relationships


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Gordova


    Full Text Available In given article economic ethics are considered as set of norms of behavior of the businessman, the requirements shown by a cultural society to its style of work, to character of dialogue between participants of business, to their social shape. The conclusion becomes that economic ethics have applied character in relation to theoretical, to obschenormativnoy ethics, hence, represent section of applied ethics. On the other hand, the specific standard maintenance characterizes economic ethics as ethics professional.



    Narendra Sahu; Manoj Sonkusare


    Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is the process which enables a system to without human intervention identifies the scripts or alphabets written into the users’ verbal communication. Optical Character identification has grown to be individual of the mainly flourishing applications of knowledge in the field of pattern detection and artificial intelligence. In our survey we study on the various OCR techniques. In this paper we resolve and examine the hypothetical and numerical models of Opti...

  17. Use of Splines in Handwritten Character Recognition


    Sunil Kumar; Gopinath S,; Satish Kumar; Rajesh Chhikara


    Handwritten Character Recognition is software used to identify the handwritten characters and receive and interpret intelligible andwritten input from sources such as manuscript documents. The recent past several years has seen the development of many systems which are able to simulate the human brain actions. Among the many, the neural networks and the artificial intelligence are the most two important paradigms used. In this paper we propose a new algorithm for recognition of handwritten t...

  18. Video Game Characters. Theory and Analysis


    Felix Schröter; Jan-Noël Thon


    This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experien...

  19. The character of free topological groups II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nickolas


    Full Text Available A systematic analysis is made of the character of the free and free abelian topological groups on metrizable spaces and compact spaces, and on certain other closely related spaces. In the first case, it is shown that the characters of the free and the free abelian topological groups on X are both equal to the “small cardinal” d if X is compact and metrizable, but also, more generally, if X is a non-discrete k!-space all of whose compact subsets are metrizable, or if X is a non-discrete Polish space. An example is given of a zero-dimensional separable metric space for which both characters are equal to the cardinal of the continuum. In the case of a compact space X, an explicit formula is derived for the character of the free topological group on X involving no cardinal invariant of X other than its weight; in particular the character is fully determined by the weight in the compact case. This paper is a sequel to a paper by the same authors in which the characters of the free groups were analysed under less restrictive topological assumptions.

  20. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  1. Rooting traits of peanut genotypes with different yield responses to terminal drought (United States)

    Drought at pod filling can severely reduce yield of peanut. Better root systems can reduce yield loss from drought. However, the relationship of root characters with yield under terminal drought is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the responses of peanut genotyp...

  2. Leading Character?s Antisocial Personality Disorder In James B Stewart?s Blind Eye


    Lestari, Ayu


    110705043 The title of this thesis isLeading Character?s Antisocial Personality Disorder in James B Stewart?s Blind Eyethat is research about antisocial personality of leading character in the novel, namely Dr. Michael Swango. The purpose of this thesis is to find out characteristic of Swango that show he has antisocial personality disorder and to know the causes of his disorder. The writer refers to theory antisocial personality disorder that take in a research of APA (American Psychiatri...

  3. Character Play – The use of game characters in multi- player Role Playing Games across platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, M.; Brolund, T.


    histories of game characters. This article presents results from a comprehensive empirical study of the way complex game characters are utilized by players in multiplayer role-playing games across two different media platforms. The results indicate that adult players are capable of comprehending...... and utilizing game characters with well-defined personalities and backgrounds, as well as rules-based components. Furthermore, that the game format plays a significant role in the pattern of usage of the character elements. This pattern appears directly linked with variations in the way that the different game...



    Jyoti Dalal*1 & Sumiran Daiya2


    Character recognition techniques associate a symbolic identity with the image of character. In a typical OCR systems input characters are digitized by an optical scanner. Each character is then located and segmented, and the resulting character image is fed into a pre-processor for noise reduction and normalization. Certain characteristics are the extracted from the character for classification. The feature extraction is critical and many different techniques exist, each having its strengths ...

  5. A Classification Scheme for Literary Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Berry


    Full Text Available There is no established classification scheme for literary characters in narrative theory short of generic categories like protagonist vs. antagonist or round vs. flat. This is so despite the ubiquity of stock characters that recur across media, cultures, and historical time periods. We present here a proposal of a systematic psychological scheme for classifying characters from the literary and dramatic fields based on a modification of the Thomas-Kilmann (TK Conflict Mode Instrument used in applied studies of personality. The TK scheme classifies personality along the two orthogonal dimensions of assertiveness and cooperativeness. To examine the validity of a modified version of this scheme, we had 142 participants provide personality ratings for 40 characters using two of the Big Five personality traits as well as assertiveness and cooperativeness from the TK scheme. The results showed that assertiveness and cooperativeness were orthogonal dimensions, thereby supporting the validity of using a modified version of TK’s two-dimensional scheme for classifying characters.

  6. Benchmark for license plate character segmentation (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gabriel Resende; da Silva, Sirlene Pio Gomes; Menotti, David; Shwartz, William Robson


    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) has been the focus of many researches in the past years. In general, ALPR is divided into the following problems: detection of on-track vehicles, license plate detection, segmentation of license plate characters, and optical character recognition (OCR). Even though commercial solutions are available for controlled acquisition conditions, e.g., the entrance of a parking lot, ALPR is still an open problem when dealing with data acquired from uncontrolled environments, such as roads and highways when relying only on imaging sensors. Due to the multiple orientations and scales of the license plates captured by the camera, a very challenging task of the ALPR is the license plate character segmentation (LPCS) step, because its effectiveness is required to be (near) optimal to achieve a high recognition rate by the OCR. To tackle the LPCS problem, this work proposes a benchmark composed of a dataset designed to focus specifically on the character segmentation step of the ALPR within an evaluation protocol. Furthermore, we propose the Jaccard-centroid coefficient, an evaluation measure more suitable than the Jaccard coefficient regarding the location of the bounding box within the ground-truth annotation. The dataset is composed of 2000 Brazilian license plates consisting of 14000 alphanumeric symbols and their corresponding bounding box annotations. We also present a straightforward approach to perform LPCS efficiently. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation for the dataset based on five LPCS approaches and demonstrate the importance of character segmentation for achieving an accurate OCR.

  7. Why rooting fails


    Creutz, Michael


    I explore the origins of the unphysical predictions from rooted staggered fermion algorithms. Before rooting, the exact chiral symmetry of staggered fermions is a flavored symmetry among the four "tastes." The rooting procedure averages over tastes of different chiralities. This averaging forbids the appearance of the correct 't Hooft vertex for the target theory.

  8. Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sumardi I, Wulandari M (2011 Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level. Biodiversitas 12: 167-175. In Indonesia there are many cultivars of banana, and some of them produce edible fruits. Beside their morphology, the character which necessary as a tool for classification is anatomical character. The aim of this research were to describe the anatomical character and morphology of fives Indonesian banana cultivars based on their level of ploidy. The cultivars were collected from Banana Germplasm Plantation, Yogyakarta District, Indonesia. The samples of roots, rhizome, and leaf were collected from five banana cultivars i.e.: Musa acuminata cv Penjalin, M.balbisiana cv Kluthuk warangan, M.acuminata cv Ambon warangan, M.paradisiaca cv Raja nangka , and M. paradisiaca cv Kluthuk susu. For anatomy observation samples were prepared using paraffin method, stained with 1% safranin in 70% ethanol. To observe the structure of stomata and epidermis surface, slide were prepared using modification of whole mount method. Slides were observed using Olympus BHB microscope completed with Olympus camera BM-10A. Stem and leaf morphology character of diploid level (AA and BB genome is different with triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome. Anatomy and morphology character of root and rhizome of banana in diploid level (AA and BB genome and triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome is quite similar. Distribution of stomata is found in leaf and pseudostem. Stomata is found in adaxial and abaxial epidermis layer. The size of guard cells in triploid cultivars was longer than that diploid cultivars. The root composse of epidermis layer, cortex and cylinder vascular of five cultivar’s root show anomalous structure. Rhizome consist of peripheric and centre zone. Anatomically, this was no differences in the rizome structur among five banana cultivars. The row of vascular bundles act as demarcation area

  9. The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Chan, Wayne; Jussim, Lee; De Fruyt, Filip; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Reátigui, Norma; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Marušić, Iris; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Purić, Danka; Martin, Thomas A.; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B.; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P.; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Pramila, V. S.; Terracciano, Antonio


    Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; and (b) report new data on national character in 26 cultures from descriptions (N=3,323) of the typical male or female adolescent, adult, or old person in each. The average ratings were internally consistent and converged with independent stereotypes of the typical culture member, but were weakly related to objective assessments of personality. We argue that this conclusion is consistent with the broader literature on the inaccuracy of national character stereotypes. PMID:24187394

  10. Transliterating non-ASCII characters with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Bernstein


    Full Text Available This lesson shows how to use Python to transliterate automatically a list of words from a language with a non-Latin alphabet to a standardized format using the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII characters. It builds on readers’ understanding of Python from the lessons “Viewing HTML Files,” “Working with Web Pages,” “From HTML to List of Words (part 1” and “Intro to Beautiful Soup.” At the end of the lesson, we will use the transliteration dictionary to convert the names from a database of the Russian organization Memorial from Cyrillic into Latin characters. Although the example uses Cyrillic characters, the technique can be reproduced with other alphabets using Unicode.

  11. Character Issues: Reality Character Problems and Solutions through Education in Indonesia (United States)

    Saidek, Abdul Rahim; Islami, Raisul; Abdoludin


    Weak character education raises the problem of corruption, a fight between students, free sex, drugs and rape/abortion indicate that the issue of character education of the nation must be improved and the concern of all parties, the nation's leaders, law enforcement officers, educators, religious leaders, groups and other etc. There are two…

  12. Character Education in Print: Content Analysis of Character Education in Introduction to Education Textbooks (United States)

    Protz, Babette Marisa


    Albert Einstein is credited with saying that the most important component of education is the development of students' character. While debate exists as to the delivery of character education in the public schools, it must be recognized that not all students have a support system outside of the schoolhouse. Consequently, when character…

  13. Refined geometric transition and qq-characters (United States)

    Kimura, Taro; Mori, Hironori; Sugimoto, Yuji


    We show the refinement of the prescription for the geometric transition in the refined topological string theory and, as its application, discuss a possibility to describe qq-characters from the string theory point of view. Though the suggested way to operate the refined geometric transition has passed through several checks, it is additionally found in this paper that the presence of the preferred direction brings a nontrivial effect. We provide the modified formula involving this point. We then apply our prescription of the refined geometric transition to proposing the stringy description of doubly quantized Seiberg-Witten curves called qq-characters in certain cases.

  14. TEACHERS AND EDUCATION OF CHARACTER INSTILLATION (Research Result at Private Elementary School of Muhammadiyah in Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Teachers are the most important element in the development of character education in elementary school, because it becomes the main foundation for a child. Therefore character education made a continuous process to produce a future human figure rooted in the cultural values of the Indonesian nation. Character education in the current context is very relevant to students to tackle the ongoing moral crisis in our country, including free association, crime against friends, teenage theft, cheating, drug abuse and drugs, pornography, brawls, and others. This is based on the results of research on SDS Muhammadiyah about teacher and character education education. The research methodology was conducted with qualitative descriptive analysis. Data obtained based on interviews, observation, and study documentation with the object of research. The result of the research shows that character education education in SDS Muhammadiyah 29 Medan City is contained in all subjects and outside subjects that are instilled early on by all teachers. Cultivation of character education conducted in all subjects through 3 content, ie general content (PAI, PKn, IPS, IPA, Bahasa Indonesia, Mathematics, Arts and Culture, special content (Kemuhammadiyahan, and Local Content (Malay Arabic / Arabic, English, Computer. Character education model performed outside the subjects through 4 things, namely: religious habituation (religious, discipline exercises, fun activities, and sports activities. Commonalities include (the implementation of Zuhr prayers bertamaaah, dhuha congregation, tadarus Al-Qur'an and memorizing the verses of Al-Qur'an, and culture shake. Discipline includes (the existence of rules and school rules and liaison books every day. Kewiraaan include (Flag ceremony and Hizbul wathan. Exercise includes (physical fitness exercise.

  15. Character Apps for Children's Snacks: Effects of Character Awareness on Snack Selection and Consumption Patterns. (United States)

    Putnam, Marisa M; Cotto, Caroline E; Calvert, Sandra L


    Media characters are used to market snacks that are typically of poor nutritional value, which has been linked to childhood obesity. This study examines whether children's snack selections and consumption patterns are influenced by an app depicting a popular children's media character, as well as the role that children's awareness of the character plays. The results can increase our understanding of how to encourage healthier snack selection and consumption in newer game-based marketing venues, such as apps. Four- and 5-year-old children (N = 132) played a bowling game on an iPad with no character or with a character holding either healthier or unhealthy snacks. After app-play, children selected and consumed healthier or unhealthy snacks. Children's awareness of the character was measured by children's verbalizations of the character's name during or after app-play. An ordered logistic regression found no significant effect of treatment conditions compared with the control group. Within treatment conditions, awareness of the character led to selection and consumption of more healthy snacks in the healthier condition (odds ratio β = 10.340, P = 0.008), and of unhealthy snacks in the unhealthy condition (odds ratio β = 0.228, P = 0.033), but children were unaware that the character influenced their decisions. Results suggest that young children will choose and consume healthier, not just unhealthy, products when they are aware that a popular character in an app is associated with the snack, potentially leading to healthier eating patterns.

  16. Pharmacognostic study of Lantana camara Linn. root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar


    Full Text Available Objective: The study was carried out to perform the pharmacognostic evaluation of Lantana camara Linn. root. Method: The pharmacognostic evaluation was done in terms of organoleptic, macro-microscopy, fluorescence analysis and physicochemical parameters. Results: The characteristic macroscopic features showed that the root consists of 25-40 cm long, 0.2-4.0 cm thick pieces which are usually branched, shallow, tough, creamish-brown externally, outer surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, with hard fracture, characteristic odour and pungent taste. The main microscopic characters of the root shows exfoliating cork, consisting of about 10-15 rows of tangentially elongated, thick-walled cells followed by cortex consisting of polygonal parenchymatous cells, a few containing rhomboidal shaped calcium oxalate crystals. Endodermis consists of 3-4 layers of non-lignified, thick-walled rounded parenchymatous cells followed by a single layer of non-lignified pericycle. Phloem, a wide zone of xylem consisting of lignified pitted vessels and bi-to triseriate medullary rays are also present. Proximate physicochemical analysis of the root power showed loss on drying, total ash, water soluble ash, sulphated ash values as 0.52, 4.26, 3.8 and 5.8 % w/w respectively. Successive extraction of the root powder with petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, water yielded 0.19, 0.35, 2.19 and 2.0 % w/w respectively. Fluorescence study imparted characteristic colors to the root powder when observed under visible, short and long wavelength light. Conclusions: Various pharmacognostic parameters evaluated in this study helps in identification and standardization of Lantana camara L. root in crude form.

  17. Technical guide for monitoring selected conditions related to wilderness character (United States)

    Peter Landres; Steve Boutcher; Liese Dean; Troy Hall; Tamara Blett; Terry Carlson; Ann Mebane; Carol Hardy; Susan Rinehart; Linda Merigliano; David N. Cole; Andy Leach; Pam Wright; Deb Bumpus


    The purpose of monitoring wilderness character is to improve wilderness stewardship by providing managers a tool to assess how selected actions and conditions related to wilderness character are changing over time. Wilderness character monitoring provides information to help answer two key questions about wilderness character and wilderness stewardship: 1. How is...

  18. Guideline for Optical Character Recognition Forms. (United States)

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This publication provides materials relating to the design, preparation, acquisition, inspection, and application of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) forms in data entry systems. Since the materials are advisory and tutorial in nature, this publication has been issued as a guideline rather than as a standard in the Federal Information…

  19. A New Experiment on Bengali Character Recognition (United States)

    Barman, Sumana; Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Jeon, Seung-Whan; Kim, Tai-Hoon; Kim, Haeng-Kon

    This paper presents a method to use View based approach in Bangla Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system providing reduced data set to the ANN classification engine rather than the traditional OCR methods. It describes how Bangla characters are processed, trained and then recognized with the use of a Backpropagation Artificial neural network. This is the first published account of using a segmentation-free optical character recognition system for Bangla using a view based approach. The methodology presented here assumes that the OCR pre-processor has presented the input images to the classification engine described here. The size and the font face used to render the characters are also significant in both training and classification. The images are first converted into greyscale and then to binary images; these images are then scaled to a fit a pre-determined area with a fixed but significant number of pixels. The feature vectors are then formed extracting the characteristics points, which in this case is simply a series of 0s and 1s of fixed length. Finally, an artificial neural network is chosen for the training and classification process.

  20. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946 (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria


    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  1. Computational Design of Animated Mechanical Characters (United States)

    Coros, Stelian; Thomaszewski, Bernhard; DRZ Team Team


    A factor key to the appeal of modern CG movies and video-games is that the virtual worlds they portray place no bounds on what can be imagined. Rapid manufacturing devices hold the promise of bringing this type of freedom to our own world, by enabling the fabrication of physical objects whose appearance, deformation behaviors and motions can be precisely specified. In order to unleash the full potential of this technology however, computational design methods that create digital content suitable for fabrication need to be developed. In recent work, we presented a computational design system that allows casual users to create animated mechanical characters. Given an articulated character as input, the user designs the animated character by sketching motion curves indicating how they should move. For each motion curve, our framework creates an optimized mechanism that reproduces it as closely as possible. The resulting mechanisms are attached to the character and then connected to each other using gear trains, which are created in a semi-automated fashion. The mechanical assemblies generated with our system can be driven with a single input driver, such as a hand-operated crank or an electric motor, and they can be fabricated using rapid prototyping devices.

  2. Reflecting on Character (Reflexionando Sobre el Caracter). (United States)

    Candelaria, Cordelia


    Responding to the "Proyecto Resolana" article in the July/August 1980 issue of this journal, the article notes the heterogeneity of Hispanic Americans, the three main effects of the European conquest on people of the Western Hemisphere, and attempts to further define the character of Hispanic Americans. (SB)

  3. Theological Education and Character Formation in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents theological education and character formation in Nigerian Christianity. Some theologians and religious scholars do not offer any practical recipes in dealing with the major pressing problems of theological training for Christian ministry today in the 21st century Nigerian society. Some priests, lay workers ...

  4. Emotional characters for automatic plot creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theune, Mariet; Rensen, S.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Göbel, S.; Spierling, U.; Hoffmann, A.; Iurgel, I.; Schneider, O.; Dechau, J.; Feix, A.

    The Virtual Storyteller is a multi-agent framework for automatic story generation. In this paper we describe how plots emerge from the actions of semi-autonomous character agents, focusing on the influence of the characters’ emotions on plot development.

  5. Moral-Character Development for Teacher Education (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel; Woodbury, Ryan


    In this article the authors accept the common view that moral-character education is immanent to the life of classroom and schools and inevitable even when remanded to the hidden curriculum. Most schools claim to address the moral formation of students, and many educators enter the profession for values-laden reasons. Yet the language of values,…

  6. On Repairing Generated Behaviors for Graphical Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corradini, Andrea; Mehta, Manish


    In this paper, we continue our work on the creation of artificial intelligence (AI) behaviors for graphical interactive characters by novice users. We refer to novice users as any persons who do not have any particular skills, training and experience in both programming and design. The focus...

  7. Character Education: A Relationship with Building Health (United States)

    Crider, Robert B.


    The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between the use of character education programming and school health. Measuring and improving school health is a process that supports social, emotional, ethical and civic education. Hoy, Tarter, and Kottkamp define this concept as a healthy school is one in which the institutional,…

  8. Morphological Characters and Histology of Pheretima darnleiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Pheretima darnleiensis is a native earthworm of Southeast Asia, India, and Japan. Although it is commonly found in Indonesia, the earthworm has never been studied well. This study was aimed to examine the morphological characters and structure of its several organs for an identification purpose, which is important for the earthworm culture. Earthworms were collected in a plot of 55-150 × 55-150 cm width and 20 cm depth at Bogor Agricultural University in Darmaga and Baranangsiang Campuses by hand sorting method. Examinations were carried out on its external as well as internal characters. The histology of the organs was studied using paraffin method. The observed characters on P. darnleiensis were the presence of prostate gland, one pair of male pores on segment XVIII, a cylindrical body with perichaetine setae, caeca on segment XXVII, copulatory pouches without diverticula and stalked glands, bithecal spermatheca with nephridia, and the first spermathecal pore on segment 4/5. In addition, other characters found on P. darnleiensis were the presence of an annular clitellum on segment XIV-XVI, an epilobus prostomium with open base, approximately 40 single pointed setae on segment XIII, one midventral female pore on segment XIV, one pair of lateroventral male pores on segment XVIII, four pairs of lateroventral spermathecal pores on segment 4/5, 5/6, 6/7, 7/8, and the first middorsal dorsal pore on segment 12/13. The histology of P. darnleiensis showed basic structure as found in other earthworms.

  9. Computer Animation for Articulated 3D Characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.


    We present a review of the computer animation literature, mainly concentrating on articulated characters and at least some degree of interactivity or real time simulation. Advances in dierent techniques such as key-frame, motion capture (also known as mocap), dynamics, inverse kinematics (IK),

  10. Honesty, Cheating, and Character in College (United States)

    Miller, Christian


    Most college faculty care about the characters of their students, especially when it comes to questions of honesty. But can students today be trusted not to cheat when completing papers and exams, and not to do so for the right reasons? In section one of this article, the author reviews some of the leading research on cheating behavior, and in…

  11. Interactive Character Deformation Using Simplified Elastic Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Z.


    This thesis describes the results of our research into realistic skin and model deformation methods aimed at the field of character deformation and animation. The main contributions lie in the properties of our deformation scheme. Our approach preserves the volume of the deformed object while


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    five-toed stage, of a spur on the hind foot, giving a six-toed appearance when the spur first appears. This feature ... In the main key, besides the spur on the foot, tail and spiracle characters were used, the former with the .... and is generally pale ... ' (p. 96) and 'They reach a maximum of 70 mm, and are flat, heavy tadpoles ..•.

  13. Amharic Character Generator | Gessesse | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zede Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7 (1986) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Amharic Character Generator. GA Gessesse. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.

  14. [The aesthetic character of caring knowledge]. (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Yun


    The identity of nursing is founded on caring knowledge, which is derived from our understanding of its experience-revealed essence. This purposive knowledge differs from scientific knowledge because validity guides the latter and ethics guides the former. Therefore, justifying the objectivity of caring knowledge should be based on the aesthetic character of this knowledge rather than on a general social-science explanation.

  15. Building Character through Sports: Myth or Possibility? (United States)

    Chandler, Timothy J. L.; Goldberg, Alan D.


    Asks whether striving to win in sports is compatible with belief participation in sports builds character. Identifies viewpoints on winning (winning as consequence and winning as experience). Suggests ways counselors might encourage athletes, coaches, and parents to perceive winning as experience so participation in sports can foster…

  16. Face of America Character Education Curriculum. (United States)

    World T.E.A.M. Sports, Charlotte, NC.

    This document presents a description of the Face of America Classroom Program, a character education program based on a mission to bridge and build communities through sports. Three language arts lesson plans are provided on three themes: achievement, stereotypes (especially of people with disabilities), and strategies for healthy minds and…

  17. The Problem of Loyalty in Teaching Character (United States)

    Stoll, Sharon K.


    In the last year, two prominent, famous, and revered coaches, Jim Tressel and Joe Paterno, committed disastrous lapses of ethics. Both coaches preached that sport and athletics build character. They either taught ethics or leadership courses at their institutions or were exemplars of ethical behavior in their personal and professional lives. Both…

  18. Cyberethics: Envisioning Character Education in Cyberspace (United States)

    Whittier, David B.


    This article presents theory and research forming the framework of a graduate course in cyberethics education. The course content includes theory and research on the psychology of the Internet, moral development, and character education. Discussion includes application of these constructs to issues such as empathy, privacy, and other issues as…

  19. The inaccuracy of national character stereotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McCrae, R. R.; Chan, W.; Jussim, L.; De Fruyt, F.; Löckenhoff, C.E.; De Bolle, M.; Costa Jr., P.T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Nakazato, K.; Shimonaka, Y.; Yik, M.; Ficková, E.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Reátigui, N.; Leibovich de Figueroa, N.; Schmidt, V.; Ahn, Ch.; Ahn, H.; Aguilar-Vafaie, M.E.; Siuta, J.; Szmigielska, B.; Cain, T.R.; Crawford, J.T.; Mastor, K.A.; Rolland, J. P.; Nansubuga, F.; Miramontez, D.R.; Benet-Martínez, V.; Rossier, J.; Bratko, D.; Marušić, I.; Halberstadt, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Knežević, G.; Purić, D.; Martin, T. A.; Gheorghiu, M.; Smith, P.B.; Barbaranelli, C.; Wang, L.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Lima, M.P.; Klinkosz, W.; Sekowski, A.; Alcalay, L.; Simonetti, F.; Avdeyeva, T.V.; Pramila, V.S.; Terracciano, A.


    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2013), s. 831-842 ISSN 0092-6566 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : national character * stereotypes * Five-Factor Model of Personality Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.011, year: 2013

  20. Animal regeneration: ancestral character or evolutionary novelty? (United States)

    Slack, Jonathan Mw


    An old question about regeneration is whether it is an ancestral character which is a general property of living matter, or whether it represents a set of specific adaptations to the different circumstances faced by different types of animal. In this review, some recent results on regeneration are assessed to see if they can throw any new light on this question. Evidence in favour of an ancestral character comes from the role of Wnt and bone morphogenetic protein signalling in controlling the pattern of whole-body regeneration in acoels, which are a basal group of bilaterian animals. On the other hand, there is some evidence for adaptive acquisition or maintenance of the regeneration of appendages based on the occurrence of severe non-lethal predation, the existence of some novel genes in regenerating organisms, and differences at the molecular level between apparently similar forms of regeneration. It is tentatively concluded that whole-body regeneration is an ancestral character although has been lost from most animal lineages. Appendage regeneration is more likely to represent a derived character resulting from many specific adaptations. © 2017 The Author.

  1. Public and Constitutional Support for Character Education. (United States)

    Vessels, Gordon G.; Boyd, Stephen M.


    Character education thrives on an informed understanding of constitutional principles and an inclusive commitment-building process. U.S. Supreme Court opinions that clarify public school students' free speech rights have established values education as a constitutionally acceptable practice. Challenges might lie in possible violations of the First…

  2. Mapping wilderness character in Olympic National Park (United States)

    James Tricker; Peter Landres; Jennifer Chenoweth; Roger Hoffman; Scott Ruth


    The Olympic Wilderness was established November 16, 1988 when President Ronald Reagan signed the Washington Park Wilderness Act. A total of 876,447 acres or 95% of Olympic National Park (OLYM) was designated as wilderness and became a part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, wherein wilderness character would be preserved. The purpose of this project was to...

  3. Educating for Character in the Sexual Domain (United States)

    Lickona, Thomas


    Changes in American sexual behavior brought about by the sexual revolution have been linked to the breakdown of the family and other social ills. Because sex has profound consequences for self, others, and society, sex education is an important part of character education. Sexual abstinence before marriage is associated with better physical and…

  4. Prediction of natural disasters basing of chrono-and-information field characters (United States)

    Sapunov, Valentin


    Living organisms are able to predict some future events particular catastrophic incidents. This is adaptive characters producing by evolution. The more energy produces incident the more possibility to predict one. Wild animals escaped natural hazards including tsunami (e.g. extremal tsunami in Asia December 2004). Living animals are able to predict strong phenomena of obscure nature. For example majority of animals escaped Tungus catastrophe taking place in Siberia at 1908. Wild animals are able to predict nuclear weapon experiences. The obscure characters are not typical for human, but they are fixed under probability 15%. Such were summarized by L.Vasiliev (1961). Effective theory describing such a characters is absent till now. N.Kozyrev (1991) suggested existence of unknown physical field (but gravitation and electro magnetic). The field was named "time" or "chrono". Some characters of the field appeared to be object of physical experiment. Kozyrev suggested specific role of the field for function of living organisms. Transition of biological information throw space (telepathy) and time (proscopy) may be based on characters of such a field. Hence physical chrono-and-information field is under consideration. Animals are more familiar with such a field than human. Evolutionary process experienced with possibility of extremal development of contact with such a field using highest primates. This mode of evolution appeared to stay obscure producing probable species "Wildman" (Bigfoot). Specific adaptive fitches suggest impossibility to study of such a species by usual ecological approaches. The perspective way for study of mysterious phenomena of physic is researches of this field characters.

  5. Evolution of Scale Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Brett Christopher

    ) caves, and the interstitium, recovering six monophyletic clades within Aphroditiformia: Acoetidae, Aphroditidae, Eulepethidae, Iphionidae, Polynoidae, and Sigalionidae (inclusive of the former ‘Pisionidae’ and ‘Pholoidae’), respectively. Tracing of morphological character evolution showed a high degree...... of adaptability and convergent evolution between relatively closely related scale worms. While some morphological and behavioral modifications in cave polynoids reflected troglomorphism, other modifications like eye loss were found to stem from a common ancestor inhabiting the deep sea, further corroborating...... the deep sea ancestry of scale worm cave fauna. In conclusion, while morphological characterization across Aphroditiformia appears deceptively easy due to the presence of elytra, convergent evolution during multiple early radiations across wide ranging habitats have confounded our ability to reconstruct...

  6. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration and ACC synthase expression in soybean roots, root tips, and soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)-infected roots. (United States)

    Tucker, Mark L; Xue, Ping; Yang, Ronghui


    Colonization of plant roots by root knot and cyst nematodes requires a functional ethylene response pathway. However, ethylene plays many roles in root development and whether its role in nematode colonization is direct or indirect, for example lateral root initiation or root hair growth, is not known. The temporal requirement for ethylene and localized synthesis of ethylene during the life span of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) on soybean roots was further investigated. Although a significant increase in ethylene evolution was not detected from SCN-colonized roots, the concentration of the immediate precursor to ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), was higher in SCN-colonized root pieces and root tips than in other parts of the root. Moreover, expression analysis of 17 ACC synthase (ACS) genes indicated that a select set of ACS genes is expressed in SCN-colonized root pieces that is clearly different from the set of genes expressed in non-colonized roots or root tips. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR indicated that ACS transcript accumulation correlates with the high concentration of ACC in root tips. In addition, an ACS-like sequence was found in the public SCN nucleotide database. Acquisition of a full-length sequence for this mRNA (accession GQ389647) and alignment with transcripts for other well-characterized ACS proteins indicated that the nematode sequence is missing a key element required for ACS activity and therefore probably is not a functional ACS. Moreover, no significant amount of ACC was found in any growth stage of SCN that was tested.

  7. Genetic association among root morphology, root quality and root yield in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)


    Kumar Ramesh R.; Reddy Anjaneya Prasanna L.; Subbaiah Chinna J.; Kumar Niranjana A.; Prasad Nagendra H.N.; Bhukya Balakishan


    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a dryland medicinal crop and roots are used as valuable drug in traditional systems of medicine. Morphological variants (morphotypes) and the parental populations were evaluated for root - morphometric, quality and yield traits to study genetic association among them. Root morphometric traits (root length, root diameter, number of secondary roots/ plant) and crude fiber content exhibited strong association among them and ...

  8. Contribution to automatic handwritten characters recognition. Application to optical moving characters recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokana, Denis


    This paper describes a research work on computer aided vision relating to the design of a vision system which can recognize isolated handwritten characters written on a mobile support. We use a technique which consists in analyzing information contained in the contours of the polygon circumscribed to the character's shape. These contours are segmented and labelled to give a new set of features constituted by: - right and left 'profiles', - topological and algebraic unvarying properties. A new method of character's recognition induced from this representation based on a multilevel hierarchical technique is then described. In the primary level, we use a fuzzy classification with dynamic programming technique using 'profiles'. The other levels adjust the recognition by using topological and algebraic unvarying properties. Several results are presented and an accuracy of 99 pc was reached for handwritten numeral characters, thereby attesting the robustness of our algorithm. (author) [fr

  9. Endoscopic root canal treatment. (United States)

    Moshonov, Joshua; Michaeli, Eli; Nahlieli, Oded


    To describe an innovative endoscopic technique for root canal treatment. Root canal treatment was performed on 12 patients (15 teeth), using a newly developed endoscope (Sialotechnology), which combines an endoscope, irrigation, and a surgical microinstrument channel. Endoscopic root canal treatment of all 15 teeth was successful with complete resolution of all symptoms (6-month follow-up). The novel endoscope used in this study accurately identified all microstructures and simplified root canal treatment. The endoscope may be considered for use not only for preoperative observation and diagnosis but also for active endodontic treatment.


    CERN Document Server

    Wind, David Kofoed


    ROOT is the LHC physicists' common tool for data analysis; almost all data is stored using ROOT's I/O system. This system benefits from a custom description of types (a so-called dictionary) that is optimised for the I/O. Until now, the dictionary cannot be provided at run-time; it needs to be prepared in a separate prerequisite step. This project will move the generation of the dictionary to run-time, making use of ROOT 6's new just-in-time compiler. It allows a more dynamic and natural access to ROOT's I/O features especially for user code.

  11. Release of the benzoxazinoids defense molecules during lateral- and crown root emergence in Zea mays. (United States)

    Park, Woong June; Hochholdinger, Frank; Gierl, Alfons


    We observed the release of the benzoxazinoids defense molecules on the surface of the primary root and the coleoptilar node in Zea mays during the emergence of lateral- and crown-roots, respectively. At later stages of crown root and lateral root development, benzoxazinoids around the emerged roots were no longer observed. Specific mutants revealed that the developmental status of the emerged roots was not important for the release of benzoxazinoids, but the breakage of the epidermis by emerging roots was. This is the first report of benzoxazinoid-release during normal development controlled by endogenous developmental programs. Release of benzoxazinoids around the emerging roots supports the idea that defense molecules accumulate at the site of root emergence in order to reduce pathogenic infections. We discuss possible explanations for the evolution of two different developmental mechanisms of root emergence.

  12. Cultivating characters (moral value) through internalization strategy in science classroom (United States)

    Ibrahim, M.; Abadi


    It is still in a crucial debate that characters play an important learning outcome to be realized by design. So far, most people think that characters were reached as nurturance effect with the assumption that students who are knowledgeable and skillful will have good characters automatically. Lately, obtained evidence that this assumption is not true. Characters should be taught deliberately or by design. This study was designed to culture elementary school students’ characters through science classroom. The teaching-learning process was conducted to facilitate and bridge the students from the known (concrete images: Science phenomena) to the unknown (abstract ideas: characters: care, and tolerance. Characters were observed five weeks before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed from observation of 24 students in internalization strategy-based courses. Qualitative and quantitative data suggested that the internalization strategy that use of science phenomena to represent abstract ideas (characters) in science classroom positively cultivating characters.

  13. Seismic echo character northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreery, C.J.; Laine, E.P.


    Latest efforts in echo-character mapping of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain have discerned variations in thickness in a near-surface sedimentary sequence which has been designated seismic unit A. This unit probably represents the last episode of progradation of the Hatteras Deep Sea Fan in the southern part of the study area, and has infilled probable paleochannels from the Wilmington Canyon and Sohm Gap in the north. Unit A thins to a minimum in the central part of the plain, where older sediments come within 1 meter of the surface. Variations in the character of the surface reflector probably represent differing degrees of microtopography developed on a Late Pleistocene surface overlain by Holocene sediments. With the exception of one area identified as a relict surface outcropping in the western plain, this microtopography seems related to present-day thalweg locations on the abyssal plain. 11 references, 13 figures

  14. On the total character of finite groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Prajapati


    Full Text Available For a finite group $G$, we study the total character $tau_G$ afforded by the direct sum of all the non-isomorphic irreducible complex representations of $G$. We resolve for several classes of groups (the Camina $p$-groups, the generalized Camina $p$-groups, the groups which admit $(G,Z(G$ as a generalized Camina pair, the problem of existence of a polynomial $f(x in mathbb{Q}[x]$ such that $f(chi = tau_G$ for some irreducible character $chi$ of $G$. As a consequence, we completely determine the $p$-groups of order at most $p^5$ (with $p$ odd which admit such a polynomial. We deduce the characterization that these are the groups $G$ for which $Z(G$ is cyclic and $(G,Z(G$ is a generalized Camina pair and, we conjecture that this holds good for $p$-groups of any order.

  15. The Character, Organization Change and Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Fernandi Wijaya


    Full Text Available The success of building an integrated information system is an expectation of every company management to achieve effective and efficient working system. However, in the real business practices, not a few companies failed in building an integrated information system caused by the absence of several factors: strong commitment, hard work and smart effort conducted by a team. The team determines the success level in building an integrated information system. A factor of intelligence and mental maturity of users in running a new information system that has not been known is also another key to success. Therefore, it takes a good user’s character supported by a management decision to make management changes to achieve the building success level. This study aims to address the role of character and organization changes in achieving a success building an integrated information system. 

  16. Correlators in tensor models from character calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mironov


    Full Text Available We explain how the calculations of [20], which provided the first evidence for non-trivial structures of Gaussian correlators in tensor models, are efficiently performed with the help of the (Hurwitz character calculus. This emphasizes a close similarity between technical methods in matrix and tensor models and supports a hope to understand the emerging structures in very similar terms. We claim that the 2m-fold Gaussian correlators of rank r tensors are given by r-linear combinations of dimensions with the Young diagrams of size m. The coefficients are made from the characters of the symmetric group Sm and their exact form depends on the choice of the correlator and on the symmetries of the model. As the simplest application of this new knowledge, we provide simple expressions for correlators in the Aristotelian tensor model as tri-linear combinations of dimensions.

  17. Optical Character Recognition: Application for Android


    Gonzalez Manzanero, Joaquin Miguel


    Treball realitzat a Tongji University El projecte és el desenvolupament d'una aplicació per Android basat en OCR(Optical Character Recognition) que consisteix en traduir frases d'un idioma a un altre a través de fotografiar el text amb el mòbil, després reconéixer els caràcters i finalment traduïnt al llenguatge desitjat.

  18. Hybrid Motion Graphs for Character Animation


    Kalouache Saida; Cherif Foudil


    Many works in the literature have improved the performance of motion graphs for synthesis the humanlike results in limited domains that necessity few constraints like dance, navigation in small game like environments or in games by the gesture of feedback on a snowboard tutorial. The humanlike cannot exist in an environment without interacting with the world surrounding them; the naturalness of the entire motion extremely depends on the animation of the walking character, the chosen path and ...

  19. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution (United States)

    Soo, Oi Yoon Michelle; Tan, Wooi Boon; Lim, Lee Hong Susan


    Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae) fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530) were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams’s Kmult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the outer root

  20. Font generation of personal handwritten Chinese characters (United States)

    Lin, Jeng-Wei; Wang, Chih-Yin; Ting, Chao-Lung; Chang, Ray-I.


    Today, digital multimedia messages have drawn more and more attention due to the great achievement of computer and network techniques. Nevertheless, text is still the most popular media for people to communicate with others. Many fonts have been developed so that product designers can choose unique fonts to demonstrate their idea gracefully. It is commonly believed that handwritings can reflect one's personality, emotion, feeling, education level, and so on. This is especially true in Chinese calligraphy. However, it is not easy for ordinary users to customize a font of their personal handwritings. In this study, we performed a process reengineering in font generation. We present a new method to create font in a batch mode. Rather than to create glyphs of characters one by one according to their codepoints, people create glyphs incrementally in an on-demand manner. A Java Implementation is developed to read a document image of user handwritten Chinese characters, and make a vector font of these handwritten Chinese characters. Preliminary experiment result shows that the proposed method can help ordinary users create their personal handwritten fonts easily and quickly.

  1. Vocal analysis of suicidal movie characters. (United States)

    Palinkas-Sanches, Elaine; Sanches, Marsal; Ferrari, Maria Cristina C; Oliveira, Gisele; Behlau, Mara


    The aim of this study was to describe the auditory-perceptive evaluation and the psychodynamic aspects of voice samples among suicidal movie characters. Voice samples of 48 characters (27 male, 21 female), extracted from 36 movies produced between 1968 and 2006, were analyzed. The samples were evaluated through a specific protocol focusing on the auditory-perceptive evaluation (voice quality, resonance, pitch, loudness, modulation, pauses, articulation and rhythm) and the psychodynamic aspects of voice. 85.5% of the samples exhibited abnormal findings in at least five parameters of the auditory-perceptive analysis, such as breathiness (n=42; 87.5% of the samples), hoarseness (n=39; 81.2%) and strain (n=29; 60.4%), as well as laryngopharingeal resonance (n=39; 81.2%), either high pitch (n=14; 29.2%), or decreased loudness (n=31; 64.6%). With respect to the psychodynamic aspects, dismay was detected in 50% (n=24) of the samples, hopelessness in 47.9% (n=23), resignation in 37.5% (n=18), and sadness in 33.3% (n=16). Our findings suggest the existence of specific patterns used by actors during the interpretation of suicidal characters. The replication of these findings among real patients may contribute to improvement in the evaluation of potential suicidal patients, as well as the implementation of preventive measures.

  2. Optical character recognition based on nonredundant correlation measurements. (United States)

    Braunecker, B; Hauck, R; Lohmann, A W


    The essence of character recognition is a comparison between the unknown character and a set of reference patterns. Usually, these reference patterns are all possible characters themselves, the whole alphabet in the case of letter characters. Obviously, N analog measurements are highly redundant, since only K = log(2)N binary decisions are enough to identify one out of N characters. Therefore, we devised K reference patterns accordingly. These patterns, called principal components, are found by digital image processing, but used in an optical analog computer. We will explain the concept of principal components, and we will describe experiments with several optical character recognition systems, based on this concept.

  3. Leadership, character and its development: A qualitative exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn de Braine


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore (1 what organisational leaders consider to be character elements of leaders within the workplace, (2 what influences leaders’ character development, and (3 how an organisation can continue the process of character development. The literature review and findings revealed that leadership, integrity, industriousness, empathy, loyalty, optimism, fairness and compassion are the most sought after character elements within leaders in the workplace. Leadership and integrity were found to be the most supported character elements. The findings also indicate that work environmental factors, a person’s own efforts, and the daily experiences of work life contribute towards character development.

  4. A psychoanalytical interpretation of the characters in A.C. Jordan’s novel Ingqumbo yeminyanya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Kwatsha


    Full Text Available Psychoanalysis is a way of treating certain nervous disorders of the mind by examining all the ways that sufferers can be helped to remember their past life, dreams, et cetera. This is an effort to find hidden forgotten anxieties or desires influencing one’s behaviour without one’s knowledge thereof. The aim of this article is to make a detailed interpretation of the characters Zwelinzima and Thembeka/Nobantu in A.C. Jordan’s novel, “Ingqumbo yeminyanya”, so as “to uncover the hidden causes of the neurosis in order to relieve the character of his or her conflicts, thus dissolving the distressing symptoms” (Gräbe, 1986. This article will look at the behaviour of the different characters in Jordan’s novel. Psychoanalysis is rooted in the idea that humans have unconscious longings that must be analysed in order to understand behaviour. The accent of the article will fall on how psychoanalysis can help the reader, critic or analyst to penetrate the inner workings of the minds of the characters.

  5. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on roots of Bombax ceiba Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj H. Chaudhary


    Full Text Available Context: Bombax ceiba Linn. (Bombacaceae is a well-known plant for its antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, aphrodisiac and uterine tonicity properties. Aims: To study pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemically the roots of this plant. Methods: Pharmacognostical study included the macroscopic characters like size, color, surface characteristics, texture, fracture characteristics and odor of the roots. The intact root as well as powdered drug were studied under a microscope to analyze the cellular characteristics of the drug. Physicochemical parameter like extractive values, loss on drying (LOD, total ash, water-soluble and acid insoluble ash, foaming index and hemolytic index of Bombax ceiba root powder were determined as per WHO guidelines. Preliminary phytochemical screening and qualitative chemical examination studies have been carried out for the various phytoconstituents. HPTLC have also carried out using cyclohexane: diethyl ether: ethyl acetate as mobile phase. Results: Chemical evaluation and TLC studies shown presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. The microscopic characters have shown presence of cork, cambium, xylem vessels, stone cells, starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals and phloem fibers. Microscopy analysis of the powder included the cork cells, fibers, calcium oxalate crystals and vessel. The presence of steroids was confirmed in HPTLC fingerprinting studies. Conclusions: Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical screening of Bombax ceiba roots will be useful in order to authenticate, standardize and avoid any adulteration in the raw material. The diagnostic microscopic characters and physicochemical data will be helpful in the development of a monograph. The chromatographic fingerprinting profile can be used to standardize extracts and formulations containing Bombax ceiba roots.

  6. Molecular phylogeny of Gymnocalycium (Cactaceae): assessment of alternative infrageneric systems, a new subgenus, and trends in the evolution of the genus. (United States)

    Demaio, Pablo H; Barfuss, Michael H J; Kiesling, Roberto; Till, Walter; Chiapella, Jorge O


    The South American genus Gymnocalycium (Cactoideae-Trichocereae) demonstrates how the sole use of morphological data in Cactaceae results in conflicts in assessing phylogeny, constructing a taxonomic system, and analyzing trends in the evolution of the genus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed using parsimony and Bayesian methods on a 6195-bp data matrix of plastid DNA sequences (atpI-atpH, petL-psbE, trnK-matK, trnT-trnL-trnF) of 78 samples, including 52 species and infraspecific taxa representing all the subgenera of Gymnocalycium. We assessed morphological character evolution using likelihood methods to optimize characters on a Bayesian tree and to reconstruct possible ancestral states. The results of the phylogenetic study confirm the monophyly of the genus, while supporting overall the available infrageneric classification based on seed morphology. Analysis showed the subgenera Microsemineum and Macrosemineum to be polyphyletic and paraphyletic. Analysis of morphological characters showed a tendency toward reduction of stem size, reduction in quantity and hardiness of spines, increment of seed size, development of napiform roots, and change from juicy and colorful fruits to dry and green fruits. Gymnocalycium saglionis is the only species of Microsemineum and a new name is required to identify the clade including the remaining species of Microsemineum; we propose the name Scabrosemineum in agreement with seed morphology. Identifying morphological trends and environmental features allows for a better understanding of the events that might have influenced the diversification of the genus.

  7. Irrational Square Roots (United States)

    Misiurewicz, Michal


    If students are presented the standard proof of irrationality of [square root]2, can they generalize it to a proof of the irrationality of "[square root]p", "p" a prime if, instead of considering divisibility by "p", they cling to the notions of even and odd used in the standard proof?

  8. Evolution of Land Rental Arrangements in Rural Ghana: Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zones of Ghana, their varied characters, trends of evolution, and the driving forces .... arrangements have not been given the needed attention in policy, perhaps due to ... markets follows a five-stage trajectory, which can broadly be divided into.

  9. Chromatic roots and hamiltonian paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten


    We present a new connection between colorings and hamiltonian paths: If the chromatic polynomial of a graph has a noninteger root less than or equal to t(n) = 2/3 + 1/3 (3)root (26 + 6 root (33)) + 1/3 (3)root (26 - 6 root (33)) = 1.29559.... then the graph has no hamiltonian path. This result...

  10. Diversification of Root Hair Development Genes in Vascular Plants. (United States)

    Huang, Ling; Shi, Xinhui; Wang, Wenjia; Ryu, Kook Hui; Schiefelbein, John


    The molecular genetic program for root hair development has been studied intensively in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). To understand the extent to which this program might operate in other plants, we conducted a large-scale comparative analysis of root hair development genes from diverse vascular plants, including eudicots, monocots, and a lycophyte. Combining phylogenetics and transcriptomics, we discovered conservation of a core set of root hair genes across all vascular plants, which may derive from an ancient program for unidirectional cell growth coopted for root hair development during vascular plant evolution. Interestingly, we also discovered preferential diversification in the structure and expression of root hair development genes, relative to other root hair- and root-expressed genes, among these species. These differences enabled the definition of sets of genes and gene functions that were acquired or lost in specific lineages during vascular plant evolution. In particular, we found substantial divergence in the structure and expression of genes used for root hair patterning, suggesting that the Arabidopsis transcriptional regulatory mechanism is not shared by other species. To our knowledge, this study provides the first comprehensive view of gene expression in a single plant cell type across multiple species. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. A novel handwritten character recognition system using gradient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The issues faced by the handwritten character recognition systems are the similarity. ∗ ... tical/structural features have also been successfully used in character ..... The coordinates (xc, yc) of centroid are calculated by equations (4) and (5). xc =.

  12. Animated Character Analysis and Costume Design with Structured Analysis


    Yıldırım Artaç, Berna; Ağaç, Saliha


    In various genres, costumes complement fictional characters and not onlyconstitute the external appearance of the fictional character, but are alsoused for purposes of fun or style by fans who dress up as the character andinternalize that character’s state of mind. This phenomenon is calledcosplay. A literature review of the field has revealed no study made previouslyon the cosplay costume design process according to character analysis. Thepresent study emphasizes the link between an...

  13. Dynamic Obstacle Clearing for Real-time Character Animation


    Glardon, Pascal; Boulic, Ronan; Thalmann, Daniel


    This paper proposes a novel method to control virtual characters in dynamic environments. A virtual character is animated by a locomotion and jumping engine, enabling production of continuous parameterized motions. At any time during runtime, flat obstacles (e.g. a puddle of water) can be created and placed in front of a character. The method first decides whether the character is able to get around or jump over the obstacle. Then the motion parameters are accordingly modified. The transition...

  14. Integrating Character Education In Teaching Speaking For Business Administration Students


    Woro Prastiwi, Chyntia Heru


    Globalization along with the advancement of information and communication technology has brought tremendous effects on students' character. Education field as a place of community has to contribute in developing students' character traits. Integrating character education in curriculum is the key for qualified education. This research aimed to describe the way to integrate character education in teaching speaking for Business Administration students. The data was obtained from teaching and lea...

  15. The Character Strengths of Class Clowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald F. Ruch


    Full Text Available Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of identified as a class clown, comic talent, disruptive rule-breaker, and subversive joker. Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park & Peterson, 2006 showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, generally class clown behaviors were shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors identified as the class clown and comic talent were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (disruptive rule-breaker, subversive joker were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  16. The character strengths of class clowns. (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer


    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  17. On character amenability of Banach algebras (United States)

    Kaniuth, E.; Lau, A. T.; Pym, J.


    We continue our work [E. Kaniuth, A.T. Lau, J. Pym, On [phi]-amenability of Banach algebras, Math. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 144 (2008) 85-96] in the study of amenability of a Banach algebra A defined with respect to a character [phi] of A. Various necessary and sufficient conditions of a global and a pointwise nature are found for a Banach algebra to possess a [phi]-mean of norm 1. We also completely determine the size of the set of [phi]-means for a separable weakly sequentially complete Banach algebra A with no [phi]-mean in A itself. A number of illustrative examples are discussed.

  18. ZBrush Character Creation Advanced Digital Sculpting

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott


    A stunning, content-rich update to this top-selling ZBrush guide! This second edition of ZBrush Character Creation has been fully updated for ZBrush 4, the newest version of this fascinating and popular 3D sculpting software. ZBrush enables users to create detailed organic models using a brush-based toolset and tablet. The startling results look as though they've been painted with real brushes and oils, and ZBrush is increasingly popular for use in film, game, and broadcast pipelines. Author Scott Spencer is embedded in the ZBrush community and his movie credits include Harry Potter and The Or

  19. The affinities of Homo floresiensis based on phylogenetic analyses of cranial, dental, and postcranial characters. (United States)

    Argue, Debbie; Groves, Colin P; Lee, Michael S Y; Jungers, William L


    Although the diminutive Homo floresiensis has been known for a decade, its phylogenetic status remains highly contentious. A broad range of potential explanations for the evolution of this species has been explored. One view is that H. floresiensis is derived from Asian Homo erectus that arrived on Flores and subsequently evolved a smaller body size, perhaps to survive the constrained resources they faced in a new island environment. Fossil remains of H. erectus, well known from Java, have not yet been discovered on Flores. The second hypothesis is that H. floresiensis is directly descended from an early Homo lineage with roots in Africa, such as Homo habilis; the third is that it is Homo sapiens with pathology. We use parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic methods to test these hypotheses. Our phylogenetic data build upon those characters previously presented in support of these hypotheses by broadening the range of traits to include the crania, mandibles, dentition, and postcrania of Homo and Australopithecus. The new data and analyses support the hypothesis that H. floresiensis is an early Homo lineage: H. floresiensis is sister either to H. habilis alone or to a clade consisting of at least H. habilis, H. erectus, Homo ergaster, and H. sapiens. A close phylogenetic relationship between H. floresiensis and H. erectus or H. sapiens can be rejected; furthermore, most of the traits separating H. floresiensis from H. sapiens are not readily attributable to pathology (e.g., Down syndrome). The results suggest H. floresiensis is a long-surviving relict of an early (>1.75 Ma) hominin lineage and a hitherto unknown migration out of Africa, and not a recent derivative of either H. erectus or H. sapiens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis reveals ethylene as stimulator and auxin as regulator of adventitious root formation in petunia cuttings


    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Lischewski, Sandra; Ahkami, Amir H.; Zerche, Siegfried; Hause, Bettina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.


    Adventitious root (AR) formation in the stem base of cuttings is the basis for propagation of many plant species and petunia is used as model to study this developmental process. Following AR formation from 2 to 192 hours after excision (hpe) of cuttings, transcriptome analysis by microarray revealed a change of the character of the rooting zone from stem base to root identity. The greatest shift in the number of differentially expressed genes was observed between 24 and 72 hpe, when the cate...

  1. WWC Evidence Review Protocol for Character Education Interventions (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014


    Character education is an inclusive concept regarding all aspects of how families, schools, and related social institutions support the positive character development of children and adults. "Character" in this context refers to the moral and ethical qualities of persons as well as the demonstration of those qualities in their emotional…

  2. Character Education of the Most Developed Countries in ASEAN (United States)



    Character education into an international issue, especially in developing countries. More specifically in Indonesia, character education is a major issue in the 2012's to the present. What kind of education that may build character? To be able to answer this question, we need a broad and deep research. Research simpler related to character…

  3. Resolving Conflict: Methods Used by TV Characters and Teenage Viewers. (United States)

    Roloff, Michael E.; Greenberg, Bradley S.


    Tested hypotheses that action/adventure characters are perceived by teenagers as likely to engage in antisocial conflict resolution; situation comedy/family drama characters, in prosocial modes. Also tested was hypothesis that, as favorite character's perceived use of a mode increases, so does the viewer's intention to use the same mode. (SW)

  4. Once Upon a Time: A Grimm Approach to Character Education (United States)

    Bryan, Laura


    Many school districts have implemented "packaged" programs designed to teach character education. Millions of dollars have been spent on these programs, yet society continues to produce more "characters" than students "with character." This article describes a shift from the "programmatic" mindset to a solution that is not packaged or purchased.…

  5. The Importance of Character Development: An Interview with Ron Kinnamon. (United States)

    Kinnamon, Ron


    Building good character in today's youth is an adult issue because children learn values from adults. Adults must demonstrate the core values: trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring, and citizenship. Camps have developed expertise in character development and can provide leadership in the community in character education.…

  6. Character Education in Three Schools: Catholic, Quaker and Public (United States)

    Meidl, Christopher; Meidl, Tynisha


    Character education has always played a role in the purpose of schools. Most US states have a statement about character education as a part of the mission of the schools. This research studied how character education was perceived by participants in regards to school mission statements/philosophies, school atmosphere and curriculum in a Catholic…

  7. Picture This Character: Using Imagery To Teach a Japanese Syllabary. (United States)

    Thompson, Joyce D.; Wakefield, John F.

    This study examined the effectiveness of imagery to teach native English speakers to associate hiragana characters (a Japanese script) with the spoken Japanese syllables that the characters represent. Twenty-one adults in a psychology of learning class for teachers were taught to picture a hiragana character in such a way as to establish an…

  8. Evolução da anatomia radicular do milho 'Saracura' em ciclos de seleção sucessivos Evolution of the root anatomy of 'Saracura' maize in successive selection cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio José Pereira


    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar as modificações nas características anatômicas radiculares relacionadas à hipoxia, durante 18 ciclos de seleção da variedade de milho (Zea mays BRS 4154 Saracura, adaptada a áreas sujeitas a alagamento. A variedade BR 107 e o híbrido simples BRS 1010, suscetíveis ao alagamento, foram utilizados como controle. As diferentes cultivares foram submetidas a alagamentos intermitentes, a cada dois dias, durante dois meses. As amostras radiculares foram preparadas e analisadas em microscopiaóptica. Em relação ao grupo controle e aos ciclos anteriores de seleção, a BRS 4154 teve aumento na formação de aerênquima, diminuição do córtex, diminuição do diâmetro dos vasos, diminuição da camada subepidérmica, aumento na espessura do floema e epiderme. Os sucessivos ciclos de seleção melhoraram as características do milho 'Saracura' e sua tolerância a ambientes alagados.This work aimed to verify the modifications in the root anatomical characteristics related to hypoxia, along 18 selection cycles of the maize (Zea mays cultivar BRS 4154 Saracura, adapted to areas subject to flooding. Cultivars not tolerant to fooding, BR 107 and the simple hybrid BRS 1010, were used as controls. The different cultivars were subjected to intermittent soil waterlogging every two days for two months. The root samples were prepared and analyzed through light microscopy. Compared to the controls group and to early selection cycles, BRS 4154 had increased development of aerenchyma, decreased cortex thickness, decreased metaxylem diameter, decreased subepidermal layer, and increased epidermis and phloem thickness. The successive selection cycles improved 'Saracura' maize characteristics and its tolerance to flooding environments.

  9. New nitrogen uptake strategy: specialized snow roots. (United States)

    Onipchenko, Vladimir G; Makarov, Mikhail I; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Ivanov, Viktor B; Akhmetzhanova, Assem A; Tekeev, Dzhamal K; Ermak, Anton A; Salpagarova, Fatima S; Kozhevnikova, Anna D; Cornelissen, Johannes H C


    The evolution of plants has yielded a wealth of adaptations for the acquisition of key mineral nutrients. These include the structure, physiology and positioning of root systems. We report the discovery of specialized snow roots as a plant strategy to cope with the very short season for nutrient uptake and growth in alpine snow-beds, i.e. patches in the landscape that remain snow-covered well into the summer. We provide anatomical, chemical and experimental (15)N isotope tracking evidence that the Caucasian snow-bed plant Corydalis conorhiza forms extensive networks of specialized above-ground roots, which grow against gravity to acquire nitrogen directly from within snow packs. Snow roots capture nitrogen that would otherwise partly run off down-slope over a frozen surface, thereby helping to nourish these alpine ecosystems. Climate warming is changing and will change mountain snow regimes, while large-scale anthropogenic N deposition has increased snow N contents. These global changes are likely to impact on the distribution, abundance and functional significance of snow roots.

  10. Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement. (United States)

    Wagner, Lisa; Ruch, Willibald


    Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children's and adolescents' well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012). The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years) and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years). The students completed the VIA-Youth (Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth), a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students' positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1), teachers rated the students' overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2), we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples, school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of some of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths.

  11. Good character at school: Positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eWagner


    Full Text Available Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children’s and adolescents’ well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012. The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years. The students completed the VIA-Youth, a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students’ positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1, teachers rated the students’ overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2, we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of most of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths.

  12. Using genes as characters and a parsimony analysis to explore the phylogenetic position of turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Lu

    characters provides a convenient method for examining gene and genome evolution.

  13. Bruno Braunerde und die Bodentypen - The German-speaking friends of the Scottish soil characters (United States)

    Hofmann, Anett


    Cartoon figures of soil profiles with faces, legs, arms and funny names: the Scottish soil characters Rusty (Cambisol), Heather (Podzol), Pete (Histosol) and five others were developed at the James Hutton Institute in Aberdeen for outreach activities. They represent eight soil types that are common in Scotland. Recently they have become movie stars in an animated film, where they speak with a Scottish accent. The Scottish soil characters are a true soil science communication success story and it would be great if they had friends in many places to tell some stories from the underground in the respective native languages. This contribution will introduce the draft for 13 German-speaking soil characters that represent the most common soil types in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Each name is a play on words with respect to German soil classification terms and serves as a mnemonic for typical characteristics of these soils. The 'hair' shows detailed vegetation and the context with common land use. For non-soil scientists the soil characters can be used as story-tellers, e.g. about their life (soil evolution), home (spatial distribution), job (function), fears (threats) and joys (best-practice land use, restoration). Because the International Year of Soil (2015) is an excellent opportunity for new outreach activities, the aim is to publish the German-speaking soil characters as a collaboration of the Austrian, German and Swiss Soil Science Societies. The soil characters could be used in print or online formats, and even - as can be seen in Aberdeen - as human-sized walking soil profiles.

  14. Revised phylogenetic analysis of the Aetosauria (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia; assessing the effects of incongruent morphological character sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Parker


    Full Text Available Aetosauria is an early-diverging clade of pseudosuchians (crocodile-line archosaurs that had a global distribution and high species diversity as a key component of various Late Triassic terrestrial faunas. It is one of only two Late Triassic clades of large herbivorous archosaurs, and thus served a critical ecological role. Nonetheless, aetosaur phylogenetic relationships are still poorly understood, owing to an overreliance on osteoderm characters, which are often poorly constructed and suspected to be highly homoplastic. A new phylogenetic analysis of the Aetosauria, comprising 27 taxa and 83 characters, includes more than 40 new characters that focus on better sampling the cranial and endoskeletal regions, and represents the most comprenhensive phylogeny of the clade to date. Parsimony analysis recovered three most parsimonious trees; the strict consensus of these trees finds an Aetosauria that is divided into two main clades: Desmatosuchia, which includes the Desmatosuchinae and the Stagonolepidinae, and Aetosaurinae, which includes the Typothoracinae. As defined Desmatosuchinae now contains Neoaetosauroides engaeus and several taxa that were previously referred to the genus Stagonolepis, and a new clade, Desmatosuchini, is erected for taxa more closely related to Desmatosuchus. Overall support for some clades is still weak, and Partitioned Bremer Support (PBS is applied for the first time to a strictly morphological dataset demonstrating that this weak support is in part because of conflict in the phylogenetic signals of cranial versus postcranial characters. PBS helps identify homoplasy among characters from various body regions, presumably the result of convergent evolution within discrete anatomical modules. It is likely that at least some of this character conflict results from different body regions evolving at different rates, which may have been under different selective pressures.

  15. Grass Rooting the System (United States)

    Perlman, Janice E.


    Suggests a taxonomy of the grass roots movement and gives a general descriptive over view of the 60 groups studied with respect to origin, constituency, size, funding, issues, and ideology. (Author/AM)

  16. Modeling the Semiotic Structure of Player-Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vella, Daniel


    When game studies has tackled the player-character, it has tended to do so by means of an opposition to the notion of the avatar, with the result that the ontological and semiotic nature of the character in itself has not been given due attention. This paper draws on understandings of character...... from the fields of narratology and literary theory to highlight the double-layered ontology of character as both a possible individual and as a semiotic construction. Uri Margolin’s narratological model of character signification is used as the basis for developing a semiotic-structural model...

  17. Transformations in dreaming and characters in the psychoanalytic field. (United States)

    Ferro, Antonino


    Having reviewed certain similarities and differences between the various psychoanalytic models (historical reconstruction/development of the container and of the mind's metabolic and transformational function; the significance to be attributed to dream-type material; reality gradients of narrations; tolerability of truth/lies as polar opposites; and the form in which characters are understood in a psychoanalytic session), the author uses clinical material to demonstrate his conception of a session as a virtual reality in which the central operation is transformation in dreaming (de-construction, de-concretization, and re-dreaming), accompanied in particular by the development of this attitude in both patient and analyst as an antidote to the operations of transformation in hallucinosis that bear witness to the failure of the functions of meaning generation. The theoretical roots of this model are traced in the concept of the field and its developments as a constantly expanding oneiric holographic field; in the developments of Bion's ideas (waking dream thought and its derivatives, and the patient as signaller of the movements of the field); and in the contributions of narratology (narrative transformations and the transformations of characters and screenplays). Stress is also laid on the transition from a psychoanalysis directed predominantly towards contents to a psychoanalysis that emphasizes the development of the instruments for dreaming, feeling, and thinking. An extensive case history and a session reported in its entirety are presented so as to convey a living impression of the ongoing process, in the consulting room, of the unsaturated co-construction of an emotional reality in the throes of continuous transformation. The author also describes the technical implications of this model in terms of forms of interpretation, the countertransference, reveries, and, in particular, how the analyst listens to the patient's communications. The paper ends with an

  18. Rooting an Android Device (United States)


    1. Overview The purpose of this document is to demonstrate how to gain administrative privileges on an Android device. The term “rooting” applicable for the Samsung Galaxy S3 as well as many other Android devices, but there are several steps involved in rooting an Android device (as...root access has been granted. 4. Conclusion This document serves as a tutorial on how to grant user administrative privilege to an Android device by


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Maisaroh


    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the philosophical ideas and characters containing in trilogy of 'RaraMendut's' novel by YB Mangunwijaya. The method used is the knowledge archeology of Michel Foucault. The research proves that the philosophical ideas as follows: 1 wife's faithfulness contains characters of wife’s strong determination and true faithfulness sense; 2 The women seizing fate's  contains the character of high struggle spirit;3 women as a glory’s symbol contains character of self-actualization ability; 4 women and a country's defense contains a character of clever to take on the role / responsive; 5 women and their benefits contains the character as a source of love and life spirit; 6 women as good mothers contains the character of conciliatory, reassuring, joyful, sincere, and full of love; 7 the anxiety to old age contains the character of religious and strong self-awareness; 8 the glory contains the character of the glory of battle with themselves; 9 the child's nature contains the character of belief in the skill/ creativity of children and believe to God the Evolver; And 10 the essence of wisdom and usefulness of life contain  the characters of uniting the scattered things, receiving and embracing sincerely things bad/ broken/ waste, understanding and forgiving, voice sincerity and excitement, not easy to complain.

  20. Handwritten Javanese Character Recognition Using Several Artificial Neural Network Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Satia Budhi


    Full Text Available Javanese characters are traditional characters that are used to write the Javanese language. The Javanese language is a language used by many people on the island of Java, Indonesia. The use of Javanese characters is diminishing more and more because of the difficulty of studying the Javanese characters themselves. The Javanese character set consists of basic characters, numbers, complementary characters, and so on. In this research we have developed a system to recognize Javanese characters. Input for the system is a digital image containing several handwritten Javanese characters. Preprocessing and segmentation are performed on the input image to get each character. For each character, feature extraction is done using the ICZ-ZCZ method. The output from feature extraction will become input for an artificial neural network. We used several artificial neural networks, namely a bidirectional associative memory network, a counterpropagation network, an evolutionary network, a backpropagation network, and a backpropagation network combined with chi2. From the experimental results it can be seen that the combination of chi2 and backpropagation achieved better recognition accuracy than the other methods.

  1. Character education in perspective of chemistry pre-service teacher (United States)

    Merdekawati, Krisna


    As one of the pre-service teacher education programs, Chemistry Education Department Islamic University of Indonesia (UII) is committed to providing quality education. It is an education that can produce competent and characteristic chemistry pre-service teacher. The focus of research is to describe the perception of students as a potential teacher of chemistry on character education and achievement of character education. The research instruments include questionnaires and observation sheets. Research data show that students have understood the importance of character education and committed to organizing character education later in schools. Students have understood the ways in which character education can be used. The students stated that Chemistry Education Department has tried to equip students with character education. The observation result shows that students generally have character as a pre-service teacher.

  2. On the information content of discrete phylogenetic characters. (United States)

    Bordewich, Magnus; Deutschmann, Ina Maria; Fischer, Mareike; Kasbohm, Elisa; Semple, Charles; Steel, Mike


    Phylogenetic inference aims to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of different species based on genetic (or other) data. Discrete characters are a particular type of data, which contain information on how the species should be grouped together. However, it has long been known that some characters contain more information than others. For instance, a character that assigns the same state to each species groups all of them together and so provides no insight into the relationships of the species considered. At the other extreme, a character that assigns a different state to each species also conveys no phylogenetic signal. In this manuscript, we study a natural combinatorial measure of the information content of an individual character and analyse properties of characters that provide the maximum phylogenetic information, particularly, the number of states such a character uses and how the different states have to be distributed among the species or taxa of the phylogenetic tree.

  3. Boolean logic and character state identity: pitfalls of character coding in metazoan cladistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, Ronald A.


    A critical study of the morphological data sets used for the most recent analyses of metazoan cladistics exposes a rather cavalier attitude towards character coding. Binary absence/presence coding is ubiquitous, but without any explicit justification. This uncompromising application of Boolean logic

  4. Explaining the role of character development in the evaluation of morally ambiguous characters in entertainment media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, M.; Eden, A.; Daalmans, S.; Ommen, M.E. van; Weijers, G.W.M.


    The current project aims at better understanding how narrative characteristics in stories function in the liking, moral evaluation, and enjoyment of narratives featuring morally ambiguous characters (MACs). Shafer and Raney (2012) found that viewers differently enjoyed a heroic versus MAC-centered

  5. Effect of water table fluctuations on phreatophytic root distribution. (United States)

    Tron, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca


    The vertical root distribution of riparian vegetation plays a relevant role in soil water balance, in the partition of water fluxes into evaporation and transpiration, in the biogeochemistry of hyporheic corridors, in river morphodynamics evolution, and in bioengineering applications. The aim of this work is to assess the effect of the stochastic variability of the river level on the root distribution of phreatophytic plants. A function describing the vertical root profile has been analytically obtained by coupling a white shot noise representation of the river level variability to a description of the dynamics of root growth and decay. The root profile depends on easily determined parameters, linked to stream dynamics, vegetation and soil characteristics. The riparian vegetation of a river characterized by a high variability turns out to have a rooting system spread over larger depths, but with shallower mean root depths. In contrast, a lower river variability determines root profiles with higher mean root depths. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. effects of different concentrations of auxins on rooting and root

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT: The effect of auxins and their different concentrations on rooting and root ... primary root length and the longest primary root was recorded with the ... ceuticals, lubricants, foods, electrical insulators, .... stem cuttings of jojoba treated with IBA and NAA, .... increasing cell division and enlargement at each.

  7. Evolving Lattices for Analyzing Behavioral Dynamics of Characters in Literary Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene S Kitamura


    Full Text Available This paper is about an application of rough set derived lattices in order to analyze the dynamics of literary text. Due to the double approximation nature of rough set theory, a pseudo-closure obtained from two different equivalence relations allows us to form arbitrary lattices. Moreover, such double approximations with different equivalence relations permit us to obtain lattice fixed points based on two interpretations. The two interpretations used for literary text analysis are subjects and their attributes. The attributes chosen for this application are verbs. The progression of a story is defined by the sequence of verbs (or event occurrences. By fixing a window size and sliding the window down the story steps, we obtain a lattice representing the relationship between subjects and their attributes within that window frame. The resulting lattice provides information such as complementarity (lattice complement existence rate and distributivity (lattice complement possession rate. These measurements depend on the overlap and the lack of overlap among the attributes of characters. As the story develops and new character and attributes are provided as the source of lattices, one can observe its evolution. In fact, a dramatic change in the behavior dynamics in a scene is reflected in the particular shifts in the character-attribute relationship. This method lets us quantify the developments of character behavioral dynamics in a story.

  8. Artificial root foraging optimizer algorithm with hybrid strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu


    Full Text Available In this work, a new plant-inspired optimization algorithm namely the hybrid artificial root foraging optimizion (HARFO is proposed, which mimics the iterative root foraging behaviors for complex optimization. In HARFO model, two innovative strategies were developed: one is the root-to-root communication strategy, which enables the individual exchange information with each other in different efficient topologies that can essentially improve the exploration ability; the other is co-evolution strategy, which can structure the hierarchical spatial population driven by evolutionary pressure of multiple sub-populations that ensure the diversity of root population to be well maintained. The proposed algorithm is benchmarked against four classical evolutionary algorithms on well-designed test function suites including both classical and composition test functions. Through the rigorous performance analysis that of all these tests highlight the significant performance improvement, and the comparative results show the superiority of the proposed algorithm.

  9. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects. (United States)

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro


    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  10. Cytokinin-induced promotion of root meristem size in the fern Azolla supports a shoot-like origin of euphyllophyte roots. (United States)

    de Vries, Jan; Fischer, Angela Melanie; Roettger, Mayo; Rommel, Sophie; Schluepmann, Henriette; Bräutigam, Andrea; Carlsbecker, Annelie; Gould, Sven Bernhard


    The phytohormones cytokinin and auxin orchestrate the root meristem development in angiosperms by determining embryonic bipolarity. Ferns, having the most basal euphyllophyte root, form neither bipolar embryos nor permanent embryonic primary roots but rather an adventitious root system. This raises the questions of how auxin and cytokinin govern fern root system architecture and whether this can tell us something about the origin of that root. Using Azolla filiculoides, we characterized the influence of IAA and zeatin on adventitious fern root meristems and vasculature by Nomarski microscopy. Simultaneously, RNAseq analyses, yielding 36,091 contigs, were used to uncover how the phytohormones affect root tip gene expression. We show that auxin restricts Azolla root meristem development, while cytokinin promotes it; it is the opposite effect of what is observed in Arabidopsis. Global gene expression profiling uncovered 145 genes significantly regulated by cytokinin or auxin, including cell wall modulators, cell division regulators and lateral root formation coordinators. Our data illuminate both evolution and development of fern roots. Promotion of meristem size through cytokinin supports the idea that root meristems of euphyllophytes evolved from shoot meristems. The foundation of these roots was laid in a postembryonically branching shoot system. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James


    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  12. Drawing and Recognizing Chinese Characters with Recurrent Neural Network. (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Yao; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Cheng-Lin; Bengio, Yoshua


    Recent deep learning based approaches have achieved great success on handwriting recognition. Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world. Previous research has mainly focused on recognizing handwritten Chinese characters. However, recognition is only one aspect for understanding a language, another challenging and interesting task is to teach a machine to automatically write (pictographic) Chinese characters. In this paper, we propose a framework by using the recurrent neural network (RNN) as both a discriminative model for recognizing Chinese characters and a generative model for drawing (generating) Chinese characters. To recognize Chinese characters, previous methods usually adopt the convolutional neural network (CNN) models which require transforming the online handwriting trajectory into image-like representations. Instead, our RNN based approach is an end-to-end system which directly deals with the sequential structure and does not require any domain-specific knowledge. With the RNN system (combining an LSTM and GRU), state-of-the-art performance can be achieved on the ICDAR-2013 competition database. Furthermore, under the RNN framework, a conditional generative model with character embedding is proposed for automatically drawing recognizable Chinese characters. The generated characters (in vector format) are human-readable and also can be recognized by the discriminative RNN model with high accuracy. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of using RNNs as both generative and discriminative models for the tasks of drawing and recognizing Chinese characters.

  13. The influence of media characters on children's food choices. (United States)

    Kotler, Jennifer A; Schiffman, Jennifer M; Hanson, Katherine G


    Two experiments were conducted to assess the role of media characters in influencing children's food choices; the first focused on children's self-reported preference, whereas the second focused on actual choice. The results of the experiments suggest that popular characters can make a difference in encouraging children to select one food over another. In the first experiment, children were more likely to indicate a preference for one food over another when one was associated with characters that they liked and with whom they were familiar. This effect was particularly strong when a sugary or salty snack branded by a favored character was competing with a healthier option branded by an unknown character or no character. Alternatively, when children were asked to choose between a healthy food and a sugary or salty snack, branding of the healthy food with a favored character did not significantly change appeal of that healthy snack. However, when foods within the same category (i.e., 2 vegetables, 2 fruits, or 2 grains) were asked to compete against each other, character branding strongly influenced children's food choice. Findings from the second experiment suggest that children are more willing to try more pieces of a healthy food if a favored character, in comparison with an unknown character, is promoting that food.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nani Rosnani Thamrin


    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the characterization of talented actor named Glen Hansard in Once film. This study employed a descriptive qualitative research design based on theories of Rahardjo (1985, Robert (1965, and Card (1988. Primary data sources were whole Once scenes film directed by John Carney which had low-budgeting production with two stars, Glen Hansard and Irglova, while secondary data sources were collected from the articles related to this study. This research mainly investigated two aspects involved two character analyses of the main actor, Hansard. The first one was the construction of Hansard’s characters and the second one was the effect between his character and another actors’ character. The study showed that Hansard’s characters were constructed by five factors: from what the character did and said, what the other characters said about him, how the appearance and its milieu were, influencing one and another.The study also found that he had struggle, visionary, ambitious, introvert, sensitive, straightforward and curious characters, but more characters that showed strong characters of his were struggle, visionary and ambitious, because the scenes reflected them more.

  15. Pharmacognostic Study of Argyreia pilosa Wight & Arn. Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    prasanth DSNBK


    Full Text Available Background: Ethnomedicinally, the plant Argyreia pilosa Wight & Arn. (Convolvulaceae has long been utilized in various disorders in the conventional system; most significantly it is utilized against sexually transmitted diseases, skin troubles, diabetes, rheumatism, cough, and quinsy. The key challenge experienced in the standardization of herbal drugs is the lack of proper identification of plant source. Therefore there is certainly have to establish quality control parameters by utilizing pharmacognostic and phytochemical evaluation, that ensure the purity, safety, and efficacy of medicinal plant A. pilosa. Aim: To assess pharmacognostic characteristics which include macroscopic, microscopic and physicochemical parameters of the root of A. pilosa. Methods: Micro and Macroscopic characters of fresh and dried root samples were investigated. Physicochemical parameters had been done by using WHO recommended parameters, preliminary phytochemical and fluorescent analysis of root sample were carried out for proper identification and standardization of root of A. pilosa. Results: The color, shape, size, odor, and surface characteristics were noted from the root and powdered root material of A. pilosa. Light electron microscope i.e., Olympus CX-21i trinocular Microscope images of cross section of root and powdered root revealed that the presence of cork cells, Xylem fibers with tapered ends, lignified xylem vessels, phloem fibers, medullary rays, sclerides and parenchymatous cells. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, phenols, steroids, acid compounds, glycosides, amino acids, and proteins. Physicochemical parameters such as moisture content, ash value, extractive value and fluorescent behavior of root powder were determined. These parameters are helpful to differentiate the powdered drug material. Conclusion: The current research is useful in order to supplement the information with regard to its

  16. Stochastic spin evolution of neutron stars


    Popov, S. B.; Prokhorov, M. E.; Khoperskov, A. V.; Lipunov, V. M.


    In this paper we present calculations of period distribution for old accreting isolated neutron stars (INSs). At the age about a few billions years low velocity INSs come to the stage of accretion. At that stage their period evolution is governed by magnetic breaking and accreted angular momentum. Due to turbulence of the interstellar medium (ISM) accreted momentum can both accelerate and decelerate rotation of an INS and spin evolution has chaotic character. Calculations show that for consta...


    Rice, Sean H


    Evolution can change the developmental processes underlying a character without changing the average expression of the character itself. This sort of change must occur in both the evolution of canalization, in which a character becomes increasingly buffered against genetic or developmental variation, and in the phenomenon of closely related species that show similar adult phenotypes but different underlying developmental patterns. To study such phenomena, I develop a model that follows evolution on a surface representing adult phenotype as a function of underlying developmental characters. A contour on such a "phenotype landscape" is a set of states of developmental characters that produce the same adult phenotype. Epistasis induces curvature of this surface, and degree of canalization is represented by the slope along a contour. I first discuss the geometric properties of phenotype landscapes, relating epistasis to canalization. I then impose a fitness function on the phenotype and model evolution of developmental characters as a function of the fitness function and the local geometry of the surface. This model shows how canalization evolves as a population approaches an optimum phenotype. It further shows that under some circumstances, "decanalization" can occur, in which the expression of adult phenotype becomes increasingly sensitive to developmental variation. This process can cause very similar populations to diverge from one another developmentally even when their adult phenotypes experience identical selection regimes. © 1998 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Character feature integration of Chinese calligraphy and font (United States)

    Shi, Cao; Xiao, Jianguo; Jia, Wenhua; Xu, Canhui


    A framework is proposed in this paper to effectively generate a new hybrid character type by means of integrating local contour feature of Chinese calligraphy with structural feature of font in computer system. To explore traditional art manifestation of calligraphy, multi-directional spatial filter is applied for local contour feature extraction. Then the contour of character image is divided into sub-images. The sub-images in the identical position from various characters are estimated by Gaussian distribution. According to its probability distribution, the dilation operator and erosion operator are designed to adjust the boundary of font image. And then new Chinese character images are generated which possess both contour feature of artistical calligraphy and elaborate structural feature of font. Experimental results demonstrate the new characters are visually acceptable, and the proposed framework is an effective and efficient strategy to automatically generate the new hybrid character of calligraphy and font.

  19. A Japanese logographic character frequency list for cognitive science research. (United States)

    Chikamatsu, N; Yokoyama, S; Nozaki, H; Long, E; Fukuda, S


    This paper describes a Japanese logographic character (kanji) frequency list, which is based on an analysis of the largest recently available corpus of Japanese words and characters. This corpus comprised a full year of morning and evening editions of a major newspaper, containing more than 23 million kanji characters and more than 4,000 different kanji characters. This paper lists the 3,000 most frequent kanji characters, as well as an analysis of kanji usage and correlations between the present list and previous Japanese frequency lists. The authors believe that the present list will help researchers more accurately and efficiently control the selection of kanji characters in cognitive science research and interpret related psycholinguistic data.

  20. Stroop phenomena in the Japanese language: the case of ideographic characters (kanji) and syllabic characters (kana). (United States)

    Morikawa, Y


    Utilizing a unique feature of the Japanese languages--that besides two syllabic orthographies, which have identical pronunciations, words with the same pronunciation may also be written in an orthography composed of ideographic characters--we have conducted an investigation of Stroop phenomena. The fact that pronunciations of the three Japanese orthographies are identical means that, if there are any differences between them in the Stroop phenomena observed, we can place the locus of this interference effect in the perceptual process. Five color names were written in the ideographic characters (kanji) and the two syllabic orthographies (hiragana and katakana). Color-congruent cards and incongruent cards were utilized in a color-naming task and a word-reading task. Mean required times for the color-naming condition and the word-reading conditions were compared with those for control conditions. Stroop phenomena were observed in both ideographic and syllabic orthographies. Significant differences in mean required times were observed between the ideographic and syllabic orthographies but not between the two syllabic orthographies. Interferences in comparisons of Japanese orthographies and color patch control conditions were much smaller than in the case of Stroop's (1935) experiment. A "Reverse Stroop Phenomenon" was observed only in the case of kanji on incongruent cards in the word-reading condition. The results support the hypothesis that both ideographic characters (in this case, kanji) and colors are processed in a parallel fashion in the non-dominant right cerebral hemisphere, while syllabic or phonetic characters are processed in the dominant left cerebral hemisphere.

  1. Using Genes as Characters and a Parsimony Analysis to Explore the Phylogenetic Position of Turtles (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Weizhao; Dai, Qiang; Fu, Jinzhong


    The phylogenetic position of turtles within the vertebrate tree of life remains controversial. Conflicting conclusions from different studies are likely a consequence of systematic error in the tree construction process, rather than random error from small amounts of data. Using genomic data, we evaluate the phylogenetic position of turtles with both conventional concatenated data analysis and a “genes as characters” approach. Two datasets were constructed, one with seven species (human, opossum, zebra finch, chicken, green anole, Chinese pond turtle, and western clawed frog) and 4584 orthologous genes, and the second with four additional species (soft-shelled turtle, Nile crocodile, royal python, and tuatara) but only 1638 genes. Our concatenated data analysis strongly supported turtle as the sister-group to archosaurs (the archosaur hypothesis), similar to several recent genomic data based studies using similar methods. When using genes as characters and gene trees as character-state trees with equal weighting for each gene, however, our parsimony analysis suggested that turtles are possibly sister-group to diapsids, archosaurs, or lepidosaurs. None of these resolutions were strongly supported by bootstraps. Furthermore, our incongruence analysis clearly demonstrated that there is a large amount of inconsistency among genes and most of the conflict relates to the placement of turtles. We conclude that the uncertain placement of turtles is a reflection of the true state of nature. Concatenated data analysis of large and heterogeneous datasets likely suffers from systematic error and over-estimates of confidence as a consequence of a large number of characters. Using genes as characters offers an alternative for phylogenomic analysis. It has potential to reduce systematic error, such as data heterogeneity and long-branch attraction, and it can also avoid problems associated with computation time and model selection. Finally, treating genes as characters

  2. A Modified Back propagation Algorithm for Optical Character Recognition


    Jitendra Shrivastav; Prof. Ravindra Kumar Gupta; Dr. Shailendra Singh


    Character Recognition (CR) has been an active area of research and due to its diverse applicable environment; it continues to be a challenging research topic. There is a clear need for optical character recognition in order to provide a fast and accurate method to search both existing images as well as large archives of existing paper documents. However, existing optical character recognition programs suffer from a flawed tradeoff between speed and accuracy, making it less attractive for larg...

  3. Sherlock Holmes: From literary character to pop culture symbol


    HULCOVÁ, Anna


    The bachelor thesis Sherlock Holmes: From literary character to pop culture symbol deals with the collection of sixty detective stories by Arthur Conan Doyle, the canon. The aim of the thesis is to highlight the aspects that contributed to the popularity of Sherlock Holmes and the series as such. The character of Sherlock Holmes became one of the most adapted literary characters, which is reflected in many areas of popular culture. Special attention is paid to the recent adaptations presentin...

  4. The Strategies for Character Building through Sports Participation


    M.S. Omar-Fauzee; Mohd Nizam Nazarudin; Yudha M. Saputra; Nina Sutresna; Duangkrai Taweesuk; Wipoj Chansem; Rozita Abd. Latif; Soh Kim Geok


    The sport participation has been a major part of our life in the societies. Studies on sports participation have found that sports have both positive and negative influence on character buildings. It has been on-going debate on whether ‘sports build character’ but through literature analysis, author had found that ‘with the intention, sports do build character.’ Therefore, strategies of building character through sports are suggested in this paper.

  5. Hydrologic Regulation of Plant Rooting Depth and Vice Versa (United States)

    Fan, Y.; Miguez-Macho, G.


    How deep plant roots go and why may hold the answer to several questions regarding the co-evolution of terrestrial life and its environment. In this talk we explore how plant rooting depth responds to the hydrologic plumbing system in the soil/regolith/bedrocks, and vice versa. Through analyzing 2200 root observations of >1000 species along biotic (life form, genus) and abiotic (precipitation, soil, drainage) gradients, we found strong sensitivities of rooting depth to local soil water profiles determined by precipitation infiltration depth from the top (reflecting climate and soil), and groundwater table depth from below (reflecting topography-driven land drainage). In well-drained uplands, rooting depth follows infiltration depth; in waterlogged lowlands, roots stay shallow avoiding oxygen stress below the water table; in between, high productivity and drought can send roots many meters down to groundwater capillary fringe. We explore the global significance of this framework using an inverse model, and the implications to the coevolution of deep roots and the CZ in the Early-Mid Devonian when plants colonized the upland environments.

  6. Root Growth Optimizer with Self-Similar Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxian He


    Full Text Available Most nature-inspired algorithms simulate intelligent behaviors of animals and insects that can move spontaneously and independently. The survival wisdom of plants, as another species of biology, has been neglected to some extent even though they have evolved for a longer period of time. This paper presents a new plant-inspired algorithm which is called root growth optimizer (RGO. RGO simulates the iterative growth behaviors of plant roots to optimize continuous space search. In growing process, main roots and lateral roots, classified by fitness values, implement different strategies. Main roots carry out exploitation tasks by self-similar propagation in relatively nutrient-rich areas, while lateral roots explore other places to seek for better chance. Inhibition mechanism of plant hormones is applied to main roots in case of explosive propagation in some local optimal areas. Once resources in a location are exhausted, roots would shrink away from infertile conditions to preserve their activity. In order to validate optimization effect of the algorithm, twelve benchmark functions, including eight classic functions and four CEC2005 test functions, are tested in the experiments. We compared RGO with other existing evolutionary algorithms including artificial bee colony, particle swarm optimizer, and differential evolution algorithm. The experimental results show that RGO outperforms other algorithms on most benchmark functions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The ecological security of our country, the possibility of a balanced sustainable development depends on the level of formation of ecological culture of society. Purpose of the article is to analyze the ethnic origins of ecological culture of modern Ukrainian. Nature of Ukraine is the most important point of the historical development of the national character. The installation, stereotypes, archetypes influence on its formation. The aesthetic human needs are met first in the perception of the beauty of unspoiled nature, its comprehension, reflection on the eternal themes: man's place in the natural world, awareness of human relationships and nature, its impact on the individual, man's relation to the world; an effort to recreate the beauty of the surrounding environment. Development of individual aesthetic needs, a sense of harmony and disharmony is the first step of the creativity development, the creative personality possibilities, creativity abilities, which is urgently needed as a modern social development and personal improvement. This is a necessary component of ecological consciousness, ecological culture of modern man.

  8. BIMLR: a method for constructing rooted phylogenetic networks from rooted phylogenetic trees. (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Guo, Maozu; Xing, Linlin; Che, Kai; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chunyu


    Rooted phylogenetic trees constructed from different datasets (e.g. from different genes) are often conflicting with one another, i.e. they cannot be integrated into a single phylogenetic tree. Phylogenetic networks have become an important tool in molecular evolution, and rooted phylogenetic networks are able to represent conflicting rooted phylogenetic trees. Hence, the development of appropriate methods to compute rooted phylogenetic networks from rooted phylogenetic trees has attracted considerable research interest of late. The CASS algorithm proposed by van Iersel et al. is able to construct much simpler networks than other available methods, but it is extremely slow, and the networks it constructs are dependent on the order of the input data. Here, we introduce an improved CASS algorithm, BIMLR. We show that BIMLR is faster than CASS and less dependent on the input data order. Moreover, BIMLR is able to construct much simpler networks than almost all other methods. BIMLR is available at © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fuxianhuiid ventral nerve cord and early nervous system evolution in Panarthropoda. (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Ortega-Hernández, Javier; Butterfield, Nicholas J; Liu, Yu; Boyan, George S; Hou, Jin-Bo; Lan, Tian; Zhang, Xi-Guang


    Panarthropods are typified by disparate grades of neurological organization reflecting a complex evolutionary history. The fossil record offers a unique opportunity to reconstruct early character evolution of the nervous system via exceptional preservation in extinct representatives. Here we describe the neurological architecture of the ventral nerve cord (VNC) in the upper-stem group euarthropod Chengjiangocaris kunmingensis from the early Cambrian Xiaoshiba Lagerstätte (South China). The VNC of C. kunmingensis comprises a homonymous series of condensed ganglia that extend throughout the body, each associated with a pair of biramous limbs. Submillimetric preservation reveals numerous segmental and intersegmental nerve roots emerging from both sides of the VNC, which correspond topologically to the peripheral nerves of extant Priapulida and Onychophora. The fuxianhuiid VNC indicates that ancestral neurological features of Ecdysozoa persisted into derived members of stem-group Euarthropoda but were later lost in crown-group representatives. These findings illuminate the VNC ground pattern in Panarthropoda and suggest the independent secondary loss of cycloneuralian-like neurological characters in Tardigrada and Euarthropoda.

  10. "Roots": Medium and Message. (United States)

    Kinnamon, Keneth

    A national telephone survey indicated that audiences rated the television production of "Roots" positively in terms of the following: realistic portrayal of the people and the times; relevance for contemporary race relations; perceived emotional effect; and increased understanding of the psychology of black people. However, a comparison…

  11. Armillaria Root Disease (United States)

    R.E. Williams; C.G. III Shaw; P.M. Wargo; W.H. Sites


    Armillaria root disease is found throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world. In the continental United States, the disease has been reported in nearly every State. Hosts include hundreds of species of trees, shrubs, vines, and forbs growing in forests, along roadsides, and in cultivated areas. The disease is caused by fungi, which live as parasites on...

  12. computer-aided root aided root aided root aided root-locus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    m, stability, transient response, root-locus, iteration he means by which any a machine, mechanism or d or altered in accordance. Introduction of feedback has the advantages of f system performance to in system parameters, ponse and minimizing the ignals. However, feedback of components, increases ain and introduces ...

  13. (Lamiaceae) root extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the larvicidal, nematicidal, antifeedant, and antifungal effects of 10 solvent extracts of Mentha spicata root. Methods: Ten solvent extracts were investigated for their total flavonoid and phenolic content and screened for larvicidal, nematicidal, antifeedant, and antifungal activities. The total phenolic ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hindarto


    Full Text Available Many problems that arise in today's society are rooted in the issue of morality as a result of the marginalization of the values of character. To solve this problem, need to be enforced the values of good character on every member of the community, and the proper way is through the educational process, including through education in schools ranging from elementary education to higher education. To find out whether the teachers in elementary schools are ready to take this work, the research conducted to determine the readiness of teachers and the problems associated with its implementation. Through a questionnaire calculated in descriptive percentage on a sample of elementary school teachers who are spread in Semarang, Semarang District and Temanggung, it can be concluded that in teachers’ view it is very important to integrate the learning of characters in the lesson. However, they need guidance /examples to develop learning model with its features, which integrate the values of the characters in the science subject.Banyak persoalan yang timbul di masyarakat dewasa ini berakar pada persoalan moralitas sebagai akibat terpinggirkannya nilai-nilai karakter, Untuk mengatasi persoalan ini, perlu ditegakkan lagi nilai nilai karakter yang baik pada setiap anggota masyarakat, dan cara yang tepat adalah melalui proses pendidikan, di antaranya melalui pendidikan di sekolah mulai dari pendidikan dasar sampai pendidikan tinggi. Untuk mengetahui apakah para guru pada Sekolah Dasar siap mengemban tugas ini, maka diadakan penelitian untuk mengetahui kesiapan para guru dan masalah-masalah yang terkait dengan pelaksanaannya. Melalui angket yang kemudian diolah secara deskriptive persentasi pada sampel guru SD yang tersebar di Kota Semarang, Kabupaten Semarang dan Kabupaten Temanggung, dapat diketahui bahwa para guru menganggap sangat penting untuk mengintegrasikan pembelajaran karakter dalam matapelajaran IPA. Namun demikian mereka membutuhkan bimbingan


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Herdiana Abdurrahman


    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe findings of the study in pesantren-based SMA Amanah covering: 1 the principal policy in developing character education, 2 the methods used in developing character education, 3 students’ characteristics as the result of the character education process, 4 the problems encountered in the implementation of character education and the efforts made in addressing the implementation of character education at the school. This study applied qualitative method using descriptive technique. The data were collected through observation, interviews, and documentation. The findings of study showed that: 1 the principal’s policy in developing character education was carried out by implementing government policies in line with the school’s vision, mission, and programs; 2 the methods used in the process of character education were through role-modelling, assignments and nurturing, habituation, training programs, and  students’ participation in various types of activities, as well as the application of rewards and punishments; 3 the student's characteristics resulted from the character  education process were piousness and devotion as well as being able to apply their knowledge and piety in everyday life; 4 problems encountered in the implementation of character education  were different values and norms students brought from home; imbalance of facilities compared to the number of students; as well as teachers’ readiness to actually implement the new program, which  was character education. Meanwhile the efforts made to overcome those problems were namely developing personal, family, neighborhood or community characters, and making commitment of all related parties/stakeholdres of SMA Amanah.

  16. Character and Characterization in “Palms and Men” novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Khajeh pour

    Full Text Available Nowadays one of the most significant elements in story writing is character and characterization. Character in a narrative or a play, is a person that his mental and moral qualities reflect in his deeds and what he says and does. Creating such characters in a story or a novel that seem to be like real people to the reader is called characterization (Mir Sadeghi, 1382: p 85. In this article character and characterization in one of the novels about the eight year war between Iran and Iraq, calling “Palms and Men”, is investigated. Character types, methods of characterization, character appearance, prototype, the relation of character with other elements, and characterization defects are some of the subjects studied in this article.Character types: these characters are generally categorized in two groups of stereotype and type. Samir, Touraj, Reza, Hamid etc. all belong to Sepah forces category which are type characters. Some women characters such as Zeinab, Samir’s mother, Kolsoum, Hanieh’s mother etc. are stereotype characters.Methods of characterization in “Palms and Men” novel:The description of characters is done in two methods by Mr. Nematollah Soleimani:aDirect characterization: If not all the characters, most of them are certainly characterized in this way. For example in expressing Hamid’s characteristic who is the commander of the mission, he writes, “Hamid didn’t bat an eyelid in any incidents. Hamid was lion-hearted”. (Soleimani, 1380: 128. In describing uncle Heidar, he writes, “wisdom and insight, and the effects of years of suffering, difficulty, and experiencing could be clearly seen in his limpid eyes. The rural man was indeed a wise and experienced man” (the same: 264_265.bIndirect Characterization: Although in novels and long stories, direct characterization method is often used, in “Palms and Men” this kind of characterization is also appeared in different conversations, stream of consciousness, deeds

  17. Character and Characterization in “Palms and Men” novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariedeh Khajehpour


    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays one of the most significant elements in story writing is character and characterization. Character in a narrative or a play, is a person that his mental and moral qualities reflect in his deeds and what he says and does. Creating such characters in a story or a novel that seem to be like real people to the reader is called characterization (Mir Sadeghi, 1382: p 85. In this article character and characterization in one of the novels about the eight year war between Iran and Iraq, calling “Palms and Men”, is investigated. Character types, methods of characterization, character appearance, prototype, the relation of character with other elements, and characterization defects are some of the subjects studied in this article.  Character types: these characters are generally categorized in two groups of stereotype and type. Samir, Touraj, Reza, Hamid etc. all belong to Sepah forces category which are type characters. Some women characters such as Zeinab, Samir’s mother, Kolsoum, Hanieh’s mother etc. are stereotype characters.   Methods of characterization in “Palms and Men” novel:   The description of characters is done in two methods by Mr. Nematollah Soleimani:   a Direct characterization: If not all the characters, most of them are certainly characterized in this way. For example in expressing Hamid’s characteristic who is the commander of the mission, he writes, “Hamid didn’t bat an eyelid in any incidents. Hamid was lion-hearted”. (Soleimani, 1380: 128. In describing uncle Heidar, he writes, “wisdom and insight, and the effects of years of suffering, difficulty, and experiencing could be clearly seen in his limpid eyes. The rural man was indeed a wise and experienced man” (the same: 264_265.   b Indirect Characterization: Although in novels and long stories, direct characterization method is often used, in “Palms and Men” this kind of characterization is also appeared in different conversations

  18. The Implementation of Character Education at Senior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at analyzing the implementation of character education at Senior High School in Sumedang Regency, West Java, Indonesia. A content analysis method was employed to collect the data with interviews with six teachers from six different senior high schools, which represent the rural, transitional, and urban areas. The findings revealed that: (1 not all teachers understand the concept of character education; (2 the character education has not been done systematically or has not had the specific design/model for the teaching and learning process. Most teachers embedded the character values during the teaching and learning process as a form of character education. For example, through Qur’an recitation, learning tasks, group discussion, lecture, socio-drama, observation and admonition, and even through teachers’ model. Meanwhile, outside the class, character education was implemented through competition and extracurricular activities; (3 the evaluation of character education was relatively varied, such as an observation followed by admonition, group guidance, and also focusing on behavior and affective assessment in the classroom learning process. This research implied that it is needed to make a policy on a program development through the Bureau of Education to improve Senior High School teachers’ knowledge and skills in implementing the character education.

  19. Features fusion based approach for handwritten Gujarati character recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Sharma


    Full Text Available Handwritten character recognition is a challenging area of research. Lots of research activities in the area of character recognition are already done for Indian languages such as Hindi, Bangla, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu. Literature review on handwritten character recognition indicates that in comparison with other Indian scripts research activities on Gujarati handwritten character recognition are very less.  This paper aims to bring Gujarati character recognition in attention. Recognition of isolated Gujarati handwritten characters is proposed using three different kinds of features and their fusion. Chain code based, zone based and projection profiles based features are utilized as individual features. One of the significant contribution of proposed work is towards the generation of large and representative dataset of 88,000 handwritten Gujarati characters. Experiments are carried out on this developed dataset. Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Naive Bayes (NB classifier based methods are implemented for handwritten Gujarati character recognition. Experimental results show substantial enhancement over state-of-the-art and authenticate our proposals.

  20. Sex-Role Portrayals of Selected Female Television Characters. (United States)

    Goff, David H.; And Others


    Examines the relationship between both the sex-role and the sex of viewers and viewer perception of the sex-role depicted by five female characters in prime-time television programs. Perception of character sex-role was significantly related to subject sex-role, yet unrelated to subject sex or gender. (MER)

  1. Representations of Deaf Characters in Children's Picture Books (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Annie M.


    Picture books can influence how children perceive people of different backgrounds, including people with disabilities whose cultures differ from their own. Researchers have examined the portrayal of multicultural characters with disabilities in children's literature. However, few have specifically considered the portrayal of deaf characters,…

  2. Affective affordances: Improving interface characters engagement through interaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vugt, H.C.; Hoorn, J.F.; Konijn, E.A.; De Bie Dimitriadou, A.


    The nature of humans interacting with interface characters (e.g. embodied agents) is not well understood. The I-PEFiC model provides an integrative perspective on human-character interaction, assuming that the processes of engagement and user interaction exchange information in explaining user

  3. Affective affordances: Improving interface character engagement through interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, H.C.; Hoorn, J.F.; Konijn, E.A.; de Bie Dimitriadou, A.


    The nature of humans interacting with interface characters (e.g. embodied agents) is not well understood. The I-PEFiC model provides an integrative perspective on human-character interaction, assuming that the processes of engagement and user interaction exchange information in explaining user

  4. Inculcating Character Education through EFL Teaching in Indonesian State Schools (United States)

    Qoyyimah, Uswatun


    This paper describes how English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in Indonesia have implemented the recent character education policy within an era of school-based curriculum reform. The character education policy required all teachers, EFL teachers included, to instil certain values in every lesson whilst the school-based curriculum reform…

  5. Building Strengths of Character: Keys to Positive Youth Development (United States)

    Park, Nansook


    Character is vital force for positive development and societal well-being. Character strengths play important roles in positive youth development, not only as broad-protective factors, preventing or mitigating psychopathology and problems, but also as enabling conditions that promote thriving and flourishing. Recent research findings show that…

  6. Adult Age Differences in Processing Narrative Text: Managing Character Representations (United States)

    Noh, Soo Rim


    Understanding a narrative situation depends on keeping track of multiple characters that enter and exit dynamically as the plot unfolds. Because there has been no systematic investigation of age differences in the ability to manage multiple characters during narrative comprehension, this project was designed to examine those differences in this…

  7. Dialogue and character classification in Wole Soyinka's Kongi's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines Wole Soyinka's use of dialogue-one of the major elements of drama to paint portraits of various characters in his play, Kongi's Harvest. It explores the playwright's artistic realisation of characters that can be identified and classified by what they say and what is said of them. The study concludes that with ...

  8. An interpretation of suicide and murder character elimination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is noticed that women characters in particular are most likely to commit suicide when they are frustrated by something. In the selected texts, the characters who commit suicide or murder do not do so by choice, but as a result of reaching a point of absolute desperation in their lives or because of having to be loyal to ...

  9. Player-Character Dynamics in Multi- Player Role Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; McIlwain, D.; Brolund, T.


    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive empirical study of the impact of integrating complex game characters in multi-player Role Playing Games across tabletop and digital formats. Players were provided with characters that had detailed background history, personality and goals. Player...

  10. Dual Character Concepts and the Normative Dimension of Conceptual Representation (United States)

    Knobe, Joshua; Prasada, Sandeep; Newman, George E.


    Five experiments provide evidence for a class of "dual character concepts." Dual character concepts characterize their members in terms of both (a) a set of concrete features and (b) the abstract values that these features serve to realize. As such, these concepts provide two bases for evaluating category members and two different criteria for…

  11. Preservice Secondary Teachers' Sense of Efficacy in Teaching Character Education (United States)

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III


    This study investigated the personal teaching efficacy and general teaching efficacy for character education of 130 preservice secondary teachers at a large university where there were no formal courses dedicated to character education, but the topic was included in some of the content coursework. The subjects were in one teacher education program…

  12. Teaching Character Education to College Students Using Bildungsromans (United States)

    Novianti, Nita


    The paper reports a study on the teaching of character education in higher education using English Bildungsroman, "Jane Eyre." The participants were 35 sixth-semester students of English Literature program in an Indonesian state university. Guided by the approach to teaching character education exemplified by Ryan & Bohlin (1999),…

  13. Sherlock Holmes Meets Othello: A MDS Analysis of Literary Characters. (United States)

    Russell, G. W.; Lambert, W. B.


    Changes in college freshmen's perceptual organization of characters from "Othello" after three weeks of study and lecture were assessed using multidimensional scaling procedures. Sherlock Holmes experts also provided dissimilarity ratings of Conan Doyle's characters. Discussion centers on the extent to which the lectures on…

  14. The Development of Leader Character through Crucible Moments (United States)

    Byrne, Alyson; Crossan, Mary; Seijts, Gerard


    Business schools strive to develop leadership excellence in their students. In this essay, we suggest that educators should find ways to help students develop and deepen leader character, a fundamental component of exemplary leadership. Frequently, business school students have preconceived ideas of leadership, often neglecting leader character.…

  15. Chinese character recognition based on Gabor feature extraction and CNN (United States)

    Xiong, Yudian; Lu, Tongwei; Jiang, Yongyuan


    As an important application in the field of text line recognition and office automation, Chinese character recognition has become an important subject of pattern recognition. However, due to the large number of Chinese characters and the complexity of its structure, there is a great difficulty in the Chinese character recognition. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a method of printed Chinese character recognition based on Gabor feature extraction and Convolution Neural Network(CNN). The main steps are preprocessing, feature extraction, training classification. First, the gray-scale Chinese character image is binarized and normalized to reduce the redundancy of the image data. Second, each image is convoluted with Gabor filter with different orientations, and the feature map of the eight orientations of Chinese characters is extracted. Third, the feature map through Gabor filters and the original image are convoluted with learning kernels, and the results of the convolution is the input of pooling layer. Finally, the feature vector is used to classify and recognition. In addition, the generalization capacity of the network is improved by Dropout technology. The experimental results show that this method can effectively extract the characteristics of Chinese characters and recognize Chinese characters.

  16. Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values (United States)

    Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.; Low, Ee Ling


    The theme of this special issue is "Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values." Character education and citizenship education, taken separately or as a single entity are currently riding high on the political and educational policy agendas of several governments (Arthur, 2003; Berkowitz & Bier, 2007;…

  17. Dynamic Characters with Communication Disorders in Children's Literature (United States)

    Sotto, Carolyn D.; Ball, Angel L.


    Using quality children's literature with portrayals of characters that have communication impairments can be an effective teaching tool. Storybook characters with communication disorders can provide positive role models and promote understanding of diverse populations. Eighteen children's books were selected based on the following criteria:…

  18. Cultural characters of a newly recognized group of hospital staphylococci. (United States)

    Jevons, M P; John, M; Parker, M T


    Members of a newly recognized group of hospital staphylococci, which are believed to have arisen from 83A staphylococci by lysogenization, differ from them in several cultural characters. Some but not all of these characters appear to be determined by the carriage of phage.

  19. character association and path coefficient analysis between some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    some growth characters and grain yield in Soybean, a basis of selection for further improvement. Treatments consisted of two levels ... number of leaves as criteria for selection of Soybean for increased grain yield. Keywords: Correlation, Grain ... objective of observing the mutual relationship of different characters and also ...

  20. Keeping it wild: mapping wilderness character in the United States. (United States)

    Carver, Steve; Tricker, James; Landres, Peter


    A GIS-based approach is developed to identify the state of wilderness character in US wilderness areas using Death Valley National Park (DEVA) as a case study. A set of indicators and measures are identified by DEVA staff and used as the basis for developing a flexible and broadly applicable framework to map wilderness character using data inputs selected by park staff. Spatial data and GIS methods are used to map the condition of four qualities of wilderness character: natural, untrammelled, undeveloped, and solitude or primitive and unconfined recreation. These four qualities are derived from the US 1964 Wilderness Act and later developed by Landres et al. (2008a) in "Keeping it Wild: An Interagency Strategy to Monitor Trends in Wilderness Character Across the National Wilderness Preservation System." Data inputs are weighted to reflect their importance in relation to other data inputs and the model is used to generate maps of each of the four qualities of wilderness character. The combined map delineates the range of quality of wilderness character in the DEVA wilderness revealing the majority of wilderness character to be optimal quality with the best areas in the northern section of the park. This map will serve as a baseline for monitoring change in wilderness character and for evaluating the spatial impacts of planning alternatives for wilderness and backcountry stewardship plans. The approach developed could be applied to any wilderness area, either in the USA or elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On superconformal characters and partition functions in three dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolan, F.A.


    Possible short and semishort positive energy, unitary representations of the Osp(2N|4) superconformal group in three dimensions are discussed. Corresponding character formulas are obtained, consistent with character formulas for the SO(3,2) conformal group, revealing long multiplet decomposition at

  2. A Study of the Relationship Between Alcoholism and Character Disorder. (United States)

    Wolfley, Virgil L.

    Studies have shown that sociopaths and alcoholics tend to come from similar social backgrounds and that they share several characteristics. To investigate the relationship between alcoholism and character disorder syndrome in adult males, 20 males who had a history of alcohol problems and displayed characteristics of character disorder were…

  3. Crisis del personaje. La bruja en la era tecnológica / Character Crisis. The witch in the technological age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mª Sánchez Morillas


    Full Text Available Resumen: Entre las múltiples imágenes que del personaje femenino aparecen en los cuentos, la de la bruja es la menos apreciada en su evolución, sobre todo a raíz de la aparición de las películas de Walt Disney, donde se produce la erotización del personaje, efecto ampliado en el cómic Anime, a la vez que, y de forma paralela, en la narrativa infantil-juvenil se le concede los caracteres de ente humanizado. Por tanto, analizaremos la evolución histórica que sobre el personaje bruja se ha realizado en representaciones culturales literarias y audiovisuales desde la segunda década del siglo XX hasta nuestros días.Abstract: Among the multiple images of the female character appear in tales of the witch is the least appreciated in its evolution, especially following the emergence of the films of Walt Disney, which produces the eroticization of the character, in effect extended Anime comic, while, in parallel and in child and adolescent narrative is given characters being humanized. Therefore, we will analyze the historical evolution of the character witch was made in literary and audiovisual cultural performances during the second decade of the twentieth century to today.

  4. Introduction to the ROOT System

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Introduction to the ROOT data handling system. ROOT is used in some for or another by all LHC experiments and will be used by all for final data analysis. The introduction gives an overview of the system. Prerequisite knowledge: C++

  5. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.


    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  6. Good character at school: Positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement


    Wagner, Lisa; Ruch, Willibald


    Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children’s and adolescents’ well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012). The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years) and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years). The students completed the VIA-Youth (Values in Action Invento...

  7. Portrayal of gay characters in Bollywood cinema. (United States)

    Bhugra, Dinesh; Kalra, Gurvinder; Ventriglio, Antonio


    Hindi cinema production from India is the largest in the world. Cinema reflects the society which it portrays, and in turn influences social attitudes. Hindi cinema, often known as Bollywood, demonstrates deep roots in society. In the last decade homosexual behaviour was legalized by the Delhi High Court but subsequently deemed illegal by the Supreme Court. These changes reflect changes in social attitudes. In this paper we highlight social attitudes to homosexuality - both male and female - in the context of portrayal in Hindi cinema. Historically, cultural and social values and the attitudes towards sexuality in India have been sex positive, but over the past 200 years under the British colonial rule they became very negative and indeed punitive towards homosexuality and homosexual men and women in line with prevalent Victorian attitudes to sex and sexual activity. Various descriptions and sexual identities have been identified and described in the literature. In this paper we describe a small selection of films from Hindi cinema which depict homosexuality. These portrayals have been largely negative. We describe the possible reasons for this and the potential impact these portrayals may have on audiences.

  8. Character strengths, social anxiety, and physiological stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li


    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15 or low-character-strength (n = 15 groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.

  9. Visual Antipriming Effect: Evidence from Chinese Character Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang


    Full Text Available Marsolek et al. (2006 have differentiated antipriming effects from priming effects, by adopting a novel priming paradigm comprised of four phases that include a baseline measurement. The general concept of antipriming supports the overlapping representation theory of knowledge. This study extended examination of the Marsolek et al. (2006 paradigm by investigating antipriming and priming effects in a series of Chinese character identification tasks. Results showed that identification accuracy of old characters was significantly higher than baseline measurements (i.e., the priming effect, while identification accuracy of novel characters was significantly lower than baseline measurements (i.e., the antipriming effect. This study demonstrates for the first time the effect of visual antipriming in Chinese character identification. It further provides new evidence for the overlapping representation theory of knowledge, and supports generalizability of the phenomenon to Chinese characters.

  10. Virtual muscularity: a content analysis of male video game characters. (United States)

    Martins, Nicole; Williams, Dmitri C; Ratan, Rabindra A; Harrison, Kristen


    The 150 top-selling video games were content analyzed to study representations of male bodies. Human males in the games were captured via screenshot and body parts measured. These measurements were then compared to anthropometric data drawn from a representative sample of 1120 North American men. Characters at high levels of photorealism were larger than the average American male, but these characters did not mirror the V-shaped ideal found in mainstream media. Characters at low levels of photorealism were also larger than the average American male, but these characters were so much larger that they appeared cartoonish. Idealized male characters were more likely to be found in games for children than in games for adults. Implications for cultivation theory are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Representations of deaf characters in children's picture books. (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B; Moses, Annie M


    Picture books can influence how children perceive people of different backgrounds, including people with disabilities whose cultures differ from their own. Researchers have examined the portrayal of multicultural characters with disabilities in children's literature. However, few have specifically considered the portrayal of deaf characters, despite increased inclusion of deaf characters in children's literature over the past two decades. The present study analyzed the portrayal of deaf characters in picture books for children ages 4-8 years. A content analysis of 20 children's picture books was conducted in which the books were analyzed for messages linked to pathological and cultural categories. Results indicated that these books did not portray Deaf characters from a cultural perspective but, rather, highlighted aspects of deafness as a medical condition, one that requires fixing and that perpetuates stereotypes of deafness as a disability.

  12. Character context: a shape descriptor for Arabic handwriting recognition (United States)

    Mudhsh, Mohammed; Almodfer, Rolla; Duan, Pengfei; Xiong, Shengwu


    In the handwriting recognition field, designing good descriptors are substantial to obtain rich information of the data. However, the handwriting recognition research of a good descriptor is still an open issue due to unlimited variation in human handwriting. We introduce a "character context descriptor" that efficiently dealt with the structural characteristics of Arabic handwritten characters. First, the character image is smoothed and normalized, then the character context descriptor of 32 feature bins is built based on the proposed "distance function." Finally, a multilayer perceptron with regularization is used as a classifier. On experimentation with a handwritten Arabic characters database, the proposed method achieved a state-of-the-art performance with recognition rate equal to 98.93% and 99.06% for the 66 and 24 classes, respectively.

  13. Particle swarm optimization for automatic creation of complex graphic characters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fister, Iztok; Perc, Matjaž; Ljubič, Karin; Kamal, Salahuddin M.; Iglesias, Andres; Fister, Iztok


    Nature-inspired algorithms are a very promising tool for solving the hardest problems in computer sciences and mathematics. These algorithms are typically inspired by the fascinating behavior at display in biological systems, such as bee swarms or fish schools. So far, these algorithms have been applied in many practical applications. In this paper, we present a simple particle swarm optimization, which allows automatic creation of complex two-dimensional graphic characters. The method involves constructing the base characters, optimizing the modifications of the base characters with the particle swarm optimization algorithm, and finally generating the graphic characters from the solution. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach with the creation of simple snowman, but we also outline in detail how more complex characters can be created

  14. Membangun Karakter Anak Usia Dini melalui Pembelajaran Math Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titin Faridatun Nisa’


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penerapan pembelajaran math character untuk membangun karakter Anak Usia Dini (AUD dan kesulitan-kesulitan yang dialami guru dalam penerapan pembelajaran math character. Target penelitian ini adalah terbentuknya karakter anak usia dini melalui pembelajaran math character. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif dengan metode penelitian kualitatif. Teknik pengumpulan informasi penelitian ini dengan metode observasi dan wawancara. Analisis data penelitian ini menggunakan analisis deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan pembelajaran math character dapat membangun delapan belas nilai-nilai karakter AUD. Kesulitan-kesulitan yang dialami guru dalam pembentukan karakter AUD melalui pembelajaran math character meliputi tema yang digunakan termasuk tema baru, siswa belum terbiasa dengan pembelajaran berbasis sentra, usia siswa bervariasi, dan adanya ikut campur wali siswa dalam kegiatan pembelajaran di kelas sehingga siswa menjadi kurang mandiri.

  15. Playing MMORPGs: connections between addiction and identifying with a character. (United States)

    Smahel, David; Blinka, Lukas; Ledabyl, Ondrej


    Addiction to online role-playing games is one of the most discussed aspects of recent cyberpsychology, mainly for its potentially negative impact on the social lives of young people. In our study, we focus on some aspects of youth and adolescent addiction to MMORPGs. We investigated connections between players and their game characters and examined if, and in what ways, player relationship to their character affected potential addiction. Players attitude to their characters seems to play a specific role, since players who tend to be addicted view their characters as being superior and more often wish to be like their characters in their real lives. Our research also confirmed that younger players are generally more prone to addiction.

  16. [The study of transpiration influence on plant infrared radiation character]. (United States)

    Ling, Jun; Zhang, Shuan-Qin; Pan, Jia-Liang; Lian, Chang-Chun; Yang, Hui


    Studying vegetation infrared radiation character is the base of developing infrared camouflage and concealment technology of ground military target. Accurate fusion of target and background can be achieved by simulating formation mechanism of vegetation infrared radiation character. Leaf transpiration is characteristic physiological mechanism of vegetation and one of the main factors that influence its infrared radiation character. In the present paper, physical model of leaf energy balance is set up. Based on this model the influence of plant transpiration on leaf temperature is analyzed and calculated. The daily periodic variation of transpiration, leaf temperature and infrared radiation character of typical plants such as camphor tree and holly is actually measured with porometer and infrared thermal imaging system. By contrasting plant leaf with dryness leaf, experimental data indicates that plant transpiration can regulate leaf energy balance effectively and control leaf temperature in a reasonable range and suppress deep range variation of leaf infrared radiation character.

  17. Transformation and diversification in early mammal evolution. (United States)

    Luo, Zhe-Xi


    Evolution of the earliest mammals shows successive episodes of diversification. Lineage-splitting in Mesozoic mammals is coupled with many independent evolutionary experiments and ecological specializations. Classic scenarios of mammalian morphological evolution tend to posit an orderly acquisition of key evolutionary innovations leading to adaptive diversification, but newly discovered fossils show that evolution of such key characters as the middle ear and the tribosphenic teeth is far more labile among Mesozoic mammals. Successive diversifications of Mesozoic mammal groups multiplied the opportunities for many dead-end lineages to iteratively evolve developmental homoplasies and convergent ecological specializations, parallel to those in modern mammal groups.

  18. Bayesian phylogeography finds its roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lemey


    Full Text Available As a key factor in endemic and epidemic dynamics, the geographical distribution of viruses has been frequently interpreted in the light of their genetic histories. Unfortunately, inference of historical dispersal or migration patterns of viruses has mainly been restricted to model-free heuristic approaches that provide little insight into the temporal setting of the spatial dynamics. The introduction of probabilistic models of evolution, however, offers unique opportunities to engage in this statistical endeavor. Here we introduce a Bayesian framework for inference, visualization and hypothesis testing of phylogeographic history. By implementing character mapping in a Bayesian software that samples time-scaled phylogenies, we enable the reconstruction of timed viral dispersal patterns while accommodating phylogenetic uncertainty. Standard Markov model inference is extended with a stochastic search variable selection procedure that identifies the parsimonious descriptions of the diffusion process. In addition, we propose priors that can incorporate geographical sampling distributions or characterize alternative hypotheses about the spatial dynamics. To visualize the spatial and temporal information, we summarize inferences using virtual globe software. We describe how Bayesian phylogeography compares with previous parsimony analysis in the investigation of the influenza A H5N1 origin and H5N1 epidemiological linkage among sampling localities. Analysis of rabies in West African dog populations reveals how virus diffusion may enable endemic maintenance through continuous epidemic cycles. From these analyses, we conclude that our phylogeographic framework will make an important asset in molecular epidemiology that can be easily generalized to infer biogeogeography from genetic data for many organisms.

  19. Superplasticity and grain boundary character distribution in overaged Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramovic-Cingara, G.; Aust, K.T.; Perovic, D.D.; McQueen, H.J.


    Samples of 8091 alloy were subjected to a thermomechanical processing (TMP) treatment that included the following stages: overaging before deformation, multistage deformation at 300 deg C and strain rate change tests for superplasticity. Torsional deformation was utilized both to develop the refined microstructure and to test for superplasticity. The strain rate sensitivity, m, of the material ranged between 0.30 and 0.45 at 450 deg C for strain rates between 8 x 10 -2 and 10 -3 s -1 . The grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) of thermomechanically processed Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr (8091) alloy, which develops good superplastic response, has been determined by an electron backscattering diffraction technique (EBSD). All grain boundaries have been classified into one of three categories in terms of Σ values : low angle, coincidence site lattice and random high angle boundaries. Quantitative studies of grain boundary character were done after various processing stages to obtain evidence about structure evolution and indicate an increase in Σ boundary frequency following TMP. Selected area electron diffraction examination (SAD) gave evidence about the refined structure, in which the grain boundary misorientation increased EBSD how the grain boundary character was changed to high Σ values. TEM analyses indicate that the T 2 phase is responsible for substructure stabilization. There is no evidence of cavity formation during superplastic deformation by torsion, which suggests that cavity nucleation is strongly influenced by the nature of stress. (author). 32 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs

  20. Rooted in Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses to and ...... period of European prehistory. In so doing, the text not only addresses transmission and reception, but also the conceptualization of mobility within a world which was literally Rooted in Movement....

  1. Aquaporins and root water uptake (United States)

    Water is one of the most critical resources limiting plant growth and crop productivity, and root water uptake is an important aspect of plant physiology governing plant water use and stress tolerance. Pathways of root water uptake are complex and are affected by root structure and physiological res...

  2. Expressing Parallelism with ROOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piparo, D. [CERN; Tejedor, E. [CERN; Guiraud, E. [CERN; Ganis, G. [CERN; Mato, P. [CERN; Moneta, L. [CERN; Valls Pla, X. [CERN; Canal, P. [Fermilab


    The need for processing the ever-increasing amount of data generated by the LHC experiments in a more efficient way has motivated ROOT to further develop its support for parallelism. Such support is being tackled both for shared-memory and distributed-memory environments. The incarnations of the aforementioned parallelism are multi-threading, multi-processing and cluster-wide executions. In the area of multi-threading, we discuss the new implicit parallelism and related interfaces, as well as the new building blocks to safely operate with ROOT objects in a multi-threaded environment. Regarding multi-processing, we review the new MultiProc framework, comparing it with similar tools (e.g. multiprocessing module in Python). Finally, as an alternative to PROOF for cluster-wide executions, we introduce the efforts on integrating ROOT with state-of-the-art distributed data processing technologies like Spark, both in terms of programming model and runtime design (with EOS as one of the main components). For all the levels of parallelism, we discuss, based on real-life examples and measurements, how our proposals can increase the productivity of scientists.

  3. Expressing Parallelism with ROOT (United States)

    Piparo, D.; Tejedor, E.; Guiraud, E.; Ganis, G.; Mato, P.; Moneta, L.; Valls Pla, X.; Canal, P.


    The need for processing the ever-increasing amount of data generated by the LHC experiments in a more efficient way has motivated ROOT to further develop its support for parallelism. Such support is being tackled both for shared-memory and distributed-memory environments. The incarnations of the aforementioned parallelism are multi-threading, multi-processing and cluster-wide executions. In the area of multi-threading, we discuss the new implicit parallelism and related interfaces, as well as the new building blocks to safely operate with ROOT objects in a multi-threaded environment. Regarding multi-processing, we review the new MultiProc framework, comparing it with similar tools (e.g. multiprocessing module in Python). Finally, as an alternative to PROOF for cluster-wide executions, we introduce the efforts on integrating ROOT with state-of-the-art distributed data processing technologies like Spark, both in terms of programming model and runtime design (with EOS as one of the main components). For all the levels of parallelism, we discuss, based on real-life examples and measurements, how our proposals can increase the productivity of scientists.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Marcos Ramos


    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of an empirical research in which it were analysed the interactions between immigrants and national characters in a sample of Spanish television fictional programs broadcasted on prime time. This study is a content analysis of 282 interactions between immigrant/foreign and national characters. Thus, it was found that the largest number of relationships between the characters involved was produced in a working context. Moreover, there was a higher proportion of the use of aggressive humour from the national characters to the immigrant/foreigners than in the reverse way. It was also observed that the immigrant/foreigner characters hardly spoke about their feelings, nor were heard by the nationals when they did it, although there were a high number of interactions in which immigrant characters were expressing their opinions and these were attended by national characters. The analysis of the interactions between immigrant and national characters in television fiction is a very important research issue, because it has been proposed that the parasocial interactions are complementary of the interpersonal interactions taking place in daily life (Müller, 2009; Park, 2012.

  5. The Effect of Realistic Appearance of Virtual Characters in Immersive Environments - Does the Character's Personality Play a Role? (United States)

    Zibrek, Katja; Kokkinara, Elena; Mcdonnell, Rachel


    Virtual characters that appear almost photo-realistic have been shown to induce negative responses from viewers in traditional media, such as film and video games. This effect, described as the uncanny valley, is the reason why realism is often avoided when the aim is to create an appealing virtual character. In Virtual Reality, there have been few attempts to investigate this phenomenon and the implications of rendering virtual characters with high levels of realism on user enjoyment. In this paper, we conducted a large-scale experiment on over one thousand members of the public in order to gather information on how virtual characters are perceived in interactive virtual reality games. We were particularly interested in whether different render styles (realistic, cartoon, etc.) would directly influence appeal, or if a character's personality was the most important indicator of appeal. We used a number of perceptual metrics such as subjective ratings, proximity, and attribution bias in order to test our hypothesis. Our main result shows that affinity towards virtual characters is a complex interaction between the character's appearance and personality, and that realism is in fact a positive choice for virtual characters in virtual reality.

  6. "It Could Affect You as a Person, Character-Wise": Promoting Character Development and Preventing Sexual Violence at West Point (United States)

    Arbeit, Miriam R.


    The United States Military Academy at West Point develops cadets into "leaders of character" who will become Army officers. This focus on character presents an opportunity for the prevention of sexual violence through an emphasis on military values. Using constructivist grounded theory, this study examined how cadets experience their own…

  7. Evolution of Flat Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şt. Vasiliu


    Full Text Available Roofs are constructive subassembles that are located at the top of buildings, which toghether with perimetral walls and some elements of the infrastructure belongs to the subsystem elements that close the building. Roofs must meet resistance requirements to mechanical action, thermal insulating, waterproofing and acoustic, fire resistance, durability, economy and aesthetics. The man saw the need to build roofs from the oldest ancient times. Even if the design of buildings has an empirical character, are known and are preserved until today constructions that are made in antiquity, by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans with architectural achievements, worthy of admiration and in present time. General composition of civil construction has been influenced throughout the evolution of construction history by the level of production forces and properties of building materials available in every historical epoch. For over five millennia, building materials were stone, wood and ceramic products (concrete was used by theRomans only as filling material.

  8. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Kuijper


    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  9. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects. (United States)

    Kuijper, Bram; Johnstone, Rufus A; Townley, Stuart


    There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M) in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  10. City Planning Evolution - Urban Development Directions in the Transition Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Grigorovschi


    Full Text Available Urban evolution post 1989 has a series of specific characteristics mainly on a spatial-territorial plane. Determination of the main developing factors and urban evolution directions (dimensions, rhythm, expansion level, centrifugal and axial character, concentric, centripetal, functional evolution, tendencies and social implications, etc. represents a necessity and obligation for action from professionals in urban and landscaping fields. This necessity even arises from the perspective of the need for realizing strategies, planning, documentation and urban studies, which must intervene correctively in the evolution of areas with structural problems and to guide urban evolution towards the main goal namely the growth in residential quality of life in human settlements.

  11. Root induced changes of effective 1D hydraulic properties in a soil column. (United States)

    Scholl, P; Leitner, D; Kammerer, G; Loiskandl, W; Kaul, H-P; Bodner, G

    Roots are essential drivers of soil structure and pore formation. This study aimed at quantifying root induced changes of the pore size distribution (PSD). The focus was on the extent of clogging vs. formation of pores during active root growth. Parameters of Kosugi's lognormal PSD model were determined by inverse estimation in a column experiment with two cover crops (mustard, rye) and an unplanted control. Pore dynamics were described using a convection-dispersion like pore evolution model. Rooted treatments showed a wider range of pore radii with increasing volumes of large macropores >500 μm and micropores <2.5 μm, while fine macropores, mesopores and larger micropores decreased. The non-rooted control showed narrowing of the PSD and reduced porosity over all radius classes. The pore evolution model accurately described root induced changes, while structure degradation in the non-rooted control was not captured properly. Our study demonstrated significant short term root effects with heterogenization of the pore system as dominant process of root induced structure formation. Pore clogging is suggested as a partial cause for reduced pore volume. The important change in micro- and large macropores however indicates that multiple mechanic and biochemical processes are involved in root-pore interactions.

  12. Evolutionary potential of root chemical defense: genetic correlations with shoot chemistry and plant growth. (United States)

    Parker, J D; Salminen, J-P; Agrawal, Anurag A


    Root herbivores can affect plant fitness, and roots often contain the same secondary metabolites that act as defenses in shoots, but the ecology and evolution of root chemical defense have been little investigated. Here, we investigated genetic variance, heritability, and correlations among defensive phenolic compounds in shoot vs. root tissues of common evening primrose, Oenothera biennis. Across 20 genotypes, there were roughly similar concentrations of total phenolics in shoots vs. roots, but the allocation of particular phenolics to shoots vs. roots varied along a continuum of genotype growth rate. Slow-growing genotypes allocated 2-fold more of the potential pro-oxidant oenothein B to shoots than roots, whereas fast-growing genotypes had roughly equivalent above and belowground concentrations. Phenolic concentrations in both roots and shoots were strongly heritable, with mostly positive patterns of genetic covariation. Nonetheless, there was genotype-specific variation in the presence/absence of two major ellagitannins (oenothein A and its precursor oenothein B), indicating two different chemotypes based on alterations in this chemical pathway. Overall, the presence of strong genetic variation in root defenses suggests ample scope for the evolution of these compounds as defenses against root herbivores.

  13. Virtual Character Personality Influences Participant Attitudes and Behavior - An Interview with a Virtual Human Character about Her Social Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueni ePan


    Full Text Available We introduce a novel technique for the study of human-virtual character interaction in immersive virtual reality. The human participants verbally administered a standard questionnaire about social anxiety to a virtual female character, that responded to each question through speech and body movements. The purpose was to study the extent to which participants responded differently to characters that exhibited different personalities, even though the verbal content of their answers was always the same. A separate online study provided evidence that our intention to create two different personality types had been successful. In the main between-groups experiment that utilized a Cave system there were 24 male participants, where 12 interacted with a female virtual character portrayed to exhibit shyness and the remaining 12 with an identical but more confident virtual character. Our results indicate that although the content of the verbal responses of both virtual characters was the same, participants showed different subjective and behavioral responses to the two different personalities. In particular participants evaluated the shy character more positively, for example, expressing willingness to spend more time with her. Participants evaluated the confident character more negatively and waited for a significantly longer time to call her back after she had left the scene in order to answer a telephone call. The method whereby participants interviewed the virtual character allowed naturalistic conversation while avoiding the necessity of speech processing and generation, and natural language understanding. It is therefore a useful method for the study of the impact of virtual character personality on participant responses.

  14. Pharmacognostic Investigation of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f. Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar


    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to perform the pharmacognostic evaluation of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f. root in terms of organoleptic, fluorescence analysis, macro-microscopy and physicochemical parameters.The characteristic macroscopic study showed that the root consists of 7-15 cm long, 0.2 -3.0 cm thick pieces which are cylindrical, tough and yellowish-brown externally, with hard fracture and slightly astringent taste. The main microscopic characters of the root show exfoliating cork, having10-15 rows of tangentially elongated, thick-walled cells. Cortex consists of round to oval parenchymatous cells, a few containing rhomboid shaped calcium oxalate crystals. Endodermis consists of 3- 4 layers of non-lignified, thick-walled rounded parenchymatous cells followed by a single pericyclic layer. Phloem consists of isodiametric, thin-walled, parenchymatous cells whereas xylem contains lignified pitted vessels. Medullary rays consisting of biseriate layer of lignified and radially elongated parenchymatous cells is narrower in the xylem region during wider in the phloem region. The physicochemical analysis of the root, i.e., total ash, water-soluble ash, sulphated ash are 7.8, 0.9 and 10.3 (% w/w respectively. Further successive extraction of the root powder with petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, water yielded 2.2, 2.4, 12.4 and 9.6 (% w/wextracts respectively. Fluorescence study imparted characteristic colours to the root powder when observed under visible, short and long wavelength light. Various pharmacognostic parameters evaluated in this study helps inbotanical identification and standardization of Clerodendrum phlomidis L. root part in crude form and provide the authentic data for the researchers and scientists involved in carrying out further research on this plant part.

  15. Moral character predominates in person perception and evaluation. (United States)

    Goodwin, Geoffrey P; Piazza, Jared; Rozin, Paul


    What sorts of trait information do people most care about when forming impressions of others? Recent research in social cognition suggests that "warmth," broadly construed, should be of prime importance in impression formation. Yet, some prior research suggests that information about others' specifically moral traits--their moral "character"--may be a primary dimension. Although warmth and character have sometimes been conceived of as interchangeable, we argue that they are separable, and that across a wide variety of contexts, character is usually more important than warmth in impression formation. We first showed that moral character and social warmth traits are indeed separable (Studies 1 and 2). Further studies that used correlational and experimental methods showed that, as predicted, in most contexts, moral character information is more important in impression formation than is warmth information (Studies 2-6). Character information was also more important than warmth information with respect to judgments of traits' perceived fundamentalness to identity, their uniquely human quality, their context-independence, and their controllability (Study 2). Finally, Study 7 used an archival method to show that moral character information appears more prominently than warmth information in obituaries, and more strongly determines the impressions people form of the individuals described in those obituaries. We discuss implications for current theories of person perception and social cognition.

  16. Root tips moving through soil (United States)

    Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto


    Root elongation occurs by the generation of new cells from meristematic tissue within the apical 1–2 mm region of root tips. Therefore penetration of the soil environment is carried out by newly synthesized plant tissue, whose cells are inherently vulnerable to invasion by pathogens. This conundrum, on its face, would seem to reflect an intolerable risk to the successful establishment of root systems needed for plant life. Yet root tip regions housing the meristematic tissues repeatedly have been found to be free of microbial infection and colonization. Even when spore germination, chemotaxis, and/or growth of pathogens are stimulated by signals from the root tip, the underlying root tissue can escape invasion. Recent insights into the functions of root border cells, and the regulation of their production by transient exposure to external signals, may shed light on long-standing observations. PMID:21455030

  17. Superplasticity: basic character and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suery, M.; Baudelet, B.


    This paper is concerned with the fundamental aspects and the industrial applications of superplasticity. Correlations between structure and mechanical properties are considered and it is shown that a material with fine grains may exhibit very large elongations as long as no structural evolution leads either to earlier failure or to a change in the deformation mechanism. This large plastic stability is the consequence of the high strain rate sensitivity resulting from particular deformation mechanisms which may operate in materials with a very fine structure. The advantages of superplastic materials for which forming operations derived from processes for thermoplastics have been applied, justify the industrial applications. Superplasticity is then mainly used for the production of low and intermediate series of pieces which are often complex in shape and difficult to form through an other technique. However, the disadvantages especially correlated to the low forming rates and the need of special metallurgical structures lead to the search of new processes synchronizing the elaboration of the alloy and the forming operation under superplastic conditions [fr

  18. [The representation of madness in William Shakespeare's characters]. (United States)

    Stompe, Thomas; Ritter, Kristina; Friedmann, Alexander


    Shakespeare is one of the great creators of human characters of the 16(th) century. Like for many of his contemporaries madness was a central topic of his work. The first part of this paper discusses the sociocultural environment and the semantic field of madness in the Elizabethan age, which forms the background for Shakespeare's characters. In the second part we try to analyze the clinical pictures of the fictive characters of Othello, Hamlet, Lear and Macbeth. While we find melancholy, delusions and hallucinations, other diseases such as schizophrenia are missing entirely. Schizophrenia only appears in the literature more than two hundred years later, in the beginning of modern age.

  19. A cognitive network for oracle bone characters related to animals (United States)

    Dress, Andreas; Grünewald, Stefan; Zeng, Zhenbing


    In this paper, we present an analysis of oracle bone characters for animals from a “cognitive” point of view. After some general remarks on oracle-bone characters presented in Sec. 1 and a short outline of the paper in Sec. 2, we collect various oracle-bone characters for animals from published resources in Sec. 3. In the next section, we begin analyzing a group of 60 ancient animal characters from, a highly acclaimed internet dictionary of Chinese characters that is strictly based on historical sources, and introduce five categories of specific features regarding their (graphical) structure that will be used in Sec. 5 to associate corresponding feature vectors to these characters. In Sec. 6, these feature vectors will be used to investigate their dissimilarity in terms of a family of parameterized distance measures. And in the last section, we apply the SplitsTree method as encoded in the NeighborNet algorithms to construct a corresponding family of dissimilarity-based networks with the intention of elucidating how the ancient Chinese might have perceived the “animal world” in the late bronze age and to demonstrate that these pictographs reflect an intuitive understanding of this world and its inherent structure that predates its classification in the oldest surviving Chinese encyclopedia from approximately the third century BC, the Er Ya, as well as similar classification systems in the West by one to two millennia. We also present an English dictionary of 70 oracle bone characters for animals in Appendix A. In Appendix B, we list various variants of animal characters that were published in the Jia Gu Wen Bian (cf. 甲骨文编, A Complete Collection of Oracle Bone Characters, edited by the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, published by the Zhonghua Book Company in 1965). We recall the frequencies of the 521 most frequent oracle bone characters in Appendix C as reported in [T. Chen, Yin-Shang Jiaguwen Zixing

  20. The Roots of Beowulf (United States)

    Fischer, James R.


    The first Beowulf Linux commodity cluster was constructed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in 1994 and its origins are a part of the folklore of high-end computing. In fact, the conditions within Goddard that brought the idea into being were shaped by rich historical roots, strategic pressures brought on by the ramp up of the Federal High-Performance Computing and Communications Program, growth of the open software movement, microprocessor performance trends, and the vision of key technologists. This multifaceted story is told here for the first time from the point of view of NASA project management.

  1. Schumpeter's Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    reworking of his basic theory of economic evolution in Development from 1934, and this reworking was continued in Cycles from 1939. Here Schumpeter also tried to handle the statistical and historical evidence on the waveform evolution of the capitalist economy. Capitalism from 1942 modified the model...

  2. Galactic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, B.


    Ideas are considered concerning the evolution of galaxies which are closely related to those of stellar evolution and the origin of elements. Using information obtained from stellar spectra, astronomers are now able to consider an underlying process to explain the distribution of various elements in the stars, gas and dust clouds of the galaxies. (U.K.)

  3. Darwinian evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M.; Spijkerboer, Hendrik Pieter; Koelewijn, Hans Peter


    Darwinian evolution is a central tenet in biology. Conventionally, the defi nition of Darwinian evolution is linked to a population-based process that can be measured by focusing on changes in DNA/allele frequencies. However, in some publications it has been suggested that selection represents a

  4. Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Man's Responsibility to His Future (United States)

    Hoagland, Hudson


    Biological evolution can be carried out in the laboratory. With new knowledge available in genetics, possibilities are raised that genetic characters can be transferred in the future to embryos according to a predetermined plan. (PS)

  5. Integration of root phenes revealed by intensive phenotyping of root system architecture, anatomy, and physiology in cereals (United States)

    York, Larry


    whorls in maize is introduced, and field work demonstrated how the variation within the root crown has functional significance for nitrogen acquisition. Nodal root number was decomposed to more elemental phenes including the number of nodes and the occupancies of each node. Simulations demonstrated that root systems forming fewer nodal roots and with delayed emergence perform well in low nitrogen soils. Nitrate uptake kinetics (NUK) also varied within the maize root system, and simulations showing a lack of interaction between NUK and RSA reflects a knowledge gap in the costs of NUK at the molecular level. Finally, maize RSA among hybrids from different era periods over the past 100 years suggests evolution towards more nitrogen efficient root phene states. This work will be discussed within the context of next-generation root phenotyping of cereals, the dilemma between extensive and intensive phenotyping, and the need for linking across scales and methods.

  6. Parallel Mitogenome Sequencing Alleviates Random Rooting Effect in Phylogeography. (United States)

    Hirase, Shotaro; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Nishida, Mutsumi; Iwasaki, Wataru


    Reliably rooted phylogenetic trees play irreplaceable roles in clarifying diversification in the patterns of species and populations. However, such trees are often unavailable in phylogeographic studies, particularly when the focus is on rapidly expanded populations that exhibit star-like trees. A fundamental bottleneck is known as the random rooting effect, where a distant outgroup tends to root an unrooted tree "randomly." We investigated whether parallel mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequencing alleviates this effect in phylogeography using a case study on the Sea of Japan lineage of the intertidal goby Chaenogobius annularis Eighty-three C. annularis individuals were collected and their mitogenomes were determined by high-throughput and low-cost parallel sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of these mitogenome sequences was conducted to root the Sea of Japan lineage, which has a star-like phylogeny and had not been reliably rooted. The topologies of the bootstrap trees were investigated to determine whether the use of mitogenomes alleviated the random rooting effect. The mitogenome data successfully rooted the Sea of Japan lineage by alleviating the effect, which hindered phylogenetic analysis that used specific gene sequences. The reliable rooting of the lineage led to the discovery of a novel, northern lineage that expanded during an interglacial period with high bootstrap support. Furthermore, the finding of this lineage suggested the existence of additional glacial refugia and provided a new recent calibration point that revised the divergence time estimation between the Sea of Japan and Pacific Ocean lineages. This study illustrates the effectiveness of parallel mitogenome sequencing for solving the random rooting problem in phylogeographic studies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. The Uncanny Valley and Nonverbal Communication in Virtual Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinwell, Angela; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Abdel Nabi, Debbie


    This chapter provides an overview of a current research project investigating the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in realistic, human-like virtual characters. !e research methods used in this Work include a retrospective of both empirical studies and philosophical writings on the Uncanny. No other...... research has explored the notion that realistic, human-like, virtual characters are regarded less favorably due to a perceived diminished degree of responsiveness in facial expression, specifically, nonverbal communication (NVC) in the upper face region. So far, this research project has provided the first...... empirical evidence to test the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in the domain of animated video game characters with speech, as opposed to just still, unresponsive images, as used in previous studies. Based on the results of these experiments, a conceptual framework of the Uncanny Valley in virtual characters has...

  8. Variability and Character Association in F2 Segregating Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 1Department of Horticulture. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University. Gazipur 1706, Bangladesh. ABSTRACT: The F2 segregating generations of exotic tomato hybrids were studied to measure variability, character association and path coefficient analysis.

  9. Perceiving and experiencing fictional characters: an integrative account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.F.; Konijn, E.A.


    Fictional characters (PCs) and mediated persons in literature, theater, film, art, TV, and digital media fulfill basic psychological functions, although the processes involved remain unspecified. Departing from identification and empathy hypotheses, a new context-sensitive model draws upon

  10. Portrayal of Women Characters in Selected Contemporary Yoruba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    women as loving, hardworking, serious-minded and people of dignity and character. ... all the mental or moral qualities that make a person, group, ..... friends' and neighbours' wives. .... So also, money influence and entice women to engage.

  11. Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed irradiation and associated molecular changes. Sonia Mejri, Yassine Mabrouk, Marie Voisin, Philippe Delavault, Philippe Simier, Mouldi Saidi, Omrane Belhadj ...

  12. Two-tier architecture for unconstrained handwritten character ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This approach uses the Kohonen self-organizing neural network for data classification in the ... Traditional classifiers test the ..... Trier O D, Jain A K, Taxt T 1996 Feature extraction methods for character recognition – A survey. Pattern Recogn.

  13. Feminism and Self-Assessertion of Female Characters in Buchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feminism and Self-Assessertion of Female Characters in Buchi Emecheta's Second ... and ideological frame work it directly opposes sexism by supporting gender ... stereotype of women, whereby women are seen as helpless, dependent and ...

  14. Dirichlet Characters, Gauss Sums, and Inverse Z Transform


    Gao, Jing; Liu, Huaning


    A generalized Möbius transform is presented. It is based on Dirichlet characters. A general algorithm is developed to compute the inverse $Z$ transform on the unit circle, and an error estimate is given for the truncated series representation.

  15. 8 CFR 316.10 - Good moral character. (United States)


    ... was not a single offense for simple possession of 30 grams or less of marijuana; (iv) Admits...) Proof of good moral character in certain cases—(1) Effect of probation or parole. An applicant who has...

  16. Young James Madison: His Character and Civic Values. (United States)

    Bennett, William J.


    Examines the life of James Madison, Founding Father and "theoretic statesman." Focuses specifically on Madison's education and character, his friendship with Thomas Jefferson, and his civic legacy: a selfless devotion to republican government and union. (JDH)

  17. Aggression in Sport: Its Implications for Character Building. (United States)

    VanDyke, Roger R.


    The premise that "sports builds character" is scrutinized through a discussion of several contact sports--boxing, hockey, and football. The fine line between assertiveness and aggression is explored, and the interrelationship between society and sports is investigated. (JN)

  18. Beyond the Story Map: Inferential Comprehension via Character Perspective (United States)

    McTigue, Erin; Douglass, April; Wright, Katherine L.; Hodges, Tracey S.; Franks, Amanda D.


    Inferential comprehension requires both emotional intelligence and cognitive skills, however instructional comprehension strategies typically underemphasize the emotional contribution. This article documents an intervention used by diverse third grade students which centers on teaching story comprehension through character perspective-taking…

  19. The tragicomic realisation of life and destiny of Kocic's characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleša Biljana S.


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the collective identity of the characters of Kocic's prose. It examines the archetypal traits, oddify, originality and impressiveness of these unique characters in Serbian literature as well as the presence of collective memory, the awareness of one self and the others, historical, social and economic circumstances that surround Kocic's heroes. Looking back at the elements of the creative process, the artist's motivation and the presence of the tragical and the comical can be singled out. The characters of Simeun Djak, David Strbac, Mracajski prota, Relja Knezevic have been analyzed, and a short review of the female characters is given. Revealing the extent to which the creativity of Petar Kocic coincides with the elements of history, psychology, sociology and anthropogeography, a literary-scientific thought on his work gets completed and the versality to approach to the reading is allowed.

  20. Character, Social-Emotional, and Academic Outcomes among Underachieving Elementary School Students (United States)

    Grier, Leslie K.


    One purpose of this research was to examine the psychometric properties of a character assessment scale (the Character Assessment for School Age Children; CASAC) based on 6 pillars of character (Josephson Institute, 2009). Many youth development and character education programs utilize some, if not all, of the pillars of character explicitly or…

  1. The Proximate Unit in Chinese Handwritten Character Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Yeu eChen


    Full Text Available In spoken word production, a proximate unit is the first phonological unit at the sublexical level that is selectable for production (O’Seaghdha, Chen, & Chen, 2010. The present study investigated whether the proximate unit in Chinese handwritten word production is the stroke, the radical, or something in between. A written version of the form preparation task was adopted. Chinese participants learned sets of two-character words, later were cued with the first character of each word, and had to write down the second character (the target. Response times were measured from the onset of a cue character to the onset of a written response. In Experiment 1, the target characters within a block shared (homogeneous or did not share (heterogeneous the first stroke. In Experiment 2, the first two strokes were shared in the homogeneous blocks. Response times in the homogeneous blocks and in the heterogeneous blocks were comparable in both experiments (Exp. 1: 687 ms vs. 684 ms, Exp. 2: 717 vs. 716. In Experiment 3 and 4, the target characters within a block shared or did not share the first radical. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 3: 685 vs. 704, Exp. 4: 594 vs. 650. In Experiment 5 and 6, the shared component was a Gestalt-like form that is more than a stroke, constitutes a portion of the target character, can be a stand-alone character itself, can be a radical of another character but is not a radical of the target character (e.g., 士in聲, 鼓, 穀, 款; called a logographeme. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 5: 576 vs. 625, Exp. 6: 586 vs. 620. These results suggest a model of Chinese handwritten character production in which the stroke is not a functional unit, the radical plays the role of a morpheme, and the logographeme is the proximate unit.

  2. On basic projective characters of rotation subgroups of Weyl groups of types D6 and D1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikunji, J.C.


    The projective representations of the rotation subgroup W + (Φ) have been determined from those of W(Φ) for each root system Φ. This is done by constructing non-trivial central extensions of W + (Φ) via the double coverings of the rotation groups SO(l). This adaptation gives a unified way of obtaining the basic projective representations of W + (Φ) from those of W(Φ). In particular, formulae giving irreducible characters of these representations are explicitly determined in each case. (author). 19 refs, 2 tabs

  3. Genus-two characters of the Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Koh, I.G.


    As a first step in studying conformal theories on a higher-genus Riemann surface, we construct genus-two characters of the Ising model from their behavior in zero- and nonzero-homology pinching limits, the Goddard-Kent-Oliveco set-space construction, and the branching coefficients in the level-two A 1 /sup (1)/ Kac-Moody characters on the higher-genus Riemann surface

  4. Language Empowering in Character Building (Pemberdayaan Bahasa dalam Pembentukan Karakter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamsinah Kamsinah


    Full Text Available Character building is the most important thing to do as it is a striving system which underly behavior (Freud.  Even more, good character is more to be praised than outstanding talent. Most talents are to some extent a gift. Good character, however, is not given to us. we have to build it peace by peace by thought, choice, courage, and determination.  So important it is that it is said that  if there is no more character every thing is lost (Mahatma Gandhi. The best way to build it is  to develop   the function of all  individual potential,  including cognitive, affective,  and psychomotoric aspects simultanously in the context of socio-cultural interaction (in family, in  school, and in society. Character  is gained by nature and nurture. It can be done begin from the golden age to the old one through the three character building components: moral knowing, moral feeling, and moral action as suggested by Lickona. They make it possible since human beings, as  the best-formed creature of all, are the ones and the only creature posessing culture, and that,  they can educate and be educated in terms of   the model of  person of character.  Everybody must have character. Therefore,  to apply Lickona’s,  one must  empower her/his language, in which  she/he/ perform her/his competence in using language creativity (Chomsky in   both ordinary  and literary language. In this case, Buginese language is used as the sample.



    LIU Ying; HAN Yan-bin; ZHANG Yu-lin


    In the paper, we combined DSP processor with image processing algorithm and studied the method of water meter character recognition. We collected water meter image through camera at a fixed angle, and the projection method is used to recognize those digital images. The experiment results show that the method can recognize the meter characters accurately and artificial meter reading is replaced by automatic digital recognition, which improves working efficiency.

  6. Javanese Character Feature Extraction Based on Shape Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galih Hendra Wibowo


    Full Text Available Javanese character is one of Indonesia's noble culture, especially in Java. However, the number of Javanese people who are able to read the letter has decreased so that there need to be conservation efforts in the form of a system that is able to recognize the characters. One solution to these problem lies in Optical Character Recognition (OCR studies, where one of its heaviest points lies in feature extraction which is to distinguish each character. Shape Energy is one of feature extraction method with the basic idea of how the character can be distinguished simply through its skeleton. Based on the basic idea, then the development of feature extraction is done based on its components to produce an angular histogram with various variations of multiples angle. Furthermore, the performance test of this method and its basic method is performed in Javanese character dataset, which has been obtained from various images, is 240 data with 19 labels by using K-Nearest Neighbors as its classification method. Performance values were obtained based on the accuracy which is generated through the Cross-Validation process of 80.83% in the angular histogram with an angle of 20 degrees, 23% better than Shape Energy. In addition, other test results show that this method is able to recognize rotated character with the lowest performance value of 86% at 180-degree rotation and the highest performance value of 96.97% at 90-degree rotation. It can be concluded that this method is able to improve the performance of Shape Energy in the form of recognition of Javanese characters as well as robust to the rotation.

  7. Apology Strategies Performed By Main Characters In Perahu Kertas Novel




    Keywords: speech act, apology strategies, Perahu Kertas novel Apology is a part of human communication to maintain good relations between people or to restore harmony. The writer conducted a research on apology strategies in Bahasa Indonesia, by analyzing a novel entitled Perahu Kertas. In this study, there are two problems to be solved: (1) What apology strategies are performed by main characters in Perahu Kertas novel, and (2) How is the act of apologizing upgraded by main characters in Per...

  8. Systematic review of character development and childhood chronic illness. (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Hill, Sherika N


    To review empirical evidence on character development among youth with chronic illnesses. A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and PSYCHINFO from inception until November 2013 to find quantitative studies that measured character strengths among youth with chronic illnesses. Inclusion criteria were limited to English language studies examining constructs of character development among adolescents or young adults aged 13-24 years with a childhood-onset chronic medical condition. A librarian at Duke University Medical Center Library assisted with the development of the mesh search term. Two researchers independently reviewed relevant titles (n = 549), then abstracts (n = 45), and finally manuscripts (n = 3). There is a lack of empirical research on character development and childhood-onset chronic medical conditions. Three studies were identified that used different measures of character based on moral themes. One study examined moral reasoning among deaf adolescents using Kohlberg's Moral Judgement Instrument; another, investigated moral values of adolescent cancer survivors with the Values In Action Classification of Strengths. A third study evaluated moral behavior among young adult survivors of burn injury utilizing the Tennessee Self-Concept, 2(nd) edition. The studies observed that youth with chronic conditions reasoned at less advanced stages and had a lower moral self-concept compared to referent populations, but that they did differ on character virtues and strengths when matched with healthy peers for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Yet, generalizations could not be drawn regarding character development of youth with chronic medical conditions because the studies were too divergent from each other and biased from study design limitations. Future empirical studies should learn from the strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature on character development among youth with chronic medical conditions.

  9. Systematic review of character development and childhood chronic illness (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Hill, Sherika N


    AIM: To review empirical evidence on character development among youth with chronic illnesses. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and PSYCHINFO from inception until November 2013 to find quantitative studies that measured character strengths among youth with chronic illnesses. Inclusion criteria were limited to English language studies examining constructs of character development among adolescents or young adults aged 13-24 years with a childhood-onset chronic medical condition. A librarian at Duke University Medical Center Library assisted with the development of the mesh search term. Two researchers independently reviewed relevant titles (n = 549), then abstracts (n = 45), and finally manuscripts (n = 3). RESULTS: There is a lack of empirical research on character development and childhood-onset chronic medical conditions. Three studies were identified that used different measures of character based on moral themes. One study examined moral reasoning among deaf adolescents using Kohlberg’s Moral Judgement Instrument; another, investigated moral values of adolescent cancer survivors with the Values In Action Classification of Strengths. A third study evaluated moral behavior among young adult survivors of burn injury utilizing the Tennessee Self-Concept, 2nd edition. The studies observed that youth with chronic conditions reasoned at less advanced stages and had a lower moral self-concept compared to referent populations, but that they did differ on character virtues and strengths when matched with healthy peers for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Yet, generalizations could not be drawn regarding character development of youth with chronic medical conditions because the studies were too divergent from each other and biased from study design limitations. CONCLUSION: Future empirical studies should learn from the strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature on character development among youth with chronic medical conditions

  10. Glyph Identification and Character Recognition for Sindhi OCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A computer can read and write multiple languages and today?s computers are capable of understanding various human languages. A computer can be given instructions through various input methods but OCR (Optical Character Recognition and handwritten character recognition are the input methods in which a scanned page containing text is converted into written or editable text. The change in language text available on scanned page demands different algorithm to recognize text because every language and script pose varying number of challenges to recognize text. The Latin language recognition pose less difficulties compared to Arabic script and languages that use Arabic script for writing and OCR systems for these Latin languages are near to perfection. Very little work has been done on regional languages of Pakistan. In this paper the Sindhi glyphs are identified and the number of characters and connected components are identified for this regional language of Pakistan. A graphical user interface has been created to perform identification task for glyphs and characters of Sindhi language. The glyphs of characters are successfully identified from scanned page and this information can be used to recognize characters. The language glyph identification can be used to apply suitable algorithm to identify language as well as to achieve a higher recognition rate.

  11. Effect of refractive error on temperament and character properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emine; Kalkan; Akcay; Fatih; Canan; Huseyin; Simavli; Derya; Dal; Hacer; Yalniz; Nagihan; Ugurlu; Omer; Gecici; Nurullah; Cagil


    AIM: To determine the effect of refractive error on temperament and character properties using Cloninger’s psychobiological model of personality.METHODS: Using the Temperament and Character Inventory(TCI), the temperament and character profiles of 41 participants with refractive errors(17 with myopia,12 with hyperopia, and 12 with myopic astigmatism) were compared to those of 30 healthy control participants.Here, temperament comprised the traits of novelty seeking, harm-avoidance, and reward dependence, while character comprised traits of self-directedness,cooperativeness, and self-transcendence.RESULTS: Participants with refractive error showed significantly lower scores on purposefulness,cooperativeness, empathy, helpfulness, and compassion(P <0.05, P <0.01, P <0.05, P <0.05, and P <0.01,respectively).CONCLUSION: Refractive error might have a negative influence on some character traits, and different types of refractive error might have different temperament and character properties. These personality traits may be implicated in the onset and/or perpetuation of refractive errors and may be a productive focus for psychotherapy.

  12. Brain Activity while Reading Sentences with Kanji Characters Expressing Emotions (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activity associated with kanji characters expressing emotion, which are places at the end of a sentence. Japanese people use a special kanji character in brackets at the end of sentences in text messages such as those sent through e-mail and messenger tools. Such kanji characters plays a role to expresses the sender's emotion (such as fun, laughter, sadness, tears), like emoticons. It is a very simple and effective way to convey the senders' emotions and his/her thoughts to the receiver. In this research, we investigate the effects of emotional kanji characters by using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that both the right and left inferior frontal gyrus, which have been implicated on verbal and nonverbal information, were activated. We found that we detect a sentence with an emotional kanji character as the verbal and nonverval information, and a sentence with emotional kanji characters enrich communication between the sender and the reciever.

  13. Temperament, Character, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Focusing on Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia


    Full Text Available Positive (PA and negative affect (NA are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA. The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (=304 were categorized into four affective profiles: “self-fulfilling” (high PA, low NA, “high affective” (high PA, high NA, “low affective” (low PA, low NA, and “self-destructive” (low PA, high NA. Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The “self-fulfilling” profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness. “Self-destructive” adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development.

  14. Efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on network approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Yan

    Full Text Available We develop an efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on the network of the hierarchical structural relations between Chinese characters. A more efficient strategy is that of learning the same number of useful Chinese characters in less effort or time. We construct a node-weighted network of Chinese characters, where character usage frequencies are used as node weights. Using this hierarchical node-weighted network, we propose a new learning method, the distributed node weight (DNW strategy, which is based on a new measure of nodes' importance that considers both the weight of the nodes and its location in the network hierarchical structure. Chinese character learning strategies, particularly their learning order, are analyzed as dynamical processes over the network. We compare the efficiency of three theoretical learning methods and two commonly used methods from mainstream Chinese textbooks, one for Chinese elementary school students and the other for students learning Chinese as a second language. We find that the DNW method significantly outperforms the others, implying that the efficiency of current learning methods of major textbooks can be greatly improved.

  15. Research of Simulation in Character Animation Based on Physics Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu


    Full Text Available Computer 3D character animation essentially is a product, which is combined with computer graphics and robotics, physics, mathematics, and the arts. It is based on computer hardware and graphics algorithms and related sciences rapidly developed new technologies. At present, the mainstream character animation technology is based on the artificial production of key technologies and capture frames based on the motion capture device technology. 3D character animation is widely used not only in the production of film, animation, and other commercial areas but also in virtual reality, computer-aided education, flight simulation, engineering simulation, military simulation, and other fields. In this paper, we try to study physics based character animation to solve these problems such as poor real-time interaction that appears in the character, low utilization rate, and complex production. The paper deeply studied the kinematics, dynamics technology, and production technology based on the motion data. At the same time, it analyzed ODE, PhysX, Bullet, and other variety of mainstream physics engines and studied OBB hierarchy bounding box tree, AABB hierarchical tree, and other collision detection algorithms. Finally, character animation based on ODE is implemented, which is simulation of the motion and collision process of a tricycle.

  16. The Roots and Evolution of the Royal Australian Navy (United States)


    place, the Indonesian- Malaysian Confrontation began. This low level guerrilla-style 21 United Nations Department of...responsible for helping the Malaysian government defend its sovereignty. The United States viewed this action as the responsibility of the expected that Australia will be less emotional than other countries about a possible pandemic of avian bird flu, and will likely be among the

  17. Symbiosis of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Robinia pseudoacacia L. Improves Root Tensile Strength and Soil Aggregate Stability. (United States)

    Zhang, Haoqiang; Liu, Zhenkun; Chen, Hui; Tang, Ming


    Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust) is a widely planted tree species on Loess Plateau for revegetation. Due to its symbiosis forming capability with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, we explored the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant biomass, root morphology, root tensile strength and soil aggregate stability in a pot experiment. We inoculated R. pseudoacacia with/without AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis or Glomus versiforme), and measured root colonization, plant growth, root morphological characters, root tensile force and tensile strength, and parameters for soil aggregate stability at twelve weeks after inoculation. AM fungi colonized more than 70% plant root, significantly improved plant growth. Meanwhile, AM fungi elevated root morphological parameters, root tensile force, root tensile strength, Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) content in soil, and parameters for soil aggregate stability such as water stable aggregate (WSA), mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD). Root length was highly correlated with WSA, MWD and GMD, while hyphae length was highly correlated with GRSP content. The improved R. pseudoacacia growth, root tensile strength and soil aggregate stability indicated that AM fungi could accelerate soil fixation and stabilization with R. pseudoacacia, and its function in revegetation on Loess Plateau deserves more attention.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Cetin, M. Arif Kamal


    Full Text Available This paper elucidates the emergence and evolution of arabesque with specific reference to  the case of arabesque in Turkish art and architecture. It is argued here that arabesque is a fusion of styles rather than a pure and homogenous style. Furthermore, the paper aims to show that although the arabesque style appears to be a fanciful and freely organized manner of artistic treatment it is based on a very complex mathematical logic which is expressed through abstractionism. In this context, the grammar of geometry is elaborately used in the  implementation  of abstraction. Here, general characteristics as well as different modes or  types  of arabesque are discussed. Starting with the etymological roots of the term, the  history of its use in the literature  is  explored  through  the  paper. After  the  inquiry  of  its  material  and  pragmatic  aspects,  the development of the arabesque style is evaluated with regard to its transformations that took place along with its injection to Anatolia and mixing with Turkish culture. Finally, the morphological character of this fusion is put forward.   Keyword: Morphological character, geometry, fusion of styles, arabesque

  19. ROOT Tutorial for Summer Students

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Piparo, Danilo


    ROOT is a "batteries-included" tool kit for data analysis, storage and visualization. It is widely used in High Energy Physics and other disciplines such as Biology, Finance and Astrophysics. This event is an introductory tutorial to ROOT and comprises a front lecture and hands on exercises. IMPORTANT NOTE: The tutorial is based on ROOT 6.04 and NOT on the ROOT5 series.  IMPORTANT NOTE: if you have ROOT 6.04 installed on your laptop, you will not need to install any virtual machine. The instructions showing how to install the virtual machine on which you can find ROOT 6.04 can be found under "Material" on this page.

  20. Removal of root filling materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.


    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  1. Properties of estimated characteristic roots


    Bent Nielsen; Heino Bohn Nielsen


    Estimated characteristic roots in stationary autoregressions are shown to give rather noisy information about their population equivalents. This is remarkable given the central role of the characteristic roots in the theory of autoregressive processes. In the asymptotic analysis the problems appear when multiple roots are present as this implies a non-differentiablity so the δ-method does not apply, convergence rates are slow, and the asymptotic distribution is non-normal. In finite samples ...

  2. Stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J


    Stellar Evolution, Second Edition covers the significant advances in the understanding of birth, life, and death of stars.This book is divided into nine chapters and begins with a description of the characteristics of stars according to their brightness, distance, size, mass, age, and chemical composition. The next chapters deal with the families, structure, and birth of stars. These topics are followed by discussions of the chemical composition and the evolution of main-sequence stars. A chapter focuses on the unique features of the sun as a star, including its evolution, magnetic fields, act

  3. STRIDE: Species Tree Root Inference from Gene Duplication Events. (United States)

    Emms, David M; Kelly, Steven


    The correct interpretation of any phylogenetic tree is dependent on that tree being correctly rooted. We present STRIDE, a fast, effective, and outgroup-free method for identification of gene duplication events and species tree root inference in large-scale molecular phylogenetic analyses. STRIDE identifies sets of well-supported in-group gene duplication events from a set of unrooted gene trees, and analyses these events to infer a probability distribution over an unrooted species tree for the location of its root. We show that STRIDE correctly identifies the root of the species tree in multiple large-scale molecular phylogenetic data sets spanning a wide range of timescales and taxonomic groups. We demonstrate that the novel probability model implemented in STRIDE can accurately represent the ambiguity in species tree root assignment for data sets where information is limited. Furthermore, application of STRIDE to outgroup-free inference of the origin of the eukaryotic tree resulted in a root probability distribution that provides additional support for leading hypotheses for the origin of the eukaryotes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Explaining evolution via constrained persistent perfect phylogeny (United States)


    Background The perfect phylogeny is an often used model in phylogenetics since it provides an efficient basic procedure for representing the evolution of genomic binary characters in several frameworks, such as for example in haplotype inference. The model, which is conceptually the simplest, is based on the infinite sites assumption, that is no character can mutate more than once in the whole tree. A main open problem regarding the model is finding generalizations that retain the computational tractability of the original model but are more flexible in modeling biological data when the infinite site assumption is violated because of e.g. back mutations. A special case of back mutations that has been considered in the study of the evolution of protein domains (where a domain is acquired and then lost) is persistency, that is the fact that a character is allowed to return back to the ancestral state. In this model characters can be gained and lost at most once. In this paper we consider the computational problem of explaining binary data by the Persistent Perfect Phylogeny model (referred as PPP) and for this purpose we investigate the problem of reconstructing an evolution where some constraints are imposed on the paths of the tree. Results We define a natural generalization of the PPP problem obtained by requiring that for some pairs (character, species), neither the species nor any of its ancestors can have the character. In other words, some characters cannot be persistent for some species. This new problem is called Constrained PPP (CPPP). Based on a graph formulation of the CPPP problem, we are able to provide a polynomial time solution for the CPPP problem for matrices whose conflict graph has no edges. Using this result, we develop a parameterized algorithm for solving the CPPP problem where the parameter is the number of characters. Conclusions A preliminary experimental analysis shows that the constrained persistent perfect phylogeny model allows to

  5. Proteomics of Maize Root Development. (United States)

    Hochholdinger, Frank; Marcon, Caroline; Baldauf, Jutta A; Yu, Peng; Frey, Felix P


    Maize forms a complex root system with structurally and functionally diverse root types that are formed at different developmental stages to extract water and mineral nutrients from soil. In recent years proteomics has been intensively applied to identify proteins involved in shaping the three-dimensional architecture and regulating the function of the maize root system. With the help of developmental mutants, proteomic changes during the initiation and emergence of shoot-borne, lateral and seminal roots have been examined. Furthermore, root hairs were surveyed to understand the proteomic changes during the elongation of these single cell type structures. In addition, primary roots have been used to study developmental changes of the proteome but also to investigate the proteomes of distinct tissues such as the meristematic zone, the elongation zone as well as stele and cortex of the differentiation zone. Moreover, subcellular fractions of the primary root including cell walls, plasma membranes and secreted mucilage have been analyzed. Finally, the superior vigor of hybrid seedling roots compared to their parental inbred lines was studied on the proteome level. In summary, these studies provide novel insights into the complex proteomic interactions of the elaborate maize root system during development.

  6. Proteomics of Maize Root Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hochholdinger


    Full Text Available Maize forms a complex root system with structurally and functionally diverse root types that are formed at different developmental stages to extract water and mineral nutrients from soil. In recent years proteomics has been intensively applied to identify proteins involved in shaping the three-dimensional architecture and regulating the function of the maize root system. With the help of developmental mutants, proteomic changes during the initiation and emergence of shoot-borne, lateral and seminal roots have been examined. Furthermore, root hairs were surveyed to understand the proteomic changes during the elongation of these single cell type structures. In addition, primary roots have been used to study developmental changes of the proteome but also to investigate the proteomes of distinct tissues such as the meristematic zone, the elongation zone as well as stele and cortex of the differentiation zone. Moreover, subcellular fractions of the primary root including cell walls, plasma membranes and secreted mucilage have been analyzed. Finally, the superior vigor of hybrid seedling roots compared to their parental inbred lines was studied on the proteome level. In summary, these studies provide novel insights into the complex proteomic interactions of the elaborate maize root system during development.

  7. UPGMA and the normalized equidistant minimum evolution problem


    Moulton, Vincent; Spillner, Andreas; Wu, Taoyang


    UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) is a widely used clustering method. Here we show that UPGMA is a greedy heuristic for the normalized equidistant minimum evolution (NEME) problem, that is, finding a rooted tree that minimizes the minimum evolution score relative to the dissimilarity matrix among all rooted trees with the same leaf-set in which all leaves have the same distance to the root. We prove that the NEME problem is NP-hard. In addition, we present some heurist...

  8. Back to the roots!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas


    This article argues that one can revive the critical edge that postmodernist theory has brought to marketing, thinking without subscribing to any particular school of (critical) theory by following the principle of methodological situationalism. The roots of postmodernist critique lie in careful...... empirical observation of how social reality is being constructed in local contexts. Because knowledge, subjects, power, and value are social accomplishments, they are neither fixed nor without alternative. Many key developments in marketing theory such as assemblage theory, practice and consumer tribes...... of social order into account, hence fail to provide sensible insight. I propose the principle of methodological situationalism as a litmus test to the analytical strength of a theory or piece of research. The principle states that theoretically adequate accounts of social phenomena must be grounded...

  9. Radiographing roots and shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariffah Noor Khamseah Al Idid


    The effect of seed orientation on germination time and on shoot and root growth patterns is studied. Neutron radiography is used to observe the development of 4 types of plants, maize, greenpea, soya bean and padi. These plants were grown in varying orientations; sand sizes, sand thicknesses, and level of water content. Radiography of the seeds and plants were obtained for time exposure ranging from 3-12 hours and at reactor thermal power level, ranging from 500-750 kilowatts. Results obtained showed that seeds planted in varying orientations need different length of time for shoot emergence. Neutron radiography is now developed to other areas of non-industrial applications in Malaysia. (A.J.)

  10. Osmolarity and root canal antiseptics. (United States)

    Rossi-Fedele, G; Guastalli, A R


    Antiseptics used in endodontics for disinfection purposes include root canal dressings and irrigants. Osmotic shock is known to cause the alteration of microbial cell viability and might have a role in the mechanism of action of root canal antiseptics. The aim of this review was to determine the role of osmolarity on the performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment. A literature search using the Medline electronic database was conducted up to 30 May 2013 using the following search terms and combinations: 'osmolarity AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmolality AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmotic AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmosis AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; sodium chloride AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm'. Publications were included if the effects of osmolarity on the clinical performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment were stated, if preparations with different osmolarities values were compared and if they were published in English. A hand search of articles published online, 'in press' and 'early view', and in the reference list of the included papers was carried out following the same criteria. A total of 3274 publications were identified using the database, and three were included in the review. The evidence available in endodontics suggests a possible role for hyperosmotic root canal medicaments as disinfectants, and that there is no influence of osmolarity on the tissue dissolution capacity of sodium hypochlorite. There are insufficient data to obtain a sound conclusion regarding the role of hypo-osmosis in root canal disinfection, or osmosis in any further desirable

  11. Root systems of chaparral shrubs. (United States)

    Kummerow, Jochen; Krause, David; Jow, William


    Root systems of chaparral shrubs were excavated from a 70 m 2 plot of a mixed chaparral stand located on a north-facing slope in San Diego County (32°54' N; 900 m above sea level). The main shrub species present were Adenostoma fasciculatum, Arctostaphylos pungens, Ceanothus greggii, Erigonum fasciculatum, and Haplopappus pinifolius. Shrubs were wired into their positions, and the soil was washed out beneath them down to a depth of approximately 60 cm, where impenetrable granite impeded further washing and root growth was severely restricted. Spacing and interweaving of root systems were recorded by an in-scale drawing. The roots were harvested in accordance to their depths, separated into diameter size classes for each species, and their dry weights measured. Roots of shrubs were largely confined to the upper soil levels. The roots of Eriogonum fasciculatum were concentrated in the upper soil layer. Roots of Adenostoma fasciculatum tended to be more superficial than those from Ceanothus greggii. It is hypothesized that the shallow soil at the excavation site impeded a clear depth zonation of the different root systems. The average dry weight root:shoot ratio was 0.6, ranging for the individual shrubs from 0.8 to 0.4. The root area always exceeded the shoot area, with the corresponding ratios ranging from 6 for Arctostaphylos pungens to 40 for Haplopappus pinifolius. The fine root density of 64 g dry weight per m 2 under the canopy was significantly higher than in the unshaded area. However, the corresponding value of 45 g dry weight per m 2 for the open ground is still high enough to make the establishment of other shrubs difficult.

  12. Phylogeny of Maculinea blues (Lepidoptera : Lycaenidae) based on morphological and ecological characters: evolution of parasitic myrmecophily

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pech, P.; Fric, Zdeněk; Konvička, Martin; Zrzavý, Jan


    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2004), s. 362-375 ISSN 0748-3007 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GD206/03/H034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Host-plant specialization * myrmica and nests Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.414, year: 2004

  13. Phylogeny and character evolution in the bee-assassins (Insecta: Heteroptera: Reduviidae). (United States)

    Forero, D; Berniker, L; Weirauch, C


    Apiomerus, the charismatic bee-assassins (>108 spp.), belong to the New World resin bugs in the harpactorine tribe Apiomerini (12 extant genera) that is characterized by a novel predation strategy, resin trap predation. Apiomerini also exhibit striking genitalic diversity that has shaped subgeneric classifications within the genus Apiomerus and females of some species of Apiomerus are known to engage in unique maternal care behaviors. The lack of a phylogenetic framework currently hinders evolutionary interpretations of genitalic morphology and maternal care. We here present a molecular phylogeny based on 4, 477 bp of six ribosomal and protein coding genes and 95 terminal taxa using parsimony and maximum likelihood approaches as a way of addressing these shortcomings. Apiomerini are monophyletic, with Heniartes being the sistergroup to all remaining taxa that form the monophyletic Manicocoris (Calliclopius, Manicocoris, Micrauchenus, and Ponerobia) and Apiomerus (Agriocoris, Apiomerus, and Sphodrolestes) clades. Previously proposed subgeneric groups are polyphyletic, but several proposed species groups are recovered as monophyletic. Ancestral state reconstruction of the metatibial comb indicates that this structure evolved in the ancestor of all Apiomerini where it was present in males and in females; it became strongly sexually dimorphic (better developed in females than in males) in the Apiomerus clade (Apiomerus + Agriocoris + Sphodrolestes). Genitalic features reveal a pattern of homoplasy, but frequently are nonetheless useful to diagnose supraspecific groups within Apiomerus. The complex genitalia found within Apiomerus are derived for that clade. We conclude that, using the metatibial comb as a proxy, maternal care is relatively common in the tribe Apiomerini and propose that it likely evolved at the base of the Apiomerus clade if not at the base of Apiomerini. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The dark cube: dark and light character profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia


    Full Text Available Background. Research addressing distinctions and similarities between people’s malevolent character traits (i.e., the Dark Triad: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy has detected inconsistent linear associations to temperament traits. Additionally, these dark traits seem to have a common core expressed as uncooperativeness. Hence, some researchers suggest that the dark traits are best represented as one global construct (i.e., the unification argument rather than as ternary construct (i.e., the uniqueness argument. We put forward the dark cube (cf. Cloninger’s character cube comprising eight dark profiles that can be used to compare individuals who differ in one dark character trait while holding the other two constant. Our aim was to investigate in which circumstances individuals who are high in each one of the dark character traits differ in Cloninger’s “light” character traits: self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence. We also investigated if people’s dark character profiles were associated to their light character profiles. Method. A total of 997 participants recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk responded to the Short Dark Triad and the Short Character Inventory. Participants were allocated to eight different dark profiles and eight light profiles based on their scores in each of the traits and any possible combination of high and low scores. We used three-way interaction regression analyses and t-tests to investigate differences in light character traits between individuals with different dark profiles. As a second step, we compared the individuals’ dark profile with her/his character profile using an exact cell-wise analysis conducted in the ROPstat software ( Results. Individuals who expressed high levels of Machiavellianism and those who expressed high levels of psychopathy also expressed low self-directedness and low cooperativeness. Individuals with high

  15. Optical character recognition of handwritten Arabic using hidden Markov models (United States)

    Aulama, Mohannad M.; Natsheh, Asem M.; Abandah, Gheith A.; Olama, Mohammed M.


    The problem of optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten Arabic has not received a satisfactory solution yet. In this paper, an Arabic OCR algorithm is developed based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) combined with the Viterbi algorithm, which results in an improved and more robust recognition of characters at the sub-word level. Integrating the HMMs represents another step of the overall OCR trends being currently researched in the literature. The proposed approach exploits the structure of characters in the Arabic language in addition to their extracted features to achieve improved recognition rates. Useful statistical information of the Arabic language is initially extracted and then used to estimate the probabilistic parameters of the mathematical HMM. A new custom implementation of the HMM is developed in this study, where the transition matrix is built based on the collected large corpus, and the emission matrix is built based on the results obtained via the extracted character features. The recognition process is triggered using the Viterbi algorithm which employs the most probable sequence of sub-words. The model was implemented to recognize the sub-word unit of Arabic text raising the recognition rate from being linked to the worst recognition rate for any character to the overall structure of the Arabic language. Numerical results show that there is a potentially large recognition improvement by using the proposed algorithms.

  16. Distributional Similarity for Chinese: Exploiting Characters and Radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jin


    Full Text Available Distributional Similarity has attracted considerable attention in the field of natural language processing as an automatic means of countering the ubiquitous problem of sparse data. As a logographic language, Chinese words consist of characters and each of them is composed of one or more radicals. The meanings of characters are usually highly related to the words which contain them. Likewise, radicals often make a predictable contribution to the meaning of a character: characters that have the same components tend to have similar or related meanings. In this paper, we utilize these properties of the Chinese language to improve Chinese word similarity computation. Given a content word, we first extract similar words based on a large corpus and a similarity score for ranking. This rank is then adjusted according to the characters and components shared between the similar word and the target word. Experiments on two gold standard datasets show that the adjusted rank is superior and closer to human judgments than the original rank. In addition to quantitative evaluation, we examine the reasons behind errors drawing on linguistic phenomena for our explanations.

  17. On defining a unique phylogenetic tree with homoplastic characters. (United States)

    Goloboff, Pablo A; Wilkinson, Mark


    This paper discusses the problem of whether creating a matrix with all the character state combinations that have a fixed number of steps (or extra steps) on a given tree T, produces the same tree T when analyzed with maximum parsimony or maximum likelihood. Exhaustive enumeration of cases up to 20 taxa for binary characters, and up to 12 taxa for 4-state characters, shows that the same tree is recovered (as unique most likely or most parsimonious tree) as long as the number of extra steps is within 1/4 of the number of taxa. This dependence, 1/4 of the number of taxa, is discussed with a general argumentation, in terms of the spread of the character changes on the tree used to select character state distributions. The present finding allows creating matrices which have as much homoplasy as possible for the most parsimonious or likely tree to be predictable, and examination of these matrices with hill-climbing search algorithms provides additional evidence on the (lack of a) necessary relationship between homoplasy and the ability of search methods to find optimal trees. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Character convergence under competition for nutritionally essential resources. (United States)

    Fox, Jeremy W; Vasseur, David A


    Resource competition is thought to drive divergence in resource use traits (character displacement) by generating selection favoring individuals able to use resources unavailable to others. However, this picture assumes nutritionally substitutable resources (e.g., different prey species). When species compete for nutritionally essential resources (e.g., different nutrients), theory predicts that selection drives character convergence. We used models of two species competing for two essential resources to address several issues not considered by existing theory. The models incorporated either slow evolutionary change in resource use traits or fast physiological or behavioral change. We report four major results. First, competition always generates character convergence, but differences in resource requirements prevent competitors from evolving identical resource use traits. Second, character convergence promotes coexistence. Competing species always attain resource use traits that allow coexistence, and adaptive trait change stabilizes the ecological equilibrium. In contrast, adaptation in allopatry never preadapts species to coexist in sympatry. Third, feedbacks between ecological dynamics and trait dynamics lead to surprising dynamical trajectories such as transient divergence in resource use traits followed by subsequent convergence. Fourth, under sufficiently slow trait change, ecological dynamics often drive one of the competitors to near extinction, which would prevent realization of long-term character convergence in practice.

  19. [Root resorption and orthodontic treatment]. (United States)

    Sebbar, M; Bourzgui, F


    The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of root resorption during and at the end of orthodontic treatment and to assess its relationship with age, sex and treatment with or without extractions. Our study included 82 patients (51 women and 31 men) aged between 6 and 38 years, who received orthodontic treatment. Evaluation of root resorption was performed on panoramics at the beginning and at the end of orthodontic treatment. All the teeth were observed. The degree of root resorption was increased respectively by the standards in four ordinal levels (4). Data analysis was performed by Epi Info 6.0. Root resorption was present in all the teeth and maxillary incisors are the most affected. The correlation between age and root resorption was significant (p = 0.008). Women were more affected by resorption (P = 0.002). Patients treated with extraction showed more root resorption (p = 0.12). Our results suggest that orthodontic treatment is involved in the development of root resorption. The most often teeth resorbed are maxillary incisors. Age, sex and orthodontic extractions can be considered as risk factors for root resorption.

  20. Searching for Roots / Pierre Gervasoni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gervasoni, Pierre


    Uuest heliplaadist "Searching for Roots. Eduard Tubin: Symphonie no 11; Arvo Pärt: Nekrolog-Symphonie no 1; Erkki-Sven Tüür: Searching for Roots - Insula deserta - Zeitraum; Orchestre philharmonique royal de Stockholm, Paavo Järvi (direction)" Virgin Classics 5 45212 2 (distribue par EMI)

  1. Stasis and convergence characterize morphological evolution in eupolypod II ferns. (United States)

    Sundue, Michael A; Rothfels, Carl J


    Patterns of morphological evolution at levels above family rank remain underexplored in the ferns. The present study seeks to address this gap through analysis of 79 morphological characters for 81 taxa, including representatives of all ten families of eupolypod II ferns. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies demonstrate that the evolution of the large eupolypod II clade (which includes nearly one-third of extant fern species) features unexpected patterns. The traditional 'athyrioid' ferns are scattered across the phylogeny despite their apparent morphological cohesiveness, and mixed among these seemingly conservative taxa are morphologically dissimilar groups that lack any obvious features uniting them with their relatives. Maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony character optimizations are used to determine characters that unite the seemingly disparate groups, and to test whether the polyphyly of the traditional athyrioid ferns is due to evolutionary stasis (symplesiomorphy) or convergent evolution. The major events in eupolypod II character evolution are reviewed, and character and character state concepts are reappraised, as a basis for further inquiries into fern morphology. Characters were scored from the literature, live plants and herbarium specimens, and optimized using maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood, onto a highly supported topology derived from maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analysis of molecular data. Phylogenetic signal of characters were tested for using randomization methods and fitdiscrete. The majority of character state changes within the eupolypod II phylogeny occur at the family level or above. Relative branch lengths for the morphological data resemble those from molecular data and fit an ancient rapid radiation model (long branches subtended by very short backbone internodes), with few characters uniting the morphologically disparate clades. The traditional athyrioid ferns were circumscribed based upon a combination of

  2. Cytokinin signaling during root development. (United States)

    Bishopp, Anthony; Help, Hanna; Helariutta, Ykä


    The cytokinin class of phytohormones regulates division and differentiation of plant cells. They are perceived and signaled by a phosphorelay mechanism similar to those observed in prokaryotes. Research into the components of phosphorelay had previously been marred by genetic redundancy. However, recent studies have addressed this with the creation of high-order mutants. In addition, several new elements regulating cytokinin signaling have been identified. This has uncovered many roles in diverse developmental and physiological processes. In this review, we look at these processes specifically in the context of root development. We focus on the formation and maintenance of the root apical meristem, primary and secondary vascular development, lateral root emergence and development, and root nodulation. We believe that the root is an ideal organ with which to investigate cytokinin signaling in a wider context.

  3. Fungi in neotropical epiphyte roots. (United States)

    Bermudes, D; Benzing, D H


    Roots of thirty-eight Ecuadoran vascular epiphytes, representing eleven angiosperm families, were examined for the presence of symbiotic microorganisms. Most orchid roots contained fungal endophytes like those that regularly infect terrestrial counterparts. Hyphae were also common in and on nonorchid roots, but assignments of these relationships to known mycorrhizal morphologies was not possible in all cases. Evidence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) existed in a number of subjects while in Ericaceae and Campanulaceae a fungal association similar to the demateaceous surface fungi (DSF) described for alpine and prarie plants was usually present. Some associations were characterized by multicellular propagules on root surfaces. The significance of these findings and the factors likely to influence occurrence and consequences of root-fungus mutualisms in tropical forest canopies are discussed. Facts and considerations that could aid future inquiry on these systems are provided.

  4. Physical root-soil interactions (United States)

    Kolb, Evelyne; Legué, Valérie; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice


    Plant root system development is highly modulated by the physical properties of the soil and especially by its mechanical resistance to penetration. The interplay between the mechanical stresses exerted by the soil and root growth is of particular interest for many communities, in agronomy and soil science as well as in biomechanics and plant morphogenesis. In contrast to aerial organs, roots apices must exert a growth pressure to penetrate strong soils and reorient their growth trajectory to cope with obstacles like stones or hardpans or to follow the tortuous paths of the soil porosity. In this review, we present the main macroscopic investigations of soil-root physical interactions in the field and combine them with simple mechanistic modeling derived from model experiments at the scale of the individual root apex.

  5. Seed yield of radish as affected by uprooting time and root cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. M. Shohidul Hoque


    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU, Gazipur, Bangladesh during November 2005 to April 2006 to study the seed production potentiality of BSMRAU developed open pollinated radish varieties (viz., BU Mula 1 and BU Mula 2 under two levels of root cutting (viz., one third and no cutup and three levels of uprooting namely 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing (DAS. Results revealed that both root cutting and uprooting days significantly influenced most of the characters pertaining to seed yield per plant. Root cutting delayed the flowering, pod initiation, maturation of siliqua and reduced plant height, number of branches per plant, number of siliqua per plant, and number of seeds per siliqua. The yields were also impaired by root cutting. In general, the entire yield components and seed yield were highly affected with the one third root cutting. Various uprooting days also had influenced these characters. In case of treatment combination of no cut and 30 days of uprooting there was a significant difference between the varieties. The variety BU Mula 2 produced better seed yield per plot than BU Mula 1. Also in both the varieties the 1/3rd cut treatment with 30 or 50 days uprooting sequence showed unsatisfied number of seeds per siliqua in comparison to the no cut treatment except 40 days uprooting.

  6. RootJS: Node.js Bindings for ROOT 6 (United States)

    Beffart, Theo; Früh, Maximilian; Haas, Christoph; Rajgopal, Sachin; Schwabe, Jonas; Wolff, Christoph; Szuba, Marek


    We present rootJS, an interface making it possible to seamlessly integrate ROOT 6 into applications written for Node.js, the JavaScript runtime platform increasingly commonly used to create high-performance Web applications. ROOT features can be called both directly from Node.js code and by JIT-compiling C++ macros. All rootJS methods are invoked asynchronously and support callback functions, allowing non-blocking operation of Node.js applications using them. Last but not least, our bindings have been designed to platform-independent and should therefore work on all systems supporting both ROOT 6 and Node.js. Thanks to rootJS it is now possible to create ROOT-aware Web applications taking full advantage of the high performance and extensive capabilities of Node.js. Examples include platforms for the quality assurance of acquired, reconstructed or simulated data, book-keeping and e-log systems, and even Web browser-based data visualisation and analysis.

  7. Descendant root volume varies as a function of root type: estimation of root biomass lost during uprooting in Pinus pinaster. (United States)

    Danjon, Frédéric; Caplan, Joshua S; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Céline


    Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account for the fact that root systems are comprised of multiple types of roots. We assessed whether the relationship between CSD and Vd varies as a function of root type. Additionally, we sought to identify a more accurate and time-efficient method for estimating missing root volume than is currently available. We used a database that described the 3D root architecture of Pinus pinaster root systems (5, 12, or 19 years) from a stand in southwest France. We determined the relationship between CSD and Vd for 10,000 root segments from intact root branches. Models were specified that did and did not account for root type. The relationships were then applied to the diameters of 11,000 broken root ends to estimate the volume of missing roots. CSD was nearly linearly related to the square root of Vd, but the slope of the curve varied greatly as a function of root type. Sinkers and deep roots tapered rapidly, as they were limited by available soil depth. Distal shallow roots tapered gradually, as they were less limited spatially. We estimated that younger trees lost an average of 17% of root volume when excavated, while older trees lost 4%. Missing volumes were smallest in the central parts of root systems and largest in distal shallow roots. The slopes of the curves for each root type are synthetic parameters that account for differentiation due to genetics, soil properties, or mechanical stimuli. Accounting for this differentiation is critical to estimating root loss accurately.

  8. A new paradigma on the plant evolution: from a natural evolution to an artificial evolution? (United States)

    Bennici, Andrea


    After evidencing the great importance of plants for animals and humans in consequence of the photosynthesis, several considerations on plant evolution are made. One of the peculiar characteristics of the plant is the sessile property, due especially to the cell wall. This factor, principally, strengthened by the photosynthetic process, determined the particular developmental pattern of the plant, which is characterized by the continuous formation of new organs. The plant immobility, although negative for its survival, has been, in great part, overcome by the acquisition of the capacity of adaptation (plasticity) to the environmental stresses and changes, and the establishment of more adapted genotypes. This capacity to react to the external signals induced Trewavas to speak of "plant intelligence". The plant movement incapacity and the evolution of the sexual reproduction system were strongly correlated. In this context, the evolution of the flower in the Angiosperms has been particularly important to allow the male gamete to fertilize the immobile female gamete. Moreover, the formation of fruit and seed greatly improved the dispersal and conservation of the progeny in the environment. With the flower, mechanisms to favour the outcrossing among different individuals appeared, which are essential to increase the genetic variability and, then, the plant evolution itself. Although the Angiosperms seem highly evolved, the plant evolution is not surely finished, because many reported morpho-physiological processes may be still considered susceptible of further improvement. In the last years the relationships among humans, plants and environment are becoming closer and closer. This is due to the use of the DNA recombinant techniques with the aim to modify artificially plant characters. Therefore, the risk of a plant evolution strongly directed towards practical or commercial objectives, or "an artificial evolution", may be hypothesized.

  9. Sunspot drawings handwritten character recognition method based on deep learning (United States)

    Zheng, Sheng; Zeng, Xiangyun; Lin, Ganghua; Zhao, Cui; Feng, Yongli; Tao, Jinping; Zhu, Daoyuan; Xiong, Li


    High accuracy scanned sunspot drawings handwritten characters recognition is an issue of critical importance to analyze sunspots movement and store them in the database. This paper presents a robust deep learning method for scanned sunspot drawings handwritten characters recognition. The convolution neural network (CNN) is one algorithm of deep learning which is truly successful in training of multi-layer network structure. CNN is used to train recognition model of handwritten character images which are extracted from the original sunspot drawings. We demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method on sunspot drawings provided by Chinese Academy Yunnan Observatory and obtain the daily full-disc sunspot numbers and sunspot areas from the sunspot drawings. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves a high recognition accurate rate.

  10. Character Education Based On Local Wisdom For the Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh Sukemi Buchory


    Full Text Available This research aims at revealing the existence of character education based on the local wisdom for the prisoners. The subject of this research is the prisoner inhabitant in Wirogunan Prison and Narcotics pakem in Sleman Yogyakarta. The data were gained by interviewing, documenting and demonstrating. The data were analyzed qualitative and quantitative descriptively. The results of this research are: (1 The training of Tembang Maca Pat and Javanese MC are equivalently adapted, (2 The character values being shaped: believe in God, responsibility, respect, fairness, confidence, faithfulness, discipline, careness, spirituality, manners, intelligence, emotion control, character building, the increase of social participants; (3 The competence on Tembang Maca Pat and MC of Javanese can be used as professional earning in society and also can be used as educational model for the prisoners.

  11. Experimental study on microstructure characters of foamed lightweight soil (United States)

    Qiu, Youqiang; Li, Yongliang; Li, Meixia; Liu, Yaofu; Zhang, Liujun


    In order to verify the microstructure of foamed lightweight soil and its characters of compressive strength, four foamed lightweight soil samples with different water-soild ratio were selected and the microstructure characters of these samples were scanned by electron microscope. At the same time, the characters of compressive strength of foamed lightweight soil were analyzed from the microstructure. The study results show that the water-soild ratio has a prominent effect on the microstructure and compressive strength of foamed lightweight soil, with the decrease of water-solid ratio, the amount and the perforation of pores would be reduced significantly, thus eventually forming a denser and fuller interior structure. Besides, the denser microstructure and solider pore-pore wall is benefit to greatly increase mechanical intensity of foamed lightweight soil. In addition, there are very few acicular ettringite crystals in the interior of foamed lightweight soil, its number is also reduced with the decrease in water-soild ratio.

  12. The Specific Character Traits of Young Entrepreneurs in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobeková Majková Monika


    Full Text Available Worldwide scientific researches present the entrepreneurs have to declare specific characteristic traits to be successful in the business. This paper is focused on the comparison of the specific character traits between potential young entrepreneurs and other young people. The aim is to compare the three chosen character traits differences between these two focus groups by using the statistical method of Pearson's chi-square and bring the answers on the questions why some people incline to becoming the entrepreneurs more intensively than others, and what are the differences between them in relation to the character traits and their personality characteristics. The research was conducted among 1233 young people in all regions of Slovakia in 2012. The results show, that young people who plan to become an entrepreneur, are more creative, willing to face the risk, more confident in the solvation of complicated problems and difficult tasks with the opposite group of respondents.

  13. Induced variability for quantitative characters in Triticum aestivum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamankar, Y.G.


    Comparable doses of gamma rays, hydroxylamine, ethylmethane sulphonate and hydrazine have been compared for the magnitude of induced variability and their effects of mean. It was found that all the mutagenic treatments were effective in inducing variability for plant height, number of effective tillers/plant, 100-seed weight and single plant yield. Gamma rays were found to be most effective. While hydroxylamine and ethylmethane sulphonate were found to be equally effective, hydrazine was found to be least effective. Although, all the four characters showed increased variability, the mean for the characters of plant height and 100-grain weight remained unaltered. However, the mean for the characters number of effective tillers and single plant yield showed reduction. The greater effectiveness of gamma rays have been attributed to its characteristic mode of action and the polyploid nature of the wheat. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Cultivating character education through transforming school cultural values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article discusses the transformation of school cultural values in character education. This study aimed to outline the importance regarding the transformation of school cultural values in the management of: a curriculum and learning, b students, c teachers and school practitioners to realize the character education. This study was a qualitative study which employed a case study design. The participants of this study were the principals, teachers, practitioners, and students of Senior High School in Gorontalo Province of Indonesia. The results of the analysis revealed that the habituation of cultural values such as religious values, honesty, togetherness, modesty, and discipline which have formed a systematic and persistent integration with the management of curriculum, of students, of teachers and practitioners, can accomplish the goals of character education that is creating a generation that is emotionally, socially, and spiritually intelligent.

  15. The characters God and Hamlet by Jack Miles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania de Fátima da Silva


    Full Text Available In the book “God - A Biography,” Jack Miles aims to introduce ourselves Creator-God as a literary character. Miles developed a narrative based on concept aristotelian, in other words, the structure of the work is made from beginning to end. This procedure established a harmony arising from the interaction between the parties, which contributes to scrutinize the precise details of the story of the main protagonist. We decided to highlight that time some characteristics of the main character of the work and compare them to the character Hamlet, by William Shakespeare, because from the beginning of the narrative to completion Miles calls the reader’s attention to the play Shakespeare.

  16. Character selecting advisor for a role-playing game (United States)

    Redfield, Carol L.; Berlanga, Felicia


    Role-playing games have been a source of much pleasure and merriment for people of all ages. The process of developing a character for a role-playing game is usually very, very time consuming, delaying what many players consider the most entertaining part of the game. An expert system has been written to assist a player in creating a character by guiding the player through a series of questions. This paper discusses the selection of this topic, the knowledge engineering, the software development, and the resulting program that cuts the time of character development from about 4 hours to 30 minutes. The program was written on a PC and an Apollo in CLIPS 4.3 and currently runs on the Apollo.

  17. Using Star Wars' supporting characters to teach about psychopathology. (United States)

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Hall, Ryan Cw


    The pop culture phenomenon of Star Wars has been underutilised as a vehicle to teach about psychiatry. It is well known to students, registrars, and consultants alike. New Star Wars films are expected out in 2015, which will likely lead to further popularity. The purpose of this article is to illustrate psychopathology and psychiatric themes demonstrated by supporting characters, and ways they can be used to teach concepts in a hypothetical yet memorable way. Using the minor characters as a springboard for teaching has the benefit of students not having preconceived notions about them. Characters can be used to approach teaching about ADHD, anxiety, kleptomania and paedophilia. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  18. Optical character recognition systems for different languages with soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arindam; Badelia, Pratixa; K Ghosh, Soumya


    The book offers a comprehensive survey of soft-computing models for optical character recognition systems. The various techniques, including fuzzy and rough sets, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms, are tested using real texts written in different languages, such as English, French, German, Latin, Hindi and Gujrati, which have been extracted by publicly available datasets. The simulation studies, which are reported in details here, show that soft-computing based modeling of OCR systems performs consistently better than traditional models. Mainly intended as state-of-the-art survey for postgraduates and researchers in pattern recognition, optical character recognition and soft computing, this book will be useful for professionals in computer vision and image processing alike, dealing with different issues related to optical character recognition.

  19. A Bayesian computational model for online character recognition and disability assessment during cursive eye writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eDiard


    Full Text Available This research involves a novel apparatus, in which the user is presented with an illusion inducing visual stimulus. The user perceives illusory movement that can be followed by the eye, so that smooth pursuit eye movements can be sustained in arbitrary directions. Thus, free-flow trajectories of any shape can be traced. In other words, coupled with an eye-tracking device, this apparatus enables "eye writing", which appears to be an original object of study. We adapt a previous model of reading and writing to this context. We describe a probabilistic model called the Bayesian Action-Perception for Eye On-Line model (BAP-EOL. It encodes probabilistic knowledge about isolated letter trajectories, their size, high-frequency components of the produced trajectory, and pupil diameter. We show how Bayesian inference, in this single model, can be used to solve several tasks, like letter recognition and novelty detection (i.e., recognizing when a presented character is not part of the learned database. We are interested in the potential use of the eye writing apparatus by motor impaired patients: the final task we solve by Bayesian inference is disability assessment (i.e., measuring and tracking the evolution of motor characteristics of produced trajectories. Preliminary experimental results are presented, which illustrate the method, showing the feasibility of character recognition in the context of eye writing. We then show experimentally how a model of the unknown character can be used to detect trajectories that are likely to be new symbols, and how disability assessment can be performed by opportunistically observing characteristics of fine motor control, as letter are being traced. Experimental analyses also help identify specificities of eye writing, as compared to handwriting, and the resulting technical challenges.

  20. Fruit evolution and diversification in campanulid angiosperms. (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J


    With increases in both the size and scope of phylogenetic trees, we are afforded a renewed opportunity to address long-standing comparative questions, such as whether particular fruit characters account for much of the variation in diversity among flowering plant clades. Studies to date have reported conflicting results, largely as a consequence of taxonomic scale and a reliance on potentially conservative statistical measures. Here we examine a larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer the rates of character transitions among the major fruit types, emphasizing the evolution of the achene fruits that are most frequently observed within the group. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated bearing capsules, and that all subsequent fruit diversity was derived from various modifications of this dry fruit type. We also found that the preponderance of lineages bearing achenes is a consequence of not only being a fruit type that is somewhat irreversible once it evolves, but one that also seems to have a positive association with diversification rates. Although these results imply the achene fruit type is a significant correlate of diversity patterns observed across campanulids, we conclude that it remains difficult to confidently and directly view this character state as the actual cause of increased diversification rates. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Body-conscious Shakespeare: sensory disturbances in troubled characters. (United States)

    Heaton, Kenneth W


    It is widely accepted that Shakespeare was unique in the range of his insights into the human mind, but the way his characters reveal their mental states through bodily sensations has not been systematically explored. The author has searched for these phenomena in the 42 major works of Shakespeare and in 46 genre-matched works by his contemporaries, and in this paper the author focuses on sensory changes other than those involving vision, taste, the heart and the alimentary tract (all considered in other papers). Vertigo is experienced by five distressed Shakespearean characters, all men, but not at all by the other writers' characters. Breathlessness, probably representing hyperventilation, occurs eleven times in Shakespeare's works but only twice in the other writers' works. Fatigue, expressing grief, is articulated by several Shakespearean characters including Hamlet. It features less often in the others' works. Deafness at a time of high emotion is mentioned by Shakespeare several times but usually by a character 'turning a deaf ear', consciously or unconsciously. To the other writers, ears show emotion only by burning or itching. Blunting of touch and pain and their opposites of hypersensitivity to touch and pain are all to be found in Shakespeare's works when a character is distressed or excited, but not so with his contemporaries' works. Faint feelings and cold feelings are also more common in the works of Shakespeare. Overall, therefore, Shakespeare was exceptional in his use of sensory disturbances to express emotional upset. This may be a conscious literary device or a sign of exceptional awareness of bodily sensations.

  2. Integrating Local Culture to Promote Character Education In Teaching Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenny Thresia


    Full Text Available Abstract : Character education plays an important part because it is not only about moral and value education. It has a higher significance of moral education, because it not only teaches what is right and what is wrong. More than that character education inculcate the habit (habituation about good things and wrong, can feel (affective domain good value and used to do (behavioral domain. So the character education linked closely associated with persistent habits practiced or implemented. It is commonly believed that the practices of English language teaching always accompanied by the insertion of foreign cultural values which are not always in line with Indonesia cultural values. The aim of this study is to improve students’ writing skill through integrating local culture material. Therefore this study focuses on designing and evaluating teaching writing material for English department students of University Muhammadiyah Metro. The result of this study shows that students have big interest and motivation in writing a text based on their local culture. The students also get moral value and character building through the material. It influences the students’ character in their daily life. Students become more polite, honest, diligent and religious.                                                                                                         Keywords: local culture, character education, writing.

  3. Character Education Based on Religious Values: an Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Sukardi


    Full Text Available Character education in Indonesia has become a necessity that can not be negotiable. Various cases of crime and moral deviations become evident that the character of most citizens already at alarming stage. Therefore, since the beginning, national education is not only aimed at generating human intelligent and skilled, but also of noble character. This is realized through the introduction of 18 characters excel in school (religious, honest, disciplined, tolerance, and so on. In the Islamic perspective character education paired with akhlak (Islamic ethics education. Among the important characteristics are: it sourced from the Quran Hadith; Prophet Muhammad as a role model; priority-based methods of mental-spiritual (soul management, habituation, exemplary, and healthy environment; are simultaneous in which three education centers, namely schools, families, and communities should play a role in synergy. The government and the mass media also play a role in supporting the education of character.   Pendidikan karakter di Indonesia telah menjadi kebutuhan yang tidak dapat ditawar. Berbagai kasus kejahatan moral dan penyimpangan menjadi jelas bahwa karakter sebagian besar warga sudah pada tahap mengkhawatirkan. Oleh karena itu, sejak awal, pendidikan nasional tidak hanya bertujuan menghasilkan manusia cerdas dan terampil, tetapi juga karakter yang mulia. Hal ini diwujudkan melalui pengenalan 18 karakter berprestasi di sekolah (agama, jujur, disiplin, tolerann, dan sebagainya. Dalam pendidikan karakter perspektif Islam dipasangkan dengan pendidikan akhlak (etika Islam. Di antara karakteristik penting adalah: itu bersumber dari al-Quran Hadis; Nabi Muhammad sebagai panutan; metode berbasis prioritas mental-spiritual (manajemen jiwa, pembiasaan, keteladanan, dan lingkungan yang sehat; yang simultan di mana tiga pusat pendidikan, yaitu sekolah, keluarga, dan masyarakat harus berperan dalam sinergi. Pemerintah dan media massa juga berperan dalam mendukung

  4. Leadership Characters in the Book of Ruth: A Narrative Analysis

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    Yong Lu


    Full Text Available This article delineates a ground work for shaping Christian leadership characters by examining the book of Ruth, a narrative of coop­eration. First, we introduce the general Biblical wisdom, guidance, and religious precepts on leadership characters from the Bible per se. Second, we depict a synopsis and connotation of the Ruth Narrative combined with the historical background of the late Judges time when Naomi, Elimelech, Ruth and Boaz lived and the social and religious background of Moab where the family of Elimelech dwelt in for ten years. Third, based on those background analyses, the main figures’ dialogues, and their actions, we illustrate their positive servant and mentor leadership characters that include a combination of their distinguished traits and cognitive attributes, as well as some weaknesses of Naomi and Elimelech. In a nutshell, Nao­mi’s leadership characters contain loyalty to God (2:19 – 20, discovering value within (3:1 – 4, and patience and endurance (3:18. Ruth’s leadership characters incorporate faithfulness and positive self-esteem (1:16 – 17, pioneer and daring (2:2, deference (2:10, obedience (3:5, and lov­ing-kindness (3:10. Boaz’s leadership characters include respect (2:4, care (2:5, compassion (2:8 – 9, 11, empowerment (2:15 – 16, leaning on and trusting God (2:12, care (2:14; 3:15, protecting the weak (3:10 – 15, responsibility (3:12, moral integrity and justness (3:13, carefulness (3:14, formation (4:1, unselfishness and cleverness (4:3 – 5, and part­nering (4:9 – 10. While we criticize Elimelech’s risk seeking strategy to migrate their family to a pagan country (1:1 – 2 as a spiritual adventure.

  5. Gravisensing in roots (United States)

    Perbal, G.


    The mode of gravisensing in higher plants is not yet elucidated. Although, it is generally accepted that the amyloplasts (statoliths) in the root cap cells (statocytes) are responsible for susception of gravity. However, the hypothesis that the whole protoplast acts as gravisusceptor cannot be dismissed. The nature of the sensor that is able to transduce and amplify the mechanical energy into a biochemical factor is even more controversial. Several cell structures could potentially serve as gravireceptors: the endoplasmic reticulum, the actin network, the plasma membrane, or the cytoskeleton associated with this membrane. The nature of the gravisusceptors and gravisensors is discussed by taking into account the characteristics of the gravitropic reaction with respect to the presentation time, the threshold acceleration, the reciprocity rule, the deviation from the sine rule, the movement of the amyloplasts, the pre-inversion effect, the response of starch free and intermediate mutants and the effects of cytochalasin treatment. From this analysis, it can be concluded that both the amyloplasts and the protoplast could be the gravisusceptors, the former being more efficient than the latter since they can focus pressure on limited areas. The receptor should be located in the plasma membrane and could be a stretch-activated ion channel.

  6. Medico-legal aspects of vertical root fractures in root filled teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosen, E; Tsesis, I; Tamse, A


    To analyse the medico-legal aspects of vertical root fracture (VRF) following root canal treatment (RCT).......To analyse the medico-legal aspects of vertical root fracture (VRF) following root canal treatment (RCT)....

  7. The spinorial character of the gentilionic baryon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattani, M.S.D.; Fernandes, N.C.


    It is shown that the wavefunction, in an internal colour space of three quarks taken as gentileons, has a bi-spinorial character. In this context, the formalism differs drastically from parastatistics and fermionic theories of quarks. As a direct consequence of the spinorial character the SU(3) colour representation can naturally be incorporated into the S 3 gentilionic symmetry and a selection rule for quark confinement is deduced. Comparing the results with Dirac's bi-spinorial formulation and with Prentki-d'Espagnat theory, striking resemblances are found. (Author) [pt

  8. Nonlinear filtering for character recognition in low quality document images (United States)

    Diaz-Escobar, Julia; Kober, Vitaly


    Optical character recognition in scanned printed documents is a well-studied task, where the captured conditions like sheet position, illumination, contrast and resolution are controlled. Nowadays, it is more practical to use mobile devices for document capture than a scanner. So as a consequence, the quality of document images is often poor owing to presence of geometric distortions, nonhomogeneous illumination, low resolution, etc. In this work we propose to use multiple adaptive nonlinear composite filters for detection and classification of characters. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed system are presented and discussed.

  9. On topological groups with remainder of character k

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    Maddalena Bonanzinga


    Full Text Available In [A.V. Arhangel'skii and J. van Mill, On topological groups with a first-countable remainder, Top. Proc. 42 (2013, 157-163] it is proved that the character of a non-locally compact topological group with a first countable remainder doesn't exceed $\\omega_1$ and a non-locally compact topological group of character $\\omega_1$ having a compactification whose reminder is first countable is given. We generalize these results in the general case of an arbitrary infinite cardinal k.

  10. A tutoring package to teach pronunciation of Mandarin Chinese characters. (United States)

    Wu, Hang; Miller, L Keith


    We examined the effects of a tutoring package (verbal modeling, prompts, and contingent praise/ Chinese conversations with the tutor) on the performance of a college student's Mandarin Chinese pronunciation. The effects of the tutoring package were analyzed using a multiple baseline design across two sets of 50 Chinese characters. The tutoring package produced improvement in the student's correct pronunciation of Chinese characters from 48% (pretutoring) to 90% (posttutoring). Results suggested that the tutoring package produced mastery pronunciation of targeted Mandarin Chinese vocalizations by a nonnative speaker.

  11. Cultural diversity for virtual characters investigating behavioral aspects across cultures

    CERN Document Server

    Endrass, Birgit


    Culture plays a crucial role in our lives. Depending on our cultural background, we judge on and react to everything that we encounter. Subtle differences in behavior can lead to misunderstandings or even culture shock. In a similar manner, virtual characters can be declined by certain user groups when showing culturally inappropriate behavior. But how can social aspects such as culture be integrated into the behavioral models of virtual characters Birgit Endrass addresses this question by carrying out a hybrid approach that is based on theoretical background from the social sciences as well a

  12. Characters named Charles or Charley in novels by Charles Dickens. (United States)

    Barry, Herbert


    12 fictional characters named Charles or Charley are contained in eight of the 14 completed novels by Charles Dickens. Most of the author's namesakes have humorous attributes, an unusually close relationship with one or more other characters, and a happy subsequent life. Three stages of the author's adult life are youthful, mature, and after separation from his wife. The fictional namesakes are most humorous in the author's youthful stage and least humorous after separation from his wife. The 12 fictional namesakes of Charles Dickens are compared with the two fictional namesakes of Jane Austen.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present paper investigates some morphological characters (total length, standard bodily length, head length, maxim height and bodily circumference in representatives of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis occurring in their first growing summer. Biometric analyses were performed on 100 individuals, in the end the morphological characters under investigations being statistically processed. Explanation of the experimental results evidences low values of the standard error of the mean, which is indicative of a grouping of all external bodily variables under investigation close to the average value.

  14. Onomatopoeia characters extraction from comic images using constrained Delaunay triangulation (United States)

    Liu, Xiangping; Shoji, Kenji; Mori, Hiroshi; Toyama, Fubito


    A method for extracting onomatopoeia characters from comic images was developed based on stroke width feature of characters, since they nearly have a constant stroke width in a number of cases. An image was segmented with a constrained Delaunay triangulation. Connected component grouping was performed based on the triangles generated by the constrained Delaunay triangulation. Stroke width calculation of the connected components was conducted based on the altitude of the triangles generated with the constrained Delaunay triangulation. The experimental results proved the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Femtosecond stimulated Raman evidence for charge-transfer character in pentacene singlet fission. (United States)

    Hart, Stephanie M; Silva, W Ruchira; Frontiera, Renee R


    Singlet fission is a spin-allowed process in which an excited singlet state evolves into two triplet states. We use femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy, an ultrafast vibrational technique, to follow the molecular structural evolution during singlet fission in order to determine the mechanism of this process. In crystalline pentacene, we observe the formation of an intermediate characterized by pairs of excited state peaks that are red- and blue-shifted relative to the ground state features. We hypothesize that these features arise from the formation of cationic and anionic species due to partial transfer of electron density from one pentacene molecule to a neighboring molecule. These observations provide experimental evidence for the role of states with significant charge-transfer character which facilitate the singlet fission process in pentacene. Our work both provides new insight into the singlet fission mechanism in pentacene and demonstrates the utility of structurally-sensitive time-resolved spectroscopic techniques in monitoring ultrafast processes.

  16. The character and behaviour of circumstellar shells at T Tauri stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, W.


    T Tauri stars are extremely young low-mass stars in the pre-main sequence stage. A brief review of investigations made at the Sonneberg observatory concerning the character and the behaviour of circumstellar shells at T Tauri stars is given. They lead to the construction of a shell model on the basis of observational facts. The idea rests upon the causal connection between the gas and dust shell phenomenon and the cosmogonic mass loss of the stars, which is the connecting link between the stars and their shells and which appears in the early phase of the pre-main sequence stage and decreases, like the accompanying shell phenomena, during the evolution of the stars. (author)

  17. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes it possi......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  18. Root anatomical phenes predict root penetration ability and biomechanical properties in maize (Zea Mays)


    Chimungu, Joseph G.; Loades, Kenneth W.; Lynch, Jonathan P.


    The ability of roots to penetrate hard soil is important for crop productivity but specific root phenes contributing to this ability are poorly understood. Root penetrability and biomechanical properties are likely to vary in the root system dependent on anatomical structure. No information is available to date on the influence of root anatomical phenes on root penetrability and biomechanics. Root penetration ability was evaluated using a wax layer system. Root tensile and bending strength we...

  19. Root development during soil genesis: effects of root-root interactions, mycorrhizae, and substrate (United States)

    Salinas, A.; Zaharescu, D. G.


    A major driver of soil formation is the colonization and transformation of rock by plants and associated microbiota. In turn, substrate chemical composition can also influence the capacity for plant colonization and development. In order to better define these relationships, a mesocosm study was set up to analyze the effect mycorrhizal fungi, plant density and rock have on root development, and to determine the effect of root morphology on weathering and soil formation. We hypothesized that plant-plant and plant-fungi interactions have a stronger influence on root architecture and rock weathering than the substrate composition alone. Buffalo grass (Bouteloua dactyloides) was grown in a controlled environment in columns filled with either granular granite, schist, rhyolite or basalt. Each substrate was given two different treatments, including grass-microbes and grass-microbes-mycorrhizae and incubated for 120, 240, and 480 days. Columns were then extracted and analyzed for root morphology, fine fraction, and pore water major element content. Preliminary results showed that plants produced more biomass in rhyolite, followed by schist, basalt, and granite, indicating that substrate composition is an important driver of root development. In support of our hypothesis, mycorrhizae was a strong driver of root development by stimulating length growth, biomass production, and branching. However, average root length and branching also appeared to decrease in response to high plant density, though this trend was only present among roots with mycorrhizal fungi. Interestingly, fine fraction production was negatively correlated with average root thickness and volume. There is also slight evidence indicating that fine fraction production is more related to substrate composition than root morphology, though this data needs to be further analyzed. Our hope is that the results of this study can one day be applied to agricultural research in order to promote the production of crops

  20. Character and Effective Leadership of the Knowledge Worker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Anne E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Ulrich in the forward to the Zenger and Folkman (2002) book, ''The Extraordinary Leader'', wrote about the importance of character in leadership stating, ''Everything about great leaders radiates from character. Character improves the probability of exhibiting strong interpersonal skill. Some of this perceived character is innate . . . but more is driven by the leader's self-awareness and interactions with others'' (p. ix). The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership effectiveness and character using leader-managers of knowledge workers as the subject sample. Findings indicated that character, particularly those factors associated with honesty, setting the example, and valuing and strengthening others, were what set the most effective leader-managers apart from their peers. Technical competence and self-efficacy were found to be common characteristics of the study sample as was a drive for results. Who a leader-manager is, his/her substance, was found in this study to differentiate the ''best'' leader-managers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By their character, leader-managers establish the environment in which knowledge workers contribute and grow. As found by Pfeiffer (2000), Leaders of companies that experience smaller gaps between what they know and what they do (to turn knowledge into action), understand that their most important task is not necessarily to make strategic decisions, or, for that matter any decisions at all. Their task is to help build systems of practice that produce a more reliable transformation of knowledge into action. Leaders create environments, reinforce norms, and help set expectations through what they do. (p. 261) In other words, as confirmed by this research study, their task is to model the way. Study results also confirmed Ulrich's (1996) supposition that to create the ''air'' in which employees