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Sample records for root canal dentine

  1. Microstructure and wettability of root canal dentine and root canal filling materials after different chemical irrigation

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    Antonijevic, Djordje; Milovanovic, Petar [Laboratory for Anthropology, Institute for Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Brajkovic, Denis [Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac (Serbia); Ilic, Dragan [Department of Restorative Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Hahn, Michael; Amling, Michael [Department of Osteology and Biomechanics (IOBM), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Lottestr. 55A, 22529 Hamburg (Germany); Rakocevic, Zlatko [Laboratory for Atomic Physics, Institute for Nuclear Science “Vinca”, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Djuric, Marija [Laboratory for Anthropology, Institute for Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Busse, Björn, E-mail: b.busse@uke.uni-hamburg.de [Department of Osteology and Biomechanics (IOBM), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Lottestr. 55A, 22529 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Different irrigation solutions and disinfectants were used for treatment of root canal dentine and gutta-percha points. • Materials surface characteristics were assessed using quantitative backscattered electron imaging, reference point indentation, and contact angle analyzer. • The most significant differences in mineralization, indentation, and adhesive outcomes were observed after ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid treatment. • Irrigation solutions confer to superior sealing ability of endodontic filling materials. • Micromechanical characteristics of dentine after irrigation are considerable reduced. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various irrigation solutions on root canal dentine and gutta-percha surface properties. In addition, the effects of disinfectant chemicals on the wettability and surface morphological properties of the filling materials were evaluated. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and ozone were employed as irrigation solutions for dentine and gutta-percha treatment. Thereafter, the samples’ microstructure, degree of mineralization, and mechanical properties were assessed by means of quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) and reference point indentation (RPI). A contact angle analyzer was used to measure adhesion on the tested materials. Here, EDTA had the most significant affect on both the mechanical properties and the adhesive behavior of dentine. Citric acid did not affect dentine wettability, whereas the indentation properties and the mineralization were reduced. Similar effects were observed when ozone was used. The dentinal tubules were significantly widened in citric acid compared to the ozone group. EDTA causes considerable micromechanical surface alteration of dentine and gutta-percha, but represents the best option in clinical cases where a high adhesiveness of the filling materials is desired.

  2. Microstructure and wettability of root canal dentine and root canal filling materials after different chemical irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonijevic, Djordje; Milovanovic, Petar; Brajkovic, Denis; Ilic, Dragan; Hahn, Michael; Amling, Michael; Rakocevic, Zlatko; Djuric, Marija; Busse, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Different irrigation solutions and disinfectants were used for treatment of root canal dentine and gutta-percha points. • Materials surface characteristics were assessed using quantitative backscattered electron imaging, reference point indentation, and contact angle analyzer. • The most significant differences in mineralization, indentation, and adhesive outcomes were observed after ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid treatment. • Irrigation solutions confer to superior sealing ability of endodontic filling materials. • Micromechanical characteristics of dentine after irrigation are considerable reduced. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various irrigation solutions on root canal dentine and gutta-percha surface properties. In addition, the effects of disinfectant chemicals on the wettability and surface morphological properties of the filling materials were evaluated. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and ozone were employed as irrigation solutions for dentine and gutta-percha treatment. Thereafter, the samples’ microstructure, degree of mineralization, and mechanical properties were assessed by means of quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) and reference point indentation (RPI). A contact angle analyzer was used to measure adhesion on the tested materials. Here, EDTA had the most significant affect on both the mechanical properties and the adhesive behavior of dentine. Citric acid did not affect dentine wettability, whereas the indentation properties and the mineralization were reduced. Similar effects were observed when ozone was used. The dentinal tubules were significantly widened in citric acid compared to the ozone group. EDTA causes considerable micromechanical surface alteration of dentine and gutta-percha, but represents the best option in clinical cases where a high adhesiveness of the filling materials is desired.

  3. Vitality of Enterococcus faecalis inside dentinal tubules after five root canal disinfection methods

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    Vatkar, Niranjan Ashok; Hegde, Vivek; Sathe, Sucheta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the vitality of Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules after subjected to five root canal disinfection methods. Materials and Methods: Dentin blocks (n = 60) were colonized with E. faecalis. After 4 weeks of incubation, the dentin blocks were divided into one control and five test groups (n = 10 each). The root canals of test groups were subjected to one of the disinfection methods, namely, normal saline (NS), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine digluconate (C...

  4. Ultrastructural investigation of root canal dentine surface after application of active ultrasonic method

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    Mitić Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The basic work principle of all ultrasonic techniques is the piezoelectric effect of producing high frequency ultrasounds of small length, which are transmitted over the endodontic extensions or canal instruments into the root canal. When in contact with the tissue, ultrasonic vibrations are converted into mechanical oscillations. Ultrasonic waves and the obtained oscillations along with the synergic effect of irrigation bring about the elimination of smear layer from the root canal walls. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to ultrastucturally examine the effect of smear layer removal from the walls of canals by the application of the active ultrasonic method without irrigation, that is by the application of ultrasound and irrigation using distilled water and 2.5% NaOCl. METHOD The investigation comprised 35 single-canal, extracted human teeth. After removal of the root canal content, experimental samples were divided into three groups. According to the procedure required, the first group was treated by ultrasound without irrigation; the second one by ultrasound with irrigation using distilled water; and the third group was treated by ultrasound and irrigation using 2.5% NaOCl solution. The control samples were treated by machine rotating instruments (Pro-File and were rinsed by distilled water. RESULTS The obtained results showed that the ultrasonic treatment of the root canal without irrigation did not remove the smear layer. The dentine canals are masked, and big dentine particles are scattered on the intertubular dentine. The ultrasonic treatment by using irrigation with distilled water provides cleaner dentine walls and open dentine tubules but with smaller particles on the intertubular dentine. The ultrasound treatment by using irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl solution provides a clean intertubular dentine surface without a smear layer and clearly open dentine tubules. CONCLUSION Instrumentation of the root canal by application of

  5. Effect of Peracetic Acid as A Final Rinse on Push Out Bond Strength of Root Canal Sealers to Root Dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddala, Naresh; Veeramachineni, Chandrasekhar; Tummala, Muralidhar

    2015-05-01

    Smear layer which was formed during the instrumentation of root canals hinders the penetration of root canal sealers to root dentin and affect the bond strength of root canal sealers to root dentin. Final irrigant such as demineralizing agents are used to remove the inorganic portion of the smear layer. In the present study, peracetic acid used as a final rinse, to effect the bond strength of root canal sealers to root dentin. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of peracetic acid as a final irrigant on bond strength of root canal sealers to root dentin. Sixty six freshly extracted human single rooted mandibular premolars were used for this study. After decoronation the samples were instrumented with Protaper upto F3 and irrigated with 5.25% NaOcl. The teeth were then divided into three groups based on final irrigant used: Group-1(control group) Canals were irrigated with distilled water. Group-2: Canals were irrigated with peracetic acid. Group-3: Canals were irrigated with smear clear. Each group was further divided into three subgroups (n=30) based on the sealer used to obturate the canals. Subgroup-1: kerr, Subgroup-2: Apexit plus, Subgroup-3: AH PLUS. Each sealer was mixed and coated to master cone and placed in the canal. The bonding between sealer and dentin surface was evaluated using push out bond strength by universal testing machine. The mean bond strength values of each group were statistically evaluated using Two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey post-hoc test. Significant difference was found among the bond strength of the sealers. But, there is no statistically significant difference between the groups irrigated with peracetic acid and smear clear compared to control group. AH Plus showed highest bond strength irrespective of the final irrigant used. Peracetic acid when employed as final irrigant improved the bond strength of root canal sealers compared to control group but not statistically significant than smear clear.

  6. Incidence of dentinal defects after root canal preparation: reciprocating versus rotary instrumentation.

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    Bürklein, Sebastian; Tsotsis, Polymnia; Schäfer, Edgar

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of dentinal defects after root canal preparation with reciprocating instruments (Reciproc and WaveOne) and rotary instruments. One hundred human central mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n = 20 teeth per group). The root canals were instrumented by using the reciprocating single-file systems Reciproc and WaveOne and the full-sequence rotary Mtwo and ProTaper instruments. One group was left unprepared as control. Roots were sectioned horizontally at 3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex and evaluated under a microscope by using 25-fold magnification. The presence of dentinal defects (complete/incomplete cracks and craze lines) was noted and analyzed by using the chi-square test. No defects were observed in the controls. All canal preparation created dentinal defects. Overall, instrumentation with Reciproc was associated with more complete cracks than the full-sequence files (P = .021). Although both reciprocating files produced more incomplete cracks apically (3 mm) compared with the rotary files (P = .001), no statistically significant differences were obtained concerning the summarized values of all cross sections (P > .05). Under the conditions of this study, root canal preparation with both rotary and reciprocating instruments resulted in dentinal defects. At the apical level of the canals, reciprocating files produced significantly more incomplete dentinal cracks than full-sequence rotary systems (P < .05). Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of final irrigation protocols on microhardness reduction and erosion of root canal dentin

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    Flávia Emi Razera BALDASSO

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of final irrigation protocols on microhardness reduction and erosion of root canal dentin. Sixty root canals from mandibular incisors were instrumented and randomly divided into six groups (n = 10 according to the irrigant used: QMiX, 17% EDTA, 10% citric acid (CA, 1% peracetic acid (PA, 2.5% NaOCl (solution control, and distilled water (negative control. The chelating solutions were used to irrigate the canal followed by 2.5% NaOCl as a final flush. After the irrigation protocols, all specimens were rinsed with 10 mL of distilled water to remove any residue of the chemical solutions. Before and after the final irrigation protocols, dentin microhardness was measured with a Knoop indenter. Three indentations were made at 100 µm and 500 µm from the root canal lumen. Afterwards, the specimens were prepared for scanning electron microscopic analysis and the amount of dentin erosion was examined. Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to analyze the results with a significance level set at 5%. At 100 µm, all protocols significantly reduced dentin microhardness (p < .05, while at 500 µm, this effect was detected only in the EDTA and QMiX groups (p < .05. CA was the irrigant that caused more extensive erosion in dentinal tubules, followed by PA and EDTA. QMiX opened dentinal tubules, but did not cause dentin erosion. Results suggest that QMiX and 17% EDTA reduced dentin microhardness at a greater depth. Additionally, QMiX did not cause dentin erosion.

  8. Mineral content analysis of root canal dentin using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

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    2018-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to introduce the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for evaluation of the mineral content of root canal dentin, and to assess whether a correlation exists between LIBS and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) methods by comparing the effects of irrigation solutions on the mineral content change of root canal dentin. Materials and Methods Forty teeth with a single root canal were decoronated and longitudinally sectioned to expose the canals. The root halves were divided into 4 groups (n = 10) according to the solution applied: group NaOCl, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 1 hour; group EDTA, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) for 2 minutes; group NaOCl+EDTA, 5.25% NaOCl for 1 hour and 17% EDTA for 2 minutes; a control group. Each root half belonging to the same root was evaluated for mineral content with either LIBS or SEM/EDS methods. The data were analyzed statistically. Results In groups NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA, the calcium (Ca)/phosphorus (P) ratio decreased while the sodium (Na) level increased compared with the other groups (p LIBS and SEM/EDS analyses (r = 0.84, p LIBS method proved to be reliable while providing data for the elemental composition of root canal dentin. PMID:29487841

  9. Vitality of Enterococcus faecalis inside dentinal tubules after five root canal disinfection methods.

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    Vatkar, Niranjan Ashok; Hegde, Vivek; Sathe, Sucheta

    2016-01-01

    To compare the vitality of Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules after subjected to five root canal disinfection methods. Dentin blocks (n = 60) were colonized with E. faecalis. After 4 weeks of incubation, the dentin blocks were divided into one control and five test groups (n = 10 each). The root canals of test groups were subjected to one of the disinfection methods, namely, normal saline (NS), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) laser, and diode laser. The effect of disinfection methods was assessed by LIVE/DEAD BacLight stain under the confocal laser scanning microscopy to determine the "zone of dead bacteria" (ZDB). Mean values were calculated for ZDB and the difference between groups was established. Penetration of E. faecalis was seen to a depth of >1000 μm. Viable bacteria were detected with NS irrigation. NaOCl and CHX showed partial ZDB. When the root canals were disinfected with Nd: YAG and diode lasers, no viable bacteria were found. E. faecalis has the ability to colonize inside dentinal tubules to a depth of >1000 μm. In contrast to conventional irrigants, both Nd: YAG and diode lasers were effective in eliminating the vitality of E. faecalis. NS, NaOCl, and CHX showed viable bacteria remaining in dentinal tubules.

  10. Vertical Root Fracture initiation in curved roots after root canal preparation: A dentinal micro-crack analysis with LED transillumination.

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    Miguéns-Vila, Ramón; Martín-Biedma, Benjamín; Varela-Patiño, Purificación; Ruíz-Piñón, Manuel; Castelo-Baz, Pablo

    2017-10-01

    One of the causative factors of root defects is the increased friction produced by rotary instrumentation. A high canal curvature may increase stress, making the tooth more susceptible to dentinal cracks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dentinal micro-crack formation with the ProTaper NEXT and ProTaper Universal systems using LED transillumination, and to analyze the micro-crack generated at the point of maximum canal curvature. 60 human mandibular premolars with curvatures between 30-49° and radii between 2-4 mm were used. The root canals were instrumented using the Protaper Universal® and Protaper NEXT® systems, with the aid of the Proglider® system. The obtained samples were sectioned transversely before subsequent analysis with LED transillumination at 2 mm and 8 mm from the apex and at the point of maximum canal curvature. Defects were scored: 0 for no defects; and 1 for micro-cracks. Root defects were not observed in the control group. The ProTaper NEXT system caused fewer defects (16.7%) than the ProTaper Universal system (40%) ( P Universal system caused significantly more micro-cracks at the point of maximum canal curvature than the ProTaper NEXT system ( P Universal system. A higher prevalence of defects was found at the point of maximum curvature in the ProTaper Universal group. Key words: Curved root, Micro-crack, point of maximum canal curvature, ProTaper NEXT, ProTaper Universal, Vertical root fracture.

  11. Inactivation of local root canal medicaments by dentine: an in vitro study.

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    Haapasalo, H K; Sirén, E K; Waltimo, T M; Ørstavik, D; Haapasalo, M P

    2000-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the inactivation by dentine of the antibacterial activity of various commonly used local root canal medicaments. The medicaments tested were saturated calcium hydroxide solution, 1% sodium hypochlorite, 0.5% and 0.05% chlorhexidine acetate, and 2/4% and 0.2/0.4% iodine potassium iodide. Dentine was sterilized by autoclaving and crushed into powder with a particle size of 0.2-20 microns. Aliquots of dentine suspension were incubated with the medicaments in sealed test tubes at 37 degrees C for 24 h or 1 h before adding the bacteria. In some experiments bacteria were added simultaneously with dentine powder and the medicament. Enterococcus faecalis A197A was used as a test organism. Samples for bacterial culturing were taken from the suspensions at 5 min, 1 h and 24 h after adding the bacteria. Dentine powder had an inhibitory effect on all medicaments tested. The effect was dependent on the concentration of the medicament as well as on the length of the time the medicament was preincubated with dentine powder before adding the bacteria. The effect of calcium hydroxide on E. faecalis was totally abolished by the presence of dentine powder. Similarly, 0.2/0.4% iodine potassium iodide lost its effect after preincubation for 1 h with dentine before adding the bacteria. The effect of 0.05% chlorhexidine and 1% sodium hypochlorite on E. faecalis was reduced but not totally eliminated by the presence of dentine. No inhibition could be measured when full strength solutions of chlorhexidine and iodine potassium iodide were used in killing E. faecalis. The dentine powder model appears to be an efficient tool for the study of interactions between local endodontic medicaments, dentine, and microbes.

  12. Comparison of Dentinal Crack Formation With Reciproc, Mtwo and ProTaper Root Canal Preparation Systems

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    Nazari Moghaddam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Instrumentation with rotary instruments could potentially cause dentinal cracks possibly leading to tooth fracture. Reciproc files require a single file to finalize the root canal preparation and the effect of this procedure has not been compared with other systems. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of dentinal micro-cracks following root canal preparations with ProTaper, Mtwo and Reciproc files. Materials and Methods In an experimental in vitro trial, 80 maxillary and mandibular first molars were selected and their crowns and distal roots were cut. The roots were then examined to remove any previous cracks and defects. An impression polyether material was used to simulate teeth periodontal ligament (PDL. The teeth were divided to four experimental groups (n = 20 and prepared using Reciproc, Mtwo and ProTaper or remained unprepared as a control group. The specimens were then sectioned horizontally on 3, 5 and 9 mm from the apex and number of micro-cracks was determined by stereomicroscope. The incidence of dentinal cracks on different systems or sections were statistically analyzed by means of the chi-square test. Results Dentinal defects on 3-mm, 5-mm and 9-mm sections from the apex were noted in 10 (5.6%; 7 (3.9% and 9 (5.0% samples of all, respectively. Following canal preparation using Reciproc, ProTaper and Mtwo systems, the defects were observed in 7 (3.9%, 12 (6.7% and 7 (3.9% the sections, respectively. No significant differences were observed regarding the defect incidence on the studied instrumentation files or sections. Conclusions Regarding the study limitations, dentinal cracks were observed in all files and distances from the apex. Although there was more crack incidence in ProTaper files, no significant differences were noted regarding the studied systems and sections from the apex.

  13. Bio-reconstruction of root canal using dentin post

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    Navin Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the successful management of complicated crown fracture of left maxillary central incisor (#21 of 23-year-old male using dentin (biological post made from human tooth. Endodontic treatment was initiated and sectional obturation was done using ProTaper gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. The coronal space was modified to receive a human dentin post. A two-step procedure comprising direct and indirect technique of post fabrication was done to achieve the accuracy of biological post. A maxillary cuspid from an institutional tooth bank was taken, sectioned mesiodistally using a diamond disc simulating the length and thickness of mock post. Dentin post was first verified on the plaster model and then cemented in tooth #21. Core build up was done with composite and porcelain fused to metal (PFM crown was luted. On the follow-up visits, patient was asymptomatic and radiographic evaluation revealed normal periradicular architecture. Biological posts may be good alternatives to conventional post systems as they preserve internal dentin walls, provide excellent adhesion, and resilience similar to natural tooth structure.

  14. Ultrastructural analysis of root canal dentine irradiated with 980-nm diode laser energy at different parameters.

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    Marchesan, Melissa Andréia; Brugnera-Junior, Aldo; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Correa-Silva, Silvio Rocha; Sousa-Neto, Manoel D

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) the ultrastructural morphological changes of the radicular dentine surface after irradiation with 980-nm diode laser energy at different parameters and angles of incidence. There have been limited reports on the effects of diode laser irradiation at 980 nm on radicular dentin morphology. Seventy-two maxillary canines were sectioned and roots were biomechanically prepared using K3 rotary instruments. The teeth were irrigated with 2 mL of distilled water between files and final irrigation was performed with 10 mL of distilled water. The teeth were then randomly divided into five groups (n = 8 each) according to their diode laser parameters: Group 1: no irradiation (control); group 2: 1.5 W/continuous wave (CW) emission (the manufacturer's parameters); group 3: 1.5 W/100 Hz; group 4: 3 W/CW; and group 5: 3 W/100 Hz. Laser energy was applied with helicoid movements (parallel to the canal walls) for 20 sec. Eight additional teeth for each group were endodontically prepared and split longitudinally and irradiation was applied perpendicularly to the root surface. Statistical analysis showed no difference between the root canal thirds irradiated with the 980-nm diode laser, and similar results between the parameters 1.5 W/CW and 3 W/100 Hz (p > 0.05). When considering different output powers and delivery modes our results showed that changes varied from smear layer removal to dentine fusion.

  15. Marginal adaptation of newer root canal sealers to dentin: A SEM study.

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    Polineni, Swapnika; Bolla, Nagesh; Mandava, Pragna; Vemuri, Sayesh; Mallela, Madhusudana; Gandham, Vijaya Madhuri

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated and compared the marginal adaptation of three newer root canal sealers to root dentin. Thirty freshly extracted human single-rooted teeth with completely formed apices were taken. Teeth were decoronated, and root canals were instrumented. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) based upon the sealer used. Group 1 - teeth were obturated with epoxy resin sealer (MM-Seal). Group 2 - teeth were obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) based sealer (MTA Fillapex), Group 3 - teeth were obturated with bioceramic sealer (EndoSequence BC sealer). Later samples were vertically sectioned using hard tissue microtome and marginal adaptation of sealers to root dentin was evaluated under coronal and apical halves using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and marginal gap values were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple post hoc test. The highest marginal gap was seen in Group 2 (apical-16680.00 nm, coronal-10796 nm) and the lowest marginal gap was observed in Group 1 (apical-599.42 nm, coronal-522.72 nm). Coronal halves showed superior adaptation compared to apical halves in all the groups under SEM. Within the limitations of this study epoxy resin-based MM-Seal showed good marginal adaptation than other materials tested.

  16. Influence of irrigation regimens on the adherence of Enterococcus faecalis to root canal dentin.

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    Kishen, Anil; Sum, Chee-Peng; Mathew, Shibi; Lim, Chwee-Teck

    2008-07-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is frequently associated with post-treatment endodontic infections. Because adherence of bacteria to a substrate is the earliest stage in biofilm formation, eliciting the factors that links adherence of this bacterium to dentin would help in understanding its association with treatment-failed root canals. This investigation aimed to study the effects of endodontic irrigants on the adherence of E. faecalis to dentin. The bacteria adherence assay was conducted by using fluorescence microscopy, and the adhesion force was measured by using atomic force microscopy. There were significant increases in adherence and adhesion force after irrigation of dentin with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), whereas sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) reduced it. With the use of chlorhexidine (CHX), the force of adhesion increased, but the adherence assay showed a reduction in the number of adhering bacteria. The irrigation regimen of EDTA, NaOCl, and CHX resulted in the least number of adhering E. faecalis cells. This study highlighted that chemicals that alter the physicochemical properties of dentin will influence the nature of adherence, adhesion force, and subsequent biofilm formation of E. faecalis to dentin.

  17. In vitro antimicrobial activity of various medication preparations on E. faecalis in root canal dentin.

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    Lynne, Richard E; Liewehr, Frederick R; West, Lesley A; Patton, William R; Buxton, Thomas B; McPherson, James C

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of several medication preparations in root canal dentin infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Roots of extracted bovine incisors were prepared to standardized cylindrical test specimens, 5 mm in height. The smear layer was removed and the samples were autoclaved and then incubated at 37 degrees C/5% CO2 for 24 h in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth containing 7.0 x 10(4) colony forming units per ml of E. faecalis. The samples were washed in phosphate buffered saline and mounted to individual culture wells with sticky wax. Test medications were applied to fill the canal lumina; medication groups were: (a) sterile H2O (positive control); (b) a 10% mixture of 1.0 g Ca(OH)2 USP in 10 ml sterile H2O; (c) 10% Ca(OH)2 in 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate (Peridex); (d) Peridex; and (e) uninoculated BHI (negative control). The samples were incubated at 37 degrees C/5% CO2 for 24 h. Dentin samples for quantitative microbiology were then obtained with consecutive sterile burs (ISO 029, 035, 042). All three experimental groups demonstrated significantly greater antimicrobial activity than the positive control (p effective than Peridex or 10% Ca(OH)2 in Peridex for the elimination of E. faecalis from dentin tubules.

  18. The effect of root canal preparation on the development of dentin cracks.

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    Milani, Amin Salem; Froughreyhani, Mohammad; Rahimi, Saeed; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Paksefat, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Root fracture is not an instant phenomenon but a result of gradual development of tiny craze lines in tooth structure. Recent studies have shown that canal instrumentation has the potential to cause dentinal cracks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the formation of dentinal cracks caused by ProTaper rotary system to hand instrumentation. This in vitro study was carried out using 57 mandible incisor teeth. The teeth were decoronated. The roots were then examined to exclude cracked samples. A standard model for PDL simulation was used. The teeth were randomly divided into two experimental and one control group (n=19). The teeth in the experimental groups were prepared using hand or ProTaper Universal rotary instrumentation. The teeth in the control group were left unprepared. The teeth were then sectioned horizontally 3 and 6 mm from the apex, and the number of various dentinal defects was recorded using a dental operating microscope. The differences between groups were analyzed with Fisher's exact test. The hand group demonstrated significantly more defects than the control group (P=0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the rotary compared to the control and hand groups (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between groups with regards to fracture (P>0.05). Other defects including internal, external and surface cracks were more frequent in the hand than in the control or rotary groups (P=0.02), but the difference was not significant between the rotary and control groups (P>0.05). Canal preparation, whether hand or rotary, produces structural defects in dentin. The ProTaper rotary system when used according to the manufacturer's instructions, tends to produce fewer cracks and can be considered a safe preparation technique.

  19. Bacterial leakage in root canals filled with AH Plus and dentine bonding agents.

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    Navarro-Escobar, Esther; Baca, Pilar; Ruiz-Linares, Matilde; Arias-Moliz, Maria Teresa; Perez-Heredia, Mercedes; Ferrer-Luque, Carmen Maria

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of different dentine adhesives in delaying the coronal bacterial leakage of Enterococcus faecalis in filled root canals. Materials and methods. Ninety-five lower incisors of patients >65 years of age were instrumented using the ProTaper system and were irrigated with 1 mL of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) alternated with 1 mL 17% EDTA between each file change. Final irrigation was performed with 5 mL of 17% EDTA and then flushed with 5 mL of distilled water. The teeth were randomly divided into five experimental groups (n = 15/group) and one of the following dentine adhesives was applied: (1) AdheSE; (2) Excite DSC; (3) Clearfil Protect Bond; (4) One Coat 7.0; or (5) Control group without adhesive. After filling the root canals, the samples were mounted on a double chamber device to evaluate the bacterial filtration of E. faecalis during a period of 240 days. The results underwent non-parametric Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and comparisons among groups were done using the Log-Rank test. At 240 days, E. faecalis was detected in samples of all groups in the lower chamber. The highest survival value was obtained by One Coat 7.0, giving statistically significant differences from the other groups, whereas Clearfil Protect Bond, AdheSE and Excite DSC showed similar behaviours, likewise similar to the Control group. One Coat 7.0 adhesive system provides the longest survival value to delay E. faecalis coronal leakage in filled root canals.

  20. Effect of root canal sealer and artificial accelerated aging on fibreglass post bond strength to intraradicular dentin.

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    Santana, Fernanda-Ribeiro; Soares, Carlos-José; Ferreira, Josemar-Martins; Valdivi, Andréa-Dolores-Correia-Miranda; Souza, João-Batista-de; Estrela, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of root canal sealers (RCS) and specimen aging on the bond strength of fibre posts to bovine intraradicular dentin. 80 teeth were used according the groups - Sealapextm, Sealer 26®, AH Plus® and specimens aging - test with no aging and with aging. The canals prepared were filled using one of each RCS. The posts were cemented. Roots were cross-sectioned to obtain two slices of each third. Samples were submitted to push-out test. Failure mode was evaluated under a confocal microscope. The data were analysed by ANOVA, Tukey's, and Dunnet tests (α = 0.05). No significant difference was detected among RCS. Aged control presented higher bond strength than immediate control. The aging did not result significant difference. Adhesive cement-dentin failure was prevalent in all groups. RCS interfered negatively with bonding of fibreglass posts cemented with self-adhesive resin cement to intraradicular dentin. Key words:Fibreglass post, bond strength, root dentin, endodontic sealer, aging.

  1. Comparison of effects of ProTaper, HeroShaper, and Gates Glidden Burs on cervical dentin thickness and root canal volume by using multislice computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahran, Abeer H; AboEl-Fotouh, Mona M

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different instruments used to prepare curved root canals on the remaining cervical dentin thickness and total amount of dentin removed from root canals during instrumentation by using multislice computed tomography. Mesiobuccal canals of 45 mandibular first molars with curvature between 30-40 degrees were divided into 3 equal groups: ProTaper, Hero Shaper, and Gates Glidden Bur with Flex-R hand file. Cervical dentin thickness and canal volume were measured before and after instrumentation by using multislice computed tomography and image analysis software. The results indicated that ProTaper removed significantly less cervical dentin from distal wall of the root (dangerous zone) than HeroShaper and Gates Glidden Bur (P ProTaper system (P < .05).

  2. Effect of root canal rinsing protocol on dentin bond strength of two resin cements using three different method of test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Sheikhi, Mohammadreza; Khalilian-Gourtani, Amirhossein; Soleimani, Bahram

    2016-07-01

    Different studies have used different tests to evaluate bond strength of resin cements to root dentin. In this in vitrostudy, three different tests were used to evaluate the bond strength of two resin cements to root dentin using two root dentin irrigation protocols. Ninety-six intact single-rooted teeth were selected for this study. Forty-eight teeth, with a root length of 15mm, were randomly divided into two groups and irrigated with normal saline or 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solutions during root canal preparation, respectively. For each 12 specimens from each group, fiber post #1 was bonded using an etch-and-rinse (Duo-Link) and a self-adhesive (BisCem) resin cement, respectively. After incubation, two specimens were prepared for the push-out test from the middle thirds of the roots. In another 24 teeth, after two 1.5-mm sections were prepared from the middle thirds of the prepared roots, sections of the post were bonded in two subgroups with each of the cements mentioned above and the samples were prepared for the pull-out test. For shear test, the crowns of 48 teeth were cut away, the dentin surfaces were prepared, the two irrigation solutions were used, and the resin cements were bonded. Data collected from the three tests were evaluated by ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey and Weibull tests (α=0.05). There were significant differences in the mean bond strength values between the three bond strength tests (Pstrength in all tests (P>0.05). Under the limitations of the present study, the method of the test used had an effect on the recorded bond strength between the resin cement and root dentin. Cement type and irrigation protocol resulted in similar variations with all the tests. Push-out and shear tests exhibited more coherent results. Bond strength, endodontically treated tooth, fiber post, resin cement, sodium hypochlorite.

  3. Microtensile bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesives to intrapulpal dentin after endodontic irrigation and setting of root canal sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanawongpitak, Nipaporn; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Ikeda, Masaomi; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of endodontic irrigation regimens and calcium hydroxide root canal sealer (Sealapex) on the microtensile bond strengths (muTBS) of dual-curing resin composite (Clearfil DC Core Automix) to the intrapulpal dentin. Forty standardized coronal-half root canal dentin specimens obtained from human premolars were divided into 4 groups: group A, no treatment (control); group B, Sealapex; group C, NaOCl/Sealapex; group D, EDTA/NaOCl/Sealapex. After 7 days of storage in 100% relative humidity, Sealapex was removed. Dentin surfaces were bonded with adhesives, either etch-and-rinse (Single Bond) or self-etching (Clearfil SE Bond), and built up with resin composite. The bonded specimens were trimmed into an hourglass shape with a 1-mm2 cross-sectional area for microtensile testing (n = 20). The muTBS to intrapulpal dentin was analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Dunnett's TC test. Two teeth of each group were prepared for micromorphological analysis of dentin surface. The root canal sealer with or without endodontic irrigation significantly affected the bond strengths of resin composite to intrapulpal dentin compared with the control group (p 0.05). The dentin surface was covered with a mud-like material after sealer application for 7 days. The root canal sealer reduced the muTBS of dual-curing resin composite with etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesive systems to intrapulpal dentin. Treatment with EDTA followed by NaOCI prior to obturation caused an additional reduction in muTBS of both adhesive systems to intrapulpal dentin.

  4. "Dentinal microcracks after root canal preparation" a comparative evaluation with hand, rotary and reciprocating instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, N Tulasi; Chandrasekhar, Veeramachaneni; Anita, S; Tummala, Muralidhar; Raj, T B Phanindhar; Badami, Vijetha; Kumar, Pradeep; Soujanya, E

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of dentinal micro cracks after instrumentation with various types of NiTi files in rotary and reciprocating motion. One hundred human extracted mandibular central incisors were taken and divided into 10 groups (n=10 teeth per group). Group 1- No preparation, Group 2 - Hand instrumentation, Groups 3,4 - ProTaper files in rotary and reciprocating motion, Groups 5,6 - ProTaper Next files in rotary and reciprocating motion, Groups 7,8 - Oneshape files in rotary and reciprocating motion, Groups 9,10 - Reciproc files in rotary and reciprocating motion. Specimens were sectioned horizontally at 3,6 and 9 mm from the apex and dentinal micro cracks were observed under a stereomicroscope. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (pProtaper Next - Rot, Protaper Next - Rec, Reciproc - Rec); (ProTaper - Rot, ProTaper - Rec, Oneshape - Rot), (Oneshape - Rot, Reciproc - Rot), (One shape Reciproc, Reciproc - Rec); (p >.05). Least cracks were seen in canals instrumented with Pro Taper Next files both in rotary and reciprocating motion. Full sequence rotary systems showed less cracks than single file systems and full sequence rotary systems showed less cracks in reciprocating motion than in rotary motion.

  5. The effects of different nickel-titanium instruments on dentinal microcrack formations during root canal preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Yakup; Aslan, Tugrul; Sagsen, Burak; Kesim, Bertan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of dentinal microcracks caused by different preparation techniques. 120 extracted human mandibular incisor teeth were divided into five experimental groups and one control group (n = 20): Group 1: Hand preparation with balanced force technique up to #25 K-file. Group 2: Preparation with only ProTaper F2 instrument in a reciprocating movement. Group 3: Preparation with Reciproc R25 instrument in a reciprocating movement. Group 4: Preparation with ProTaper instruments up to F2 instrument. Group 5: Preparation with ProTaper Next instruments up to X2 instrument. No procedure was applied to control group. The roots were sectioned horizontally at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the apex and examined. Absence or presence of dentinal microcracks was noted. The Chi-square test was performed to compare the appearance of cracked roots between all groups. There were no significant differences among the groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, except the hand file and control group, all experimental groups showed microcrack formations.

  6. Comparison of the effects of TripleGates and Gates-Glidden burs on cervical dentin thickness and root canal area by using cone beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kássio SOUSA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The search for new instruments to promote an appropriate cervical preparation has led to the development of new rotary instruments such as TripleGates. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, there is no study evaluating TripleGates effect on the “risk zone” of mandibular molars. Objectives : The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a crown-down sequence of Gates-Glidden and TripleGates burs on the remaining cervical dentin thickness and the total amount of dentin removed from the root canals during the instrumentation by using cone beam computed tomography. The number of separated instruments was also evaluated. Material and Methods : Mesial roots of 40 mandibular first molars were divided into 2 equal groups: crown-down sequence of Gates-Glidden (#3, #2, #1 and TripleGates burs. Cervical dentin thickness and canal area were measured before and after instrumentation by using cone beam computed tomography and image analysis software. Student’s t-test was used to determine significant differences at p0.05 were observed between the instruments, regarding the root canal area and dentin wall thickness. Conclusion : Both tested instruments used for cervical preparation were safe to be used in the mesial root canal of mandibular molars.

  7. Incidence of apical root cracks and apical dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, R.; Kaiwar, A.; Shemesh, H.; Wesselink, P.R.; Hou, B.; Wu, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of apical root cracks and dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths. Methods Two hundred forty mandibular incisors were mounted in resin blocks with simulated

  8. Incidence of dentinal defects after preparation of severely curved root canals using the Reciproc single-file system with and without prior creation of a glide path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, S E D M; Schäfer, E

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the incidence of dentinal defects after preparation of severely curved root canals using the Reciproc single-file system with and without prior creation of a glide path. Mesial roots from extracted mandibular first molars were collected and scanned with CBCT to assess the morphology of the root canal systems. Three groups of 20 anatomically comparable specimens were generated. The control group was left unprepared, whilst the experimental groups were prepared with Reciproc R25 with and without a glide path (groups RG and R, respectively). Roots were then sectioned perpendicular to the long axis at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mm from the apex, and coloured photographs of the sections at 40× were obtained. Two blinded examiners registered the presence of dentinal defects twice at 2-week interval. Data were statistically analysed using the Fisher exact and Cochran's Q tests. No defects were observed in the control group. The overall incidence of dentinal defects was 26% in group R and 24% in group RG, with no significant differences between them (P > 0.05). Dentinal defects occurred significantly more often in the middle and coronal thirds compared to the apical third of the canals (P files. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of calcium hydroxide and double and triple antibiotic pastes on the bond strength of epoxy resin-based sealer to root canal dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Merve; Arslan, Hakan; Topcuoglu, Hüseyin Sinan; Tuncay, Oznur

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of calcium hydroxide (CH) and triple (TAP) and double (DAP) antibiotic pastes on the bond strength of an epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus Jet; Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) to the root canal dentin. Sixty-four single-rooted human mandibular premolars were decoronated and prepared using the rotary system to size 40. The specimens were randomly divided into a control group (without intracanal dressing) and 3 experimental groups that received an intracanal dressing with either CH, DAP, or TAP (n = 16). The intracanal dressing was removed by rinsing with 10 mL 17% EDTA followed by 10 mL 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. The root canals were then obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus Jet sealer. A push-out test was used to measure the bond strength between the root canal dentin and the sealer. The data were analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests to detect the effect of the independent variables (intracanal medicaments and root canal thirds) and their interactions on the push-out bond strength of the root canal filling material to the root dentin (P = .05). The push-out bond strength values were significantly affected by the intracanal medicaments (P .05). In the middle and apical third, the bond strength of the TAP group was higher than those of the CH and DAP groups (P < .05). The DAP and CH did not affect the bond strength of the epoxy resin-based sealer. Additionally, the TAP improved the bond strength of the epoxy resin-based sealer in the middle and apical thirds. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of the copper vapour laser radiation in the root canal wall dentine: in vitro experiment using scanning electron microscopy and stereoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Maria Claudia Garcia da

    2001-01-01

    Ten human uniradicular teeth had their crown removed along the cement-enamel junction and right away a proper chemical-surgical preparation of the radicular canals was done; the roots were longitudinally sectioned in order to allow the irradiation of the surfaces of the root canals wall dentine. The hemi-roots were separated in two groups: group I (control), with four hemi-roots, not irradiated; and group II, with 16 hemi-roots, subdivided in four sub-groups submitted to the following exposition time: 0,02 s; 0,05 s; 0,1 s and 0,5 s. A copper vapour laser was used with a 510,6 nm wavelength, total average power of 11 W in green and yellow emissions; average power of 6,5 W in green emission; pulse repetition rate of 16.000 Hz and pulse duration of 30 ns. The pulse energy (green line) is 0,4 mJ and the peak power 13,5 W. The laser cavity is unstable type (R 1 =3.900 mm and R 2 -250 mm). The focusing have focal length lens f 1 =250 mm and f 2 =150 mm. The beam quality is of the M 2 =5. The results obtained by scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the appearance of a cavity in the region of the laser beam incidence in the edges of this cavity, dentin was melt and resolidified presenting also cracks due to heat diffusion. Based on these results, we concluded that the size of the cavity formed in the dentin is directly proportional to the rate of exposure and, the more laser emission in the same area, more damage in the root canals wall dentin occurs. More studies need to be done with different exposition's time in order to obtain a safety protocol that does not cause injury in dental and support tissue. (author)

  11. A micro-computed tomographic evaluation of dentinal microcrack alterations during root canal preparation using single-file Ni-Ti systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Lin; Liao, Wei-Li; Cai, Hua-Xiong

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the length of dentinal microcracks observed prior to and following root canal preparation with different single-file nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) systems using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. A total of 80 mesial roots of mandibular first molars presenting with type II Vertucci canal configurations were scanned at an isotropic resolution of 7.4 µm. The samples were randomly assigned into four groups (n=20 per group) according to the system used for root canal preparation, including the WaveOne (WO), OneShape (OS), Reciproc (RE) and control groups. A second micro-CT scan was conducted after the root canals were prepared with size 25 instruments. Pre- and postoperative cross-section images of the roots (n=237,760) were then screened to identify the lengths of the microcracks. The results indicated that the microcrack lengths were notably increased following root canal preparation (Pfiles. Among the single-file Ni-Ti systems, WO and RE were not observed to cause notable microcracks, while the OS system resulted in evident microcracks.

  12. Incidence of apical root cracks and apical dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Kaiwar, Anjali; Shemesh, Hagay; Wesselink, Paul R; Hou, Benxiang; Wu, Min-Kai

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of apical root cracks and dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths. Two hundred forty mandibular incisors were mounted in resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligaments, and the apex was exposed. The root canals were instrumented with rotary and hand files, namely K3, ProTaper, and nickel-titanium Flex K files to the major apical foramen (AF), short AF, or beyond AF. Digital images of the apical surface of every tooth were taken during the apical enlargement at each file change. Development of dentinal defects was determined by comparing these images with the baseline image. Multinomial logistic regression test was performed to identify influencing factors. Apical crack developed in 1 of 80 teeth (1.3%) with hand files and 31 of 160 teeth (19.4%) with rotary files. Apical dentinal detachment developed in 2 of 80 teeth (2.5%) with hand files and 35 of 160 teeth (21.9%) with rotary files. Instrumentation with rotary files terminated 2 mm short of AF and did not cause any cracks. Significantly less cracks and detachments occurred when instrumentation with rotary files was terminated short of AF, as compared with that terminated at or beyond AF (P hand instruments; instrumentation short of AF reduced the risk of dentinal defects. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of warm air-blowing on the microtensile bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesives to root canal dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Keita; Hosaka, Keiichi; Ikeda, Masaomi; Kishikawa, Ryuzo; Foxton, Richard; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Tagami, Junji

    2018-02-01

    The use of warm air-blowing to evaporate solvents of one-step self-etch adhesive systems (1-SEAs) has been reported to be a useful method. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of warm air-blowing on root canal dentin. Four 1-SEAs (Clearfil Bond SE ONE, Unifil Core EM self-etch bond, Estelink, BeautiDualbond EX) were used. Each 1-SEA was applied to root canal dentin according to the manufacturers' instructions. After the adhesives were applied, solvent was evaporated using either normal air (23±1°C) or warm air (80±1°C) for 20s, and resin composite was placed in the post spaces. The air from the dryer, which could be used in normal- or hot-air-mode, was applied at a distance of 5cm above the root canal cavity in the direction of tooth axis. The temperature of the stream of air from the dryer in the hot-air-mode was 80±1°C, and in the normal mode, 23±1°C. After water storage of the specimens for 24h, the μTBS were evaluated at the coronal and apical regions. The μTBSs were statistically analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Student's t-test with Bonferroni correction (α=0.05). The warm air-blowing significantly increased the μTBS of all 1-SEAs at the apical regions, and also significantly increased the μTBS of two adhesives (Estelink and BeautiDualBond EX) at coronal regions. The μTBS of 1-SEAs to root canal dentin was improved by using warm air-blowing. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  15. The effect of 17% EDTA and MTAD on smear layer removal and on erosion of root canal dentin when used as final rinse: An in vitro SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal A Mahajan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the ability of a mixture of tetracycline isomer, citric acid and detergent (MTAD and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA in removing the smear layer along with their effects on peritubular and intertubular dentinal structures by scanning electron microscopic (SEM examination. Materials and Methods: Thirty recently extracted maxillary and mandibular single-rooted human teeth were divided into 3 groups and prepared to an apical size of 30. In Group 1, 2, and 3, MTAD, EDTA, and distilled water were used, respectively, as a final rinse solution to remove the smear layer. The specimens were subjected to SEM evaluation for the presence or absence of the smear layer and degree of erosion using a scoring system. Results: The result showed that MTAD shows better smear layer removing ability and does not significantly change the structure of dentinal tubules. Conclusion: MTAD is an efficient solution for the removal of the smear layer, especially in the apical third of root canals, and does not significantly change the structure of the dentinal tubules.

  16. Effect of polymerization mode of two adhesive systems on push-out bond strength of fiber post to different regions of root canal dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Farzin Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A few studies have investigated the effect of the activation mode of adhesive systems on bond strength of fiber posts to root canal dentin. This study investigated the push-out bond strengths of a glass fiber post to different root canal regions with the use of two adhesives with light- and dual-cure polymerization modes. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 40 maxillary central incisors were decoronated at cement-enamel junction with 15 ± 1 mm root length. After root canal therapy and post space preparations, they were randomly divided into four groups. Post spaces were treated with four different adhesives: Excite, Excite Dual cure Single Component (DSC, self-etch adhesive (AdheSE, and AdheSE dual-cure. Then the fiber-reinforced composite (FRC post, Postec Plus, was cemented with dual-cure resin cement, Variolink II. The roots were cut into three 2-mm-thick slices. Push-out tests were performed with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mode of failures was determined under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey test was conducted to compare post hoc with P < 0.05 as the level of significance. Results: The highest bond strength was obtained for AdheSE dual-cure (15.54 ± 6.90 MPa and the lowest was obtained for Excite light-cure (10.07 ± 7.45 MPa and only the bond strength between these two adhesives had significant difference (P = 0.02. Bond strength decreased from the coronal to the apical in all groups and this was significant in Excite (group 1 and AdheSE (group 3 (P < 0.001. In apical regions, bond strength of dual-cure adhesives was significantly higher than light-cure adhesives (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Push-out bond strength of fiber post to different regions of root canal dentin was affected by both adhesive systems and their polymerization modes.

  17. Comparative evaluation of dentinal crack formation after root canal preparation using ProTaper Next, OneShape, and Hyflex EDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sanjib; Pradhan, Prasanti Kumari; Lata, S; Sinha, Sachidananda Prasad

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of dentinal crack formation after root canal preparation using ProTaper Next, OneShape, and Hyflex electrodischarge machining (HEDM). A total of 75 extracted mandibular premolars were selected. The root canals were instrumented using ProTaper Next, OneShape, and HEDM rotary files. All roots were horizontally sectioned at 3, 6, and 9 mm from apex with slow-speed saw under water cooling. The sections were observed under a stereomicroscope at ×25 to determine the absence or presence of crack. Data were analyzed using post hoc test and one-way ANOVA. ProTaper Next and HEDM produced significantly less cracks than OneShape. Within the limitation of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that nickel-titanium instruments may cause cracks on the root surface. ProTaper Next and HEDM tend to produce less number of cracks as compared to OneShape.

  18. Influence of Laser Activated Irrigation with Erbium Lasers on Bond Strength of Inidividually Formed Fiber Reinforced Composite Posts to Root Canal Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Miletić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of laser activated irrigation (LAI using two erbium lasers on bond strength of individually formed fiber-reinforced composite (FRC posts to root canal dentin. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven single-rooted human teeth were endodontically treated and after post space preparation divided into three groups (n=9 per group, according to the pre-treatment of post space preparation: 1 Conventional syringe irrigation (CSI and saline; 2 Er.YAG photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS technique and saline; 3 Er,Cr:YSGG activated irrigation with RFT2 tip. Two specimens from each group were used for SEM analysis. The remaining specimens (n=7 per group received individually formed FRC post, everStick POST, luted with self-adhesive cement, G-CEM LinkAce. After cementation, the roots were perpendicularly sectioned into 1 mm thin sections and a push-out test was carried out (0.5 mm/min. The data were calculated as megapascals and were log transformed and statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA at the level of significance set at 5%. Results: In the control group, the smear layer was still present. In the Er:YAG group, the smear layer was removed. In the Er,Cr:YSGG group, the smear layer was partially removed. The Er,Cr:YSGG group achieved the highest bond strength values, followed by the control group and then the Er:YAG group, but no statistically significant difference was found in bond strength values in the tested group of post space pretreatment (p=0.564. Conclusions: LAI using two erbium lasers, with PIPS or RFT2 tip, did not affect the bond strength of individually formed FRC posts to root canal dentin.

  19. Endoscopic root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonov, Joshua; Michaeli, Eli; Nahlieli, Oded

    2009-10-01

    To describe an innovative endoscopic technique for root canal treatment. Root canal treatment was performed on 12 patients (15 teeth), using a newly developed endoscope (Sialotechnology), which combines an endoscope, irrigation, and a surgical microinstrument channel. Endoscopic root canal treatment of all 15 teeth was successful with complete resolution of all symptoms (6-month follow-up). The novel endoscope used in this study accurately identified all microstructures and simplified root canal treatment. The endoscope may be considered for use not only for preoperative observation and diagnosis but also for active endodontic treatment.

  20. Chemical treatment of the intra-canal dentin surface: a new approach to modify dentin hydrophobicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar GAITAN-FONSECA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the hydrophobicity of dentin surfaces that were modified through chemical silanization with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS. Material and Methods An in vitro experimental study was performed using 40 human permanent incisors that were divided into the following two groups: non-silanized and silanized. The specimens were pretreated and chemically modified with OTS. After the chemical modification, the dentin hydrophobicity was examined using a water contact angle measurement (WCA. The effectiveness of the modification of hydrophobicity was verified by the fluid permeability test (FPT. Results and Conclusions Statistically significant differences were found in the values of WCA and FPT between the two groups. After silanization, the hydrophobic intraradicular dentin surface exhibited in vitro properties that limit fluid penetration into the sealed root canal. This chemical treatment is a new approach for improving the sealing of the root canal system.

  1. The influence of the Q-switched and free-running Er:YAG laser beam characteristics on the ablation of root canal dentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiakoumou, Eirini; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios N.; Khabbaz, Marouan G.; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    2004-01-01

    Laser based dental treatment is attractive to many researchers. Lasers in the 3 μm region, as the Er:YAG, are suitable especially for endodontic applications. In this study a pulsed free-running and Q-switched laser was used for the ablation experiments of root canal dentine. The laser beam was either directly focused on the dental tissue or delivered to it through an infrared fiber. For different spatial beam distributions, energies, number of pulses and both laser operations the quality characteristics (crater's shape formation, ablation efficiency and surface characteristics modification) were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The craters produced, generally, reflect the relevant beam profile. Inhomogeneous spatial beam profiles and short pulse duration result in cracks formation and lower tissue removal efficiency, while longer pulse durations cause hard dentine fusion. Any beam profile modification, due to laser characteristics variations and the specific delivering system properties, is directly reflected in the ablation crater shape and the tissue removal efficiency. Therefore, the laser parameters, as fluence, pulse repetition rate and number of pulses, have to be carefully adjusted in relation to the desirable result

  2. Influence of the Dentinal Wall on the pH of Sodium Hypochlorite during Root Canal Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, Ricardo Gomes; Herrero, Noemi Pascual; Wesselink, Paul; Versluis, Michel; van der Sluis, Luc

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of dentin on the pH levels of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions over time and to evaluate if preconditioning of dentin with 17% EDTA or agitation of the NaOCl solution influences these pH levels.

  3. Semiconductor laser irradiation improves root canal sealing during routine root canal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingxue; Wang, Dashan; Cui, Ting; Yao, Ruyong

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of semiconductor laser irradiation on root canal sealing after routine root canal therapy (RCT). Methods Sixty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). The anatomic crowns were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction and the remaining roots were prepared endodontically with conventional RCT methods. Groups A and B were irradiated with semiconductor laser at 1W for 20 seconds; Groups C and D were ultrasonically rinsed for 60 seconds as positive control groups; Groups E and F without treatment of root canal prior to RCT as negative control groups. Root canal sealing of Groups A, C and E were evaluated by measurements of apical microleakage. The teeth from Groups B, D and F were sectioned, and the micro-structures were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One way ANOVA and LSD-t test were used for statistical analysis (α = .05). Results The apical sealing of both the laser irradiated group and the ultrasonic irrigated group were significantly different from the control group (pirrigated group (p>0.5). SEM observation showed that most of the dentinal tubules in the laser irradiation group melted, narrowed or closed, while most of the dentinal tubules in the ultrasonic irrigation group were filled with tooth paste. Conclusion The application of semiconductor laser prior to root canal obturation increases the apical sealing of the roots treated. PMID:28957407

  4. Assessment Using AutoCAD Software of the Preparation of Dentin Walls in Root Canals Produced by 4 Different Endodontic Instrument Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cabanillas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of four instrument systems for preparing oval root canals: manual instrumentation (Step-Back technique, ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and Wave One. Material and Methods. For the purpose of this assessment, 60 teeth extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons, specifically canines and premolars with full coronal and root anatomy, were used and 15 samples were assigned to each group. The section of the canals was compared before and after instrumenting and the section of untouched canal wall was measured using AutoCAD software. The data was analysed by means of Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. In the apical third, 100% of the canals were prepared with all the systems. In the middle third, a p value of 0.5989 in the Kruskal-Wallis test was obtained, which indicates no significant difference between the groups. At the coronal third level, the results obtained revealed that Wave One had a significantly lower mean average than the rest (p<0.05. Conclusions. There are no differences between the various root canal instrument systems in the apical and middle thirds. At the coronal third level, Wave One system showed performance significantly worse than the rest, among which there were no differences.

  5. Assessment Using AutoCAD Software of the Preparation of Dentin Walls in Root Canals Produced by 4 Different Endodontic Instrument Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Cristina; Monterde, Manuel; Pallarés, Antonio; Aranda, Susana; Montes, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of four instrument systems for preparing oval root canals: manual instrumentation (Step-Back technique), ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and Wave One. Material and Methods. For the purpose of this assessment, 60 teeth extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons, specifically canines and premolars with full coronal and root anatomy, were used and 15 samples were assigned to each group. The section of the canals was compared before and after instrumenting and the section of untouched canal wall was measured using AutoCAD software. The data was analysed by means of Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. In the apical third, 100% of the canals were prepared with all the systems. In the middle third, a p value of 0.5989 in the Kruskal-Wallis test was obtained, which indicates no significant difference between the groups. At the coronal third level, the results obtained revealed that Wave One had a significantly lower mean average than the rest (p < 0.05). Conclusions. There are no differences between the various root canal instrument systems in the apical and middle thirds. At the coronal third level, Wave One system showed performance significantly worse than the rest, among which there were no differences.

  6. Effectiveness of EDTA as the irrigation solution to remove smear layer in root canal

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniasri Amas Achiar; Endang Sukartini

    2009-01-01

    One of the objectives of successful endodontic treatment is the hermetic obturation of the root canal system. To achieve this, the root canal filling must seal the canal space both apically and coronally to prevent the ingress of microorganisms or tissue fluids into the canal space. Apical leakage is reported a common reason for the clinical failure of endodontic therapy. Leakage through an obturated root canal is expected to take place at interfaces between sealer and dentin or sealer and gu...

  7. Osmolarity and root canal antiseptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Fedele, G; Guastalli, A R

    2014-04-01

    Antiseptics used in endodontics for disinfection purposes include root canal dressings and irrigants. Osmotic shock is known to cause the alteration of microbial cell viability and might have a role in the mechanism of action of root canal antiseptics. The aim of this review was to determine the role of osmolarity on the performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment. A literature search using the Medline electronic database was conducted up to 30 May 2013 using the following search terms and combinations: 'osmolarity AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmolality AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmotic AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmosis AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; sodium chloride AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm'. Publications were included if the effects of osmolarity on the clinical performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment were stated, if preparations with different osmolarities values were compared and if they were published in English. A hand search of articles published online, 'in press' and 'early view', and in the reference list of the included papers was carried out following the same criteria. A total of 3274 publications were identified using the database, and three were included in the review. The evidence available in endodontics suggests a possible role for hyperosmotic root canal medicaments as disinfectants, and that there is no influence of osmolarity on the tissue dissolution capacity of sodium hypochlorite. There are insufficient data to obtain a sound conclusion regarding the role of hypo-osmosis in root canal disinfection, or osmosis in any further desirable

  8. In vivo model for microbial invasion of tooth root dentinal tubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane L. BRITTAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Bacterial penetration of dentinal tubules via exposed dentine can lead to root caries and promote infections of the pulp and root canal system. The aim of this work was to develop a new experimental model for studying bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules within the human oral cavity. Material and Methods Sections of human root dentine were mounted into lower oral appliances that were worn by four human subjects for 15 d. Roots were then fixed, sectioned, stained and examined microscopically for evidence of bacterial invasion. Levels of invasion were expressed as Tubule Invasion Factor (TIF. DNA was extracted from root samples, subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA genes, and invading bacteria were identified by comparison of sequences with GenBank database. Results All root dentine samples with patent tubules showed evidence of bacterial cell invasion (TIF value range from 5.7 to 9.0 to depths of 200 mm or more. A spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative cell morphotypes were visualized, and molecular typing identified species of Granulicatella, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas as dentinal tubule residents. Conclusion A novel in vivo model is described, which provides for human root dentine to be efficiently infected by oral microorganisms. A range of bacteria were able to initially invade dentinal tubules within exposed dentine. The model will be useful for testing the effectiveness of antiseptics, irrigants, and potential tubule occluding agents in preventing bacterial invasion of dentine.

  9. Assessment of three root canal preparation techniques on root canal geometry using micro-computed tomography: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikha M Al-Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the effects of three root canal preparation techniques on canal volume and surface area using three-dimensionally reconstructed root canals in extracted human maxillary molars. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted Human Maxillary Molars having three separate roots and similar root shape were randomly selected from a pool of extracted teeth for this study and stored in normal saline solution until used. A computed tomography scanner (Philips Brilliance CT 64-slice was used to analyze root canals in extracted maxillary molars. Specimens were scanned before and after canals were prepared using stainless steel K-Files, Ni-Ti rotary ProTaper and rotary SafeSiders instruments. Differences in dentin volume removed, the surface area, the proportion of unchanged area and canal transportation were calculated using specially developed software. Results: Instrumentation of canals increased volume and surface area. Statistical analysis found a statistically significant difference among the 3 groups in total change in volume (P = 0.001 and total change in surface area (P = 0.13. Significant differences were found when testing both groups with group III (SafeSiders. Significant differences in change of volume were noted when grouping was made with respect to canal type (in MB and DB (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The current study used computed tomography, an innovative and non destructive technique, to illustrate changes in canal geometry. Overall, there were few statistically significant differences between the three instrumentation techniques used. SafeSiders stainless steel 40/0.02 instruments exhibit a greater cutting efficiency on dentin than K-Files and ProTaper. CT is a new and valuable tool to study root canal geometry and changes after preparation in great details. Further studies with 3D-techniques are required to fully understand the biomechanical aspects of root canal preparation.

  10. Prevention of root caries with dentin adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogono, A L; Mayo, J A

    1994-04-01

    This in vitro investigation determined the feasibility of using dentin adhesives to protect root surfaces against caries. The roots of 22 recently extracted human teeth were all painted with a protective lacquer leaving two unprotected small windows. On each specimen, one window (control) was left untreated and the other window (experimental) was treated using a dentin adhesive (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose). The roots were then immersed in an in vitro acetate/calcium/phosphate demineralization model at pH 4.3. After 70 days, the samples were removed and sectioned through the windows. The undecalcified ground sections were examined under transmitted and polarized light. Lesions characteristic of natural root caries were seen in the untreated control windows. No such lesions were apparent in the experimental windows. The results of this preliminary study suggest that dentin adhesives may provide protection against root caries.

  11. Effects of Self-Adjusting File, Mtwo, and ProTaper on the root canal wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hin, E.S.; Wu, M.K.; Wesselink, P.R.; Shemesh, H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this ex vivo study was to observe the incidence of cracks in root dentin after root canal preparation with hand files, self-adjusting file (SAF), ProTaper, and Mtwo. Methods One hundred extracted mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly selected. Two

  12. The Effect of Canal Preparation with Four Different Rotary Systems on Formation of Dentinal Cracks: An In Vitro Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbin, Elham; Donyavi, Zakiyeh; Abbasi Atibeh, Erfan; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Amani, Faranak

    2018-01-01

    Endodontic rotary systems may result in dentinal cracks. They may propagate to vertical root fracture that compromises the outcome of endodontic treatment. This study aimed to compare Neolix and Reciproc (single-file systems), Mtwo and ProTaper (conventional rotary systems) in terms of dentinal crack formation in root canal walls. This in vitro study was conducted on 110 extracted human single-rooted teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups ( n =25) for root canal preparation with Neolix, Reciproc, Mtwo and ProTaper systems and two control groups ( n =5). The first control group underwent root canal instrumentation with hand files while the second control group received no preparation and was only irrigated. After instrumentation, root canals were horizontally sectioned at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the apex and inspected under a stereomicroscope under 12× magnification for detection of cracks. The data were analyzed using Chi-square, GEE test and Bonferroni tests ( P ProTaper, Reciproc, Mtwo and Neolix caused cracks in 92%, 80%, 68% and 48% of samples. ProTaper caused significantly more cracks than Neolix and Mtwo ( P 0.05). All rotary systems cause dentinal cracks and it is significantly different in apical, middle and coronal third of the root. Neolix appears to be a suitable alternative to other rotary systems since use of this single-file system saves time and cost and minimizes trauma to dentinal walls.

  13. Micro-Computed Tomography Analysis of the Root Canal Morphology of Palatal Roots of Maxillary First Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceliano-Alves, Marília; Alves, Flávio Rodrigues Ferreira; Mendes, Daniel de Melo; Provenzano, José Claudio

    2016-02-01

    A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy is critical for successful root canal treatments. This study evaluated the internal anatomy of the palatal roots of maxillary first molars with micro-computed tomography (microCT). The palatal roots of extracted maxillary first molars (n = 169) were scanned with microCT to determine several anatomic parameters, including main canal classification, lateral canal occurrence and location, degree of curvature, main foramen position, apical constriction presence, diameters 1 and 2 mm from the apex and 1 mm from the foramen, minor dentin thickness in those regions, canal volume, surface area, and convexity. All canals were classified as Vertucci type I. The cross sections were oval in 61% of the canals. Lateral canals were found in 25% of the samples. The main foramen did not coincide with the root apex in 95% of the cases. Only 8% of the canals were classified as straight. Apical constriction was identified in 38% of the roots. The minor and major canal diameters and minor dentin thickness were decreased near the apex. The minor dentin thickness 1 mm from the foramen was 0.82 mm. The palatal canals exhibited a volume of 6.91 mm(3) and surface area of 55.31 mm(2) and were rod-shaped. The root canals of the palatal roots were classified as type I. However, some factors need to be considered during the treatment of these roots, including the frequent ocurrence of moderate/severe curvatures, oval-shaped cross-sections, and lateral canals, noncoincidence of the apical foramen with the root apex, and absence of apical constriction in most cases. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the root canal shaping ability of two rotary nickel-titanium systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Manei, K K; Al-Hadlaq, S M S

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the canal shaping abilities of the twisted file (TF) and GT series X file (GTX) systems. Sixty mesial root canals of mandibular molars with curvatures of 15-50° were divided randomly into two groups of 30 canals each. The teeth were sectioned horizontally at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the apex. Root canals were prepared with TF and GTX files, respectively, and the shaping abilities of the systems were evaluated at three levels (coronal, middle and apical) based on the comparison of pre- and post-instrumentation photographs using AutoCAD software. Preparation time was also assessed. Data from the two groups were compared statistically using the Student's t-test. There was no significant difference between the rotary systems in terms of change in root canal cross-sectional area, root canal transportation, centring ability or minimum dentine thickness. Remaining dentine thickness at the coronal and middle levels was similar in the TF and GTX groups, but GTX instruments left significantly less dentine than TF instruments on the mesial aspects of root canals at the apical level. Root canal preparation with TF instruments required significantly less time than with GTX instruments. The TF and GTX NiTi rotary instruments showed similar shaping abilities, but root canal preparation was more rapid with the TF than with the GTX system. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of self-adjusting file, Mtwo, and ProTaper on the root canal wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hin, Ellemieke S; Wu, Min-Kai; Wesselink, Paul R; Shemesh, Hagay

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this ex vivo study was to observe the incidence of cracks in root dentin after root canal preparation with hand files, self-adjusting file (SAF), ProTaper, and Mtwo. One hundred extracted mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly selected. Two angulated radiographs were taken for each tooth, and the width of the canal was measured at 9 mm from the apex. Five groups of 20 teeth each were comparable in canal width. The control group was left unprepared. Four experimental groups were instrumented with hand files, ProTaper, Mtwo, and SAF. Roots were then sectioned horizontally and observed under a microscope. The presence of dentinal cracks and their location were noted. The difference between the experimental groups was analyzed with a χ(2) test. No cracks were observed in the control group. In the experimental groups, ProTaper, Mtwo, and SAF caused cracks in 35%, 25%, and 10% of teeth, respectively. The hand-file group did not show any dentinal cracks (P ProTaper and Mtwo caused more cracks than hand files (P .05). Instrumentation of root canals with SAF, Mtwo, and ProTaper could cause damage to root canal dentin. SAF has a tendency to cause less dentinal cracks as compared with ProTaper or Mtwo. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc...... received tribochemical silicate coating according to the manufacturer's instructions. Posts were then luted in the prepared root canals (n=30 per group). Following water storage at 37°C for seven days, retention of the posts was determined by the pull-out method. Irrespective of the luting cement......, pretreatment with tribochemical silicate coating significantly increased retention of the posts. Increased cement film thickness resulted in decreased retention of untreated posts and of pretreated posts luted with zinc phosphate cement. Increased cement film thickness had no influence on retention...

  17. Root canal preparation with Er:YSGG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthin, Hartmut; Ertl, Thomas P.; Onal, B.; Schruender, Stephan; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1994-12-01

    The high level of efficiency of hard tissue ablation with Er:YAG and Er:YSGG lasers is well known. Of these lasers it is possible only to transmit Er:YSGG laser radiation with OH reduced quartz fibers. Most of the fibers we use in this study were prepared as hemispherical fiber tips. Fifty single rooted teeth were divided into ten groups (n equals 5). After conventional opening of the pulp chamber, root canal preparation was performed in five groups under water only using the laser. In the other five groups preparation with K-files to size 35 was performed before treatment with laser radiation. All teeth were axially separated with direct access to the root canal and examined in SEM investigations. The groups were compared by measuring the areas with patent dentin tubules. Representative areas were examined by TEM. The temperature at the root surface was measured during laser irradiation with thermocouples positioned at several points. The in-vitro study of the effect of the high delivered energy (50 - 100 mJ per pulse) in the root canal showed a good ablation effect. Most of the dentin tubules were opened. The increase in temperature at the root surface was tolerable.

  18. Adaptation and penetration of resin-based root canal sealers in root canals irradiated with high-intensity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Palo, Renato Miotto; Prokopowitsch, Igor; Pameijer, Cornelis H.; Marques, Marcia Martins

    2015-03-01

    This research analyzed the quality of resin-based sealer adaptation after intracanal laser irradiation. Extracted teeth (n=168) were root canal treated and divided into four groups, according to dentin surface treatment: no laser; Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 100 mJ, 15 Hz) diode laser (2.5 W in CW), and Er:YAG laser (1 W, 100 mJ, 10 Hz). The teeth were divided into four subgroups according to the sealer used: AH Plus, EndoREZ, Epiphany, and EpiphanySE. For testing the sealing after root canal obturation, the penetration of silver nitrate solution was measured, whereas to evaluate the adaptation and penetration of the sealer into the dentin, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used. The ESEM images were analyzed using a four-grade criteria score by three evaluators. The inter-examiner agreement was confirmed by Kappa test and the scores statistically compared by the Kruskal-Wallis' test (p<0.05). Both adaptation and sealer penetration in root canals were not affected by the laser irradiation. Nd:YAG and diode laser decreased the tracer penetration for AH Plus, whereas EndoREZ and EpiphanySE performances were affected by Nd:YAG irradiation (p<0.05). It can be concluded that intracanal laser irradiation can be used as an adjunct in endodontic treatment; however, the use of hydrophilic resin sealers should be avoided when root canals were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser.

  19. In vitro comparative study of manual and mechanical rotary instrumentation of root canals using computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, Orlando; de Albuquerque, Diana Santana; Baratto Filho, Flares; Vanni, José Roberto; de Oliveira, Elias P Motcy; Barletta, Fernando Branco

    2007-01-01

    This in vitro study compared, using computed tomography (CT), the amount of dentin removed from root canal walls by manual and mechanical rotary instrumentation techniques. Forty mandibular incisors with dental crown and a single canal were selected. The teeth were randomly assigned to two groups, according to the technique used for root canal preparation: Group I - manual instrumentation with stainless steel files; Group II - mechanical instrumentation with RaCe rotary nickel-titanium instruments. In each tooth, root dentin thickness of the buccal, lingual, mesial and distal surfaces in the apical, middle and cervical thirds of the canal was measured (in mm) using a multislice CT scanner (Siemens Emotion, Duo). Data were stored in the SPSS v. 11.5 and SigmaPlot 2001 v. 7.101 softwares. After crown opening, working length was determined, root canals were instrumented and new CT scans were taken for assessment of root dentin thickness. Pre- and post-instrumentation data were compared and analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test for significant differences (p=0.05). Based on the findings of this study, it may be concluded that regarding dentin removal from root canal walls during instrumentation, neither of the techniques can be considered more effective than the other.

  20. Unpredictable Root Canal Morphology: Expect the Unexpected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohez J Makani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A maxillary first molar with more than four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations, especially when two of these canals are detected, with separate apical foramen in the distal root. The inability to locate the unexpected canals of various anatomical configuration and subsequently treat them , may lead to therapeutic failures. Endodontic retreatment is usually the modality of choice in such cases. This report describes a case of a maxillary first molar with five canals (two mesial canals in mesial root, two distal canals in two distal roots and a palatal canal in palatal root. Additionally it shows a rare anatomic configuration and emphasizes the importance of identifying additional canals.

  1. Damage to root dentin during retreatment procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shemesh, H.; Roeleveld, A.C.; Wesselink, P.R.; Wu, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to explore the influence of retreatment procedures on the appearance of defects on the root canal walls. Methods: Two hundred mandibular premolars were divided into 4 groups. One group was left unprepared. The rest of the teeth were prepared with ProTaper

  2. Effectiveness of EDTA as the irrigation solution to remove smear layer in root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniasri Amas Achiar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of successful endodontic treatment is the hermetic obturation of the root canal system. To achieve this, the root canal filling must seal the canal space both apically and coronally to prevent the ingress of microorganisms or tissue fluids into the canal space. Apical leakage is reported a common reason for the clinical failure of endodontic therapy. Leakage through an obturated root canal is expected to take place at interfaces between sealer and dentin or sealer and gutta-percha, or through voids within the sealer. Hence, the sealing quality of root canal filling depends much on the sealing ability of the sealer. Therefore, anything that may influence the adaptation of the root filling to the canal wall is can determine the degree and the extent of leakage, and ultimately the prognosis of the endodontic therapy. In endodontic therapy, the smear layer formation results from root canal preparation and may influence the effective seal of the root canal system. The smear layer formation is mainly composed of inorganic components (dentin debris and organic materials, such as pulp tissue remnant, bacteria, and blood cells. Removal of the smear layer from the root canal walls before the obturation can reduce the leakage of root canal sealer. To remove the smear layer use 10 ml 17% EDTA followed by 10 ml of 5.25% NaOCl as irrigating solution. This paper discribe about how the effectivity of EDTA as irigating solution to remove the smear layer especially in the apical root canal with many lateral canal to reduce the apical leakage.

  3. Efficacy of calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide nanoparticles on the elimination of Enterococcus faecalis in human root dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwakul, Phumisak; Saelo, Attapon; Khemaleelakul, Saengusa

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the antibacterial effect of calcium oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) and calcium hydroxide nanoparticles (CHNPs) against Enterococcus faecalis in a dentinal block model. E. faecalis strain JCM 7783 was introduced into dentinal tubules of semicylindrical dentin specimens by centrifugation and incubated for 1 week. Fifty microliters of CONPs or CHNPs was placed on the root canal side of the infected dentin specimens. The specimens were then incubated in aerobic condition at 37 °C and 100 % relative humidity for 1 week. The treated dentin specimens were subjected to fluorescent staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to analyze the proportions of non-vital and vital bacterial cells inside the dentinal tubules. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to confirm the effect of the medicaments on the bacteria in the dentinal tubules. Calcium oxide (CO) and calcium hydroxide (CH) were used as controls. Based on the CLSM and SEM analyses, CHNPs were more efficient than CONPs in the elimination of the bacteria in the dentinal tubules. CONPs significantly killed more E. faecalis than CO and CH (P < .05). Neither CO nor CH was able to kill the bacteria. CHNPs were more effective than CONPs in the elimination of E. faecalis in dentinal tubules. CHNPs are effective nanoparticles in killing endodontic bacteria present in dentinal tubules. They have potential as an intracanal medicament, which may be beneficial in root canal therapy.

  4. [Root canal treatment of mandibular first premolar with 4 root canals: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-yang; Zhan, Fu-Liang

    2015-10-01

    The mandibular first premolar can be considered one of the most challenging teeth to treat, due to the complexity of its root canal morphology and increased incidence of multiple canals. A case of endodontic treatment of a mandibular first premolar exhibiting a total of 4 distinct root canals and 4 apical foramina was described. Anatomic variation of root canal morphology should be considered in endodontic treatment to ensure a favorable healing outcome, and its identification could be enhanced by careful examination using a dental operating microscope. Obturation of root canals using a warm vertical compaction technique with a highly-radiopaque root canal sealer, such as AH Plus, after careful ultrasonic activated irrigation might allow the flow of sealer into the narrowed but unprepared part of the canal, thereby facilitating optimum chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system.

  5. Effects of the copper vapour laser radiation in the root canal wall dentine: in vitro experiment using scanning electron microscopy and stereoscopy; Efeitos da radiacao laser de vapor de cobre na parede de dentina de canais radiculares: estudo in vitro por meio de microscopia eletronica de varredura e microscopio estereoscopico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Maria Claudia Garcia da

    2001-07-01

    Ten human uniradicular teeth had their crown removed along the cement-enamel junction and right away a proper chemical-surgical preparation of the radicular canals was done; the roots were longitudinally sectioned in order to allow the irradiation of the surfaces of the root canals wall dentine. The hemi-roots were separated in two groups: group I (control), with four hemi-roots, not irradiated; and group II, with 16 hemi-roots, subdivided in four sub-groups submitted to the following exposition time: 0,02 s; 0,05 s; 0,1 s and 0,5 s. A copper vapour laser was used with a 510,6 nm wavelength, total average power of 11 W in green and yellow emissions; average power of 6,5 W in green emission; pulse repetition rate of 16.000 Hz and pulse duration of 30 ns. The pulse energy (green line) is 0,4 mJ and the peak power 13,5 W. The laser cavity is unstable type (R{sub 1}=3.900 mm and R{sub 2}-250 mm). The focusing have focal length lens f{sub 1}=250 mm and f{sub 2}=150 mm. The beam quality is of the M{sup 2}=5. The results obtained by scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the appearance of a cavity in the region of the laser beam incidence in the edges of this cavity, dentin was melt and resolidified presenting also cracks due to heat diffusion. Based on these results, we concluded that the size of the cavity formed in the dentin is directly proportional to the rate of exposure and, the more laser emission in the same area, more damage in the root canals wall dentin occurs. More studies need to be done with different exposition's time in order to obtain a safety protocol that does not cause injury in dental and support tissue. (author)

  6. Adaptation and penetration of resin-based root canal sealers in root canals irradiated with high-intensity lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Palo, Renato Miotto; Prokopowitsch, Igor; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Marques, Marcia Martins

    2015-03-01

    This research analyzed the quality of resin-based sealer adaptation after intracanal laser irradiation. Extracted teeth (n = 168) were root canal treated and divided into four groups, according to dentin surface treatment: no laser; Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 100 mJ, 15 Hz); diode laser (2.5 W in CW), and Er:YAG laser (1 W, 100 mJ, 10 Hz). The teeth were divided into four subgroups according to the sealer used: AH Plus, EndoREZ, Epiphany, and EpiphanySE. For testing the sealing after root canal obturation, the penetration of silver nitrate solution was measured, whereas to evaluate the adaptation and penetration of the sealer into the dentin, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used. The ESEM images were analyzed using a four-grade criteria score by three evaluators. The inter-examiner agreement was confirmed by Kappa test and the scores statistically compared by the Kruskal-Wallis' test (p laser irradiation. Nd:YAG and diode laser decreased the tracer penetration for AH Plus, whereas EndoREZ and EpiphanySE performances were affected by Nd:YAG irradiation (p laser irradiation can be used as an adjunct in endodontic treatment; however, the use of hydrophilic resin sealers should be avoided when root canals were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser.

  7. Root canal morphology of primary molars: a micro-computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumes, A C; Sousa-Neto, M D; Leoni, G B; Versiani, M A; da Silva, L A B; da Silva, R A B; Consolaro, A

    2014-10-01

    This was to investigate the root canal morphology of primary molar teeth using micro-computed tomography. Primary maxillary (n = 20) and mandibular (n = 20) molars were scanned at a resolution of 16.7 μm and analysed regarding the number, location, volume, area, structured model index (SMI), area, roundness, diameters, and length of canals, as well as the thickness of dentine in the apical third. Data were statistically compared by using paired-sample t test, independent sample t test, and one-way analysis of variance with significance level set as 5%. Overall, no statistical differences were found between the canals with respect to length, SMI, dentine thickness, area, roundness, and diameter (p > 0.05). A double canal system was observed in the mesial and mesio-buccal roots of the mandibular and maxillary molars, respectively. The thickness in the internal aspect of the roots was lower than in the external aspect. Cross-sectional evaluation of the roots in the apical third showed flat-shaped canals in the mandibular molars and ribbon- and oval-shaped canals in the maxillary molars. External and internal anatomy of the primary first molars closely resemble the primary second molars. The reported data may help clinicians to obtain a thorough understanding of the morphological variations of root canals in primary molars to overcome problems related to shaping and cleaning procedures, allowing appropriate management strategies for root canal treatment.

  8. Micro-CT evaluation of root and canal morphology of mandibular first premolars with radicular grooves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschetti, Emanuele; Mazzi-Chaves, Jardel Francisco; Versiani, Marco Aurélio; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Saquy, Paulo Cesar; Sousa Neto, Manoel Damião de, E-mail: sousanet@forp.usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora; Silva-Sousa, Yara Terezinha Correa; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi [Universidade de Ribeirão Preto (UNAERP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil). Departmento de Endodontia

    2017-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological features of 70 single-rooted mandibular first premolars with radicular grooves (RG) using micro-CT technology. Teeth were scanned and evaluated regarding the morphology of the roots and root canals as well as length, depth and percentage frequency location of the RG. Volume, surface area and Structure Model Index (SMI) of the canals were measured for the full root length. Two-dimensional parameters and frequency of canal orifices were evaluated at 1, 2, and 3 mm levels from the apical foramen. The number of accessory canals, the dentin thickness, and cross-sectional appearance of the canal at different root levels were also recorded. Expression of deep grooves was observed in 21.42% of the sample. Mean lengths of root and RG were 13.43 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively, while depth of the RG ranged from 0.75 to 1.13 mm. Mean canal volume, surface area and SMI were 10.78 mm{sup 3}, 58.51 mm{sup 2}, and 2.84, respectively. Apical delta was present in 4.35% of the sample and accessory canals were observed mostly at the middle and apical thirds. Two-dimensional parameters indicated an oval-shaped cross-sectional appearance of the root canal with a high percentage frequency of canal divisions (87.15%). Canal configuration type V (58.57%) was the most prevalent. C-shaped configuration was observed in 13 premolars (18.57%), whereas dentin thickness ranged from 1.0 to 1.31 mm. Radicular grooves in mandibular first premolars was associated with the occurrence of several anatomical complexities, including C-shaped canals and divisions of the main root canal. (author)

  9. Micro-CT evaluation of root and canal morphology of mandibular first premolars with radicular grooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschetti, Emanuele; Mazzi-Chaves, Jardel Francisco; Versiani, Marco Aurélio; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Saquy, Paulo Cesar; Sousa Neto, Manoel Damião de; Silva-Sousa, Yara Terezinha Correa; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological features of 70 single-rooted mandibular first premolars with radicular grooves (RG) using micro-CT technology. Teeth were scanned and evaluated regarding the morphology of the roots and root canals as well as length, depth and percentage frequency location of the RG. Volume, surface area and Structure Model Index (SMI) of the canals were measured for the full root length. Two-dimensional parameters and frequency of canal orifices were evaluated at 1, 2, and 3 mm levels from the apical foramen. The number of accessory canals, the dentin thickness, and cross-sectional appearance of the canal at different root levels were also recorded. Expression of deep grooves was observed in 21.42% of the sample. Mean lengths of root and RG were 13.43 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively, while depth of the RG ranged from 0.75 to 1.13 mm. Mean canal volume, surface area and SMI were 10.78 mm 3 , 58.51 mm 2 , and 2.84, respectively. Apical delta was present in 4.35% of the sample and accessory canals were observed mostly at the middle and apical thirds. Two-dimensional parameters indicated an oval-shaped cross-sectional appearance of the root canal with a high percentage frequency of canal divisions (87.15%). Canal configuration type V (58.57%) was the most prevalent. C-shaped configuration was observed in 13 premolars (18.57%), whereas dentin thickness ranged from 1.0 to 1.31 mm. Radicular grooves in mandibular first premolars was associated with the occurrence of several anatomical complexities, including C-shaped canals and divisions of the main root canal. (author)

  10. Cervical shaping in curved root canals: comparison of the efficiency of two endodontic instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Busquim Sandra Soares Kühne; Santos Marcelo dos

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the removal of dentin produced by number 25 (0.08) Flare files (Quantec Flare Series, Analytic Endodontics, Glendora, California, USA) and number 1 e 2 Gates-Glidden burs (Dentsply - Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), in the mesio-buccal and mesio-lingual root canals, respectively, of extracted human permanent inferior molars, by means of measuring the width of dentinal walls prior and after instrumentation. The obtained values were compared. Due to th...

  11. Assessment of periapical health, quality of root canal filling, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty three teeth were found to have short root canal fillings, whereas 74 teeth had adequate root canal fillings, and the remaining 10 teeth had over extended root canal filling. A significant correlation was observed between the length of root filling and apical periodontitis (P = 0,023). Inadequately dense root canal filling was ...

  12. Application of microcomputed tomography for quantitative analysis of dental root canal obturations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kierklo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to apply microcomputed tomography to quantitative evaluation of voids and to test any specific location of voids in tooth’s root canal obturations. Materials and Methods: Twenty root canals were prepared and obturated with gutta-percha and Tubli-Seal sealer using the thermoplastic compaction method (System B + Obtura II. Roots were scanned and three-dimensional visualization was obtained. The volume and Feret’s diameter of I-voids (at the filling/dentine interface and S-voids (surrounded by filling material were measured.Results: The results revealed that none of the scanned root canal fillings were void-free. For I-voids, the volume fraction was significantly larger, but their number was lower (P = 0.0007, than for S-voids. Both types of voids occurred in characteristic regions (P < 0.001. I-voids occurred mainly in the apical third, while S-voids in the coronal third of the canal filling.Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, our results indicate that microtomography, with proposed semi-automatic algorithm, is a useful tools for three-dimensional quantitative evaluation of dental root canal fillings. In canals filled with thermoplastic gutta-percha and Tubli-Seal, voids at the interface between the filling and canal dentine deserve special attention due to of their periapical location, which might promote apical microleakage. Further studies might help to elucidate the clinical relevance of these results.

  13. Microbiological examination of infected dental root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B P F A; Pinheiro, E T; Gadê-Neto, C R; Sousa, E L R; Ferraz, C C R; Zaia, A A; Teixeira, F B; Souza-Filho, F J

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the root canal microbiota of primary and secondary root-infected canals and the association of constituent species with specific endodontic signs and symptoms. Microbial samples were taken from 60 root canals, 41 with necrotic pulp tissues (primary infection) and 19 with failed endodontic treatment (secondary infection). Strict anaerobic techniques were used for serial dilution, plating, incubation and identification. A total of 224 cultivable isolates were recovered belonging to 56 different bacterial species. Individual root canals yielded a maximum of 10 bacterial species. Of the bacterial isolates, 70% were either strict anaerobes or microphilic. The anaerobes most frequently isolated were: Peptostreptococcus micros (35%), Fusobacterium necrophorum (23.3%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (11.7%), Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens (16.7%), Porphyromonas gingivalis (6.7%) and Porphyromonas endodontalis (5%). The root canal microflora of untreated teeth with apical periodontitis was found to be mixed, comprising gram-negative and gram-positive and mostly anaerobic microorganisms and usually containing more than 3 species per canal. On the other hand, facultative anaerobic and gram-positive bacteria predominated in canals with failed endodontic treatment, which harbored 1-2 species per canal. Suggested relationships were found between anaerobes, especially gram-negatives, and the presence or history of pain, tenderness to percussion and swelling (PEubacterium spp. (both Pspp. (Pspp. (Pspp. (Pspp. (Pspp. (Pspp. (Pspp. (Pspp., P. micros, F. necrophorum (P<0.05). Our findings indicate potential complex interactions of species resulting in characteristic clinical pictures which cannot be achieved by individual species alone. They also indicate that the microbiota of primary infected canals with apical periodontitis differs in number and in species from the secondary infected canals by using the culture technique.

  14. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and support...

  15. Mandibular molar with five root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Fernando Branco; Dotto, Sidney Ricardo; Reis, Magda de Sousa; Ferreira, Ronise; Travassos, Rosana Maria Coelho

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the importance of knowledge of the internal anatomy of root canals for the success of endodontic treatment. Lack of knowledge of anatomic variations and their characteristics in different teeth has been pointed out as one of the main causes of endodontic therapy failure. In this report, the authors describe the endodontic treatment of a mandibular first molar with five root canals, evaluate the rate of occurrence of this number of canals, and discuss the importance of their identification and treatment.

  16. Strontium effects on root dentin tubule occlusion and nanomechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Kuniko; Marshall, Grayson W; Gansky, Stuart A; Parkinson, Charles R; Marshall, Sally J

    2016-02-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity often is treated by promotion of dentin tubule occlusion. In this in vitro study we evaluated nanomechanical properties and degree of tubule occlusion conferred to sound and demineralized human root dentin following treatment with a 10% (w/w) strontium acetate solution and its relation to the treatment duration and delivery method. 24 human cervical root dentin disks (8 groups of 3) were polished through 0.25 μm. 12 disks were subjected to an acid challenge (1% citric acid, pH 3.8) for 2 min. The specimens were incubated in artificial saliva, treated by soaking or brushing with deionized (DI) water or a solution of 10% strontium acetate for 2 min twice a day for 28 days. The occlusion percent and nanomechanical properties were determined at the baseline, 5, 14 and 28 days. Cross-sectioned specimens were prepared to evaluate the depth affected by strontium acetate / dentin interaction by SEM. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed effects models. A 10% strontium acetate treatment over 5-28 days significantly increased tubule occlusion for normal root dentin and to a lesser extent for demineralized dentin and increased the AFM based nanomechanical properties of demineralized dentin. Brushing was more effective than soaking in recovery of properties of demineralized dentin when treated with strontium. No difference in tubuleocclusion was found between the two delivery methods. Strontium acetate itself proved to have the ability to occlude dentin tubules and result in small changes in the mechanical properties of dentin. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of canal preparation with TRUShape and Vortex rotary instruments on three-dimensional geometry of oval root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ana; Paqué, Frank; Shyn, Stephanie; Murphy, Sarah; Peters, Ove A

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the geometry of non-round root canals after preparation with TRUShape (a novel instrument with s-shaped longitudinal design) in comparison to conventional rotary instrumentation using micro-computed tomography. Twenty distal root canals of mandibular molars were randomly distributed in two groups to be shaped with either TRUShape or Vortex rotaries. Percentages of unprepared surface and volume of dentin removal for the entire canal and for the apical 4 mm were calculated. Canal transportation and the structure model index (SMI) were assessed. Data were compared with Student t-tests. Shaping with both techniques resulted in similar prepared surface and volume of dentin removed, as well as the extent of canal transportation. The SMI shape factor was significantly lower for TRUShape preparations (P = 0.04) suggesting less rounding during rotary preparation. Although both instruments were suitable for the preparation of oval canals, TRUShape appeared to better conform to the original ribbon-shaped anatomy. © 2017 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  18. Clinical significance of dental root canal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B P; Lilley, J D; Drucker, D B

    1996-01-01

    Previous work by this group has shown that a significant association exists between pain and the presence of either Prevotella or Peptostreptococcus spp. in dental root canals. The aim of this study was to examine a more extensive series of canals microbiologically, to determine whether any other particular endodontic symptoms or clinical signs showed specific associations with individual bacterial species. Seventy root canals were examined microbiologically and clinical data collected to investigate in detail such associations. Of the canals studied, 37 were associated with pain, 49 with tenderness to percussion, 23 with swelling, six with purulent exudate and 57 presented with wet root canals. Anaerobes were isolated from 70.3% of painful canals and from 29.7% of pain-free canals. Significant associations were found between (a) pain and either Prevotella spp. or peptostreptococci, both with P spp. (P Eubacterium spp. (P spp. or Pstr. micros, both with P spp. (each P Eubacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Prevotella or Propionibacterium (each P < 0.05). It was concluded that several different endodontic clinical signs and symptoms are significantly associated with specific bacterial species.

  19. Ex vivo evaluation of three instrumentation techniques on E. faecalis biofilm within oval shaped root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Cesar NAKAMURA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of reciprocating instrumentation in disinfecting oval-shaped root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Forty-five human lower premolars were infected with a culture of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212 for 28 days. Five other teeth that were neither contaminated nor instrumented were used as controls. The 45 specimens were divided into three experimental groups (n = 15 based on the root canal preparation technique used: manual (K-type, Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland; rotary (MTwo, VDW GmbH, Munich, Germany; and reciprocating (Reciproc R50, VDW GmbH, Munich, Germany instruments. During chemomechanical preparation, 21 mL of 2.5% NaOCl was used as the irrigating solution. Microbiological sampling was performed before (S1 and immediately after (S2 the chemomechanical preparation using sterilized paper points. Specimens were then cleaved, and 0.02 g of dentine chips was collected from the root thirds to verify the presence of microorganisms in dentinal tubules. All three preparation techniques reduced the number of microorganisms in the root canal lumen and dentine chips from the root thirds, but no significant differences were observed between the three groups (p > 0.05. Reciprocating instrumentation with Reciproc R50 was effective in reducing the number of microorganisms within the root canal system. Although this technique involves the use of only one file to perform the root canal therapy, it is as effective as conventional rotary instrumentation in reducing theE. faecalis biofilm from the root canal system. However, further clinical investigations are warranted in order to ratify these results.

  20. Root canal treatment and special needs patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, E; Parashos, P; Borromeo, G L

    2015-04-01

    To identify current trends of root canal treatment for patients with special needs. A postal questionnaire was sent to General Dentists in Victoria, Australia and Endodontists and Special Needs Dentists across Australia to determine the extent of root canal treatment performed on special needs patients. Over a four-month period, 1120 questionnaires were distributed with an overall response rate of 63.9% (n = 716). Response rates were 63.2% (n = 655), 68.5% (n = 50) and 100.0% (n = 11) amongst General Dentists, Endodontists and Special Needs Dentists, respectively. Endodontists (95.7%) and Special Needs Dentists (100.0%) performed significantly more root canal treatment on adult patients with special needs compared with 51.2% of General Dentists, (P special needs patients compared with only 29.7% of General Dentists (P special needs patients was more likely to be carried out by specialist dental practitioners who were more likely to utilize a pharmacological approach for behaviour guidance and to perform single-visit root canal treatment compared with General Dentists. A multidisciplinary approach for special needs patients who require root canal treatment provides an opportunity for these patients to retain their dentition. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Exploiting the potential of free software to evaluate root canal biomechanical preparation outcomes through micro-CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, A A; Silva, E J; Roter, J M; Belladona, F G; Alves, H D; Lopes, R T; Paciornik, S; De-Deus, G A

    2015-11-01

    To propose an automated image processing routine based on free software to quantify root canal preparation outcomes in pairs of sound and instrumented roots after micro-CT scanning procedures. Seven mesial roots of human mandibular molars with different canal configuration systems were studied: (i) Vertucci's type 1, (ii) Vertucci's type 2, (iii) two individual canals, (iv) Vertucci's type 6, canals (v) with and (vi) without debris, and (vii) canal with visible pulp calcification. All teeth were instrumented with the BioRaCe system and scanned in a Skyscan 1173 micro-CT before and after canal preparation. After reconstruction, the instrumented stack of images (IS) was registered against the preoperative sound stack of images (SS). Image processing included contrast equalization and noise filtering. Sound canal volumes were obtained by a minimum threshold. For the IS, a fixed conservative threshold was chosen as the best compromise between instrumented canal and dentine whilst avoiding debris, resulting in instrumented canal plus empty spaces. Arithmetic and logical operations between sound and instrumented stacks were used to identify debris. Noninstrumented dentine was calculated using a minimum threshold in the IS and subtracting from the SS and total debris. Removed dentine volume was obtained by subtracting SS from IS. Quantitative data on total debris present in the root canal space after instrumentation, noninstrumented areas and removed dentine volume were obtained for each test case, as well as three-dimensional volume renderings. After standardization of acquisition, reconstruction and image processing micro-CT images, a quantitative approach for calculation of root canal biomechanical outcomes was achieved using free software. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Laser dentistry: A new application of excimer laser in root canal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pini, R.; Salimbeni, R.; Vannini, M.; Barone, R.; Clauser, C.

    1989-01-01

    We report the first study of the application of excimer lasers in dentistry for the treatment of dental root canals. High-energy ultraviolet (UV) radiation emitted by an XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) and delivered through suitable optical fibers can be used to remove residual organic tissue from the canals. To this aim, UV ablation thresholds of dental tissues have been measured, showing a preferential etching of infiltrated dentin in respect to healthy dentin, at laser fluences of 0.5-1.5 J/cm 2 . This technique has been tested on extracted tooth samples, simulating a clinical procedure. Fibers of decreasing core diameters have been used to treat different sections of the root canal down to its apical portion, resulting in an effective, easy, and fast cleaning action. Possible advantages of excimer laser clinical applications in respect to usual procedures are also discussed

  3. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  4. Comparison of dentinal damage induced by different nickel-titanium rotary instruments during canal preparation: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Shiwani; Mahajan, Pardeep; Thaman, Deepa; Monga, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    To compare dentinal damage caused by hand and rotary nickel-titanium instruments using ProTaper, K3 Endo, and Easy RaCe systems after root canal preparation. One hundred and fifty freshly extracted mandibular premolars were randomly divided into five experimental groups of 30 teeth each and biomechanical preparation was done: Group 1 with unprepared teeth; Group 2 were prepared with hand files; Group 3 with ProTaper rotary instruments; Group 4 with K3 rotary; Group 5 with Easy RaCe rotary instruments. Then, roots were cut horizontally at 3, 6, and 9 mm from apex and were viewed under stereomicroscope. The presence of dentinal defects was noted. Groups were analyzed with the Chi-square test. Significant difference was seen between groups. No defects were found in unprepared roots and those prepared with hand files. ProTaper, K3 rotary, and Easy RaCe preparations resulted in dentinal defects in 23.3%, 10%, and 16.7% of teeth, respectively. More defects were shown in coronal and middle sections, and no defect was seen in apical third. The present study revealed that use of rotary instruments could result in an increased chance for dentinal defects as compared to hand instrumentation.

  5. Direct linear measurement of root dentin thickness and dentin volume changes with post space preparation: A cone-beam computed tomography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoeb Yakub Shaikh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of the present study was direct linear measurement of dentin thickness and dentin volume changes for post space preparation with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and Methods: Ten maxillary central incisors were scanned, before and after root canal and post space preparation, with Orthophos XG three-dimensional hybrid unit. Thirteen axial section scans of each tooth from orifice to apex and dentin thickness for buccal, lingual, mesial, and distal were measured using proprietary measuring tool and thereafter subjected to statistical analysis. Furthermore, dentin volume was evaluated using ITK-SNAP software. Results: There was statistically significant difference between the dentin thickness in pre- and postinstrumentation (paired t-test and also between different groups (one-way ANOVA. In the shortest post length of 4.5mm the post space preparation resulted in 2.17% loss of hard tissue volume, where as 11mm longest post length post space preparation resulted in >40% loss of hard tissue volume. Conclusion: CBCT axial section scan for direct measurements of root dentin thickness can be guideline before and after post space preparation for selection of drill length and diameter.

  6. [Bond strengths of absorbable polylactic acid root canal post with three different adhesives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hui; Cheng, Can; Hu, Jia; Liu, He; Sun, Zhi-hui

    2015-12-18

    To find absorbable adhesives with suitable bonding properties for the absorbable polylactic acid root canal post. To test and compare the bond strengths of absorbable polylactic acid root canal post with three different adhesives. The absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts were used to restore the extracted teeth, using 3 different adhesives: cyanoacrylates, fibrin sealant and glass ionomer cement. The teeth were prepared into slices for micro-push-out test. The bond strength was statistically analyzed using ANOVA. The specimens were examined using microscope and the failure mode was divided into four categories: cohesive failure between absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts and adhesives, cohesive failure between dentin and adhesives, failure within the adhesives and failure within the absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts. The bond strength of cyanoacrylates [(16.83 ± 6.97) MPa] and glass ionomer cement [(12.10 ± 5.09) MPa] were significantly higher than fibrin sealant [(1.17 ± 0.50) MPa], Padhesives was 25.0%, the cohesive failure between the dentin and the adhesives was 16.7%, the failure within the adhesives was 33.3%, and the failure within the absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts was 25.0%. In the group of fibrin sealant, the cohesive failure between the absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts and the adhesives was 66.7%, the cohesive failure between the dentin and the adhesives was 22.2%, the failure within the adhesives was 11.1%. In the group of glass ionomer cement, the cohesive failure between the absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts and the adhesives was 87.5%, the failure within the adhesives was 12.5%. The major failure mode in fibrin sealant and glass ionomer cement was the cohesive failure between the absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts and the adhesives. No major failure modes were found in the group of cyanoacrylates. The bond strength of fibrin sealant is low, which cannot meet the requirement of

  7. Decreased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in root-canal exudates during root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamapun, Kassara; Handagoon, Sira; Sastraruji, Thanapat; Gutmann, James L; Pavasant, Prasit; Krisanaprakornkit, Suttichai

    2017-10-01

    To determine the matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) levels in root-canal exudates from teeth undergoing root-canal treatment. The root-canal exudates from six teeth with normal pulp and periradicular tissues that required intentional root canal treatment for prosthodontic reasons and from twelve teeth with pulp necrosis and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP) were sampled with paper points for bacterial culture and aspirated for the detection of proMMP-2 and active MMP-2 by gelatin zymography and the quantification of MMP-2 levels by ELISA. By gelatin zymography, both proMMP-2 and active MMP-2 were detected in the first collection of root-canal exudates from teeth with pulp necrosis and AAP, but not from teeth with normal pulp, and their levels gradually decreased and disappeared at the last collection. Consistently, ELISA demonstrated a significant decrease in MMP-2 levels in the root-canal exudates of teeth with pulp necrosis and AAP following root canal procedures (papical lesions, similar to the clinical application of MMP-8 as a biomarker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro evaluation of the contact angle formed between AH Plus, Hybrid Root Seal and mineral trioxide aggregate Plus sealer with dentin and gutta-percha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikhil, Vineeta; Jaiswal, Shikha; Bajpai, Gauravi

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluation and comparison of the contact angle of new root canal sealers - Hybrid Root Seal, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Plus, and the conventional AH Plus sealer with dentin and gutta-percha. Two groups (Group D - dentin and Group G - gutta-percha) of 18 samples each were further randomly divided into 3 subgroups based on the type of sealer used, that is, AH Plus, Hybrid Root Seal, and MTA Plus. Contact angle measurement device (Phoenix 300) was used to measure the contact angle of the sealers on both dentin and gutta-percha. The results thus obtained were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Student's t -test. MTA Plus recorded significantly higher values of contact angle on both the substrates, that is, dentin and gutta-percha when compared to AH Plus and Hybrid root canal sealer. The lowest value of contact angle in gutta-percha and dentin was shown by Hybrid root canal sealer and AH Plus, respectively. Both AH Plus and Hybrid Root Seal exhibited lower contact angle values, and hence, better wettability on both dentin and gutta-percha as compared to MTA Plus.

  9. Radiographic versus electronic root canal working length determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumnije Kqiku

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The present ex vivo study showed that electronic root canal working length determination is not superior to radiographic methods. Both methods provided a good performance in determining the root canal working length.

  10. Comparison of different retreatment techniques and root canal sealers: a scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Simsek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two retreatment techniques, in terms of the operating time and scanning electron microscopy (SEM results, in removing three different root canal sealers from root canals that were previously filled with gutta-percha. Sixty extracted single-rooted human premolars were divided into three groups and filled with iRoot SP, MM Seal, and AH Plus sealers, along with gutta-percha, through a lateral compaction technique. Root canal fillings of the samples were removed by ESI ultrasonic tips or R-Endo files. The time to reach the working length was recorded. Longitudinally sectioned samples were examined under SEM magnification. Each picture was evaluated in terms of the residual debris. Data were statistically analyzed with the Kruskall-Wallis test. No statistically significant differences were found in terms of operating time (p>0.05. Significant differences in the number of debris-free dentinal tubules were found among the root canal thirds, but this finding was not influenced by the experimental group (p < 0.05. Resin sealer tags were observed inside the dentinal tubules in the MM Seal group. Under the conditions of this study, it may be established that there was no difference among the sealers and retreatment techniques.

  11. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  12. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-01-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  13. Periapical repair after root canal filling with different root canal sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Tanomaru, Juliane Maria Guerreiro; Leonardo, Mario Roberto; da Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate periapical repair after root canal filling with different endodontic sealers. Sixty-four root canals from dog s teeth were filled, divided into 4 groups (n=16). Root canals were instrumented with K-type files and irrigated with 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Root canals were filled in the same session by active lateral condensation of the cones and sealers: Intrafill, AH Plus, Roeko Seal and Resilon/Epiphany System. After 90 days, the animals were euthanized and the tissues to be evaluated were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. For histopathological analysis, the following parameters were evaluated: inflammatory process, mineralized tissue resorption, and apical mineralized tissue deposition. Histopathological analysis demonstrated that Intrafill had less favorable results in terms of apical and periapical repair, compared to the other sealers (p0.05). In conclusion, AH Plus and the materials Roeko Seal and Epiphany are good options for clinical use in Endodontics.

  14. [Endodontics in motion: new concepts, materials and techniques 3. The role of irrigants during root canal treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, L W M

    2015-10-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm) and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root canal system and their chemical dissolution or disruption. Each of the endodontic irrigation systems has its own irrigant flow characteristics, which should fulfill these aims. Without flow (convection), the irrigant would have to be distributed through diffusion. This process is slow and depends on temperature and concentration gradients. On the other hand, convection is a faster and more efficient transport mechanism. During irrigant flow, frictional forces will occur, for example between the irrigant and the root canal wall (wall shear stress). These frictional forces have a mechanical cleaning effect on the root canal wall. These frictional forces are the result of the flow characteristics related to the different irrigation systems.

  15. Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Jaju

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation.

  16. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended...

  17. A Comparative SEM Investigation of Smear Layer Remaining on Dentinal Walls by Three Rotary NiTi Files with Different Cross Sectional Designs in Moderately Curved Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Pooja; Vats, Asit

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the smear layer formed on root canal walls during canal preparation of extracted human teeth by Twisted, Mtwo, and ProTaper rotary nickel titanium instruments. Materials and Methods: Sixty single rooted human premolar teeth with root curvature rotary nickel titanium instruments were used, Twisted (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA), Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) and ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) according to manufacturer’s instructions to instrument the root canals. Irrigation for all groups was performed after each instrument change with 3ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite followed by Glyde (File Prep, Dentsply, Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) as chelator paste and lubricant. Three different areas (coronal, middle and apical thirds) of the root canal were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The canal wall of each sample was assessed and compared using a predefined scale for the presence or absence of smear layer. Data were analysed statistically using ANOVA and Tukey HSD test Results: All three groups showed statistically significant more smear layer in the apical thirds of the canal as compared to the coronal and middle thirds (protary file system produced significantly less smear layer (protary instruments in the apical portion. Twisted Files resulted in less smear layer formation in the apical thirds of the canal compared to ProTaper rotary instruments but were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Completely clean root canals were not found after instrumentation with any of the three instruments. Under the confines of this study Mtwo instruments produced significantly cleaner dentin wall surfaces throughout the canal length in comparison to Twisted and ProTaper rotary files. Twisted Files proved to be comparable to ProTaper rotary instruments with respect to canal cleanliness in the apical thirds of the root canal. PMID:25954704

  18. [Evaluation of preparation of curved root canals using hand-used ProTaper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Min; Zhao, Xin-Chen; Peng, Bin; Fan, Ming-Wen; Bian, Zhuan

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the shaping ability of hand-used ProTaper on curved canals using Endodontic Cube. Fifty-four curved root canals in vitro were selected and divided into three groups according to the curved degree (alpha), group A: 0 degrees hand-used ProTaper. Before and after shaping, photograph of all the sections were taken under a stereomicroscope. Statistical analyses were performed. The dentin cutting quantity of the whole canal prepared with ProTaper in group B and C was larger than that of group A. The deviation distance of the whole canal prepared by ProTaper in group C was significantly larger than that in group A, and the deviation distance in middle portion larger than that in group B. The maintaining ability in the middle portion of group C by ProTaper was worse than that of group A and B. The curvature of root canal may increase the cutting quantity of the -dentin and reduce the ability of remaining original canal shape prepared by ProTaper.

  19. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  20. Management of foreign object in the root canal of central incisor tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mothanna Alrahabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several reports describing the impaction of foreign objects into the exposed pulp chambers and canals by patients, especially children as they often have the habit of inserting foreign objects in the oral cavity. These objects will become a potent source of infection.This case report describes the retrieval of a foreign object impacted into the root canal of a 12-year-old male patient who was referred to the endodontic specialty clinic at Taibah University College of Dentistry. The patient′s chief complaint was a pain in the upper left central tooth. Clinical examination revealed a complicated enamel-dentin fracture with a large caries cavity. A periapical radiographic image showed a radiopaque object in the root canal system. Stainless steel Hedstrom files were used to retrieve the object from the canal. Following a proper cleaning and shaping of the root canal system, an intra-canal calcium hydroxide dressing was placed for 1 week. The root canal system was then filled with sealer and gutta-percha using the lateral compaction technique and the tooth received an aesthetic restoration.

  1. Root canal treatment of a maxillary first premolar with three roots

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Josey; Devadathan, Aravindan; Syriac, Gibi; Shamini, Sai

    2015-01-01

    Successful root canal treatment needs a thorough knowledge of both internal and external anatomy of a tooth. Variations in root canal anatomy constitute an impressive challenge to the successful completion of endodontic treatment. Undetected extra roots and canals are a major reason for failed root canal treatment. Three separate roots in a maxillary first premolar have a very low incidence of 0.5?6%. Three rooted premolars are anatomically similar to molars and are sometimes called ?small mo...

  2. Comparison of Curved Root Canals Prepared with Various Chelating Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    aqueous base (11). According to Bramante and Betti, instrumentation with NiTi hand files using EDTA caused greater deviation of the root canal from...15. Peters OA, Peters CI, Schonenberger K, Barbakow F. ProTaper rotary root canal preparation: effects of canal anatomy on final shape analysed by

  3. The ability of different nickel-titanium rotary instruments to induce dentinal damage during canal preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, C.A.S.; Shemesh, H.; Tanomaru-Filho, M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Wu, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of dentinal defects (fractures and craze lines) after canal preparation with different nickel-titanium rotary files. Two hundred sixty mandibular premolars were selected. Forty teeth were left unprepared (n = 40). The other teeth were prepared

  4. Optimizing the chemical aspect of root canal irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    de Macedo, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    Root canal treatment is aimed at the removal of inflamed and infected tissue present in the root canal system. It will prevent the entrance of new microorganisms or nutrients in order to maintain or create a healthy environment around the root. There is sufficient evidence that shows that traditional endodontic therapy cannot make the root canal system completely free of bacteria. Moreover, it may not always result in complete healing of apical periodontitis, highlighting the need of optimizi...

  5. Effects of fluoridated milk on root dentin remineralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang H Arnold

    Full Text Available The prevalence of root caries is increasing with greater life expectancy and number of retained teeth. Therefore, new preventive strategies should be developed to reduce the prevalence of root caries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fluoridated milk on the remineralization of root dentin and to compare these effects to those of sodium fluoride (NaF application without milk.Thirty extracted human molars were divided into 6 groups, and the root cementum was removed from each tooth. The dentin surface was demineralized and then incubated with one of the following six solutions: Sodium chloride NaCl, artificial saliva, milk, milk+2.5 ppm fluoride, milk+10 ppm fluoride and artificial saliva+10 ppm fluoride. Serial sections were cut through the lesions and investigated with polarized light microscopy and quantitative morphometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The data were statistically evaluated using a one-way ANOVA for multiple comparisons.The depth of the lesion decreased with increasing fluoride concentration and was the smallest after incubation with artificial saliva+10 ppm fluoride. SEM analysis revealed a clearly demarcated superficial remineralized zone after incubation with milk+2.5 ppm fluoride, milk+10 ppm fluoride and artificial saliva+10 ppm fluoride. Ca content in this zone increased with increasing fluoride content and was highest after artificial saliva+10 ppm fluoride incubation. In the artificial saliva+10 ppm fluoride group, an additional crystalline layer was present on top of the lesion that contained elevated levels of F and Ca.Incubation of root dentin with fluoridated milk showed a clear effect on root dentin remineralization, and incubation with NaF dissolved in artificial saliva demonstrated a stronger effect.

  6. Comparison of the rheological properties of four root canal sealers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seok Woo Chang; Kwang Shik Bae; Young-Kyu Lee; Qiang Zhu; Won Jun Shon; Woo Cheol Lee; Kee Yeon Kum; Seung Ho Baek; In Bog Lee; Bum-Soon Lim

    2015-01-01

    The flowability of a root canal sealer is clinically important because it improves the penetration of the sealer into the complex root canal system. The purpose of this study was to compare the flowabilities of four root canal sealers, measured using the simple press method (ISO 6876), and their viscosities, measured using a strain-controlled rheometer. A newly developed, calcium phosphate-based root canal sealer (Capseal) and three commercial root canal sealers (AH Plus, Sealapex and Pulp Canal Sealer EWT) were used in this study. The flowabilities of the four root canal sealers were measured using the simple press method (n55) and their viscosities were measured using a strain-controlled rheometer (n55). The correlation between these two values was statistically analysed using Spearman’s correlation test. The flow diameters and the viscosities of the root canal sealers were strongly negatively correlated (r520.8618). The viscosity of Pulp Canal Sealer EWT was the lowest and increased in the following order:AH Plus,Sealapex,Capseal (P,0.05). All of the tested root canal sealers showed characteristic time-and temperature-dependent changes in their rheological properties. The viscosities measured using the strain-controlled rheometer were more precise than the flowabilities measured using the simple press method, suggesting that the rheometer can accurately measure the rheological properties of root canal sealers.

  7. Comparison of the remaining dentin thickness in the root after hand and four rotary instrumentation techniques: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M S Rama; Shameem, Abdul; Nair, Rashmi; Ghanta, Sureshbabu; Thankachan, Rekha P; Issac, Johnson K

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the remaining dental thickness (RDT) in the mesiobuccal root of mandibular first molars at 3 and 7 mm from the anatomic apex after instrumentation with ProTaper, light speed LSX, K3 and M2 and to compare with that of K-files. In this study, 60 extracted, untreated human mandibular first molars with fully formed apices, with curvature less than 35° and no root resorption were used. Prepared specimens were cut horizontally at 3 and 7 mm short of anatomic apex. The least dentin thickness from canal to external root surface was observed under 3× magnification and recorded using Clemax measuring tool and the sections were reassembled. Group I-instrumentation with ProTaper, group II-instrumentation with K3, group III-instrumentation with Light Speed LSX, group IV-instrumentation with M2 and group V- instrumentation with K-files and RDT was measured. Results showed that group V removed lesser amount of dentin compared to all other groups while all the three instrumentation techniques removed almost equal amount of dentin apically. Cleaning and shaping of the root canal space involves the elimination of pathogenic contents as well as attaining a uniform specific shape. However, the RDT following the use of various intraradicular procedures is an important factor to be considered as an iatrogenic cause that may result in root fracture. To avoid this, newer rotary instruments are being introduced.

  8. Effects of different desensitizing treatments on root dentin permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raydsa Raíssa Moura ROSA

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of diode laser and a desensitizing dentifrice on dentin permeability. Fifty-two root dentin fragments were obtained (5 × 5mm and treated with 24% EDTA gel. The samples were divided into 4 groups (n = 13: G1, control (no treatment; G2, diode laser (λ = 908 nm, 1.5 W, continuous mode, 20s; G3, application of abrasive dentifrice for 1 minute (Elmex Sensitive Professional (International Gaba; and G4, application of abrasive dentifrice for 1 minute followed by irradiation with diode laser. Ten samples per group were immersed in 2% methylene blue solution for 4h. The specimens were washed, longitudinally sectioned, observed under optical microscopy, photographed and assessed based on the degree of dye leakage. The remaining samples were observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The leakage data were subjected to ANOVA test, followed by Tukey’s t-test (α = 5%. Groups 2, 3 and 4 showed less dye penetration than the control group (p < 0.05, but were similar among each other. SEM images showed that dentinal tubules were open in G1, and fused and occluded in G2. Group 3 showed dentinal tubules that were occluded by the metal ions from the toothpaste. G4 presented similar characteristics to G3, and the presence of fused dentin. The diode laser and the dentifrice were effective in reducing dentinal permeability, and the combination of the two treatments did not show better results than either one used alone.

  9. Optimizing the chemical aspect of root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Macedo, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    Root canal treatment is aimed at the removal of inflamed and infected tissue present in the root canal system. It will prevent the entrance of new microorganisms or nutrients in order to maintain or create a healthy environment around the root. There is sufficient evidence that shows that

  10. Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract and 3% hydrogen peroxide as root canal irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erawati Wulandari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preparation of root canal is an important stage in endodontic treatment. During conducting preparation, it is always be followed with root canal irrigation that has aim to clean root canal from necrotic tissue remains, grind down dentin powder, micro organism, wet the root canal to make preparation process of root canal easier, and solute root canal content at area that can not be reached by equipment. Flesh of Tamarindus indica (pulpa tamarindorum is used as traditional medicine and it contains vitamin C (antioxidant, protein, fat, glucose, etc. Previous research shows that 5% tamarindus indica extract can clean smear layer but it is more cytotoxicity to cell line BHK–21 than sterilized aquabides. Purpose: This research is to compare cytotoxicity between 5% Tamarindus indica extract with 3% H2O2 as root canal irrigation material. Method: Four teen culture cell line BHK 21 divides into 2 groups. Group 1 is treated with 3% H2O2 and Group 2 is treated with 5% Tamarindus indica extract, for about 2.5 minutes in every group. Then, living and death cell percentage is measured. Data is analyzed with independent t test with significant level of 0.05%. Result: The research showed that death cell in group 1 was 29.3% and in group 2 was 21.1%. There was a significant different (p < 0.05 between group 1 and group 2. Conclusion: Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract to the cell line BHK–21 is lower than 3% H2O2.

  11. Combining Bioactive Multifunctional Dental Composite with PAMAM for Root Dentin Remineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimeng Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objectives of this study were to: (1 develop a bioactive multifunctional composite (BMC via nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC, dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM and nanoparticles of silver (NAg; and (2 investigate the effects of combined BMC + poly (amido amine (PAMAM on remineralization of demineralized root dentin in a cyclic artificial saliva/lactic acid environment for the first time. Methods. Root dentin specimens were prepared and demineralized with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s. Four groups were prepared: (1 root dentin control; (2 root dentin with BMC; (3 root dentin with PAMAM; (4 root dentin with BMC + PAMAM. Specimens were treated with a cyclic artificial saliva/lactic acid regimen for 21 days. Calcium (Ca and phosphate (P ion concentrations and acid neutralization were determined. The remineralized root dentin specimens were examined via hardness testing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results. Mechanical properties of BMC were similar to commercial control composites (p = 0.913. BMC had excellent Ca and P ion release and acid-neutralization capability. BMC or PAMAM alone each achieved slight mineral regeneration in demineralized root dentin. The combined BMC + PAMAM induced the greatest root dentin remineralization, and increased the hardness of pre-demineralized root dentin to match that of healthy root dentin (p = 0.521. Significance. The excellent root dentin remineralization effects of BMC + PAMAM were demonstrated for the first time. BMC + PAMAM induced effective and complete root dentin remineralization in an acid challenge environment. The novel BMC + PAMAM method is promising for Class V and other restorations to remineralize and protect tooth structures.

  12. Marginal Gaps between 2 Calcium Silicate and Glass Ionomer Cements and Apical Root Dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biočanin, Vladimir; Antonijević, Đorđe; Poštić, Srđan; Ilić, Dragan; Vuković, Zorica; Milić, Marija; Fan, Yifang; Li, Zhiyu; Brković, Božidar; Đurić, Marija

    2018-01-12

    The outcome of periapical surgery has been directly improved with the introduction of novel material formulations. The aim of the study was to compare the retrograde obturation quality of the following materials: calcium silicate (Biodentine; Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA+; Cerkamed Company, Stalowa Wola, Poland), and glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX; GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Materials' wettability was calculated concerning the contact angles of the cements measured using a glycerol drop. Cements' porosity was determined using mercury intrusion porosimetry and micro-computed tomographic (μCT) imaging. Extracted upper human incisors were retrofilled, and μCT analysis was applied to calculate the volume of the gap between the retrograde filling material and root canal dentin. Experiments were performed before and after soaking the materials in simulated body fluid (SBF). No statistically significant differences were found among the contact angles of the studied materials after being soaked in SBF. The material with the lowest nanoporosity (Fuji IX: 2.99% and 4.17% before and after SBF, respectively) showed the highest values of microporosity (4.2% and 3.1% before and after SBF, respectively). Biodentine had the lowest value of microporosity (1.2% and 0.8% before and after SBF, respectively) and the lowest value of microgap to the root canal wall ([10 ± 30] × 10 -3  mm 3 ). Biodentine and MTA possess certain advantages over Fuji IX for hermetic obturation of retrograde root canals. Biodentine shows a tendency toward the lowest marginal gap at the cement-to-dentin interface. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ROOT CANAL IRRIGANTS AND IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Aniketh; Mohamed; Geeta; Nandakishore; Gourav Kumar; Patrick Timothy; Jayson Mathew; Sahle Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Root canal irrigation is not much emphasised in endodontic therapy. Most articles discussed are on root canal shaping and obturation not much emphasis is given for irrigation. There are many irrigation solutions which are introduced into market. The primary objective of root canal therapy is the ret ention of the pulpless or pulpally involved tooth with its associated periapical tissues in a healthy state. Achievement of this objective requires that the pulpal spaces and con...

  14. Comparative Analysis of Crack Propagation in Roots with Hand and Rotary Instrumentation of the Root Canal -An Ex-vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Manju Raj; Krishnaswamy, Manjunath Mysore

    2016-07-01

    Success of any endodontic treatment depends on strict adherence to 'endodontic triad'. Preparation of root canal system is recognized as being one of the most important stages in root canal treatment. At times, we inevitably end up damaging root dentin which becomes a Gateway for infections like perforation, zipping, dentinal cracks and minute intricate fractures or even vertical root fractures, thereby resulting in failure of treatment. Several factors may be responsible for the formation of dentinal cracks like high concentration of sodium hypochlorite, compaction methods and various canal shaping methods. To compare and evaluate the effects of root canal preparation techniques and instrumentation length on the development of apical root cracks. Seventy extracted premolars with straight roots were mounted on resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligaments, exposing 1-2 mm of the apex followed by sectioning of 1mm of root tip for better visualization under stereomicroscope. The teeth were divided into seven groups of 10 teeth each - a control group and six experimental groups. Subgroup A & B were instrumented with: Stainless Steel hand files (SS) up to Root Canal Length (RCL) & (RCL -1 mm) respectively; sub group C & D were instrumented using ProTaper Universal (PTU) up to RCL and (RCL -1mm) respectively; subgroup E & F were instrumented using ProTaper Next (PTN) up to RCL & (RCL -1 mm) respectively. Stereomicroscopic images of the instrumentation sequence were compared for each tooth. The data was analyzed statistically using descriptive analysis by 'Phi' and 'Cramers' test to find out statistical significance between the groups. The level of significance was set at phand file group showed most cracks followed by ProTaper Universal & ProTaper Next though statistically not significant. Samples instrumented up to 1mm short of working length (RCL-1mm) showed lesser number of cracks. All groups showed cracks formation, the stainless steel group being the highest

  15. A new anatomically based nomenclature for the roots and root canals-part 1: maxillary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottoor, Jojo; Albuquerque, Denzil Valerian; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy

    2012-01-01

    Numerous terminologies have been employed in the dental literature to describe the roots and root canal systems of maxillary molars. This multiplicity in naming of roots and canals makes the reader susceptible to misinterpretation and confusion. No consensus thus far has been arrived at for defining the names of roots and root canals in maxillary molars, including their various morphological aberrations. The anatomical relation of roots and their root canals were identified and were subsequently named based on definite sets of criteria. A new method for identification and naming of roots and root canal anatomy in maxillary molars, based on their root and canal relationship, was formulated and is presented in this paper. The nomenclature makes certain essential modifications to the traditional approach to accommodate naming of the various aberrations presented in the maxillary molars. A simple, yet extensive, nomenclature system has been proposed that appropriately names the internal and external morphology of maxillary molars.

  16. Geometric analysis of root canals prepared by four rotary NiTi shaping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Ahmed Abdel Rahman; Ghoneim, Angie Galal; Lutfy, Reem Ahmed; Foda, Manar Yehia; Omar, Gihan Abdel Fatah

    2012-07-01

    A great number of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary systems with noncutting tips, different cross-sections, superior resistance to torsional fracture, varying tapers, and manufacturing method have been introduced to the market. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of 4 rotary NiTi preparation systems, Revo-S (RS; Micro-Mega, Besancon Cedex, France), Twisted file (TF; SybronEndo, Amersfoort, The Netherlands), ProFile GT Series X (GTX; Dentsply, Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK), and ProTaper (PT; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), on volumetric changes and transportation of curved root canals. Forty mesiobuccal canals of mandibular molars with an angle of curvature ranging from 25° to 40° were divided according to the instrument used in canal preparation into 4 groups of 10 samples each: group RS, group TF, group GTX, and group PT. Canals were scanned using an i-CAT CBCT scanner (Imaging Science International, Hatfield, PA) before and after preparation to evaluate the volumetric changes. Root canal transportation and centering ratio were evaluated at 1.3, 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8 mm from the apex. The significance level was set at P ≤ .05. The PT system removed a significantly higher amount of dentin than the other systems (P = .025). At the 1.3-mm level, there was no significant difference in canal transportation and centering ratio among the groups. However, at the other levels, TF maintained the original canal curvature recording significantly the least degree of canal transportation as well as the highest mean centering ratio. The TF system showed superior shaping ability in curved canals. Revo-S and GTX were better than ProTaper regarding both canal transportation and centering ability. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A study on FlexMaster : a Ni-Ti rotary engine driven system for root canal preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M S; Bashar, A K; Begumr, J A; Kinoshita, J I

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, the effectiveness of recently introduced rotary Nickel Titanium FlexMaster engine driven system was evaluated for cleaning and shaping of root canals in extracted human teeth and compared with that done by the Nickel Titanium Flexofile hand instruments. A total of 40 root canals from 36 extracted mandibular and maxillary teeth with curvature ranging between 20 and 30 degree were divided into two groups, consisting 20 canals in each. FlexMaster instrumentation was done in 20 canals, using crown-down technique and manual filing with Flexofile was done in other 20 canals, using conventional and step-back techniques. 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution and 17% ethelene di-amine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) were used alternatively for irrigation after canal preparation by each instrument size. Time needed for canal preparation of individual canal was recorded. A procedural error such as instrument breakage was also noted. After preparation, all the roots were cut longitudinally by using diamond burs in turbine handpiece and examined under scanning electron microscope. Apical region was quantified for debris and smear layer based on a 5-score numerical evaluation scale. The data established for scoring the debris and smear layer and preparation time of individual canal were analyzed statistically using the Mann-Whitney U test. Completely cleaned root canals were not found with any of the two instruments and none of the instruments maintained the original canal uniformity and regular dentine surface. Because significantly less debris was found in the apical region using the manual filing technique (p< 0.05). Thus the flexmaster system was found to produce less cleaner root canal walls than manual technique. Only one FlexMaster finishing file sized 30 was separated in the apical region during preparation of 30 degree curved canal. The time taken by FlexMaster was significantly better (p< 0.01) than that of hand instruments.

  18. Evaluation of Root Canal Morphology of Human Primary Mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... Keywords: Primary teeth, root canal, Vertucci classification. Evaluation of Root .... Radiology using CBCT; Veraviewepocs 3D R100/F40. (J Morita Mfg. Corp., .... maxillofacial structures by CBCT on a high resolution, and this ...

  19. Highly concentrated EDTA gel improves cleaning efficiency of root canal preparation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, P; Hoy, L; Günay, H

    2008-12-01

    Debris and smear layer, as a product of mechanical root canal instrumentation, reduce the effectiveness of pharmacological substances to prevent post-treatment diseases and impair direct contact of filling materials with a clean dentinal surface. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the presence and localization of debris and smear layer via scanning electron microscope analysis after standardized root canal preparation with different chelating agents. Dentin surfaces received treatment with: (1) 15% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), (2) 18.6% EDTA (3) and 24% EDTA or without any demineralizing chemicals as control. Forty vertically split human premolars were sputtered and divided into coronal, middle, and apical sections, followed by a randomized, blinded score evaluation using five scores. Pairwise comparisons of all treatment groups against a control group have been performed by Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Debris grades showed no significant difference between the three regions of the root canals, except for 18.6% EDTA in the central third. Smear layer and smear plug removal was concentration-dependent. Removal of the smear layer in the three areas showed that there was a statistically significant difference between all parts when using 18.6% and 24% EDTA concentrations compared with the control. The best smear layer removal in the apical region was observed using a 24% EDTA gel as chelating agent and lubricant. The usage of EDTA gel >/=18.6% presented a better cleaning regime when compared to the control group.

  20. Three root canals in the maxillary second premolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Almeida-Gomes Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report an endodontic treatment of the maxillary second premolar with three root canals and distinct foramens. The possibility of three root canals in this tooth is quite small; however, it must be taken into account in clinical and radiographic evaluation during endodontic treatment. Many times, their presence is noticed only after canal treatment due to continuing post-operative discomfort.

  1. Efficiency of final irrigation of root canal in removal of smear layer

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    Mitić Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A smear layer forms on the root canal walls as the consequence of root instrumentation. The smear layer formed in such a way considerably influences the quality of root obturation and endodontic treatment outcome. Objective The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally analyze the surface of intracanal dentine after removal of the smear layer by the solution of doxycycline, citric acid and detergent Tween-80 (MTAD. Methods The study involved 60 single-rooted, extracted, human teeth divided into four groups. All samples were instrumented by a step-back technique and manual K-files, and rinsed during instrumentation by 2% CHX and H2O2. The first group of samples was exclusively rinsed by CHX and H2O2; in the second group, besides using CHX and H2O2, MTAD solution was used for the final irrigation. The samples which were rinsed by distilled water (+ control and the samples rinsed by 5.25% NaOCl and 17% Na EDTA (-control served as control groups. All samples were observed under the scanning electronic microscope JEOL-JSM-5300. The coronary, middle and apex thirds of the radix region were analyzed. Results The obtained results of the SEM analysis showed that the application of 2% chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide did not give clear dentine walls, and the smear layer could not be removed completely. The application of the same combination (CHX and H2O2, added by the final MTAD irrigation solution, led to the efficient removal of the smear layer, while the morphological structure of dentine surface remained unchanged. Statistical analysis showed that canal walls in the experimental group with MTAD as the final irrigation were significantly clearer compared to the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that MTAD is an efficient solution for the final irrigation of the canal system.

  2. Assessment of Marginal Adaptation and Sealing Ability of Root Canal Sealers: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Vimal; Krishnan, Vineesh; Job, Tisson V; Ravisankar, Madhavankutty S; Raj, C V Renjith; John, Seena

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to compare the marginal adaptation and sealing ability [mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-Fillapex, AH Plus, Endofill sealers] of root canal sealers. In the present study, the inclusion criteria include 45 single-rooted extracted mandibular premolar teeth, with single canal and complete root formation. The sectioning of the samples was done at the cementoenamel junction using a low-speed diamond disc. Step-back technique was used to prepare root canals manually. The MTA-Fillapex, AH Plus, and Endofill sealers were the three experimental sealer groups to which 45 teeth were distributed. Under scanning electron microscope (SEM), marginal gap at sealer and root dentin interface were examined at coronal and apical halves of root canal. Among the three maximum marginal adaptations were seen with AH Plus sealer (4.10 ± 0.10) which is followed by Endofill sealer (1.44 ± 0.18) and MTA-Fillapex sealer (0.80 ± 0.22). Between the coronal and apical marginal adaptation, significant statistical difference (p = 0.001) was seen in AH Plus sealer. When a Mann-Whitney U-test was done on MTA-Fillapex sealer vs AH Plus sealer and AH Plus sealer vs Endofill sealer, there was a statistically significant difference (p marginal adaptation when compared with other sealers used. For sealing space of crown wall and main cone in root canal treatment, sealers play an important role. The other advantages of sealers are that they are used to fill voids and irregularities in root channel, secondary, lateral channels, and space between applied gutta-percha cones and also act as tripper during filling.

  3. Pulp revascularization after root canal decontamination with calcium hydroxide and 2% chlorhexidine gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Adriana de Jesus; Lins, Fernanda Freitas; Nagata, Juliana Yuri; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida; Zaia, Alexandre Augusto; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi; de Almeida, José Flávio Affonso; de Souza-Filho, Francisco José

    2013-03-01

    Pulp revascularization may be considered a promising alternative for necrotic immature teeth. Many studies have accomplished passive decontamination associated with an antibiotic paste. To date, there is no report evaluating calcium hydroxide associated with 2% chlorhexidine gel for revascularization therapy. The aim of this case report was to describe a new proposal for pulp revascularization with mechanical decontamination and intracanal medication composed of calcium hydroxide and 2% chlorhexidine gel. The patient, a 9-year-old girl, suffered an intrusion associated with pulp exposure caused by an enamel-dentin fracture in her maxillary left central incisor. After diagnosis, treatment consisted of revascularization therapy with gentle manual instrumentation of the cervical and medium thirds of the root in addition to intracanal medication with calcium hydroxide and 2% chlorhexidine gel for 21 days. In the second session, a blood clot was stimulated up to the cervical third of the root canal. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA; Angelus, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil) was used for cervical sealing of the canal. Coronal sealing was performed with temporary filling material and composite resin. During the follow-up period, the root canal space showed a progressive decrease in width, mineralized tissue deposition on root canal walls, and apical closure. A cone-beam computed tomography scan taken at the 2-year follow-up confirmed these findings and did not show complete root canal calcification. This new proposal for revascularization therapy with 2% chlorhexidine gel may be used for the treatment of necrotic immature root canals. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chelation in root canal therapy reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Matthias; Schmidlin, Patrick; Sener, Beatrice; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess interactions of EDTA and citric acid (CA) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), the indispensable endodontic irrigant. Other chelators were simultaneously evaluated as possible alternatives: sodium triphosphate (STP), amino tris methylenephosphonic acid (ATMA), and 1- hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (HEBP). Available chlorine was titrated in chelator-NaOCl solutions. All chelators other than HEBP and STP caused an almost complete, immediate loss of available chlorine in solution. Atomic absorbtion spectrometry and SEM evaluation of root canal walls of instrumented teeth indicated that NaOCl had no negative effect on calcium-complexing ability of chelators. STP was too weak a complexing agent to warrant further studies. Finally, CA-, EDTA-, and HEBP-NaOCl mixtures were evaluated for their antimicrobial capacity. Again, EDTA and CA negatively interfered with NaOCl, while HEBP did not.

  5. Effect of Different Torque Settings on Crack Formation in Root Dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Asım; Capar, Ismail Davut; Arslan, Hakan; Akçay, Merve; Uysal, Banu

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the incidence of cracks in root canal dentin using the ProTaper Universal system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) at low- and high-torque settings. Sixty-nine mandibular premolar teeth that had been extracted for different reasons were selected. The teeth were divided into 3 groups: an unprepared control group, a low-torque settings group (SX = 3, S1 = 2, S2 = 1, F1 = 1.5, F2 = 2, F3 = 2, F4 = 2 N/cm), and a high-torque settings group (SX = 4, S1 = 4, S2 = 1.5, F1 = 2, F2 = 3, F3 = 3, F4 = 3 N/cm). After a root canal procedure, all the teeth were horizontally sectioned at 2, 4, 6, and 8 mm from the apex. Then, under a stereomicroscope, all the slices were examined to determine the presence of cracks. A chi-square test was used for data analysis. The significance level was set at P = .05. There were no cracks in the unprepared control group. Vertical root fractures were not observed in any of the groups. There were significantly fewer cracks (17.4% of the sections) in the low-torque group than in the high-torque group (29.4% of the sections) (P torque than at low-torque settings. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Success rate of overfilled root canal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousuf, W.; Sheikh, A.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, poor obturation has been considered the primary cause of root canal treatment failures The purpose of this study was to assess the success rate of overfilled root canal treatment cases in order to decide whether a definitive restoration can be placed immediately following treatment in an overfilled case or whether the patient needs to be kept on a follow up prior to the placement of a definitive restoration. Methods: A total of 1242 patients periapical radiographs (1748 teeth) were assessed, out of which 397 teeth (in 285 patients) were found to be overfilled. Out of these 285 patients, 111 (128 cases) agreed to participate in this cross sectional study and were recalled for clinical and radiographic examination. Success was evaluated clinically by absence of symptoms (pain, swelling, tenderness to percussion and sinus tract) and radiograhically by the decrease in size of periapical lesion or no change in size. Increase in size of periapical lesion was deemed to be a failure. Results: Our findings revealed that despite overfill, the treatment was successful in 115 cases and failure was noted in 13 cases showing an overall success rate of 89.8% and failure rate of 10.2%. Out of 13 cases of failure, all 13 showed an increase in periapical lesion size, out of which 10 were accompanied with pain. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained in our study, we have determined that there is no need to delay placement of a permanent restoration on overfilled teeth (ruling out the presence of other procedural errors) nor is there any need to pursue any further surgical or non-surgical endodontic treatment. However we would suggest that patients should be kept on follow-up after placement of permanent restoration. (author)

  7. Root canal treatment of bilateral three-rooted maxillary first premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In endodontics, several anatomic variations occur in teeth, both externally and in the internal root morphology, which play a very significant role in the diagnosis and treatment outcome. A thorough knowledge of the root canal anatomy, careful interpretation of the angled radiographs, proper endodontic access cavity preparation, and exploration of the root canal are the prerequisites for endodontic success. In a maxillary first premolar, it is rare to find extra roots and canals, and the aim of the present article is to report a case about the successful diagnosis and clinical management of bilateral three-rooted maxillary first premolars, with three independent root canals.

  8. Effects of irrigation solutions and Calcium hydroxide dressing on root canal treatments of periapical lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmala, Vita

    2006-01-01

    The preparation of root canal in endodontic treatment plays an important role in treating non vital teeth with periapical lesion. Some factors influence the success of root canal treatment in short and long terms are the irrigation of root canal using antiseptic solution and the use of root canal medicament. The aim of this literature study is to determined the effect of irrigation solution and Calcium hydroxide dressing in root canal treatment of periapical lesions. The use of root canal med...

  9. The use of plastic models for teaching root canal cleansing and shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftekhar B

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of root canal models in endodontics education is of high importance. So, in this article"na new method is presented that the students can produce these models with simple and low cost"ninstruments."nThese plastic models are made of polyester which is low cost, available and has the approximate cutting"nproperties of dentin. The best molds were disposable syringes due to their low cost, availability and"nproducing smooth surfaces on polyester models. A spreader with desired curve and tapering is used for"nproducing canals. Rockwell A hardness coefficient of polyester is "33", which is near dentin "31" and"nforeign made models "35.5". Since these polyester models can tolerate up to 280°C and have acceptable"nresistance to chloroform, all root canal therapy techniques such as vertical condensation and retreatments"nare practicable. Their transparency encourage the students to work on them. As a result, the use of these"nmodels is recommended for endodontics training.

  10. Maxillary second molar with four roots and five canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjia Sha

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this case report, we present a maxillary second molar variant, which had two palatal roots with two canals and two buccal roots with three canals, including a second mesiobuccal canal. A 44-year-old female patient complained about a tooth crown fracture and severe pain in her right maxillary second molar. A clinical intraoral inspection and radiography were carried out on the tooth, and a diagnosis of chronic apical periodontitis was made. Four roots (two buccal and two palatal and five canals (three buccal and two palatal were found. The anatomical variation of the tooth was further confirmed by cone-beam computed tomography, a cone-fit procedure, and a radiograph with a shifted projection angle. Root-canal treatment was performed under an endodontic microscope.

  11. Reciprocating vs Rotary Instrumentation in Pediatric Endodontics: Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Analysis of Deciduous Root Canals using Two Single-file Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Attiguppe R; Yavagal, Chandrashekar; Dixit, Kratika; Naik, Saraswathi V

    2016-01-01

    Primary root canals are considered to be most challenging due to their complex anatomy. "Wave one" and "one shape" are single-file systems with reciprocating and rotary motion respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare dentin thickness, centering ability, canal transportation, and instrumentation time of wave one and one shape files in primary root canals using a cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) analysis. This is an experimental, in vitro study comparing the two groups. A total of 24 extracted human primary teeth with minimum 7 mm root length were included in the study. Cone beam computed tomographic images were taken before and after the instrumentation for each group. Dentin thickness, centering ability, canal transportation, and instrumentation times were evaluated for each group. A significant difference was found in instrumentation time and canal transportation measures between the two groups. Wave one showed less canal transportation as compared with one shape, and the mean instrumentation time of wave one was significantly less than one shape. Reciprocating single-file systems was found to be faster with much less procedural errors and can hence be recommended for shaping the root canals of primary teeth. How to cite this article: Prabhakar AR, Yavagal C, Dixit K, Naik SV. Reciprocating vs Rotary Instrumentation in Pediatric Endodontics: Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Analysis of Deciduous Root Canals using Two Single-File Systems. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):45-49.

  12. Laser scanning dental probe for endodontic root canal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Molly A. B.; Friedrich, Michal; Hamilton, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Peggy; Berg, Joel; Seibel, Eric J.

    2011-03-01

    Complications that arise during endodontic procedures pose serious threats to the long-term integrity and health of the tooth. Potential complexities of root canals include residual pulpal tissue, cracks, mesial-buccal 2 and accessory canals. In the case of a failed root canal, a successful apicoectomy can be jeopardized by isthmuses, accessory canals, and root microfracture. Confirming diagnosis using a small imaging probe would allow proper treatment and prevent retreatment of endodontic procedures. An ultrathin and flexible laser scanning endoscope of 1.2 to 1.6mm outer diameter was used in vitro to image extracted teeth with varied root configurations. Teeth were opened using a conventional bur and high speed drill. Imaging within the opened access cavity clarified the location of the roots where canal filing would initiate. Although radiographs are commonly used to determine the root canal size, position, and shape, the limited 2D image perspective leaves ambiguity that could be clarified if used in conjunction with a direct visual imaging tool. Direct visualization may avoid difficulties in locating the root canal and reduce the number of radiographs needed. A transillumination imaging device with the separated illumination and light collection functions rendered cracks visible in the prepared teeth that were otherwise indiscernible using reflected visible light. Our work demonstrates that a small diameter endoscope with high spatial resolution may significantly increase the efficiency and success of endodontic procedures.

  13. APICAL SEAL BETWEEN ADHESIVE ROOT CANAL OBTURATION SYSTEM AND GUTTA-PERCHA/AH-PLUS SEALER: AN IN VITRO COMPARISON STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Three dimensional obturation of the root canal is important for success of root canal treatment. Microleakage is one of the reason for root canal failure. Numerous materials have been used for obturation of which Gutta-percha is the most successful with variety of sealers. One of the recent material to further improve root canal treatment success rate is use of Resilon with Epiphany root canal sealer to apply adhesive concepts in to endodontics. An adhesive bond forms between Epiphany sealer, Resilon and dentin, making it monolithic hence less microleakage if any significantly. METHODS 60 single rooted mandibular premolars were dissected at cement enamel junction with diamond disc. Root canals were explored and working length measured using K file. Root canals of all 60 samples were prepared with ProTaper and irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA solution. Teeth were divided in to group A and B, each having 30 samples. Group A teeth obturated with Resilon Epiphany obturation system and group B with Gutta-percha and AH-plus sealer. All specimens were stored in incubator for 30 days. Clearing process of samples done with Robertson’s technique to make them transparent. All the specimens were immersed in 2% methylene blue dye solution for 7 days. Specimens were then examined under stereomicroscope with 10x magnification to measure dye penetration in mm with image analysis software. The data collected were analysed statistically. RESULTS This study showed that Resilon Epiphany group has a mean leakage of 1.2307, while the Gutta-percha/AH-plus had a mean leakage of 3.6133. There was statistically significant differences between Resilon and Gutta-percha groups. CONCLUSIONS 1. Resilon Epiphany group showed less apical microleakage than Gutta-percha/AH-plus obturation. 2. Based on result obtained it is suggested that Resilon Epiphany can be recommended for root canal obturation.

  14. Single-rooted maxillary first molar with a single canal: endodontic retreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Francisco; Cisneros-Cabello, Rafael; Aranguren, José Luis; Estévez, Roberto; Velasco-Ortega, Eugenio; Segura-Egea, Juan José

    2008-12-01

    This case report presents an unusual root canal system in a maxillary first molar tooth: a single canal in a single root. The endodontic access cavity displayed only 1 canal orifice. This case demonstrated that: 1) clinicians must have adequate knowledge about root canal morphology and its variations; 2) the location and morphology of root canals should be identified radiologically before the root canal treatment; and 3) careful examination of radiographs and the internal anatomy of teeth is essential.

  15. Anti-dentine antibodies with root resorption during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Solange de Paula; Ortolan, Geórgia Oliveira; Dos Santos, Lívia Marques; Tobouti, Priscila Lie; Hidalgo, Miriam Marubayashi; Consolaro, Alberto; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse serum IgG levels and salivary secretory IgA (sIgA) levels in human dentine extract (HDE) before (T0) and 6 months after (T6) orthodontic treatment and to correlate anti-HDE autoantibodies to root resorption. Fifty orthodontic patients were selected, 19 males (15.6 ± 8.5 years) and 31 females (21.4 ± 11.2 years), 19 in the mixed dentition (10.3 ± 1.9 years) and 31 in the permanent dentition (24.6 ± 9.9 years). Fifty individuals not undergoing orthodontic treatment matched by gender and age were selected as the controls. Periapical radiographs of the upper central incisors and saliva sampling were obtained of all patients at T0 and T6. Serum samples were collected from the permanent dentition patients (n = 31). Antibody levels were determined by means of immunoenzyme assay. At T6, root resorption was classified as grade 0 (no resorption), grade 1 (slight resorption), and grade 2 (moderate to severe resorption). Differences between antibody levels at T0 and T6 and among different grades of resorption were determined by paired t- and Kruskal-Wallis tests, respectively. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was applied to detect correlation between sIgA and IgG levels, and logistic regression to determine the association of root resorption grade and the studied variables. Differences were considered significant at P root resorption patients during treatment and was not correlated to salivary sIgA levels or other variables. Patients who had grade 2 root resorption at T6 showed higher levels of anti-HDE sIgA (P root shape were the main factors associated with the degree of root resorption. The results suggest that variations to systemic and local humoural immune response to dentine antigens may occur during orthodontic treatment. High levels of salivary sIgA before treatment were associated with more advanced lesions after 6 months of treatment.

  16. Comparative evaluation of dentinal defects induced by hand files, hyflex, protaper next and one shape during canal preparation: A stereomicroscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Garg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to evaluate and compare the incidence of dentinal defects induced by Hand Files, HyFlex CM, ProTaper Next (PTN, and One Shape during canal preparation. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty extracted mandibular premolar teeth with single root canal were selected. Specimens were then divided into five groups with thirty specimens each. Group I: Specimens were prepared with hand instruments. Group II: Specimens were prepared with HyFlex CM rotary files (Coltene using a crown-down technique according to the manufacturer's instructions. Group III: Specimens were prepared with PTN rotary files (Dentsply using a crown-down technique according to the manufacturer's instructions. Group IV: Specimens were prepared with One Shape Single file rotary system (MicroMega using a crown-down technique according to the manufacturer's instructions. Group V: Specimens were used as a control and left unprepared. All roots were cut horizontally at 3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex. Sections were then viewed under stereomicroscope and dentinal defects were registered as “no defect,” “fracture,” and “other defects.” Statistical Analysis: Results of the study were subjected to Chi-square test. Results: Results were expressed as the number and percentage of defected, partially defected and roots with no defects in each groups. Conclusion: Hand files and One Shape file system caused less root defects compared to PTN and HyFlex file systems.

  17. The Effect of Diode Laser Treatment for Root Canal Disinfection on Fracture Resistance and Micro-hardness of the Tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmiligy, H.H; Diab, A.H.; Sabet, N.E.; Saafan, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of diode laser treatment for root canal disinfection on fracture resistance and micro-hardness of the tooth. Sixty freshly extracted mandibular and maxillary premolars were accessed under coolant then root canals were flared up to apical preparation size 40 MFA coupled with 5.25% NaOCl as an irrigant. Teeth were divided into two groups, control group (group I) and lased group (group II) that was lased by diode laser with average power 2 w through fibrooptic into the canal 2 mm shorter than the apex. Each tooth was embedded in acrylic block, and then subjected to the fracture resistance test. Each root was then sectioned transversely and polished to record dentin Vickers hardness. Data was analysed with student t-test then with linear regression test. The Lased samples presented a significantly higher resistance to fracture than unlased samples. There was no statistically significant differences found between Vickers hardness (HV) of lased and unlased samples and there was no relation between fracture resistance and microhardness. Diode laser (980 nm) treatment had no adverse effect on dentin microhardness, also it increased the fracture resistance of dentin. Diode laser (980 nm) treatment could attain better function ability and maintenance of tooth after endodontic treatment.

  18. Research progress of antagonistic interactions among root canal irrigations disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen QU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Root canal therapy is the most effective way to treat various pulposis and periapical disease. Simple mechanical apparatus can not clean root canal thoroughly, but may affect tight filling instead. It can achieve a satisfactory cleansing effect only when it is combined with a chemical solution. Irrigation fluid for root canal should possess the properties of tissue dissolution, antimicrobial, lubrication, and removal of smear layer. So far, no solution is able to fulfill all these functions. Therefore, a combined use of multiple irrigation solutions is suggested. It can not only achieve good effect in cleaning and disinfection, also it can lower the concentration of different solutions, thus reducing the side effects. Nevertheless, some experiments proved that antagonism existed among the chemicals used for irrigations. The purpose of present article is to review the antagonistic effect among the chemicals used for irrigation when they are used together for root canal treatment.

  19. Evaluation of complications of root canal treatment performed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mothanna K. AlRahabi

    2017-07-05

    Jul 5, 2017 ... treatment performed by undergraduate dental students, Libyan Journal of Medicine, 12:1, 1345582, .... mass could be detected on X-ray radiographs. Overfilling was ... of tooth structure on root canal obturation and anatomical.

  20. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces prepared with three rotary endodontic systems: Lightspeed, ProTaper and EndoWave. ... fracture with LightSpeed (LS), ProTaper (PT) and EndoWave (Ew) rotary instruments.

  1. In vitro evaluation of the root canal cleaning ability of plant extracts and their antimicrobial action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edja Maria Melo de Brito Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated both the antimicrobial activity and the root canal cleaning ability of plant extracts used in irrigation solutions. The antimicrobial activities of the aroeira-da-praia (Schinus terebintifolius Raddi and the quixabeira (Syderoxylum obtusifolium Roem & Schult hydroalcoholic extracts, of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and of 0.12% chlorhexidine (positive control against Enterococcus faecalis were tested with the agar well diffusion method. The level of root canal cleanliness was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Twenty one single-rooted human teeth were divided into three groups according to the irrigation solution applied: 1 50% aroeira-da-praia; 2 50% quixabeira and 3 a combination of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite + 17% EDTA. All solutions tested demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis. The SEM analysis revealed that higher and lower degrees of surface cleaning were observed, in the three groups, respectively for the coronal and apical thirds, in that quixabeira showed the greatest efficiency in removing the smear layer in the apical third. All the agents tested presented antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis. None, however, was able to completely remove the smear layer of the dentinal surface in the different thirds of the root canal. The results suggest that the analyzed plant extracts may represent a new therapeutic option in the list of alternative agents available for endodontic treatment.

  2. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar tooth with taurodontism

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    Vujašković Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged body of a tooth with smaller than usual roots is a characteristic feature. Internal tooth anatomy correlates with this appearance, which means that a taurodontal tooth has a large pulp chamber and apically positioned furcations. This dental anomaly may be associated with different syndromes and congenital discoders. CASE OUTLINE The case report presents the patient of a rare case of taurodontism in the mandibular second premolar with chronic periodontitis. Endodontic treatment was performed after dental history and clinical examination. Special care is required in all segments of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth from the identification orifice, canal exploration, determining working length, cleaning and shaping and obturation of the root canal. Precurved K-file was used for canal exploration and location of the furcation. One mesial and one distal canal with the buccal position were identified in the apical third of the root canal. The working lengths of two canals were determined by radiographic interpretation with two K-files in each canal and verified with the apex locator. During canal instrumentation, the third canal was located in the disto-lingual position. The working length of the third canal was established using the apex locator. CONCLUSION Thorough knowledge of tooth anatomy and its variations can lead to lower percentage of endodontic failure. Each clinical case involving these teeth should be investigated carefully, clinically and radiographically to detect additional root canals. High quality radiographs from different angles and proper instrumentarium improve the quality of endodontic procedure.

  3. Effect of reciprocating file motion on microcrack formation in root canals: an SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwinkumar, V; Krithikadatta, J; Surendran, S; Velmurugan, N

    2014-07-01

    To compare dentinal microcrack formation whilst using Ni-Ti hand K-files, ProTaper hand and rotary files and the WaveOne reciprocating file. One hundred and fifty mandibular first molars were selected. Thirty teeth were left unprepared and served as controls, and the remaining 120 teeth were divided into four groups. Ni-Ti hand K-files, ProTaper hand files, ProTaper rotary files and WaveOne Primary reciprocating files were used to prepare the mesial canals. Roots were then sectioned 3, 6 and 9 mm from the apex, and the cut surface was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and checked for the presence of dentinal microcracks. The control and Ni-Ti hand K-files groups were not associated with microcracks. In roots prepared with ProTaper hand files, ProTaper rotary files and WaveOne Primary reciprocating files, dentinal microcracks were present. There was a significant difference between control/Ni-Ti hand K-files group and ProTaper hand files/ProTaper rotary files/WaveOne Primary reciprocating file group (P ProTaper rotary files producing the most microcracks. No significant difference was observed between teeth prepared with ProTaper hand files and WaveOne Primary reciprocating files. ProTaper rotary files were associated with significantly more microcracks than ProTaper hand files and WaveOne Primary reciprocating files. Ni-Ti hand K-files did not produce microcracks at any levels inside the root canals. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. An endodontic management of mandibular third molar with five root canals

    OpenAIRE

    Dakshita Joy Sinha; Ashish Amit Sinha

    2014-01-01

    The existence of several anatomical variations in the root canal system may contribute to failure of the root canal therapy. The planning and performing of endodontic therapy requires knowledge of the internal dental morphology. This paper reports the case of a left mandibular third molar that presented with five root canals; a case of unusual root canal morphology so as to demonstrate the anatomic variations in mandibular third molars. Root canal therapy and case management are described. Th...

  5. The effective concentration of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum infusion as root canal irrigant solution

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    Fani Pangabdian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smear layer is a debris consisting of organic and inorganic particles of calcified tissue, necrotic tissue, pulp tissue, and dentinoblast and microorganism processes that can close the entrance to the dentin tubuli. Smear layer, will not only inhibit the penetration of disinfection materials and sealers to the dentin tubuli, but will also reduce the attachment of root canal filling material so that root canal irrigation solution is needed to dissolve the smear layer. Red betel leaf (Piper crocatum infusion, on the other hand, contains saponin characterized as “surfactants” which can dissolve smear layer. Nevertheless, the effective concentration of the red betel leaf infusion has still not been known clearly. Purpose: This study is aimed to determine the effective concentration of the red betel leaf infusion for cleaning root canal walls from smear layer. Methods: Fiveteen extracted human teeth with straight single roots were randomized into 5 groups (n=3. The specimens were then shaped by using rotary instruments up to a size of 25/.07. During instrumentation, each canal was irrigated with 10, 20, 30 and, 40% red betel leaf infusion for treatment groups, while another was irrigated with aquadest for the control group. Root canal cleanliness was observed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results: There were significant differences among treatment groups (p<0.05, except in the treatment groups irrigated with red betel leaf infusion with concentrations of 30% and 40% (p>0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that red betel leaf infusion with a concentration of 30% is effective for cleaning the root canal walls from the smear layer.Latar belakang: Smear layer adalah suatu debris yang mengandung partikel organik dan anorganik dari jaringan terkalsifikasi, jaringan nekrotik, proses dentinoblas, jaringan pulpa dan mikroorganisme yang dapat menutup jalan masuk ke tubuli dentin. Smear layer akan menghalangi penetrasi dari bahan

  6. Physicochemical Properties of Calcium Phosphate Based Coating on Gutta-Percha Root Canal Filling

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    Afaf Al-Haddad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Gutta-percha (GP is a polymer based standard root canal filling material that has been widely used in dentistry. However, it has an inadequate sealing ability and adhesion to root dentin. The aim of this study is to coat GP with a bioactive material to enhance its sealing ability and adhesion to the root sealer and subsequently to the root dentin. The choice of coating method is limited by the nature of GP as it requires a technique that is not governed by high temperatures or uses organic solvents. In this study, biomimetic coating technique using 1.5 Tas-simulated body fluids (SBF was employed to coat the treated GP cones. The coated samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM. The presence of hydroxyl, carbonate, and phosphate groups was detected by FTIR while the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA/calcium phosphate was confirmed with XRD. FESEM revealed uniform, thin, and crystalline HA calcium phosphate coating. The adhesion of the coating to the GP substrate was assessed with microscratch technique. It was viable with cohesive failure mode. In conclusion, Tas-SBF is able to coat pretreated GP cones with a crystalline apatitic calcium phosphate layer.

  7. Evaluation of Root Canal Morphology of Human Primary Mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... solution (Omnipaque; Novaplus, Cork, Ireland) to clarify the view of the root canals during CBCT imaging. Each and every root apex was covered with a soft modeling wax to prevent any microleakage of solution, and all teeth were placed in a silicone‑based impression material (Zetaplus, Zhermack, Rovigo, ...

  8. Root canal preparation in endodontics: conventional versus laser methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodis, Harold E.; White, Joel M.; Marshall, Sally J.; Marshall, Grayson W.; Moskowitz, Emrey

    1992-06-01

    Conventional cleaning and shaping of root canal systems employs hand and/or rotary instrumentation to remove the contents of the canal and shape the canal to receive a filling material. With the advent of the Nd:YAG laser system another method of accomplishing proper cleaning and shaping is evaluated. Single rooted teeth were radiographed bucco- lingually and mesio-distally and were divided into 2 groups. The first group was accessed and the root canal systems cleaned and shaped with a step back technique utilizing hand files and gates glidden burs. At completion of the procedure the teeth were again radiographed at the same positions as those prior to the procedure. The teeth were split longitudinally and examined under scanning electron microscopy to assess cleaning. The second group of teeth were accessed, and cleaning and shaping was accomplished using the Nd:YAG laser in combination with hand files and rotary instruments. These teeth were subjected to the same analysis as those in the first group. The before and after radiographs of each group were subjected to image analysis to determine effectiveness of the two methods in shaping the canal systems. We will discuss the ability of Nd:YAG to clean and shape root canal spaces and remove smear layer and organic tissue remnants from those areas.

  9. External apical root resorption diagnosis by using FII human dentine fraction and salivary IGg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da-Costa, Tânia Maris Pedrini Soares; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Consolaro, Alberto; Lima, Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira; Tanaka, Evelise Ono; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa

    2018-06-01

    External apical root resorption as a consequence of orthodontic treatment is an inflammatory pathological process that results in permanent loss of tooth structure from the root apex. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic potential of human dentine fractions and salivary IgG in external apical root resorption. Saliva samples were collected from 10 patients before (T0) and after 3 (T3), 6 (T6) and 12 (T12) months of orthodontic treatment. The total dentinal extract, obtained from human third molars, was fractioned by gel filtration chromatography in three fractions denominated FI, FII and FIII. The root resorption analysis of the upper central incisors was performed by digital image subtraction method. Reactivity of salivary IgG to antigenic fractions of dentine was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa). Regardless of treatment, FI dentin fraction with high MM (root resorptions were detected. Our results suggest that FII human dentine fraction and salivary IgG have potential to be used in diagnosis and monitoring of external apical root resorption. The development of a practical and accessible biochemical test using saliva and FII dentine fraction may help in the prevention of severe root resorption. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. C-shaped root canal in a maxillary first molar: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Z; Tuncel, B; Serper, A; Calt, S

    2006-02-01

    This case report presents an unusual C-shaped root canal system in a maxillary first molar tooth. Although C-shaped root canals are most frequently seen in the mandibular second molar, they may also appear in maxillary molars. A literature search revealed only a few case reports of C-shaped root canal systems in maxillary molars. The present case describes a C-shaped canal in the buccal root of a maxillary first molar. The endodontic access cavity displayed two canal orifices, one leading to the canal system in the buccal root, the other into the palatal root canal system. In the buccal root, what appeared to be the mesial and distal canals joined to form a single C-shaped canal. --Careful examination of radiographs and the internal anatomy of teeth is essential.-- The location and morphology of root canals should be identified at high magnification under the microscope.

  11. Ex vivo analysis of root canal cleaning using Endo-PTC associated to NaOCl and different irrigant solutions

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    Andrea Kanako Yamazaki

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess qualitatively, by means of SEM images, the cleaning of the dentin walls of root canals after chemical-surgical preparation using Endo-PTC cream with 0.5% and 1% sodium hypochlorite and different final irrigating solutions. Seventy-two single-rooted human teeth were divided into eight groups and prepared using Endo-PTC cream with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl at different concentrations, and irrigated with NaOCl at different concentrations. Final irrigation was performed with either EDTA-T or EDTA-C. The best results were obtained with Group 1, followed by Groups 5, 2, 7, 8, 3, 6 and 4. We can conclude that the use of 0.5% NaOCl during instrumentation and final flush of the root canals was more efficient in cleaning than was 1% sodium hypochlorite. EDTA-T was more efficient in removing smear layer than EDTA-C, and the cervical third presented better cleaning of the root canal walls than did the middle third, which showed cleaner dentin walls than the apical third.

  12. The effect of a manual instrumentation technique on five types of premolar root canal geometry assessed by microcomputed tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke-Zeng; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Ru; Hu, Tao; Guo, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Together with diagnosis and treatment planning, a good knowledge of the root canal system and its frequent variations is a necessity for successful root canal therapy. The selection of instrumentation techniques for variants in internal anatomy of teeth has significant effects on the shaping ability and cleaning effectiveness. The aim of this study was to reveal the differences made by including variations in the internal anatomy of premolars into the study protocol for investigation of a single instrumentation technique (hand ProTaper instruments) assessed by microcomputed tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction. Five single-root premolars, whose root canal systems were classified into one of five types, were scanned with micro-CT before and after preparation with a hand ProTaper instrument. Instrumentation characteristics were measured quantitatively in 3-D using a customized application framework based on MeVisLab. Numeric values were obtained for canal surface area, volume, volume changes, percentage of untouched surface, dentin wall thickness, and the thickness of dentin removed. Preparation errors were also evaluated using a color-coded reconstruction. Canal volumes and surface areas were increased after instrumentation. Prepared canals of all five types were straightened, with transportation toward the inner aspects of S-shaped or multiple curves. However, a ledge was formed at the apical third curve of the type II canal system and a wide range in the percentage of unchanged canal surfaces (27.4-83.0%) was recorded. The dentin walls were more than 0.3 mm thick except in a 1 mm zone from the apical surface and the hazardous area of the type II canal system after preparation with an F3 instrument. The 3-D color-coded images showed different morphological changes in the five types of root canal systems shaped with the same hand instrumentation technique. Premolars are among the most complex teeth for root canal treatment and instrumentation techniques

  13. The effect of a manual instrumentation technique on five types of premolar root canal geometry assessed by microcomputed tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Tao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Together with diagnosis and treatment planning, a good knowledge of the root canal system and its frequent variations is a necessity for successful root canal therapy. The selection of instrumentation techniques for variants in internal anatomy of teeth has significant effects on the shaping ability and cleaning effectiveness. The aim of this study was to reveal the differences made by including variations in the internal anatomy of premolars into the study protocol for investigation of a single instrumentation technique (hand ProTaper instruments assessed by microcomputed tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction. Methods Five single-root premolars, whose root canal systems were classified into one of five types, were scanned with micro-CT before and after preparation with a hand ProTaper instrument. Instrumentation characteristics were measured quantitatively in 3-D using a customized application framework based on MeVisLab. Numeric values were obtained for canal surface area, volume, volume changes, percentage of untouched surface, dentin wall thickness, and the thickness of dentin removed. Preparation errors were also evaluated using a color-coded reconstruction. Results Canal volumes and surface areas were increased after instrumentation. Prepared canals of all five types were straightened, with transportation toward the inner aspects of S-shaped or multiple curves. However, a ledge was formed at the apical third curve of the type II canal system and a wide range in the percentage of unchanged canal surfaces (27.4-83.0% was recorded. The dentin walls were more than 0.3 mm thick except in a 1 mm zone from the apical surface and the hazardous area of the type II canal system after preparation with an F3 instrument. Conclusions The 3-D color-coded images showed different morphological changes in the five types of root canal systems shaped with the same hand instrumentation technique. Premolars are among the most

  14. An endodontic management of mandibular third molar with five root canals

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    Dakshita Joy Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of several anatomical variations in the root canal system may contribute to failure of the root canal therapy. The planning and performing of endodontic therapy requires knowledge of the internal dental morphology. This paper reports the case of a left mandibular third molar that presented with five root canals; a case of unusual root canal morphology so as to demonstrate the anatomic variations in mandibular third molars. Root canal therapy and case management are described. This report highlights the importance of looking for additional roots and root canals so as to enable clinicians to treat a case successfully, which might have ended in failure.

  15. Strategies of Coping With Stress During Root Canal Therapy

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    Zare Jahromi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Endodontic treatment is one of the stress producing situations. Objectives The purpose of this article was to determine the most stressful stage of root canal therapy among endodontists, endodontic residents, and undergraduate dental students and offering some strategies for reducing stress during this treatment. Patients and Methods This descriptive survey comprised three groups. Thirty-six endodontists, 41 endodontic residents, and 47 undergraduate dental students selected by convenience sampling. Participants were asked about age, sex, the most stressful stage of root canal therapy and stress reducing strategies during the procedure. Results The most stressful stage of root canal therapy was endodontic treatment for children in male endodontists and residents, preparing access cavity on crowns in female endodontists, obturation of apically root Resorped canals in female residents, obturation in female students, and preparing access cavity on molar teeth in male students. The most suggested strategy for reducing stress during root canal therapy was related to experience, knowledge, enough study, and technical mastery. Conclusions It is required to consider the strategies during student education in dental schools for both under and post-graduation dental students and better to follow them in workshops for other dentists and even endodontists.

  16. Review of root canal irrigant delivery techniques and devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Jee Yoo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Eliminating the residual debris and bacteria in the root canal system is one of the main purposes of the endodontic treatment. However, the complexity on the anatomy of the root canal system makes it difficult to eliminate the bacterial biofilm existing along the root canal surface and necrotic pulp tissue by mechanical instrumentation and chemical irrigation. Recently, more effective irrigant delivery systems for root canal irrigation have been developed. The purpose of this review was to present an overview of root canal irrigant delivery techniques and devices available in endodontics. Review The contents of this paper include as follows; - syringe-needle irrigation, manual dynamic irrigation, brushes - sonic and ultrasonic irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation, rotary brush, RinsEndo, EndoVac, Laser Conclusion Though technological advances during the last decade have brought to fruition new agitation devices that rely on various mechanisms, there are few evidence based study to correlate the clinical efficacy of these devices with improved outcomes except syringe irrigation with needle and ultrasonic irrigation. The clinicians should try their best efforts to deliver antimicrobial and tissue solvent solutions in predictable volumes safely to working length.

  17. Assessment of the bacteria reduction in the infected root canal irradiated with diode laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radaelli, Claudia Amaral Rabello de Mello

    2002-01-01

    High success rates are achieved in conventional endodontic treatment of vital pulp teeth. However, in cases of non-vital pulp, a decrease in the rate of success occurs due to difficulties in achieving a complete disinfection of the root canals system. Some bacteria, such as Enterococcus faecalis, are frequently found in cases of endodontic treatment failure due to their high resistance to the conventional endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a high power diode laser irradiation in bacterial reduction of contaminated canals associated with dressing compose by calcium hydroxide paste propylene glycol and camphorated paramonochlorophenol. Eighty-two root canals were infected in vitro with Enterococcus faecalis in a concentration of 1x10 8 CFU/ml. Specimens were high intensity irradiated with a diode laser model Opus 10, at a wavelength of 830 nm. Two different parameters were employed in continuous mode: 3 W and 2,5 W with a 360 μm optical fiber at an angle of approximately 5 degrees respect to the dentine surface during 5 seconds, in 4 applications, with 20 seconds intervals among them. After these proceedings specimens were vortexed in peptone water and dilutions performed. Aliquots of the dilution were plated on m-Enterococcus agar, incubated, and the Colonies Forming Units (CFU) of ali groups was counted. The results showed a significant reduction of bacteria on ali groups after laser irradiation. A high reduction rate was achieved: 98.5% immediately after the laser irradiation; 48 hours after, the reduction was of 96,73% and, finally, a 100% reduction was achieved through the combination of laser irradiation and a long lasting dressing of calcium hydroxide paste, propylene glycol and camphorated paramonochlorophenol. High rates of bacteria reduction were achieved using the parameter of 3 W in continuous mode with the power of 2,9473 KW/cm 2 . The temperature was monitored with a K-pipe thermocouple placed at the

  18. [In vitro comparison of root canal preparation with step-back technique and GT rotary file--a nickel-titanium engine driven rotary instrument system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajczár, Károly; Tóth, Vilmos; Nyárády, Zoltán; Szabó, Gyula

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the authors' study was to compare the remaining root canal wall thickness and the preparation time of root canals, prepared either with step-back technique, or with GT Rotary File, an engine driven nickel-titanium rotary instrument system. Twenty extracted molars were decoronated. Teeth were divided in two groups. In Group 1 root canals were prepared with step-back technique. In Group 2 GT Rotary File System was utilized. Preoperative vestibulo-oral X-ray pictures were taken from all teeth with radiovisiograph (RVG). The final preparations at the mesiobuccal canals (MB) were performed with size #30 and palatinal/distal canals with size #40 instruments. Postoperative RVG pictures were taken ensuring the preoperative positioning. The working time was measured in seconds during each preparation. The authors also assessed the remaining root canal wall thickness at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the radiological apex, comparing the width of the canal walls of the vestibulo-oral projections on pre- and postoperative RVG pictures both mesially and buccally. The ratios of the residual and preoperative root canal wall thickness were calculated and compared. The largest difference was found at the MB canals of the coronal and middle third level of the root, measured on the distal canal wall. The ratio of the remaining dentin wall thickness at the coronal and the middle level in the case of step-back preparation was 0.605 and 0.754, and 0.824 and 0.895 in the cases of GT files respectively. The preparation time needed for GT Rotary File System was altogether 68.7% (MB) and 52.5% (D/P canals) of corresponding step-back preparation times. The use of GT Rotary File with comparison of standard step-back method resulted in a shortened preparation time and excessive damage of the coronal part of the root canal could be avoided.

  19. Thermal analysis of different application techniques on Nd:YAG laser after root canal preparation of single-rooted teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archilla, Jose Ricardo de F.

    2001-01-01

    The experiment objective is to analyze temperature variation, by means of three different application techniques of Nd:YAG laser in the root canals of singlerooted anterior teeth. Three root canals were instrumented, irrigated, X-rayed to measure the remaining dentin in the apical area and submitted to laser irradiation techniques used by Gutknecht, Matsumoto and a new technique with oscillatory movement. The used laser parameters were: pulse energy 250 mJ, frequency 5 Hz, pulse fluency 354 J/cm 2 , average potency 1,25 W, pulse width 300 μs, fiber core diameter 300 μs and interval of thermal relaxation of 20 s. After temperature evaluation and interpretation of the obtained data, it was concluded: 1) the oscillatory technique provided a better heat distribution during the laser application, when analyzing the graphs separately; 2) all the used techniques are within a pattern of safety, analyzing the average and highest temperatures of the apical area and the middle third, even so, disrespecting the last application day and the middle third of root 'C'.(author)

  20. Variations in the Root Form and Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Mandibular First Molars in a Sri Lankan Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Peiris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the number of roots and morphology of the root canal system of permanent mandibular first molars (M1 in a Sri Lankan population. Sample of 529 M1 teeth was used. The number of roots was examined and the lengths of the mesial and distal roots were measured to the nearest 0.01 mm. Vacuum injection protocol was used to inject China ink into the root canal system, making it transparent. Root canal morphology was recorded using Vertucci’s classification. Presence of furcation canals, position of lateral canals, intercanal communications, level of bifurcation, and convergence of the root canal system were recorded. M1 showed three roots in 4.1% of the sample. Commonest root canal morphology of the mesial root was type IV and the distal root was type I. The level of bifurcation of the root canals was commonly observed in the cervical one-third of the root while convergence was observed in the apical one-third in both roots. Prevalence of three rooted mandibular first molars is less than 5%. Mesial root showed the most variable canal morphology. Prevalence of furcation canals was 1.5% while that of middle mesial canals was 0.2%.

  1. Cervical shaping in curved root canals: comparison of the efficiency of two endodontic instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busquim Sandra Soares Kühne

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the removal of dentin produced by number 25 (0.08 Flare files (Quantec Flare Series, Analytic Endodontics, Glendora, California, USA and number 1 e 2 Gates-Glidden burs (Dentsply - Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland, in the mesio-buccal and mesio-lingual root canals, respectively, of extracted human permanent inferior molars, by means of measuring the width of dentinal walls prior and after instrumentation. The obtained values were compared. Due to the multiple analyses of data, a nonparametric test was used, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was chosen. There was no significant difference between the instruments as to the removal of dentin in the 1st and 2nd millimeters. However, when comparing the performances of the instruments in the 3rd millimeter, Flare files promoted a greater removal than Gates-Glidden drills (p > 0.05. The analysis revealed no significant differences as to mesial wear, which demonstrates the similar behavior of both instruments. Gates-Glidden drills produced an expressive mesial detour in the 2nd and 3rd millimeters, which was detected trough a statistically significant difference in the wear of this region (p > 0.05. There was no statistically significant difference between mesial and lateral wear when Flare instruments were employed.

  2. Cervical shaping in curved root canals: comparison of the efficiency of two endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquim, Sandra Soares Kühne; dos Santos, Marcelo

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the removal of dentin produced by number 25 (0.08) Flare files (Quantec Flare Series, Analytic Endodontics, Glendora, California, USA) and number 1 e 2 Gates-Glidden burs (Dentsply - Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), in the mesio-buccal and mesio-lingual root canals, respectively, of extracted human permanent inferior molars, by means of measuring the width of dentinal walls prior and after instrumentation. The obtained values were compared. Due to the multiple analyses of data, a nonparametric test was used, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was chosen. There was no significant difference between the instruments as to the removal of dentin in the 1st and 2nd millimeters. However, when comparing the performances of the instruments in the 3rd millimeter, Flare files promoted a greater removal than Gates-Glidden drills (p > 0.05). The analysis revealed no significant differences as to mesial wear, which demonstrates the similar behavior of both instruments. Gates-Glidden drills produced an expressive mesial detour in the 2nd and 3rd millimeters, which was detected trough a statistically significant difference in the wear of this region (p > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between mesial and lateral wear when Flare instruments were employed.

  3. Pull-out bond strength of a self-adhesive resin cement to NaOCl-treated root dentin: effect of antioxidizing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khoroushi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study evaluated the effect of three antioxidizing agents on pull-out bond strengths of dentin treated with sodium hypochlorite. Materials and Methods Root canals of 75 single-rooted human teeth were prepared. Fifteen teeth were irrigated with normal saline for a negative control group, and the remaining 60 teeth (groups 2 - 5 with 2.5% NaOCl. The teeth in group 2 served as a positive control. Prior to post cementation, the root canals in groups 3 - 5 were irrigated with three antioxidizing agents including 10% rosmarinic acid (RA, Baridge essence, 10% hesperidin (HPN, Sigma, and 10% sodium ascorbate hydrogel (SA, AppliChem. Seventy-five spreaders (#55, taper .02, Produits Dentaires S.A were coated with silica and silanized with the Rocatec system and ceramic bond. All the prepared spreaders were cemented with a self-adhesive resin cement (Bifix SE, Voco Gmbh in the prepared canals. After storage in distilled water (24 h/37℃, the spreaders were pulled out in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Pull-out strength values were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (α = 0.05. Results There were significant differences between study groups (p = 0.016. The highest pull-out strength was related to the SA group. The lowest strength was obtained in the positive control group. Conclusions Irrigation with NaOCl during canal preparation decreased bond strength of resin cement to root dentin. Amongst the antioxidants tested, SA had superior results in reversing the diminishing effect of NaOCl irrigation on the bond strength to root dentin.

  4. Comparison of removed dentin thickness with hand and rotary instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, Shahriar; Abedi, Hasan; Hashemi, Mahdi; Jalalzadeh, Seyed Mohsen

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of dentine removed after canal preparation using stainless steel (SS) hand instruments or rotary ProFile instruments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six extracted human teeth with root canal curvatures less than 30º were embedded in clear polyester resin. The roots were cut horizontally at apical 2, 4 and 7 mm. Dentin thickness was measured at each section and the sections were accurately reassembled using a muffle. Root canals were randomly prepared by SS hand instruments or rotary ProFile instruments. Root sections were again separated, and the remaining dentin thickness was measured. Mann-Whitney U and t tests were performed for analytic comparison of the results. RESULTS: The thickness of removed dentin was significantly different between the two used methods (Pinstrumentation group (Protary instrumentation prepares root canals with a greater conservation of tooth structure. PMID:23940489

  5. Endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with six root canal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Dilip; Reddy, Smitha; Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Kamishetty, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Internal anatomy of pulp is complex. The first mandibular molars typically have two roots, one mesial with two root canals and another distal root, which contains one or two canals. A 20-year-old female patient reported with intermittent pain and incomplete root canal treatment in left lower back region since 1-week. Refined access cavity revealed initially two canals in mesial and two canals in the distal root. With operating microscope and cone beam computerized tomography, two additional canals (L-mesio-buccal and B-mesio-lingual) were identified in mesial root. One-year follow-up showed patient was asymptomatic and complete healing of periapical radiolucency.

  6. Root canal obturation of primary teeth: Disposable injection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to outline a simple, cost-effective technique for obturation of primary tooth root canals. A total of 75 primary teeth were treated in 52 subjects by the technique discussed, i.e. injecting plastic flowable material into the root canals after desired preparation, using disposable needle and syringe. All the patients were followed up for 3 years and 6 months, with no clinical or radiologic evidence of pathology or need for untimely extraction. In conclusion, the technique described is simple, economical, can be used with almost all filling materials used for the purpose, and is easy to master with minimal chances of failure.

  7. Optodynamic Phenomena During Laser-Activated Irrigation Within Root Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukač, Nejc; Gregorčič, Peter; Jezeršek, Matija

    2016-07-01

    Laser-activated irrigation is a powerful endodontic treatment for smear layer, bacteria, and debris removal from the root canal. In this study, we use shadow photography and the laser-beam-transmission probe to examine the dynamics of laser-induced vapor bubbles inside a root canal model and compare ultrasonic needle irrigation to the laser method. Results confirm important phenomenological differences in the two endodontic methods with the laser method resulting in much deeper irrigation. Observations of simulated debris particles show liquid vorticity effects which in our opinion represents the major cleaning mechanism.

  8. Influence of NiTi alloy on the root canal shaping capabilities of the ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Gold rotary instrument systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussaro Alves DUQUE

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the NiTi wire in Conventional NiTi (ProTaper Universal PTU and Controlled Memory NiTi (ProTaper Gold PTG instrument systems on the quality of root canal preparation. Material and Methods Twelve mandibular molars with separate mesial canals were scanned using a high-definition microcomputed tomography system. The PTU and PTG instruments were used to shape twelve mesial canals each. The canals were scanned after preparation with F2 and F3 instruments of the PTU and PTG systems. The analyzed parameters included the remaining dentin thickness at the apical and cervical levels, root canal volume and untouched canal walls. Data was analyzed for statistical significance by the Friedman and Dunn’s tests. For the comparison of data between groups, the Mann-Whitney test was used. Results In the pre-operative analysis, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of the area and volume of root canals (P>.05. There was also no statistically significant difference between the systems with respect to root canal volume after use of the F2 and F3 instruments. There was no statistical difference in the dentin thickness at the first apical level between, before and after instrumentation for both systems. At the 3 cervical levels, the PTG maintained centralization of the preparation on the transition between the F2 and F3 instruments, which did not occur with the PTU. Conclusion The Conventional NiTi (PTU and Controlled Memory NiTi (PTG instruments displayed comparable capabilities for shaping the straight mesial root canals of mandibular molars, although the PTG was better than the PTU at maintaining the centralization of the shape in the cervical portion.

  9. Influence of NiTi alloy on the root canal shaping capabilities of the ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Gold rotary instrument systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    DUQUE, Jussaro Alves; VIVAN, Rodrigo Ricci; CAVENAGO, Bruno Cavalini; AMOROSO-SILVA, Pablo Andrés; BERNARDES, Ricardo Affonso; de VASCONCELOS, Bruno Carvalho; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the NiTi wire in Conventional NiTi (ProTaper Universal PTU) and Controlled Memory NiTi (ProTaper Gold PTG) instrument systems on the quality of root canal preparation. Material and Methods Twelve mandibular molars with separate mesial canals were scanned using a high-definition microcomputed tomography system. The PTU and PTG instruments were used to shape twelve mesial canals each. The canals were scanned after preparation with F2 and F3 instruments of the PTU and PTG systems. The analyzed parameters included the remaining dentin thickness at the apical and cervical levels, root canal volume and untouched canal walls. Data was analyzed for statistical significance by the Friedman and Dunn’s tests. For the comparison of data between groups, the Mann-Whitney test was used. Results In the pre-operative analysis, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of the area and volume of root canals (P>.05). There was also no statistically significant difference between the systems with respect to root canal volume after use of the F2 and F3 instruments. There was no statistical difference in the dentin thickness at the first apical level between, before and after instrumentation for both systems. At the 3 cervical levels, the PTG maintained centralization of the preparation on the transition between the F2 and F3 instruments, which did not occur with the PTU. Conclusion The Conventional NiTi (PTU) and Controlled Memory NiTi (PTG) instruments displayed comparable capabilities for shaping the straight mesial root canals of mandibular molars, although the PTG was better than the PTU at maintaining the centralization of the shape in the cervical portion. PMID:28198973

  10. Push-out bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin using glass ionomer and resin modified glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Ricardo PEREIRA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin after cementation with glass ionomer (GICs and resinmodified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty human maxillary canines were transversally sectioned at 15 mm from the apex. Canals were prepared with a step back technique until the application of a #55 K-file and filled. Post spaces were prepared and specimens were divided into five groups according to the cement used for post cementation: Luting & Lining Cement; Fuji II LC Improved; RelyX Luting; Ketac Cem; and Ionoseal. After cementation of the glass fiber posts, all roots were stored at 100% humidity until testing. For push-out test, 1-mm thick slices were produced. The push-out test was performed in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute and the values (MPa were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene's tests and by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Fiber posts cemented using Luting & Lining Cement, Fuji II LC Improved, and Ketac Cem presented the highest bond strength to root dentin, followed by RelyX Luting. Ionoseal presented the lowest bond strength values (P>0.05. The post level did not influence the bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin (P=0.148. The major cause of failure was cohesive at the cement for all GICs and RMGICs. CONCLUSIONS: Except for Ionoseal, all cements provided satisfactory bond strength values.

  11. Non-destructive, preclinical evaluation of root canal anatomy of human teeth with flat-panel detector volume CT (FD-VCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidrich, G.; Hassepass, F.; Dullin, C.; Grabbe, E.; Attin, T.; Hannig, C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Successful endodontic diagnostics and therapy call for adequate depiction of the root canal anatomy with multimodal diagnostic imaging. The aim of the present study is to evaluate visualization of the endodont with flat-panel detector volume CT (FD-VCT). Materials and methods: 13 human teeth were examined with the prototype of a FD-VCT. After data acquisition and generation of volume data sets in volume rendering technology (VRT), the findings obtained were compared to conventional X-rays and cross-section preparations of the teeth. Results: The anatomical structures of the endodont such as root canals, side canals and communications between different root canals as well as dentricles could be detected precisely with FD-VCT. The length of curved root canals was also determined accurately. The spatial resolution of the system is around 140 μm. Only around 73% of the main root canals detected with FD-VCT and 87% of the roots could be visualized with conventional dental X-rays. None of the side canals, shown with FD-VCT, was detectable on conventional X-rays. In all cases the enamel and dentin of the teeth could be well delineated. No differences in image quality could be discerned between stored and freshly extracted teeth, or between primary and adult teeth. (orig.)

  12. Influence of antimicrobial solutions in the decontamination and adhesion of glass-fiber posts to root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARAGUSHIKU, Gisele Aihara; BACK, Eduardo Donato Eing Engelke; TOMAZINHO, Paulo Henrique; BARATTO, Flares; FURUSE, Adilson Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effect of root canal disinfectants on the elimination of bacteria from the root canals, as well as their effect on glass-fiber posts bond strength. Material and Methods Fifty-three endodontically treated root canals had post spaces of 11 mm in length prepared and contaminated with E. faecalis. For CFU/ml analysis, eight teeth were contaminated for 1 h or 30 days (n=4). Teeth were decontaminated with 5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or distilled water. As control, no decontamination was conducted. After decontamination, sterile paper points were used to collect samples, and CFU/ml were counted. For push-out, three groups were evaluated (n=15): irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or sterile distilled water. A bonding agent was applied to root canal dentin, and a glass-fiber post was cemented with a dual-cured cement. After 24 h, 1-mm-thick slices of the middle portion of root canals were obtained and submitted to the push-out evaluation. Three specimens of each group were evaluated in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s T3 test (α=0.05). Results The number of CFU/ml increased from 1 h to 30 days of contamination in control and sterile distilled water groups. Decontamination with NaOCl was effective only when teeth were contaminated for 1 h. CHX was effective at both contamination times. NaOCl did not influence the bond strength (p>0.05). Higher values were observed with CHX (pcontaminated root canals both in reducing the bacterial contamination and in improving the glass-fiber post bonding. PMID:26398518

  13. Influence of antimicrobial solutions in the decontamination and adhesion of glass-fiber posts to root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Aihara HARAGUSHIKU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective This study evaluated the effect of root canal disinfectants on the elimination of bacteria from the root canals, as well as their effect on glass-fiber posts bond strength.Material and Methods Fifty-three endodontically treated root canals had post spaces of 11 mm in length prepared and contaminated with E. faecalis. For CFU/ml analysis, eight teeth were contaminated for 1 h or 30 days (n=4. Teeth were decontaminated with 5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or distilled water. As control, no decontamination was conducted. After decontamination, sterile paper points were used to collect samples, and CFU/ml were counted. For push-out, three groups were evaluated (n=15: irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or sterile distilled water. A bonding agent was applied to root canal dentin, and a glass-fiber post was cemented with a dual-cured cement. After 24 h, 1-mm-thick slices of the middle portion of root canals were obtained and submitted to the push-out evaluation. Three specimens of each group were evaluated in scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s T3 test (α=0.05.Results The number of CFU/ml increased from 1 h to 30 days of contamination in control and sterile distilled water groups. Decontamination with NaOCl was effective only when teeth were contaminated for 1 h. CHX was effective at both contamination times. NaOCl did not influence the bond strength (p>0.05. Higher values were observed with CHX (p<0.05. SEM showed formation of resin tags in all groups.Conclusion CHX showed better results for the irrigation of contaminated root canals both in reducing the bacterial contamination and in improving the glass-fiber post bonding.

  14. Diagnosis and root canal treatment in a mandibular premolar with three canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Lanuce Rosa; Arruda, Marcos; de Arruda, Marcos Pôrto; Rangel, Andréa Leão; Takano, Edson; de Carvalho Júnior, Jacy Ribeiro; Saquy, Paulo Cesar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a case report of a left mandibular second premolar with three canals and three different apical foramina. A 39-year-old male patient presented to our clinic with pain in the mandibular left second premolar. Initially, pain was caused by cold stimulus and later was spontaneously. The intraoral clinical examination revealed a fractured amalgam restoration with occlusal caries. Percussion and cold (Endo-Frost) tests were positive. The radiographic examination showed the presence of two roots. The probable diagnosis was an acute pulpitis. After access cavity, it was observed remaining roof of the pulp chamber and mild bleeding in the tooth lingual area, indicating the possible presence of a third canal. The endodontic treatment was completed in a single session using Root ZX apex locator and K3 NiTi rotary system with surgical diameter corresponding to a .02/45 file in the three canals and irrigation with 1% sodium hypochlorite. The canals were obtured with gutta-percha cones and Sealer 26 using the lateral condensation technique. After 1 year of follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic and periapical repair was observed radiographically. Internal alterations should be considered during the endodontic treatment of mandibular second premolars. The correct diagnosis of these alterations by the analysis of preoperative radiographs can help the location of two or more canals, thereby avoiding root therapy failure.

  15. Three distal root canals in mandibular first molar with different canal configurations: Report of two cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of reports of aberrant root canal morphology, the clinician needs to be aware of the variable anatomy. Various case reports have been published with the finding of middle mesial canal in mandibular first molar, however finding of three distal canals in distal roots of mandibular first molar is rare. This article reports endodontic management of two mandibular first molars presented with three distal canals present in a single distal root (Sert and Bayirli type XVIII and distal and distolingual root.

  16. Working Length Determination of Root Canal of Young Permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Working Length Determination of Root Canal of Young Permanent Tooth: An In Vitro Study. A Diwanji, AS Rathore, R Arora, V Dhar, A Madhusudan, J Doshi. Abstract. Background: Determination of correct working length is one of the keys to success in endodontic therapy. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ...

  17. Two-Rooted Maxillary First Molars with Two Canals: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Shakouie, Sahar; Mokhtari, Hadi; Ghasemi, Negin; Gholizadeh, Seddigheh

    2013-01-01

    Thorough understanding of the anatomic and internal morphology of a root canal system is absolutely essential for the success of endodontic treatment. Since permanent maxillary first molars have shown variation in internal anatomy, morphology, this tooth has been reviewed extensively. Presence of two canals in a two-rooted maxillary first molar has rarely been reported in studies describing tooth and root canal anatomies. In this report, three cases are presented, which involve the root canal...

  18. Independent and Confluent Middle Mesial Root Canals in Mandibular First Molars: A Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanavelu Deepalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular molars demonstrate considerable variations with respect to number of roots and root canals. The possibility of additional root canals should be considered even in teeth with a low frequency of abnormal root canal anatomy. This paper discusses the endodontic management of the rare anatomical complexity middle mesial canals in mandibular first molar and also serves to remind the clinicians that such anatomical variations should be taken into account during the endodontic treatment of the mandibular molars.

  19. Cervical shaping in curved root canals: comparison of the efficiency of two endodontic instruments Desgaste cervical em canais curvos: comparação entre a eficiência de dois instrumentos endodônticos

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Soares Kühne Busquim; Marcelo dos Santos

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the removal of dentin produced by number 25 (0.08) Flare files (Quantec Flare Series, Analytic Endodontics, Glendora, California, USA) and number 1 e 2 Gates-Glidden burs (Dentsply - Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), in the mesio-buccal and mesio-lingual root canals, respectively, of extracted human permanent inferior molars, by means of measuring the width of dentinal walls prior and after instrumentation. The obtained values were compared. Due to th...

  20. Role of the confinement of a root canal on jet impingement during endodontic irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, B.; Boutsioukis, C.; Heijnen, G. L.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Versluis, M.

    2012-01-01

    During a root canal treatment the root canal is irrigated with an antimicrobial fluid, commonly performed with a needle and a syringe. Irrigation of a root canal with two different types of needles can be modeled as an impinging axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric jet. These jets are investigated

  1. Effect of photoactivated riboflavin on the biodegradation-resistance of root-dentin collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, Balasankar Meera; Lu, Thong Beng; Fawzy, Amr S

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of UVA-activated 1% riboflavin solution on structural integrity; mechanical properties and stability; and collagenase-mediated collagen solubilisation resistance of demineralized root dentin collagen matrix. Root dentin specimens demineralized with 17% EDTA for 7days were treated with 1% RF for 1min followed by UVA photo-activation at intensity 7mW/cm 2 for 1min. Control specimens were completely devoid of riboflavin and/or UVA treatments. Specimens were challenged with bacterial collagenase type-I solution for different time-periods at 37°C. Collagen solubilisation resistance was evaluated in terms of hydroxyproline (HYP) liberation. Mechanical characterization of dentin specimens before and after 24h of exposure to collagenase solution was done in terms of apparent-elastic modulus (E appr ) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Variations in dentin collagen-network structure with exposure time in collagenase were visualized by TEM. Crosslinking dentin with UVA-activated riboflavin significantly decreased HYP release and increased E appr and UTS compared to control specimens with storage time in collagenase. Moreover, crosslinked specimens showed higher structural resistance to collagenase effect reflected from dense, well-formed collagen fibrils-network with characteristic collagen cross-banding. UVA-activated riboflavin treatment increased collagenase-mediated collagen degradation resistance and enhanced mechanical stability against collagenase challenges of root dentin after EDTA demineralization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of reciprocating and rotary NiTi instruments for retreatment of curved root canals assessed by micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödig, T; Reicherts, P; Konietschke, F; Dullin, C; Hahn, W; Hülsmann, M

    2014-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of reciprocating and rotary NiTi-instruments in removing filling material from curved root canals using micro-computed tomography. Sixty curved root canals were prepared and filled with gutta-percha and sealer. After determination of root canal curvatures and radii in two directions as well as volumes of filling material, the teeth were assigned to three comparable groups (n = 20). Retreatment was performed using Reciproc, ProTaper Universal Retreatment or Hedström files. Percentages of residual filling material and dentine removal were assessed using micro-CT imaging. Working time and procedural errors were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed by variance procedures. No significant differences amongst the three retreatment techniques concerning residual filling material were detected (P > 0.05). Hedström files removed significantly more dentine than ProTaper Universal Retreatment (P  0.05). Reciproc and ProTaper Universal Retreatment were significantly faster than Hedström files (P = 0.0001). No procedural errors such as instrument fracture, blockage, ledging or perforation were detected for Hedström files. Three perforations were recorded for ProTaper Universal Retreatment, and in both NiTi groups, one instrument fracture occured. Remnants of filling material were observed in all samples with no significant differences between the three techniques. Hedström files removed significantly more dentine than ProTaper Universal Retreatment, but no significant differences between both NiTi systems were detected. Procedural errors were observed with ProTaper Universal Retreatment and Reciproc. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Root anatomy and canal configuration of the permanent mandibular first molar: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablo, Oliver Valencia; Estevez, Roberto; Péix Sánchez, Manuel; Heilborn, Carlos; Cohenca, Nestor

    2010-12-01

    The main goal of endodontic therapy is to prevent or heal apical periodontitis. However, root canal anatomy might present a clinical challenge directly related to the treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to review published literature related to root anatomy and root canal configuration of the permanent mandibular first molar. An exhaustive search was undertaken to identify published literature related to the root anatomy and root canal morphology of the permanent mandibular first molar by using key words. The search of the MEDLINE database included all publications from 1966-May 2010. Selected articles were then obtained and reviewed. Data evaluated and summarized in the data sheet included methodology, population, number of teeth per study (power), number of root canals, type of root canal configuration, and identification of number of apical foramina. Forty-one studies were identified including a total of 18,781 teeth. The incidence of a third root was 13% and was strongly correlated with the ethnicity of the studied population. Three canals were present in 61.3%, 4 canals in 35.7%, and 5 canals in approximately 1%. Root canal configuration of the mesial root revealed 2 canals in 94.4% and 3 canals in 2.3%. The most common canal system configuration was Vertucci type IV (52.3%), followed by type II (35%). Root canal configuration of the distal root revealed type I configuration in 62.7%, followed by types II (14.5%) and IV (12.4%). The presence of isthmus communications averaged 54.8% on the mesial and 20.2% on the distal root. The number of roots on the mandibular first molar is directly related to ethnicity. Root canal morphology and configuration might present the clinician with a complex anatomy requiring more diagnostic approaches, access modifications, and clinical skills to successfully localize, negotiate, disinfect, and seal the root canal system. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterisation of Roseomonas mucosa isolated from the root canal of an infected tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesendorf, Nina; Köhler, Stefanie; Geißdörfer, Walter; Grobecker-Karl, Tanja; Karl, Matthias; Burkovski, Andreas

    2017-06-14

    The genus Roseomonas comprises a group of pink-pigmented, slow-growing, aerobic, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacteria, which have been isolated from environmental sources such as water and soil, but are also associated with human infections. In the study presented here, Roseomonas mucosa was identified for the first time as part of the endodontic microbiota of an infected root canal and characterised in respect to growth, antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm formation. The isolated R. mucosa strain showed strong slime formation and was resistant to most β-lactam antibiotics, while it was susceptible to aminoglycosides, carbapenemes, fluorochinolones, polymyxines, sulfonamides and tetracyclines. Biofilm formation on artificial surfaces (glass, polystyrene, gutta-percha) and on teeth was tested using colorimetric and fluorescence microscopic assays. While solid biofilms were formed on glass surfaces, on the hydrophobic surface of gutta-percha points, no confluent but localised, spotty biofilms were observed. Furthermore, R. mucosa was able form biofilms on dentin. The data obtained indicate that R. mucosa can support establishment of endodontic biofilms and furthermore, infected root canals might serve as an entrance pathway for blood stream infections by this emerging pathogen.

  5. Subcutaneous emphysema during root canal therapy: endodontic accident by sodium hypoclorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gianluca; Palaia, Gaspare; Ciolfi, Chiara; Mohsen, Mohamed; Battisti, Andrea; Romeo, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    Cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema is defined as the abnormal introduction of air in the subcutaneous tissues of the head and neck. It is mainly caused by trauma, head and neck surgery, general anesthesia, and coughing or habitual performance of Valsalva manoeuvre. The occurrence of subcutaneous emphysema after dental treatment is rare, and diffusion of gas into the mediastinum is much rarer, especially when the procedure is a nonsurgical treatment. Presented here is a case of subcutaneous emphysema that occurred after sodium hypochlorite irrigation during endodontic treatment, and the description of its etiologies and prevention during nonsurgical endodontic treatment. Endodontic success can be essentially achieved via good debridement of a root canal, and an ideal endodontic irrigant is effective in removing the smear layer, opening the dentinal tubules, and producing a clean surface for closer obturation. A 60-years-old woman had an abnormal swelling and pain during an endodontic treatment accompanied by her dentist to the emergency room and was referred to our observation for complaining of severe pain, ecchymosis and severe swelling on the left side of her face. The aforementioned symptoms appeared after sodium hypochlorite irrigation and aggressive use of air spray for drying the root canal during the endodontic treatment of the upper left lateral incisor. An extrusion during an inappropriate endodontic treatment may occasionally be reported and can cause tissue damage. NaOCl is one of the best and most commonly used irrigating solutions because of its efficacy, but it can also negatively affect the periapical tissues. Determining the correct working length, even when performing an intraoperative periapical radiograph and confirming the root canal integrity, could help avoid these kinds of accidents.

  6. Mandibular second premolar with three canals: Re-treatment of a case with unusual root canal anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Desai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy along with the anatomical variations that may be present is essential for success of endodontic therapy. Unusual presentations in the number of the roots or the canals should be expected in every tooth. Mandibular second premolars are thought of as having a single root and canal. Studies have stated that the prevalence of three canals with three orifices in this tooth is 0.4%. The mandibular second premolar is particularly difficult to treat owing to the fact that a wide variation in the number, location and curvature of the roots and canals exist. Added to this is the fact that the access opening is restricted and location of the lingually placed orifices is difficult. This case report details the re-treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three canals and three separate orifices using the surgical microscope.

  7. The effect of four different irrigation systems in the removal of a root canal sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grischke, J; Müller-Heine, A; Hülsmann, M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of sonic, ultrasonic, and hydrodynamic devices in the removal of a root canal sealer from the surface and from simulated irregularities of root canals. Fifty-three root canals with two standardized grooves in the apical and coronal parts of longitudinally split roots were covered with AH Plus root canal sealer. Compared were the effects of (control) syringe irrigation, (1) CanalBrush, (2) passive ultrasonic irrigation, (3) EndoActivator, and (4) RinsEndo on the removal of the sealer. The specimens were divided into four groups (N = 12) and one control group (N = 5) via randomization. The amount of remaining sealer in the root canal irregularities was evaluated under a microscope using a 4-grade scoring system, whereas the remaining sealer on the root canal surface was evaluated with a 7-grade scoring system. Passive ultrasonic irrigation is more effective than the other tested irrigation systems or syringe irrigation in removing sealer from root canal walls (p irrigation shows a superior effect on sealer removal from the root canal surface during endodontic retreatment. Cleaning of lateral grooves seems not to be possible with one of the techniques investigated. Incomplete removal of root canal sealer during re-treatment may cause treatment failure. Passive Ultrasonic irrigation seems to be the most effective system to remove sealer from a root canal.

  8. Penetration of varnishes into demineralized root dentine in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, J; Duschner, H; Ruben, JL

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the penetration of three different varnishes employed in caries prevention (Duraphat(R), Fluor Protector(R) and Cervitec(R)) into demineralized dentine is quantified using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results show that the varnish penetration into lesions about 85 mu m in

  9. Evaluation of smear layer removal and marginal adaptation of root canal sealer after final irrigation using ethylenediaminetetraacetic, peracetic, and etidronic acids with different concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Özgür İlke; Zeyrek, Salev; Çelik, Bülent

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different irrigation solutions on the smear layer removal and marginal adaptation of a resin-based sealer to root canal dentine. A total of 152 instrumented roots were irrigated with the following irrigants: 9,18% etidronic acid (HEBP), 0.5, 1,2% peracetic acid (PAA), 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), saline. The amount of smear layer was evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) in seventy root samples. Eighty-two roots were filled with AH Plus and gutta-percha. Slices obtained from apical third of each specimen were viewed with SEM to assess marginal adaptation. Use of 9% and 18% HEBP resulted in more efficient smear layer removal in the apical third than the other chelators (p acid is a promising candidate for final irrigation of root canals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Choice of root canal irrigants by Serbian dental practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Root canal treatment is considered to be the one of the most important procedures in endodontic treatment. To irrigate the root canal it is most common to use sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, chlorhexodine, ethylenediami-netetraacetic acid (EDTA, local anesthetic solution, while the most used in Serbia is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. The aim of this survey was to reveal the preferred root canal irrigants used by general dental practitioners in Serbia and to determine the influence of the continuing education program, delivered over the 3-year observation period, on work habits of dental practitioners. This was the first comprehensive survey of this nature carried out in Serbia. Methods. The survey was conducted in two instances, a 4-month observation period each, from November 1, 2009 to March 1, 2010 and from November 1, 2012 to March 1, 2013. Internet Web Page Survey was posted on the official web site of the Serbian Association of Private Dentists. In the first survey, 569 completed questionnaires were subjected to analysis. In the next attempt (3 years later, the survey was launched again and 615 completed questionnaires were analyzed using the same criteria. The statistical analysis was carried out with simple descriptive statistics applying the χ2 test, at a significance level of p < 0.05. Results. The first survey included 569 dental practitioners, while 3 years later the number of them was 615. Analyzing the questionnaires revealed the number of 10 to 30 interventins on the root canal montly. The most commonly used irrigant solution was H2O2 in 2009, while in 2012 it was yet H2O2, but also NaOCl, chlorhexodine, and a little less EDTA. Conclusion. This study shows significant changes in the irrigation protocol applied in Serbian dental community. After 3 years of observation, NaOCl became widely accepted as the irrigant of choice, whereas H2O2 lost its popularity.

  11. Evaluation of the Self-Adjusting File system (SAF) for the instrumentation of primary molar root canals: a micro-computed tomographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, E; Elbay, M; Yiğit, D

    2017-06-01

    The Self-Adjusting File (SAF) system has been recommended for use in permanent teeth since it offers more conservative and effective root-canal preparation when compared to traditional rotary systems. However, no study had evaluated the usage of SAF in primary teeth. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the use of SAF, K file (manual instrumentation) and Profile (traditional rotary instrumentation) systems for primary-tooth root-canal preparation in terms of instrumentation time and amounts of dentin removed using micro-computed tomography (μCT) technology. Study Design: The study was conducted with 60 human primary mandibular second molar teeth divided into 3 groups according to instrumentation technique: Group I: SAF (n=20); Group II: K file (n=20); Group III; Profile (n=20). Teeth were embedded in acrylic blocks and scanned with a μCT scanner prior to instrumentation. All distal root canals were prepared up to size 30 for K file,.04/30 for Profile and 2 mm thickness, size 25 for SAF; instrumentation time was recorded for each tooth, and a second μCT scan was performed after instrumentation was complete. Amounts of dentin removed were measured using the three-dimensional images by calculating the difference in root-canal volume before and after preparation. Data was statistically analysed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Manual instrumentation (K file) resulted in significantly more dentin removal when compared to rotary instrumentation (Profile and SAF), while the SAF system generated significantly less dentin removal than both manual instrumentation (K file) and traditional rotary instrumentation (Profile) (psystems. Within the experimental conditions of the present study, the SAF seems as a useful system for root-canal instrumentation in primary molars because it removed less dentin than other systems, which is especially important for the relatively thin-walled canals of primary teeth, and because it involves less

  12. Endodontic management of mandibular second premolar with three roots and three root canals: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Shrivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High level of success in endodontic treatment requires an understanding of root canal anatomy and morphology. The clinician must be prepared to identify those teeth that tend to vary generally from norm. Thorough debridement and obturation of such teeth can be challenging and failing to do so can lead to treatment failure. Mandibular premolars have earned the reputation for having aberrant anatomy. However, the occurrence of three separate canals with three separate foramina in mandibular premolars is very rare. The incidence of three canals is as high as 23% in mandibular first premolars, whereas in second premolars incidence is as low as 0.4%. Three rooted mandibular second premolar is reported to be 0.2%. This case report describes endodontic management of one such tooth with unusual morphological variations in canal anatomy of mandibular second premolar.

  13. [Treatment of a fractured endodontical instrument in the root canal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, M; Peters, L B

    2015-12-01

    A 53-year-old woman with continuing pain coming from a lower first molar was diagnosed with apical periodontitis, with a retained fractured instrument in the root canal. There are a variety of treatment options for dealing with a corpus alienum in a root canal. In this case it was decided to treat the tooth endodontically, and leave the fractured instrument fragment in situ. The selection of this treatment option was made on the basis of knowledge of the original diagnosis and the success rates of the various treatment options as described in the relevant literature, weighed against the possible risks and their effects on the prognosis. This suggested that the use of a dental operating microscope has a positive impact on the success rates of endodontic treatment The prognosis for endodontic treatment when a fractured instrument fragment is left within the root canal, as in this case, is not significantly reduced. The presence of preoperative periapical pathology, however, is a more clinically significant prognostic indicator.

  14. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals

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    Leron Khalifa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages. Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals.

  15. Endodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Second Premolar with Three Roots and Three Canals

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    Bonny Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex root canal system with atypical variations is a common finding among mandibular premolars. Endodontic treatment in these teeth may not be successful due to the failure to recognise and treat multiple canals. This paper presents endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and three canals.

  16. Unusual root canal morphology of mandibular second premolars: A case series and review

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    Snehal Sonarkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular second premolars (MSPs have varied anatomy ranging from 1 to 3 roots and 1–5 canals. Successful endodontic treatment is achieved by proper access opening, cleaning, and shaping and three-dimensional obturation. This case series describes five cases in which MSPs have been diagnosed with aberrant canal system. The Case 1 and 5 has one root with Vertucci's Type V canal configuration. The Case 2 has two roots with two canals, the Case 3 has one root with Vertucci's Type IV canal configuration, whereas the Case 4 has three roots with three canals. This case series also describes a classification for describing the root configuration. The clinical implications of this paper are first to reach at appropriate diagnosis of canal system using diagnostic aids (angulated radiographs and dental operating microscope. Second, to use advanced endodontic instruments for achieving successful endodontic therapy (NiTi rotary instruments.

  17. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of traditional and new developed root sealers against pathogens related root canal

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    Joo-Hee Shin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: Bacterial infection is closely associated with the failure of endodontic treatment, and use of endodontic sealer with antimicrobial activity and biological compatibility is necessary for the success of root canal treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate and to compare the antibacterial effect of two calcium silicate-based root canal sealers (Endoseal and EndoSequence BC sealer as recent development sealers and with three conventional root canal sealers (AH Plus, Sealapex, and Tubli-Seal, before or after setting, on Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and methods: The sealers were soaked in phosphate buffered saline to elute its compositions after and before setting, and the elutes were performed the antimicrobial assay. Also, X-ray fluorescence analysis was carried out to compare compositions of two calcium silicate-based sealers. Results: The conventional root canal sealers have strong antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative bacteria, P. endodontalis and P. gingivalis. Endoseal sealer showed antibacterial activity against not only the Gram-negative bacteria, but also against the Gram-positive bacteria, E. faecalis. However, Endosequence BC sealer exhibited a weak antibacterial effect on all bacteria in this study. X-ray fluorescence analysis exhibited that Endoseal contained more types and more amount of the oxide compound known to have strong antimicrobial activity such as Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, Na2O, NiO, and SO2 than Endoseqeunce BC. Conclusion: Endoseal, which contains various types of oxide compounds, seems to be a suitable sealer for preventing bacterial infection in both treated and untreated root canals. Keywords: Root canal sealer, Antimicrobial activity, Oxide compound, E. faecalis

  18. Three-dimensional analysis of mesiobuccal root canal of Japanese maxillary first molar using Micro-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masashi; Ide, Yoshinobu; Matsunaga, Satoru; Kato, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Kan-Ichi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to three-dimensionally observe the morphological characteristics of mesiobuccal root canals of Japanese maxillary first molars using microcomputed tomography (Micro-CT) and classify root canal variations. This study used 90 maxillary first molars. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed using data obtained by Micro-CT, and cross-sections of the root canals were observed. Moreover, the root canal morphology was classified by the configuration and root canal diameter, and was evaluated for occurrence using the classification by Weine et al. (1969) as a reference. Overall, single root canals were observed in 44.4%, incomplete separation root canals in 22.3%, and completely separate root canals (upper and lower separation root canals) in 33.3%. Mesiobuccal root canals often had intricate configurations, and accessory root canals (lateral canals and apical ramifications) were observed in most of the mesiobuccal root canals (76.7%), irrespective of whether there were ramifications of the main root canals. While there were no marked differences in the incidence of root canal ramifications between this study and earlier reports, the incidence of accessory root canals was higher in this study. This result may be explained by the far more superior visualization ability of Micro-CT than conventional methods, which allowed the detection of microscopic apical ramifications previously difficult to observe. (author)

  19. Evaluation of final irrigation regimens with maleic acid for smear layer removal and wettability of root canal sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Nidambur Vasudev; Ferrer-Luque, Carmen Maria; Sona, Mrunali; Prabhu, K Narayan; Arias-Moliz, Teresa; Baca, Pilar

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the smear layer removal and wettability of AH Plus sealer on root canal dentin treated with MA (maleic acid), MA + CTR (cetrimide) and MA + CTR + CHX (chlorhexidine) as final irrigating regimens. For smear layer removal, 40 teeth were instrumented to size F4 and divided into four groups: (1) 7% MA, (2) 7% MA + 0.2% CTR, (3) 7% MA + 0.2% CTR + 2% CHX, (4) distilled water (control). After irrigation, teeth were subjected to SEM analysis. For contact angle analysis, 20 teeth were split longitudinally and divided into four groups similar to smear layer analysis. AH plus sealer was placed on each specimen and contact angle was analysed. In both smear layer (p = .393) and contact angle analysis (p = .961), there was no significant difference between the groups MA and MA + CTR. However, MA + CTR + CHX removed smear layer less effectively (p = .023) and increased the contact angle of the sealer (p = .005). In smear layer analysis, specimens in negative control group were heavily smeared. In case of contact angle analysis, samples in the control group had least contact angle. MA alone or in combination with CTR removed smear layer effectively and increased the wettability of AH plus sealer to root canal dentin.

  20. C-SHAPED CONFIGURATION OF THE ROOT CANAL SYSTEM – PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Kirilova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The patients with C-shaped configuration of the root canal system are definitely a problem in the everyday dental practice. The C-shaped configuration of the root canal can be seen in the mandibular and maxillary molars. The treatment of these teeth is very difficult. Purpose: To trace the treatment of clinical cases with C-shaped configuration of the root canal system. Material and methods: There are some different cases that are described with a C-shaped configuration of the root canal system with one, two, three and four separate root canals. Careful exploration of the floor of the pulp chamber, inspection with magnification, use of ultrasonic irrigation and a modified filling technique are of particular use. Results and Discussion: Clinical cases of a C-shaped pulp chamber and root canal system shows that this root canal aberration occurs in a wide variety and variability with a single root canal up to two, three and four separate root canals. The diameter of the root canal themselves also varies from very wide to such with a small diameter. Conclusions: Knowledge of the different anatomical variations will improve the endododntic practice of the general dental practitioners.

  1. Endodontic management of permanent mandibular molars with 6 root canals: report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Amit; Ahlawat, Jyoti; Bansal, Chirag; Tahiliani, Divya

    2016-01-01

    Aberrations in the internal dental anatomy present challenges for clinicians performing endodontic therapy. These challenges have been partly resolved in recent years by a more comprehensive knowledge of root canal anatomy as well as advancements in the endodontic armamentarium. The aim of this case series is to describe successful root canal treatment, under magnification, in 3 cases of mandibular first molars with 6 root canals. Two of these teeth had 2 roots (mesial and distal) with 3 canals in each root; the third tooth had 3 root canals located mesially and 3 present distally as well as a radix entomolaris. A distal root with 3 canals is rare; however, it is important to look for such anatomical variations to ensure successful endodontic therapy.

  2. Evaluation in vitro of effects of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers irradiation on root canal wall, by stereoscopy, scanning electron micrography and thermographic camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goya, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate in vitro the effects of Nd:YAG laser and Er:YAG laser irradiation in the root canal wall by SEM, evaluating the apical leakage and the temperature changes during the laser irradiation. Seventy four extracted human teeth were used, they were instrumented and divided into seven groups of 10 teeth each. The teeth were evaluated through stereoscopy, by SEM, and with the thermographic camera. The Nd:YAG laser irradiation parameters were 100 mJ/p, 15 Hz, and Er:YAG laser were 160 mJ/p and 10 Hz, the irradiation was 4 times at 2 mm/sec speed, with 20 sec interval. The apical leakage was not observed in the teeth irradiated by Nd:YAG laser alone or in association with Er:YAG laser. However in the teeth irradiated only by the Er:YAG laser we observed a little leakage. By SEM observation the Nd:YAG laser irradiation showed melting and recrystallization in the dentin surface closing dentinal tubules, and in the samples irradiated by Er:Y AG laser a clean surface, opened dentinal tubules, and the combination by two lasers, showed melting covering some dentinal tubules The thermographic study found the temperature increase was not more than 6 deg C. This study showed the safety parameters applications of Er:YAG laser in association with Nd:YAG laser in root canal treatment, in order to not cause thermal damages to the periodontal tissues. (author)

  3. Two-rooted maxillary first molars with two canals: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakouie, Sahar; Mokhtari, Hadi; Ghasemi, Negin; Gholizadeh, Seddigheh

    2013-01-01

    Thorough understanding of the anatomic and internal morphology of a root canal system is absolutely essential for the success of endodontic treatment. Since permanent maxillary first molars have shown variation in internal anatomy, morphology, this tooth has been reviewed extensively. Presence of two canals in a two-rooted maxillary first molar has rarely been reported in studies describing tooth and root canal anatomies. In this report, three cases are presented, which involve the root canal treatment of maxillary first molars with fusion of the two buccal roots.

  4. Root and Canal Morphology of Mandibular Third Molars in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kuzekanani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. A through knowledge of the root canal morphology is required for successful endodontic therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the root and canal morphology of mandibular third molars in Kerman, a province in southeast of Iran. Materials and methods. One-hundred-fifty extracted mandibular third molars were collected randomly from different dental clinics in Kerman. The root canal anatomy and morphology of each tooth was carefully studied using a clearing technique. Root number and morphology, number of canals per root, root canal configuration according to Vertucci classification, and incidence of dilacerated roots and C-shaped canals in mandibular third molars were evaluated under stereomicroscope with ×2 to ×3 magnifications. Results. From the total of 150 mandibular third molars studied, 21% had one root. The majority of teeth (73% had two roots. 5.5% of the teeth had three roots. The incidence of C-shaped canal was 3.5% in this study and 8% of the teeth had at least one dilacerated root. Conclusion. Although root canal anatomy and morphology of mandibular third molars is very variable having two roots seems to be the normal anatomy for these teeth.

  5. Root Canal Configuration of Mandibular First and Second Premolars in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat Eskandarzadeh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. It is critical to have a proper knowledge of the normal anatomy of the pulp and its variations for the success of endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the canal configuration and the prevalence of C-shaped canals in mandibular first and second premolars in a North-Western Iranian population.

    Materials and methods. A total of 163 extracted mandibular first and 103 mandibular second premolars were injected with India ink and demineralized . They were made clear and transparent with methyl salicylate and the anatomy of their canal(s was studied.

    Results. The results showed that 98% of mandibular first premolars had one root, 2% had two roots, 70.6% had one canal, 27.8% had two canals, 1.2% had three canals and the prevalence of C-shaped canals was 2.4%. All mandibular second premolars had one root, 80.5% had one canal, 17.5% had two canals and the prevalence of C-shaped canals was 2%.

    Conclusion. It is important that clinicians, before treatment of mandibular first and second premolars, pay complete attention to radiographs, have a true concept of the number of root(s and canal(s, and prepare a correct access cavitiy.

  6. Antibacterial efficacy of lavandula officinalis extract, sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate solutions as root canal irrigations: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pouya Mehmandoust

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This in vitro study aimed to compare the antimicrobial effect of lavandula -0fficinalis extract, with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX, as root canal irrigants, on Enterococcus faecalis (EF. Materials &Methods: Seventy five extracted single-rooted premolars were selected. Root canals were prepared using rotary ProTaper system and were infected with the culture of E. faecalis. Specimens were randomly divided into five groups (n = 15, Group 1, 2: lavandula extracts (0.26 and 0.52 mg/mL, Group 3: 2.5%NaOCL, Group 4: 2%CHX, Group 5: Normal Saline. Irrigation was performed for each group for 5, 10 and 15 min. The viable bacteria obtained by collecting the canal dentin chips. Data analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney u tests. Results: The mean number of viable bacteria was significantly reduced after 5 min exposure to lavandula solutions (p<0.05. A significant difference also existed between different times in the NaOCL group, being significant between 5 and 15 min (p<0.05, but there was no significant difference between different times in the CHX group. Comparison of the mean number of viable bacteria between different groups at different exposure times revealed that the difference between lavandula and NaOCL solutions with CHX was significant at 5 and 10 min (p<0.05, however, no statistically significant difference was observed between lavandula solutions and NaOCL. Conclusion: lavandula extract was effective in killing of EF.  Further studies are necessary to fully understand its other properties such as tissue solubility, removal of smear layer and impact on dentin structure.

  7. The failures of root canal preparation with hand ProTaper

    OpenAIRE

    Bătăiosu, Marilena; Diaconu, Oana; Moraru, Iren; Dăguci, C.; Ţuculină, Mihaela; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Gheorghiţă, Lelia

    2012-01-01

    The failures of root canal preparation are due to some anatomical deviation (canal in “C” or “S”) and some technique errors. The technique errors are usually present in canal root cleansing and shaping stage and are the result of endodontic treatment objectives deviation. Objectives: Our study was made on technique errors while preparing the canal roots with hand ProTaper. Methodology: Our study was made “in vitro” on 84 extracted teeth (molars, premolars, incisors and canines). The canal roo...

  8. The cleanliness differences of root canal irrigated with 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract and 2.5% NaOCl

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    Anis Sakinah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Root canal treatment consists of preparation, sterilization, and obturation. During root canal preparation, debris is smeared over the dentinal surface forming a smear layer. Smear layer will reduce the attachment of root canal filling materials. Organic material in smear layer can be substrated for microorganism. Preparation of root canal should be followed by irrigation. NaOCl is common irrigation solution in endodontics. It has been very effective for their disinfecting and tissue-dissolving properties, but it is incapable of removing the smear layer. On the other hand, saponin of mangosteen peel extract has an ability as a surfactant to lower the surface tension, and it can dissolve debris containing of anorganic and organic materials. Purpose: This study aims to know the differences between 2.5% NaOCl and 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract in removing the debris in the root canal after the preparation procedure. Method: Three groups of teeth (7 teeth in each were instrumented with K-file and irrigated as follow: group 1 (control with aquadest; group 2 with 2.5% NaOCl; and group 3 with 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract. Furthermore, those teeth were split horizontally and longitudinally 4mm above the apical. The apical third of root canal walls was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Result: There were significant differences between each group (p<0.05. Median value of the group 3 was score 1 considered as the smallest value. It indicates that Group 3 with 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract was the cleanest group. Conclusion:It can be concluded that 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract can clean the smear layer of the root canal better than 2.5% NaOCl.

  9. Electron probe study of human and red deer cementum and root dentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toetdal, B. (Department of Physics, University of Trondheim, The Norwegian Institute of Technology); Hals, E. (Department of Cariology and Endodontics, Faculty of Odontology, University of Bergen, Norway)

    1985-01-01

    A topographical description of the concentration profiles of Ca, P, Mg, Zn, F, S, and K in human and red deer cementum and root dentin is given. The concentrations reported should be regarded as semiquantitative values. A downward slope of the Ca, P, and Mg profiles toward the pulpal cavity seemed largely to correspond with the secondary dentin. Marked elevations of the Zn profiles, modest elevations of the F profiles, and in a few instances of the S profiles, toward root surface and pulpal cavity were registered. In a couple of scans a slight elevation of the K profile toward the root surface was observed. A high degree of concordance in human and red deer teeth was ascertained.

  10. Root Canal Transportation and Centering Ability of Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments in Mandibular Premolars Assessed Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamede-Neto, Iussif; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; de Oliveira, Durvalino; Pedro, Fábio Luis Miranda; Estrela, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), transportation and centralization of different nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments. One hundred and twenty eight mandibular premolars were selected and instrumented using the following brands of NiTi files: WaveOne, WaveOne Gold, Reciproc, ProTaper Next, ProTaper Gold, Mtwo, BioRaCe and RaCe. CBCT imaging was performed before and after root canal preparation to obtain measurements of mesial and distal dentin walls and calculations of root canal transportation and centralization. A normal distribution of data was confirmed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene tests, and results were assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance was set at 5%. ProTaper Gold produced the lowest canal transportation values, and RaCe, the highest. ProTaper Gold files also showed the highest values for centering ability, whereas BioRaCe showed the lowest. No significant differences were found across the different instruments in terms of canal transportation and centering ability (P > 0.05). Based on the methodology employed, all instruments used for root canal preparation of mandibular premolars performed similarly with regard to canal transportation and centering ability.

  11. Micro-computed tomography and bond strength analysis of different root canal filling techniques

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    Juliane Nhata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality and bond strength of three root filling techniques (lateral compaction, continuous wave of condensation and Tagger′s Hybrid technique [THT] using micro-computed tomography (CT images and push-out tests, respectively. Materials and Methods: Thirty mandibular incisors were prepared using the same protocol and randomly divided into three groups (n = 10: Lateral condensation technique (LCT, continuous wave of condensation technique (CWCT, and THT. All specimens were filled with Gutta-percha (GP cones and AH Plus sealer. Five specimens of each group were randomly chosen for micro-CT analysis and all of them were sectioned into 1 mm slices and subjected to push-out tests. Results: Micro-CT analysis revealed less empty spaces when GP was heated within the root canals in CWCT and THT when compared to LCT. Push-out tests showed that LCT and THT had a significantly higher displacement resistance (P < 0.05 when compared to the CWCT. Bond strength was lower in apical and middle thirds than in the coronal thirds. Conclusions: It can be concluded that LCT and THT were associated with higher bond strengths to intraradicular dentine than CWCT. However, LCT was associated with more empty voids than the other techniques.

  12. Effects of irrigation solutions and Calcium hydroxide dressing on root canal treatments of periapical lesions

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    Vita Nirmala

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of root canal in endodontic treatment plays an important role in treating non vital teeth with periapical lesion. Some factors influence the success of root canal treatment in short and long terms are the irrigation of root canal using antiseptic solution and the use of root canal medicament. The aim of this literature study is to determined the effect of irrigation solution and Calcium hydroxide dressing in root canal treatment of periapical lesions. The use of root canal medicament during the endodontic treatment could sterilized and decreased the number of pathogenic microorganism of root canal. An effective root canal irrigation solution must be able to dissolve organic and anorganic debris, lubricate endodontic instruments, disinfect microorganisms, non toxic and economical. The best irrigation solution has maximum antimicrobial effect with minimum toxicity. Division of calcium hydroxide into Calcium and hydroxyl ions is responsible for alkalinization of cavity, subsequently it makes the condition of cavity to be inappropriate for bacterial endotoxin in vitro as well as in vivo, and considered as the only clinically effective medicament in inactivating bacterial endotoxin. Calcium hydroxide is the only medication which has the ability to clinically inactive bacterial endotoxin in vitro in vivo and accepted as the best of root canal medication.

  13. A comparative evaluation of the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation in curved root canals by three rotary systems: A cone-beam computed tomographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanthi, Nalam NVD; Rambabu, Tanikonda; Sajjan, Girija S; Varma, K Madhu; Satish, R Kalyan; Padmaja, M

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to measure the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation after biomechanical preparation at 1, 3, and 5 mm short of the apex with three different rotary systems in both continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary motions. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted human mandibular molars with mesial root canal curvatures between 20° and 30° were included in the study. Teeth were randomly distributed into three groups (n = 20). Biomechanical preparations were done in all the mesial canals. In Group 1, instrumentation was done with ProTaper universal rotary files, Group 2, with K3XF rotary files, and Group 3, with LSX rotary files. Each group was further subdivided into subgroups A and B (n = 10) where instrumentation was done by continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques, respectively. Increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation was measured using the preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomography scans. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey pairwise multiple comparison tests. Results: Increase in root canal surface area was significantly more (P 0.05) in increase of root canal surface area and canal transportation between continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques for ProTaper Universal, K3XF and LSX groups. Conclusion: LSX rotary system showed minimal increase of root canal surface area and minimal canal transportation when compared to ProTaper and K3XF rotary systems. PMID:27656062

  14. Effect of Self-Adhesive and Separate Etch Adhesive Dual Cure Resin Cements on the Bond Strength of Fiber Post to Dentin at Different Parts of the Root

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    Ehsan Mohamadian Amiri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bonding of fiber posts to intracanal dentin is challenging in the clinical setting. This study aimed to compare the effect of self-adhesive and separate etch adhesive dual cure resin cements on the bond strength of fiber post to dentin at different parts of the root.Materials and Methods: This in-vitro experimental study was conducted on 20 single-rooted premolars. The teeth were decoronated at 1mm coronal to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ, and the roots underwent root canal treatment. Post space was prepared in the roots. Afterwards, the samples were randomly divided into two groups. In group 1, the fiber posts were cemented using Rely X Unicem cement, while in group 2, the fiber posts were cemented using Duo-Link cement, according to the manufacturer's instructions. The intracanal post in each root was sectioned into three segments of coronal, middle, and apical, and each cross-section was subjected to push-out bond strength test at a crosshead speed of 1mm/minute until failure. Push-out bond strength data were analyzed using independent t-test and repeated measures ANOVA.Results: The bond strength at the middle and coronal segments in separate etch adhesive cement group was higher than that in self-adhesive cement group. However, the bond strength at the apical segment was higher in self-adhesive cement group compared to that in the other group. Overall, the bond strength in separate etch adhesive cement group was significantly higher than that in self-adhesive cement group (P<0.001.Conclusions: Bond strength of fiber post to intracanal dentin is higher after the use of separate etch adhesive cement compared to self-adhesive cement.

  15. Single session of Nd:YAG laser intracanal irradiation neutralizes endotoxin in dental root dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archilla, José R F; Moreira, Maria S N A; Miyagi, Sueli P H; Bombana, Antônio C; Gutknecht, Norbert; Marques, Márcia M

    2012-11-01

    Endotoxins released in the dental root by Gram-negative microorganisms can be neutralized by calcium hydroxide, when this medication is applied inside the root canal for at least seven days. However, several clinical situations demand faster root canal decontamination. Thus, for faster endotoxin neutralization, endodontists are seeking additional treatments. The in vitro study tested whether or not intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation would be able to neutralize endotoxin within the human dental root canal in a single session. Twenty-four human teeth with one root were mounted between two chambers. After conventional endodontic treatment, root canals were contaminated with Escherichia coli endotoxin. Then they were irradiated or not (controls) in contact mode with an Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 15 Hz, 100 mJ and pulse fluency of 124  J/cm2). The endotoxin activity was measured using the limulus lysate technique and data were statistically compared (p≤0.05). The concentration of active endotoxin measured in the negative control group was significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.04). The concentrations of endotoxin in both irradiated groups were significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.027) and similar to that of negative control group (p=0.20). A single session of intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation is able to neutralize endotoxin in the dental root tissues.

  16. Single session of Nd:YAG laser intracanal irradiation neutralizes endotoxin in dental root dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archilla, José R. F.; Moreira, Maria S. N. A.; Miyagi, Sueli P. H.; Bombana, Antônio C.; Gutknecht, Norbert; Marques, Márcia M.

    2012-11-01

    Endotoxins released in the dental root by Gram-negative microorganisms can be neutralized by calcium hydroxide, when this medication is applied inside the root canal for at least seven days. However, several clinical situations demand faster root canal decontamination. Thus, for faster endotoxin neutralization, endodontists are seeking additional treatments. The in vitro study tested whether or not intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation would be able to neutralize endotoxin within the human dental root canal in a single session. Twenty-four human teeth with one root were mounted between two chambers. After conventional endodontic treatment, root canals were contaminated with Escherichia coli endotoxin. Then they were irradiated or not (controls) in contact mode with an Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 15 Hz, 100 mJ and pulse fluency of 124 J/cm2). The endotoxin activity was measured using the limulus lysate technique and data were statistically compared (p≤0.05). The concentration of active endotoxin measured in the negative control group was significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.04). The concentrations of endotoxin in both irradiated groups were significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.027) and similar to that of negative control group (p=0.20). A single session of intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation is able to neutralize endotoxin in the dental root tissues.

  17. Effect of gamma radiation and endodontic treatment on mechanical properties of human and bovine root dentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novais, Veridiana Resende; Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira; Guimaraes, Carlla Martins; Schliebe, Lais Rani Sales Oliveira; Braga, Stella Sueli Lourenco; Soares, Carlos Jose

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma radiation and endodontic treatment on the microhardness and flexural strength of human and bovine root dentin. Forty single rooted human teeth and forty bovine incisor teeth were collected, cleaned and stored in distilled water at 4 °C. The human and bovine teeth were divided into 4 groups (n=10) resulting from the combination of two study factors: first, regarding the endodontic treatment in 2 levels: with or without endodontic treatment; and second, radiotherapy in two levels: with or without radiotherapy by 60 Gy of Co-60 gamma radiation fractioned into 2 Gy daily doses five days per week. Each tooth was longitudinally sectioned in two parts; one-half was used for the three-point bending test and the other for the Knoop hardness test (KHN). Data were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (α=0.05). No significant difference was found for flexural strength values. The human dentin had significantly higher KHN than the bovine. The endodontic treatment and radiotherapy resulted in significantly lower KHN irrespective of tooth origin. The results indicated that the radiotherapy had deleterious effects on the microhardness of human and bovine dentin and this effect is increased by the interaction with endodontic therapy. The endodontic treatment adds additional negative effect on the mechanical properties of radiated tooth dentin; the restorative protocols should be designed taking into account this effect. (author)

  18. Effect of gamma radiation and endodontic treatment on mechanical properties of human and bovine root dentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novais, Veridiana Resende; Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira; Guimaraes, Carlla Martins; Schliebe, Lais Rani Sales Oliveira; Braga, Stella Sueli Lourenco; Soares, Carlos Jose, E-mail: carlosjsoares@ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma radiation and endodontic treatment on the microhardness and flexural strength of human and bovine root dentin. Forty single rooted human teeth and forty bovine incisor teeth were collected, cleaned and stored in distilled water at 4 °C. The human and bovine teeth were divided into 4 groups (n=10) resulting from the combination of two study factors: first, regarding the endodontic treatment in 2 levels: with or without endodontic treatment; and second, radiotherapy in two levels: with or without radiotherapy by 60 Gy of Co-60 gamma radiation fractioned into 2 Gy daily doses five days per week. Each tooth was longitudinally sectioned in two parts; one-half was used for the three-point bending test and the other for the Knoop hardness test (KHN). Data were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (α=0.05). No significant difference was found for flexural strength values. The human dentin had significantly higher KHN than the bovine. The endodontic treatment and radiotherapy resulted in significantly lower KHN irrespective of tooth origin. The results indicated that the radiotherapy had deleterious effects on the microhardness of human and bovine dentin and this effect is increased by the interaction with endodontic therapy. The endodontic treatment adds additional negative effect on the mechanical properties of radiated tooth dentin; the restorative protocols should be designed taking into account this effect. (author)

  19. Root Anatomy and Root Canal Configuration of Human Permanent Mandibular Premolars: A Systematic Review

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    Jojo Kottoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mandibular premolars have been reported with complex anatomical aberrations, making them one of the most difficult teeth to manage endodontically. Methodology. An exhaustive search was undertaken to identify associated anatomic studies of mandibular premolars through MEDLINE/PubMed database using keywords, and a systematic review of the relevant articles was performed. Chi-square test with Yates correction was performed to assess the statistical significance of any anatomic variations between ethnicities and within populations of the same ethnicity. Documented case reports of variations in mandibular premolar anatomy were also identified and reviewed. Results. Thirty-six anatomic studies were analyzed which included 12,752 first premolars and nineteen studies assessing 6646 second premolars. A significant variation in the number of roots, root canals, and apical foramen was observed between Caucasian, Indian, Mongoloid, and Middle Eastern ethnicities.The most common anatomic variation was C-shaped canals in mandibular first premolars with highest incidence in Mongoloid populations (upto 24% while dens invaginatus was the most common developmental anomaly. Conclusions. A systematic review of mandibular premolars based on ethnicity and geographic clusters offered enhanced analysis of the prevalence of number of roots and canals, their canal configuration, and other related anatomy.

  20. Maxillary molars with morphologic variations of the palatal root canals: a report of four cases.

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    Holderrieth, Silke; Gernhardt, Christian Ralf

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this article was to show the importance of the knowledge of the anatomy of root canals. Unusual root and root canal morphologies associated with both buccal roots of upper molars have been recorded in several studies in the literature. However, scientific information focusing on variations of the palatal root is rare. In this report, four cases are presented involving the root canal treatment of maxillary first and second molars with unusual morphologic configurations of the palatal root canals. During root canal treatment, type IV and V configurations as defined by Vertucci of the palatal canals of two first and two second maxillary molars were identified. After mechanical instrumentation, the canals were obturated. Radiologic and clinical re-evaluation showed no signs of inflammation. This report describes and discusses the possibility of different root and canal variations of the maxillary molars from a clinical point of view. Anatomic variations can occur in any tooth, and palatal roots of maxillary first and second molars are no exception. Therefore, careful examination of radiographs and internal anatomy of teeth is essential.

  1. Cone beam computed tomography evaluation of maxillary molar root canal morphology in a Turkish Cypriot population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalender, Atakan; Aksoy, Umut; Basmaci, Fatma; Celikten, Berkan; Tufenkci, Pelin; Kelahmet, Umay; Orhan, Kaan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to review, analyse and characterize the root canal morphology of maxillary molars, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), in a group of the Turkish Cypriot population. The sample for this cross-sectional study consisted of retrospective evaluation of CBCT scans of 290 adult patients (age range 1680). The number of roots and their morphology, the number of canals per tooth and the root canal configurations were also classified according to the method of Vertucci. Pearson’s chi-square test was performed for canal configurations, sides and gender (p < 0.05). Among the 373 first molars, there was no single-rooted specimen, 2 (0.53%) teeth had 2 roots, 365 (97.8%) teeth had 3 roots and 6 ones (1.6%) had 4 roots. Among the 438 second molars, 14 (3.1%) were single-rooted, 26 (5.9%) teeth had 2 roots, 392 (89.4%) teeth had 3 roots and 6 teeth (1.3%) had 4 roots. No sex difference was found in the frequency of additional canals both in the maxillary first and second molars. Occurrence of additional canals did not differ with age. These results provide detailed knowledge of the root canal anatomy of the maxillary molar teeth in this particular population, which is of clinical importance for dental professionals when performing endodontic treatment

  2. Postoperative Pain after Root Canal Treatment: A Prospective Cohort Study

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    M. Gotler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the incidence and severity of postendodontic treatment pain (PEP subsequent to root canal treatment (RCT in vital and necrotic pulps and after retreatment. Methodology. A prospective study. Participants were all patients (=274 who underwent RCT in teeth with vital pulp, necrotic pulp, or vital pulp that had been treated for symptomatic irreversible pulpitis or who received root canal retreatment, by one clinician, during an eight-month period. Exclusion criteria were swelling, purulence, and antibiotic use during initial treatment. A structured questionnaire accessed age, gender, tooth location, and pulpal diagnosis. Within 24 h of treatment, patients were asked to grade their pain at 6 and 18 hours posttreatment, using a 1–5 point scale. Results. RCT of teeth with vital pulp induced a significantly higher incidence and severity of PEP (63.8%; 2.46 ± 1.4, resp. than RCT of teeth with necrotic pulp (38.5%; 1.78 ± 1.2, resp. or of retreated teeth (48.8%; 1.89 ± 1.1, resp.. No statistical relation was found between type of pain (spontaneous or stimulated and pulp condition. Conclusion. RCT of teeth with vital pulp induced a significantly higher incidence and intensity of PEP compared to teeth with necrotic pulp or retreated teeth.

  3. Various Strategies for Pain-Free Root Canal Treatment

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    Parirokh, Masoud; V. Abbott, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Achieving successful anesthesia and performing pain-free root canal treatment are important aims in dentistry. This is not always achievable and therefore, practitioners are constantly seeking newer techniques, equipments, and anesthetic solutions for this very purpose. The aim of this review is to introduce strategies to achieve profound anesthesia particularly in difficult cases. Materials and Methods: A review of the literature was performed by electronic and hand searching methods for anesthetic agents, techniques, and equipment. The highest level of evidence based investigations with rigorous methods and materials were selected for discussion. Results: Numerous studies investigated to pain management during root canal treatment; however, there is still no single technique that will predictably provide profound pulp anesthesia. One of the most challenging issues in endodontic practice is achieving a profound anesthesia for teeth with irreversible pulpitis especially in mandibular posterior region. Conclusion: According to most investigations, achieving a successful anesthesia is not always possible with a single technique and practitioners should be aware of all possible alternatives for profound anesthesia. PMID:24396370

  4. The Effect of Gaseous Ozone in Infected Root Canal

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    Ajeti, Nova Nexhmije; Pustina-Krasniqi, Teuta; Apostolska, Sonja

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: During the treatment of chronic apical periodontitis and pulp necrosis the main role is to irrigate the root canal. AIM: The aim of this in vivo study was to irrigate with 0.9% NaCl (Natrium Chloride), 2.5 % NaOCl (Sodium Hypochlorite Solution, Sigma Aldrich - Germany) and 2% CHX (Chlorhexidine Digluconate Solution, Sigma Aldrich - Spain) combined with Gaseous Ozone (Prozone WH, Austria). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was realised in the University Dentistry Clinical Centre of Kosovo (UDCCK), respectively in the Department of Endodontic and Dental Pathology, Dental Branch, Faculty of Medicine, Prishtina, Kosovo. The 40 subjects involved in this study belonged to both genders, in age between 15 -65 years. The sample selection was randomised. The retroalveolar radiography for each patient was taken in the suspected tooth. As a therapeutic plan the authors decided to disinfect the root canal with the irrigants, as follows: 2.5 % NaOCl, 2 % CHX and gaseous ozone. RESULTS: The statistical analyses were based on Kruskal - Vallis test, X - test, DF = 3, r irrigants 0.9%, 2.5 % NaOCl and 2% CHX, it was concluded that the number of colonies of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was reduced. PMID:29531611

  5. Analyzing endosonic root canal file oscillations: an in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Simon C; Walmsley, A Damien; Lumley, Philip J

    2010-05-01

    Passive ultrasonic irrigation may be used to improve bacterial reduction within the root canal. The technique relies on a small file being driven to oscillate freely within the canal and activating an irrigant solution through biophysical forces such as microstreaming. There is limited information regarding a file's oscillation patterns when operated while surrounded by fluid as is the case within a canal root. Files of different sizes (#10 and #30, 27 mm and 31 mm) were connected to an ultrasound generator via a 120 degrees file holder. Files were immersed in a water bath, and a laser vibrometer set up with measurement lines superimposed over the files. The laser vibrometer was scanned over the oscillating files. Measurements were repeated 10 times for each file/power setting used. File mode shapes are comprised of a series of nodes/antinodes, with thinner, longer files producing more antinodes. The maximum vibration occurred at the free end of the file. Increasing generator power had no significant effect on this maximum amplitude (p > 0.20). Maximum displacement amplitudes were 17 to 22 microm (#10 file, 27 mm), 15 to 21 microm (#10 file, 31 mm), 6 to 9 microm (#30 file, 27 mm), and 5 to 7 microm (#30, 31 mm) for all power settings. Antinodes occurring along the remaining file length were significantly larger at generator power 1 than at powers 2 through 5 (p generator powers, energy delivered to the file is dissipated in unwanted vibration resulting in reduced vibration displacement amplitudes. This may reduce the occurrence of the biophysical forces necessary to maximize the technique's effectiveness. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A central incisor with 4 independent root canals: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aznar Portoles, C.; Moinzadeh, A.T.; Shemesh, H.

    2015-01-01

    The maxillary central incisor is the tooth with the least anatomic variations. Despite the fact that several studies have reported a prevalence of 100% for the presence of a single canal, root canal aberrations of maxillary central incisors with up to 3 canals have also been reported. Such cases

  7. Evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of super-oxidized water (Sterilox® and sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis in a bovine root canal model

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    Giampiero Rossi-Fedele

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ideally root canal irrigants should have, amongst other properties, antimicrobial action associated with a lack of toxicity against periapical tissues. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl is a widely used root canal irrigant, however it has been shown to have a cytotoxic effect on vital tissue and therefore it is prudent to investigate alternative irrigants. Sterilox's Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® belongs to the group of the super-oxidized waters; it consists of a mixture of oxidizing substances, and has been suggested to be used as root canal irrigant. Super-oxidized waters have been shown to provide efficient cleaning of root canal walls, and have been proposed to be used for the disinfection of medical equipment. OBJECTIVE: To compare the antimicrobial action against Enterococcus faecalis of NaOCl, Optident Sterilox Electrolyte Solution® and Sterilox's Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® when used as irrigating solutions in a bovine root canal model. METHODOLOGY: Root sections were prepared and inoculated with E. faecalis JH2-2. After 10 days of incubation the root canals were irrigated using one of three solutions (NaOCl, Optident Sterilox Electrolyte Solution®and Sterilox's Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® and subsequently sampled by grinding dentin using drills. The debris was placed in BHI broth and dilutions were plated onto fresh agar plates to quantify growth. RESULTS: Sodium hypochlorite was the only irrigant to eliminate all bacteria. When the dilutions were made, although NaOCl was still statistically superior, Sterilox's Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® solution was superior to Optident Sterilox Electrolyte Solution®. CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of this study Sterilox's Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® appeared to have significantly more antimicrobial action compared to the Optident Sterilox Electrolyte Solution® alone, however NaOCl was the only solution able to consistently eradicate E. faecalis in the model.

  8. Effect of Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation solution on Enterococcus Faecalis biofilm in an ex-vivo root canal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahar-Helft, Sharonit; Stabholtz, Adam; Moshonov, Joshua; Gutkin, Vitaly; Redenski, Idan; Steinberg, Doron

    2013-07-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate mineral content and surface morphology of root canals coated with Enterococcus faecalis biofilm after treatment with several endodontic irrigation solutions, with and without Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation (LAI). LAI has been introduced as a powerful method for root canal irrigation resulting in smear-layer removal from the root canal wall. Distal and palatal roots from 60 freshly extracted human molars were used in this study. The coronal of each tooth was removed. Roots were split longitudinally and placed in an ultrasonic bath to remove the smear layer, creating conditions for the formation of E. faecalis biofilm. After incubation, the two halves were reassembled in impression material to simulate clinical conditions. Specimens were divided into two main groups: roots rinsed with irrigation solutions and roots subjected to laser irradiation combined with irrigation solutions. Solutions tested were 2% chlorhexidine and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and saline. Surface morphology: 17% EDTA irrigant solution combined with Er:YAG laser showed the best results for removing bacteria from the root canal walls. Chemical analysis: all samples treated with combined laser irradiation and irrigation solution had low surface levels of Ca compared with samples treated with irrigation alone. The Ca/P ratio was highest in the laser-EDTA group. Overall, mineral changes caused by laser with irrigation solutions were minimal, and statistically nonsignificant. In vitro irrigation solutions, combined with Er:YAG laser irradiation, were effective in removing E. faecalis biofilm from root canal walls. Irrigation solutions without laser irradiation were less effective, leaving a layer of biofilm on the dentin surface.

  9. The best radiographic method for determining root canal morphology in mandibular first premolars: A study of Chinese descendants in Taiwan

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    Yu Sun

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Combined X-ray analyses, such as performing the buccolingual view for identification of canal bifurcation and canal continuity, may increase the accuracy of identifying complex root canal morphology.

  10. Maxillary lateral incisors with two canals and two separate curved roots

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    Ajit George Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the roots and root canal anatomy seems to be the norm rather than an exception. For a successful endodontic treatment, a clinician should have a thorough knowledge of the internal and external dental anatomy and its variations. Maxillary lateral incisors usually exhibit single canal with a single root. In this case, clinical examination and radiographs clearly demonstrates the presence of two root canals with two separate curved roots. This case report emphasizes the need for attention during endodontic management of maxillary lateral incisors.

  11. The failures of root canal preparation with hand ProTaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bătăiosu, Marilena; Diaconu, Oana; Moraru, Iren; Dăguci, C; Tuculină, Mihaela; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Gheorghiţă, Lelia

    2012-07-01

    The failures of root canal preparation are due to some anatomical deviation (canal in "C" or "S") and some technique errors. The technique errors are usually present in canal root cleansing and shaping stage and are the result of endodontic treatment objectives deviation. Our study was made on technique errors while preparing the canal roots with hand ProTaper. Our study was made "in vitro" on 84 extracted teeth (molars, premolars, incisors and canines). The canal root of these teeth were cleansed and shaped with hand ProTaper by crown-down technique and canal irrigation with NaOCl(2,5%). The dental preparation control was made by X-ray. During canal root preparation some failures were observed like: canal root overinstrumentation, zipping and stripping phenomenon, discarded and/or fractured instruments. Hand ProTaper represents a revolutionary progress of endodontic treatment, but a deviation from accepted rules of canal root instrumentation can lead to failures of endodontic treatment.

  12. Comparative study of 6 rotary nickel-titanium systems and hand instrumentation for root canal preparation in severely curved root canals of extracted teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Davut; Taşdemir, Tamer; Er, Kürşat

    2013-02-01

    Some improvements have been developed with new generations of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments that led to their successful and extensive application in clinical practice. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the root canal preparations performed by using GT Series X and Twisted File systems produced by innovative manufacturing process with Revo-S, RaCe, Mtwo, and ProTaper Universal systems manufactured directly from conventional nitinol and with stainless steel K-Flexofile instruments. The mesiobuccal root canals of 140 maxillary first permanent molars that had between 30°-40° curvature angle and 4- to 9-mm curvature radius of the root canal were used. After root canal preparations made by using GT Series X, Twisted File, Revo-S, RaCe, Mtwo, and ProTaper Universal NiTi rotary systems and stainless steel K-Flexofile instruments, transportation occurred in the root canal, and alteration of working length (WL) was assessed by using a modified double-digital radiographic technique. The data were compared by the post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference test. NiTi rotary systems caused less canal transportation and alteration of WL than K-Flexofile instruments (P .05) except 2.5 mm from the WL. At this level ProTaper Universal system caused significant canal transportation (P ProTaper Universal rotary systems manufactured by traditional methods. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The combined use of Er,Cr:YSGG laser and fluoride to prevent root dentin demineralization

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    Vinícius Rangel GERALDO-MARTINS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of erbium lasers to prevent caries in enamel has shown positive results. However, it is not known if Er,Cr:YSGG laser can also be used to increase acid resistance of root dentine, which is another dental tissue susceptible to the action of cariogenic bacteria. Objective: To analyze the effects of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser (λ=2.78 μm, 20 Hz irradiation associated with 2% neutral sodium fluoride (NaF to prevent root dentin demineralization. Material and Methods: One hundred human root dentin samples were divided into 10 groups (G and treated as follows: G1: no treatment; G2: NaF; G3: laser (4.64 J/cm2 with water cooling (WC=5.4 mL/min; G4: laser (4.64 J/cm2 without WC; G5: laser (8.92 J/cm2 with WC; G6: laser (8.92 J/cm2 without WC; G7: laser (4.64 J/cm2 with WC and NaF; G8: laser (4.64 J/cm2 without WC and NaF; G9: laser (8.92 J/cm2 with WC and NaF; G10: laser (8.92 J/cm2 without WC and NaF. The NaF gel was applied alone or after 4 min of irradiation. After 14 days of acid challenge, the samples were sectioned and the Knoop microhardness (KHN test was done at different depths (30, 60, 90 and 120 μm from the outer dentin surface. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Fisher’s test (α=5%. Results: The results showed that G8 and G10 presented higher KHN than the G1 for the depths of 30 and 60 μm, indicating an increase of the acid resistance of the dentin in up to 35% (p<0.05. Conclusions: The use of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation at 4.64 J/ cm2 and 8.92 J/cm2 without water cooling and associated with 2% NaF can increase the acid resistance of human root dentin.

  14. A quantitative analysis of rotary, ultrasonic and manual techniques to treat proximally flattened root canals

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    Fabiana Soares Grecca

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The efficiency of rotary, manual and ultrasonic root canal instrumentation techniques was investigated in proximally flattened root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty human mandibular left and right central incisors, lateral incisors and premolars were used. The pulp tissue was removed and the root canals were filled with red die. Teeth were instrumented using three techniques: (i K3 and ProTaper rotary systems; (ii ultrasonic crown-down technique; and (iii progressive manual technique. Roots were bisected longitudinally in a buccolingual direction. The instrumented canal walls were digitally captured and the images obtained were analyzed using the Sigma Scan software. Canal walls were evaluated for total canal wall area versus non-instrumented area on which dye remained. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found between the instrumentation techniques studied (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that no instrumentation technique was 100% efficient to remove the dye.

  15. Maxillary first molar with 7 root canals diagnosed using cone-beam computed tomography

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    Evaldo Rodrigues

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Root canal anatomy is complex, and the recognition of anatomic variations could be a challenge for clinicians. This case report describes the importance of cone beam computed tomographyic (CBCT imaging during endodontic treatment. A 23 year old woman was referred by her general dental practitioner with the chief complaint of spontaneous pain in her right posterior maxilla. From the clinical and radiographic findings, a diagnosis of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis was made and endodontic treatment was suggested to the patient. The patient underwent CBCT examination, and CBCT scan slices revealed seven canals: three mesiobuccal (MB1, MB2, and MB3, two distobuccal (DB1 and DB2, and two palatal (P1 and P2. Canals were successfully treated with reciprocating files and filled using single-cone filling technique. Precise knowledge of root canal morphology and its variation is important during root canal treatment. CBCT examination is an excellent tool for identifying and managing these complex root canal systems.

  16. Non-destructive, preclinical evaluation of root canal anatomy of human teeth with flat-panel detector volume CT (FD-VCT); Zerstoerungsfreie praeklinische Evaluation der Wurzelkanalanatomie menschlicher Zaehne mittels Flaechendetektor-Volumen-CT (FD-VCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidrich, G.; Hassepass, F.; Dullin, C.; Grabbe, E. [Universitaetsklinikum Goettingen, Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie (Germany); Attin, T.; Hannig, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Goettingen, Abt. fuer Zahnerhaltung, Praeventive Zahnheilkunde und Paradontologie (Germany)

    2005-12-15

    Purpose: Successful endodontic diagnostics and therapy call for adequate depiction of the root canal anatomy with multimodal diagnostic imaging. The aim of the present study is to evaluate visualization of the endodont with flat-panel detector volume CT (FD-VCT). Materials and methods: 13 human teeth were examined with the prototype of a FD-VCT. After data acquisition and generation of volume data sets in volume rendering technology (VRT), the findings obtained were compared to conventional X-rays and cross-section preparations of the teeth. Results: The anatomical structures of the endodont such as root canals, side canals and communications between different root canals as well as dentricles could be detected precisely with FD-VCT. The length of curved root canals was also determined accurately. The spatial resolution of the system is around 140 {mu}m. Only around 73% of the main root canals detected with FD-VCT and 87% of the roots could be visualized with conventional dental X-rays. None of the side canals, shown with FD-VCT, was detectable on conventional X-rays. In all cases the enamel and dentin of the teeth could be well delineated. No differences in image quality could be discerned between stored and freshly extracted teeth, or between primary and adult teeth. (orig.)

  17. Root anatomy and canal configuration of the permanent mandibular first molar: clinical implications and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablo, Oliver Valencia; Estevez, Roberto; Heilborn, Carlos; Cohenca, Nestor

    2012-01-01

    Root canal anatomy may present clinicians with a complex clinical challenge that requires diagnostic approaches, access modification, and clinical skills to successfully localize, negotiate, disinfect, and seal the root canal system. This article discusses the clinical implications of endodontic therapy on permanent mandibular first molars. The number of roots on the mandibular first molar is directly related to ethnicity. Canal morphology has a significant effect on treatment protocol: Mesial roots present two canals on a regular basis, adopting 2-2 and 2-1 as the most common configurations. A third canal is present in 2.6% of the population. The most common configuration in the distal root is type I (62.7%), followed by type II (14.5%) and type IV (12.4%). Diagnosis and treatment of complex root canal systems often require specialized training that may be beyond the scope of the average general practitioner. Access modifications are required to find extra roots and/or canals. The instrumentation of the third root requires a different access and small, flexible instruments, given the curvature that is usually present buccally in the apical third. The incidence of isthmuses is 55% in the mesial root and 20% in the distal root. This anatomical configuration should be taken into consideration during endodontic treatment as well as during periapical surgery.

  18. Sealing ability of a new polydimethylsiloxane-based root canal filling material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özok, A.R.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Wu, M.K.; Wesselink, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the sealing ability of GuttaFlow, RoekoSeal, and AH26 in root canals. Sixty extracted mandibular premolars were filled with AH26 (lateral compaction), RoekoSeal, or GuttaFlow (modified single-cone). The sealing ability of the root canal

  19. Sealing ability of a new polydimethylsiloxane-based root canal filling material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozok, Ahmet R.; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; Wu, Min-Kai; Wesselink, Paul R.

    We tested the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the sealing ability of GuttaFlow, RoekoSeal, and AH26 in root canals. Sixty extracted mandibular premolars were filled with AH26 (lateral compaction), RoekoSeal, or GuttaFlow (modified single-cone). The sealing ability of the root canal

  20. An unusual presentation of all the mandibular anterior teeth with two root canals - A case report

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    Tiku A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of two root canals in all mandibular anterior teeth is presented. The patient initially reported for the treatment of mandibular right central and lateral incisors. However, radiographic evaluation revealed variant root canal and apical foramen patterns.

  1. Comparison of root canal lathing measurement by conventional and digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrova, N.; Slavik, J.; Cecetkova, A.; Jenca, A.; Hanusinova, V.; Ondrasovicova, J.

    2006-01-01

    A correct working length is a critical factor within the endodontic treatment. The length of the root canal can be measured by different methods. The aim of this study was to compare methods used for measuring the length of root canals using conventional and digital radiology. The measurement was provided in both - in vitro and in vivo conditions. (authors)

  2. Radiographic evaluation of the quality of root canal obturation of single-matched cone Gutta-percha root canal filling versus hot lateral technique

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    Randa Suleiman Obeidat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate radiographically the quality of root canal filling in mesiodistal and buccolingual view when comparing matched cone condensation and warm lateral Gutta-percha condensation using system B heating instrument in a low-heat warm lateral condensation technique in0 vitro. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 mandibular premolars with straight single canals were divided into two groups with 20 each. The root canals were shaped by hand file and Revo-S rotary files to size (25, 0.06 at the end point, then they filled by Gutta-percha cone and meta-seal sealer. In group A, a single matched cone technique was used to fill the root canals. In group B, a hot lateral condensation using system B instrument at 101°C was performed. Result: The result of this study showed no significant difference in density of Gutta-percha fill in apical and coronal two-third when comparing matched cone root canal filling and hot lateral technique (P > 0.05. The only significant difference (P < 0.05 was in matched cone between buccolingual and mesiodistal view in the coronal two-third. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, single matched cone technique has a good density in the apical one-third as that of the hot lateral technique so it may be used for filling narrow canals. In the coronal two-third of the root canal, single matched cone technique showed inferior density of root canal filling which can be improved by using accessory cones Gutta-percha in wide canal.

  3. Parallel post-space preparation in different tooth types ex vivo : deviation from the canal centre and remaining dentine thickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.; Klein, M. H. J.; Kok, G. F.; Whitworth, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To determine the deviation of parallel-sided twist-drills during post-channel preparation and relate this to tooth type and position. Methodology Human teeth with single root canals were selected: maxillary second premolars (group i); maxillary lateral incisors (group ii); mandibular canines

  4. Root canal microbiota of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, I N; Siqueira, J F

    2008-11-01

    Samples from infected root canals of 43 teeth with chronic apical periodontitis were analyzed for the presence and relative levels of 83 oral bacterial species and/or phylotypes using a reverse-capture checkerboard hybridization assay. Associations between the most frequently detected taxa were also recorded. The most prevalent taxa were Olsenella uli (74%), Eikenella corrodens (63%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (56%), Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (54%), and Bacteroidetes oral clone X083 (51%). When prevalence was considered only for bacteria present at levels >10(5), Bacteroidetes clone X083 was the most frequently isolated bacterium (37%), followed by Parvimonas micra (28%), E. corrodens (23%), and Tannerella forsythia (19%). The number of target taxa per canal was directly proportional to the size of the apical periodontitis lesion, with lesions >10 mm in diameter harboring a mean number of approximately 20 taxa. Several positive associations for the most prevalent taxa were disclosed for the first time and may have important ecological and pathogenic implications. In addition to strengthening the association of several cultivable named species with chronic apical periodontitis, the present findings using a large-scale analysis allowed the inclusion of some newly named species and as-yet-uncultivated phylotypes in the set of candidate pathogens associated with this disease.

  5. Clinical audit training improves undergraduates' performance in root canal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, J Y M; Tan, V J H; Lee, J R; Tong, Z G M; Foong, Y K; Tan, J M E; Parolia, A; Pau, A

    2017-12-20

    To evaluate the effectiveness of clinical audit-feedback cycle as an educational tool in improving the technical quality of root canal therapy (RCT) and compliance with record keeping performed by dental undergraduates. Clinical audit learning was introduced in Year 3 of a 5-year curriculum for dental undergraduates. During classroom activities, students were briefed on clinical audit, selected their audit topics in groups of 5 or 6 students, and prepared and presented their audit protocols. One chosen topic was RCT, in which 3 different cohorts of Year 3 students conducted retrospective audits of patients' records in 2012, 2014 and 2015 for their compliance with recommended record keeping criteria and their performance in RCT. Students were trained by and calibrated against an endodontist (κ ≥ 0.8). After each audit, the findings were reported in class, and recommendations were made for improvement in performance of RCT and record keeping. Students' compliance with published guidelines was presented and their RCT performances in each year were compared using the chi-square test. Overall compliance with of record keeping guidelines was 44.1% in 2012, 79.6% in 2014 and 94.6% in 2015 (P = .001). In the 2012 audit, acceptable extension, condensation and the absence of mishap were observed in 72.4, 75.7% and 91.5%; in the 2014 audit, 95.1%, 64.8% and 51.4%; and in 2015 audit, 96.4%, 82.1% and 92.8% of cases, respectively. In 2015, 76.8% of root canal fillings met all 3 technical quality criteria when compared to 48.6% in 2014 and 44.7% in 2012 (P = .001). Clinical audit-feedback cycle is an effective educational tool for improving dental undergraduates' compliance with record keeping and performance in the technical quality of RCT. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effect of QMix, peracetic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on calcium loss and microhardness of root dentine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Sonali; Kumari, Manju; Anand, Surbhi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of different chelating agents on the calcium loss and its subsequent effect on the microhardness of the root dentin. Materials and Methods: Ten single rooted lower premolars were selected. The teeth were decoronated and thick transverse sections of 2 mm were obtained from the coronal third of the root. Each section was then divided into four quarters, each part constituting a sample specimen from the same tooth for each group. The treatment groups were: Group 1 (Control): 5% Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 5 min + distilled water for 5 min; Group 2: 5% NaOCl for 5 min + 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) for 5 min; Group 3: 5% NaOCl for 5 min + 2.25% Peracetic acid (PAA) for 5 min and Group 4: 5% NaOCl for 5 min + QMix for 5 min respectively. The calcium loss of the samples was evaluated using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer followed by determination of their microhardness using Vickers Hardness Tester. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Post hoc Tukey test and Pearson correlation. Results: The maximum calcium loss and minimum microhardness was observed in Group 3 followed by Group 2, Group 4 and Group 1. There was a statistically significant difference between all the groups except between Groups 2 and 4. Conclusions: Irrigation with NaOCl + 2.25% PAA caused the maximum calcium loss from root dentin and reduced microhardness. A negative correlation existed between the calcium loss and reduction in the microhardness of root dentin. PMID:24778513

  7. [The use of self-adapting system files (SAF) for controlling microbial biofilms of root canals in the treatment of apical periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarev, V N; Mamedova, L A; Siukaeva, T N; Podporin, M S

    The aim of this study was to conduct a clinical and laboratory study and evaluate the effectiveness of endodontic root canal treatment using a self-adapting files system (SAF) in the complex treatment of patients with chronic apical periodontitis. 3% sodium hypochlorite solution was used as irrigation agent in all groups which included 20 patients treated with conventional manual tools, 21 patients receiving treatment with ultrasonic activation of irrigant and 26 patients treated with SAF system. Root canal biofilm structure was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using a Quantum 3D microscope (USA). Clinical efficiency of the root canal treatment was assessed by complications frequency a year after treatment. SEM revealed the presence of high levels of microbial contamination of dentine tubules in the apical portion of the tooth. In standard method group the percentage of re-treatment and surgery was higher than in the studied groups. Use of SAF irrigation system was associated with a decrease in the number of identified pathogens. However, the study revealed high resistance of Enterococcus spp., Porphyromonas gingivalis, Candida albicans to all types of endodontic treatment, so the improvement of methods of root canal microbial biofilms removing need to be continued.

  8. [Shaping ability of multi-taper nickel-titanium files in simulated resin curved root canal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong-Xia; Huang, Ding-Ming; Jia, Liu-He; Luo, Shi-Gao; Gao, Xiao-Jie; Tan, Hong; Zhou, Xue-Dong

    2006-08-01

    To compare the shaping ability of ISO standard stainless steel K files and multi-taper ProTaper nickel-titanium files in simulated resin curved root canals. METHODS Thirty simulated resin root canals were randomly divided into three groups and prepared by stainless steel K files, hand ProTaper, rotary ProTaper, respectively. The amount of material removed from inner and outer wall and canal width after canal preparation was measured, while the canal curvature before and after canal preparation and canals aberrations were recorded. The stainless steel K files removed more material than hand ProTaper and rotary ProTaper at the outer side of apex and inner side of curvature (P ProTaper group (P ProTaper had no evident aberration. The shaping ability of ProTaper is better than stainless steel K files.

  9. The Comparative Efficacy of Different Files in The Removal of Different Sealers in Simulated Root Canal Retreatment- An In-vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaparthy, Aruna; Kanaparthy, Rosaiah

    2016-05-01

    Root canal treatment enjoys a high success rate all over the world and has saved billions of teeth from extraction. However, there are instances of failure, the main causes being insufficient cleaning and inadequate obturation. In such cases the most conservative treatment option would be non-surgical retreatment. It requires regaining access to the entire root canal system through removal of the original root canal filling thus permitting further cleaning and re- obturation. Removal of gutta-percha and sealer becomes a critical step to gain access to the root canal system, remove necrotic tissue debris, bacteria and infected dentin. To compare and evaluate the efficacy of manual hand Hedstrom files and two rotary retreatment file systems ProTaper Universal retreatment files and Mtwo(R) (retreatment) files in the removal of root canal filling material during root canal retreatment and the influence of the type of sealers zinc oxide eugenol and AH plus on the presence of remaining debris in the reinstrumented canals in the apical, middle and coronal third. Sixty single rooted human premolar teeth were divided into 3 Groups of 20 teeth each Group I (20 Teeth): prepared using hand K Files, Group II (20 Teeth): prepared using ProTaper rotary system and Group III (20 Teeth): prepared using Mtwo rotary system. In Groups- IA, IIA, IIIA: (10 teeth each) Obturation was done using Zinc Oxide Eugenol sealer and gutta percha. In Groups- IB, IIB, IIIB: (10 teeth each) obturation was done with AH Plus sealer and gutta percha. All the teeth were subjected to retreatment. Groups IA and IB with Hedstrom files, Groups IIA and IIB with ProTaper retreatment files and for Groups IIIA and IIIB with Mtwo retreatment Files. The roots were longitudinally split and were observed under a stereomicroscope for remaining amount of filling material on the canal walls. Statistical analysis was done using One-way ANOVA (Analysis of variance) test and Tukey HSD Test. Mtwo(R) files showed

  10. Shaping ability of nickel-titanium rotary instruments in curved root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Ali; Moradi, Saeed; Forghani, Maryam; Monajemzadeh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Disinfection and subsequent obturation of the root canal space require adequate mechanical enlargement of the canals. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the shaping ability of Mtwo, RaCe and Medin rotary instruments during the preparation of curved root canals. Sixty mesiobuccal root canals of mandibular molars with severe curvatures between 25-35(°) and radius of 4-9 mm were randomly divided into three groups of 20 canals each. Using pre- and post-instrumentation radiographs, straightening of the canal and the apical transportation were determined with AutoCAD software. The data were analyzed using Chi square, analysis of variance, and post-hoc tests and the significance level was set at P0.05). Under the conditions of this in vitro study, Mtwo instruments seemed superior to the two other rotary instruments.

  11. Root Canal Configuration of Maxillary First Permanent Molars in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Rahimi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. It is critical to have a proper knowledge of the normal anatomy of the pulp and its variations for the success of endodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate variations in the root canal system of maxillary first permanent molars in an Iranian population.

    Materials and methods. In this study, 137 maxillary first molars were decalcified, dye-injected, cleared and studied.

    Results. The results demonstrated that 37.96% of the maxillary first molars under study had three canals, 58.4% had four canals and 3.64% had five canals.

    Conclusion. According to the results of this study and considering variations in the root canal systems of maxillary first molars, it seems that great care should be taken in the root canal treatment of these teeth.

  12. Root canal adhesive filling in dogs' teeth with or without coronal restoration: a histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Mario Roberto; Barnett, Frederick; Debelian, Gilberto J; de Pontes Lima, Regina Karla; Bezerra da Silva, Léa Assed

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo the response of the periradicular tissues after endodontic treatment and root filling with Epiphany/Resilon (Penntron Clinical Technologies, LLC, Wallingford, CT) or gutta percha and new Sealapex (SybronEndo, Glendora, CA) in dogs' teeth with or without coronal restoration. Teeth without coronal restorations were used to assess the influence of continuous exposure to the oral environment on the periradicular tissues. Sixty root canals with vital pulps in three dogs were instrumented and obturated in a single session and randomly assigned to one of four groups as follows. group 1: root canal filling with Epiphany/Resilon with coronal restoration, group 2: root canal filling with Sealapex sealer and gutta percha with restoration, group 3: root canal filling with Epiphany/Resilon without restoration, and group 4: root canal filling with Sealapex sealer and gutta percha without coronal restoration. After 90 days, the animals were euthanized, and the maxillas and mandibles were removed and submitted for histologic processing. Longitudinal sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Mallory's trichrome, and Brown and Brenn stains and examined under light microscopy. There were significant differences found between the four groups (p < 0.05). The results showed that roots canals filled with Epiphany/Resilon, with coronal restoration, had significantly less periradicular inflammation than roots canals filled with gutta percha and Sealapex, with coronal restoration (p = 0.021). No significant difference was observed in the intensity of inflammation between roots canals filled with Epiphany/Resilon with no restoration and roots filled with gutta percha and Sealapex with restoration (p = 0.269). Roots canals filled with gutta percha and Sealapex sealer without coronal restoration showed the greatest degree of periradicular inflammation.

  13. Effectiveness of Various Irrigation Protocols in Removing Calcium Hydroxide from Root Canals

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    Hakan Göktürk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the removal efficiency of calcium hydroxide (CH by CanalBrush, Vibringe, laser-activated irrigation (LAI, conventional syringe irrigation (CSI, XP-endo Finisher, and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI in the root canal walls. Materials and Methods: Ninety-eight human mandibular premolar teeth were prepared. Root canals were filled with CH. The roots were divided into six experimental groups (n=15/group according to the irrigation protocol used: group 1 (CSI, group 2 (Vibringe, group 3 (CanalBrush, group 4 (XP-endo Finisher, group 5 (PUI, and group 6 (LAI. The amount of residual CH in the canal walls for each canal third was scored. Data were analysed by using Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni-correction Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: None of the investigated protocols renders the root canal walls free of CH remnants. Significant differences were found between tooth regions in terms of CH removal (p<0.05, and all groups except group 6 (LAI showed more residual CH in the apical region. PUI and LAI eliminated significantly more CH than CSI from the middle and apical thirds of the root canal, respectively. Conclusion: The activation of sodium hypochlorite with various devices increased CH removal at the apical and middle part of the canal. LAI and PUI produce better results in the apical and middle thirds, respectively.

  14. Effect of different diode laser wavelengths on root dentin decontamination infected with Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Caroline Cristina; Estrela, Carlos; Lopes, Fabiane Carneiro; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Pecora, Jesus Djalma; De Araújo Estrela, Cyntia Rodrigues; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião de

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect and the ultrastructural alterations of diode laser with different wavelengths (808nm and 970nm) and its association with irrigating solutions (2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine) in root dentin contaminated by a five days biofilm. Thirteen uniradicular teeth were sectioned into 100 dentin intraradicular blocks. Initially, the blocks were immersed for 5min in 17% EDTA and washed with distilled water for 5min, then samples were sterilized for 30min at 120°C. The dentin samples were inoculated with 0.1mL of E. faecalis suspension in 5mL BHI (Brain Heart Infusion) and incubated at 37°C for 5days. After contamination, the specimens were distributed into ten groups (n=10) according to surface treatment: GI - 5mL NaOCl 2.5%, GII - 5mL NaOCl 2.5%+808nm diode (0.1W for 20s), GIII - 5mL NaOCl 2.5%+970nm diode (0.5W for 4s), GIV - 808nm diode (0.1W for 20s), GV - 970nm diode (0.5W for 4s), GVI - CHX 2%, GVII - CHX 2%+808nm diode (0.1W for 20s), GVIII - CHX 2%+970nm diode (0.5W for 4s), GIX - positive control and GX - negative control. Bacterial growth was analyzed by turbidity and optical density of the growth medium by spectrophotometry (nm). Then, the specimens were processed for analysis ultrastructural changes of the dentin surface by SEM. The data was subject to the One-way ANOVA test. GI (77.5±12.1), GII (72.5±12.2), GIII (68.7±8.7), GV (68.3±8.7), GVI (62.0±5.5) and GVII (67.5±3.3) were statistically similar and statistically different from GIV (58.8±25.0), GVIII (59.2±4.0) and control groups (pdiode laser; erosion of the intertubular dentin in blocks submitted to 808nm diode laser irradiation; and an increased erosion of the intertubular dentin when 2.5% NaOCl was associated to the different wavelengths lasers. All the therapeutic protocols were able to reduce the bacterial contingent in dentin blocks, and the association of diode laser and solutions did not significantly improve

  15. Effects of liquid- and paste-type EDTA on smear-layer removal during rotary root-canal instrumentation

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    Gin Chen

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: The use of paste/gel-type chelators during rotary nickel–titanium instrumentation resulted in improved cleanliness in the coronal and middle parts of the root canal. We recommend using liquid EDTA as a final flushing solution during root-canal preparation because it provides a better smear layer-free condition before 3-dimensional root-canal obturation.

  16. The effect of immediate and delayed post-space preparation using extended working time root canal sealers on apical leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chen

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Extended working time root canal sealers do not affect microleakage results using a warm gutta-percha vertical compaction technique. The sealing ability of extended working time root canal sealers on high heat conditions is as good as the standard working time root canal sealer during post-space preparation of different intervals.

  17. Endodontic Management of a Maxillary Lateral Incisor with 4 Root Canals and a Dens Invaginatus Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Ali; Schneider, S Craig

    2015-07-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is associated with complex internal anatomy. This article represents a maxillary lateral incisor with 5 root canals including DI. The treatment was planned and performed using cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging. After clinical and radiographic evaluations, tooth #7 was diagnosed with DI and pulp necrosis with symptomatic apical periodontitis. Periapical radiographs of the tooth showed 2 roots and complex internal anatomy. CBCT evaluation revealed tooth #7 had 5 separate canals (4 root canals and 1 DI canal extending through the root to the periodontal ligament), communication between DI and the root canal system, and severe and multiple curvatures of the palatal canals. Root canal treatment was completed in 2 visits. Modified access openings were required to safely treat the dilacerated palatal canals. At the 6-month re-evaluation, the patient reported he had remained asymptomatic and his tooth had remained functional since the treatment was completed. Clinical examination showed tooth #7 had no sensitivity to percussion or palpation, probe depths within normal limits (≤3 mm), and no mobility. Radiographic assessment of the tooth showed significant osseous healing of the preoperative lesion. Three-dimensional imaging is a valuable tool for endodontic management of teeth with complex internal anatomy. Three-dimensional imaging is recommended for evaluating and treatment planning cases with DI. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of the root canal debridement ability of two single file systems with a conventional multiple rotary system in long oval-shaped root canals: In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbin, Elham; Shokri, Abbas; Donyavi, Zakieh; Shahriari, Shahriar; Salehimehr, Golsa; Farhadian, Maryam; Kavandi, Zeinab

    2017-08-01

    This study sought to compare the root canal debridement ability of Neolix, Reciproc and ProTaper rotary systems in long oval-shaped root canals. Eighty five extracted single-rooted human teeth with long oval-shaped single root canals were selected and divided into three experimental groups(n=25) and one control group (n= 10). Root canals were filled with Vitapex radiopaque contrast medium and prepared with Neolix, Reciproc or ProTaper systems. The control group only received irrigation. Digital radiographs were obtained at baseline and postoperatively and subjected to digital subtraction. The percentage of reduction in contrast medium was quantified at 0-5 mm and 5-10 mm distances from the apex. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and t-test. The mean percentage of the contrast medium removed was not significantly different in the 0-5mm segment among the three groups ( P =0.6). In the 5-10mm segment a significant difference was found in this regard among the ProTaper and Reciproc groups ( P =0.02) and the highest mean percentage of contrast medium was removed by ProTaper. But, difference between ProTaper and Neolix as well as Neolix and Reciproc was not significant. In Neolix ( P =0.024) and Reciproc ( P =0.002) systems, the mean percentage of the contrast medium removed from the 0-5mm segment was significantly greater than that in 5-10mm segment; however, this difference was not significant in ProTaper group ( P =0.069). Neolix single-file system may be a suitable alternative to ProTaper multiple-file system in debridement of long oval shaped canals. Key words: Root Canal Preparation, Debridement, Root Canal Therapy.

  19. Antimicrobial residual effects of irrigation regimens with maleic acid in infected root canals

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer-Luque, Carmen Mar?a; Gonz?lez-Castillo, Silvia; Ruiz-Linares, Matilde; Arias-Moliz, Mar?a Teresa; Rodr?guez-Archilla, Alberto; Baca, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Background The success of endodontic treatment depends largely on the control of microorganisms present in infected root canals. The aim of this study was to determine the residual antimicrobial activity of several final irrigation protocols with 7% maleic acid (MA) alone and combined with chlorhexidine (CHX), cetrimide (CTR) or both, in root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Biofilms of E. faecalis were grown in uniradicular roots for 4 weeks. A total of 72 specimens were divided i...

  20. Endodontic implications of the variability of the root canal systems of posterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, J T; Benenati, F W

    1995-01-01

    Variations in the morphology of roots and root canal systems create challenges which the dental practitioner must be able to recognize. Endodontic therapy is predictable and successful only to the extent that the root canal system can be debrided, disinfected and sealed against future contamination. In order to accomplish these goals it is necessary to become familiar with the variability of the system we seek to treat.

  1. Evaluation of inactivation of intracanal antiseptics by dentin, demineralized dentin, dentin matrix and mineral component of dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmi H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Many studies have shown that microorganisms are the main cause of pulpal diseases and the main purpose of root canal therapy is their elimination from the root canal system. Antiseptic agents are used to reduce bacteria but their antibacterial activities differ from in vivo to in vitro studies and might be inactivated by dentin and its components in root canal space. This study was designed to investigate the effect of dentin on antibacterial activity of different antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, two antibacterial agents (sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine with different concentrations were used in four experimental groups: Group 1: dentin, Group 2: demineralized dentin with EDTA, Group 3: dentin matrix and Group 4: dentin mineral component. The species used in this study was Entrococcus faecalis. Different concentration of agents were added to mixture of each experimental group and bacteria. At the baseline and after one and 24 hours, samples were collected and cultured. After incubation period, colonies were counted. Data were analyzed by Tukey test with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: 2% and 0.2% chlorhexidine, and 5% sodium hypochlorite solutions at the three studied times eliminated Entrococcus faecalis completely. 1% sodium hypochlorite eliminated all bacteria in 1h and 24 hs. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between experimental and control groups (P<0.05. Sodium 1% hypochlorite at time 0, could reduce bacteria significantly (P<0.05 but didn’t eliminate them completely. Conclusion: Inactivation of intracanal antiseptics was not observed in this study. As elimination of bacteria occurred, application of these antibacterial agents are recommended in endodontic treatment. Further investigations on other antibacterial agents, other concentrations and shorter time intervals are recommended.

  2. Cone-beam computed tomography study of root and canal morphology of mandibular premolars in a western Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xuan; Guo, Bin; Li, Ke-Zeng; Zhang, Ru; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Hu; DDS, Tao Hu

    2012-01-01

    Traditional radiography is limited in its ability to give reliable information on the number and morphology of root canals. The application of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides a non-invasive three-dimensional confirmatory diagnosis as a complement to conventional radiography. The aim of this study was to evaluate the root and canal morphology of mandibular premolars in a western Chinese population using CBCT scanning. The sample included 149 CBCT images comprising 178 mandibular first premolars and 178 second premolars. The tooth position, number of roots and canals, and canal configuration according to Vertucci’s classification were recorded. The results showed that 98% of mandibular first premolars had one root and 2% had two roots; 87.1% had one canal, 11.2% had two canals and 0.6% had three canals. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 1.1%. All mandibular second premolars had one root; 97.2% had one canal and 2.2% had two canals. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 0.6%. The prevalence of multiple canals in mandibular first premolars was mainly of Type V, and mandibular second premolars had a low rate of canal variation in this western Chinese population. Root canal bifurcation occurred at the middle or apical third in most bicanal mandibular premolars. CBCT scanning can be used in the management of mandibular premolars with complex canal morphology

  3. The Use of Lasers in Disinfection and Cleaning of Root Canals: a Review

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    Ivica Anić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of root canal treatment is based on efficient disinfection of the root canal system and prevention of reinfection. Current chemomechanical cleaning methods do not always achieve these goals, and insufficient root canal disinfection is the main reason for endodontic failure. Due to high energy content and specific characteristics of laser light, laser treatment has been proposed for cleaning and disinfecting the root canal system. This paper reviews the literature covering the effect of Er:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG, Nd:YAG and diode laser on the root canal wall in the removal of smear layer and against intracanal bacteria. Recently, the use of laser energy to induce cavitation and acoustic streaming of intracanal irrigants has been investigated. Based on recent literature, it can be concluded that lasers have bactericidal effects. However, they still cannot replace sodium hypochlorite and should be considered as an adjunct to the current chemical root canal disinfection protocols. Certain lasers can help in removing the smear layer and debris and can modify the morphology of the root canal wall. Unfortunately, there have not been enough randomized clinical studies evaluating endodontic treatment outcome following the use of laser.

  4. Ultrasonic activation and chemical modification of photosensitizers enhances the effects of photodynamic therapy against Enterococcus faecalis root-canal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennert, C; Drews, A M; Walther, V; Altenburger, M J; Karygianni, L; Wrbas, K T; Hellwig, E; Al-Ahmad, A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms in artificially infected root canals using modified photosensitizers and passive ultrasonic activation. Two hundred and seventy extracted human teeth with one root canal were instrumented utilizing ProTaper files, autoclaved, infected with E. faecalis T9 for 72 h and divided into different groups: irrigation with 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 20% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), or 20% citric acid, PDT without irrigation, PDT accompanied by irrigation with NaOCl, EDTA, or citric acid, PDT using an EDTA-based photosensitizer or a citric-acid-based photosensitizer and PDT with ultrasonic activation of the photosensitizer. A 15 mg/ml toluidine blue served as the photosensitizer, activated by a 100 mW LED light source. Sterile paper points were used for sampling the root canals and dentin chips were collected to assess the remaining contamination after treatment. Samples were cultured on blood agar plates and colony forming units were quantified. PDT alone achieved a reduction in E. faecalis counts by 92.7%, NaOCl irrigation alone and combined with PDT by 99.9%. The antibacterial effects increased by the combination of irrigation using EDTA or citric acid and PDT compared to irrigation alone. More than 99% of E. faecalis were killed using PDT with the modified photosensitizers and ultrasonic activation. NaOCl based disinfection achieved the highest antimicrobial effect. Using PDT with an EDTA-based or citric-acid-based phozosensitizer or activating the photosensitizer with ultrasound resulted in a significantly higher reduction in E. faecalis counts compared to conventional PDT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Root and Canal Morphology of Mandibular First Molars: A Clearing Method in an Iranian Population

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    Shirkavand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Successful endodontic treatment is dependent on the knowledge of root canal anatomy. Objectives This study aims to investigate the root canal anatomy of mandibular first molars in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods One hundred human mandibular first molars were collected and stored in 5.25% NaOCl. Radiographic images of the teeth were taken in mesial, distal, and buccal aspects using digital radiography. The root numbers were recorded, and the teeth were covered with lacquer. Access cavities were prepared, pulp tissue was dissolved, the apex was covered with liquid glue, and the root canals were injected with methylene blue. Decalcification of the teeth meant they were kept in 10% nitric acid, and final dehydration meant they were kept in 100% Isopropyl alcohol for 72 hours and rendered clear by immersion in methyl salicylate. The number of root canals per tooth, the number of canals per root, and canal configuration in each tooth were recorded. Results Ninety-nine of the 100 teeth had two roots and the other had three roots. The teeth were classified based on the number of canals; there were 2% with two canals, 59% with three canals, and 39% with four canals. Based on the Vertucci classification, the most prevalent canal configurations in the mesial root were types II and IV, and type I in the distal root. Conclusions The most common root morphology is the two rooted morphology with three canals. Both the mesial and distal roots show wide variations in canal anatomy with type IV and type I canal configuration predominating in the mesial and distal roots, respectively. Iranian mandibular first molar teeth exhibit features close to the average Caucasian, Jordanian, and Kuwaiti’s root and canal morphology.

  6. Prevalence of two root canals in human mandibular anterior teeth in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Rahimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complete debridement and obturation of the root canal system is a key factor in successful endodontic treatment and the operator should therefore have thorough knowledge of the root canal morphology of the teeth. Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the canal configuration of different tooth types in various populations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the internal anatomy of mandibular incisors and canines in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 463 mandibular anterior teeth, including 186 centrals, 128 laterals, and 149 canines, were examined. A standard clearing technique was used to make the teeth transparent. India ink was injected into the canals of the teeth and the samples were examined with a magnifying glass. The root canal configurations were categorized according to the Vertucci classification. Results: All the incisors in this study had one root, and 12.08% of the canines had two roots. We found a slightly higher prevalence of the second canal in incisors than in canines (36.62% vs. 20.48%. However, the probability of canines having two separate apical foramina was higher than that for incisors (12.08% vs. 0.64%. Conclusions: In view of the high prevalence of two-canaled mandibular anterior teeth found in this study, it would be prudent to assume that any mandibular anterior tooth being treated is two-canaled until a thorough search proves otherwise.

  7. Root and Canal Morphology of Mandibular Third Molars in an Iranian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Kuzekanani; Jahangir Haghani; Hossein Nosrati

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims A through knowledge of the root canal morphology is required for successful endodontic ther-apy. The aim of this study was to investigate the root and canal morphology of mandibular third molars in Kerman, a prov-ince in southeast of Iran. Materials and methods One-hundred-fifty extracted mandibular third molars were collected randomly from different dental clinics in Kerman. The root canal anatomy and morphology of each tooth was carefully studied using a clearing tech-ni...

  8. Canal Configuration of Mesiobuccal Roots in Permanent Maxillary First Molars in Iranian Population: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mandana; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Hosseinpour, Sepanta

    2016-11-01

    It is essential for clinicians to have adequate knowledge about root canal configurations; although its morphology varies largely in different ethnicities and even in different individuals with the same ethnic background. The current study aims to review the root canal configurations of mesiobuccal roots of maxillary first molars in an Iranian population based on different epidemiological studies. A comprehensive search was conducted to retrieve articles related to root canal configuration and prevalence of each type of root canal based on Vertucci's classification for the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars. An electronic search was conducted in Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar from January 1984 to September 2015. The articles were evaluated and methods, population, number of teeth and percentage of each root canal type evaluated in each study were summarized in the data table. Websites such as http://www.magiran.com/ , http://health.barakatkns.com/journal-internal-list and www.sid.ir were used to search all related studies published in Persian. Totally, out of nine studies conducted on the Iranian populations in nine provinces of Iran and 798 teeth, the Vertucci's type I was the most common type (35.70%), followed by type II (30.37%), type IV (16.66%), type III (7.93%) and type V (2.61%). From this review article, it is concluded that the root canal morphology of mesiobuccal roots of maxillary first molars in the Iranian population predominantly has more than one canal. Therefore, careful evaluation of radiographs and anatomy of the pulp chamber is essential in order to achieve a successful root canal therapy.

  9. Comparative Study of Three Rotary Instruments for root canal Preparation using Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Cleaning and shaping the root canal is a key to success in root canal treatment. This includes the removal of organic substrate from the root canal system by chemo mechanical methods, and the shaping of the root canal system into a continuously tapered preparation. This should be done while maintaining the original path of the root canal. Although instruments for root canal preparation have been progressively developed and optimized, a complete mechanical debridement of the root canal system is rarely achievable. One of the main reasons is the geometrical dis symmetry between the root canal and preparation instruments. Rotary instruments regardless of their type and form produce a preparation with a round outline if they are used in a simple linear filing motion, which in most of the cases do not coincide with the outline of the root canal. Root canal preparation in narrow, curved canals is a challenge even for experienced endodontists. Shaping of curved canals became more effective after the introduction of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) endodontic instruments. Despite the advantages of Ni-Ti rotary instruments, intra canal fracture is the most common procedural accident that occurs with these instruments during clinical use. It is a common experience between clinicians that Ni-Ti rotary instruments may undergo unexpected fracture without any visible warning, such as any previous permanent defect or deformation. Pro Taper Ni-Ti instruments were introduced with a unique design of variable taper within one instrument and continuously changing helical angles. Pro Taper rotary instruments are claimed to generate lower torque values during their use because of their modified nonradial landed cross-section that increases the cutting efficiency and reduces contact areas. On the other hand, the variable taper within one instrument is believed to reduce the ‘taper lock’ effect (torsional failure) in comparison with similarly tapered instruments. Nevertheless, Pro Taper

  10. Additional disinfection with a modified salt solution in a root canal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Suzette V; Oonk, Charlotte A M; Nieman, Selma H; Wesselink, Paul R; de Soet, Johannes J; Crielaard, Wim

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the disinfecting properties of a modified salt solution (MSS) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) in a non-direct-contact ex-vivo model. Seventy-four single-canal roots infected with Enterococcus faecalis were treated with 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation or with NaOCl irrigation with subsequent dressing with MSS or Ca(OH)2. After removal of the dressings, the roots were filled with bacterial growth medium and incubated for seven days to enable the surviving bacteria to repopulate the root canal lumen. Growth was determined by sampling the root canals with paper points before treatment (S1), after treatment (S2) and incubation after treatment (S3). The colony forming units were counted at S1 and S2. At S3, growth was determined as no/yes regrowth. The Kruskal-Wallis, McNemar and χ(2) test were used for statistical analyses. At S2, in the NaOCl group, growth was found in 5 of 19 root canals. After the removal of MSS or Ca(OH)2 bacteria were retrieved from one root canal in both groups. At S3, repopulation of the root canals had occurred in 14 of 19 roots after sole NaOCl irrigation, 6 of 20 roots after MSS-dressing and in 14 of 20 roots after Ca(OH)2-dressing. MSS was more effective in preventing regrowth than Ca(OH)2 (P=0.009). The modified salt solution prevented regrowth in roots which indicates that it can eliminate persistent bacteria. Dressing the root canals with Ca(OH)2 did not provide additional disinfection after NaOCl irrigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In-depth morphological study of mesiobuccal root canal systems in maxillary first molars: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Woo Chang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A common failure in endodontic treatment of the permanent maxillary first molars is likely to be caused by an inability to locate, clean, and obturate the second mesiobuccal (MB canals. Because of the importance of knowledge on these additional canals, there have been numerous studies which investigated the maxillary first molar MB root canal morphology using in vivo and laboratory methods. In this article, the protocols, advantages and disadvantages of various methodologies for in-depth study of maxillary first molar MB root canal morphology were discussed. Furthermore, newly identified configuration types for the establishment of new classification system were suggested based on two image reformatting techniques of micro-computed tomography, which can be useful as a further 'Gold Standard' method for in-depth morphological study of complex root canal systems.

  12. Thin and thick layers of resin-based sealer cement bonded to root dentine compared: Adhesive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, Epita S; Palamara, Joseph E A; Messer, Harold H

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate tensile and shear bond strengths of one epoxy (AH) and two methacrylate resin-based sealers (EZ and RS) in thin and thick layers bonded to root dentine. An alignment device was prepared for accurate positioning of 20 root dentine cylinders in a predefined gap of 0.1 or 1 mm. Sealer was placed in the interface. Bond strength tests were conducted. Mode of failures and representative surfaces were evaluated. Data were analysed using anova and post-hoc tests, with P thick layer of sealer produced higher bond strength, except for the shear bond strength of EZ. Significant differences between thin and thick layers were found only in tensile bond strengths of AH and RS. Mixed type of failure was constantly found with all sealers. Bond strengths of thick layers of resin-based sealers to root dentine tended to be higher than with thin layers. © 2015 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  13. Evaluation of interference of calcium hydroxide-based intracanal medication in filling root canal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Deyla Duarte; Neto, Manoel Matos; Villela, Alexandre Mascarenhas; Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the interference of the intracanal medication Calen® (SSWhite, Sao Paulo, Brazil) on the filling of simulated lateral canals. Twenty human anterior teeth were used. Before the endodontic filling procedures the access of cavity was made, and after this root canals were made in all the teeth to simulate the presence of lateral canals. After preparation, the teeth were randomly divided into two groups (n=10). In group I, the root canal system was filled directly after chemicalmechanical preparation; in group II, endodontic treatment was performed in multiple sessions, and after preparation the calcium hydroxide-based intracanal medication Calen® was inserted. After the period of 7 days, the root canals were vigorously irrigated and then they were filled. Next, the teeth were radiographed to verify the quality of the filling. The results demonstrated that the teeth treated in a single session, without calcium hydroxide medication, presented 47 canals out of 60 with radiographic evidence of filling, whereas the teeth in which intracanal medication was used, only 07 presented a radiographic image compatible with filling (p < 0.05). The use of the calcium hydroxide-based medication Calen made it difficult to obtain a hermetic filling of the root canal system. The clinical significance of this work basing on the fact that once the dentist knowing that property obliteration of calcium hydroxide can be taken care when they are used in the presence of lateral canals.

  14. [Continuous observation of canal aberrations in S-shaped simulated root canal prepared by hand-used ProTaper files].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling-yun; Leng, Wei-dong; Mao, Min; Yang, Guo-biao; Xiang, Yong-gang; Chen, Xin-mei

    2009-08-01

    To observe the formation of canal aberrations in S-shaped root canals prepared by every file of hand-used ProTaper. Fifteen S-shaped simulated resin root canals were selected. Each root canal was prepared by every file of hand-used ProTaper following the manufacturer instruction. The images of canals prepared by S1, S2, F1, F2 and F3 were taken and stored, which were divided into group S1, S2, F1, F2 and F3. One image of canal unprepared was superposed with the images of the same root canal in these five groups respectively to observe the types and number of canal aberrations, which included unprepared area, danger zone, ledge, elbow, zip and perforation. SPSS12.0 software pakage was used for Fisher's exact probabilities in 2x2 table. Unprepared area decreased following preparation by every file of ProTaper, but it still existed when the canal preparation was finished. The incidence of danger zone, elbow and zip in group F1 was 15/15, 11/15, 4/15, respectively, which was significantly higher than that in group S2(2/15,0,0) (PProTaper.The presence of unprepared area suggests that it is essential to rinse canal abundantly during complicated canal preparation and canal antisepsis after preparation.

  15. Incidence of root canal treatment of second molars following adjacent impacted third molar extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yener Oguz

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Although the incidence is minimal, iatrogenic subluxation injuries occurring during the surgical removal of impacted third molars can lead to pulpal complications and a requirement for root canal treatment of adjacent second molars.

  16. Roentgenographic study of two root canal incidence in mandibular first premolars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, H.F.; Simoes, S.; Niccoli Filho, W.D.; Madeira, M.C.; Oliveira, J.A. de; Martins, Ariovaldo A.

    1984-01-01

    The root canal number in 1,632 mandibular first premolars were studied by roentgenograms taken from mesiodistal direction. A second canal exists in at least 27.08 per cent of all the teeth examined. Two comprehensive tables were taken: one was prepared to summarize all the data which were classified by root morphology. The second compares the results taken by other authors. (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. Root Canal Microorganism Profiles on Upper Anterior Teeth of Apical Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Riuwpassa, E. Irene

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are the main causative agents on the development of apical periodontitis. Microorganisms infecting the root canal system are colonized in communities as biofilm. These bacterial communities show distinct pattern related to the different forms of apical periodontitis which are determined by species richness and abundance.this study is aimed to examine the root canal microorganisms on upper anterior teeth of asymptomatic apical periodontitis and chronic apical abscess. Samples we...

  18. Root Canal Microorganisms Profiles of Upper Anterior Teeth with Periapical Lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Tanumiharja; Irene E. Riewpassa; Mansjur Nasir; Burhanuddin D. Pasiga

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are the main causative agents on the development of apical periodontitis. Microorganisms infecting the root canal system are colonized in communities as biofilm. These bacterial communities show distinct pattern related to the different forms of apical periodontitis which are determined by species richness and abundance. Objective: This study is aimed to examine the root canal microorganisms on upper anterior teeth of asymptomatic apical periodontitis and chronic apical abscess...

  19. ROOT CANAL MICROORGANISMS PROFILES O F UPPER ANTERIOR TEETH WITH APICAL PERIODONTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Tanumihardja, Maria; Riewpassa, Irene E; Mansjurnasir; Burhanuddin, DP

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are the main causative agents on the development of apical periodontitis. Microorganisms infecting the root canal system are colonized in communities as biofilm. These bacterial communities show distinct pattern related to the different forms of apical periodontitis which are determined by species richness and abundance. This study is aimed to examine the root canal microorganisms on upper anterior teeth of asymptomatic apical periodontitis and ch ronic api...

  20. Push-out bond strength of different tricalcium silicate-based filling materials to root dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Henrique Stefaneli Marques

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of different triccalcium silicate cements to retrograde cavity using a push out test. Thirty maxillary central incisors were shaped using #80 hand files and sectioned transversally. Root slices were obtained from the apical 4 mm after eliminating the apical extremity. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin and positioned at 45° to the horizontal plane for preparation of root-end cavities with a diamond ultrasonic retrotip. The samples were divided into three groups according to the root-end filling material (n = 10: MTA Angelus, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. A gutta-percha cone (#80 was tugged-back at the limit between the canal and the root-end cavity. The root-end cavity was filled and the gutta-percha cone was removed after complete setting of the materials. The specimens were placed in an Instron machine with the root-end filling turned downwards. The push-out shaft was inserted in the space previously occupied by the gutta-percha cone and push out testing was performed at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. There was no statistically significant difference in resistance to push out by the materials tested (p > 0.01. MTA Angelus and ProRoot MTA showed predominantly mixed failure while Biodentine exhibited mixed and cohesive failures. The tricalcium silicate-based root-end filling materials showed similar bond strength retrograde cavity.

  1. Push-out bond strength of different tricalcium silicate-based filling materials to root dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaneli Marques, Jorge Henrique; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa; Rached-Júnior, Fuad Jacob Abi; Macedo, Luciana Martins Domingues de; Mazzi-Chaves, Jardel Francisco; Camilleri, Josette; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2018-03-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of different triccalcium silicate cements to retrograde cavity using a push out test. Thirty maxillary central incisors were shaped using #80 hand files and sectioned transversally. Root slices were obtained from the apical 4 mm after eliminating the apical extremity. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin and positioned at 45° to the horizontal plane for preparation of root-end cavities with a diamond ultrasonic retrotip. The samples were divided into three groups according to the root-end filling material (n = 10): MTA Angelus, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. A gutta-percha cone (#80) was tugged-back at the limit between the canal and the root-end cavity. The root-end cavity was filled and the gutta-percha cone was removed after complete setting of the materials. The specimens were placed in an Instron machine with the root-end filling turned downwards. The push-out shaft was inserted in the space previously occupied by the gutta-percha cone and push out testing was performed at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. There was no statistically significant difference in resistance to push out by the materials tested (p > 0.01). MTA Angelus and ProRoot MTA showed predominantly mixed failure while Biodentine exhibited mixed and cohesive failures. The tricalcium silicate-based root-end filling materials showed similar bond strength retrograde cavity.

  2. Deviations of Mesial Root Canals of Mandibular First Molar Teeth at the Apical Third: A Micro-computed Tomographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Ali; Keskin, Cangül

    2018-04-19

    The present study aimed to quantitatively analyze apical foramen deviations of mesial root canals of mandibular first molar teeth by means of micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging. Micro-CT images of the mesial roots of 109 mandibular first molar teeth with independent mesiobuccal (MB) and mesiolingual (ML) root canals were analyzed. The deviations of the apical foramina of the MB, ML, and middle mesial root canals from the anatomic apex were measured. The vertical distance between the apical foramina of each mesial root canal in relation to each other was also calculated. The distances from the apical foramina of the MB, ML, and middle mesial root canals to the anatomic apex of the mesial root were up to 2.51 mm, 3.21 mm, and 5.67 mm, respectively. There was no significant difference between the deviations of MB and ML root canals from each other (P > .05). The middle mesial root canal showed the greatest deviation compared with the MB and ML canals (P < .05). The apical foramina of mesial root canals of mandibular first molar teeth showed greater variations from each other and anatomic apices than previously reported. Clinically, the use of electronic apex locators for the detection of minor apical foramen of each mesial root canal is of the utmost important. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of the confinement of a root canal on jet impingement during endodontic irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaagen, B.; Boutsioukis, C.; Heijnen, G. L.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Versluis, M.

    2012-12-01

    During a root canal treatment the root canal is irrigated with an antimicrobial fluid, commonly performed with a needle and a syringe. Irrigation of a root canal with two different types of needles can be modeled as an impinging axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric jet. These jets are investigated experimentally with high-speed Particle Imaging Velocimetry, inside and outside the confinement (concave surface) of a root canal, and compared to theoretical predictions for these jets. The efficacy of irrigation fluid refreshment with respect to the typical reaction time of the antimicrobial fluid with a biofilm is characterized with a non-dimensional Damköhler number. The pressure that these jets induce on a wall or at the apex of the root canal is also measured. The axisymmetric jet is found to be stable and its velocity agrees with the theoretical prediction for this type of jet, however, a confinement causes instabilities to the jet. The confinement of the root canal has a pronounced influence on the flow, for both the axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric jet, by reducing the velocities by one order of magnitude and increasing the pressure at the apex. The non-axisymmetric jet inside the confinement shows a cascade of eddies with decreasing velocities, which at the apex does not provide adequate irrigation fluid refreshment.

  4. LPS levels in root canals after the use of ozone gas and high frequency electrical pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago André Fontoura de MELO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study aims to verify the effect of ozone gas (OZY® System and high frequency electric pulse (Endox® System systems on human root canals previously contaminated with Escherichia colilipopolysaccharide (LPS. Fifty single-rooted teeth had their dental crowns removed and root lengths standardized to 16 mm. The root canals were prepared up to #60 hand K-files and sterilized using gamma radiation with cobalt 60. The specimens were divided into the following five groups (n = 10 based on the disinfection protocol used: OZY® System, one 120-second-pulse (OZY 1p; OZY® System, four 24-second-pulses (OZY 4p; and Endox® System (ENDOX. Contaminated and non-contaminated canals were exposed only to apyrogenic water and used as positive (C+ and negative (C- controls, respectively. LPS (O55:B55 was administered in all root canals except those belonging to group C-. After performing disinfection, LPS samples were collected from the canals using apyrogenic paper tips. Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL was used to quantify the LPS levels, and the data obtained was analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The disinfection protocols used were unable to reduce the LPS levels significantly (p = 0.019. The use of ozone gas and high frequency electric pulses was not effective in eliminating LPS from the root canals.

  5. [Association between Bacteroides forsythus in the infected root canals and clinical symptoms of chronic apical periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-ming; Fu, Chun-hua; Zhou, Xue-dong

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of Bacteroides forsythus in root canals with chronic apical periodontitis and to determine its associations with clinical symptoms. Thirty-eight tooth root canals from 31 subjects were studied with a 16S rDNA-directed polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These teeth were classified into symptomatic and asymptomatic groups according to the clinical symptoms and signs, including spontaneous pain, percussion pain, sinus tract and swelling, respectively. Ten of the 38 root canal samples were positive for B. forsythus. The prevalence of B. forsythus was 26.3% for 38 root canals, 45.5% for spontaneous pain group, 39.1% for percussion pain group, 29.4% for sinus tract group, 42.9% for swelling group, respectively. Significant positive associations were observed between B. forsythus in infected root canals and the spontaneous pain, percussion pain, and swelling of apical periodontitis, respectively (OR=infinity, 9, 12; Papical periodontitis (OR=1.33). B. forsythus colonized in the infected root canals. It is the putative pathogen of apical periodontitis.

  6. Nonsurgical root canal therapy of large cyst-like inflammatory periapical lesions and inflammatory apical cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Louis M; Ricucci, Domenico; Lin, Jarshen; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2009-05-01

    It is a general belief that large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts caused by root canal infection are less likely to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy. Nevertheless, there is no direct evidence to support this assumption. A large cyst-like periapical lesion or an apical true cyst is formed within an area of apical periodontitis and cannot form by itself. Therefore, both large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts are of inflammatory and not of neoplastic origin. Apical periodontitis lesions, regardless of whether they are granulomas, abscesses, or cysts, fail to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy for the same reason, intraradicular and/or extraradicular infection. If the microbial etiology of large cyst-like periapical lesions and inflammatory apical true cysts in the root canal is removed by nonsurgical root canal therapy, the lesions might regress by the mechanism of apoptosis in a manner similar to the resolution of inflammatory apical pocket cysts. To achieve satisfactory periapical wound healing, surgical removal of an apical true cyst must include elimination of root canal infection.

  7. Effect of Instrument Design and Access Outlines on the Removal of Root Canal Obturation Materials in Oval-shaped Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Tuomas K; Marchesan, Melissa A; Lloyd, Adam; Seltzer, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of TRUShape (TS) instruments with ProFile Vortex Blue (VB) instruments for the removal of obturation materials during retreatment of single-canal mandibular premolars performed through 2 access outlines. Initial root canal treatment was completed through a contracted endodontic cavity (CEC) design. Canals were instrumented to an F2 ProTaper instrument, obturated with warm lateral condensation of gutta-percha with AH Plus sealer, and allowed to set for 30 days at 37°C and 100% humidity. For retreatment, specimens were divided into 2 groups (n = 24) on the basis of access outline, CEC or traditional endodontic cavity (TEC). Retreatment was initiated by using ProTaper Retreatment instruments (D1-D3). Specimens were then stratified, further divided (n = 12), and reinstrumented up to TS 40 .06v or 40 .06 VB. Irrigation was performed by using 8.25% NaOCl and QMix 2in1. Retreatment time was recorded. Teeth were sectioned and photographed, and the percentage of remaining obturation materials was measured. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance for two-factor tests (α canal surface when compared with TEC-VB, CEC-TS, and TEC-TS (P ≤ .05). None of these other combinations were different from each other (P > .05). Significantly more time was required for retreatment with CEC-TS (27.68 ± 1.4 minutes) than the other groups (P root canal surface of mandibular premolars. However, in the presence of a CEC access design, using TS instruments removed more obturating material in single-rooted, oval-shaped canals. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Root Canal Preparation Using Rotary System and Hand Instruments Assessed by Micro-Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavileci, Miranda; Hoxha, Veton; Görduysus, Ömer; Tatar, Ilkan; Laperre, Kjell; Hostens, Jeroen; Küçükkaya, Selen; Muhaxheri, Edmond

    2015-06-20

    Complete mechanical preparation of the root canal system is rarely achieved. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the root canal shaping efficacy of ProTaper rotary files and standard stainless steel K-files using micro-computed tomography. Sixty extracted upper second premolars were selected and divided into 2 groups of 30 teeth each. Before preparation, all samples were scanned by micro-computed tomography. Thirty teeth were prepared with the ProTaper system and the other 30 with stainless steel files. After preparation, the untouched surface and root canal straightening were evaluated with micro-computed tomography. The percentage of untouched root canal surface was calculated in the coronal, middle, and apical parts of the canal. We also calculated straightening of the canal after root canal preparation. Results from the 2 groups were statistically compared using the Minitab statistical package. ProTaper rotary files left less untouched root canal surface compared with manual preparation in coronal, middle, and apical sector (p<0.001). Similarly, there was a statistically significant difference in root canal straightening after preparation between the techniques (p<0.001). Neither manual nor rotary techniques completely prepared the root canal, and both techniques caused slight straightening of the root canal.

  9. Comparison of positive-pressure, passive ultrasonic, and laser-activated irrigations on smear-layer removal from the root canal surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahar-Helft, Sharonit; Sarp, Ayşe Sena Kabaş; Stabholtz, Adam; Gutkin, Vitaly; Redenski, Idan; Steinberg, Doron

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of three irrigation techniques for smear-layer removal with 17% EDTA. Cleaning and shaping the root canal system during endodontic treatment produces a smear layer and hard tissue debris. Three irrigation techniques were tested for solution infiltration of this layer: positive-pressure irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation, and laser-activated irrigation. Sixty extracted teeth were divided into six equal groups; 17% EDTA was used for 60 sec irrigation of five of the groups. The groups were as follows: Group 1, treated only with ProTaper™ F3 Ni-Ti files; Group 2, positive-pressure irrigation, with a syringe; Group 3, passive ultrasonic irrigation, inserted 1 mm short of the working length; Group 4, passive ultrasonic irrigation, inserted in the upper coronal third of the root; Group 5, Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation, inserted 1 mm short of the working length; and Group 6, Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation, inserted in the upper coronal third of the root. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the smear layer is removed most efficiently using laser-activated irrigation at low energy with 17% EDTA, inserted either at the working length or only in the coronal upper third of the root. Amounts of Ca, P, and O were not significantly different on all treated dentin surfaces. Smear-layer removal was most effective when the root canals were irrigated using Er:YAG laser at low energy with 17% EDTA solution. Interestingly, removal of the smear layer along the entire canal was similar when the laser was inserted in the upper coronal third and at 1 mm short of the working length of the root canal. This effect was not observed with the ultrasonic and positive-pressure techniques.

  10. Root canal morphology of mandibular first premolar in a Gujarati population - An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge about root canal morphology and its frequent variations can exert considerable influence on the success of endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to survey the root canal morphology of mandibular first premolar teeth in a Gujarati population by decalcification and clearing technique. Methods : One hundred thirty eight extracted mandibular first premolar teeth were collected from a Gujarati population. After decalcifying and clearing, the teeth were examined for tooth length, number of cusps and roots, number and shape of canal orifices and canal types. Results: The average length of mandibular first premolar teeth was 21.2 mm. All the teeth had 2 cusps. One hundred thirty four teeth (97.1% had one root, and just 4 teeth (2.89% had two roots. Mesial invagination of root was found in 21 teeth (15.21%. One canal orifice was found in 122 teeth (88.4% and two canal orifices in 16 teeth (11.59%. Shape of orifices was found to be round in 46 teeth (33.33%, oval in 72 teeth (52.17% and flattened ribbion in 20 teeth (14.49%. According to Vertucci′s classification, Type I canal system was found in 93 teeth (67.39%, Types II,III,IV,V,and VI in 11 teeth (7.97%, 5 teeth (3.62%, 4 teeth (2.89%, 24 teeth (17.39%, and 1 tooth (0.72% respectively. Conclusion: Mandibular first premolar teeth were mostly found to have one root and Type I canal system.

  11. Prevalence of the middle mesial canal in non surgical root canal treated mandibular first and second molars in a local military population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    or second mandibular molar), sex, and age. Materials and Methods Approximately 7, 000 dental records in paper chart format were reviewed at a...Army Post Graduate Dental School Douglas D. Lancaster, COL, DC 3 August 2016 Prevalence of the middle mesial canal in non-surgical root canal...Methods: 7000 dental records were reviewed for non-surgical root canals performed from October 1970 to October 2015. The data collected included

  12. Primary mandibular first molar with single root and single canal: a case report of a rare morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahrololoomi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Single rooted primary mandibular first molar is a rare developmental anomaly. Literatures reveal that failure of invagination of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath leads to this unusual root form. Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and anatomical variations of primary teeth can help a pediatric dentist in successful root canal treatment. Hereby, we describe two cases of primary mandibular first molars with an unusual morphology as a single root called pyramidal molar.

  13. Comparative evaluation of fracture and defect in reciproc and rotary files in severe curved root canals

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    Mahdis Bagherian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Root canal instrumentation is an important phase in root canal therapy. Since success in endodontic treatment depends on file defect and fracture, the aim of this study was to compare the evaluation of defect and fracture in rotary and reciproc files in severe curved root canals. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 60 mesial canals of human closed apex molars with more than 30° canal curvature were randomly divided into two groups. In first group M-two rotary files number# 15, 20, and 25 and in second group R25 reciproc file were used for filing, respectively. A ×8 magnifier was applied to evaluate the defect or fracture presence in each side and if it were observed, a new file would be replaced. Therefore, the number of prepared canals with each file and fractured or defective files and the place of fracture in root canal were recorded. Kaplan Meier curve and log rank test were done by using SPSS v.22. Results: In rotary group, seven and two files were fractured and defected, respectively and four files were fractured and no defect was observed in reciproc group. Although the mean of the number of prepared canals until fracture or defect in rotary and reciproc groups was 3.3 and 7.06, respectively, there were no significant differences between two systems. All file’s fractures occurred in apical regions . Conclusion: The results showed that there was no significant difference in defects or fractures of rotary and reciproc systems. Reciproc instruments can be more effective than rotary ones because the root canal preparation in rotary instruments is longer than in reciproc system.

  14. Bacterial action of carbon dioxide laser radiation in experimental dental root canals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakariasen, K.L.; Dederich, D.N.; Tulip, John; DeCoste, Sandra; Jensen, S.E.; Pickard, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of a carbon dioxide laser to sterilize the root canal of human teeth has been investigated. Three oral bacteria, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus, and three other bacteria, Bacillus cereus, Staphyloccus aureus, and Pseudomonoas aeruginosa were used as experimental organisms. Exposure of cells on glass slides to laser radiation showed there was little difference in the exposure required to kill these six organisms. Complete recovery of bacteria from the root canal was initially a problem and was only achieved when bacterial manipulations and removal were carried out in rapid succession, within 5 min of inoculation. However, the geometry of the instrumented canal and the laser alignment were major factors in achieving consistent cell death of oral bacteria in the root canals. Using sets of 10 teeth, four repeated exposures of 10 W for 1 s was found to sterilize 4 or more of the teeth

  15. Retreatment of a mandibular second premolar with two canals in two roots

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    Chiara Fossati

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To present a case of retreatment in mandibular second premolar with two canals in two roots. Summary: Locating, cleaning and shaping the entire root canal system may represent a difficult challenge particularly in mandibular premolars, because of their complex canal systems.For this reason mandibular premolars are often considered the most difficult of all teeth on which to perform successful endodontic treatment. Vertucci stated that the second premolar has one root canal at the apex in 97.5% of the teeth studied and two canals in only 2.5%.1 The following case report describes the diagnosis and retreatment of a second premolar with two canal in two roots.Key learning points: (1 The major cause of failure in root canal therapy is the inability to localize and treat all of the canals of the root canal system. (2 Mandibular premolars have complex canal systems. (3 Mandibular premolars have a high risk of missed anatomy. (4 Preoperative radiograph interpretation is essential to evaluate and detect uncommon anatomies. (5 The operating microscope and CBCT interpretation are fundamental in confirming and preventing mistakes about the configuration of mandibular premolars. Riassunto: Obiettivi: Presentare un caso clinico di ritrattamento canalare di un secondo premolare mandibolare con due canali e due radici. Riassunto: Individuare, sagomare, detergere l’intero sistema radicolare presenta una sfida difficile in ambito endodontico e in particolar modo nei premolari mandibolari per il loro complesso sistema canalare. I premolari mandibolari sono spesso considerati i denti più difficili in cui effettuare una terapia endodontica.Vertucci riscontrò che i secondi premolari mandibolari hanno una radice e un canale nel 97.5% e due canali in solo il 2.5%.1Il case report seguente descrive la diagnosi e il ritrattamento di un secondo premolare con due canali in due radici.Punti chiave di apprendimento: 1. La maggior causa di fallimento endodontico

  16. Evaluation in vitro of effects of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers irradiation on root canal wall, by stereoscopy, scanning electron micrography and thermographic camera; Avaliacao in vitro dos efeitos da irradiacao laser de Er:YAG e Nd:YAG na parede dentinaria do canal radicular, sob observacao do estereoscopio, da micrografia eletronica e da camera termografica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goya, Claudia

    2001-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate in vitro the effects of Nd:YAG laser and Er:YAG laser irradiation in the root canal wall by SEM, evaluating the apical leakage and the temperature changes during the laser irradiation. Seventy four extracted human teeth were used, they were instrumented and divided into seven groups of 10 teeth each. The teeth were evaluated through stereoscopy, by SEM, and with the thermographic camera. The Nd:YAG laser irradiation parameters were 100 mJ/p, 15 Hz, and Er:YAG laser were 160 mJ/p and 10 Hz, the irradiation was 4 times at 2 mm/sec speed, with 20 sec interval. The apical leakage was not observed in the teeth irradiated by Nd:YAG laser alone or in association with Er:YAG laser. However in the teeth irradiated only by the Er:YAG laser we observed a little leakage. By SEM observation the Nd:YAG laser irradiation showed melting and recrystallization in the dentin surface closing dentinal tubules, and in the samples irradiated by Er:Y AG laser a clean surface, opened dentinal tubules, and the combination by two lasers, showed melting covering some dentinal tubules The thermographic study found the temperature increase was not more than 6 deg C. This study showed the safety parameters applications of Er:YAG laser in association with Nd:YAG laser in root canal treatment, in order to not cause thermal damages to the periodontal tissues. (author)

  17. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of canal cleaning after canal preparation with nickel titanium files

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    Živković Slavoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Root canal preparation is the most important phase of endodontic procedure and it consists of adequate canal space cleaning and shaping. In recent years, rotary instruments and techniques have gained importance because of the great efficacy, speed and safety of the preparation procedure. Objective. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of different NiTi files on the canal wall cleaning quality, residual dentine debris and smear layer. Methods. The research was conducted on extracted human teeth in vitro conditions. Teeth were divided in 7 main groups depending on the kind of instruments used for root canal preparation: ProTaper, GT, ProFile, K-3, FlexMaster, hand ProTaper and hand GT. Root canal preparation was accomplished by crown-down technique. Prepared samples were assessed on scanning electron microscopy JEOL, JSM-6460 LV. The evaluation of dentine debris was done with 500x magnification, and the evaluation of smear layer with 1,000 times magnification. Quantitive assessment of dentine debris and smear layer was done according to the criteria of Hulsmann. Results. The least amount of debris and smear layer has been found in canals shaped with ProFile instruments, and the largest amount in canals shaped with FlexMaster instruments. Canal cleaning efficacy of hand GT and ProTaper files has been similar to cleaning efficacy of rotary NiTi files. Statistic analysis has shown a significant difference in amount of dentine debris and smear layer on the canal walls between sample groups shaped with different instruments. Conclusion. Completely clean canals have not been found in any tested group of instruments. The largest amount of debris and smear layer has been found in the apical third of all canals. The design and the type of endodontic instruments influence the efficacy of the canal cleaning.

  18. Micro-computed Tomographic Analysis of Mandibular Second Molars with C-shaped Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso-Silva, Pablo Andrés; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Gutmann, James L; del Carpio-Perochena, Aldo; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes

    2015-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the morphometric aspects of the internal anatomy of the root canal system of mandibular second molars with C-shaped canals. Fifty-two extracted second mandibular molars with C-shaped canals, fused roots, and radicular grooves were selected from a Brazilian population. The samples were scanned with a micro-computed tomographic scanner at a voxel size of 19.6 μm. The root canal cross sections were recorded as C1, C2, C3, and C4 root canal configurations according to the modified Melton classification. Morphometric parameters, including the major and minor diameters of the root canals, the aspect ratio, the roundness, and the tridimensional configuration (merging, symmetric, and asymmetric), were evaluated. The 3-dimensional reconstruction images of the teeth indicated an even distribution within the sample. The analysis of the prevalence of the different cross-sectional configurations of the C-shaped molars revealed that these were predominantly of the C4 and C3 configurations (1 mm from the apex) and the C1 and C2 configurations in the cervical third. According to the morphometric parameters, the C1 and the distal aspect of the C2 configurations exhibited the lowest roundness values and higher values for the area, major diameter, and aspect ratio in the apical third. Mandibular molars with C-shaped root canals exhibited similar distributions of symmetric, asymmetric, and merging type canals. The C1 configuration and the distal aspect of the C2 configuration exhibited the highest area values, low roundness values, and large apical diameters. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Canal shaping of different single-file systems in curved root canals

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    Maurizio D'Amario

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: This study compared maintenance of canal anatomy, occurrence of apical transportation, and working time observed after instrumentation with One Shape New Generation rotary system (Micro-Mega, with those observed after instrumentation with Reciproc (VDW and WaveOne (Dentsply-Maillefer reciprocating systems. Materials and methods: The mesial canals of 45 mandibular molars (curvature angles between 35° and 45° were selected. Specimens were randomly divided into three groups, and canal preparations were performed using One Shape, Reciproc, or WaveOne systems (size #25. A digital double radiographic technique was used to determine apical transportation and change in angle of curvature. Also, working time and instrument failures were recorded. Data were statistically analyzed. Results: During preparation, no file fractured. No statistically significant differences were found among groups. No system showed a significantly faster preparation time than others (P>0.05. All instruments maintained the original canal curvature well and were safe to use. Conclusion: Both continuous rotary instrument and reciprocating systems did not have any influence on the presence of apical transportation or caused an alteration in angle of canal curvature. Keywords: canal curvature, canal straightening, endodontics, reciprocating motion, single file instrumentation

  20. Radiographic technical quality of root canal treatment performed by a new rotary single-file system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Marco; Bassi, Cristina; Beltrami, Riccardo; Vigorelli, Paolo; Spinelli, Antonio; Cavada, Andrea; Dagna, Alberto; Chiesa, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate radiographically the technical quality of root canal filling performed by postgraduate students with a new single-file Nickel-Titanium System (F6 Skytaper Komet) in clinical practice. Records of 74 patients who had received endodontic treatment by postgraduate students at the School of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pavia in the period between September 2015 and April 2016 were collected and examined: the final sample consisted 114 teeth and 204 root canals. The quality of endodontic treatment was evaluated by examining the length of the filling in relation to the radiographic apex, the density of the obturation according to the presence of voids and the taper of root canal filling. Chi-squared analysis was used to determine statistically significant differences between the technical quality of root fillings according to tooth's type, position and curvature. The results showed that 75,49%, 82,84% and 90,69% of root filled canals had adequate length, density and taper respectively. Overall, the technical quality of root canal fillings performed by postgraduates students was acceptable in 60,78% of the cases.

  1. Evaluation of root canal morphology of human mandibular incisors in Yazd

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    Tabrizi-zadeh M. Assistant Professor

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The main objective of endodontic therapy is chemomechanical cleansing of entire pulp cavity and its complete obturation with an inert material. During this procedure, the failure of detection and inadequate cleaning of a canal will result in failed endodontic therapy. Therefore, the dentist must have enough knowledge of root canal morphology to treat a tooth successfully."nAim: The aim of this study was to determine the number and type of root canals of mandibular incisor teeth."nMaterials and Methods: In order to do this in-vitro, descriptive study, 68 non-carious mandibular incisor teethj collected from different clinics in Yazd, were immersed in indian ink, decalcified and cleared."nResults: It was found that 55.9% of the teeth had two separate canals that in 5.5% of them, the canals"nmerged before' apical foramen. In 4.4% of these samples, two separate canals existed along the whole"nroot."nConclusion: Considering high percentage of two canals in lower mandibular incisors, during access preparation, more attempts in detection of the second canal, is emphasized.

  2. Root canal treatment of pulpless immature teeth using calcium hydroxide paste. Roentgenographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, R.M.G.V.; Abbud, R.

    1986-01-01

    Calcium hydroxide paste was used as a temporary dressing and the renewal was done each three months in the root treatment of immature teeth with open apex and necrotic pulps. Clinical and radiographic controls were made to observe foraminal closure. After that, the root canals were filled, employing the conventional technique with gutta-percha cones and zinc oxide eugenol cements. The calcium hydroxide paste was applied in the apical region before the root canal filling. The follow-up was done periodically and the cases have more than two years of control. (author) [pt

  3. Apical Root Canal Morphology of Mesial Roots of Mandibular First Molar Teeth with Vertucci Type II Configuration by Means of Micro-Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleş, Ali; Keskin, Cangül

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the features of the apical root canal anatomy and its relation to the level at which 2 separate root canals merge in the mesial roots of the mandibular first molars with Vertucci type II canal configuration by using micro-computed tomography analysis. The anatomic features of the apical 3 mm of root canals in 83 mesial roots of mandibular first molar teeth were investigated by micro-computed tomography and software imaging according to the level at which 2 separate root canals merge. The most apical slice where a visible root canal was detectable was recorded as 0 level. The specimens from where 2 root canals rejoin at within 3 mm from the 0 level were then assigned to group 1 (n = 37), whereas the specimens from where root canals rejoin 3-9 mm from the 0 level were assigned to group 2 (n = 46). Data were presented by using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests, with the significance level set at 5%. In all specimens the long oval type of cross-sectional shape increased from 50.9% at 1 mm to 80.5% at 3 mm. Group 1 presented significantly higher major diameter values compared with group 2 (P  .05) between groups. Group 2 displayed significantly higher roundness values than group 1 (P < .05). A long oval root cross section of apical root canal anatomy is more prevalent in roots for which 2 root canals merge within apical 3 mm of root canals. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dilemmas pertaining to three canals in the mesiobuccal root of a maxillary second molar: a case report

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    Ankit Arora

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The mesiobuccal root of the maxillary molars is well known to pose a hindrance during endodontic therapy. Presented here is a case of a maxillary left second molar where three canals were located in its mesiobuccal root with the use of visual and diagnostic aids. Difficulties encountered during the process of unveiling the tooth's internal anatomy were discussed. The dilemmas encountered pertained to the root canal configuration, the nomenclature of the extra canals, and the justification for the presence of a third canal. The root canal configuration of 3-2-1 was confirmed for the mesiobuccal root using information gained from clinical, radiographic, and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT scan findings. This case demonstrates the need for efforts to locate extra canals in the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary molars as their internal anatomy remains a mystery.

  5. Dilemmas pertaining to three canals in the mesiobuccal root of a maxillary second molar: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Ankit; Acharya, Shashi Rashmi; Saraswathi, Muliya Vidya; Sharma, Padmaja; Ather, Amber

    2013-08-01

    The mesiobuccal root of the maxillary molars is well known to pose a hindrance during endodontic therapy. Presented here is a case of a maxillary left second molar where three canals were located in its mesiobuccal root with the use of visual and diagnostic aids. Difficulties encountered during the process of unveiling the tooth's internal anatomy were discussed. The dilemmas encountered pertained to the root canal configuration, the nomenclature of the extra canals, and the justification for the presence of a third canal. The root canal configuration of 3-2-1 was confirmed for the mesiobuccal root using information gained from clinical, radiographic, and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scan findings. This case demonstrates the need for efforts to locate extra canals in the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary molars as their internal anatomy remains a mystery.

  6. Influence of refreshment/activation cycles and temperature rise on the reaction rate of sodium hypochlorite with bovine dentine during ultrasonic activated irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, R.G.; Verhaagen, B.; Wesselink, P.R.; Versluis, Michel; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effect of multiple refreshment/activation cycles and temperature on the reaction rate of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with bovine dentine during ultrasonic activated irrigation (UAI) under laboratory conditions. Methodology The root canal walls of 24 standardized root canals in

  7. Knowledge of General Dentists of Kermanshah about Root Canal Therapy in 2012

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    Roohollah Sharifi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was conducted to analyze the knowledge of general dentists of Kermanshah about root canal therapy in 2012. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, a two-part questionnaire was designed and given to 93 general dentists in Kermanshah to complete. The first part of the questionnaire comprised of personal and professional information of the participant dentists and the second part of the questionnaire determined the awareness of the dentists about root canal therapy. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 20 using Pearson correlation coefficient, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and independent t-test. Results: A total of 84 dentists with the mean age of 39.3±7.1 completed the questionnaires. The mean for 12 correct responses was 63.3%. The highest number of correct responses (86.2% belonged to using proper intra-canal medication (calcium hydroxide and the lowest number of correct responses (41.4% was associated with the number of root canals in maxillary first molar (four canals. There was a reverse correlation between awareness and work experience (P=0.002, r=-0.337. Also, participation in retraining courses did not have significant impact on the knowledge of the dentists (P =0.82. Conclusion: General dentists have average knowledge about root canal therapy. Higher quality regular training is recommended to promote the knowledge of the dentists about endodontic therapies.

  8. Evaluation of Root Canal Preparation Using Rotary System and Hand Instruments Assessed by Micro-Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavileci, Miranda; Hoxha, Veton; Görduysus, Ömer; Tatar, Ilkan; Laperre, Kjell; Hostens, Jeroen; Küçükkaya, Selen; Muhaxheri, Edmond

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete mechanical preparation of the root canal system is rarely achieved. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the root canal shaping efficacy of ProTaper rotary files and standard stainless steel K-files using micro-computed tomography. Material/Methods Sixty extracted upper second premolars were selected and divided into 2 groups of 30 teeth each. Before preparation, all samples were scanned by micro-computed tomography. Thirty teeth were prepared with the ProTaper system and the other 30 with stainless steel files. After preparation, the untouched surface and root canal straightening were evaluated with micro-computed tomography. The percentage of untouched root canal surface was calculated in the coronal, middle, and apical parts of the canal. We also calculated straightening of the canal after root canal preparation. Results from the 2 groups were statistically compared using the Minitab statistical package. Results ProTaper rotary files left less untouched root canal surface compared with manual preparation in coronal, middle, and apical sector (protary techniques completely prepared the root canal, and both techniques caused slight straightening of the root canal. PMID:26092929

  9. Dilemmas pertaining to three canals in the mesiobuccal root of a maxillary second molar: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Ankit; Acharya, Shashi Rashmi; Saraswathi, Muliya Vidya; Sharma, Padmaja; Ather, Amber

    2013-01-01

    The mesiobuccal root of the maxillary molars is well known to pose a hindrance during endodontic therapy. Presented here is a case of a maxillary left second molar where three canals were located in its mesiobuccal root with the use of visual and diagnostic aids. Difficulties encountered during the process of unveiling the tooth's internal anatomy were discussed. The dilemmas encountered pertained to the root canal configuration, the nomenclature of the extra canals, and the justification for...

  10. Efficacy of D-RaCe and ProTaper Universal Retreatment NiTi instruments and hand files in removing gutta-percha from curved root canals - a micro-computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödig, T; Hausdörfer, T; Konietschke, F; Dullin, C; Hahn, W; Hülsmann, M

    2012-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of two rotary NiTi retreatment systems and Hedström files in removing filling material from curved root canals. Curved root canals of 57 extracted teeth were prepared using FlexMaster instruments and filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus. After determination of root canal curvatures and radii in two directions, the teeth were assigned to three identical groups (n = 19). The root fillings were removed with D-RaCe instruments, ProTaper Universal Retreatment instruments or Hedström files. Pre- and postoperative micro-CT imaging was used to assess the percentage of residual filling material as well as the amount of dentine removal. Working time and procedural errors were recorded. Data were analysed using analysis of covariance and analysis of variance procedures. D-RaCe instruments were significantly more effective than ProTaper Universal Retreatment instruments and Hedström files (P ProTaper group, four instrument fractures and one lateral perforation were observed. Five instrument fractures were recorded for D-RaCe. D-RaCe instruments were associated with significantly less residual filling material than ProTaper Universal Retreatment instruments and hand files. Hedström files removed significantly less dentine than both rotary NiTi systems. Retreatment with rotary NiTi systems resulted in a high incidence of procedural errors. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  11. Influence of root canal sealer on the radiographic appearance of filling voids in maxillary single-rooted teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodanezi, Augusto; Munhoz, Etiene Andrade; Capelozza, Ana Lúcia Álvares; Bernardineli, Norberti; Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes de; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the influence of three epoxy resin-based sealers with distinct radiopacities on the observers' ability to detect root canal filling voids during radiographic analysis. The root canals of 48 extracted maxillary canines were prepared and divided into three groups. Each group was laterally condensed with one sealer (AH Plus®, Acroseal® or a non-radiopaque sealer), and a longitudinal void was simulated in half of the specimens from each group (n=8). Buccolingual radiographs were obtained and randomly interpreted for voids by a radiologist and an endodontist in a blinded fashion. Teeth were cut and inspected under a microscope to confirm the position of void. Differences in sensitivity and specificity between groups and examiners were compared using the Fisher's Exact and McNemar tests, respectively (α=0.05). Significantly lower sensitivity levels (p<0.05) were observed in the coronal portion of fillings performed with both radiopaque sealers. Specificity values for Acroseal® were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the coronal and apical portions of fillings. The type of root canal sealer can affect the observers' ability to detect root canal filling voids during radiographic analysis of upper single-rooted teeth.

  12. Influence of root canal sealer on the radiographic appearance of filling voids in maxillary single-rooted teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Bodanezi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study compared the influence of three epoxy resin-based sealers with distinct radiopacities on the observers' ability to detect root canal filling voids during radiographic analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The root canals of 48 extracted maxillary canines were prepared and divided into three groups. Each group was laterally condensed with one sealer (AH Plus®, Acroseal® or a non-radiopaque sealer, and a longitudinal void was simulated in half of the specimens from each group (n=8. Buccolingual radiographs were obtained and randomly interpreted for voids by a radiologist and an endodontist in a blinded fashion. Teeth were cut and inspected under a microscope to confirm the position of void. Differences in sensitivity and specificity between groups and examiners were compared using the Fisher's Exact and McNemar tests, respectively (α=0.05. RESULTS: Significantly lower sensitivity levels (p<0.05 were observed in the coronal portion of fillings performed with both radiopaque sealers. Specificity values for Acroseal® were significantly higher (p<0.05 in the coronal and apical portions of fillings. CONCLUSIONS: The type of root canal sealer can affect the observers' ability to detect root canal filling voids during radiographic analysis of upper single-rooted teeth.

  13. C-shaped root canal configuration in mandibular second premolar: Report of an unusual case and its endodontic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipali Y Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The C-shaped root canal system is an aberration of the root canal system in which a characteristic fin or web connects individual canals, resulting in a C-shaped cross section. This configuration has been rarely reported in the mandibular second premolar. The only other known reported case of a C-shaped canal, with its configuration, in relation to mandibular second premolar is of an extracted tooth. The purpose of this report is to describe the diagnosis, configuration and endodontic management of C-shaped root canal in mandibular second premolar. Clinical techniques to addresses the challenges in endodontic disinfection as well as cleaning and shaping of the C-shaped canal, which is prone to endodontic mishaps, are also discussed in this case report. Reporting of this case emphasizes the need and added advantage of using the dental operating microscope hand in hand with conventional radiography in management of the C-shaped root canal configuration.

  14. Inhibition effect of calcium hydroxide point and chlorhexidine point on root canal bacteria of necrosis teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Leonard Je

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium Hydroxide point and Chlorhexidine point are new drugs for eliminating bacteria in the root canal. The points slowly and controly realease Calcium Hydroxide and Chlorhexidine into root canal. The purpose of the study was to determined the effectivity of Calcium hydroxide point (Calcium hydroxide plus point and Chlorhexidine point in eleminating the root canal bacteria of nescrosis teeth. In this study 14 subjects were divided into 2 groups. The first group was treated with Calcium hydroxide point and the second was treated with Chlorhexidine poin. The bacteriological sampling were measured with spectrofotometry. The Paired T Test analysis (before and after showed significant difference between the first and second group. The Independent T Test which analysed the effectivity of both groups had not showed significant difference. Although there was no significant difference in statistical test, the result of second group eliminate more bacteria than the first group. The present finding indicated that the use of Chlorhexidine point was better than Calcium hydroxide point in seven days period. The conclusion is Chlorhexidine point and Calcium hydroxide point as root canal medicament effectively eliminate root canal bacteria of necrosis teeth.

  15. Frequency of enterococcus faecalis in saliva and root canals with treatment failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Shan, T.; Manzoor, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    To compare the frequency of E. faecalis in the saliva and root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis due to endodontic treatment failure in the same patient. Study Design: Cross-sectional comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from Operative Dentistry Department, AFID, while laboratory processing was done at AFIP, Rawalpindi. Study duration was one year. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients, both males and females with failed endodontic treatment were selected. Saliva and root canal samples were collected from each patient, inoculated on MacKonkey agar plate and incubated at 35-37 degree C for 48 hrs. E. faecalis colonies were identified by colony morphology, gramstain, catalase, bile asculin test, arabinose fermentation and growth in 6% NaCl nutrient broth. Results: The frequency of E. faecalis in saliva was 34% and in root canal it was 58%. Frequency between the presence of E. faecalis in root canals and saliva was found to be statistically different (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The presence of E. faecalis in root canal was not associated with their presence in saliva. (author)

  16. Frequency of enterococcus faecalis in saliva and root canals with treatment failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, T.; Manzoor, M.A.; Hussain, W.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the frequency of E.faecalis in the saliva and root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis due to endodontic treatment failure Study. Design: Cross-sectional comparative. Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from Operative Dentistry department, AFID, while laboratory processing was done at AFIP, Rawalpindi. Duration of this study was one year. Patients and Method: Fifty patients, both males and females with failed endodontic treatment were selected. Saliva and root canal samples were collected from each patient, inoculated on MacKonkey agar plate and incubated at 35-370 C for 48 hours. E.faecalis colonies were identified by colony morphology, Gram stain, catalase, bile asculin test, arabinose fermentation and growth in 6% NaCl nutrient broth. Results: The frequency of E.faecalis in saliva was 34% and 58% in root canal samples. Frequency of the presence of E.faecalis in root canals and saliva was found to be statistically different (p=0.000). Conclusion: The presence of E.faecalis in root canal was not associated with their presence in saliva. (author)

  17. Root Canal Irrigation: Chemical Agents and Plant Extracts Against Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzini, Letizia; Condò, Roberta; De Dominicis, Paolo; Casaglia, Adriano; Cerroni, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are various microorganisms related to intra and extra-radicular infections and many of these are involved in persistent infections. Bacterial elimination from the root canal is achieved by means of the mechanical action of instruments and irrigation as well as the antibacterial effects of the irrigating solutions. Enterococcus faecalis can frequently be isolated from root canals in cases of failed root canal treatments. Antimicrobial agents have often been developed and optimized for their activity against endodontic bacteria. An ideal root canal irrigant should be biocompatible, because of its close contact with the periodontal tissues during endodontic treatment. Sodium hypoclorite (NaOCl) is one of the most widely recommended and used endodontic irrigants but it is highly toxic to periapical tissues. Objectives: To analyze the literature on the chemotherapeutic agent and plant extracts studied as root canal irrigants. In particularly, the study is focused on their effect on Enterococcus faecalis. Method: Literature search was performed electronically in PubMed (PubMed Central, MEDLINE) for articles published in English from 1982 to April 2015. The searched keywords were “endodontic irrigants” and “Enterococcus faecalis” and “essential oil” and “plant extracts”. Results: Many of the studied chemotherapeutic agents and plant extracts have shown promising results in vitro. Conclusion: Some of the considered phytotherapic substances, could be a potential alternative to NaOCl for the biomechanical treatment of the endodontic space. PMID:28217184

  18. Apical sealing ability of two novel root canal sealers: An ex-vivo study

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    Priyanka Setia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to compare the sealing ability of two root canal sealers viz.: Hybrid Root SEAL (Sun Medical, Tokyo, Japan and iRoot SP (Innovative BioCeramix Inc., Vancouver, Canada. Materials and Methods: A sample of 60 permanent single rooted, human maxillary central incisors of similar sizes was selected for the study. The teeth were decoronated and randomly divided into two groups viz.: Group A and Group B, comprising of thirty teeth each. In Group A, Hybrid Root SEAL and Group B, iRoot SP were used as root canal sealers along with Gutta-percha cones using lateral condensation technique to obturate the canals. After obturation roots were covered with nail paint except 2.0 mm of root and stored in 0.5% methylene blue dye for 1 week. The teeth were immersed in 10 ml of 65% nitric acid for complete dissolution and subsequently subjected to UV spectrophotometer to quantify the concentration of the dye in each sample. The data were analyzed using the unpaired t-test. Results: The mean dye leakage value in Group B (0.368 was less as compared to Group A (0.408. However, statistically the difference was nonsignificant (P = 0.053. Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference among the two groups.

  19. Shaping ability of NT Engine and McXim rotary nickel-titanium instruments in simulated root canals. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S A; Dummer, P M

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the shaping ability of NT Engine and McXim nickel-titanium rotary instruments in simulated root canals. In all, 40 canals consisting of four different shapes in terms of angle and position of curvature were prepared by a combination of NT Engine and McXim instruments using the technique recommended by the manufacturer. Part 1 of this two-part report describes the efficacy of the instruments in terms of preparation time, instrument failure, canal blockages, loss of canal length and three-dimensional canal form. Overall, the mean preparation time for all canals was 6.01 min, with canal shape having a significant effect (P Engine and McXim instruments prepared canals rapidly, with few deformations, no canal blockages and with minimal change in working length. The three-dimensional form of the canals demonstrated good flow and taper characteristics.

  20. Evaluation of the radiopacities of four different root canal sealers by digital radiographic technique

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    Özgür Özdemir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the radiopacities of four different root canal sealers and gutta-percha. MATERIALS AND METHOD: AH Plus, iRootSP, MTA Fillapex and Sealapex as root canal sealers and gutta-percha cones were tested. Standardized discs of the root canal sealers and the gutta-percha were prepared. Digital radiographs of the discs and an aluminum penetrometer were obtained by using a phosphor plate. The radiographic density of the sealers and the gutta-percha were measured by using the digital radiographic system’s own measurement tool, and equivalent aluminum thicknesses were determined by using an image editing software. Differences among radiopacities of the root canal sealers and the gutta-percha were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. RESULTS: Aluminum thickness equivalents of the radiopacity values of the samples, in descending order, were: AH Plus, Sealapex, iRootSP, MTA Fillapex and gutta-percha. No significant difference was found between the radiopacity values of AH Plus and Sealapex (p>0.05. There were statistically significant differences between these two groups (AH Plus and Sealapex and all other experimental groups (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: AH Plus and Sealapex exhibited the highest radiopacity values among tested groups. In addition, all tested materials fulfilled the minimum standard value requirements suggested by International Standardization Organization and American National Standards Institute.

  1. A comparison of the effectiveness of chloroform and eucalyptus oil in dissolving root canal sealers.

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    Schäfer, Edgar; Zandbiglari, Tannaz

    2002-05-01

    The solubility of 8 different root canal sealers in chloroform and in eucalyptus oil was compared. For standardized samples (n=12), ring molds were filled with mixed sealers based on epoxy resin, silicone, calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide-eugenol, glass ionomer, and polyketone. These samples were immersed in chloroform or eucalyptus oil for 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 20 minutes. Then, the mean weight loss was determined and statistically analyzed. With the exception of the silicone, all the sealers showed significantly higher solubilities (P <.05) in chloroform than in eucalyptus oil. Epoxy resin was the most soluble sealer in chloroform. In eucalyptus oil, calcium hydroxide, and zinc oxide-eugenol showed the highest solubility. Under the conditions of this study, chloroform was a far more effective solvent of root canal sealers than eucalyptus oil. Because of the potential hazards of chloroform, further studies on the dissolution of root canal sealers in different solvents seem to be necessary.

  2. Nd:YAG Lasers Treating of Carious Lesion and Root Canal In Vitro

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    Danqing Xia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a transmissible bacterial disease process, with cavities at the end, and caused by acids from bacterial metabolism. The essence of dental treatment is to clean and disinfect bacterial contamination from the tooth. In this work, we tried to demonstrate the cleaning and disinfecting effects of Nd:YAG laser irradiation on dental carious lesion and root canal in vitro. Acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG lasers were employed to treat caries lesion and the root canal, respectively. Results showed that acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous Nd:YAG laser irradiation and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG laser irradiation could rapidly clean decayed material and bacterial contamination from dental carious lesion and the narrow tail end of root canal with minimally invasive in vitro, respectively. It was concluded that acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous laser irradiation may be a rapid and effective alternative caries treatment, and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG laser irradiation may be an effective method for canal cleaning and disinfecting during root canal therapy.

  3. Effectiveness of castor oil extract on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Chung, Adriana; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of castor oil extract used as an irrigating solution on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals. Sixty single-rooted teeth were prepared (using castor oil extract as irrigating solution) and divided into five groups (n = 12): Group 1 samples were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), Group 2 samples were treated with polymyxin B, Group 3 samples were treated with Ca(OH)2 and 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), and Group 4 samples were treated with castor oil extract. A control group used physiological saline solution as an irrigant. Canal content samples were collected at four different times: immediately after instrumentation, seven days after instrumentation, after 14 days of intracanal medication, and seven days after removal of intracanal medication. A plating method was used to assess antimicrobial activity and the quantification of endotoxins was evaluated by the chromogenic Limulus lysate assay. Data were submitted to ANOVA and a Dunn test (a = 5%). Irrigation with castor oil extract decreased E. coli counts but had no effect on the level of endotoxins. Samples taken seven days after removal of medication revealed a significant reduction in endotoxin levels in Groups 3 and 4. Compared to the saline solution irrigation, castor oil extract decreased microorganism counts in root canals immediately after canal preparation. None of the medications used completely eliminated endotoxins in the root canal.

  4. Premolar root and canal variation in extant non-human hominoidea.

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    Moore, N Collin; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Skinner, Matthew M

    2015-08-11

    The premolar sub-cervical region in four non-human extant ape genera are examined to: 1) define a classification scheme for the premolar root system in order to rigorously characterize, quantify and document variation in root and canal, form, number and configuration; 2) compare this variation within and between genera; and 3) test the hypotheses that sex and size (i.e., the "size/number continuum," Shields, ) of the premolar are determinants of root/canal form and/or number. Microtomography and 3D visualization software are utilized to examine a large sample of Hylobates, Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo (n = 951 teeth). Each premolar root system is examined to ascertain the expected level of variability for each taxon. Cervical surface area (mm 2 ) serves as a metric proxy for tooth size. A Chi-square test of independence is used to assess for variability differences between and within each taxon, and Mann-Whitney U tests are employed to assess the predicted relationship between tooth size and variation within each taxon. Our findings indicate that root and canal configurations, non-metric root traits and tooth size can distinguish between extant ape genera. Within the four ape taxa, premolar size variation is generally, but not always, correlated with canal/root number. Our results indicate that males and females within genera differ in tooth size but not in canal/root form and number. We report previously undocumented variation in the study taxa. Our results are discussed within the context of Miocene Apes as well as the developmental and systematic implications. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Evaluation of complications of root canal treatment performed by undergraduate dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlRahabi, Mothanna K

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the technical quality of root canal treatment (RCT) and detected iatrogenic errors in an undergraduate dental clinic at the College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia. Dental records of 280 patients who received RCT between 2013 and 2016 undertaken by dental students were investigated by retrospective chart review. Root canal obturation was evaluated on the basis of the length of obturation being ≤2 mm from the radiographic apex, with uniform radiodensity and good adaptation to root canal walls. Inadequate root canal obturation included cases containing procedural errors such as furcal perforation, ledge, canal transportation, strip perforation, root perforation, instrument separation, voids in the obturation, or underfilling or overfilling of the obturation. In 193 (68.9%) teeth, RCT was adequate and without procedural errors. However, in 87 (31.1%) teeth, RCT was inadequate and contained procedural errors. The frequency of procedural errors in the entire sample was 31.1% as follows: underfilling, 49.9%; overfilling, 24.1%; voids, 12.6%; broken instruments, 9.2%; apical perforation, 2.3%; and root canal transportation, 2.3%. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the type or frequency of procedural errors between the fourth- and fifth-year students. Lower molars (43.1%) and upper incisors (19.2%) exhibited the highest and lowest frequencies of procedural errors, respectively. The technical quality of RCT performed by undergraduate dental students was classified as 'adequate' in 68.9% of the cases. There is a need for improvement in the training of students at the preclinical and clinical levels.

  6. Root canal shaping using rotary nickel-titanium files in preclinical dental education in Turkey.

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    Ünal, Gül Çelik; Maden, Murat; Orhan, Ekim Onur; Sarıtekin, Erdal; Teke, Anıl

    2012-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the ability of a group of third-year dental students without any endodontic clinical experience to use the ProTaper Instruments (Dentsply Maillefer) to decrease the amount of straightening of curved canals on human molar teeth and to determine the incidence of instrument fractures and instrumentation time. Thirty-one undergraduate dental students in Turkey received a training session. The students prepared a total of 144 root canals in human mandibular or maxillary molar teeth with ProTaper. Fifty-six teeth were excluded due to unreadable image, misinformation, or straight or severe curve. Using pre- and post-preparation digital radiographs, the straightening of curved root canals was investigated. Loss of working length and incidence of fracture were also noted. A total of eighty-eight curved root canals were selected. Mesiobuccal or mesiolingual roots with curvatures of between 20° and 43° as assessed by Schneider's method and working length of between 15 mm and 22.5 mm were included in the study. The means of the curved root canals before and after the instrumentation were 29.5° ± 6° and 27° ± 6.3°, respectively. The means of the working length before and after the instrumentation were 19 mm ± 2.1 mm and 18.3 mm ± 1.9 mm, respectively. A statistically significant difference between straightening of curved root canals and loss of working length was found between before and after instrumentation (psession.

  7. The antimicrobial effectiveness of 25% propolis extract in root canal irrigation of primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Manjesh Kumar; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Khanna, Richa; Agarwal, Jyotsna

    2014-01-01

    The choice of irrigating solution used in root canals of primary teeth is complicated by their complex morphology and paucity of associated literature. Propolis is a natural product that has gained interest in this context due to its antibacterial effectiveness against several endodontic pathogens. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of water-soluble 25% propolis extract against microorganisms present in root canals of primary teeth during endodontic procedures. The child patients in the age group of 4-7 years with radiographic evidence of carious pulp exposure were included in the study. Definitive selection was done after gaining access into the pulp chamber and root canals of the selected teeth. The clinical and radiographic evidence of pathosis was ruled out for inclusion in the study. The selected teeth were divided into two groups randomly. In Group A 0.9% isotonic saline and in Group B 25% extract water-soluble propolis were used as irrigating solution, respectively. The bacterial samples were collected both pre- and post-irrigation and were transferred for microbial assay. STAISTISTICAL ANALYSIS: Wilcoxon matched signed rank test was used to compare the pre-and post-irrigation bacterial counts. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the mean change (pre-post) in bacterial colony counts of groups in the study. Antimicrobial effectiveness of 25% water-soluble extract of propolis in the root canals of primary teeth was confirmed in the present study. The reduction in the mean bacterial colony counts of all the isolated bacteria was noticed higher in Group B than Group A. The results of the present study have confirmed that the antibacterial effectiveness of water-soluble extract of propolis in the root canals of primary teeth in vivo. Considering the low toxicity concerns and antibacterial effectiveness, water-soluble extract of 25% propolis can be advocated as a root canal irrigant in endodontic treatment of primary teeth.

  8. Predictors, prevention, and management of postoperative pain associated with nonsurgical root canal treatment: A systematic review

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    Mothanna K. AlRahabi, PhD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative pain after root canal treatment can be reduced by applying recent advances in endodontic techniques and equipment. This systematic review includes current knowledge about pain after nonsurgical root canal treatment, including predictors, related factors, effects of recent advances, and management. A literature search was performed using the PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library databases for articles published between 1990 and 2016. Search keywords included postoperative pain, nonsurgical treatment, single visit, recent advances in endodontics, and management of postoperative pain with endodontic treatment. Only original research studies were included; editorials, reviews, brief notes, conference proceedings, and letters to the editor were excluded. The initial search yielded 4941 articles, which were assessed and filtered using the selection criteria. Sixty-five studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The findings showed that pain after nonsurgical root canal treatment occurred in 3–69.3% of patients. Microorganisms were identified as the primary contributors to postoperative pain, and there was no significant difference in postoperative pain between single- and multiple-visit treatments. Postoperative pain after root canal treatment ranges from mild to moderate and occurs even after optimally performed procedures. Furthermore, adequate management of postoperative pain is often considered an indicator of clinical excellence. Application of recently developed endodontic techniques and devices will reduce postoperative pain. Furthermore, a flexible, severity-based drug administration plan can be used to control and manage pain after root canal treatment. Application of the current research findings will reduce pain following root canal treatment and improve patient outcomes.

  9. Clinical effect of calcium hydroxide paste combined with triple antibiotic paste on root canal disinfection

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    Chen QU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the efficacy in disinfection and pain control of calcium hydroxide paste and triple antibiotic paste (ornidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline used individually or jointly for root canal disinfection. Methods Two hundred and thirty-five patients with chronic apical periodontitis (235 teeth were involved in the present study and divided into 2 groups: fistula group (n=118 and no fistula group (n=117. Each group was then randomly divided into 4 subgroups: calcium hydroxide paste group, triple antibiotic paste group, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste group, and camphor phenol group. After regular root canal preparation, root canals of patients in 4 groups were filled with tiny paper ends impregnated with fore 4 different drugs respectively. Visual analogue scales (VAS of pain were given to the patients with a guide for filling the scale. One week later, both the data of the scales and the effects of root canal disinfection were recorded and analyzed. Results Seven days after treatment, the clinical efficacy of calcium hydroxide paste, triple antibiotic paste and calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste was similar (P>0.05 either in fistula group or in no fistula group, but all better than that of camphor phenol (P<0.05. VAS score analysis showed that, at least on the first 3 days after sealing medicine in the root canal, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste achieved better result of pain control than the other three groups (P<0.05 no matter with or without fistula. Conclusions  Calcium hydroxide paste, triple antibiotic paste, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste are effective in treatment of chronic apical periodontitis whether with or without fistula. However, the combined use of calcium hydroxide and three antibiotic pastes is better for controlling the pain after root canal preparation than other treatments, which is therefore worthy of clinical application. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.02.12

  10. Evaluation of the delivery of mesenchymal stem cells into the root canal space of necrotic immature teeth after clinical regenerative endodontic procedure.

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    Lovelace, Tyler W; Henry, Michael A; Hargreaves, Kenneth M; Diogenes, Anibal

    2011-02-01

    Immature teeth with open apices treated with conventional nonsurgical root canal treatment often have a poor prognosis as a result of the increased risk of fracture and susceptibility to recontamination. Regenerative endodontics represents a new treatment modality that focuses on reestablishment of pulp vitality and continued root development. This clinical procedure relies on the intracanal delivery of a blood clot (scaffold), growth factors (possibly from platelets and dentin), and stem cells. However, to date, the clinical presence of stem cells in the canal space after this procedure has not been demonstrated. The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate whether regenerative endodontic procedures are able to deliver stem cells into the canal space of immature teeth in young patients and to identify the possible tissue origin for these cells. After informed consent, the first appointment consisted of NaOCl irrigation and treatment with a triple antibiotic paste. One month later, the root canal space was irrigated with sterile saline, and bleeding was evoked with collection of samples on paper points. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry were conducted to compare the gene transcripts and proteins found in the root canal sample with levels found in the systemic circulation. Molecular analyses of blood collected from the canal system indicated the significant accumulation of transcripts for the stem cell markers CD73 and CD105 (up to 600-fold), compared with levels found in the systemic blood. Furthermore, this effect was selective because there was no change in expression of the differentiation markers ALK-P, DSPP, ZBTB16, and CD14. Histologic analyses demonstrated that the delivered cells expressed both CD105 and STRO-1, markers for a subpopulation of mesenchymal stem cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the evoked-bleeding step in regenerative procedures triggers the significant accumulation of

  11. An In Vitro Study of the Number of Distal Roots and Canals in mandibular First Molars in Iranian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmi, Hasan; Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Hooshyar, Mohsen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the number of distal roots and canals in mandibular first molars and their internal anatomy radiographically within Iranian population. A total of 310 distal roots of mandibular first molars were incorporated in this study and evaluated in terms of number of roots and number and types of canals. Root canal systems were studied in vitro by means of radiography and based on Vertucci's classifications. It was shown that 4.5% of the teeth in this study had two distal roots, of which, 100% indicated type I for both distobuccal and distolingual roots. Among all the teeth, 43.2% had two canals, 24.2% two apical foramina, and 38.7% two orifices in their distal roots. According to Vertucci's classification 54.9% of the teeth were type I, 19% type II, 1.9% type III, 14.2% type IV, 4.2% type V, 1% type VI, 0.3% type VII and 0% type VIII. In as many as 43.2% of all teeth assessed in this study, bicanaled distal roots were observed, dentists are always recommended to search for the second canal in distal roots of mandibular first molars. In case the second canal in the distal root is missed, failure of endodontic treatment will be anticipated. A rectangular type access cavity design allows better visualization and negotiation of the probable second canals within the distal roots of mandibular first molars.

  12. Management of curved root canals in endodontics: clinical case of retreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses Guzman, Jose Pablo

    2005-01-01

    The management of curved root canals in endodontics therapy has required time, patience and skill of the operator, and lots collaboration by the patient. Proper cleaning, disinfection, conformation and root canal filling, in most cases, has prevented the appearance of lesions of bacterial origin to apical or maintenance of these lesions in teeth that are portrayed level. A clinical case is described of retreatment of a first mandibular molar by conventional endodontic treatment with their respective steps, to achieve signs of tissue repair at the apical level. (author) [es

  13. Computed tomography evaluation of rotary systems on the root canal transportation and centering ability

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    Pagliosa, Andre; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Silva-Souza, Yara Teresinha Correa; Alfredo, Edson, E-mail: ysousa@unaerp.br [Universidade de Ribeirao Preto (UNAERP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damiao; Versiani, Marco Aurelio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odoentologia

    2015-03-01

    The endodontic preparation of curved and narrow root canals is challenging, with a tendency for the prepared canal to deviate away from its natural axis. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by cone-beam computed tomography, the transportation and centering ability of curved mesiobuccal canals in maxillary molars after biomechanical preparation with different nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary systems. Forty teeth with angles of curvature ranging from 20° to 40° and radii between 5.0 mm and 10.0 mm were selected and assigned into four groups (n = 10), according to the biomechanical preparative system used: Hero 642 (HR), Liberator (LB), ProTaper (PT), and Twisted File (TF). The specimens were inserted into an acrylic device and scanned with computed tomography prior to, and following, instrumentation at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the root apex. The canal degree of transportation and centering ability were calculated and analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (α = 0.05). The results demonstrated no significant difference (p > 0.05) in shaping ability among the rotary systems. The mean canal transportation was: -0.049 ± 0.083 mm (HR); -0.004 ± 0.044 mm (LB); -0.003 ± 0.064 mm (PT); -0.021 ± 0.064 mm (TF). The mean canal centering ability was: -0.093 ± 0.147 mm (HR); -0.001 ± 0.100 mm (LB); -0.002 ± 0.134 mm (PT); -0.033 ± 0.133 mm (TF). Also, there was no significant difference among the root segments (p > 0.05). It was concluded that the Hero 642, Liberator, ProTaper, and Twisted File rotary systems could be safely used in curved canal instrumentation, resulting in satisfactory preservation of the original canal shape. (author)

  14. Computed tomography evaluation of rotary systems on the root canal transportation and centering ability

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    André PAGLIOSA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : The endodontic preparation of curved and narrow root canals is challenging, with a tendency for the prepared canal to deviate away from its natural axis. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by cone-beam computed tomography, the transportation and centering ability of curved mesiobuccal canals in maxillary molars after biomechanical preparation with different nickel-titanium (NiTi rotary systems. Forty teeth with angles of curvature ranging from 20° to 40° and radii between 5.0 mm and 10.0 mm were selected and assigned into four groups (n = 10, according to the biomechanical preparative system used: Hero 642 (HR, Liberator (LB, ProTaper (PT, and Twisted File (TF. The specimens were inserted into an acrylic device and scanned with computed tomography prior to, and following, instrumentation at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the root apex. The canal degree of transportation and centering ability were calculated and analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (α = 0.05. The results demonstrated no significant difference (p > 0.05 in shaping ability among the rotary systems. The mean canal transportation was: -0.049 ± 0.083 mm (HR; -0.004 ± 0.044 mm (LB; -0.003 ± 0.064 mm (PT; -0.021 ± 0.064 mm (TF. The mean canal centering ability was: -0.093 ± 0.147 mm (HR; -0.001 ± 0.100 mm (LB; -0.002 ± 0.134 mm (PT; -0.033 ± 0.133 mm (TF. Also, there was no significant difference among the root segments (p > 0.05. It was concluded that the Hero 642, Liberator, ProTaper, and Twisted File rotary systems could be safely used in curved canal instrumentation, resulting in satisfactory preservation of the original canal shape.

  15. Computed tomography evaluation of rotary systems on the root canal transportation and centering ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliosa, Andre; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Silva-Souza, Yara Teresinha Correa; Alfredo, Edson; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damiao; Versiani, Marco Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    The endodontic preparation of curved and narrow root canals is challenging, with a tendency for the prepared canal to deviate away from its natural axis. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by cone-beam computed tomography, the transportation and centering ability of curved mesiobuccal canals in maxillary molars after biomechanical preparation with different nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary systems. Forty teeth with angles of curvature ranging from 20° to 40° and radii between 5.0 mm and 10.0 mm were selected and assigned into four groups (n = 10), according to the biomechanical preparative system used: Hero 642 (HR), Liberator (LB), ProTaper (PT), and Twisted File (TF). The specimens were inserted into an acrylic device and scanned with computed tomography prior to, and following, instrumentation at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the root apex. The canal degree of transportation and centering ability were calculated and analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (α = 0.05). The results demonstrated no significant difference (p > 0.05) in shaping ability among the rotary systems. The mean canal transportation was: -0.049 ± 0.083 mm (HR); -0.004 ± 0.044 mm (LB); -0.003 ± 0.064 mm (PT); -0.021 ± 0.064 mm (TF). The mean canal centering ability was: -0.093 ± 0.147 mm (HR); -0.001 ± 0.100 mm (LB); -0.002 ± 0.134 mm (PT); -0.033 ± 0.133 mm (TF). Also, there was no significant difference among the root segments (p > 0.05). It was concluded that the Hero 642, Liberator, ProTaper, and Twisted File rotary systems could be safely used in curved canal instrumentation, resulting in satisfactory preservation of the original canal shape. (author)

  16. Root canal debris removal using different irrigating needles: An SEM study

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    Sheetal Ghivari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to compare the efficacy of three irrigating needle designs in removal of debris from different parts of the root canal. Materials and Methods: Thirty human maxillary canines were prepared using HERO Shaper rotary system and irrigated with 1 ml of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl after each instrument change. Three 25-gauge irrigation needle designs - brush-covered Navi Tip FX (Group I, side-vented needle RC Twents (Group II and single-beveled (Group III irrigating needles - were tested for their efficiency in debris removal in three different parts of the root canal (n=10 canals per group. Following instrumentation, the roots were vertically sectioned and divided into coronal, middle and apical thirds for observation under scanning electron microscope (×200 magnification. Debris on the canal wall was evaluated by using a four-scale scoring system described by Paque and his co-workers. Results: The canals irrigated with brush-covered needle Navi Tip FX (Group I showed lower average debris score, indicating greater removal of debris in coronal third as compared to middle and apical thirds, whereas the canals irrigated with side-vented needle (Group II and single-beveled needle (Group III exhibited lower average score in the middle third than coronal and apical thirds. All the three needle designs exhibited higher debris score in apical third of the root canal. Tukey multiple comparisons test was applied at a significance level of P>0.05. A statistically significant difference (P<0.05 was observed in the debris removal in the coronal and middle thirds of root canals irrigated with brush-covered Navi Tip FX (Group I and side-vented (Group II needles, respectively, when compared with other needle design groups. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that all the needle designs tested were effective in certain regions of the root canal with apical third uncleaned. Side-vented needle by

  17. Computed tomography assessment of the efficiency of different techniques for removal of root canal filling material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'agnol, Cristina; Barletta, Fernando Branco; Hartmann, Mateus Silveira Martins

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of different techniques for removal of filling material from root canals, using computed tomography (CT). Sixty mesial roots from extracted human mandibular molars were used. Root canals were filled and, after 6 months, the teeth were randomly assigned to 3 groups, according to the root-filling removal technique: Group A - hand instrumentation with K-type files; Group B - reciprocating instrumentation with engine-driven K-type files; and Group C rotary instrumentation with engine-driven ProTaper system. CT scans were used to assess the volume of filling material inside the root canals before and after the removal procedure. In both moments, the area of filling material was outlined by an experienced radiologist and the volume of filling material was automatically calculated by the CT software program. Based on the volume of initial and residual filling material of each specimen, the percentage of filling material removed from the root canals by the different techniques was calculated. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and chi-square test for linear trend (α=0.05). No statistically significant difference (p=0.36) was found among the groups regarding the percent means of removed filling material. The analysis of the association between the percentage of filling material removal (high or low) and the proposed techniques by chi-square test showed statistically significant difference (p=0.015), as most cases in group B (reciprocating technique) presented less than 50% of filling material removed (low percent removal). In conclusion, none of the techniques evaluated in this study was effective in providing complete removal of filling material from the root canals. (author)

  18. Computed tomography assessment of the efficiency of different techniques for removal of root canal filling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' agnol, Cristina; Barletta, Fernando Branco [Lutheran University of Brazil, Canoas, RS (Brazil). Dental School. Dept. of Dentistry and Endodontics]. E-mail: fbarletta@terra.com.br; Hartmann, Mateus Silveira Martins [Uninga Dental School, Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil). Postgraduate Program in Dentistry

    2008-07-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of different techniques for removal of filling material from root canals, using computed tomography (CT). Sixty mesial roots from extracted human mandibular molars were used. Root canals were filled and, after 6 months, the teeth were randomly assigned to 3 groups, according to the root-filling removal technique: Group A - hand instrumentation with K-type files; Group B - reciprocating instrumentation with engine-driven K-type files; and Group C rotary instrumentation with engine-driven ProTaper system. CT scans were used to assess the volume of filling material inside the root canals before and after the removal procedure. In both moments, the area of filling material was outlined by an experienced radiologist and the volume of filling material was automatically calculated by the CT software program. Based on the volume of initial and residual filling material of each specimen, the percentage of filling material removed from the root canals by the different techniques was calculated. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and chi-square test for linear trend ({alpha}=0.05). No statistically significant difference (p=0.36) was found among the groups regarding the percent means of removed filling material. The analysis of the association between the percentage of filling material removal (high or low) and the proposed techniques by chi-square test showed statistically significant difference (p=0.015), as most cases in group B (reciprocating technique) presented less than 50% of filling material removed (low percent removal). In conclusion, none of the techniques evaluated in this study was effective in providing complete removal of filling material from the root canals. (author)

  19. Root Canal Cleaning Efficacy of Rotary and Hand Files Instrumentation in Primary Molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari Moghaddam, Kiumars; Mehran, Majid; Farajian Zadeh, Hamideh

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pulpectomy of primary teeth is commonly carried out with hand files and broaches; a tricky and time consuming procedure. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the cleaning efficacy and time taken for instrumentation of deciduous molars using hand K-files and Flex Master rotary system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 68 canals of 23 extracted primary molars with at least two third intact roots and 7-12 mm length were selected. After preparing an access cavity, K-file size #15 was introduced into the root canal and India ink was injected with an insulin syringe. Sixty samples were randomly divided in to experimental groups in group I (n=30), root canals were prepared with hand K-files; in group II (n=30), rotary Flex Master files were used for instrumentation, and in group III 8 remained samples were considered as negative controls. After clearing and root sectioning, the removal of India ink from cervical, middle, and apical thirds was scored. Data was analyzed using student's T-test and Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between experimental groups cleaning efficacy at the cervical, middle and apical root canal thirds. Only the coronal third scored higher in the hand instrumented group (PInstrumentation with Flex Master rotary files was significantly less time consuming (Protary technique. PMID:23940486

  20. A scanning electron microscopic evaluation of different root canal irrigation regimens Avaliação por microscopia eletrônica de varredura de diferentes regimes irrigantes no canal radicular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Medici Mônika

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of endodontic irrigants in removing the smear layer from instrumented root canal walls using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The endodontic irrigants used were: 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl; 1% NaOCl mixed to 17% EDTAC; 2% chlorhexidine gel; and Ricinus communis gel. Photomicrographs of the middle and apical thirds were evaluated with the aid of the Fotoscore - v. 2.0 software. The results indicated that the mixture of sodium hypochlorite and EDTAC completely removed the smear layer from dentinal walls. The other endodontic irrigants were not as efficient in cleansing the root canals.A proposta deste estudo foi avaliar, por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, a efetividade dos irrigantes endodônticos na remoção da "smear layer" das paredes dos canais radiculares instrumentados. Os irrigantes endodônticos utilizados foram: solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%; solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1% misturado ao EDTAC a 17%, gel de clorexidina a 2% e gel de Ricinus communis. Fotomicrografias dos terços médio e apical foram avaliadas com o auxílio do software Fotoscore - versão 2.0. Os resultados indicaram que a mistura da solução de hipoclorito de sódio e EDTAC removeu eficientemente a "smear layer" das paredes dentinárias. Os demais irrigantes endodônticos não foram tão eficientes na limpeza dos canais.

  1. The accuracy of the radiographic method in root canal length measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Eun Young; Park, Chang Seo

    1998-01-01

    For the successful endodontic treatment, root canal should be cleaned thoroughly by accurate mechanical and chemical canal preparation and sealed completely with canal filling material without damaging the periapical tissues. The accuracy of the root canal length measurement is a prerequisite for the success of the endodontic treatment, and the root canal length is often determined by the standard periapical radiographs and digital tactile sense. In this study, the accuracy and the clinical usefulness of Digora, an intraoral digital imaging processor and the conventional standard radiographs were compared by measuring the length from the top of the file to the root apex. 30 single rooted premolars were invested in a uniformly sized blocks and No.25 K-file was inserted into and fixed in each canal. Each block was placed in equal distance and position to satisfy the principle of the bisecting angle and paralleling techniques and Digora system's image and standard periapical radiographs were taken. Each radiograph was examined by 3 different observers by measuring the length from top of the file to the root apex and each data was compared and analyzed. The results were as follows; 1. In the bisecting angle technique, the average difference between the Digora system and standard periapical radiograph was 0.002 mm and the standard deviation was 0.341 mm which showed no statistically significant difference between the two systems (p>0.05). Also, in the paralleling technique, the average difference between these two system was 0.007 mm and the standard deviation was 0.323 mm which showed no statistically significant difference between the two systems (p>0.05). 2. In Digora system, the average difference between the bisecting angle and paralleling technique was -0.336 mm and the standard deviation was 0.472 mm which showed a statistically significant difference between the two techniques (p 0.05). In conclusion, the determination of the root canal length by using the

  2. Unusual Root Canal Morphology of the Maxillary Second Molar: A Case Report

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    Neslihan Şımşek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This clinical case report presents the successful endodontic treatment of a maxillary second molar that has a mandibular molar-like anatomy with no palatal root and with each of its roots containing two separate root canals. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT was used to confirm this unusual anatomy. Methods. A 34-year-old male patient was referred to the Department of Endodontics at Inonu University’s Faculty of Dentistry because of severe pain in his right maxillary second molar. Clinical and radiographic examinations identified unusual roots and root canals anatomy, and CBCT was planned in order to understand the nature of these variations. Cleaning and shaping procedures were performed using the crown down technique with Sybron Endo (Glendora, CA, USA rotary instruments, and endodontic treatment was completed with gutta-percha cones and AH Plus resin sealers using the cold lateral compaction technique. Conclusions. The maxillary second molar exhibits aberrations and variations in terms of the numbers and configurations of its roots and root canals, and CBCT can be a useful imaging technique in endodontics.

  3. Cleaning and shaping curved root canals: Mtwo® vs ProTaper® instruments, a lab comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzekanani Maryam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare root canal preparation in curved canals in molar teeth with the rotary NiTi Mtwo and ProTaper systems in terms of canal shape and smear layer. Materials and Methods: Mesiobuccal canals of 60 molar teeth with angles of curvature between 25 and 35 degrees were prepared with a torque controlled low speed engine; 30 canals for each system. Each individual instrument was used to prepare four root canals and the time required for preparation was recorded. Standardized radiographs were taken before and following instrumentation and used to determine changes in canal curvature. Results: There was no significant difference in preparation time between the two systems. No instruments separated during use. The Mtwo system gave a statistically smaller change in canal curvature and thus was better for maintaining the original shape of the root canal, with less transportation (P less than 0.05. The greatest difference was seen for maxillary molar teeth. When prepared root canals were examined by SEM there was no difference between the two systems at the coronal, middle or apical thirds. Conclusion: Overall, the results of this study suggest that Mtwo instruments are preferable for situations where canals are curved, particularly for maxillary molars.

  4. Sonochemical and high-speed optical characterization of cavitation generated by an ultrasonically oscillating dental file in root canal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, R.G.; Verhaagen, B.; Fernandez Rivas, D.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Versluis, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonically Activated Irrigation makes use of an ultrasonically oscillating file in order to improve the cleaning of the root canal during a root canal treatment. Cavitation has been associated with these oscillating files, but the nature and characteristics of the cavitating bubbles were not yet

  5. An in vitro comparison of root canal transportation by reciproc file with and without glide path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarimoghadam, Kiumars; Daryaeian, Mohammad; Ramazani, Nahid

    2014-09-01

    The aim of ideal canal preparation is to prevent iatrogenic aberrations such as transportation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the root canal transportation by Reciproc file with and without glide path. Thirty acrylic-resin blocks with a curvature of 60° and size#10 (2% taper) were assigned into two groups (n= 15). In group 1, the glide path was performed using stainless steel k-files size#10 and 15 at working length In group 2, canals were prepared with Reciproc file system at working length. By using digital imaging software (AutoCAD 2008), the pre-instrumentation and post-instrumentation digital images were superimposed over, taking the landmarks as reference points. Then the radius of the internal and external curve of the specimens was calculated at three α, β and γ points (1mm to apex as α, 3mm to apex as β, and 5mm to apex as γ). The data were statically analyzed using the independent T-test and Mann-Whitney U test by SPSS version 16. Glide path was found significant for only external curve in the apical third of the canal; that is, 5mm to apex (P=0.005). But in the other third, canal modification was not significant (P> 0.008). Canal transportation in the apical third of the canal seems to be significantly reduced when glide path is performed using reciprocating files.

  6. Aetiology, incidence and morphology of the C-shaped root canal system and its impact on clinical endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, A; Ziegler, A; Higuchi, N; Nakata, K; Nakamura, H; Ohno, N

    2014-01-01

    The C-shaped root canal constitutes an unusual root morphology that can be found primarily in mandibular second permanent molars. Due to the complexity of their structure, C-shaped root canal systems may complicate endodontic interventions. A thorough understanding of root canal morphology is therefore imperative for proper diagnosis and successful treatment. This review aims to summarize current knowledge regarding C-shaped roots and root canals, from basic morphology to advanced endodontic procedures. To this end, a systematic search was conducted using the MEDLINE, BIOSIS, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Web of Science, PLoS and BioMed Central databases, and many rarely cited articles were included. Furthermore, four interactive 3D models of extracted teeth are introduced that will allow for a better understanding of the complex C-shaped root canal morphology. In addition, the present publication includes an embedded best-practice video showing an exemplary root canal procedure on a tooth with a pronounced C-shaped root canal. The survey of this unusual structure concludes with a number of suggestions concerning future research efforts. PMID:24483229

  7. Comparison of Endoflas and Zinc oxide Eugenol as root canal filling materials in primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Rewal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc oxide eugenol has long been the material of choice of pediatric dentists worldwide, although it fails to meet the ideal requirements of root canal filling material for primary teeth. Endoflas, a mixture of zinc oxide eugenol, calcium hydroxide, and iodoform, can be considered to be an effective root canal filling material in primary teeth as compared with zinc oxide eugenol. This study was carried out to compare zinc oxide eugenol with endoflas for pulpectomy in primary dentition. Aim: The objective of the study was to compare clinically and radiographically success rates of zinc oxide eugenol with endoflas for the root canal filling of primary teeth at 3, 6, and 9 months. Design: Fifty primary molars were included in the study with 26 teeth in Group I (Endoflas and 24 in Group II (zinc oxide eugenol. A single visit pulpectomy was carried out. Results: The overall success rate of zinc oxide eugenol was 83% whereas 100% success was found in the case of endoflas. The obtained results were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test. The difference in the success rate between the two was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Endoflas has shown to have better results than zinc oxide eugenol. It should therefore be the material of choice for root canal treatment in deciduous dentition.

  8. CT study of the performance of reciprocating and oscillatory motions in flattened root canal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacio MOURA-NETTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Root canal preparation is an important step in endodontic treatment. The anatomical complexity of the middle third of the root compromises the effective cleaning of this area. Thus, advances have been made in instrumentation techniques and instruments for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different instrumentation systems on the enlargement of the middle thirds of root canals in mandibular incisors. The preparation methods used were the reciprocating systems Reciproc (Group I and WaveOne (Group II and the oscillatory system Tilos (Group III. Comparisons were made by three-dimensional image reconstruction with cone-beam computed tomography before and after instrumentation. Changes in area, perimeter, centering ability, and pattern of preparation were analyzed. The results were subjected to ANOVA complemented by the Tukey’s test. Changes in area, perimeter, and tendency of transportation showed similar results among groups. The transportation index of the Tilos system was significantly lower than that of the other groups. Qualitative analysis of the preparation pattern showed that the Tilos system had a more uniform preparation, although Reciproc and WaveOne preparations appeared more rounded, incompatible with the original canal anatomy. There was similarity in the systems’ performance on flattened areas, although the Tilos system presented a better pattern of root canal preparation and a lower index of transportation.

  9. Effect of Lengthy Root Canal Therapy Sessions on Temporomandibular Joint and Masticatory Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoora Sahebi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Trauma is one of the major factors associated with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD. These disorders result from macro-trauma or micro-trauma. Macro-trauma might be iatrogenic; for example, from intubation procedures, third molar extraction procedures, and lengthy dental appointments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lengthy root canal therapy (more than 2 hours on TMJ and its supporting structures. Materials and methods. Eighty patients whose root canal therapy session lasted more than 2 hours were examined for the status of TMJ and masticatory muscles. After one week the second part of the examination was carried out for TMJ problems and pain and tenderness levels of masticatory muscles. Data was analyzed using Wilcoxon statistical test. Results. Women showed more pain compared to men. There was a significant increase in pain in the external acoustic meatus examination one week after root canal therapy. Patients who were treated for their posterior teeth suffered more pain than those who were treated for the anteriors and premolars. Other aspects of the examination were not affected significantly by lengthy root canal therapy. Conclusion. Lengthy dental treatments can harm TMJ and masticatory muscles and wide opening of the mouth during such appointments can worsen the situation. Therefore, it is wise to break the appointment into shorter intervals and let the patients rest during treatment to close their mouth to prevent iatrogenic damage to TMJ.

  10. CT study of the performance of reciprocating and oscillatory motions in flattened root canal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio; Palo, Renato Miotto; Pinto, Larissa Fernanda; Daltoe, Gisele; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Root canal preparation is an important step in endodontic treatment. The anatomical complexity of the middle third of the root compromises the effective cleaning of this area. Thus, advances have been made in instrumentation techniques and instruments for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different instrumentation systems on the enlargement of the middle thirds of root canals in mandibular incisors. The preparation methods used were the reciprocating systems Reciproc (Group I) and WaveOne (Group II) and the oscillatory system Tilos (Group III). Comparisons were made by three-dimensional image reconstruction with cone-beam computed tomography before and after instrumentation. Changes in area, perimeter, centering ability, and pattern of preparation were analyzed. The results were subjected to ANOVA complemented by the Tukey’s test. Changes in area, perimeter, and tendency of transportation showed similar results among groups. The transportation index of the Tilos system was significantly lower than that of the other groups. Qualitative analysis of the preparation pattern showed that the Tilos system had a more uniform preparation, although Reciproc and WaveOne preparations appeared more rounded, incompatible with the original canal anatomy. There was similarity in the systems’ performance on flattened areas, although the Tilos system presented a better pattern of root canal preparation and a lower index of transportation. (author)

  11. Efficacy of different instrumentation techniques on reducing Enterococcus faecalis infection in experimentally infected root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Özsezer Demiryürek

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: This study indicates that instruments with a greater taper play an important role in maximizing the effectiveness of mechanical preparation. However, since using mechanical instrumentation alone is insufficient to completely eliminate root canal infection, the use of complementary antibacterial compounds is necessary.

  12. Cleaning efficacy of reciprocal and rotary systems in the removal of root canal filling material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, Mustafa Murat; Koçak, Sibel; Türker, Sevinç Aktemur; Sağlam, Baran Can

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of hand file, nickel titanium rotary instrument, and two reciprocating instruments for removing gutta-percha and sealer from the root canals. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight mandibular premolar teeth were used. The root canals were shaped and filled with gutta-percha and a resin-based sealer. The specimens were divided into four groups according to the technique by which the root filling material was removed: Group 1 — Wave One; Group 2 — Reciproc; Group 3 — ProTaper; and Group 4 — Gates-Glidden burs and stainless steel hand file. Then teeth were split longitudinally and photographed. The images were transferred to a computer. The ratio of remaining filling material to the root canal periphery was calculated with the aid of ImageJ software. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests. Results: A significant difference was found among all groups (P hand file. Conclusion: The reciprocating files were found to be significantly more effective in removing the filling material from the canal walls compared to the rotational file and hand file. PMID:27099429

  13. Effect of Lengthy Root Canal Therapy Sessions on Temporomandibular Joint and Masticatory Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebi, Safoora; Moazami, Fariborz; Afsa, Masoomeh; Nabavi Zade, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Trauma is one of the major factors associated with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). These disorders result from macro-trauma or micro-trauma. Macro-trauma might be iatrogenic; for example, from intuba-tion procedures, third molar extraction procedures, and lengthy dental appointments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lengthy root canal therapy (more than 2 hours) on TMJ and its supporting structures. Materials and methods Eighty patients whose root canal therapy session lasted more than 2 hours were examined for the status of TMJ and masticatory muscles. After one week the second part of the examination was carried out for TMJ problems and pain and tenderness levels of masticatory muscles. Data was analyzed using Wilcoxon statistical test. Results Women showed more pain compared to men. There was a significant increase in pain in the external acoustic meatus examination one week after root canal therapy. Patients who were treated for their posterior teeth suffered more pain than those who were treated for the anteriors and premolars. Other aspects of the examination were not affected significantly by lengthy root canal therapy. Conclusion Lengthy dental treatments can harm TMJ and masticatory muscles and wide opening of the mouth during such appointments can worsen the situation. Therefore, it is wise to break the appointment into shorter intervals and let the patients rest during treatment to close their mouth to prevent iatrogenic damage to TMJ. PMID:22991607

  14. Various conditioning methods for root canals influencing the tensile strength of titanium posts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmage, P.; Sohn, J.; Nergiz, I.; Ozcan, M.; Nergiz, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    Conditioning the root canal is frequently advised to achieve high post-retention when resin composite luting cements are used. However, Manufacturers’ instructions for this purpose differ widely from one another. The aim of this study was to compare the tensile bond strengths of passive, tapered,

  15. Antibiotic resistance genes in anaerobic bacteria isolated from primary dental root canal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2012-12-01

    Fourty-one bacterial strains isolated from infected dental root canals and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence were screened for the presence of 14 genes encoding resistance to beta-lactams, tetracycline and macrolides. Thirteen isolates (32%) were positive for at least one of the target antibiotic resistance genes. These strains carrying at least one antibiotic resistance gene belonged to 11 of the 26 (42%) infected root canals sampled. Two of these positive cases had two strains carrying resistance genes. Six out of 7 Fusobacterium strains harbored at least one of the target resistance genes. One Dialister invisus strain was positive for 3 resistance genes, and 4 other strains carried two of the target genes. Of the 6 antibiotic resistance genes detected in root canal strains, the most prevalent were blaTEM (17% of the strains), tetW (10%), and ermC (10%). Some as-yet-uncharacterized Fusobacterium and Prevotella isolates were positive for blaTEM, cfxA and tetM. Findings demonstrated that an unexpectedly large proportion of dental root canal isolates, including as-yet-uncharacterized strains previously regarded as uncultivated phylotypes, can carry antibiotic resistance genes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tissue response to silicone rubber when used as a root canal filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasman, F G; Goldman, M

    1977-04-01

    To test the tissue compatibility of silicone rubber when it is used as a root canal filler, excess material was intentionally forced into the apical tissues in primates. The tissue response was one of general acceptance, with the usual response being fibrotic encapsulation. A low degree of inflammation was noted. Further studies are in progress.

  17. A mathematical model for describing the mechanical behaviour of root canal instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, E W; Cheung, G S P; Zheng, Y F

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a general mathematical model for describing the mechanical behaviour of root canal instruments by combining a theoretical analytical approach with a numerical finite-element method. Mathematical formulas representing the longitudinal (taper, helical angle and pitch) and cross-sectional configurations and area, the bending and torsional inertia, the curvature of the boundary point and the (geometry of) loading condition were derived. Torsional and bending stresses and the resultant deformation were expressed mathematically as a function of these geometric parameters, modulus of elasticity of the material and the applied load. As illustrations, three brands of NiTi endodontic files of different cross-sectional configurations (ProTaper, Hero 642, and Mani NRT) were analysed under pure torsion and pure bending situation by entering the model into a finite-element analysis package (ANSYS). Numerical results confirmed that mathematical models were a feasible method to analyse the mechanical properties and predict the stress and deformation for root canal instruments during root canal preparation. Mathematical and numerical model can be a suitable way to examine mechanical behaviours as a criterion of the instrument design and to predict the stress and strain experienced by the endodontic instruments during root canal preparation. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  18. Factors affecting irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Psimma, Z.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and critical analysis of published data on irrigant extrusion to identify factors causing, affecting or predisposing to irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation of human mature permanent teeth. An electronic search was conducted

  19. Micro-CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, Per

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical enlargement in molar teeth and to quantify and visualize spatial details of instrumentation efficacy in root canals of different complexity. METHODOLOGY: Maxillary and mandibular molar teeth wer...

  20. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, M.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Markvart M, Darvann TA, Larsen P, Dalstra M, Kreiborg S, Bjørndal L. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity. International Endodontic Journal, 45, 273–281, 2012. Aim To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical...

  1. CT study of the performance of reciprocating and oscillatory motions in flattened root canal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio, E-mail: caciomn@usp.br [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul (UNICSUL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Palo, Renato Miotto [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (ICT/UNESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia; Pinto, Larissa Fernanda; Daltoe, Gisele; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi [Universidade Ibirapuera (UNIB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia

    2015-03-01

    Abstract: Root canal preparation is an important step in endodontic treatment. The anatomical complexity of the middle third of the root compromises the effective cleaning of this area. Thus, advances have been made in instrumentation techniques and instruments for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different instrumentation systems on the enlargement of the middle thirds of root canals in mandibular incisors. The preparation methods used were the reciprocating systems Reciproc (Group I) and WaveOne (Group II) and the oscillatory system Tilos (Group III). Comparisons were made by three-dimensional image reconstruction with cone-beam computed tomography before and after instrumentation. Changes in area, perimeter, centering ability, and pattern of preparation were analyzed. The results were subjected to ANOVA complemented by the Tukey’s test. Changes in area, perimeter, and tendency of transportation showed similar results among groups. The transportation index of the Tilos system was significantly lower than that of the other groups. Qualitative analysis of the preparation pattern showed that the Tilos system had a more uniform preparation, although Reciproc and WaveOne preparations appeared more rounded, incompatible with the original canal anatomy. There was similarity in the systems’ performance on flattened areas, although the Tilos system presented a better pattern of root canal preparation and a lower index of transportation. (author)

  2. The outcome of root-canal treatments assessed by cone-beam computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Y.H.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, in-vivo and ex-vivo methods were utilized to assess the outcome of root canal treatments determined by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and the reliability of the CBCT-findings. CBCT provided useful and reliable information leading to a better understanding of the outcome and

  3. Resazurin metabolism assay for root canal disinfectant evaluation on dual-species biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, L.M.; Hoogenkamp, M.A.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Crielaard, W.; Deng, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Endodontic infections are caused by polymicrobial biofilms. Therefore, novel root canal disinfectants should be evaluated not only on single-species biofilms but also on dual- or mixed-species biofilms. A simple, high-throughput assay is urgently needed for this. In this study, the

  4. Resazurin Metabolism Assay for Root Canal Disinfectant Evaluation on Dual-species Biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Lei-Meng; Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; Wesselink, Paul R.; Crielaard, Wim; Deng, Dong Mei

    Introduction: Endodontic infections are caused by polymicrobial biofilms. Therefore, novel root canal disinfectants should be evaluated not only on single-species biofilms but also on dual- or mixed-species biofilms. A simple, high-throughput assay is urgently needed for this. In this study, the

  5. Gram-positive rods prevailing in teeth with apical periodontitis undergoing root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez de Paz, L E; Molander, A; Dahlén, G

    2004-09-01

    To identify Gram-positive rods from root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis and to examine their associations with other species. Consecutive root canal samples (RCSs) from 139 teeth undergoing root canal treatment were analyzed prospectively for cultivable microbes. Gram-positive rods in the first RCS submitted after chemo-mechanical preparation were categorised to genus level by selective media and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), and identified to species level by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Associations between organisms were measured by odds ratios (OR). In the first samples submitted a total of 158 Gram-positive rods, 115 Gram-positive cocci, 26 Gram-negative rods and 9 Gram-negative cocci, were identified. At genus levels Gram-positive rods were classified into: Lactobacillus spp. (38%), Olsenella spp. (18%), Propionibacterium spp. (13%), Actinomyces spp. (12%), Bifidobacterium spp. (13%) and Eubacterium spp. (6%). The most frequent species were Olsenella uli, Lactobacillus paracasei and Propionibacterium propionicum. In subsequent samples taken during treatment, Gram-positive rods were also identified, although the number of strains was considerably reduced. Positive associations were observed between members of the genus lactobacilli and Gram-positive cocci (OR>2). Olsenella uli and Lactobacillus spp. predominated over other Gram-positive rods. A possible association exists between Lactobacillus spp. and Gram-positive cocci in root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis receiving treatment.

  6. Single visit root canal treatment: A prospective study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... periodontitis were included in the study. ... Conclusion: Single visit RCT is a viable treatment option for teeth having irreversible pulpitis or apical periodontitis ... been previously root treated, required surgical endodontic.

  7. Irrigant flow in the root canal: experimental validation of an unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics model using high-speed imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsioukis, C; Verhaagen, B; Versluis, M; Kastrinakis, E; van der Sluis, L W M

    2010-05-01

    To compare the results of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the irrigant flow within a prepared root canal, during final irrigation with a syringe and a needle, with experimental high-speed visualizations and theoretical calculations of an identical geometry and to evaluate the effect of off-centre positioning of the needle inside the root canal. A CFD model was created to simulate irrigant flow from a side-vented needle inside a prepared root canal. Calculations were carried out for four different positions of the needle inside a prepared root canal. An identical root canal model was made from poly-dimethyl-siloxane (PDMS). High-speed imaging of the flow seeded with particles and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) were combined to obtain the velocity field inside the root canal experimentally. Computational, theoretical and experimental results were compared to assess the validity of the computational model. Comparison between CFD computations and experiments revealed good agreement in the velocity magnitude and vortex location and size. Small lateral displacements of the needle inside the canal had a limited effect on the flow field. High-speed imaging experiments together with PIV of the flow inside a simulated root canal showed a good agreement with the CFD model, even though the flow was unsteady. Therefore, the CFD model is able to predict reliably the flow in similar domains.

  8. Micro-computed tomographic comparison of nickel-titanium rotary versus traditional instruments in C-shaped root canal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xingzhe; Cheung, Gary Shun-Pan; Zhang, Chengfei; Masuda, Yoshiko Murakami; Kimura, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Koukichi

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of instrumentation of C-shaped canals with ProTaper rotary system and traditional instruments by using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Twenty-four mandibular molars with C-shaped canals were selected in pairs and sorted equally into 2 groups, which were assigned for instrumentation by ProTaper rotary system (ProTaper group) or by K-files and Gates-Glidden burs (Hand Instrument group). Three-dimensional images were constructed by micro-CT. The volume of dentin removed, uninstrumented canal area, time taken for instrumentation, and iatrogenic error of instrumentation were investigated. Hand Instrument group showed greater amount of volumetric dentin removal and left less uninstrumented canal area than ProTaper group (P ProTaper group than for Hand Instrument group (P Hand Instrument group than for ProTaper group. It was concluded that ProTaper rotary system maintained the canal curvature with speediness and few procedural errors, whereas traditional instrumentation can clean more canal surface. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison among manual instruments and PathFile and Mtwo rotary instruments to create a glide path in the root canal preparation of curved canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Vanessa de Oliveira; Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz; Fontana, Carlos Eduardo; de Martin, Alexandre Sigrist

    2012-01-01

    Nickel-titanium rotary instruments reduce procedural errors and the time required to finish root canal preparation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the occurrences of apical transportation and canal aberrations produced with different instruments used to create a glide path in the preparation of curved root canals, namely manual K-files (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and PathFile (Dentsply Maillefer) and Mtwo (Sweden and Martina, Padua, Italy) nickel-titanium rotary files. The mesial canals of 45 mandibular first and second molars (with curvature angles between 25° and 35°) were selected for this study. The specimens were divided randomly into 3 groups with 15 canals each, and canal preparation was performed by an endodontist using #10-15-20 K-type stainless steel manual files (group M), #13-16-19 PathFile rotary instruments (group PF), and #10-15-20 Mtwo rotary instruments (group MT). The double digital radiograph technique was used, pre- and postinstrumentation, to assess whether apical transportation and/or aberration in root canal morphology occurred. The initial and final images of the central axis of the canals were compared by superimposition through computerized analysis and with the aid of magnification. The specimens were analyzed by 3 evaluators, whose calibration was checked using the Kendall agreement test. No apical transportation or aberration in root canal morphology occurred in any of the teeth; therefore, no statistical analysis was conducted. Neither the manual instruments nor the PathFile or Mtwo rotary instruments used to create a glide path had any influence on the occurrence of apical transportation or produced any canal aberration. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative study of six rotary nickel-titanium systems and hand instrumentation for root canal preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelzow, A; Stamm, O; Martus, P; Kielbassa, A M

    2005-10-01

    To compare ex vivo various parameters of root canal preparation using a manual technique and six different rotary nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments (FlexMaster, System GT, HERO 642, K3, ProTaper, and RaCe). A total of 147 extracted mandibular molars were divided into seven groups (n = 21) with equal mean mesio-buccal root canal curvatures (up to 70 degrees), and embedded in a muffle system. All root canals were prepared to size 30 using a crown-down preparation technique for the rotary nickel-titanium instruments and a standardized preparation (using reamers and Hedströem files) for the manual technique. Length modifications and straightening were determined by standardized radiography and a computer-aided difference measurement for every instrument system. Post-operative cross-sections were evaluated by light-microscopic investigation and photographic documentation. Procedural errors, working time and time for instrumentation were recorded. The data were analysed statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U-test. No significant differences were detected between the rotary Ni-Ti instruments for alteration of working length. All Ni-Ti systems maintained the original curvature well, with minor mean degrees of straightening ranging from 0.45 degrees (System GT) to 1.17 degrees (ProTaper). ProTaper had the lowest numbers of irregular post-operative root canal diameters; the results were comparable between the other systems. Instrument fractures occurred with ProTaper in three root canals, whilst preparation with System GT, HERO 642, K3 and the manual technique resulted in one fracture each. Ni-Ti instruments prepared canals more rapidly than the manual technique. The shortest time for instrumentation was achieved with System GT (11.7 s). Under the conditions of this ex vivo study all Ni-Ti systems maintained the canal curvature, were associated with few instrument fractures and were more rapid than a standardized manual technique. Pro

  11. Hand and ultrasonic instrumentation for orthograde root canal treatment of permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Pedrazzi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Root canal treatment is a frequently performed dental procedure and is carried out on teeth in which irreversible pulpitis has led to necrosis of the dental pulp. Removal of the necrotic tissue remnants and cleaning and shaping of the root canal are important phases of root canal treatment. Treatment options include the use of hand and rotary instruments and methods using ultrasonic or sonic equipment. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this systematic review of randomized controlled trials were to determine the relative clinical effectiveness of hand instrumentation versus ultrasonic instrumentation alone or in conjunction with hand instrumentation for orthograde root canal treatment of permanent teeth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The search strategy retrieved 226 references from the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (7, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (12, MEDLINE (192, EMBASE (8 and LILACS (7. No language restriction was applied. The last electronic search was conducted on December 13th, 2007. Screening of eligible studies was conducted in duplicate and independently. RESULTS: Results were to be expressed as fixed-effect or random-effects models using mean differences for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for dichotomous outcomes with 95% confdence intervals. Heterogeneity was to be investigated including both clinical and methodological factors. No eligible randomized controlled trials were identifed. CONCLUSIONS: This review illustrates the current lack of published or ongoing randomized controlled trials and the unavailability of high-level evidence based on clinically relevant outcomes referring to the effectiveness of ultrasonic instrumentation used alone or as an adjunct to hand instrumentation for orthograde root canal treatment. In the absence of reliable research-based evidence, clinicians should base their decisions on clinical experience, individual circumstances and in conjunction with patients

  12. A comparison of three rotary systems and hand instrumentation technique for the elimination of Enterococcus faecalis from the root canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorduysus, Melahat; Nagas, Emre; Torun, Ozgur Yildirim; Gorduysus, Omer

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro reduction of a bacterial population in a root canal by mechanical instrumentation using three rotary systems and hand instrumentation technique. The root canals contaminated with a suspension of Enterococcus faecalis were instrumented using ProTaper, K3, HeroShaper and K-file hand instrumentation technique. Later the root canals were sampled. After serial dilutions, samples were incubated in culture media for 24 h. Bacterial colonies were counted and the results were given as number of colony-forming units per millilitre. The results showed that all the canal instrumentation systems reduced the number of bacterial cells in the root canals. Statistically, ProTaper instruments were more effective in reducing the number of bacteria than the other rotary files or hand instruments. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2010 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  13. Localization of root canal orifices in mandibular second molars in relation to occlusal dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorduysus, O; Nagas, E; Cehreli, Z C; Gorduysus, M; Yilmaz, Z

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the localization and distribution of canal orifices of mandibular second molar teeth in relation to the mesio-distal and bucco-lingual dimensions of coronal tissue. Fifty extracted mandibular second molar teeth were embedded into plaster blocks with their vertical axes aligned perpendicular to the horizontal plane. The teeth were photographed digitally from the occlusal aspect under 12 x magnification. Thereafter, the occlusal halves of crowns were sectioned off to expose the root canal orifices. The teeth were than photographed under the same magnification, after which the pre- and post-sectioning images of each specimen were stacked into a single file. To plot the coordinate of each canal orifice, a 0.5-mm grid analytical plane was mounted digitally on the stack so that the x- and y-axes of the plane were superimposed on the mesiodistal and buccolingual axes (bisectors) of the tooth crowns. Localization and distribution of the coordinates of the canal orifices were evaluated using the chi-square test (P = 0.05). Only one tooth displayed a single root canal orifice, located in the mesiobuccal-distolingual 'centre' of the occlusal surface. The majority of mandibular second molars had three orifices (72%), followed by those with two (16%) and four (10%). The distal canal was located lingual to the centre of the occlusal plane. The distal canal was located lingual to the centre of the occlusal plane of mandibular second molars. The possibility of observing more divergent localizations and orifice numbers should not be overlooked in clinical practice.

  14. Root canal treatment of a periradicular lesion caused by unintentional root damage after orthodontic miniscrew placement: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, K; Bayram, M; Taşdemir, T

    2011-12-01

    To present the successful endodontic management of a maxillary lateral incisor tooth with a periradicular lesion caused by unintentional root damage after orthodontic miniscrew placement. A 22-year-old female was diagnosed with a skeletal Class II, Division 2 malocclusion with Class II molar and canine relationships on both sides. The treatment plan included distalization of the maxillary first molars bilaterally followed by full fixed appliance therapy. For the maxillary molar distalization, an appliance in conjunction with a miniscrew anchorage system was designed. Two months later, the patient came to the clinic with complaints of pain in the maxillary right lateral incisor region. On intraoral examination, intraoral sinus tracts were detected in the maxillary right buccal sulcus and palate. A large radiolucent lesion with a well-defined margin around the root of the maxillary right lateral incisor was seen. Root canal treatment was performed on the maxillary right lateral incisor tooth. The root canal was filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer, using a lateral compaction technique. The final restoration of the tooth was completed using composite, and the tooth was reviewed after 10 months. The tooth was asymptomatic and radiographically showed repair of the lesion. Healing was achieved without any need for further endodontic or surgical intervention. Key learning points • This case illustrates the need to take care with miniscrews when performing orthodontic treatment, especially when the miniscrews are in close proximity to root apices. • The periradicular lesion as a result of miniscrew damage was successfully treated with root canal treatment. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  15. Radiographic evaluation of root canal fillings accomplished by undergraduate dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Hamidreza; Samiei, Mohammad; Shahi, Shahriar; Borna, Zahra; Abdollahi, Amir Ardalan; Ghiasvand, Negar; Shariati, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiographic quality of root canal fillings by fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year undergraduate students at Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry between 2006 and 2012. A total of 1183 root canal fillings in 620 teeth were evaluated by two investigators (and in case of disagreement by a third investigator) regarding the presence or absence of under-fillings, over-fillings and perforations. For each tooth, preoperative, working and postoperative radiographs were checked. The Pearson's chi-square test was used for statistical evaluation of the data. Inter-examiner agreement was measured by Cohen's kappa (k) values. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Total frequencies of over-filling, under-filling and perforation were 5.6%, 20.4% and 1.9%, respectively. There were significant differences between frequencies of over- and under-fillings (P<0.05). Unacceptable quality, under- and over-fillings were detected in 27.9% of 1183 evaluated canals. The technical quality of root canal therapies performed by undergraduate dental students using step-back preparation and lateral compaction techniques was unacceptable in almost one-fourth of the cases.

  16. Effectiveness of Rotary Endodontic Instruments on Smear Layer Removal in Root Canals of Primary Teeth: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Priya; Girish Babu, K L; Tabrez, T A

    2016-01-01

    The present SEM study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of root canal instrumentation using both manual and rotary files in the root canals of primary anterior teeth. Thirty freshly extracted primary maxillary incisors were divided into 3 groups of 10 teeth each. In Group I, root canals were instrumented with rotary NiTi files; in Group II, the root canals were instrumented using manual NiTi K files and; in Group III, manual instrumentation was done with stainless steel K files. Longitudinal sections were prepared and processed for observation under SEM at the coronal, middle and apical thirds. Scoring of smear layer was done according to Hulsmann and the data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Rotary files cleaned the coronal and middle thirds of root canals more effectively. Statistically there was no significant difference between the groups. Lowest score of 2.6 in the apical third of root canals was seen with hand NiTi files. Rotary instrumentation was as effective as manual instrumentation in removal of smear layer in the root canals of primary anterior teeth.

  17. Hand and nickel-titanium root canal instrumentation performed by dental students: a micro-computed tomographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peru, M; Peru, C; Mannocci, F; Sherriff, M; Buchanan, L S; Pitt Ford, T R

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate root canals instrumented by dental students using the modified double-flared technique, nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary System GT files and NiTi rotary ProTaper files by micro-computed tomography (MCT). A total of 36 root canals from 18 mesial roots of mandibular molar teeth were prepared; 12 canals were prepared with the modified double-flared technique, using K-flexofiles and Gates-Glidden burs; 12 canals were prepared using System GT and 12 using ProTaper rotary files. Each root was scanned using MCT preoperatively and postoperatively. At the coronal and mid-root sections, System GT and ProTaper files produced significantly less enlarged canal cross-sectional area, volume and perimeter than the modified double-flared technique (P ProTaper (P ProTaper and System GT were able to prepare root canals with little or no procedural error compared with the modified double-flared technique. Under the conditions of this study, inexperienced dental students were able to prepare curved root canals with rotary files with greater preservation of tooth structure, low risk of procedural errors and much quicker than with hand instruments.

  18. Efficacy of ProTaper universal retreatment files in removing filling materials during root canal retreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Valentina; Cocchetti, Roberto; Pagavino, Gabriella

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the ProTaper Universal System rotary retreatment system and of Profile 0.06 and hand instruments (K-file) in the removal of root filling materials. Forty-two extracted single-rooted anterior teeth were selected. The root canals were enlarged with nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary files, filled with gutta-percha and sealer, and randomly divided into 3 experimental groups. The filling materials were removed with solvent in conjunction with one of the following devices and techniques: the ProTaper Universal System for retreatment, ProFile 0.06, and hand instruments (K-file). The roots were longitudinally sectioned, and the image of the root surface was photographed. The images were captured in JPEG format; the areas of the remaining filling materials and the time required for removing the gutta-percha and sealer were calculated by using the nonparametric one-way Kruskal-Wallis test and Tukey-Kramer tests, respectively. The group that showed better results for removing filling materials was the ProTaper Universal System for retreatment files, whereas the group of ProFile rotary instruments yielded better root canal cleanliness than the hand instruments, even though there was no statistically significant difference. The ProTaper Universal System for retreatment and ProFile rotary instruments worked significantly faster than the K-file. The ProTaper Universal System for retreatment files left cleaner root canal walls than the K-file hand instruments and the ProFile Rotary instruments, although none of the devices used guaranteed complete removal of the filling materials. The rotary NiTi system proved to be faster than hand instruments in removing root filling materials.

  19. Effectiveness of rotatory and reciprocating movements in root canal filling material removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of reciprocating and rotary techniques for removing gutta-percha and sealer from root canals. Forty straight and oval single-rooted premolars were prepared up to size 30, filled with gutta-percha and sealer, and then randomly allocated to two experimental retreatment groups: ProTaper Retreatment System (PTRS and WaveOne System (WS. Procedural errors, time of retreatment and apically extruded material were recorded for all the roots. The roots were radiographed after retreatment. The percentage of residual material was calculated using image analysis software. The data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t tests, with a significance level set at 5%. No system completely removed the root filling material from the root canal. No significant differences were observed between the systems, in terms of residual filling material in any tested third (p > 0.05. WS was faster in removing filling material than PTRS (p< 0.05. Extrusion was observed in 4 cases in PTRS and in 5 cases in WS. No procedural errors were observed in either group. It can be concluded that although no differences were observed in the efficacy of PTRS and WS for removing root filling material, WS was faster than PTRS.

  20. Quantitative three-dimensional analysis of root canal curvature in maxillary first molars using micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Ki; Ha, Byung-Hyun; Choi, Jeong-Ho; Heo, Seok-Mo; Perinpanayagam, Hiran

    2006-10-01

    In endodontic therapy, access and instrumentation are strongly affected by root canal curvature. However, the few studies that have actually measured curvature are mostly from two-dimensional radiographs. The purpose of this study was to measure the three-dimensional (3D) canal curvature in maxillary first molars using micro-computed tomography (microCT) and mathematical modeling. Extracted maxillary first molars (46) were scanned by microCT (502 image slices/tooth, 1024 X 1024 pixels, voxel size of 19.5 x 19.5 x 39.0 microm) and their canals reconstructed by 3D modeling software. The intersection of major and minor axes in the canal space of each image slice were connected to create an imaginary central axis for each canal. The radius of curvature of the tangential circle was measured and inverted as a measure of curvature using custom-made mathematical modeling software. Root canal curvature was greatest in the apical third and least in the middle third for all canals. The greatest curvatures were in the mesiobuccal (MB) canal (0.76 +/- 0.48 mm(-1)) with abrupt curves, and the least curvatures were in the palatal (P) canal (0.38 +/- 0.34 mm(-1)) with a gradual curve. This study has measured the 3D curvature of root canals in maxillary first molars and reinforced the value of microCT with mathematical modeling.

  1. Four canals in the mesial root of a mandibular first molar. A case report under the operating microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontakiotis, Evangelos G; Tzanetakis, Giorgos N

    2007-08-01

    In this era of microscope-assisted endodontics, finding variations in root canal system anatomy is not uncommon. Operating microscopes combined with careful clinical examination and radiographic interpretation can aid the clinician to successfully treat cases with such internal anatomy. The understanding of this view enables the possible location of additional canals in any tooth requiring endodontic treatment. The present clinical article demonstrates a rare anatomical complexity in the mesial root of a mandibular first molar. Four independent root canal orifices were found in this root by clinical detection with the aid of a dental operating microscope. This case shows that additional canals can be located in any root undergoing endodontic treatment and clinicians should always be aware of aberrant internal anatomy.

  2. The antimicrobial effectiveness of 25% propolis extract in root canal irrigation of primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjesh Kumar Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The choice of irrigating solution used in root canals of primary teeth is complicated by their complex morphology and paucity of associated literature. Propolis is a natural product that has gained interest in this context due to its antibacterial effectiveness against several endodontic pathogens. Aim: The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of water-soluble 25% propolis extract against microorganisms present in root canals of primary teeth during endodontic procedures. Settings and Design: The child patients in the age group of 4-7 years with radiographic evidence of carious pulp exposure were included in the study. Definitive selection was done after gaining access into the pulp chamber and root canals of the selected teeth. The clinical and radiographic evidence of pathosis was ruled out for inclusion in the study. Materials and Methods: The selected teeth were divided into two groups randomly. In Group A 0.9% isotonic saline and in Group B 25% extract water-soluble propolis were used as irrigating solution, respectively. The bacterial samples were collected both pre- and post-irrigation and were transferred for microbial assay. Staististical Analysis: Wilcoxon matched signed rank test was used to compare the pre-and post-irrigation bacterial counts. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the mean change (pre-post in bacterial colony counts of groups in the study. Results: Antimicrobial effectiveness of 25% water-soluble extract of propolis in the root canals of primary teeth was confirmed in the present study. The reduction in the mean bacterial colony counts of all the isolated bacteria was noticed higher in Group B than Group A. Conclusion: The results of the present study have confirmed that the antibacterial effectiveness of water-soluble extract of propolis in the root canals of primary teeth in vivo. Considering the low toxicity concerns and antibacterial effectiveness, water-soluble extract of 25% propolis

  3. Guided endodontics: accuracy of a novel method for guided access cavity preparation and root canal location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, M S; Connert, T; Weiger, R; Krastl, G; Kühl, S

    2016-10-01

    To present a novel method utilizing 3D printed templates to gain guided access to root canals and to evaluate its accuracy in vitro. Sixty extracted human teeth were placed into six maxillary jaw models. Preoperative CBCT scans were matched with intra-oral scans using the coDiagnostix(™) software. Access cavities, sleeves and templates for guidance were virtually planned. Templates were produced by a 3D printer. After access cavity preparation by two operators, a postoperative CBCT scan was superimposed on the virtual planning. Accuracy was measured by calculating the deviation of planned and prepared cavities in three dimensions and angle. Ninety-five per cent confidence intervals were calculated for both operators. All root canals were accessible after cavity preparation with 'Guided Endodontics'. Deviations of planned and prepared access cavities were low with means ranging from 0.16 to 0.21 mm for different aspects at the base of the bur and 0.17-0.47 mm at the tip of the bur. Mean of angle deviation was 1.81°. Overlapping 95% confidence intervals revealed no significant difference between operators. 'Guided Endodontics' allowed an accurate access cavity preparation up to the apical third of the root utilizing printed templates for guidance. All root canals were accessible after preparation. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy combined with conventional endodontic treatment to eliminate root canal biofilm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, Aguinaldo S; Ribeiro, Martha S; Tegos, George P; Núñez, Silvia C; Jorge, Antonio O C; Hamblin, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT), standard endodontic treatment and the combined treatment to eliminate bacterial biofilms present in infected root canals. Ten single-rooted freshly extracted human teeth were inoculated with stable bioluminescent Gram-negative bacteria, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to form 3-day biofilms in prepared root canals. Bioluminescence imaging was used to serially quantify bacterial burdens. PDT employed a conjugate between polyethylenimine and chlorin(e6) as the photosensitizer (PS) and 660-nm diode laser light delivered into the root canal via a 200-micro fiber, and this was compared and combined with standard endodontic treatment using mechanical debridement and antiseptic irrigation. Endodontic therapy alone reduced bacterial bioluminescence by 90% while PDT alone reduced bioluminescence by 95%. The combination reduced bioluminescence by >98%, and importantly the bacterial regrowth observed 24 hours after treatment was much less for the combination (Ptreatment. Bioluminescence imaging is an efficient way to monitor endodontic therapy. Antimicrobial PDT may have a role to play in optimized endodontic therapy. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Release of Growth Factors into Root Canal by Irrigations in Regenerative Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qian; Nguyen, Sean; Zhang, Hongming; Chebrolu, Hari Priya; Alzebdeh, Dalia; Badi, Mustafa A; Kim, Jong Ryul; Ling, Junqi; Yang, Maobin

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the release of growth factors into root canal space after the irrigation procedure of regenerative endodontic procedure. Sixty standardized root segments were prepared from extracted single-root teeth. Nail varnish was applied to all surfaces except the root canal surface. Root segments were irrigated with 1.5% NaOCl + 17% EDTA, 2.5% NaOCl + 17% EDTA, 17% EDTA, or deionized water. The profile of growth factors that were released after irrigation was studied by growth factor array. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to validate the release of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) at 4 hours, 1 day, and 3 days after irrigation. The final concentrations were calculated on the basis of the root canal volume measured by cone-beam computed tomography. Dental pulp stem cell migration on growth factors released from root segments was measured by using Transwell assay. Total of 11 of 41 growth factors were detected by growth factors array. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that TGF-β1 was released in all irrigation groups. Compared with the group with 17% EDTA (6.92 ± 4.49 ng/mL), the groups with 1.5% NaOCl + 17% EDTA and 2.5% NaOCl + 17% EDTA had significantly higher release of TGF-β1 (69.04 ± 30.41 ng/mL and 59.26 ± 3.37 ng/mL, respectively), with a peak release at day 1. The release of bFGF was detected at a low level in all groups (0 ng/mL to 0.43 ± 0.22 ng/mL). Migration assay showed the growth factors released from root segments induced dental pulp stem cell migration. The root segment model in present study simulated clinical scenario and indicated that the current irrigation protocol released a significant amount of TGF-β1 but not bFGF. The growth factors released into root canal space induced dental pulp stem cell migration. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Technical Quality of Root Canal Treatment Performed by Undergraduate Clinical Students of Isfahan Dental School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Masoud; Mohammadi, Golshan; Vali Sichani, Armita; Moshkforoush, Saba

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radiographic quality of RCTs performed by undergraduate clinical students of Dental School of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. In this cross sectional study, records and periapical radiographs of 1200 root filled teeth were randomly selected from the records of patients who had received RCTs in Dental School of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences from 2013 to 2015. After excluding 416 records, the final sample consisted of 784 root-treated teeth (1674 root canals). Two variables including the length and the density of the root fillings were examined. Moreover, the presence of ledge, foramen perforation, root perforation and fractured instruments were also evaluated as procedural errors. Descriptive statistics were used for expressing the frequencies of criteria and chi square test was used for comparing tooth types, tooth locations and academic level of students ( P students was not satisfactory and incidence of procedural errors was considerable.

  7. Accuracy of CBCT as modality to identify the presence of secondary mesiobuccal root canal in the maxillary first molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haikal Halil

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A successful endodontic treatment requires the clinician to be able to locate, disinfect, and obturate all canals presence in the root canal system to remove the infection and prevent re-infection. However, there are canals that often missed upon examination and the treatment, for example, the secondary mesiobuccal (MB root canal. The success of locating these canals is determined by the methods used, for example, a periapical radiograph and Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT. The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity and accuracy of the periapical radiograph (PA and CBCT on determining the presence of the secondary MB root canal. Methods: As much as 40 intact crown and intact radicular of the maxillary first molars, without root caries, root restoration, and endodontic treated, were taken as the samples. The presence of a secondary MB root canal was evaluated by a PA radiograph, CBCT and clinical sectioning. All of the samples were undergone each test and sectioned after being completed the radiographic evaluation steps. The results from each test were then documented and analyzed by using SPSS® version 16. Results: CBCT radiograph was successfully identifying 62.5% secondary MB root canal presence, whilst the PA radiograph has detected only 20% of the samples. The sensitivity of CBCT and PA radiograph was compared with the gold standard method, resulting 86.2% and 27.6% respectively. The statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference between CBCT test and the gold standard (p=0.00. Conclusion: CBCT was proven to be a reliable method to detect the presence of secondary MB root canals due to its sensitivity and accuracy as high as the clinical sectioning compared to the PA radiograph.

  8. Cone-beam computed tomography analysis of curved root canals after mechanical preparation with three nickel-titanium rotary instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsherief, Samia M.; Zayet, Mohamed K.; Hamouda, Ibrahim M.

    2013-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography is a 3-dimensional high resolution imaging method. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different NiTi rotary instruments used to prepare curved root canals on the final shape of the curved canals and total amount of root canal transportation by using cone-beam computed tomography. A total of 81 mesial root canals from 42 extracted human mandibular molars, with a curvature ranging from 15 to 45 degrees, were selected. Canals were randomly divided into 3 groups of 27 each. After preparation with Protaper, Revo-S and Hero Shaper, the amount of transportation and centering ability that occurred were assessed by using cone beam computed tomography. Utilizing pre- and post-instrumentation radiographs, straightening of the canal curvatures was determined with a computer image analysis program. Canals were metrically assessed for changes (surface area, changes in curvature and transportation) during canal preparation by using software SimPlant; instrument failures were also recorded. Mean total widths and outer and inner width measurements were determined on each central canal path and differences were statistically analyzed. The results showed that all instruments maintained the original canal curvature well with no significant differences between the different files (P = 0.226). During preparation there was failure of only one file (the protaper group). In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, all instruments maintained the original canal curvature well and were safe to use. Areas of uninstrumented root canal wall were left in all regions using the various systems. PMID:23885273

  9. Performance of CAD/CAM fabricated fiber posts in oval-shaped root canals: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsintsadze, Nino; Juloski, Jelena; Carrabba, Michele; Tricarico, Marella; Goracci, Cecilia; Vichi, Alessandro; Ferrari, Marco; Grandini, Simone

    2017-10-01

    To assess the push-out strength, the cement layer thickness and the interfacial nanoleakage of prefabricated fiber posts, CAD/CAM fiber posts and metal cast posts cemented into oval-shaped root canals. Oval-shaped post spaces were prepared in 30 single-rooted premolars. Roots were randomly assigned to three groups (n=10), according to the post type to be inserted: Group 1: Prefabricated fiber post (D.T. Light-Post X-RO Illusion); Group 2: Cast metal post; Group 3: CAD/CAM-fabricated fiber post (experimental fiber blocks). In Group 3, post spaces were sprayed with scan powder (VITA), scanned with an inEos 4.2 scanner, and fiber posts were milled using an inLab MC XL CAD/CAM milling unit. All posts were cemented using Gradia Core dual-cure resin cement in combination with Gradia core self-etching bond (GC). After 24 hours, the specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis into six 1 mm-thick sections, which were differentiated by the root level. Sections from six roots per group were used to measure the cement thickness and subsequently for the thin-slice push-out test, whereas the sections from the remaining four teeth were assigned to interfacial nanoleakage test. The cement thickness around the posts was measured in micrometers (µm) on the digital images acquired with a digital microscope using the Digimizer software. Thin-slice push-out test was conducted using a universal testing machine at the crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute and the bond strength was expressed in megaPascals (MPa). The interfacial nanoleakage was observed under light microscope and quantified by scoring the depth of silver nitrate penetration along the post-cement-dentin interfaces. The obtained results were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, followed by the Dunn's Multiple Range test for post hoc comparisons. The level of significance was set at PCAD/CAM-fabricated fiber posts achieved retention that was comparable to that of cast metal posts and significantly higher

  10. Ex vivo evaluation of coronal and apical microbial leakage of root canal - Filled with gutta-percha or Resilon/Epiphany root canal filling material

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    de Almeida-Gomes Fabio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This ex vivo study compared coronal and apical microleakage of root canals filled with Resilon/Epiphany (RE or gutta-percha/Grossman sealer (GP, using either lateral condensation (LC or System B (SB technique. Materials and Methods: Specimens in eight experimental groups were obturated using the following materials and techniques: Groups 1 and 3 - GP and LC; groups 2 and 4 - GP and SB; groups 5 and 7 - RE and LC; groups 6 and 8 - RE and SB. Apical and coronal leakages were tested using bacterial methods. For coronal analysis, the number of days required for complete contamination of the root canals was recorded according to observation of the brain heart infusion broth turbidity for 15 weeks. For apical analysis, the teeth were cleaved and the leakage was measured at 30 days. Data were collected for each sample and analyzed statistically with the Chi-square and ANOVA tests. Results: Leakage was found in all groups. The difference between filling materials, obturation techniques, and median time of leakage was not statistically significant for coronal ( P=0.847 and apical ( P=0.5789 leakages. Conclusion: There were no differences between the different filling materials (gutta-percha/Grossman sealer and Resilon/Epiphany and obturation techniques (lateral condensation and system B technique in coronal or apical leakages.

  11. Instrument separation analysis of multi-used ProTaper Universal rotary system during root canal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jintao; Lei, Gang; Yan, Ming; Yu, Yan; Yu, Jinhua; Zhang, Guangdong

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influential factors responsible for clinical instrument separation of reused ProTaper Universal rotary instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). Six thousand one hundred fifty-four root canals in 2,654 teeth were prepared using ProTaper Universal files in endodontic clinics. Separation incidence was determined based on the number of treated teeth or canals. Data were collected including the size of fractured instrument, the length and location of a broken segment within the root canal, and the curvature of canal. The chi-square test and independent samples t test were used to determine the statistical significance. The overall instrument separation incidences were 2.6% according to the number of teeth and 1.1% according to the canal number, respectively. Separation incidences according to the number of teeth or canals were significantly higher (P molars than those in premolars or anterior teeth. Because of its largest diameter, F3 file presented the highest separation incidence according to the number of teeth (1.0%) or canals (0.4%); 47.5% instrument separation of mandibular molars and 61.5% instrument separation of maxillary molars happened in the mesiobuccal canals. Moreover, 91.4% fragments were located in the apical third of root canals, and 54.2% instrument separation occurred in severely curved canals. There was a significant difference (P < .05) in the mean fracture length between shaping (2.42 ± 0.73 mm) and finishing files (3.32 ± 0.73 mm). Separation incidence according to the canal number is more reliable than that according to the number of teeth because of the variable canal number in different teeth. The tooth type, rotary file size, canal location, and anatomy were correlated with the instrument separation of reused ProTaper Universal files. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Micro-computed tomography study of the internal anatomy of mesial root canals of mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas-Bôas, Marcelo Haas; Bernardineli, Norberti; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Marciano, Marina; Del Carpio-Perochena, Aldo; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Duarte, Marco H; Bramante, Clovis M; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the mesiodistal and buccolingual diameter, apical volume, and the presence of isthmuses at the apical level of mesial root canals of mandibular molars. Sixty extracted first and second mandibular molars were scanned by using a SkyScan 1076 micro-computed tomography system with a voxel size of 18 μm. The apical thirds of the samples were reconstructed to allow a perpendicular section of the apical third by using the multiplanar reconstruction tool of the OsiriX software. The mesiodistal and the buccolingual distances of root canals were measured between the 1- to 4-mm levels. The type of root canal isthmuses present at these levels was classified by using modified criteria of Hsu and Kim. The volume of the root canal anatomy between the 1- to 3-mm apical levels was obtained by using the CTAN-CTVOL software. The medians of the mesiodistal diameter at the 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-mm levels in the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals were 0.22 and 0.23 mm, 0.27 and 0.27 mm, 0.30 and 0.30 mm, and 0.36 and 0.35 mm, respectively. The buccolingual lengths at the 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-mm levels were 0.37-0.35 mm, 0.55-0.41 mm, 0.54-0.49 mm, and 0.54 and 0.60 mm, respectively. The presence of isthmuses was more prevalent at the 3- to 4-mm level. However, 27 cases presented complete or incomplete isthmuses at the 1-mm apical level. The mean of the volume of the apical third was 0.83 mm(3), with a minimum value of 0.02 and a maximum value of 2.4 mm(3). Mesial root canals of mandibular molars do not present a consistent pattern. A high variability of apical diameters exists. The presence of isthmuses at the apical third was not uncommon even at the 1-mm apical level. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effect of compound Chinese traditional medicine on infected root canal bacteria biofilm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Huang, Li-li; Xia, Wen-wei; Zhu, Cai-lian; Ye, Dong-xia

    2010-08-01

    To assess the efficacy of compound Chinese traditional medicine(CTM), which composed of gallic acid, magnolol and polysaccharide of Blettila striata, against the infected root canal bacterial biofilm. Actinomyces viscosus (Av), Enterococcus faecalis (Ef), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) were composed to form biofilm, then confocal laser scan microscope (CLSM) was used to observe and study the bacterial activity. SAS6.12 software package was used for statistical analysis. The biofilm thickness reduced after treatment by both CTM and ZnO (P>0.05),while there was a significant decrease of the percentage of vital bacterias after treatment by CTM (Pcompound Chinese traditional medicine is effective on biofilm control, so that it would be an effective disinfecting drug for root canal sealers. Supported by Research Fund of Bureau of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Shanghai Municipality (Grant No.2008L008A).

  14. How Can Hypnodontics Manage Severe Gag Reflex for Root Canal Therapy? A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, Mohsen; zarenejad, Nafiseh; Parirokh, Masoud; Zahedpasha, Samir

    2016-01-01

    In endodontics, severe involuntary gagging can have a severe impact on treatment procedure. There are many ways to ease the gag reflex, one of which is hypnosis. A 34-year-old male was referred for root canal treatment of a molar tooth. He had not received any dental treatments for the past nine years due to fear of severe gag reflex. Three hypnotic sessions based upon eye fixation, progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery techniques were spent for psychosomatic management. The gag reflex was controlled and reduced to a normal level, and the required dental treatments including root canal therapy and restoration were performed successfully. This report shows that hypnosis can control gag reflex for dental treatments. PMID:27141226

  15. Root Canal Stripping: Malpractice or Common Procedural Accident-An Ethical Dilemma in Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, Ionela Elisabeta; Rusu, Darian; Stratul, Stefan-Ioan; Didilescu, Andreea Cristina; Cristache, Corina Marilena

    2016-01-01

    Root canal stripping is defined as an oblong, vertical perforation that appears especially in the middle section of curved root canals during endodontic treatments with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments. Its occurrence may drastically affect the outcome of the treatment, transforming a common otherwise efficient endodontic procedure into a complication such as tooth extraction. In order to discuss the ethical and legal consequences, two cases of dental strip perforations are herewith presented. Due to the existence of risk factors for dental strip perforation, experience of the clinician and the use of magnification and modern imagistic methods (CBCT) may avoid or reduce the frequency of this type of accidents. Under correct working circumstances, dental stripping should not be regarded as a malpractice but as a procedural accident. However, the patient must always be informed, before and during the endodontic procedure, about the event and the possible complications that may occur.

  16. Increased number of anaerobic bacteria in the infected root canal in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Akihiro; Morimoto, Taisuke; Tsuji, Masahito; Nakamura, Koki; Higuchi, Naoya; Imaizumi, Ichiro; Shibata, Naoki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and anaerobic bacteria detected in infected root canals. Normal Wistar rats (control) received a standard laboratory diet with water (group A), and GK rats (type 2 diabetes mellitus rats) a normal laboratory diet with water (group B) or a 30% sucrose solution (group C). Chemotaxis assay was conducted on polymorphonuclear leukocytes from the 3 groups, and the numbers of anaerobic bacteria in infected root canals were determined. In the chemotaxis assay on the polymorphonuclear leukocytes, the chemotactic response of cells in group C was lower than that for groups A and B (P obligate anaerobic bacteria which stained gram negative, were significantly more numerous in group C (P < .01) than in groups A and B. The metabolic condition produced by type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats might lower the general host resistance against bacterial infection.

  17. Positive and negative associations between bacterial species in dental root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B P; Drucker, D B; Lilley, J D

    1994-01-01

    Significant associations have been previously reported between certain pairs of bacterial species isolated from human dental root canals. The aim of this study was to examine microbiologically a more extensive series of cases, with particular reference to obligate anaerobes which accounted for 64% of total isolations. A total of 65 different species was isolated and individual root canals yielded a maximum of eleven bacterial species. Highly significant positive associations (p spp. and Prevotella spp., between Peptostreptococcus spp. and P. melaninogenica, between P. micros and Prevotella spp., P. micros and P. melaninogenica and between Prevotella spp. and Eubacterium spp., all with an ODDS ratio of > 9.0. In contrast, negative and highly significant associations (p spp., B. gracilis/F. nucleatum and between B. gracilis/Fusobacterium spp.; all with an ODDS ratio of < 0.5. Some previously published associations were confirmed and some new associations were found, while some negative associations became apparent.

  18. Flare-up with associated paresthesia of a mandibular second premolar with three root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, G D

    1987-07-01

    A case report is presented that deals with mental nerve paresthesia resulting from the "flare-up" of a mandibular second premolar with three root canals. A review of the literature and discussion follow, which suggest possible mechanisms that may be responsible for paresthesia as well as treatment regimens that may be used to minimize the incidence of this unexpected but occasional post-treatment endodontic sequela.

  19. [Deformations occurring in the apical third of curved root canals during biomechanical preparation using manual impulsion-traction techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig Cayón, M; Basilio Monné, J; Canalda Sahli, C

    1990-01-01

    Apical deformations, specially zips and elbows, during instrumentation of the root canals, are studied. The authors study why do they appear, their effect on endodontic therapy, and the way of avoiding them.

  20. Effect of a calcium hydroxide-based root canal dressing on periapical repair in dogs: a histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Mario R; Hernandez, Maria E F T; Silva, Léa A B; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2006-11-01

    To compare the periapical repair of teeth with periapical lesion following root canal treatment by using a calcium hydroxide-based intracanal dressing for several time periods or filling in a single visit. After induction of periapical lesions in 4 dogs, the root canals were prepared using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite for irrigation, and animals were separated into 4 experimental groups; in group I, root canals were filled in a single session; in groups II, III, and IV, a calcium hydroxide-based dressing was kept in place for 15, 30, or 180 days, respectively. Root canals from groups I, II, and III were filled with gutta-percha cones and AH Plus sealer. After 180 days, animals were killed and histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin to evaluate periapical repair. Periapical repair was better in groups II, III, and IV (intracanal dressing) compared with group I (single session; P session treatment.

  1. Apical extrusion of debris: a literature review of an inherent occurrence during root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanalp, J; Güngör, T

    2014-03-01

    Extrusion of intracanal debris as well as irrigants is a common occurrence during root canal treatment, and no instrument or technique has thoroughly solved this problem. Because flare-ups may arise with any irritation directed towards periapical tissues, a shaping or irrigation technique should minimize the risk of apical extrusion, even though it may not be prevented. There has been a rapid evolution of root canal instruments and irrigation systems through the last decade, and many have been assessed for their debris extrusion potential. The purpose of this review was to identify publications regarding the evaluation of debris, bacteria and irrigant extrusion during root canal treatment. A PubMed, Ovid and MEDLINE search was conducted using the keywords "apical extrusion", "debris extrusion" and "endodontic treatment". The literature search extended over a period of more than 30 years up to 2012. Content of the review was limited to apical extrusion of debris and irrigants, extrusion of liquid by irrigation methods and bacterial extrusion. Issues relevant to apical extrusion were obtained by further search in the reference sections of the retrieved articles. The review provides an update on the current status of apical extrusion. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A study of flare-ups following single-visit root canal treatment in endodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhoro, Feroze Ali; Mirza, Assad Javed

    2009-07-01

    To determine the frequency of flare-ups in single-visit endodontic treatment and the associated factors. Observational. Baqai Dental College Hospital, Karachi, from November 2005 to May 2006. One hundred patients were assigned for single-visit root canal treatment. Patients that defaulted after the first appointment (incomplete treatment) were excluded from the study. For each tooth treated, the clinical factors and conditions existing before and after the completion of treatment were recorded. This data included patient's age, gender, type of tooth, pre-operative status of pulp and periapical tissues and recording pain and swelling (flare-ups) postoperatively after 1 day, 7 days and 1 month. The significance of results was obtained by applying paired-sample t-test and Pearson X2 test. Three of one hundred cases showed flare-ups after treated in single appointment. On the other hand, a marked number (n=97) of cases did not show flare-ups during the study period. None of the studied variables showed any statistically significant bearing on rate of flare-ups in single appointment root canal treatment. The single-visit root canal treatment was safe in terms of endodontic flare-ups as far as results of this study are concerned. It was safer in both vital and non-vital teeth, and even in teeth with periapical pathosis.

  3. Effect of Corticosteroids on Pain Relief Following Root Canal Treatment: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranmanesh, Foad; Parirokh, Masoud; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Abbott, Paul V

    2017-01-01

    Post-operative pain and flare-up may occur in up to 58% of patients following root canal treatment. The aim was to conduct a systematic review and a possible meta-analysis to determine the effect of glucocorticosteroid (GCS) on pain following root canal treatment. Scopus, MEDLINE and CENTRAL databases were searched up to 30 th January 2017 with broad key words. In addition, the reference lists in eligible papers and text books were hand-searched. Assessment of the eligibility of papers and data extraction were performed by two independent reviewers. Of 9891 articles, 18 were recruited as eligible papers. Most of these papers showed pain reducing effect of GCS on post-endodontic pain. Because of wide heterogeneity among the recruited papers, it was not possible to perform meta-analysis. Based on the results of this systematic review, there is a vast heterogeneity amongst articles regarding the use of GCS and their effect on post-operative pain after endodontic treatment. Further investigations with similar methods and materials are needed before meta-analysis on the effect of GCS on post-operative pain following root canal treatment can be performed .

  4. YouTube as a patient-information source for root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, K; Donnelly, A; Duncan, H F

    2016-12-01

    To assess the content and completeness of Youtube ™ as an information source for patients undergoing root canal treatment procedures. YouTube ™ (https://www.youtube.com/) was searched for information using three relevant treatment search terms ('endodontics', 'root canal' and 'root canal treatment'). After exclusions (language, no audio, >15 min, duplicates), 20 videos per search term were selected. General video assessment included duration, ownership, views, age, likes/dislikes, target audience and video/audio quality, whilst content was analysed under six categories ('aetiology', 'anatomy', 'symptoms', 'procedure', 'postoperative course' and 'prognosis'). Content was scored for completeness level and statistically analysed using anova and post hoc Tukey's test (P YouTube ™ videos for endodontic search terms varied significantly by source and content and were generally incomplete. The danger of patient reliance on YouTube ™ is highlighted, as is the need for endodontic professionals to play an active role in directing patients towards alternative high-quality information sources. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Culture-dependent approaches to explore the prevalence of root canal pathogens from endodontic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Pourhajibagher

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Endodontic infections are considered to be caused by the presence of various microorganisms within the root canal system. Recognition of this microbiota contributes to the successful treatment of infected root canals. This study investigated the microorganisms associated with primary and secondary endodontic infections via culture methods, biochemical tests, and molecular approaches in an Iranian population. Microbial specimens were collected from 36 patients with primary endodontic infection and 14 patients with a history of root canal therapy. Advanced microbiological culture techniques were used to isolate microbiota; subsequently, biochemical tests and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing were performed to identify the microorganisms. Within the total 218 cultivable isolates, Veillonella parvula (20.6% was found to occur with the highest frequency in primary endodontic infection, followed by Porphyromonas gingivalis (14.1%, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (9.2%. Enterococcus faecalis (36.6% was the most predominant microorganism in secondary endodontic infections, followed by Candida albicans, Propionibacterium acnes, and V. parvula with frequencies of 20%, 2%, and 2%, respectively. It was concluded that V. parvula and E. faecalis was most frequently found in primary and secondary endodontic infections, respectively.

  6. Assessment of facultative anaerobes from the root canals of deciduous molars: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Chandwani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The current research aimed to assess the prevalence of facultative anaerobes isolated from the root canals of deciduous molars. Methods. The present research enrolled 60 children in the 6‒9-year age group based on clinical and radiographic findings. Under aseptic conditions, access cavities were prepared followed by collection of samples from infected root canals with the help of sterile paper points. The samples thus obtained were subjected for microbial assay. Results. It was found that Enterococcus faecalis was isolated in 30% of cases, Escherichia coli in 28.4%, Staphylococcus aureus in 25%, α-hemolytic Streptococci in 15% and Proteus mirabilis in 1.6% of cases. Conclusion. It was concluded from the results of the present study that the root canals of deciduous molars had predominance of facultative anaerobes, confirming its polymicrobial nature. This identification of microbes is crucial as it aids in understanding the pathogenesis of pulpal and periradicular diseases to provide effective antimicrobial irrigation and medicament for endodontic treatment.

  7. Isolation and identification of Enterococcus faecalis from necrotic root canals using multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudpour, Ali; Rahimi, Saeed; Sina, Mahmood; Soroush, Mohammad H; Shahi, Shahriar; Shahisa, Shahriar; Asl-Aminabadi, Naser

    2007-09-01

    This study was designed to survey the incidence of Enterococcus faecalis infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic root canals of necrotic teeth using PCR and to isolate the bacterium for further screening. Sixty patients categorized according to their clinical symptoms were used for sampling by insertion of paper points into the root canals and absorbing all the fluids present within them. The samples were incubated in 1.0 ml 2xYT (containing 16 g bacto tryptone, 10 g yeast extract and 5.0 g NaCl per liter) for 24 h at 37 degrees C without aeration prior to multiplex PCR analysis. To assist the isolation of E. faecalis, sub-samples were further grown in the same medium supplemented with 6.5% NaCl and back-inoculated into bile esculin. Using multiple cultivation-dependent and PCR analyses, 6 cases (10%) of E. faecalis were identified. Four isolates were obtained from asymptomatic cases of chronic apical periodontitis, and the other two were associated with phoenix abscess and acute apical abscess, respectively. No E. faecalis infection was found in 5 patients with acute apical periodontitis or in 9 with chronic suppurative periodontitis. Our results indicate that there is no significant difference in the incidence of E. faecalis between symptomatic and asymptomatic necrotic dental root canals (P > 0.05).

  8. Cleaning lateral morphological features of the root canal: the role of streaming and cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J P; Macedo, R G; Verhaagen, B; Versluis, M; Cooper, P R; van der Sluis, L W M; Walmsley, A D

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effects of ultrasonic activation file type, lateral canal location and irrigant on the removal of a biofilm-mimicking hydrogel from a fabricated lateral canal. Additionally, the amount of cavitation and streaming was quantified for these parameters. An intracanal sonochemical dosimetry method was used to quantify the cavitation generated by an IrriSafe 25 mm length, size 25 file inside a root canal model filled with filtered degassed/saturated water or three different concentrations of NaOCl. Removal of a hydrogel, demonstrated previously to be an appropriate biofilm mimic, was recorded to measure the lateral canal cleaning rate from two different instruments (IrriSafe 25 mm length, size 25 and K 21 mm length, size 15) activated with a P5 Suprasson (Satelec) at power P8.5 in degassed/saturated water or NaOCl. Removal rates were compared for significant differences using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and/or Mann-Whitney U-tests. Streaming was measured using high-speed particle imaging velocimetry at 250 kfps, analysing both the oscillatory and steady flow inside the lateral canals. There was no significant difference in amount of cavitation between tap water and oversaturated water (P = 0.538), although more cavitation was observed than in degassed water. The highest cavitation signal was generated with NaOCl solutions (1.0%, 4.5%, 9.0%) (P streaming. The oscillatory velocities were higher inside the lateral canal 3 mm compared to 6 mm from WL and were higher for NaOCl than for saturated water, which in turn was higher than for degassed water. Measurements of cavitation and acoustic streaming have provided insight into their contribution to cleaning. Significant differences in cleaning, cavitation and streaming were found depending on the file type and size, lateral canal location and irrigant used. In general, the IrriSafe file outperformed the K-file, and NaOCl performed better than the other irrigants tested. The cavitation and

  9. Dentinal hypersensitivity following scaling and root planing: comparison of low-level laser and topical fluoride treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesevska, Snezana; Nakova, Marija; Ivanovski, Kiro; Angelov, Nikola; Kesic, Ljiljana; Obradovic, Radmila; Mindova, Sonja; Nares, Salvador

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of low-level laser irradiation to traditional topical fluoride treatment for treatment choices of dentinal hypersensitivity following scaling and root planing. The experimental group (15 patients) was treated with low-energy-level diode laser at each site of dentinal hypersensitivity following scaling and root planning. The control group (15 patients) received topical fluoride treatment (protective varnish for desensitization). All the patients were treated at baseline visit, and then at day 2 and 4 after the initial treatment; the pain was subjectively assessed by the patients as strong, medium, medium low, low, or no pain. Total absence of the dental hypersensitivity was reported in 26.66% of the examined group even after the second visit, compared to the control group where complete resolution of the hypersensitivity was not present after the second visit in any of the treated cases. Complete absence of pain was achieved in 86.6% of patients treated with laser and only in 26.6% in the fluoride treated group, after the third visit. Based on our findings, we conclude that low-energy biostimulative laser treatment can be successfully used for treatment of dental hypersensitivity following scaling and root planing.

  10. Influence of the internal anatomy on the leakage of root canals filled with thermoplastic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jadaa, Anas; Attin, T; Peltomäki, T; Heumann, C; Schmidlin, P R; Paquè, F

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of the internal anatomy on the leakage of root canals filled with the thermoplastic technique. The upper central incisors (UCI) and mesial roots of the lower molars (MRLM) (n = 12 each) were tested regarding leakage using the gas-enhanced permeation test (GEPT) after root filling. The quality of the root fillings was assessed using micro-computed tomography (μCT) by superimposing scans before and after treatment to calculate unfilled volume. The calculated void volume was compared between the groups and correlated to the measured leakage values. Data were analyzed using t test and Pearson's correlation tests (p anatomy should be considered.

  11. Washout resistance of fast-setting pozzolan cement under various root canal irrigants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga-Yeon Jang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Fast-setting pozzolan cement (Endocem, Maruchi was recently developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various root canal irrigants on the washout of Endocem in comparison to the previously marketed mineral trioxide aggregate (ProRoot; Dentsply in a furcal perforation model. Materials and Methods ProRoot and Endocem were placed into acrylic molds on moist Oasis. Each mold was then immediately exposed to either physiologic saline, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, or 2% chlorhexidine (CHX under gentle shaking for five minutes. Washout testing was performed by scoring scanning electron microscope (SEM images. Results Endocem exhibited higher washout resistance compared to ProRoot, especially in the NaOCl group. Conclusions These results suggest that Endocem can be considered a useful repair material for furcal perforation, especially in a single-visit scenario.

  12. Mandibular lateral incisor with four root canals: A unique case of double tooth diagnosed using multidetector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Acharya, Shashi Rashmi; Ather, Amber; Gupta, Jaya

    2013-01-01

    Double tooth is a dental anomaly consequent to fusion of two or more teeth or gemination of a single tooth. This report describes a unique case of double tooth in relation to a mandibular lateral incisor exhibiting the presence of four root canals. The role of conventional radiography and advanced three-dimensional imaging techniques in the better assessment of complex root canal systems and their aid in endodontic management has also been highlighted.

  13. Quality aspects of ex vivo root canal treatments done by undergraduate dental students using four different endodontic treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnickel, Luise; Kruse, Casper; Vaeth, Michael; Kirkevang, Lise-Lotte

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate factors associated with treatment quality of ex vivo root canal treatments performed by undergraduate dental students using different endodontic treatment systems. Four students performed root canal treatment on 80 extracted human teeth using four endodontic treatment systems in designated treatment order following a Latin square design. Lateral seal and length of root canal fillings was radiographically assessed; for lateral seal, a graded visual scale was used. Treatment time was measured separately for access preparation, biomechanical root canal preparation, obturation and for the total procedure. Mishaps were registered. An ANOVA mirroring the Latin square design was performed. Use of machine-driven nickel-titanium systems resulted in overall better quality scores for lateral seal than use of the manual stainless-steel system. Among systems with machine-driven files, scores did not significantly differ. Use of machine-driven instruments resulted in shorter treatment time than manual instrumentation. Machine-driven systems with few files achieved shorter treatment times. With increasing number of treatments, root canal-filling quality increased, treatment time decreased; a learning curve was plotted. No root canal shaping file separated. The use of endodontic treatment systems with machine-driven files led to higher quality lateral seal compared to the manual system. The three contemporary machine-driven systems delivered comparable results regarding quality of root canal fillings; they were safe to use and provided a more efficient workflow than the manual technique. Increasing experience had a positive impact on the quality of root canal fillings while treatment time decreased.

  14. Effects of canal enlargement and irrigation needle depth on the cleaning of the root canal system at 3 mm from the apex

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    Ho-Jin Moon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis, that the effectiveness of irrigation in removing smear layer in the apical third of root canal system is dependent on the depth of placement of the irrigation needle into the root canal and the enlargement size of the canal. Materials and Methods Eighty sound human lower incisors were divided into eight groups according to the enlargement size (#25, #30, #35 and #40 and the needle penetration depth (3 mm from working length, WL-3 mm and 9 mm from working length, WL-9 mm. Each canal was enlarged to working length with Profile.06 Rotary Ni-Ti files and irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl. Then, each canal received a final irrigation with 3 mL of 3% EDTA for 4 min, followed by 5 mL of 5.25% NaOCl at different level (WL-3 mm and WL-9 mm from working length. Each specimen was prepared for the scanning electron microscope (SEM. Photographs of the 3mm area from the apical constriction of each canal with a magnification of ×250, ×500, ×1,000, ×2,500 were taken for the final evaluation. Results Removal of smear layer in WL-3 mm group showed a significantly different effect when the canal was enlarged to larger than #30. There was a significant difference in removing apical smear layer between the needle penetration depth of WL-3 mm and WL-9 mm. Conclusions Removal of smear layer from the apical portion of root canals was effectively accomplished with apical instrumentation to #35/40 06 taper file and 3 mm needle penetration from the working length.

  15. A STUDY OF ROOT CANAL MORPHOLOGY OF Cebus apella TEETH ESTUDO ANATÔMICO DO CANAL RADICULAR DE DENTES DE Cebus apella

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    Priscilla Rocha Afonso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo anatômico em dentes do Cebus apella, para análise da anatomia interna do canal radicular dessa espécie, normatizando seu uso como modelo experimental. Utilizaram-se doze animais adultos. Após a remoção do tecido orgânico, os dentes foram removidos, seccionados e fotografados, sendo analisados com um estereomicroscópio. Os resultados mostraram que os dentes apresentaram características semelhantes às dos seres humanos, mas com algumas peculiaridades, tais como: a anatomia do canal radicular variou de oval para circular; nos caninos inferiores, os canais são semelhantes a um rim, o que reflete o contorno externo da raiz; nos molares superiores, os canais mesiobucal e distobucal são ovais, seguindo o contorno geral do dente. Os autores concluem que esta espécie pode ser utilizada como modelo em pesquisas odontológicas, principalmente em estudos do tratamento do sistema de canal radicular.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Anatomia, dentes, Cebus apella. An anatomic study of Cebus apella root teeth was performed to analyze the internal anatomy of permanent dentition, normalizing its use as experimental model endodontic research. Twelve adult animals were used in this study. After the removal of the organic tissue, the all teeth were removed, sectioned, analyzed and photographed with a stereomicroscope. The results showed that the anatomy of root canal of this species are similar to human dental anatomy, considering the shape, pathway and number of canals, but with some peculiarities, such as: the root canal anatomy varied from oval to circular; in the lower canines, the canals are resembled a kidney, reflecting the outside contour of the root; in the upper molars, the mesiobuccal and distobuccal canals are oval, following the general contour of the tooth. The authors conclude that this primate can be applied as models for study of root canal treatment in human beings, in special the upper central and lateral incisors

  16. A study of root canal morphology of human primary incisors and molars using cone beam computerized tomography: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaurav, Vivek; Srivastava, Nikhil; Rana, Vivek; Adlakha, Vivek Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Variations in morphology of root canals in primary teeth usually leads to complications during and after endodontic therapy. To improve the success in endodontics, a thorough knowledge of the root canal morphology is essential. The aim of this study was to assess the variation in number and morphology of the root canals of primary incisors and molars and to study the applicability of cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) in assessing the same. A total of 60 primary molars and incisors with full root length were collected and various parameters such as the number of roots, number of canals, diameter of root canal at cementoenamel junction and middle-third, length and angulations of roots of primary molars and incisors were studied using CBCT. The observations were put to descriptive statistics to find out the frequency, mean, standard deviation and range for all four subgroups. Further, unpaired t-test was used to compare these parameters between subgroups and analysis of variance test was implemented to evaluate the parameters within the subgroups. The CBCT showed the presence of bifurcation of root canal at middle third in 13% of mandibular incisors while 20% of mandibular molars had two canals in distal root. The diameter of distobuccal root canal of maxillary molars and mesiolingual canal of mandibular molars was found to be minimum. CBCT is a relatively new and effective technology, which provides an auxiliary imaging modality to supplement conventional radiography for assessing the variation in root canal morphology of primary teeth.

  17. A method for retrieving endodontic or atypical nonendodontic separated instruments from the root canal: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Jardel Camilo do Carmo; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Dantas, Andrea Abi Rached; Jordão-Basso, Keren Cristina Fagundes; Keine, Katia Cristina; Ruchaya, Prashant Jay; Faria, Gisele; Leonardo, Renato de Toledo

    2014-11-01

    This clinical report presents a new method for retrieving separated instruments from the root canal with minimally invasive procedures. The presence of separated instrument in root canal may interfere in the endodontic treatment prognosis. There are several recommended methods to retrieve separated instruments, but some are difficult in clinically practice. This study describes two cases of separated instrument removal from the root canal using a stainless-steel prepared needle associated with a K-file. Case 1 presented a fractured gutta-percha condenser within the mandibular second premolar, it was separated during incorrect intracanal medication calcium hydroxide placement. Case 2 had a fractured sewing needle within the upper central incisor that the patient used to remove food debris from the root canal. After cervical preparation, the fractured instruments were fitted inside a prepared needle and then an endodontic instrument (#25 K-file) was adapted with clockwise turning motion between the needle inner wall and the fragment. The endodontic or atypical nonendodontic separated instrument may be easily pull on of the root canal using a single and low cost device. The methods for retrieving separated instruments from root canal are difficult and destructive procedures. The present case describes a simple method to solve this problem.

  18. Root canal morphology and variations of mandibular premolars by clearing technique: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Vaishali; Shah, Nimisha; Joshi, Hardik

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare internal anatomy between first and second mandibular premolars and to study different percentage variations of root canal morphology of mandibular premolars in Gujarat population based on Vertucci's classification by clearing technique. A total of 80 extracted intact permanent mandibular premolars (40 each mandibular first premolar and mandibular second premolar) with fully formed apices were collected. Access cavity was prepared with endo access kit, all samples were placed in 2.5% sodium hypochlorite for 48 hours, after that all samples were washed in running water for 2 hours. After washing, all samples were transferred to 5% nitric acid, for decalcification, for 72 hours, with the acid being changed every 24 hours and stirred once every 8 hours. All samples were washed in running water and dehydrated using ascending grades (70%, 80%, 90% and 100%) of isopropyl alcohol for 2 days. Finally, they were rendered transparent by immersion in methyl salicylate for 15 minutes and then India ink dye was injected into the access cavity. The anatomy of the root canal was observed and classified based on the Vertucci's classification. Parametric Z-test was used to compare the variation between mandibular first and second premolars. In mandibular first premolar, type 1 was found in 20%, type 2 was 5%, type 3 was 5%, type 4 was 25%, type 5 was 12.5% and type 6 was 2.5% of total samples. Whereas, in mandibular second premolar, type 1 was found in 80% out of all samples, type 4 was 2.5%, type 5 was 17.5%. Type 2, type 3, type 6, type 7 and type 8 were not found in this study. Mandibular first premolar showed higher variation (75%) compared to mandibular second premolar (37.5%). The knowledge of variations in the root canal morphology of the mandibular premolars can enhance the level of endodontic treatment of mandibular premolars. Root canal morphology, Vertucci's classification, Clearing technique. How to cite this article: Parekh V, Shah N

  19. Classification of root canal microorganisms using electronic-nose and discriminant analysis

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    Özbilge Hatice

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root canal treatment is a debridement process which disrupts and removes entire microorganisms from the root canal system. Identification of microorganisms may help clinicians decide on treatment alternatives such as using different irrigants, intracanal medicaments and antibiotics. However, the difficulty in cultivation and the complexity in isolation of predominant anaerobic microorganisms make clinicians resort to empirical medical treatments. For this reason, identification of microorganisms is not a routinely used procedure in root canal treatment. In this study, we aimed at classifying 7 different standard microorganism strains which are frequently seen in root canal infections, using odor data collected using an electronic nose instrument. Method Our microorganism odor data set consisted of 5 repeated samples from 7 different classes at 4 concentration levels. For each concentration, 35 samples were classified using 3 different discriminant analysis methods. In order to determine an optimal setting for using electronic-nose in such an application, we have tried 3 different approaches in evaluating sensor responses. Moreover, we have used 3 different sensor baseline values in normalizing sensor responses. Since the number of sensors is relatively large compared to sample size, we have also investigated the influence of two different dimension reduction methods on classification performance. Results We have found that quadratic type dicriminant analysis outperforms other varieties of this method. We have also observed that classification performance decreases as the concentration decreases. Among different baseline values used for pre-processing the sensor responses, the model where the minimum values of sensor readings in the sample were accepted as the baseline yields better classification performance. Corresponding to this optimal choice of baseline value, we have noted that among different sensor response model and

  20. [The use of ultrasonic files in canal preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, P; Terrie, B

    1990-01-01

    The continuous high volume of irrigating solution delivered by the ultrasonic system facilitates the root canal debridement. An excellent cleaning of dentin wall is obtained even on surfaces unreached by the mechanical instrumentation. In order to obtain an efficacious preparation, the use of ultrasonic files were combined with instrumentation. This new technique is described in this article.

  1. Diode Laser and Calcium Hydroxide for Elimination of Enterococcus Faecalis in Root Canal

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    Neda Naghavi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ultimate goal of endodontic treatment is to eliminate the bacterial infection in the root canal system. While mechanical debridement combined with chemical irrigation removes the bulk of microorganisms, residual bacteria are readily detectable in approximately one-half of teeth just prior to obturation. Laser light can be used to destroy bacteria. This in vitro study was performed to evaluate the effect of diode laser and calcium hydroxide on mono-infected dental canals.Methods: Fifty five single-rooted human premolars were prepared and contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. After three weeks of incubation, the samples were divided into three experimental groups (n = 15 and two control groups (n = 5. In the first and second groups, the teeth were rinsed for 5 min with either sterile saline or 5.25% NaOCl and irradiated with a 810-nm diode laser at 1.5 W output for 5 × 4s. In the third group, the teeth were rinsed with 5.25% NaOCl and then Ca(OH2 paste was inserted in the canals for 1 week. Intracanal bacterial sampling was done and the samples were plated to determine the CFU count. Results: 5.25% NaOCl plus laser was as effective as calcium hydroxide and significantly more effective than sterile saline (P>0.05 in elimination of E. faecalis. Complete elimination of E. faecalis was seen only for the one week calcium hydroxide treatment. Conclusion: Combination therapy with NaOCl irrigation and diode laser irradiation can be recommended as an effective treatment option for elimination of E. faecalis from the root canal system.

  2. Morphology of root canal surface: A reflection on the process of cementation of the composite relined glass fiber post

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    Yasmine Mendes Pupo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted to evaluate the bond strength in the different root thirds (premolars and maxillary central incisors of composite relined glass fiber posts compared to untreated glass fiber posts cemented with dual- or chemical-cure cements. Materials and Methods: Sixty human single-rooted premolars (flat canal (n = 15 and 12 maxillary central incisors were used (round canal (n = 3. The teeth were sectioned, and the roots received endodontic treatment. The standardized preparation of the canals was carried out, and the roots were randomly divided into four groups according to the cementation systems: G1: cemented posts (dual: Ambar/Allcem; G2: relined posts (dual: Ambar/Allcem; G3: cemented posts (chemical: Fusion Duralink/Cement Post; and G4: relined posts (chemical: Fusion Duralink/Cement Post. The roots were cut to give two slices of each third of the root canal per specimen. Push-out test was conducted at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between groups for the premolars (flat canal (P = 0.959. There was a significant difference in the central incisors between the middle and apical thirds in the cemented group when using the dual system (P = 0.04 and between the middle and apical thirds (P = 0.003 and cervical and apical thirds (P = 0.033 when using the chemical system. Conclusion: Due to the anatomy of the root canal, flat canal of the premolars does not require relining, but round canal of the maxillary central incisors demands it for more secure in the bond strength.

  3. Identification of dental root canals and their medial line from micro-CT and cone-beam CT records

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    Benyó Balázs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shape of the dental root canal is highly patient specific. Automated identification methods of the medial line of dental root canals and the reproduction of their 3D shape can be beneficial for planning endodontic interventions as severely curved root canals or multi-rooted teeth may pose treatment challenges. Accurate shape information of the root canals may also be used by manufacturers of endodontic instruments in order to make more efficient clinical tools. Method Novel image processing procedures dedicated to the automated detection of the medial axis of the root canal from dental micro-CT and cone-beam CT records are developed. For micro-CT, the 3D model of the root canal is built up from several hundred parallel cross sections, using image enhancement, histogram based fuzzy c-means clustering, center point detection in the segmented slice, three dimensional inner surface reconstruction, and potential field driven curve skeleton extraction in three dimensions. Cone-beam CT records are processed with image enhancement filters and fuzzy chain based regional segmentation, followed by the reconstruction of the root canal surface and detecting its skeleton via a mesh contraction algorithm. Results The proposed medial line identification and root canal detection algorithms are validated on clinical data sets. 25 micro-CT and 36 cone-beam-CT records are used in the validation procedure. The overall success rate of the automatic dental root canal identification was about 92% in both procedures. The algorithms proved to be accurate enough for endodontic therapy planning. Conclusions Accurate medial line identification and shape detection algorithms of dental root canal have been developed. Different procedures are defined for micro-CT and cone-beam CT records. The automated execution of the subsequent processing steps allows easy application of the algorithms in the dental care. The output data of the image processing procedures

  4. The effect of endodontic regeneration medicaments on mechanical properties of radicular dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassen, Ghaeth H.

    Endodontic regeneration treatment of necrotic immature teeth has gained popularity in recent years. The approach suggests a biological alternative to induce a continuous root development. In this project, three in vitro experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of three medicaments used in endodontic regeneration on mechanical properties and chemical structure of radicular dentin. In the first experiment, we investigated longitudinally the effect of medicaments on the indentation properties of the root canal surface of immature teeth using a novel BioDent reference point indenter. A significant difference in the majority of indentation parameters between all groups was found after one-week and one-month application of medicaments (p double antibiotic paste (DAP) > control > calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]. The four-week exposure of dentin to TAP and DAP caused 43% and 31% increase in total indentation distance outcome, respectively. In the second experiment, we investigated longitudinally the effect of medicaments on the chemical structure of immature radicular dentin by measuring the phosphate/amide I ratios of dentin using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Phosphate/amide I ratios were significantly different between the four groups after one week, two weeks and four week application of medicaments (p untreated dentin > DAP-treated dentin > TAP-treated dentin. In the third experiment, we investigated longitudinally the effect of medicaments on root fracture resistance and microhardness of radicular dentin. For the microhardness, the two-way interaction between group and time was significant (pmedicaments caused significant decrease in fracture resistance ranging between 19%-30% after three month application compared to one week application. The three medicaments used in endodontic regeneration caused significant change in the chemical integrity of the superficial radicular dentin and significantly affected the indentation

  5. Endodontic Treatment of Maxillary Premolar with Three Root Canals Using Optical Microscope and NiTi Rotatory Files System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relvas, João Bosco Formiga; de Carvalho, Fredsom Marcio Acris; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Sponchiado, Emílio Carlos; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to report a clinical case of endodontic treatment of a maxillary first premolar with three root canals using an optical microscope and rotary instrumentation technique. The main complaint of the patient, a 16-year-old girl, was pain in tooth 14. After clinical and radiographic examination, irreversible pulpitis was diagnosed. An alteration in the middle third of the pulp chamber radiographically observed suggested the presence of three root canals. Pulp chamber access and initial catheterization using size number 10 K-files were performed. The optical microscope and radiographic examination were used to confirm the presence of three root canals. PathFiles #13, #16, and #19 were used to perform catheterization and ProTaper files S1 and S2 for cervical preparation. Apical preparation was performed using F1 file in the buccal canals and F2 in the palatal canal up to the working length. The root canals were filled with Endofill sealer by thermal compaction technique using McSpadden #50. The case has been receiving follow-up for 12 months and no painful symptomatology or periapical lesions have been found. The use of technological tools was able to assist the endodontic treatment of teeth with complex internal anatomy, such as three-canal premolars.

  6. A new software for dimensional measurements in 3D endodontic root canal instrumentation

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    Raffaele Sinibaldi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issue to be faced to get size estimates of 3D modification of the dental canal after endodontic treatment is the co-registration of the image stacks obtained through micro computed tomography (micro-CT scans before and after treatment. Here quantitative analysis of micro-CT images have been performed by means of new dedicated software targeted to the analysis of root canal after endodontic instrumentation. This software analytically calculates the best superposition between the pre and post structures using the inertia tensor of the tooth. This strategy avoid minimization procedures, which can be user dependent, and time consuming. Once the co-registration have been achieved dimensional measurements have then been performed by contemporary evaluation of quantitative parameters over the two superimposed stacks of micro-CT images. The software automatically calculated the changes of volume, surface and symmetry axes in 3D occurring after the instrumentation. The calculation is based on direct comparison of the canal and canal branches selected by the user on the pre treatment image stack.

  7. Preparation of severely curved simulated root canals using engine-driven rotary and conventional hand instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szep, S; Gerhardt, T; Leitzbach, C; Lüder, W; Heidemann, D

    2001-03-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy and safety of six different nickel-titanium engine-driven instruments used with a torque-controlled engine device and nickel-titanium hand and stainless steel hand instruments in preparation of curved canals. A total of 80 curved (36 degrees) simulated root canals were prepared. Images before and after were superimposed, and instrumentation areas were observed. Time of instrumentation, instrument failure, change in working length and weight loss were also recorded. Results show that stainless steel hand instruments cause significantly less transportation towards the inner wall of the canal than do nickel-titanium hand instruments. No instrument fracture occurred with hand instruments, but 30-60% breakage of instruments was recorded during instrumentation with the engine-driven devices. The working length was maintained by all types of instruments. Newly developed nickel-titanium rotary files were not able to prevent straightening of the severely curved canals when a torque-controlled engine-driven device was used.

  8. Analysis of kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic patterns during root canal preparation with rotary and manual instruments

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    Braulio Pasternak-Júnior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the muscular activity during root canal preparation through kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The operators prepared one canal with RaCe rotary instruments and another with Flexo-files. The kinematics of the major joints was reconstructed using an optoelectronic system and electromyographic responses of the flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi radialis, brachioradialis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, middle deltoid, and upper trapezius were recorded. The joint torques of the shoulder, elbow and wrist were calculated using inverse dynamics. In the kinematic analysis, angular movements of the wrist and elbow were classified as low risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. With respect to the shoulder, the classification was medium-risk. RESULTS: There was no significant difference revealed by the kinetic reports. The EMG results showed that for the middle deltoid and upper trapezius the rotary instrumentation elicited higher values. The flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis, as well as the brachioradialis showed a higher value with the manual method. CONCLUSION: The muscular recruitment for accomplishment of articular movements for root canal preparation with either the rotary or manual techniques is distinct. Nevertheless, the rotary instrument presented less difficulty in the generation of the joint torque in each articulation, thus, presenting a greater uniformity of joint torques.

  9. Analysis of kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic patterns during root canal preparation with rotary and manual instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    PASTERNAK-JÚNIOR, Braulio; de SOUSA NETO, Manoel Damião; DIONÍSIO, Valdeci Carlos; PÉCORA, Jesus Djalma; SILVA, Ricardo Gariba

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the muscular activity during root canal preparation through kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG). Material and Methods The operators prepared one canal with RaCe rotary instruments and another with Flexo-files. The kinematics of the major joints was reconstructed using an optoelectronic system and electromyographic responses of the flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi radialis, brachioradialis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, middle deltoid, and upper trapezius were recorded. The joint torques of the shoulder, elbow and wrist were calculated using inverse dynamics. In the kinematic analysis, angular movements of the wrist and elbow were classified as low risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. With respect to the shoulder, the classification was medium-risk. Results There was no significant difference revealed by the kinetic reports. The EMG results showed that for the middle deltoid and upper trapezius the rotary instrumentation elicited higher values. The flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis, as well as the brachioradialis showed a higher value with the manual method. Conclusion The muscular recruitment for accomplishment of articular movements for root canal preparation with either the rotary or manual techniques is distinct. Nevertheless, the rotary instrument presented less difficulty in the generation of the joint torque in each articulation, thus, presenting a greater uniformity of joint torques. PMID:22437679

  10. CT evaluation of canal preparation using rotary and hand NI-TI instruments: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Shruthi; Sreenivasa Murthy, B V

    2010-01-01

    Background: Controlled, uniformly tapered radicular preparation is a great challenge in endodontics. Improper preparation can lead to procedural errors like transportation of foramen, uneven dentine thickness, stripping of root canal, formation of ledge, zip, and elbow in curved canals. These procedural errors and their sequel can adversely affect the prognosis of treatment. Aim/Objectives: The present in vitro study aims to evaluate canal preparation based on the following factors: canal transportation, remaining dentine thickness and comparing centering ability between hand Ni-Ti K files and ProTaper rotary Ni-Ti instruments using computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: For evaluation, 30 mesiobuccal roots of maxillary molars were selected. Of these, 15 roots were distributed into two groups where Group 1 included hand instrumentation with Ni-Ti K-files; and Group 2 comprised ProTaper NiTi rotary system. Pre instrumentation and post instrumentation three-dimensional CT images were obtained from root cross-sections that were 1 mm thick from apex to the canal orifice; scanned images were then superimposed and compared. Result: It was observed that the manual technique using hand Ni-Ti K-file produced lesser canal transportation and maintained greater dentine thickness than the rotary ProTaper technique at middle and coronal third and this difference was statistically significant. No significant difference was seen with regard to canal transportation and remaining root dentine at apical levels. With regard to centering ratio, no significant difference was seen between both the groups at all levels. Conclusion: ProTaper should be used judiciously, especially in curved canals, as it causes higher canal transportation and thinning of root dentine at middle and coronal levels. None of the groups showed optimal centering ability. PMID:20582214

  11. CT evaluation of canal preparation using rotary and hand NI-TI instruments: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Shruthi; Sreenivasa Murthy, B V

    2010-01-01

    Controlled, uniformly tapered radicular preparation is a great challenge in endodontics. Improper preparation can lead to procedural errors like transportation of foramen, uneven dentine thickness, stripping of root canal, formation of ledge, zip, and elbow in curved canals. These procedural errors and their sequel can adversely affect the prognosis of treatment. The present in vitro study aims to evaluate canal preparation based on the following factors: canal transportation, remaining dentine thickness and comparing centering ability between hand Ni-Ti K files and ProTaper rotary Ni-Ti instruments using computed tomography (CT). For evaluation, 30 mesiobuccal roots of maxillary molars were selected. Of these, 15 roots were distributed into two groups where Group 1 included hand instrumentation with Ni-Ti K-files; and Group 2 comprised ProTaper NiTi rotary system. Pre instrumentation and post instrumentation three-dimensional CT images were obtained from root cross-sections that were 1 mm thick from apex to the canal orifice; scanned images were then superimposed and compared. It was observed that the manual technique using hand Ni-Ti K-file produced lesser canal transportation and maintained greater dentine thickness than the rotary ProTaper technique at middle and coronal third and this difference was statistically significant. No significant difference was seen with regard to canal transportation and remaining root dentine at apical levels. With regard to centering ratio, no significant difference was seen between both the groups at all levels. ProTaper should be used judiciously, especially in curved canals, as it causes higher canal transportation and thinning of root dentine at middle and coronal levels. None of the groups showed optimal centering ability.

  12. EFFICACY OF PROTAPER NEXT AND PROTAPER UNIVERSAL RETREATMENT SYSTEMS IN REMOVING GUTTA-PERCHA IN CURVED ROOT CANALS DURING ROOT CANAL RETREATMENT

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    Taha ÖZYÜREK

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the cleanliness of root canal walls after retreatment using ProTaper Next (PTN, ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTR nickel-titanium (NiTi systems and Hedström hand files in curved mesial canals of mandibular molar teeth and the time required for gutta-percha and sealer removal. Materials and Methods: Ninety mandibular molar teeth with curved mesial roots were instrumented up to #35.04 with Mtwo NiTi rotary instruments and obturated using the continuous wave of condensation technique. Removal of gutta-percha and sealer was performed using one of the following: PTN and PTR NiTi systems and Hedström hand files. Samples were placed on the VistaScan phosphor plates in the mesio-distal direction and the radiographs were taken. The digital radiographs were analyzed using AutoCAD software. Also, the total time required for gutta-percha removal was calculated by a chronometer. Results: The total retreatment time was significantly shorter in the PTN and PTR groups compared with the manual group (p<0.05. There was a significant difference between the groups according to the total residual gutta-percha and sealer (p<0.05. The PTN and PTR groups left significantly less gutta-percha and sealer remnant than the manual group (p<0.001. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the PTN and PTR groups showed less residual gutta-percha and sealer than the manual group. The NiTi rotary systems were significantly faster than the manual group in the time required for gutta-percha and sealer removal.

  13. Efficacy of protaper next and protaper universal retreatment systems in removing gutta-percha in curved root canals during root canal retreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurek, Taha; Ozsezer-Demiryurek, Ebru

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cleanliness of root canal walls after retreatment using ProTaper Next (PTN), ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTR) nickel-titanium (NiTi) systems and Hedström hand files in curved mesial canals of mandibular molar teeth and the time required for gutta-percha and sealer removal. Ninety mandibular molar teeth with curved mesial roots were instrumented up to #35.04 with Mtwo NiTi rotary instruments and obturated using the continuous wave of condensation technique. Removal of gutta-percha and sealer was performed using one of the following: PTN and PTR NiTi systems and Hedström hand files. Samples were placed on the VistaScan phosphor plates in the mesio-distal direction and the radiographs were taken. The digital radiographs were analyzed using AutoCAD software. Also, the total time required for gutta-percha removal was calculated by a chronometer. The total retreatment time was significantly shorter in the PTN and PTR groups compared with the manual group (p<0.05). There was a significant difference between the groups according to the total residual gutta-percha and sealer (p<0.05). The PTN and PTR groups left significantly less gutta-percha and sealer remnant than the manual group (p<0.001). Within the limitations of this study, the PTN and PTR groups showed less residual gutta-percha and sealer than the manual group. The NiTi rotary systems were significantly faster than the manual group in the time required for gutta-percha and sealer removal.

  14. Comparative analysis of efficacy and cleaning ability of hand and rotary devices for gutta-percha removal in root canal retreatment: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Narender; Admala, Shilpa Reddy; Dinapadu, Sainath; Pasari, Srikanth; Reddy, Manoranjan P; Rao, M S Rama

    2013-07-01

    instruments produce frictional heat which plasticises gutta-percha and aids in easy removal. Apical third of root canals showed more guttapercha debris compared to coronal and middle 1/3 and has been attributed to the greater anatomic variability and difficulty of instrumentation in the apical area. The existence of deep groves and depressions on dentine walls in this apical 1/3 make them less instrumented areas as it did be difficult to direct the file against the extreme root canal wall. The fastest technique to remove gutta-percha and the shortest time to reach working length was observed with ProTaper retreatment instruments with xylene followed by ProTaper retreatment files without xylene and Hedstrom files without xylene. After instrumentation for removal of gutta-percha, apical third was found to have more debris compared to coronal and middle 1/3 of the root canal.

  15. Photodynamic therapy with water-soluble phtalocyanines against bacterial biofilms in teeth root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergova, Raina; Georgieva, Tzvetelina; Angelov, Ivan; Mantareva, Vanya; Valkanov, Serjoga; Mitov, Ivan; Dimitrov, Slavcho

    2012-06-01

    The study presents the PDT with metal phthalocyanines on biofilms grown in root canals of ten representatives of the Gram-positive and the Gram-negative bacterial species and a fungus Candida albicans which cause aqute teeth infections in root canals.. The extracted human single-root teeth infected for 48 h with microorganisms in conditions to form biofilms of the above pathogens were PDT treated. The stage of biofilm formation and PDT effect of the samples of the teeth were determined by the scaning electron microscopy and with standard microbial tests. The PDT treating procedure included 10 min incubation with the respected phthalocyanine and irradiated with 660 nm Diode laser for 10 min. The most strongly antibacterial activity was achieved with zinc(II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc) against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. The other Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans were 10-100 times more resistant than the Gram-positive species. The Gram-negative Moraxella catarrhalis and Acinetobacter baumannii were more sensitive than the enterobacteria, but eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilm was insignificant. The influence of the stage of biofilm formation and the initial conditions (bacterial density, photosensitizer concentration and energy fluence of radiation) to the obtained level of inactivation of biofilms was investigated. The PDT with ZnPc photosensitizers show a powerful antimicrobial activity against the most frequent pathogens in endodontic infections and this method for inactivation of pathogens may be used with sucsses for treatment of the bacterial biofilms in the root canals.

  16. Influence of storage times on bond strength of resin cements to root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Coêlho Bandéca

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The resin cements are responsible to retention of the indirect materials decreasing marginal leakage, increasing failure resistance compared with conventional cementation. The cementation within root canal is very hard due unfavorable conditions regarding the application of adhesive techniques caused by inadequate access. Therefore, considering the possibility to decrease steps of cementation, this study was performed to evaluate the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX TM U100, 3M ESPE and resin cement combined with self-ecthing adhesive system (Panavia® F 2.0, Kuraray light-cured with Quartz Tungsten Halogen (QTH following storage at 37 °C immediately after light-curing, 24 and 48 hours and 7 days. The root canals were prepared to receive the glass fiber post in the depth of 10 mm, irrigated with 17% EDTA and NaOCl, rinsed with distilled water and dried using paper points. The roots were perpendicularly sectioned into approximately 1 mm thick sections, obtaining ninety-six slices (n = 12. The slices were trimmed using a cylindrical diamond bur in the proximal surfaces until it touched the post and attached into a device, which were mounted on a strength tester (Bisco and loaded in tension at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure occurred at specimens. The analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests showed significant statistical differences (P .05. The resin cements 24 and 48 hours after light-curing were statistically similar among themselves (P > .05. The both resin cement showed similar bond strength into root canal on different storage times. The highest bond strength values of the resin cements were showed 7 days after curing.

  17. Root canal revascularization. The beginning of a new era in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrahabi, Mothanna K; Ali, Mahmoud M

    2014-05-01

    Endodontic management of immature anterior teeth with necrotic pulps is a great challenge. Although there are different treatment procedures to deal with this problem such as apexification by using calcium hydroxide dressings or applying a barrier of mineral trioxide aggregate and gutta-percha obturation, the outcomes are still unsatisfactory and the root might still be weak. Recently, a new treatment protocol by revascularization of immature non-vital, infected teeth was introduced to regenerate dental structure and complete the root maturation. However, larger case series with longer follow-up periods are required to accept revascularization as the standard protocol for management of immature non-vital, infected teeth. In this review, we discuss the concept of root canal revascularization, revascularization mechanisms, and the structure of the regenerated tissues.

  18. Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigation and Its Effect on Bond Strength to Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq S. Abuhaimed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective shaping and cleaning of root canals are essential for the success of endodontic treatment. Due to the complex anatomy of root canal spaces, the use of various instrumentation techniques alone is not effective in producing bacteria-free root canal spaces. Irrigation, disinfectants, rinses, and intervisit medications are used in conjunction with the mechanical instrumentation to ensure the success of endodontic treatment. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, a halogenated compound, is routinely used to irrigate the root canal during endodontic treatments. NaOCl has been known for its antibacterial action, proteolytic and dissolution capacity, and debridement properties. NaOCl, however, can alter the composition of dentin and hence its interaction with the adhesive resins used to bond the restorative materials to treated dentin. This review therefore covers in depth the action of NaOCl on dentin-adhesive resin bond strength including both enhancement and reduction, then mechanisms proposed for such action, and finally how the adverse action of NaOCl on dentin can be reversed.

  19. Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigation and Its Effect on Bond Strength to Dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhaimed, Tariq S; Abou Neel, Ensanya A

    2017-01-01

    Effective shaping and cleaning of root canals are essential for the success of endodontic treatment. Due to the complex anatomy of root canal spaces, the use of various instrumentation techniques alone is not effective in producing bacteria-free root canal spaces. Irrigation, disinfectants, rinses, and intervisit medications are used in conjunction with the mechanical instrumentation to ensure the success of endodontic treatment. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), a halogenated compound, is routinely used to irrigate the root canal during endodontic treatments. NaOCl has been known for its antibacterial action, proteolytic and dissolution capacity, and debridement properties. NaOCl, however, can alter the composition of dentin and hence its interaction with the adhesive resins used to bond the restorative materials to treated dentin. This review therefore covers in depth the action of NaOCl on dentin-adhesive resin bond strength including both enhancement and reduction, then mechanisms proposed for such action, and finally how the adverse action of NaOCl on dentin can be reversed.

  20. Evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal retreatment with several NiTi systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, A N; Er, O; Canakci, B C

    2015-12-01

    To compare the amount of debris extruded apically during root canal retreatment using ProTaper, Mtwo and Reciproc instruments with hand H-files. In total, 60 freshly extracted human mandibular incisor teeth were used. All root canals were prepared with a Reciproc R25 file than filled with Gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer using cold lateral condensation before being assigned randomly to four groups (n = 15 each). In group 1, root fillings were removed with the Protaper Universal retreatment system; ProTaper Universal F3 and F4 instruments were used for the final preparation. In group 2, root fillings were removed with the Mtwo retreatment system; Mtwo size 30, .06 taper, size 35, .06 taper and size 40, .06 taper files were used for the final preparation. In group 3, root fillings were removed with Reciproc R25 instruments; Reciproc R40 instruments were used for the final preparation. In group 4, the root fillings were removed with Gates Glidden burs and sizes 35, 30 and 25 H-files; for final preparation, a size 40 H-file was used. Glass vials were used for debris collection. The vials were weighed before and after Gutta-percha removal. Additionally, the times required for the retreatment procedures were recorded. Data were analysed statistically using one-way analysis of variance. The Reciproc system produced significantly smaller amounts of apical extruded debris than the other groups (P ProTaper groups. The ProTaper and Reciproc groups required significantly less time than the Mtwo and H-file groups (P hand filing. Use of the ProTaper and Reciproc instruments required less time for retreatment procedures than use of the Mtwo or H-file. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Diagnostic value of MRI for nerve root compression due to lumbar canal stenosis. Clinical and anatomic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Michihiro; Kikuchi, Shinichi; Kageyama, Kazuhiro; Katakura, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Kenji

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was undertaken in 26 patients with surgically proven nerve root compression due to lumbar canal stenosis. The findings on coronary images were compared with those of selective radiculography to assess the diagnostic ability of MRI to determine the site of nerve root compression. Intermission and partial defect, which reflect nerve root compression, were seen in only 5 (19.2%) of 26 nerve roots on MRI, as compared with 20 (76.9%) on radiculography. Thus MRI alone was difficult to diagnose nerve root compression due to lumbar canal stenosis. Furthermore, the optimum angle of coronary views was determined in 13 cadavers. Para-sagittal views were found to be optimal for the observation of the whole running of the nerve root. Three-dimensional MRI was found to have a potential to diagnose nerve root compression in the intervertebral foramen and the distal part of the intervertebral foramen. (N.K.)

  2. Radiographic Healing after a Root Canal Treatment Performed in Single-rooted Teeth with and without Ultrasonic Activation of the Irrigant : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Yu-Hong; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Jiang, Lan; Chen, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Ying-Yi; Tian, Fu-Cong; Bao, Xu-Dong; Gao, Xue-Jun; Versluis, Michel; Wu, Min-Kai; van der Sluis, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of a root canal treatment with and without additional ultrasonic activation of the irrigant. Methods: Single-rooted teeth with radiographic evidence of periapical bone loss were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups. In both groups

  3. Extrusion of Debris from Primary Molar Root Canals following Instrumentation with Traditional and New File Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Bhagyashree; Pawar, Ajinkya M; Kfir, Anda; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2017-11-01

    To assess the amount of debris extruded apically during instrumentation of distal canals of extracted primary molars by three instrument systems [ProTaper Universal (PTU), ProTaper NEXT (PTN), and self-adjusting file (SAF)] compared with conventional stainless steel hand K-files (HF, control). Primary mandibular molars (n = 120) with a single distal canal were selected and randomly divided into four groups (n = 30) for root canal instrumentation using group I, HF (to size 0.30/0.02 taper), group II, PTU (to size F3), group III, PTN (to size X3), and group IV, SAF. Debris extruded during instrumentation was collected in preweighed Eppendorf tubes, stored in an incubator at 70°C for 5 days and then weighed. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Turkey's post hoc test (p = 0.05). All the groups resulted in extrusion of debris. There was statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) in the debris extrusion between the three groups: HF (0.00133 ± 0.00012), PTU (0.00109 ± 0.00005), PTN (0.00052 ± 0.00008), and SAF (0.00026 ± 0.00004). Instrumentation with SAF resulted in the least debris extrusion when used for shaping root canals of primary molar teeth. Debris extrusion in primary teeth poses an adverse effect on the stem cells and may also alter the permanent dental germ. Debris extrusion is rarely reported for primary teeth and it is important for the clinician to know which endodontic instrumentation leads to less extrusion of debris.

  4. Predictive models of pain following root canal treatment: a prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, A; de la Macorra, J C; Hidalgo, J J; Azabal, M

    2013-08-01

    To determine the probability of the incidence, intensity, duration and triggering of post-endodontic pain, considering factors related to the patient (age, gender, medical evaluation) and to the affected tooth (group, location, number of canals, pulp vitality, preoperative pain, periapical radiolucencies, previous emergency access, presence of occlusal contacts with antagonist). A total of 500 one-visit root canal treatments (RCTs) were performed on patients referred to an endodontist. Shaping of root canals was performed manually with Gates-Glidden drills and K-Flexofiles, and apical patency was maintained with a size 10 file. A 5% NaOCl solution was used for irrigation, and canals were filled with lateral compaction and AH-Plus sealer. Independent factors were recorded during the treatment, and characteristics of post-endodontic pain (incidence, intensity, type and duration) were later surveyed through questionnaires. Of the 500 questionnaires, 374 were properly returned and split in two groups for two different statistical purposes: 316 cases were used to adjust the logistic regression models to predict each characteristic of post-endodontic pain using predictive factors, and the remaining 58 cases were used to test the validity of each model. The predictive models showed that the incidence of post-endodontic pain was significantly lower when the treated tooth was not a molar (P = 0.003), demonstrated periapical radiolucencies (P = 0.003), had no history of previous pain (P = 0.006) or emergency endodontic treatment (P = 0.045) and had no occlusal contact (P endodontic pain were generated and validated taking account of the interrelation of multiple concomitant clinical factors. A predictive model for triggering post-endodontic pain could not be established. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. In vitro antimicrobial activity of root canal sealers and calcium hydroxide paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro L Cavalcanti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of different root canal sealers and calcium hydroxide (CH paste. Materials and Methods: The sample was composed of two sealers (Fill Canal® and Sealer 26® , one CH cement (Hydro C® , and a CH paste. The agar diffusion test was performed in Petri dishes inoculated with the following microorganisms: Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida tropicalis. The diameters of the zones of microbial growth inhibition were measured after 24 h. The tests were performed in triplicate. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey′s test at 5% significance level. Results: Fill Canal® exhibited the largest mean zone of microbial growth inhibition against the Candida species and differed significantly from the other groups (P < 0.001. When inhibition was observed against S. mitis and S. oralis, the CH paste presented a larger mean zone of microbial growth inhibition than those of the other materials (P < 0.05. Regarding the inhibition of S. mutans, a statistically significant difference was observed only between the CH paste and Hydro C® (P < 0.05; the paste produced the largest mean zone of microbial growth inhibition against this microorganism. Regarding the inhibition of S. salivarius, Fill Canal® presented smaller mean zone of microbial growth inhibition than Sealer 26® and CH paste (P < 0.05. Conclusion: All the materials presented zones of microbial growth inhibition against all the test bacteria. Fill Canal® presented the largest mean zone of inhibition against the Candida species. For the Streptococcus cultures, none of the sealers presented inhibition superior to that of the CH paste.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite associated with intracanal medication for Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis inoculated in root canals

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    Marcia Carneiro Valera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the action of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl associated with an intracanal medication against Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis inoculated in root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-six human single-