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Sample records for root apical papilla-derived

  1. Nuclear Factor I-C promotes proliferation and differentiation of apical papilla-derived human stem cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zhihua; Jiang, Yong; Niu, Zhongying; Fu, Lei; Luo, Zhirong; Cooper, Paul R.; Smith, Anthony J.; He, Wenxi

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Nuclear Factor I-C (NFIC) has been implicated in the regulation of tooth root development, where it may be anticipated to impact on the behavior of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) and root odontoblast activity. We hypothesized that NFIC may provide an important target for promoting dentin/root regeneration. In the present study, the effects of NFIC on the proliferation and differentiation of SCAPs were investigated. Over-expression of NFIC increased cell proliferation, mineralization nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in SCAPs. Furthermore, NFIC up-regulated the mRNA levels of odontogenic-related markers, ALP, osteocalcin and collagen type I as well as dentin sialoprotein protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of NFIC by si-RNA inhibited the mineralization capacity of SCAPs and down-regulated the expression of odontogenic-related markers. In conclusion, the results indicated that upregulation of NFIC activity in SCAPs may promote osteo/odontoblastic differentiation of SCAPs. - Highlights: • NFIC promotes the proliferation of SCAPs in vitro. • NFIC promotes osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs in vitro. • Knockdown of NFIC inhibits odontogenic differentiation in SCAPs

  2. Nuclear Factor I-C promotes proliferation and differentiation of apical papilla-derived human stem cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Stomatologic Hospital & College, Anhui Medical University, Key Lab of Oral Diseases Research of Anhui Province, Hefei (China); Wang, Zhihua; Jiang, Yong [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Niu, Zhongying [Treatment center of oral diseases, The 306th Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing (China); Fu, Lei; Luo, Zhirong [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Cooper, Paul R.; Smith, Anthony J. [Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, University of Birmingham, B4 6NN (United Kingdom); He, Wenxi, E-mail: hewenxi@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2015-03-15

    The transcription factor Nuclear Factor I-C (NFIC) has been implicated in the regulation of tooth root development, where it may be anticipated to impact on the behavior of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) and root odontoblast activity. We hypothesized that NFIC may provide an important target for promoting dentin/root regeneration. In the present study, the effects of NFIC on the proliferation and differentiation of SCAPs were investigated. Over-expression of NFIC increased cell proliferation, mineralization nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in SCAPs. Furthermore, NFIC up-regulated the mRNA levels of odontogenic-related markers, ALP, osteocalcin and collagen type I as well as dentin sialoprotein protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of NFIC by si-RNA inhibited the mineralization capacity of SCAPs and down-regulated the expression of odontogenic-related markers. In conclusion, the results indicated that upregulation of NFIC activity in SCAPs may promote osteo/odontoblastic differentiation of SCAPs. - Highlights: • NFIC promotes the proliferation of SCAPs in vitro. • NFIC promotes osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs in vitro. • Knockdown of NFIC inhibits odontogenic differentiation in SCAPs.

  3. Floating retained root lesion mimicking apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Pang; Chen, Chih-Ping; Shieh, Yi-Shing

    2009-10-01

    A case of a retained root tip simulating apical periodontitis on radiographic examination is described. The retained root tip, originating from the left lower first molar, floated under the left lower second premolar apical region mimicking apical periodontitis. It appeared as an ill-defined periapical radiolucency containing a smaller radiodense mass on radiograph. The differential diagnosis included focal sclerosing osteomyelitis (condensing osteitis) and ossifying fibroma. Upon exicisional biopsy, a retained root associated with granulation tissue was found. After 1-year follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and the periradicular lesion was healing. Meanwhile, the associated tooth showed a normal response to stimulation testing.

  4. Apical root resorption in orthodontically treated adults.

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    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L; Boyd, R L

    1996-09-01

    This study analyzed the relationship in orthodontically treated adults between upper central incisor displacement measured on lateral cephalograms and apical root resorption measured on anterior periapical x-ray films. A multiple linear regression examined incisor displacements in four directions (retraction, advancement, intrusion, and extrusion) as independent variables, attempting to account for observed differences in the dependent variable, resorption. Mean apical resorption was 1.36 mm (sd +/- 1.46, n = 73). Mean horizontal displacement of the apex was -0.83 mm (sd +/- 1.74, n = 67); mean vertical displacement was 0.19 mm (sd +/- 1.48, n = 67). The regression coefficients for the intercept and for retraction were highly significant; those for extrusion, intrusion, and advancement were not. At the 95% confidence level, an average of 0.99 mm (se = +/- 0.34) of resorption was implied in the absence of root displacement and an average of 0.49 mm (se = +/- 0.14) of resorption was implied per millimeter of retraction. R2 for all four directional displacement variables (DDVs) taken together was only 0.20, which implied that only a relatively small portion of the observed apical resorption could be accounted for by tooth displacement alone. In a secondary set of univariate analyses, the associations between apical resorption and each of 14 additional treatment-related variables were examined. Only Gender, Elapsed Time, and Total Apical Displacement displayed statistically significant associations with apical resorption. Additional multiple regressions were then performed in which the data for each of these three statistically significant variables were considered separately, with the data for the four directional displacement variables. The addition of information on Elapsed Time or Total Apical Displacement did not explain a significant additional portion of the variability in apical resorption. On the other hand, the addition of information on Gender to the

  5. Type III apical transportation of root canal

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    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  6. Changes of Root Length and Root-to-Crown Ratio after Apical Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Bornstein, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment periodontitis. Although apical surgery involves root-end resection, no morphometric data are yet available about root-end resection and its impact on the root-to-crown ratio (RCR). The present study assess...

  7. Radiographic evaluation of apical root resorption following fixed orthodontic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sina Haghanifar; Valiollah Arash; Farhad Soboti; Nasim Jafari

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Apical root resorption is an adverse side effect of fixed orthodontic treatment which cannot be repaired. The aim of this study was to use panoramic radiographs to compare the root resorption before and after the orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise .018 appliance.Materials and Methods: The before and after treatment panoramic views of sixty-three patients needed fixed orthodontic treatment included 1520 teeth were categorized into 3 Grades (G0: without resorption...

  8. Evaluation of Bacteriological Profile in the Apical Root Segment of the Patients with Primary Apical Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatikonda, Aravind; Sudheep, N; Biswas, Krishna P; Gowtham, K; Pujari, Sudarshan; Singh, Padam

    2017-01-01

    Apical periodontitis usually results from bacterial accumulation and contamination occurring in the root-canal system, and extending beyond the apical foramen to involve the periapical tissues. Literature has a paucity of the studies that stress on the division and analysis of the pulp canal segments. The reason for this disparity might be the technique used for collecting the samples from the pulp canals. Hence, we carried out the present study to evaluate the microbial flora in the apical part of the roots with necrotic pulp canals. The present study included the assessment of 40 freshly extracted teeth that had necrotized pulpal tissue along with the presence of periapical periodontal lesions. Removal of the soft tissue lesions attached to the root portion of the teeth along with apical periodontal lesions was done with the help of scalpel blade, after rinsing them with a sterile solution of saline. Thorough cleaning of the root surfaces was done with hydrogen peroxide followed by rapid disinfection with the help of sodium hypochlorite at varying concentrations. Sectioning of the root portion of all the specimens with the help of a disk was done perpendicular to the long axis of the teeth at a distance of roughly 5 to 6 mm from the teeth's apicalmost point. Cryotubes were used for transferring the specimens of apical portions containing 1 mL of buffer and were subjected to immediate frozen processing at a temperature of -20°C. A 10 K-type file was used for the initial collection of the samples followed by subsequent incubation of the files and paper pints in the incubation cabinet. Subsequent deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction from the samples was done following the procedure described by Siqueira et al. Paster et al's modification of the reverse-capture checkerboard assay was used in the present study. Semiquantitative data were used for overcoming the difficulties arising due to obtaining the counts of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis of

  9. Assessment of the nonoperated root after apical surgery of the other root in mandibular molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Riccardo D; von Arx, Thomas; Gfeller, David

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: If a surgical approach is chosen to treat a multirooted tooth affected by persistent periapical pathosis, usually only the affected roots are operated on. The present study assessed the periapical status of the nonoperated root 5 years after apical surgery of the other root in mandi...

  10. Radiographic evaluation of apical root resorption following fixed orthodontic treatment

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    Sina Haghanifar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Apical root resorption is an adverse side effect of fixed orthodontic treatment which cannot be repaired. The aim of this study was to use panoramic radiographs to compare the root resorption before and after the orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise .018 appliance.Materials and Methods: The before and after treatment panoramic views of sixty-three patients needed fixed orthodontic treatment included 1520 teeth were categorized into 3 Grades (G0: without resorption, G1: mild resorption with blunt roots or ≤ 1/4 of root length, G2: moderate to severe resorption or > 1/4 to 1/2 of root length. Relationship between root resorption and sex and treatment duration was analyzed with Mann-whitney and Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively.Results: The findings showed that 345 teeth were categorized as Grade 1. Grade 2 of root resorption was not found in this study. The highest amount of root resorption was recorded for the mandibular lateral incisor. In both gender, the root resorption of the mandible was more than that of the maxilla. The males showed significantly higher rate of resorption than the females (P0.05.Conclusion: The mandible and male patients showed higher amount of root resorption. In addition, root resorption was not related to the treatment duration and the side of the jaws.

  11. Evaluation and Comparison of the Position of the Apical Constriction in Single-root and Multiple-root Teeth

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    Alireza Farhad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Precise knowledge of the location of the apical constriction is essential to root canal treatment and long-term prognosis. Considering the differences in the apical constriction and size of the roots in single- and multiple-root teeth in various races, examination and comparison of the location of the apical constriction in single-root and multiple-root teeth are of paramount importance. The present studies aimed to measure and compare the distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen and anatomical apex in single-root and multiple-root teeth. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 roots of single-rooted teeth and 60 roots of multiple-rooted teeth were collected from the patients referring to the health centers in Isfahan, Iran. After cleansing and disinfecting the surface of the roots, the surface of the teeth was washed with hypochlorite. Based on the direction of the apical foramen, a longitudinal cut was made in the same direction, and the roots were examined microscopically at the magnification of 25. Following that, the distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen and anatomical apex was measured using a digital camera. In addition, mean and standard deviation of the obtained distance values were determined. Distances in the single-root and multiple-root teeth were compared using independent t-test, at the significance level of Results: Mean distance between the apical constriction and apical foramen was 0.86±0.33 mm in the single-root teeth and 0.072±0.27 mm in the multiple-root teeth. Mean distance between the apical constriction and anatomical apex was 1.14±0.36 mm in the single-root teeth and 1.03±0.36 mm in the multiple-root teeth. Moreover, the results of independent t-test showed the distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen to be significant between single-root and multiple-rooted teeth (P=0.013. However, the distance between the apical constriction

  12. Evaluation of the anatomical alterations of lower molars mesial root?s apical third

    OpenAIRE

    FRÖNER Izabel Cristina; IMPERADOR Cristina Aparecida; SOUZA Luiz Gustavo de

    1999-01-01

    The anatomical apex of the mesial root of the lower molars presents a morphological complexity related to the number and shape of the root canals as well as of the apical foramen and isthmus presence. The knowledge of the complexity of the endodontic system of the molar root area is essencial to select more carefully the best instrumentation and obturation technique, to obtain a more successful endodontic therapy.

  13. Evaluation of the anatomical alterations of lower molars mesial root?s apical third

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    FRÖNER Izabel Cristina

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical apex of the mesial root of the lower molars presents a morphological complexity related to the number and shape of the root canals as well as of the apical foramen and isthmus presence. The knowledge of the complexity of the endodontic system of the molar root area is essencial to select more carefully the best instrumentation and obturation technique, to obtain a more successful endodontic therapy.

  14. Root Canal Microorganism Profiles on Upper Anterior Teeth of Apical Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Riuwpassa, E. Irene

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are the main causative agents on the development of apical periodontitis. Microorganisms infecting the root canal system are colonized in communities as biofilm. These bacterial communities show distinct pattern related to the different forms of apical periodontitis which are determined by species richness and abundance.this study is aimed to examine the root canal microorganisms on upper anterior teeth of asymptomatic apical periodontitis and chronic apical abscess. Samples we...

  15. Root canal microbiota of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis.

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    Rôças, I N; Siqueira, J F

    2008-11-01

    Samples from infected root canals of 43 teeth with chronic apical periodontitis were analyzed for the presence and relative levels of 83 oral bacterial species and/or phylotypes using a reverse-capture checkerboard hybridization assay. Associations between the most frequently detected taxa were also recorded. The most prevalent taxa were Olsenella uli (74%), Eikenella corrodens (63%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (56%), Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (54%), and Bacteroidetes oral clone X083 (51%). When prevalence was considered only for bacteria present at levels >10(5), Bacteroidetes clone X083 was the most frequently isolated bacterium (37%), followed by Parvimonas micra (28%), E. corrodens (23%), and Tannerella forsythia (19%). The number of target taxa per canal was directly proportional to the size of the apical periodontitis lesion, with lesions >10 mm in diameter harboring a mean number of approximately 20 taxa. Several positive associations for the most prevalent taxa were disclosed for the first time and may have important ecological and pathogenic implications. In addition to strengthening the association of several cultivable named species with chronic apical periodontitis, the present findings using a large-scale analysis allowed the inclusion of some newly named species and as-yet-uncultivated phylotypes in the set of candidate pathogens associated with this disease.

  16. How far is the root apex of a unilateral impacted canine from the root apices' arch form?

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    Kim, Sung-Hun; Kim, You-Min; Oh, Sewoong; Kim, Seong-Sik; Park, Soo-Byung; Son, Woo-Sung; Kim, Yong-Il

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the arch form of the root apices of normally erupting teeth and then determine the differences in the location of the apex of impacted canines relative to normally erupting canines. In addition, we sought to determine whether the labiopalatal position of the impacted canines influences the position of the apices. The study included 21 patients with unerupted canines that subsequently had a normal eruption, 21 patients with palatally impacted canines, 27 patients with labially impacted canines, and 17 patients with midalveolus impacted canines. Images were obtained using cone beam computed tomography, and the x, y, and z coordinates of the root apices were determined using Ondemand3D software (Cybermed Co., Seoul, Korea). Two-dimensional coordinates were converted from acquired 3-dimensional coordinates via projection on a palatal plane, and the Procrustes method was used to process the converted 2-dimensional coordinates and to draw the arch forms of the root apices. Finally, we measured the extent of root apex deviation from the arch forms of the root apices. Normally erupting canines showed that even though calcifications may be immature, their positions were aligned with a normal arch form. The root apices of the impacted canines were an average of 6.572 mm away from the root apices' arch form, whereas those of the contralateral nonimpacted canines were an average distance of 2.221 mm away, a statistically significant difference. The palatally impacted canines' root apices distribution tended toward the first premolar root apices. Incompletely calcified, unerupted teeth with a subsequent normal eruption showed a normal arch form of the root apices. The root apices of impacted canines were farther from the arch forms than were the nonimpacted canines. Also, the root apices of impacted canines in the palatal area showed distributions different from those of the other impacted canine groups. Copyright © 2017 American

  17. Risk variables of external apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment

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    Maria Carolina Feio Barroso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: External apical root resorption (EARR is an adverse outcome of the orthodontic treatment. So far, no single or associated factor has been identified as responsible for EARR due to tooth movement. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association of risk variables (age, gender, extraction for orthodontic treatment and Angle classification with EARR and orthodontic treatment. METHOD: The sample (n=72 was divided into two groups according to presence (n=32 or absence (n=40 of EARR in maxillary central and lateral incisors after orthodontic treatment. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in EARR according to age, gender, extraction or type of malocclusion (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: The risk variables examined were not associated with EARR in the study population.

  18. Bone Density and Dental External Apical Root Resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Morford, Lorri Ann

    2016-01-01

    When orthodontic patients desire shorter treatment times with aesthetic results and long-term stability, it is important for the orthodontist to understand the potential limitations and problems that may arise during standard and/or technology-assisted accelerated treatment. Bone density plays an important role in facilitating orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), such that reductions in bone density can significantly increase movement velocity. Lifestyle, genetic background, environmental factors and disease status all can influence a patients’ overall health and bone density. In some individuals, these factors may create specific conditions that influence systemic-wide bone metabolism. Both genetic variation and the onset of a bone-related disease can influence systemic bone density and local bone density, such as is observed in the mandible and maxilla. These types of localized density changes can affect the rate of OTM and may also influence the risk of unwanted outcomes, i.e., the occurrence of dental external apical root resorption (EARR). PMID:27766484

  19. A cone-beam computed tomography study of orthodontic apical root resorption

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    Jian-Hong Yu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Results show that larger tooth movement after orthodontic treatment may be associated with increased severity of root resorption. This study has demonstrated that CBCT is a useful approach for evaluating apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

  20. ROOT CANAL MICROORGANISMS PROFILES O F UPPER ANTERIOR TEETH WITH APICAL PERIODONTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Tanumihardja, Maria; Riewpassa, Irene E; Mansjurnasir; Burhanuddin, DP

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are the main causative agents on the development of apical periodontitis. Microorganisms infecting the root canal system are colonized in communities as biofilm. These bacterial communities show distinct pattern related to the different forms of apical periodontitis which are determined by species richness and abundance. This study is aimed to examine the root canal microorganisms on upper anterior teeth of asymptomatic apical periodontitis and ch ronic api...

  1. Nonsurgical root canal therapy of large cyst-like inflammatory periapical lesions and inflammatory apical cysts.

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    Lin, Louis M; Ricucci, Domenico; Lin, Jarshen; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2009-05-01

    It is a general belief that large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts caused by root canal infection are less likely to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy. Nevertheless, there is no direct evidence to support this assumption. A large cyst-like periapical lesion or an apical true cyst is formed within an area of apical periodontitis and cannot form by itself. Therefore, both large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts are of inflammatory and not of neoplastic origin. Apical periodontitis lesions, regardless of whether they are granulomas, abscesses, or cysts, fail to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy for the same reason, intraradicular and/or extraradicular infection. If the microbial etiology of large cyst-like periapical lesions and inflammatory apical true cysts in the root canal is removed by nonsurgical root canal therapy, the lesions might regress by the mechanism of apoptosis in a manner similar to the resolution of inflammatory apical pocket cysts. To achieve satisfactory periapical wound healing, surgical removal of an apical true cyst must include elimination of root canal infection.

  2. Inhibition of Apical Root Resorption by Calcium Hydroxide During Orthodontic Treatment: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Cinthia Mara da Fonseca; Pacheco, Daniela da Fonseca; Motta, Patrícia Gonçalves da

    2016-01-01

    Apical root resorption is a common outcome of orthodontic treatment. The present article reports a case of absence of apical root resorption in a left maxillary lateral incisor filled with calcium hydroxide paste throughout orthodontic movement. After orthodontic treatment was completed the tooth was subsequently obturatedwith gutta-percha and the patient followed for 18 months. The presence of a periapical lesion and the properties of calcium hydroxide as a root resorption inhibitor were dec...

  3. Prognostic factors in apical surgery with root-end filling: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Peñarrocha, Miguel; Jensen, Simon Storgård

    2010-01-01

    Apical surgery has seen continuous development with regard to equipment and surgical technique. However, there is still a shortage of evidence-based information regarding healing determinants. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review clinical articles on apical surgery with root-end fill...

  4. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, M.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Markvart M, Darvann TA, Larsen P, Dalstra M, Kreiborg S, Bjørndal L. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity. International Endodontic Journal, 45, 273–281, 2012. Aim To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical...

  5. Assessment of Root Morphology and Apices of First and Second Maxillary Molars in Tehran Population

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    Mandana Naseri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Objective: This study aimed to assess the possible variations in root canal anatomy and topography of the apices of first and second maxillary molars. Materials and methods: A total of 67 first and second maxillary permanent molars were collected. Access cavity was prepared and 2% methylene blue was injected. The teeth were demineralized by 5% nitric acid and cleared with methyl salicylate. Specimens were evaluated under stereomicroscopy and analyzed using the sample t-test. Results: Based on Vertucci’s classification, the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars was type I in 87.5% and type IV in 12.5% of the cases. The mesiobuccal root of second maxillary molars was type I in 60%, type II in 8.6%, type IV in 25.7% and type V in 5.7% of cases. In maxillary first and second molars, the distobuccal and palatal roots were type I in 100% of the cases. The distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen was 0.21±0.09 mm, the distance from the apical constriction tothe anatomic apex was 0.44±0.19 mm and the distance of the apical foramen from the anatomic apex was 0.15±0.15 mm. The mean percentage of delta prevalence was 3.2% in both teeth. Conclusion: The mean distance of the apical foramen and apical constriction from the anatomic apex was less than 0.6 and 1.2 mm, respectively. In maxillary first and second molars, the mean distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen and anatomic apex was 0.21 and 0.44, respectively and the mean distance of the apical foramen from the anatomic apex was 0.15 mm

  6. A Rare Case of Apical Root Resorption during Orthodontic Treatment of Patient with Multiple Aplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Chintan M; Mahida, Khyati; Agrawal, Charu C; Bothra, Jitendrakumar; Mashru, Ketan

    2015-01-01

    External apical root resorption is an adverse effect of orthodontic treatment. It reduces the length of root and breaks the integrity of teeth and dental arch. Orthodontics is the only dental specialty that clinically uses the inflammatory process to correct the mal-aligned teeth. Hence, it is necessary to know the risk factors of root resorption and do everything to reduce the rate of root resorption. Hence, all predisposing factors which are systemic as well as local should be considered be...

  7. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance

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    João Paulo SCHWARTZ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT.Material and Methods The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0 and after Herbst treatment (T1. All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates’ correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%.Results Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders.Conclusion CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance.

  8. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHWARTZ, João Paulo; RAVELI, Taísa Boamorte; ALMEIDA, Kélei Cristina de Mathias; SCHWARTZ-FILHO, Humberto Osvaldo; RAVELI, Dirceu Barnabé

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years) with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0) and after Herbst treatment (T1). All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates’ correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%. Results Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders. Conclusion CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance. PMID:26537718

  9. Effects of loxoprofen on the apical root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement in rats.

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    Yamamoto, Taeko; Kaku, Masato; Sumi, Hiromi; Yashima, Yuka; Izumino, Jin; Tanimoto, Kotaro

    2018-01-01

    Studies have revealed that severe apical root resorption during tooth movement is caused by the noninfective inflammatory reaction of apical root tissues. We hypothesized that loxoprofen can suppress apical root resorption during tooth movement. Cyclic tensile force (CTF) of 10 kPa was applied to the human pulp cells for 48 hours by the Flexcell Strain Unit. Loxoprofen (10 and 100 μM) was added to the culture cells, and expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, interleukin (IL)-1β, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) were examined. To determine the effects of loxoprofen sodium on apical root reabsorption during tooth movement, the upper first molars of 7-week-old rats were subjected to mesial movement by 10g force for 30 days with or without the oral administration of loxoprofen. Gene expression and protein concentration of COX-1, COX-2, IL-1β, TNF-α, RANKL and M-CSF were significantly higher in the CTF group than in the control group. However, these levels were decreased by loxoprofen administration. After orthodontic tooth movement, the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, RANKL and M-CSF decreased in the loxoprofen group than in the control group by immunohistochemical staining. In comparison to control group, less number of odontoclasts and a decrease in the amount of apical root resorption was observed in the loxoprofen group. Many osteoclasts became visible on the pressure side of the alveolar bone in the both groups, and the amount of tooth movement did not show a significant difference. These findings demonstrate that severe apical root resorption may be suppressed by loxoprofen administration, without a disturbance of tooth movement.

  10. A Rare Case of Apical Root Resorption during Orthodontic Treatment of Patient with Multiple Aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Chintan M; Mahida, Khyati; Agrawal, Charu C; Bothra, Jitendrakumar; Mashru, Ketan

    2015-07-01

    External apical root resorption is an adverse effect of orthodontic treatment. It reduces the length of root and breaks the integrity of teeth and dental arch. Orthodontics is the only dental specialty that clinically uses the inflammatory process to correct the mal-aligned teeth. Hence, it is necessary to know the risk factors of root resorption and do everything to reduce the rate of root resorption. Hence, all predisposing factors which are systemic as well as local should be considered before treatment begins. This case report describes the incidence of root resorption following orthodontic treatment and the teeth affected in the patient with multiple aplasia.

  11. Deviations of Mesial Root Canals of Mandibular First Molar Teeth at the Apical Third: A Micro-computed Tomographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Ali; Keskin, Cangül

    2018-04-19

    The present study aimed to quantitatively analyze apical foramen deviations of mesial root canals of mandibular first molar teeth by means of micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging. Micro-CT images of the mesial roots of 109 mandibular first molar teeth with independent mesiobuccal (MB) and mesiolingual (ML) root canals were analyzed. The deviations of the apical foramina of the MB, ML, and middle mesial root canals from the anatomic apex were measured. The vertical distance between the apical foramina of each mesial root canal in relation to each other was also calculated. The distances from the apical foramina of the MB, ML, and middle mesial root canals to the anatomic apex of the mesial root were up to 2.51 mm, 3.21 mm, and 5.67 mm, respectively. There was no significant difference between the deviations of MB and ML root canals from each other (P > .05). The middle mesial root canal showed the greatest deviation compared with the MB and ML canals (P < .05). The apical foramina of mesial root canals of mandibular first molar teeth showed greater variations from each other and anatomic apices than previously reported. Clinically, the use of electronic apex locators for the detection of minor apical foramen of each mesial root canal is of the utmost important. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Strategies to reduce the apical necrosis in vitro multiplication and rooting of Pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Cid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The pistachio (Pistacia sp. is one of the least exploited fruit among the main causes is the high cost of plant material by the difficulties of propagation of the species. The propagation in vitro offers great potential for the industry of this species by multiplication scale of selected clones. The aim of this study was to control the apical necrosis of outbreaks in the in vitro propagation Pistachio. From young shoots of plants of this species kept in growing houses, proceeded to disinfection with sodium hypochlorite 1% for different times. The apical and axillary buds were established in the culture medium Murashige and Skoog (1962 modified and supplemented with 1 mg/L Metatopolina. Different types of bottles, number and type of explants and culture media formulations for two subcultures multiplication and rooting were evaluated. Glass flask of 200 ml capacity, and line proliferates DKW medium achieved the lowest values apical necrosis. In the multiplication phase values were low in all treatments tested no statistical difference between them compared to rooting where apical necrosis reached higher values. The average DKW and prolific lines obtained lower values. MS medium modified crop, favored the number of segments rooted and DKW (Driver and Kuniyuki, 1984 the number of segments that sprouted, the latter having lower incidence of apical necrosis.

  13. Apical extrusion of debris: a literature review of an inherent occurrence during root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanalp, J; Güngör, T

    2014-03-01

    Extrusion of intracanal debris as well as irrigants is a common occurrence during root canal treatment, and no instrument or technique has thoroughly solved this problem. Because flare-ups may arise with any irritation directed towards periapical tissues, a shaping or irrigation technique should minimize the risk of apical extrusion, even though it may not be prevented. There has been a rapid evolution of root canal instruments and irrigation systems through the last decade, and many have been assessed for their debris extrusion potential. The purpose of this review was to identify publications regarding the evaluation of debris, bacteria and irrigant extrusion during root canal treatment. A PubMed, Ovid and MEDLINE search was conducted using the keywords "apical extrusion", "debris extrusion" and "endodontic treatment". The literature search extended over a period of more than 30 years up to 2012. Content of the review was limited to apical extrusion of debris and irrigants, extrusion of liquid by irrigation methods and bacterial extrusion. Issues relevant to apical extrusion were obtained by further search in the reference sections of the retrieved articles. The review provides an update on the current status of apical extrusion. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. External apical root resorption diagnosis by using FII human dentine fraction and salivary IGg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da-Costa, Tânia Maris Pedrini Soares; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Consolaro, Alberto; Lima, Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira; Tanaka, Evelise Ono; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa

    2018-06-01

    External apical root resorption as a consequence of orthodontic treatment is an inflammatory pathological process that results in permanent loss of tooth structure from the root apex. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic potential of human dentine fractions and salivary IgG in external apical root resorption. Saliva samples were collected from 10 patients before (T0) and after 3 (T3), 6 (T6) and 12 (T12) months of orthodontic treatment. The total dentinal extract, obtained from human third molars, was fractioned by gel filtration chromatography in three fractions denominated FI, FII and FIII. The root resorption analysis of the upper central incisors was performed by digital image subtraction method. Reactivity of salivary IgG to antigenic fractions of dentine was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa). Regardless of treatment, FI dentin fraction with high MM (root resorptions were detected. Our results suggest that FII human dentine fraction and salivary IgG have potential to be used in diagnosis and monitoring of external apical root resorption. The development of a practical and accessible biochemical test using saliva and FII dentine fraction may help in the prevention of severe root resorption. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn; Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus

    2012-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (proot resorption (proot resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  16. Coordination of growth in root and shoot apices by AIL/PLT transcription factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, Ben; Krizek, Beth A.

    2018-01-01

    Growth at the root tip and organ generation at the shoot tip depend on the proper functioning of apical meristems and the transitioning of meristematic cell descendants from a proliferating state to cell elongation and differentiation. Members of the AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE/PLETHORA (AIL/PLT)

  17. Apical root resorption 6 months after initiation of fixed orthodontic appliance therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smale, I.M.; Artun, J.; Behbehani, F.; Doppel, D.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Individual predisposition might be a major reason for the observed variation in apical orthodontic root resorption. If so, resorption might be expressed during the initial stages of orthodontic therapy in patients at risk. METHODS: To explore this hypothesis, we evaluated standardized,

  18. Micro-CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, Per

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical enlargement in molar teeth and to quantify and visualize spatial details of instrumentation efficacy in root canals of different complexity. METHODOLOGY: Maxillary and mandibular molar teeth wer...

  19. Apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment with aligners? A retrospective radiometric study

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, Elena; Drechsler, Thomas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Jacobs, Collin; Haag, Simeon; Wehrbein, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and severity of apical root resorptions (ARR) during orthodontic treatment with aligners. Materials and methods The sample comprised 100 patients (17?75 years of age) with a class I occlusion and anterior crowding before treatment, treated exclusively with aligners (Invisalign?, Align Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). The following teeth were assessed: upper and lower anterior teeth and first molars. Root and crown lengt...

  20. [Association between Bacteroides forsythus in the infected root canals and clinical symptoms of chronic apical periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-ming; Fu, Chun-hua; Zhou, Xue-dong

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of Bacteroides forsythus in root canals with chronic apical periodontitis and to determine its associations with clinical symptoms. Thirty-eight tooth root canals from 31 subjects were studied with a 16S rDNA-directed polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These teeth were classified into symptomatic and asymptomatic groups according to the clinical symptoms and signs, including spontaneous pain, percussion pain, sinus tract and swelling, respectively. Ten of the 38 root canal samples were positive for B. forsythus. The prevalence of B. forsythus was 26.3% for 38 root canals, 45.5% for spontaneous pain group, 39.1% for percussion pain group, 29.4% for sinus tract group, 42.9% for swelling group, respectively. Significant positive associations were observed between B. forsythus in infected root canals and the spontaneous pain, percussion pain, and swelling of apical periodontitis, respectively (OR=infinity, 9, 12; Papical periodontitis (OR=1.33). B. forsythus colonized in the infected root canals. It is the putative pathogen of apical periodontitis.

  1. Apical extrusion of debris in primary molar root canals using mechanical and manual systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldur, B; Hascizmeci, C; Aksoy, S; Nur Aydin, M; Guvendi, O N

    2018-03-01

    Apical extrusion of debris in primary root canal treatment has not been well elucidated. The purpose of this study is to compare the amount of apically extruded debris during the preparation of primary molar root canals using ProTaper, ProTaper Next, Self-adjusting File (SAF) and hand files. One hundred sixty extracted primary mandibular molar teeth were assigned to 2 groups: Group 1: Resorbed (n=80) and Group 2: Non-resorbed (n=80) and randomly to four subgroups (n=20 teeth for each subgroup) according to the instruments used, ProTaper, ProTaper Next, SAF, and hand file. The apically extruded debris was collected and dried in preweighed Eppendof tubes. The dry weight was calculated by subtracting the preoperative weight from the postoperative weight. Data were analysed statistically using the ANOVA and the Bonferroni post hoc t-test. The amount of apically extruded debris was significantly less for the non-resorbed group compared to the resorbed group (PProTaper Next and SAF extruded significantly less debris than did the ProTaper and hand files (PProTaper Next and SAF (P>0.05). All instruments caused apically extruded debris in primary teeth.

  2. Calcium hydroxide induced apexification with apical root development: a clinical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J; Santos, S; César, C; Silva, P; Sá, M; Silveira, F; Nunes, E

    2008-08-01

    To report the induction of apical root development by calcium hydroxide in teeth with pulp necrosis and periapical radiolucency. A 10-year-old male patient was admitted to the clinic complaining of an intense pain and oedema on the anterior facial region, compatible with an acute dentoalveolar abscess. There was a previous history of dental trauma; only tooth 11 was negative to pulp sensitivity tests. Radiographically, tooth 11 exhibited incomplete root formation, characterized by a wide root canal, thin and fragile dentinal walls, and an extensive, divergent foraminal opening associated with an apical radiolucency. The first appointment focused on urgent local and systemic treatment. Apexification treatment commenced at the second session after 7 days, by means of chemo-mechanical debridement throughout the entire root canal, using K-files and irrigation with a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution. Subsequently, a calcium hydroxide paste was applied and changed four times over 8 months, when radiographic examination revealed complete closure of the foraminal opening, resulting in resolution of the periapical radiolucency and associated with 5 mm of additional root development. The root canal was filled by thermomechanical compaction of gutta-percha and sealer. A 3-year follow-up revealed normal periapical tissues and the absence of symptoms. * In young patients, dental trauma may cause pulp necrosis and arrest of root formation. * Under certain circumstances, chemo-mechanical debridement, including the use of a calcium hydroxide paste, is a valid alternative to mineral trioxide aggregate and or surgery for root-end closure. * In teeth with incompletely formed roots associated with periapical lesions, calcium hydroxide can induce periapical repair through the closure of the foramen and apical root development.

  3. Microflora of root filled teeth with apical periodontitis in Latvian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindere, Anda; Kundzina, Rita; Nikolajeva, Vizma; Eze, Daina; Petrina, Zaiga

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the microbial flora of root filled teeth with apical periodontitis and to determine the prevalence of β-lactamase producing strains in isolated bacteria in Latvian patients. 33 root filled teeth with asymptomatic persisting periapical lesions were selected for the present study. During nonsurgical endodontic retreatment, the root filling material was removed and canals were sampled. Determination of microbial species was based on series of biochemical tests using identification kits. All strains of bacteria were tested for β-lactamase production by using chromogenic nitrocefin-impregnated slides. Bacteria were found in 32 (97%) of initial specimens from the teeth. The number of isolated microbial strains in the specimens ranged from one to six (mean 2.7). 79% of the isolated microbial species were Gram-positive bacteria. The most common isolates were Streptococcus (27%), Actinomyces (27%), Staphylococcus (18%), Enterococcus (18%) and Lactobacillus (18%) spp. Yeasts were found as four isolates in 3 cases (9%). β-lactamase-producing bacterial strains were detected in 12 specimens, 36% of the patients. The most common enzyme-producing bacteria belonged to Actinomyces and Staphylococcus spp. The microbial flora in previously treated root canals with apical periodontitis is limited to a small number of predominantly Gram-positive microbial species. The most common isolates are Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Lactobacillus spp. A moderately high prevalence of β-lactamase producing bacterial strains was detected in patients with root filled teeth with apical periodontitis.

  4. Apical root resorption of incisors after orthodontic treatment of impacted maxillary canines: a radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusveen, Elin Marie Gravdal; Brudvik, Pongsri; Bøe, Olav Egil; Mavragani, Maria

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate impacted maxillary canines as risk factor for orthodontic apical root resorption. The sample comprised 66 patients treated with fixed appliances. Thirty-two patients with a unilateral impacted maxillary canine, which was distanced from the roots of the incisors at a preliminary phase of treatment before bonding, formed the impaction group, and 34 patients without impactions served as the controls. Root shortening was calculated by using pretreatment and posttreatment intraoral radiographs. Inclination of the eruption path of the impacted canine relative to the midline, axis of the lateral incisor, and nasal line, root development, and the medial and vertical positions of the impacted tooth were recorded on orthopantomograms and lateral cephalometric films. The follicle/tooth ratio was evaluated by using periapical radiographs. No significant difference in apical resorption of the maxillary incisors was detected between the impaction and control groups, or between the incisors of the impacted and contralateral sides in the same subject. Likewise, no difference in the severity of root resorption was found between the incisors of impacted side alone and the incisors of the control group. Mesial and vertical inclinations of the impacted canines were negatively related to a lateral incisor's root resorption. No correlations were found between resorption and medial or vertical position of the crown of the canine. The follicle/tooth ratio was significantly related to the mesial inclination of the impacted canine, but not to root resorption. An impacted maxillary canine, after being distanced from the incisor roots, does not seem to be a risk factor for apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn; Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  6. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn [Dept. of Dentistry, Overbrook Hospital, Chiang Rai (Thailand); Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus [Dept. of Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39{+-}1.27 (8.24{+-}7.22%) and 1.69{+-}1.14 mm (10.16{+-}6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  7. The relationship between apical root resorption and orthodontic tooth movement in growing subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianmin; Baumrind, S

    2002-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between apical root resorption and orthodontic tooth movement in growing subjects. 58 growing subjects were collected randomly into the study sample and another 40 non-treated cases were used as control. The apical resoption of the upper central incisors was measured on periapical film and the incisor displacement was measured on lateral cephalogram. Using multiple linear regression analysis to examine the relationship between root resoption and the displacement of the upper incisor apex in each of four direction (retraction, advancement, intrusion and extrusion). The statistically significant negative association were found between resorption and both intrusion (P < 0.001) and extrusion (P < 0.05), but no significant association was found between resorption and both retraction and advancement. The regression analysis implied an average of 2.29 mm resorption in the absence of apical displacement. The likelihood that the magnitude of displacement of the incisor root is positively associated with root resoption in the population of treated growing subjects is very small.

  8. Transcriptomics insights into the genetic regulation of root apical meristem exhaustion and determinate primary root growth in Pachycereus pringlei (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Alonso, Gustavo; Matvienko, Marta; López-Valle, Mayra L; Lázaro-Mixteco, Pedro E; Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Dubrovsky, Joseph G; Shishkova, Svetlana

    2018-06-04

    Many Cactaceae species exhibit determinate growth of the primary root as a consequence of root apical meristem (RAM) exhaustion. The genetic regulation of this growth pattern is unknown. Here, we de novo assembled and annotated the root apex transcriptome of the Pachycereus pringlei primary root at three developmental stages, with active or exhausted RAM. The assembled transcriptome is robust and comprehensive, and was used to infer a transcriptional regulatory network of the primary root apex. Putative orthologues of Arabidopsis regulators of RAM maintenance, as well as putative lineage-specific transcripts were identified. The transcriptome revealed putative orthologues of most proteins involved in housekeeping processes, hormone signalling, and metabolic pathways. Our results suggest that specific transcriptional programs operate in the root apex at specific developmental time points. Moreover, the transcriptional state of the P. pringlei root apex as the RAM becomes exhausted is comparable to the transcriptional state of cells from the meristematic, elongation, and differentiation zones of Arabidopsis roots along the root axis. We suggest that the transcriptional program underlying the drought stress response is induced during Cactaceae root development, and that lineage-specific transcripts could contribute to RAM exhaustion in Cactaceae.

  9. Association analysis of clinical aspects and vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism with external apical root resorption in orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Maria Luiza S Simas Netta; de Souza, Cleber Machado; Bernardino, José Fabio; Hoette, Felix; Hoette, Maura Levi; Thum, Lotario; Ozawa, Terumi O; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Olandoski, Marcia; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina

    2012-09-01

    Vitamin D is responsible for the regulation of certain genes at the transcription level, via interaction with the vitamin D receptor, and influences host immune responses and aspects of bone development, growth, and homeostasis. Our aim was to investigate the association of TaqI vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism with external apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment. Our subjects were 377 patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion, divided into 3 groups: (1) 160 with external apical root resorption ≤1.43 mm, (2) 179 with external apical root resorption >1.43 mm), and (3) 38 untreated subjects. External apical root resorption of the maxillary incisors was evaluated on periapical radiographs taken before and after 6 months of treatment. After DNA collection and purification, vitamin D receptor TaqI polymorphism analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to verify the association of clinical and genetic variables with external apical root resorption (P root resorption in orthodontically treated patients compared with the untreated subjects. In patients orthodontically treated, age higher than 14 years old, initial size of the maxillary incisor root superior to 30 mm, and premolar extraction were associated with increased external apical root resorption. Genotypes containing the C allele were weakly associated with protection against external apical root resorption (CC + CT × TT [odds ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-1.23; P = 0.091]) when treated orthodontic patients were compared to untreated individuals. Clinical factors and vitamin D receptor TaqI polymorphism were associated with external apical root resorption in orthodontic patients. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Incidence of apical root cracks and apical dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Kaiwar, Anjali; Shemesh, Hagay; Wesselink, Paul R; Hou, Benxiang; Wu, Min-Kai

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of apical root cracks and dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths. Two hundred forty mandibular incisors were mounted in resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligaments, and the apex was exposed. The root canals were instrumented with rotary and hand files, namely K3, ProTaper, and nickel-titanium Flex K files to the major apical foramen (AF), short AF, or beyond AF. Digital images of the apical surface of every tooth were taken during the apical enlargement at each file change. Development of dentinal defects was determined by comparing these images with the baseline image. Multinomial logistic regression test was performed to identify influencing factors. Apical crack developed in 1 of 80 teeth (1.3%) with hand files and 31 of 160 teeth (19.4%) with rotary files. Apical dentinal detachment developed in 2 of 80 teeth (2.5%) with hand files and 35 of 160 teeth (21.9%) with rotary files. Instrumentation with rotary files terminated 2 mm short of AF and did not cause any cracks. Significantly less cracks and detachments occurred when instrumentation with rotary files was terminated short of AF, as compared with that terminated at or beyond AF (P hand instruments; instrumentation short of AF reduced the risk of dentinal defects. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation of vitamin D status and orthodontic-induced external apical root resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Tehranchi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This study suggests that Vitamin D level is not among the clinical variables that are potential contributors for EARR. The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency does not differ in patients with higher EARR. These data suggest the possibility that Vitamin D insufficiency may not contribute to the development of more apical root resorption although this remains to be confirmed by further longitudinal cohort studies.

  12. Correlation of Vitamin D status and orthodontic-induced external apical root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehranchi, Azita; Sadighnia, Azin; Younessian, Farnaz; Abdi, Amir H; Shirvani, Armin

    2017-01-01

    Adequate Vitamin D is essential for dental and skeletal health in children and adult. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of serum Vitamin D level with external-induced apical root resorption (EARR) following fixed orthodontic treatment. In this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency (defined by25-hydroxyvitamin-D) was determined in 34 patients (23.5% male; age range 12-23 years; mean age 16.63 ± 2.84) treated with fixed orthodontic treatment. Root resorption of four maxillary incisors was measured using before and after periapical radiographs (136 measured teeth) by means of a design-to-purpose software to optimize data collection. Teeth with a maximum percentage of root resorption (%EARR) were indicated as representative root resorption for each patient. A multiple linear regression model and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to assess the association of Vitamin D status and observed EARR. P 0.05). This study suggests that Vitamin D level is not among the clinical variables that are potential contributors for EARR. The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency does not differ in patients with higher EARR. These data suggest the possibility that Vitamin D insufficiency may not contribute to the development of more apical root resorption although this remains to be confirmed by further longitudinal cohort studies.

  13. [Deformations occurring in the apical third of curved root canals during biomechanical preparation using manual impulsion-traction techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig Cayón, M; Basilio Monné, J; Canalda Sahli, C

    1990-01-01

    Apical deformations, specially zips and elbows, during instrumentation of the root canals, are studied. The authors study why do they appear, their effect on endodontic therapy, and the way of avoiding them.

  14. External apical root resorption in maxillary root-filled incisors after orthodontic treatment: a split-mouth design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas-Carreras, José María; Amarilla, Almudena; Espinar-Escalona, Eduardo; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Martín-González, Jenifer; Sánchez-Domínguez, Benito; López-Frías, Francisco Javier

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare, in a split mouth design, the external apical root resorption (EARR) associated with orthodontic treatment in root-filled maxillary incisors and their contralateral teeth with vital pulps. The study sample consisted of 38 patients (14 males and 24 females), who had one root-filled incisor before completion of multiband/bracket orthodontic therapy for at least 1 year. For each patient, digital panoramic radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were used to determine the root resortion and the proportion of external root resorption (PRR), defined as the ratio between the root resorption in the endodontically treated incisor and that in its contralateral incisor with a vital pulp. The student's t-test, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to determine statistical significance. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between EARR in vital teeth (1.1 ± 1.0 mm) and endodontically treated incisors (1.1 ± 0.8 mm). Twenty-six patients (68.4%) showed greater resorption of the endodontically treated incisor than its homolog vital tooth (p > 0.05). The mean and standard deviation of PPR were 1.0 ± 0.2. Multivariate logistic regression suggested that PRR does not correlate with any of the variables analyzed. There was no significant difference in the amount or severity of external root resorption during orthodontic movement between root-filled incisors and their contralateral teeth with vital pulps.

  15. Analysis of dental root apical morphology: a new method for dietary reconstructions in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, NoÉmie; Emonet, Edouard-Georges; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Guy, Franck; Tafforeau, Paul; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2012-06-01

    The reconstruction of paleo-diets is an important task in the study of fossil primates. Previously, paleo-diet reconstructions were performed using different methods based on extant primate models. In particular, dental microwear or isotopic analyses provided accurate reconstructions for some fossil primates. However, there is sometimes difficult or impossible to apply these methods to fossil material. Therefore, the development of new, independent methods of diet reconstructions is crucial to improve our knowledge of primates paleobiology and paleoecology. This study aims to investigate the correlation between tooth root apical morphology and diet in primates, and its potential for paleo-diet reconstructions. Dental roots are composed of two portions: the eruptive portion with a smooth and regular surface, and the apical penetrative portion which displays an irregular and corrugated surface. Here, the angle formed by these two portions (aPE), and the ratio of penetrative portion over total root length (PPI), are calculated for each mandibular tooth root. A strong correlation between these two variables and the proportion of some food types (fruits, leaves, seeds, animal matter, and vertebrates) in diet is found, allowing the use of tooth root apical morphology as a tool for dietary reconstructions in primates. The method was then applied to the fossil hominoid Khoratpithecus piriyai, from the Late Miocene of Thailand. The paleo-diet deduced from aPE and PPI is dominated by fruits (>50%), associated with animal matter (1-25%). Leaves, vertebrates and most probably seeds were excluded from the diet of Khoratpithecus, which is consistent with previous studies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Incidence of apical root cracks and apical dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, R.; Kaiwar, A.; Shemesh, H.; Wesselink, P.R.; Hou, B.; Wu, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of apical root cracks and dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths. Methods Two hundred forty mandibular incisors were mounted in resin blocks with simulated

  17. Effect of Maintaining Apical Patency on Irrigant Penetration into the Apical Two Millimeters of Large Root Canals : An In Vivo Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vera, Jorge; Hernandez, Erick M.; Romero, Monica; Arias, Ana; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Factors such as complex root canal anatomy and the vapor lock phenomenon have been shown to limit the penetration of irrigating solutions into the apical third in both in vivo and in vitro studies involving small and wide canals. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine whether

  18. Determining the apical terminus of root-end resected teeth using three modern apex locators: a comparative ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElAyouti, A; Kimionis, I; Chu, A-L; Löst, C

    2005-11-01

    To assess ex vivo the accuracy of various electronic apex locators in locating the apical terminus of root-end resected teeth. Ninety extracted human posterior teeth (182 root canals) were prepared to a minimum size of 40 and filled with gutta-percha and sealer. After resection of the apical 3 mm of the root, the root canal filling was removed using HERO rotary instruments. The size of the root canal at the apical terminus after removal of the filling ranged from size 50 to 90. The root canal length to the apical terminus was determined using 3 apex locators (Root ZX, Raypex4 and Apex Pointer). A new mounting model that utilized a micrometer was used to perform the measurements and to visually determine the actual position of the apical terminus. The frequency of locating the apical terminus and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Additionally, the coefficient of repeatability of each apex locator and the limits of inter-operator agreement were determined. All apex locators showed an acceptable repeatability (0.02-0.03 mm coefficient of repeatability) and narrow limits of inter-operator agreement (+0.07 and -0.07 mm). The accuracy of determining the apical terminus within 1 mm in the root canal was as follows: Root ZX 90% (164/182 root-canals) [95%CI: 86-94%], Raypex4 74% (135/182 root-canals) [95%CI: 68-80%], and Apex Pointer 71% (129/182 root canals) [95%CI: 65-77%]. No over-instrumentation resulted when the Root ZX device was used. In contrast, using the Raypex4 or the Apex Pointer device resulted in over-instrumentation in 8 of 182 root canals (4%). Under the conditions of this study all three apex locators were able to detect the apical terminus of root-end resected teeth with an acceptable range. The Root ZX device was the most accurate without over-instrumentation of the root canals.

  19. Gram-positive rods prevailing in teeth with apical periodontitis undergoing root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez de Paz, L E; Molander, A; Dahlén, G

    2004-09-01

    To identify Gram-positive rods from root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis and to examine their associations with other species. Consecutive root canal samples (RCSs) from 139 teeth undergoing root canal treatment were analyzed prospectively for cultivable microbes. Gram-positive rods in the first RCS submitted after chemo-mechanical preparation were categorised to genus level by selective media and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), and identified to species level by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Associations between organisms were measured by odds ratios (OR). In the first samples submitted a total of 158 Gram-positive rods, 115 Gram-positive cocci, 26 Gram-negative rods and 9 Gram-negative cocci, were identified. At genus levels Gram-positive rods were classified into: Lactobacillus spp. (38%), Olsenella spp. (18%), Propionibacterium spp. (13%), Actinomyces spp. (12%), Bifidobacterium spp. (13%) and Eubacterium spp. (6%). The most frequent species were Olsenella uli, Lactobacillus paracasei and Propionibacterium propionicum. In subsequent samples taken during treatment, Gram-positive rods were also identified, although the number of strains was considerably reduced. Positive associations were observed between members of the genus lactobacilli and Gram-positive cocci (OR>2). Olsenella uli and Lactobacillus spp. predominated over other Gram-positive rods. A possible association exists between Lactobacillus spp. and Gram-positive cocci in root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis receiving treatment.

  20. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of the association of cortical plate proximity and apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Tomoo; Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Horinuki, Eri; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of proximity of the root apex to the maxillary labial cortical plate, palatal cortical plate, and incisive canal cortical plate on apical root resorption. Cone-beam computed tomography was used to measure the amount of root resorption and root apex movement around maxillary right and left central incisors in 30 adults who underwent four-bicuspid extraction followed by treatment with multibracket appliances. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of the direction of root apex movement, after which the correlation between the amount of root resorption and root apex movement was determined. Mean apical root resorption was 1.80 ± 0.82 mm (range, 0.18-3.96 mm). The amount of root apex movement was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption on the side of pressure. Root apex proximity to the maxillary labial cortical plate, palatal cortical plate, and incisive canal cortical plate was associated with apical root resorption. Orthodontic treatment plans should carefully consider root proximity to the maxillary cortical plate. (J Oral Sci 58, 231-236, 2016).

  1. Evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal retreatment with several NiTi systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, A N; Er, O; Canakci, B C

    2015-12-01

    To compare the amount of debris extruded apically during root canal retreatment using ProTaper, Mtwo and Reciproc instruments with hand H-files. In total, 60 freshly extracted human mandibular incisor teeth were used. All root canals were prepared with a Reciproc R25 file than filled with Gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer using cold lateral condensation before being assigned randomly to four groups (n = 15 each). In group 1, root fillings were removed with the Protaper Universal retreatment system; ProTaper Universal F3 and F4 instruments were used for the final preparation. In group 2, root fillings were removed with the Mtwo retreatment system; Mtwo size 30, .06 taper, size 35, .06 taper and size 40, .06 taper files were used for the final preparation. In group 3, root fillings were removed with Reciproc R25 instruments; Reciproc R40 instruments were used for the final preparation. In group 4, the root fillings were removed with Gates Glidden burs and sizes 35, 30 and 25 H-files; for final preparation, a size 40 H-file was used. Glass vials were used for debris collection. The vials were weighed before and after Gutta-percha removal. Additionally, the times required for the retreatment procedures were recorded. Data were analysed statistically using one-way analysis of variance. The Reciproc system produced significantly smaller amounts of apical extruded debris than the other groups (P ProTaper groups. The ProTaper and Reciproc groups required significantly less time than the Mtwo and H-file groups (P hand filing. Use of the ProTaper and Reciproc instruments required less time for retreatment procedures than use of the Mtwo or H-file. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The antimicrobial effect of apical box versus apical cone preparation using iodine potassium iodide as root canal dressing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Dahlén, Gunnar; Reit, Claes-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose. The purpose was to study the reduction of intra-canal microflora in premolars with apical periodontitis instrumented with either apical box or apical cone preparation and to provide measurements of intervention effects to allow proper power calculation in future clinical trials.......-week post-sampling, a power calculation revealed that over 900 patients are needed to show a difference of 9% between the two protocols tested. Conclusions. Future trials should be conducted using stringent protocols and as multi-centre trials for reaching the required information size....

  3. Apical Root Canal Morphology of Mesial Roots of Mandibular First Molar Teeth with Vertucci Type II Configuration by Means of Micro-Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleş, Ali; Keskin, Cangül

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the features of the apical root canal anatomy and its relation to the level at which 2 separate root canals merge in the mesial roots of the mandibular first molars with Vertucci type II canal configuration by using micro-computed tomography analysis. The anatomic features of the apical 3 mm of root canals in 83 mesial roots of mandibular first molar teeth were investigated by micro-computed tomography and software imaging according to the level at which 2 separate root canals merge. The most apical slice where a visible root canal was detectable was recorded as 0 level. The specimens from where 2 root canals rejoin at within 3 mm from the 0 level were then assigned to group 1 (n = 37), whereas the specimens from where root canals rejoin 3-9 mm from the 0 level were assigned to group 2 (n = 46). Data were presented by using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests, with the significance level set at 5%. In all specimens the long oval type of cross-sectional shape increased from 50.9% at 1 mm to 80.5% at 3 mm. Group 1 presented significantly higher major diameter values compared with group 2 (P  .05) between groups. Group 2 displayed significantly higher roundness values than group 1 (P < .05). A long oval root cross section of apical root canal anatomy is more prevalent in roots for which 2 root canals merge within apical 3 mm of root canals. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Apical root resorption caused by orthodontic forces: A brief review and a long-term observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkara, Ahu; Karaman, Ali I; Kau, Chung H

    2012-10-01

    External apical root resorption (ARR) is a common iatrogenic consequence of orthodontic treatment. One of the aims of this article is to present a brief overview of the literature, including; diagnosis and etiology, with emphasis on orthodontic forces to facilitate an understand of the prevention or management of ARR in orthodontic patients. We also present a long-term follow-up observation of severe ARR, including the last obtained cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) records, to demonstrate the effect of orthodontic forces on ARR.

  5. Apical root resorption due to orthodontic treatment detected by cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Iury O; Alencar, Ana H G; Valladares-Neto, José; Estrela, Carlos

    2013-03-01

    To determine the frequency of apical root resorption (ARR) due to orthodontic treatment using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in a sample of 1256 roots from 30 patients. All patients had Class I malocclusion with crowding. Of the 30 patients evaluated, 11 were boys and 19 were girls; their mean age was 13 years (11 to 16 years). Orthodontic treatment followed the nonextraction treatment. CBCT images were obtained before and after orthodontic treatment, and ARR was determined using Axial Guided Navigation of CBCT images. All patients had ARR. No statistically significant association was found between resorption frequency, gender, and age. ARR was detected using CBCT in 46% of all roots that underwent orthodontic treatment. CBCT was effective for detecting in vivo even minimal degrees of ARR due to orthodontic treatment and allowed three-dimensional evaluation of dental roots and visualization of palatine roots of maxillary molars. The highest frequencies and the most significant ARR occurred in incisors and distal roots of first maxillary and mandibular molars.

  6. Effects of sodium hypochlorite associated with EDTA and etidronate on apical root transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva e Souza, P A R; das Dores, R S E; Tartari, T; Pinheiro, T P S; Tuji, F M; Silva e Souza, M H

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of sodium hypochlorite associated with EDTA and etidronate on apical root transportation. Forty-five roots of human mandibular molars with curvatures of 15-25° were embedded in acrylic resin to allow standardized angulation of the initial and final radiographs. The pre-instrumentation radiographs of the mesiobuccal canal of each root were taken using a radiograph digital sensor with a size 15 K-file in the canal. The canals were prepared with the ProTaper Universal system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), using one of the following irrigation regimens during the instrumentation (n = 15): G1 - irrigation with 20 mL of saline solution (control); G2 - alternating irrigation with 2.5% hypochlorite solution (NaOCl) (15 mL); and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (5 mL). During instrumentation, the canal was filled with NaOCl and then between each exchange of instrument filled with EDTA for 1 min, and G3 - irrigation with 20 mL of 5% NaOCl and 18% etidronate solution (HEBP) mixed in equal parts. The postinstrumentation radiographs were made with a F3 instrument in the canal. The images were magnified and superposed with Adobe Photoshop software (Adobe Systems, Mountain View, CA, USA). Apical transportation was determined with AutoCAD 2012 software (Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA) by measuring the distance in millimetres between the tips of the instruments. The results were subjected to the nonparametric statistical Kruskal-Wallis test (α < 0.05). The median transportation and interquartile range values were 0.00 ± 0.05 for G1, 0.08 ± 0.23 for G2 and 0.13 ± 0.14 for G3. Comparison between groups showed that apical transportation in G3 was significantly greater than in G1 (P < 0.05). The use of NaOCl associated with etidronate increased apical transportation in the canals of extracted teeth. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Histobacteriologic Conditions of the Apical Root Canal System and Periapical Tissues in Teeth Associated with Sinus Tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Gonçalves, Lucio S; Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2018-03-01

    This histobacteriologic study described the pattern of intraradicular and extraradicular infections in teeth with sinus tracts and chronic apical abscesses. The material comprised biopsy specimens from 24 (8 untreated and 16 treated) roots of teeth associated with apical periodontitis and a sinus tract. Specimens were obtained by periradicular surgery or extraction and were processed for histobacteriologic and histopathologic methods. Bacteria were found in the apical root canal system of all specimens, in the main root canal (22 teeth) and within ramifications (17 teeth). Four cases showed no extraradicular infection. Extraradicular bacteria occurred as a biofilm attached to the outer root surface in 17 teeth (5 untreated and 12 treated teeth), as actinomycotic colonies in 2 lesions, and as planktonic cells in 2 lesions. Extraradicular calculus formation (mineralized biofilm) was evident in 10 teeth. Teeth with chronic apical abscesses and sinus tracts showed a very complex infectious pattern in the apical root canal system and periapical lesion, with a predominance of biofilms. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of four different intracanal medicaments on the apical seal of the root canal system: A dye extraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Tandan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that the control group showed least amount of leakage, whereas the 1% chlorhexidine gel group showed maximum amount of leakage. Apical leakage was observed with all the experimental groups with little variations in between them. Under the parameters of this study, it can be concluded that use of intracanal medicaments during endodontic treatment has a definite impact on the apical seal of the root canal system.

  9. Apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment with aligners? A retrospective radiometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Elena; Drechsler, Thomas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Jacobs, Collin; Haag, Simeon; Wehrbein, Heinrich

    2013-08-14

    Objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and severity of apical root resorptions (ARR) during orthodontic treatment with aligners. The sample comprised 100 patients (17-75 years of age) with a class I occlusion and anterior crowding before treatment, treated exclusively with aligners (Invisalign®, Align Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). The following teeth were assessed: upper and lower anterior teeth and first molars. Root and crown lengths of a total of 1600 teeth were measured twice in pre- and post-treatment panoramic radiographs. Afterwards, relative changes of the root length during treatment were calculated by a root-crown-ratio taking pre- and post-treatment root and crown lengths into consideration. A reduction of this ratio was considered as a shortening of the initial root length. Additionally, tooth movements of the front teeth were assessed by lateral cephalograms and the 3-dimensonal set up of each patient. All patients had a reduction of the pre-treatment root length with a minimum of two teeth. On average 7.36 teeth per patient were affected. 54% of 1600 measured teeth showed no measurable root reduction. A reduction of >0%-10% of the pre-treatment root length was found in 27.75%, a distinct reduction of >10%-20% in 11.94%. 6.31% of all teeth were affected with a considerable reduction of >20%. We found no statistically significant correlation between relative root length changes and the individual tooth, gender, age or sagittal and vertical orthodontic tooth movement; except for extrusion of upper front teeth, which was considered as not clinical relevant due to the small amount of mean 4% ARR. The present study is the first analyzing ARR in patients with a fully implemented orthodontic treatment with aligners (i.e. resolving anterior crowding). The variety was high and no clinical relevant influence factor could be detected. A minimum of two teeth with a root length reduction was found in every patient. On average, 7.36 teeth

  10. Prevalence of apical periodontitis and quality of root canal fillings in population of Zagreb, Croatia: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijević, Jurica; Čižmeković Dadić, Tina; Prpić Mehičić, Goranka; Anić, Ivica; Šlaj, Mladen; Jukić Krmek, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of apical periodontitis and assess the quality of endodontic fillings in the population of the city of Zagreb, Croatia. Methods A total of 1462 orthopantomograms from new patients at 6 different dental practices was analyzed during 2006 and 2007. The presence of periapical lesions was determined by using the periapical index score (PAI). The quality of endodontic fillings was assessed according to the filling length and homogeinicity. Data were analyzed using t test and ANOVA with Scheffe post-hoc test. Results There were 75.9% of participants with endodontically treated teeth and 8.5% of all teeth were endodontically treated. Only 34.2% of endodontically treated roots had adequate root canal filling length, while 36.2% of root canal fillings had homogenous appearance. From the total number of teeth with intracanal post, 17.5% had no visible root canal filling. Using PAI 3 as a threshold value for apical periodontitis, periapical lesions were detected in 8.5% of teeth. Adequate quality of root canal fillings was associated with a lower prevalence of periapical lesions. Conclusion We found a large proportion of endodontically treated teeth with apical periodontitis and a correlation between the quality of endodontic filling and the prevalence of periapical lesions. This all suggests that it is necessary to improve the quality of endodontic treatment in order to reduce the incidence and prevalence of apical periodontitis. PMID:22180266

  11. In Vitro Comparison of Apically Extruded Debris during Root Canal Preparation of Mandibular Premolars with Manual and Rotary Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Soi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. During root canal preparation, debris extruded beyond the apical foramen may result in periapical inflammation and postoperative pain. To date no root canal preparation method has been developed that extrudes no peri-apical debris. The purpose of this study was to identify a system leading to minimal extrusion of debris from the apical fo-ramen. The study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the amount of apical extrusion of debris during root canal prepa-ration using hand ProTaper and GT rotary and RaCe rotary instruments using crown-down technique. Materials and methods. Ninety freshly extracted human single-rooted mandibular premolars were equally assigned to three groups (n=30. The root canals were instrumented using hand ProTaper, GT rotary and RaCe rotary systems. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials. The mean weight of the remaining debris was calcu-lated for each group and subjected to statistical analysis. Results. ANOVA was used to compare the mean dry weights of the debris extruded in the three groups, followedby post hoc Tukey tests for multiple comparisons the between groups. Highly significant differences were found in the amount of debris extruded among all the groups (P<0.001. The ProTaper group exhibited the highest mean debris weight (0.8293±0.05433 mg and the RaCe system exhibited the lowest mean debris weight (0.1280±0.01606 mg. Conclusion. All the systems tested resulted in apical extrusion of debris. However, the hand ProTaper files extruded a sig-nificantly higher amount of debris than GT and RaCe systems.

  12. External apical root resorption concurrent with orthodontic forces: the genetic influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Nieto, Nuria; Solano, Jose Enrique; Yañez-Vico, Rosa

    2017-05-01

    Root resorption is a pathological process of multifactorial origin related to the permanent loss of dental root structure in response to a mechanical, inflammatory, autoimmune or infectious stimulus. External apical root resorption (EARR) is a frequent clinical complication secondary to orthodontic tooth movement; apart from variables related to treatment, environmental factors and/or interindividual genetic variations can confer susceptibility or resistance to its occurrence. In this context, genetic predisposition has been described as an etiological factor, together with mechanical factors derived from orthodontic treatment. In recent years, international research groups have determined the degree of influence of some genetic biomarkers in defining increased/reduced susceptibility to postorthodontic EARR. The influences of the IL1 gene cluster (IL1B, IL1A, IL1RN, IL6), P2RX7, CASP1, OPG (TNFRSF11B), RANK (TNFRSF11A), Osteopontin (OPN), TNFα, the vitamin D receptor (TaqI), TNSALP and IRAK1 have been analyzed. The objective of the present review study was to compile and analyze the latest information about the genetic background predisposing to EARR during orthodontic treatment. Genetics-based studies along with other basic science research in the field might help to clarify the exact nature of EARR, the influence of genetic inheritance and possibly lead to the prevention or even eradication of this phenomenon during orthodontic treatment.

  13. Effects of 5-fluorouracil on the mitotic activity of onion root tips apical meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Lechowicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various concentrations of 5-FU on the mitotic activity of onion root tips apical meristem were investigated during 24-hour incubation in 5-FU and postincubation in water. The incubation in 5-FU caused a reversible inhibition of mitotic activity, and waves of the partially synchronised mitoses were observed during the period of postincubation. The most pronounced synchronisation of mitoses was obtained after incubation in 100 mg/l. 5-FU but the mitotic index of the resumed mitotic activity amounted to only one half of the control value. 5-FU was found to cause some cytological changes in meristematic cells such as enlargement of the nucleoli, change in the interphasic nuclei structure, appearance of subchromatid and chromatid aberrations and micronuclei. The effects of 5-FU on nucleic acids and the cell division cycle ace discussed and compared with the effects of 5-FUdR.

  14. T1-nerve root neuroma presenting with apical mass and Horner's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podnar Simon

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The appearance of dumbbell neuroma of the first thoracic root is extremely rare. The extradural component of a T1-dumbbell neuroma may present as an apical mass. The diagnosis of hand weakness is complex and may be delayed in T1-neuroma because of absence of the palpable cervical mass. One-stage removal of a T1-root neuroma and its intrathoracic extension demanded an extended posterior midline approach in the sitting position. Case presentation A 51-year old man had suffered a traumatic partial tendon rupture of his wrist flexor muscles 6 years ago. Since the incident he occasionally felt fullness and tenderness in the affected forearm with some tingling in his fingers bilaterally. During the last two years the hand weakness was continuous and hypotrophy of the medial flexor and intrinsic hand muscles had become apparent. Electrophysiological studies revealed an ulnar neuropathy in addition to mild median and radial nerve dysfunction, including a mild contralateral carpal tunnel syndrome. The diagnostic work-up for multiple mononeuropathy in the upper extremity was negative. Repeated electrophysiological studies revealed fibrillations in the C7 paravertebral muscles on the affected side. Chest x-ray revealed a large round apical mass on the affected side. A Horner's syndrome was noted at this point of diagnostic work-up. MRI of the cervical and thoracic spine revealed a dumbbell T1 neuroma enlarging the intervertebral foramen at T1-2 and a 5 cm large extradural tumor with extension into the apex of the ipsilateral lung. The patient underwent surgery in sitting position using a left dorsal midline approach. Although the T1 root could not be preserved, the patient's neurological condition was unchanged after the surgery. Conclusion Extended posterior midline exposure described here using hemilaminectomy, unilateral facetectomy and costo-transversectomy is efficient and safe for one-stage removal of dumbbell tumors at the T1

  15. In Vitro Comparison of Apically Extruded Debris during Root Canal Preparation of Mandibular Premolars with Manual and Rotary Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soi, Sonal; Yadav, Suman; Sharma, Sumeet; Sharma, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. During root canal preparation, debris extruded beyond the apical foramen may result in periapical inflammation and postoperative pain. To date no root canal preparation method has been developed that extrudes no periapical debris. The purpose of this study was to identify a system leading to minimal extrusion of debris from the apical foramen. The study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the amount of apical extrusion of debris during root canal preparation using hand ProTaper and GT rotary and RaCe rotary instruments using crown-down technique. Materials and methods. Ninety freshly extracted human single-rooted mandibular premolars were equally assigned to three groups (n=30). The root canals were instrumented using hand ProTaper, GT rotary and RaCe rotary systems. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials. The mean weight of the remaining debris was calculated for each group and subjected to statistical analysis. Results. ANOVA was used to compare the mean dry weights of the debris extruded in the three groups, followedby post hoc Tukey tests for multiple comparisons the between groups. Highly significant differences were found in the amount of debris extruded among all the groups (P<0.001). The ProTaper group exhibited the highest mean debris weight (0.8293±0.05433 mg) and the RaCe system exhibited the lowest mean debris weight (0.1280±0.01606 mg). Conclusion. All the systems tested resulted in apical extrusion of debris. However, the hand ProTaper files extruded a significantly higher amount of debris than GT and RaCe systems. PMID:26697144

  16. In Vitro Comparison of Apically Extruded Debris during Root Canal Preparation of Mandibular Premolars with Manual and Rotary Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soi, Sonal; Yadav, Suman; Sharma, Sumeet; Sharma, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. During root canal preparation, debris extruded beyond the apical foramen may result in periapical inflammation and postoperative pain. To date no root canal preparation method has been developed that extrudes no periapical debris. The purpose of this study was to identify a system leading to minimal extrusion of debris from the apical foramen. The study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the amount of apical extrusion of debris during root canal preparation using hand ProTaper and GT rotary and RaCe rotary instruments using crown-down technique. Materials and methods. Ninety freshly extracted human single-rooted mandibular premolars were equally assigned to three groups (n=30). The root canals were instrumented using hand ProTaper, GT rotary and RaCe rotary systems. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials. The mean weight of the remaining debris was calculated for each group and subjected to statistical analysis. Results. ANOVA was used to compare the mean dry weights of the debris extruded in the three groups, followedby post hoc Tukey tests for multiple comparisons the between groups. Highly significant differences were found in the amount of debris extruded among all the groups (PProTaper group exhibited the highest mean debris weight (0.8293±0.05433 mg) and the RaCe system exhibited the lowest mean debris weight (0.1280±0.01606 mg). Conclusion. All the systems tested resulted in apical extrusion of debris. However, the hand ProTaper files extruded a significantly higher amount of debris than GT and RaCe systems.

  17. Ex vivo evaluation of coronal and apical microbial leakage of root canal - Filled with gutta-percha or Resilon/Epiphany root canal filling material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Almeida-Gomes Fabio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This ex vivo study compared coronal and apical microleakage of root canals filled with Resilon/Epiphany (RE or gutta-percha/Grossman sealer (GP, using either lateral condensation (LC or System B (SB technique. Materials and Methods: Specimens in eight experimental groups were obturated using the following materials and techniques: Groups 1 and 3 - GP and LC; groups 2 and 4 - GP and SB; groups 5 and 7 - RE and LC; groups 6 and 8 - RE and SB. Apical and coronal leakages were tested using bacterial methods. For coronal analysis, the number of days required for complete contamination of the root canals was recorded according to observation of the brain heart infusion broth turbidity for 15 weeks. For apical analysis, the teeth were cleaved and the leakage was measured at 30 days. Data were collected for each sample and analyzed statistically with the Chi-square and ANOVA tests. Results: Leakage was found in all groups. The difference between filling materials, obturation techniques, and median time of leakage was not statistically significant for coronal ( P=0.847 and apical ( P=0.5789 leakages. Conclusion: There were no differences between the different filling materials (gutta-percha/Grossman sealer and Resilon/Epiphany and obturation techniques (lateral condensation and system B technique in coronal or apical leakages.

  18. 5-year results comparing mineral trioxide aggregate and adhesive resin composite for root-end sealing in apical surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Hänni, Stefan; Jensen, Simon Storgård

    2014-01-01

    was designed to re-examine a large sample of teeth treated with apical surgery after 5 years. METHODS: Patients were recalled 5 years after apical surgery, and treated teeth were classified as healed or not healed based on clinical and radiographic examination. (The latter was performed independently by 3......, age, type of tooth treated, post/screw, type of surgery). CONCLUSIONS: The results from this prospective nonrandomized clinical study with a 5-year follow-up of 271 teeth indicate that MTA exhibited a higher healing rate than COMP in the longitudinal prognosis of root-end sealing.......INTRODUCTION: Recent meta-analyses of the outcome of apical surgery using modern techniques including microsurgical principles and high-power magnification have yielded higher rates of healing. However, the information is mainly based on 1- to 2-year follow-up data. The present prospective study...

  19. Persistent extraradicular infection in root-filled asymptomatic human tooth: scanning electron microscopic analysis and microbial investigation after apical microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoretti, Fernanda G C; Endo, Marcos S; Gomes, Brenda P F A; Montagner, Francisco; Tosello, Fernanda B; Jacinto, Rogério C

    2011-12-01

    Procedural accidents have a negative effect on healing and might contribute to the persistence of infections in inaccessible apical areas, requiring surgical intervention. This report describes a case of persistent apical periodontitis of a lower left first molar associated with the sinus tract and a periapical lesion that required nonsurgical endodontic retreatment and apical surgery for resolution. The tooth had received endodontic treatment 3 years ago and had to be retreated using the crown-down technique with chemical auxiliary substance (2% chlorhexidine gel), foramen patency, and enlargement and was filled in a single appointment. The occlusal access cavity was immediately restored with composite resin. After 1 month, it could be observed that the sinus tract persisted and, radiographically, the lesion remained unaltered. Therefore, endodontic microsurgery was indicated. Apical microsurgery was performed under magnification with the use of a dental operating microscope including apicectomy, root end with ultrasound, and sealing with mineral trioxide aggregate. A microbiological sample was collected from the apical lesion. The resected distal root apex was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The following species were detected: Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces meyeri, Propionibacterium propionicum, Clostridium botullinum, Parvimonas micra, and Bacteroides ureolyticus; scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed bacterial biofilm surrounding the apical foramen and external radicular surface. Gutta-percha overfilling at the apex because of a zip caused during initial endodontic treatment could be observed. A 6-month follow-up showed apparent radiographic periapical healing, which progressed after 24 months. Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria and extraradicular biofilm seem to participate in the maintenance of persistent periapical pathology, and endodontic retreatment followed by periapical microsurgery proved to be a successful alternative in the

  20. Apical sealing of root canal fillings performed with five different endodontic sealers: analysis by fluid filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Carvalho de Vasconcelos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the sealing ability of five root canal sealers, including two experimental cements (MBP and MTA-Obtura using the fluid filtration method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Teeth were divided into 5 study groups: G1-AH Plus; G2-Acroseal; G3Sealapex; G4-MBP; G5-MTA-Obtura; and two controls. Chemical-mechanical preparation was performed with ProFile rotary nickel-titanium instruments 1 mm short of the apical foramen. The sealing ability was evaluated by fluid filtration at 15, 30, and 60 days. RESULTS: The statistical analysis showed significant difference between the materials at different periods (p<0.05. AH Plus and MBP had similar leakage values at 15 and 60 days, alternating with significant reduction at 30 days, while the other materials showed progressive increase in leakage values. Acroseal and Sealapex presented the best results at 15 days and the worst at 60 days. CONCLUSIONS: All sealers evaluated presented fluid leakage, with AH Plus and MBP showing the best results at the end of the experimental period. Acroseal, Sealapex, and MTA-Obtura presented increase in leakage values at longer observation periods.

  1. Comparison of External Apical Root Resorption after Orthodontic Treatment with Two Appliances (Standard Edgewise and MBT

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    V. Mollabashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The aim of this study was todeterminetheamount of external apical root resorption(EARRwithin two orthodontic appliances (standard edgewise and MBT. Material & Methods In this retrospective study, panoramic radiographs of 83 orthodontic patients (27 male and 56 female were evaluated. 46 patients had been treated with standard edgewise appliance (29 patients with extraction and 17 patients without extraction and 37 patients had been treated with MBT appliance (27 patients with extraction and 10 patients without extraction.EARR were evaluated in 24 teeth (anterior teeth, premolars and first molars in each patient. SPSS software and ordinal regression test were used for statistical analysis. Result: In this study the most EARR was seen in upper lateral incisors, then lower lateral incisors.EARR in upper canines and lower second premolars was significantly related to extraction of first premolarin MBT appliance. In non extraction cases, EARR was not related to the orthodontic appliance. Conclusion: Incisors teeth are the most disposed teeth to EARR. Orthodontic treatment with extraction increased EARR in canines and second premolars. MBT appliance may increase EARR. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci . 2016; 22 (4 :316-322

  2. IRAK1 variant is protective for orthodontic-induced external apical root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S; Nogueira, L; Canova, F; Lopez, M; Silva, H C

    2016-10-01

    Interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) pathway is a key player in orthodontic-induced external apical root resorption (EARR). The aim of this work was to identify the genes related to the IL1 pathway as possible candidate genes for EARR, which might be included in an integrative predictive model of this complex phenotype. Using a stepwise multiple linear regression model, 195 patients who had undergone orthodontic treatment were assessed for clinical and genetic factors associated with %EARRmax (maximum %EARR value obtained for each patient). The four maxillary incisors and the two maxillary canines were assessed. Three functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped: rs1143634 in IL1B gene, rs315952 in IL1RN gene, and rs1059703 in X-linked IRAK1 gene. The model showed that four of the nine clinical variables and one SNP explained 30% of the %EARRmax variability. The most significant unique contributions to the model were gender (P = 0.001), treatment duration (P < 0.001), premolar extractions (P = 0.003), Hyrax appliance (P < 0.001), and homozygosity/hemizygosity for variant C from IRAK1 gene (P = 0.018), which proved to be a protective factor. IRAK1 polymorphism is proposed as a protective variant for EARR. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Highly diverse microbiota in dental root canals in cases of apical periodontitis (data of illumina sequencing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengerfeldt, Veiko; Špilka, Katerina; Saag, Mare; Preem, Jens-Konrad; Oopkaup, Kristjan; Truu, Jaak; Mändar, Reet

    2014-11-01

    Chronic apical periodontitis (CAP) is a frequent condition that has a considerable effect on a patient's quality of life. We aimed to reveal root canal microbial communities in antibiotic-naive patients by applying Illumina sequencing (Illumina Inc, San Diego, CA). Samples were collected under strict aseptic conditions from 12 teeth (5 with primary CAP, 3 with secondary CAP, and 4 with a periapical abscess [PA]) and characterized by profiling the microbial community on the basis of the V6 hypervariable region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene by using Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing combinatorial sequence-tagged polymerase chain reaction products. Root canal specimens displayed highly polymicrobial communities in all 3 patient groups. One sample contained 5-8 (mean = 6.5) phyla of bacteria. The most numerous were Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Tenericutes, and Synergistetes were also present in most of the patients. One sample contained 30-70 different operational taxonomic units; the mean (± standard deviation) was lower in the primary CAP group (36 ± 4) than in the PA (45 ± 4) and secondary CAP (43 ± 13) groups (P < .05). The communities were individually different, but anaerobic bacteria predominated as the rule. Enterococcus faecalis was found only in patients with secondary CAP. One PA sample displayed a significantly high proportion (47%) of Proteobacteria, mainly at the expense of Janthinobacterium lividum. This study provided an in-depth characterization of the microbiota of periapical tissues, revealing highly polymicrobial communities and minor differences between the study groups. A full understanding of the etiology of periodontal disease will only be possible through further in-depth systems-level analyses of the host-microbiome interaction. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of four different intracanal medicaments on the apical seal of the root canal system: a dye extraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandan, Monika; Hegde, Mithra N; Hegde, Priyadarshini

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of four different intracanal medicaments on the apical seal of the root canal system in vitro. Fifty freshly extracted intact human permanent maxillary central incisors were collected, stored and disinfected. The root canals were prepared to a master apical size of number 50 using step back technique. Depending upon the intracanal medicament used, the teeth were divided randomly into five groups of 10 teeth each including one control group and four experimental groups. Group A: No intracanal medicament. Group B: Calcium hydroxide powder mixed with distilled water. Group C: Calcium hydroxide gutta percha points (calcium hydroxide points). Group D: 1% chlorhexidine gel (hexigel). Group E: Chlorhexidine gutta percha points (Roeko Activ Points). The medication was left in canals for 14 days. Following removal of the intracanal medicament, all the groups were obturated with lateral compaction technique. The apical leakage was then evaluated using dye extraction method with the help of a spectrophotometer. RESULTS were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-test, which showed statistically significant difference among the five groups tested. It can be concluded from this study that the control group showed least amount of leakage, whereas the 1% chlorhexidine gel group showed maximum amount of leakage. Apical leakage was observed with all the experimental groups with little variations in between them. Under the parameters of this study, it can be concluded that use of intracanal medicaments during endodontic treatment has a definite impact on the apical seal of the root canal system.

  5. Apical extrusion of debris during root canal preparation using a novel nickel-titanium file system: WaveOne gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, Asiye Nur; Guneser, Mehmet Burak; Arslan, Dilara

    2017-01-01

    This study was intended to evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris following root canal preparation with three different instrumentation systems. Sixty mandibular incisor teeth were selected and randomly divided into three groups ( n = 20/group) according to the instrumentation system used: the ProTaper Next (PTN; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), the Twisted File Adaptive (TFA; SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA), and the WaveOne Gold (WOG; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). All apically extruded debris was collected and dried in preweighed glass vials. The mean weight of the apically extruded debris was obtained using a microbalance. The time for root canal preparation was also recorded. The data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance. The mean weights of apically extruded debris were 0.00035 ± 0.00014 g (PTN); 0.00023 ± 0.0001 g (TFA); and 0.00019 ± 0.0001 g (WOG) ( P system extruded more debris than the TFA and WOG systems. The TFA and WOG systems were faster than the PTN system.

  6. External apical root resorption in non-extraction cases after clear aligner therapy or fixed orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianru Yi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: The application of removable aligner in orthodontic treatment has increased rapidly in recent years, while its effects on root resorption remains unclear. The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the amount of external apical root resorption (EARR in non-extraction patients receiving clear aligner therapy (CAT or fixed orthodontic treatment (FOT. Materials and methods: Eighty non-extraction patients treated with CAT or FOT exclusively were evaluated retrospectively. Panoramic radiographs were used to measure the length of crowns and roots of the incisors before and after treatment. The amount of EARR was determined by the relative change of root-crown ratio and compared between the two groups. The potential predictive factors of EARR were investigated using spearman correlation analysis. Results: The overall EARR in the CAT patients was significantly less than the FOT. Similar results were observed in maxillary central incisors, maxillary lateral incisors, mandibular central incisors and mandibular lateral incisors. The duration of treatment positively correlated with the amount of EARR in both modalities. Gender, age, skeletal pattern or degree of malocclusion did not affect the occurrence of EARR. Conclusion: Clear aligner therapy may have a superiority of reducing external apical root resorption compared to fixed orthodontic treatment in non-extraction patients. Keywords: Clear aligner, Fixed orthodontics, Root resorption

  7. Clinical results with two different methods of root-end preparation and filling in apical surgery: mineral trioxide aggregate and adhesive resin composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Hanni, Stefan; Jensen, Simon Storgaard

    2010-01-01

    The aim of apical surgery is to hermetically seal the root canal system after root-end resection, thereby enabling periradicular healing. The objective of this nonrandomized prospective clinical study was to report results of 2 different root-end preparation and filling methods, ie, mineral triox...

  8. Contribution of cone beam computed tomography to the detection of apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment in root-filled and vital teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Iury; Valladares-Neto, José; Estrela, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether root-filled teeth are similar to vital pulp teeth in terms of apical root resorption (ARR) after orthodontic treatment. An original sample of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 1256 roots from 30 orthodontic patients were analyzed. The inclusion criteria demanded root-filled teeth and their contralateral vital teeth, while teeth with history of trauma had to be excluded to comply with exclusion criteria. CBCT images of root-filled teeth were compared before and after orthodontic treatment in a split-mouth design study. Tooth measurements were made with multiplanar reconstruction using axial-guided navigation. The statistical difference between the treatment effects was compared using the paired t-test. Twenty posterior root-filled teeth and their contralaterals with vital pulp were selected before orthodontic treatment from six adolescents (two boys and four girls; mean [SD] age 12.8 [1.8] years). No differences were detected between filled and vital root lengths before treatment (P  =  .4364). The mean differences in root length between preorthodontic and postorthodontic treatment in filled- and vital roots were -0.30 mm and -0.16 mm, respectively, without any statistical difference (P  =  .4197) between them. There appears to be no increase in ARR after orthodontic treatment in root-filled teeth with no earlier ARR.

  9. Comparative evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal preparation using ProTaper™, Hyflex™ and Waveone™ rotary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surakanti, Jayaprada Reddy; Venkata, Ravi Chandra Polavarapu; Vemisetty, Hari Kumar; Dandolu, Ram Kiran; Jaya, Nagendra Krishna Muppalla; Thota, Shirisha

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Extrusion of any debris during endodontic treatment may potentially cause post-operative complications such as flare-ups. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the amount of apically extruded debris during the root canal preparation using rotary and reciprocating nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 human mandibular first premolars were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 20 teeth/group). The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturers’ instructions using the Reciprocating single-file system WaveOne™ (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and full-sequence rotary Hyflex CM™ (Coltene Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland) and ProTaper™ (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) instruments. The canals were then irrigated using bidistilled water. The debris that was extruded apically was collected in preweighed eppendorf tubes and assessed with an electronic balance and compared. Statistical Analysis Used: The debris extrusion was compared and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and the post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test. Results: The WaveOne™ and ProTaper™ rotary instruments produced significantly more debris compared with Hyflex CM™ rotary instruments (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study, all systems that were used resulted in extrusion of apical debris. Full-sequence rotary instrumentation was associated with less debris extrusion compared with the use of reciprocating single-file systems. PMID:24778507

  10. A posteriori registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs for the evaluation of external apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreich, Eliane Maria; Chibinski, Ana Cláudia; Coelho, Ulisses; Wambier, Letícia Stadler; Zedebski, Rosário de Arruda Moura; de Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli; de Moraes, Luiz Cesar

    2016-03-01

    This study employed a posteriori registration and subtraction of radiographic images to quantify the apical root resorption in maxillary permanent central incisors after orthodontic treatment, and assessed whether the external apical root resorption (EARR) was related to a range of parameters involved in the treatment. A sample of 79 patients (mean age, 13.5±2.2 years) with no history of trauma or endodontic treatment of the maxillary permanent central incisors was selected. Periapical radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were digitized and imported to the Regeemy software. Based on an analysis of the posttreatment radiographs, the length of the incisors was measured using Image J software. The mean EARR was described in pixels and relative root resorption (%). The patient's age and gender, tooth extraction, use of elastics, and treatment duration were evaluated to identify possible correlations with EARR. The mean EARR observed was 15.44±12.1 pixels (5.1% resorption). No differences in the mean EARR were observed according to patient characteristics (gender, age) or treatment parameters (use of elastics, treatment duration). The only parameter that influenced the mean EARR of a patient was the need for tooth extraction. A posteriori registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs was a suitable method to quantify EARR after orthodontic treatment, and the need for tooth extraction increased the extent of root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

  11. A posterior registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs for the evaluation of external apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreich, Eliane Maria; Chibinski, Ana Claudia; Coelho, Ulisses; Wambier, Leticia Stadler; Zedebski, Rosaio De Arruda Moura [School of Dentistry, Ponta Grossa State University, Ponta Grossa, Parana (Brazil); De Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli; De Moraes, Luiz Cesar [Dept. of Dental Radiology, School of Dentistry, State University of Sao Paulo, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    This study employed a posteriori registration and subtraction of radiographic images to quantify the apical root resorption in maxillary permanent central incisors after orthodontic treatment, and assessed whether the external apical root resorption (EARR) was related to a range of parameters involved in the treatment. A sample of 79 patients (mean age, 13.5±2.2 years) with no history of trauma or endodontic treatment of the maxillary permanent central incisors was selected. Periapical radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were digitized and imported to the Regeemy software. Based on an analysis of the posttreatment radiographs, the length of the incisors was measured using Image J software. The mean EARR was described in pixels and relative root resorption (%). The patient's age and gender, tooth extraction, use of elastics, and treatment duration were evaluated to identify possible correlations with EARR. The mean EARR observed was 15.44±12.1 pixels (5.1% resorption). No differences in the mean EARR were observed according to patient characteristics (gender, age) or treatment parameters (use of elastics, treatment duration). The only parameter that influenced the mean EARR of a patient was the need for tooth extraction. A posteriori registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs was a suitable method to quantify EARR after orthodontic treatment, and the need for tooth extraction increased the extent of root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

  12. A posterior registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs for the evaluation of external apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreich, Eliane Maria; Chibinski, Ana Claudia; Coelho, Ulisses; Wambier, Leticia Stadler; Zedebski, Rosaio De Arruda Moura; De Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli; De Moraes, Luiz Cesar

    2016-01-01

    This study employed a posteriori registration and subtraction of radiographic images to quantify the apical root resorption in maxillary permanent central incisors after orthodontic treatment, and assessed whether the external apical root resorption (EARR) was related to a range of parameters involved in the treatment. A sample of 79 patients (mean age, 13.5±2.2 years) with no history of trauma or endodontic treatment of the maxillary permanent central incisors was selected. Periapical radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were digitized and imported to the Regeemy software. Based on an analysis of the posttreatment radiographs, the length of the incisors was measured using Image J software. The mean EARR was described in pixels and relative root resorption (%). The patient's age and gender, tooth extraction, use of elastics, and treatment duration were evaluated to identify possible correlations with EARR. The mean EARR observed was 15.44±12.1 pixels (5.1% resorption). No differences in the mean EARR were observed according to patient characteristics (gender, age) or treatment parameters (use of elastics, treatment duration). The only parameter that influenced the mean EARR of a patient was the need for tooth extraction. A posteriori registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs was a suitable method to quantify EARR after orthodontic treatment, and the need for tooth extraction increased the extent of root resorption after orthodontic treatment

  13. A radiographic study of external apical root resorption in patients treated with single-phase fixed orthodontic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, S S; Chopra, S S; Kumar, Prasanna; Jayan, B; Nehra, K; Sharma, Mohit

    2016-12-01

    External apical root resorption (EARR) is one of the most common iatrogenic consequences of orthodontic tooth movement. Many factors like gender, duration, orthodontic force and duration of orthodontic treatment have been implicated to cause EARR. Pre- and post-treatment OPGs of 60 orthodontic patients (30 males and 30 females) who had undergone treatment with a single phase of fixed orthodontic therapy were randomly selected from institutional archives. The root apices were evaluated for EARR by a single operator on an radiograph viewing box at a standardized source of light using a four-grade ordinal scale. Anterior EARR was measured on the maxillary and mandibular canines. Posterior EARR was measured on premolars, mesiobuccal and distobuccal roots of maxillary first molars and mesial and distal roots of mandibular first molars. The results were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis. The cases in which the patients underwent therapeutic extraction had a relatively higher amount of EARR compared to the cases in which the patients were treated by non-extraction therapy ( P  orthodontic treatment ( P  > 0.05). Therapeutic extraction is an important determinant of post-treatment EARR. Gender and duration of orthodontic treatment may not be important variables in the causation of EARR according to the findings of this study. However, longitudinal studies with larger sample size are required to validate the results of this study.

  14. Incidence of apical crack formation and propagation during removal of root canal filling materials with different engine driven nickel-titanium instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Özyürek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To determine the incidence of crack formation and propagation in apical root dentin after retreatment procedures performed using ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTR, Mtwo-R, ProTaper Next (PTN, and Twisted File Adaptive (TFA systems. Materials and Methods The study consisted of 120 extracted mandibular premolars. One millimeter from the apex of each tooth was ground perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth, and the apical surface was polished. Twenty teeth served as the negative control group. One hundred teeth were prepared, obturated, and then divided into 5 retreatment groups. The retreatment procedures were performed using the following files: PTR, Mtwo-R, PTN, TFA, and hand files. After filling material removal, apical enlargement was done using apical size 0.50 mm ProTaper Universal (PTU, Mtwo, PTN, TFA, and hand files. Digital images of the apical root surfaces were recorded before preparation, after preparation, after obturation, after filling removal, and after apical enlargement using a stereomicroscope. The images were then inspected for the presence of new apical cracks and crack propagation. Data were analyzed with χ2 tests using SPSS 21.0 software. Results New cracks and crack propagation occurred in all the experimental groups during the retreatment process. Nickel-titanium rotary file systems caused significantly more apical crack formation and propagation than the hand files. The PTU system caused significantly more apical cracks than the other groups after the apical enlargement stage. Conclusions This study showed that retreatment procedures and apical enlargement after the use of retreatment files can cause crack formation and propagation in apical dentin.

  15. Incidence of apical crack formation and propagation during removal of root canal filling materials with different engine driven nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyürek, Taha; Tek, Vildan; Yılmaz, Koray; Uslu, Gülşah

    2017-11-01

    To determine the incidence of crack formation and propagation in apical root dentin after retreatment procedures performed using ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTR), Mtwo-R, ProTaper Next (PTN), and Twisted File Adaptive (TFA) systems. The study consisted of 120 extracted mandibular premolars. One millimeter from the apex of each tooth was ground perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth, and the apical surface was polished. Twenty teeth served as the negative control group. One hundred teeth were prepared, obturated, and then divided into 5 retreatment groups. The retreatment procedures were performed using the following files: PTR, Mtwo-R, PTN, TFA, and hand files. After filling material removal, apical enlargement was done using apical size 0.50 mm ProTaper Universal (PTU), Mtwo, PTN, TFA, and hand files. Digital images of the apical root surfaces were recorded before preparation, after preparation, after obturation, after filling removal, and after apical enlargement using a stereomicroscope. The images were then inspected for the presence of new apical cracks and crack propagation. Data were analyzed with χ 2 tests using SPSS 21.0 software. New cracks and crack propagation occurred in all the experimental groups during the retreatment process. Nickel-titanium rotary file systems caused significantly more apical crack formation and propagation than the hand files. The PTU system caused significantly more apical cracks than the other groups after the apical enlargement stage. This study showed that retreatment procedures and apical enlargement after the use of retreatment files can cause crack formation and propagation in apical dentin.

  16. Effect of coronal flaring on apical extrusion of debris during root canal instrumentation using single-file systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçuoğlu, H S; Üstün, Y; Akpek, F; Aktı, A; Topçuoğlu, G

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of coronal flaring on the amount of debris extruded apically during root canal preparation using the Reciproc, WaveOne (WO) and OneShape (OS) single-file systems. Ninety extracted single-rooted mandibular incisor teeth were randomly assigned to six groups (n = 15 for each group) for canal instrumentation. Endodontic access cavities were prepared in each tooth. In three of the six groups, coronal flaring was not performed; coronal flaring was performed with Gates-Glidden drills on all teeth in the remaining three groups. The canals were then instrumented with one or other of the following single-file instrument systems: Reciproc, WO and OS. Debris extruded apically during instrumentation was collected into pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. The tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70 °C for 5 days. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the pre-instrumentation and post-instrumentation weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey's post hoc tests (P = 0.05). Reciproc and WO files without coronal flaring produced significantly more debris compared with the other groups (P  0.05). All single-file systems caused apical extrusion of debris. Performing coronal flaring prior to canal preparation reduced the amount of apically extruded debris when using Reciproc or WO systems. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Quantitative digital subtraction radiography in the assessment of external apical root resorption induced by orthodontic therapy: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunku, Raghavendra; Roopesh, R; Kancherla, Pavan; Perumalla, Kiran Kumar; Yudhistar, Palla Venkata; Reddy, V Sridhar

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate density changes around the apices of teeth during orthodontic treatment by using digital subtraction radiography to measure the densities around six teeth (maxilla central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) before and after orthodontic treatment in 36 patients and also assess treatment variables and their coorelation with root resorption. A total of 36 consecutive patient files were selected initially. The selected patients presented with a class I or II relationship and were treated with or without premolar extractions and fixed appliances. Some class II patients were treated additionally with extraoral forces or functional appliances. External apical root resorption (EARR) per tooth in millimeters was calculated and was also expressed as a percentage of the original root length. Image reconstruction and subtraction were performed using the software Regeemy Image Registration and Mosaicing (version 0.2.43-RCB, DPI-INPE, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil) by a single operator. A region of interest (ROI) was defined in the apical third of the root and density calibration was made in Image J® using enamel (gray value = 255) as reference in the same image. The mean gray values in the ROIs were reflective of the change in the density values between the two images. The root resorption of the tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA. An independent t-test was performed to compare the mean amount of resorption between male and female, between extraction and nonextraction cases. The density changes after orthodontic treatment were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signedrank test. In addition, the density changes in different teeth were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The cut-off for statistical significance was a p-value of 0.05. All the statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS (version 13.0 for Windows, Chicago, IL, USA). Gender, the age at which treatment was started and

  18. Cone-beam computed tomography analysis of the apical third of curved roots after mechanical preparation with different automated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cesar Augusto Pereira; Pascoalato, Cristina; Meurer, Maria Ines; Silva, Silvio Rocha Correa

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) the apical canal transportation and centralizing ability of different automated systems after root canal preparation. The mesiobuccal canals of maxillary first molars (n=10 per group) were prepared with: GI - reciprocating system with K-Flexofile; GII - reciprocating system with NiTiFlex files; GIII - rotary system with K3 instruments; GIV - rotary system with RaCe instruments. CBCT scans were taken before and after biomechanical preparation up to a 40.02 diameter. Canal transportation was determined by measuring the smallest distance between the inner canal walls and the mesial and distal sides of the root. The centralization ability corresponded to the difference between the measurements from transportation evaluation, using the linear voxel to voxel method of analysis. The mean transportation was 0.06 ± 0.14 mm, with a tendency to deviate to the mesial side of the root (n=22), with no statistically significant difference among the groups (p=0.4153). The mean centralization index was 0.15 ± 0.65 also without statistically significant difference among the groups (p=0.0881). It may be concluded that apical canal transportation and centralization ability were not influenced by the type of mechanical movement and instruments used. (author)

  19. Cone-beam computed tomography analysis of the apical third of curved roots after mechanical preparation with different automated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cesar Augusto Pereira; Pascoalato, Cristina [University of Southern Santa Catarina (UNISUL), Tubarao, SC (Brazil); Meurer, Maria Ines [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Silvio Rocha Correa, E-mail: silvio@foar.unesp.b [Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present study evaluated by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) the apical canal transportation and centralizing ability of different automated systems after root canal preparation. The mesiobuccal canals of maxillary first molars (n=10 per group) were prepared with: GI - reciprocating system with K-Flexofile; GII - reciprocating system with NiTiFlex files; GIII - rotary system with K3 instruments; GIV - rotary system with RaCe instruments. CBCT scans were taken before and after biomechanical preparation up to a 40.02 diameter. Canal transportation was determined by measuring the smallest distance between the inner canal walls and the mesial and distal sides of the root. The centralization ability corresponded to the difference between the measurements from transportation evaluation, using the linear voxel to voxel method of analysis. The mean transportation was 0.06 +- 0.14 mm, with a tendency to deviate to the mesial side of the root (n=22), with no statistically significant difference among the groups (p=0.4153). The mean centralization index was 0.15 +- 0.65 also without statistically significant difference among the groups (p=0.0881). It may be concluded that apical canal transportation and centralization ability were not influenced by the type of mechanical movement and instruments used. (author)

  20. Micro-computed Tomographic Analysis of Apical Microcracks before and after Root Canal Preparation by Hand, Rotary, and Reciprocating Instruments at Different Working Lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Bruna Paloma; Câmara, Andréa Cruz; Duarte, Daniel Amancio; Heck, Richard John; Antonino, Antonio Celso Dantas; Aguiar, Carlos Menezes

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to compare apical microcrack formation after root canal shaping by hand, rotary, and reciprocating files at different working lengths using micro-computed tomographic analysis. Sixty mandibular incisors were randomly divided into 6 experimental groups (n = 10) according to the systems and working lengths used for the root canal preparation: ProTaper Universal for Hand Use (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), HyFlex CM (Coltene-Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland), and Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) files working at the apical foramen (AF) and 1 mm short of the AF (AF - 1 mm). The teeth were imaged with micro-computed tomographic scanning at an isotropic resolution of 14 μm before and after root canal preparation, and the cross-sectional images generated were assessed to detect microcracks in the apical portion of the roots. Overall, 17 (28.3%) specimens presented microcracks before instrumentation. Apical microcracks were present in 1 (ProTaper Universal for Hand Use), 3 (Hyflex CM), and 2 (Reciproc) specimens when the instrumentation terminated at the AF. When instrumentation was terminated at AF - 1 mm, apical microcracks were detected in 3 (ProTaper Universal for Hand Use) and 4 (Hyflex CM and Reciproc) specimens. All these microcracks detected after root canal preparation were already present before instrumentation, and no new apical microcrack was visualized. For all groups, the number of slices presenting microcracks after root canal preparation was the same as before canal preparation. Root canal shaping with ProTaper Universal for Hand Use, HyFlex CM, and Reciproc systems, regardless of the working length, did not produce apical microcracks. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A dynamic genetic-hormonal regulatory network model explains multiple cellular behaviors of the root apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Mónica L; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2017-04-01

    The study of the concerted action of hormones and transcription factors is fundamental to understand cell differentiation and pattern formation during organ development. The root apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana is a useful model to address this. It has a stem cell niche near its tip conformed of a quiescent organizer and stem or initial cells around it, then a proliferation domain followed by a transition domain, where cells diminish division rate before transiting to the elongation zone; here, cells grow anisotropically prior to their final differentiation towards the plant base. A minimal model of the gene regulatory network that underlies cell-fate specification and patterning at the root stem cell niche was proposed before. In this study, we update and couple such network with both the auxin and cytokinin hormone signaling pathways to address how they collectively give rise to attractors that correspond to the genetic and hormonal activity profiles that are characteristic of different cell types along A. thaliana root apical meristem. We used a Boolean model of the genetic-hormonal regulatory network to integrate known and predicted regulatory interactions into alternative models. Our analyses show that, after adding some putative missing interactions, the model includes the necessary and sufficient components and regulatory interactions to recover attractors characteristic of the root cell types, including the auxin and cytokinin activity profiles that correlate with different cellular behaviors along the root apical meristem. Furthermore, the model predicts the existence of activity configurations that could correspond to the transition domain. The model also provides a possible explanation for apparently paradoxical cellular behaviors in the root meristem. For example, how auxin may induce and at the same time inhibit WOX5 expression. According to the model proposed here the hormonal regulation of WOX5 might depend on the cell type. Our results

  2. A dynamic genetic-hormonal regulatory network model explains multiple cellular behaviors of the root apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica L García-Gómez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of the concerted action of hormones and transcription factors is fundamental to understand cell differentiation and pattern formation during organ development. The root apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana is a useful model to address this. It has a stem cell niche near its tip conformed of a quiescent organizer and stem or initial cells around it, then a proliferation domain followed by a transition domain, where cells diminish division rate before transiting to the elongation zone; here, cells grow anisotropically prior to their final differentiation towards the plant base. A minimal model of the gene regulatory network that underlies cell-fate specification and patterning at the root stem cell niche was proposed before. In this study, we update and couple such network with both the auxin and cytokinin hormone signaling pathways to address how they collectively give rise to attractors that correspond to the genetic and hormonal activity profiles that are characteristic of different cell types along A. thaliana root apical meristem. We used a Boolean model of the genetic-hormonal regulatory network to integrate known and predicted regulatory interactions into alternative models. Our analyses show that, after adding some putative missing interactions, the model includes the necessary and sufficient components and regulatory interactions to recover attractors characteristic of the root cell types, including the auxin and cytokinin activity profiles that correlate with different cellular behaviors along the root apical meristem. Furthermore, the model predicts the existence of activity configurations that could correspond to the transition domain. The model also provides a possible explanation for apparently paradoxical cellular behaviors in the root meristem. For example, how auxin may induce and at the same time inhibit WOX5 expression. According to the model proposed here the hormonal regulation of WOX5 might depend on the cell

  3. Apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment. A prospective study using cone beam CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Henrik; Gröndahl, Kerstin; Hansen, Ken; Gröndahl, Hans-Göran

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the incidence and severity of root resorption during orthodontic treatment by means of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to explore factors affecting orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR). CBCT examinations were performed on 152 patients with Class I malocclusion. All roots from incisors to first molars were assessed on two or three occasions. At treatment end, 94% of patients had ≥1 root with shortening >1 mm, and 6.6% had ≥1 tooth where it exceeded 4 mm. Among teeth, 56.3% of upper lateral incisors had root shortening >1 mm. Of upper incisors and the palatal root of upper premolars, 2.6% showed root shortenings >4 mm. Slanted surface resorptions of buccal and palatal surfaces were found in 15.1% of upper central and 11.5% of lateral incisors. Monthly root shortening was greater after 6-month control than before. Upper jaw teeth and anterior teeth were significantly associated with the degree of root shortening. Gender, root length at baseline, and treatment duration were not. Practically all patients and up to 91% of all teeth showed some degree of root shortening, but few patients and teeth had root shortenings >4 mm. Slanted root resorption was found on root surfaces that could be evaluated only by a tomographic technique. A CBCT technique can provide more valid and accurate information about root resorption.

  4. APICAL SEAL BETWEEN ADHESIVE ROOT CANAL OBTURATION SYSTEM AND GUTTA-PERCHA/AH-PLUS SEALER: AN IN VITRO COMPARISON STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Three dimensional obturation of the root canal is important for success of root canal treatment. Microleakage is one of the reason for root canal failure. Numerous materials have been used for obturation of which Gutta-percha is the most successful with variety of sealers. One of the recent material to further improve root canal treatment success rate is use of Resilon with Epiphany root canal sealer to apply adhesive concepts in to endodontics. An adhesive bond forms between Epiphany sealer, Resilon and dentin, making it monolithic hence less microleakage if any significantly. METHODS 60 single rooted mandibular premolars were dissected at cement enamel junction with diamond disc. Root canals were explored and working length measured using K file. Root canals of all 60 samples were prepared with ProTaper and irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA solution. Teeth were divided in to group A and B, each having 30 samples. Group A teeth obturated with Resilon Epiphany obturation system and group B with Gutta-percha and AH-plus sealer. All specimens were stored in incubator for 30 days. Clearing process of samples done with Robertson’s technique to make them transparent. All the specimens were immersed in 2% methylene blue dye solution for 7 days. Specimens were then examined under stereomicroscope with 10x magnification to measure dye penetration in mm with image analysis software. The data collected were analysed statistically. RESULTS This study showed that Resilon Epiphany group has a mean leakage of 1.2307, while the Gutta-percha/AH-plus had a mean leakage of 3.6133. There was statistically significant differences between Resilon and Gutta-percha groups. CONCLUSIONS 1. Resilon Epiphany group showed less apical microleakage than Gutta-percha/AH-plus obturation. 2. Based on result obtained it is suggested that Resilon Epiphany can be recommended for root canal obturation.

  5. Organization of the root apical meristem in Linum usitatissimum L. grown at 25°C and 7°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kadej

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first days of intensive growth of the Linum usitatissimum root, the central part of the apical meristem exhibits usually a 4-tier organization. When growth ceases reorganization of the cell arrangement occurs. It starts by periclinal division of the subprotodermal initials, whose derivatives are forming the secondary columella in the central part of the root cap.

  6. Ultrasonic root-end preparation in apical surgery : a prospective randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, Jan; Putters, Thomas; Baas, Erik M.; van Ingen, Johan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential benefit of an ultrasonic device in apical surgery on the outcome of treatment. Study design. A randomized prospective design was used in a standardized treatment protocol. Patients were allocated to treatment with an ultrasonic

  7. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cabrini Scheibel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI and external apical root resorption (EARR after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1 and after 12 months of treatment (T2. ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157. CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction.

  8. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibel, Paula Cabrini; Ramos, Adilson Luiz; Iwaki, Lilian Cristina Vessoni; Micheletti, Kelly Regina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI) and external apical root resorption (EARR) after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1) and after 12 months of treatment (T2). ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157). CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction. PMID:25715722

  9. Digital subtraction radiography evaluation of the bone repair process of chronic apical periodontitis after root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfica e Silva, J; Leles, C R; Alencar, A H G; Nunes, C A B C M; Mendonça, E F

    2010-08-01

    To monitor radiographically the progress of bone repair within chronic periapical lesions after root canal treatment using digital subtraction radiography (DSR). Twelve patients with 17 single-rooted teeth with chronic apical periodontitis associated with an infected necrotic pulp were selected for root canal treatment. Periapical radiographs were taken before treatment (baseline) and immediately post-treatment, 45, 90, 135 and 180 days after treatment. The radiographic protocol included the use of individualized film holders with silicone bite blocks. The six radiographic images were digitized and submitted to digital subtraction using DSR software, resulting in five subtracted images (SI). Quantitative analysis of these SI was performed using Image Tool software to assess pixel value changes, considering a step-wedge as the gold standard and a cut-off value of 128 pixels. The aim was to identify any increase or decrease in mineral density in the region of the periapical lesion. A minor decrease in mineral density at the canal filling session and a significant progressive mineral gain in the following evaluations (P < 0.001) occurred. Pairwise comparison of pixel grey values revealed that only the 180-day follow-up differed significantly from the previous SI. Digital subtraction radiography is a useful method for evaluating the progress of bone repair after root canal treatment. Noticeable mineral gain was observed approximately 90 days after root canal filling and definite bone repair after 180 days.

  10. Incisal Apical Root Resorption Evaluation after Low-Friction Orthodontic Treatment Using Two-Dimensional Radiographic Imaging and Trigonometric Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoldi, Fabio; Bonetti, Stefano; Dalessandri, Domenico; Mandelli, Gualtiero; Paganelli, Corrado

    2015-11-01

    Root resorption shall be taken into consideration during every orthodontic treatment, and it can be effected by the use of different techniques, such as the application of low friction mechanics. However, its routinely assessment on orthopantomography has limitations related to distortions and changes in dental inclination. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the severity of apical root resorption of maxillary and mandibular incisors after low-friction orthodontic treatment, using the combination of panoramic and lateral radiographs, and applying a trigonometric correction. A hospital based Retrospective study at the orthodontic Department (Dental School, University of Brescia, Spedali Civili di Brescia, Brescia, Italy). Ninety-three subjects (53 females and 40 males; mean age, 14 years) with mild teeth crowding were treated without extractions by the same operator using a low-friction fixed appliance following an integrated straight wire (ISW) protocol. The pre- and post-treatment tooth lengths of the maxillary and mandibular incisors were measured on panoramic radiographs. A trigonometric factor of correction for the pre-treatment length was calculated based on the difference between the pre and post-treatment incisal inclination on lateral cephalograms. The changes in lengths were investigated using the Student's t-test for paired values (proot development in younger patients, mandibular central and lateral incisors underwent slight resorption (-3.1%, -3.4%). A statistically significant difference was found for the mandibular incisors but not for the maxillary ones. In patients with mild crowding and consequent low amount of root movement, a low-friction orthodontic treatment can lead to slight apical root resorption, mainly involving lower incisors. The use of a trigonometric correction in the panoramic radiograph analysis may reduce the limitations of this 2D evaluation.

  11. Histologic investigation of root canal-treated teeth with apical periodontitis: a retrospective study from twenty-four patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricucci, Domenico; Siqueira, José F; Bate, Anna L; Pitt Ford, Thomas R

    2009-04-01

    This study intended to examine histologically root canal-treated teeth evincing apical periodontitis lesions and correlate the findings with clinical observations. Specimens were obtained from 24 patients (12 asymptomatic and 12 symptomatic) by extraction or endodontic surgery and consisted of roots or root tips and the associated pathologic lesion. Specimens were processed for histologic analysis, and serial sections were evaluated. Findings were correlated with clinical observations according to the presence or absence of symptoms. The mean period elapsed from treatment to specimen retrieval in the asymptomatic group was 7.5 years, as compared with 2.2 years in the symptomatic group. All specimens exhibited periradicular inflammation. Bacteria were visualized in all cases, except for 1 specimen from the asymptomatic group in which a foreign body reaction to overfilled material was the probable reason for emergent disease in a previously vital case. Irrespective of the presence of symptoms, bacteria were always located within the root canal system, although they were also observed in the periradicular tissues in 1 asymptomatic and 4 symptomatic teeth. In general, intraradicular bacterial colonization was heavier in symptomatic failed teeth. The present findings support the role of intraradicular infections, usually in the form of biofilms, as the primary cause of endodontic treatment failure.

  12. Apical sealing ability of two novel root canal sealers: An ex-vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Setia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to compare the sealing ability of two root canal sealers viz.: Hybrid Root SEAL (Sun Medical, Tokyo, Japan and iRoot SP (Innovative BioCeramix Inc., Vancouver, Canada. Materials and Methods: A sample of 60 permanent single rooted, human maxillary central incisors of similar sizes was selected for the study. The teeth were decoronated and randomly divided into two groups viz.: Group A and Group B, comprising of thirty teeth each. In Group A, Hybrid Root SEAL and Group B, iRoot SP were used as root canal sealers along with Gutta-percha cones using lateral condensation technique to obturate the canals. After obturation roots were covered with nail paint except 2.0 mm of root and stored in 0.5% methylene blue dye for 1 week. The teeth were immersed in 10 ml of 65% nitric acid for complete dissolution and subsequently subjected to UV spectrophotometer to quantify the concentration of the dye in each sample. The data were analyzed using the unpaired t-test. Results: The mean dye leakage value in Group B (0.368 was less as compared to Group A (0.408. However, statistically the difference was nonsignificant (P = 0.053. Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference among the two groups.

  13. Long-term observation of endodontic surgical intervention to treat root perforation and apical periodontitis: a case report of an amalgam-restored tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumachi, Tamotsu; Hayashi, Makoto

    2003-10-01

    A case of crestal root perforation and periapical lesion in a maxillary left lateral incisor is reported. Teeth with root perforation present technical difficulties in their clinical management because of their complex defects. In the present case, surgical endodontic treatment was chosen. The apical and lateral pathology was curetted, the tooth root was resected, and a retrograde root restoration of amalgam was placed in a root-end cavity and perforation site. A 10-year follow-up clinical and radiographic examination showed an asymptomatic tooth with osseous healing proceeding.

  14. Effect of customization of master gutta-percha cone on apical control of root filling using different techniques: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, S P; Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L

    2005-09-01

    (i) To compare the prevalence of extrusion of root filling material when placed using different root filling techniques, with or without customization of the master gutta-percha (GP) cone; and (ii) to investigate the effects of some factors influencing root filling extrusion and presence of voids. A total of 180 roots were selected, prepared and randomly allocated to three groups. Five general dental practitioners performed the root fillings; each filled one group of roots (n = 60) using each of three techniques; 'cold lateral compaction' (n = 20), 'warm vertical compaction' (n = 20) and 'continuous-wave' (n = 20) techniques. For each obturation technique, the master GP cone was customized using chloroform in 10 samples. Two groups of the roots were recycled to allow all five operators to fulfill their remit. Two observers, blind to operator and obturation technique, examined the radiographs (master apical file, post-obturation) to determine the presence of root filling extrusion and voids within the apical 5 mm, independently. Root filling extrusion was also confirmed by direct inspection of the root apex after obturation. The data were analysed using logistic regression models. A total of 300 root fillings were performed; nine were excluded from the analysis. Most of the root fillings (80%, n = 233) were placed within 0.5 mm of the working length; only 20% (n = 58) were placed >0.5 mm beyond the working length. The odds of prevalence of extrusion (>0.5 mm) were significantly reduced by about 50% when cold lateral compaction or customization of GP were used. One operator produced 2.5 times more extruded root fillings than others. Curvature & length of root canal, apical size of prepared canal, as well as operator's preferred obturation technique had no significant influence on the prevalence of extrusion. Customization of GP was the sole factor to significantly reduce the prevalence of voids within the apical 5 mm of working length. Root filling extrusion was

  15. A pilot study of the metabolomic profiles of saliva from female orthodontic patients with external apical root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinglin; Hu, Huimin; Huang, Renhuan

    2018-03-01

    Orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR) is one of the most severe complications of orthodontic treatment, which is hard to diagnose at early stage by merely radiographic examination. This study aimed to identify salivary metabolic products using unbiased metabolic profiling in order to discover biomarkers that may indicate OIEARR. Unstimulated saliva samples were analyzed from 19 healthy orthodontic patients with EARR (n=8) and non-EARR (n=11). Metabolite profiling was performed using 1 H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A total of 187 metabolites were found in saliva samples. With supervised partial least squares discriminant analysis and regression analysis, samples from 2 groups were well separated, attributed by a series of metabolites of interest, including butyrate, propane-1,2-diol, α-linolenic acid (Ala), α-glucose, urea, fumarate, formate, guanosine, purine, etc. Indicating the increased inflammatory responses in the periodontal tissues possibly associated with energy metabolism and oxidative stress. The effective separation capacity of 1 H NMR based metabolomics suggested potential feasibility of clinical application in monitoring periodontal and apical condition in orthodontic patients during treatment and make early diagnosis of OIEARR. Metabolites detected in this study need further validation to identify exact biomarkers of OIEARR. Saliva biomarkers may assist in diagnosis and monitoring of this disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Apical External Root Resorption and Repair in Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Biological Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Liviu; Khammissa, Razia A G; Thomadakis, George; Fourie, Jeanine; Lemmer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Some degree of external root resorption is a frequent, unpredictable, and unavoidable consequence of orthodontic tooth movement mediated by odontoclasts/cementoclasts originating from circulating precursor cells in the periodontal ligament. Its pathogenesis involves mechanical forces initiating complex interactions between signalling pathways activated by various biological agents. Resorption of cementum is regulated by mechanisms similar to those controlling osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Following root resorption there is repair by cellular cementum, but factors mediating the transition from resorption to repair are not clear. In this paper we review some of the biological events associated with orthodontically induced external root resorption.

  17. Apical External Root Resorption and Repair in Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Biological Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Feller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some degree of external root resorption is a frequent, unpredictable, and unavoidable consequence of orthodontic tooth movement mediated by odontoclasts/cementoclasts originating from circulating precursor cells in the periodontal ligament. Its pathogenesis involves mechanical forces initiating complex interactions between signalling pathways activated by various biological agents. Resorption of cementum is regulated by mechanisms similar to those controlling osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Following root resorption there is repair by cellular cementum, but factors mediating the transition from resorption to repair are not clear. In this paper we review some of the biological events associated with orthodontically induced external root resorption.

  18. Distances from the root apices of posterior teeth to the maxillary sinus and mandibular canal in patients with skeletal open bite: A cone-beam computed tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosumarl, Werinpimol; Patanaporn, Virush; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat; Janhom, Apirum

    2017-01-01

    This study determined and compared the distances from the maxillary root apices of posterior teeth to the floor of the maxillary sinus, or maxillary sinus distances (MSDs), and the distances from the mandibular root apices of the posterior teeth to the mandibular canal, or mandibular canal distances (MCDs), in Thai subjects with skeletal open bite and skeletal normal bite. Pretreatment cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained from 30 Thai orthodontic patients (15 patients with skeletal normal bite and 15 with skeletal open bite) whose ages ranged from 14 to 28 years. The CBCT images of the patients were processed and measured using the Romexis Viewer program. The MSDs and MCDs from the root apices of the maxillary and mandibular second premolar, first molar, and second molar to the maxillary sinus floor or the mandibular canal were measured perpendicularly to the occlusal plane. The Student t test was used for comparisons between the 2 groups. The greatest mean MSDs were from the root apex of the second premolars in both groups, whereas the least mean MSDs were from the mesiobuccal root apex of the second molars. The greatest mean MCDs were from the mesial root apex of the first molars, whereas the least mean MCDs were from the distal root apex of the second molars. There were no differences in the mean MSDs or the mean MCDs between the skeletal normal bite group and the skeletal open bite group

  19. Distances from the root apices of posterior teeth to the maxillary sinus and mandibular canal in patients with skeletal open bite: A cone-beam computed tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosumarl, Werinpimol [Dental Division, Suan Phueng Hospital, Ratchaburi (Thailand); Patanaporn, Virush; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat; Janhom, Apirum [Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2017-09-15

    This study determined and compared the distances from the maxillary root apices of posterior teeth to the floor of the maxillary sinus, or maxillary sinus distances (MSDs), and the distances from the mandibular root apices of the posterior teeth to the mandibular canal, or mandibular canal distances (MCDs), in Thai subjects with skeletal open bite and skeletal normal bite. Pretreatment cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained from 30 Thai orthodontic patients (15 patients with skeletal normal bite and 15 with skeletal open bite) whose ages ranged from 14 to 28 years. The CBCT images of the patients were processed and measured using the Romexis Viewer program. The MSDs and MCDs from the root apices of the maxillary and mandibular second premolar, first molar, and second molar to the maxillary sinus floor or the mandibular canal were measured perpendicularly to the occlusal plane. The Student t test was used for comparisons between the 2 groups. The greatest mean MSDs were from the root apex of the second premolars in both groups, whereas the least mean MSDs were from the mesiobuccal root apex of the second molars. The greatest mean MCDs were from the mesial root apex of the first molars, whereas the least mean MCDs were from the distal root apex of the second molars. There were no differences in the mean MSDs or the mean MCDs between the skeletal normal bite group and the skeletal open bite group.

  20. Localized flux maxima of arsenic, lead, and iron around root apices in flooded lowland rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul N; Santner, Jakob; Larsen, Morten; Lehto, Niklas J; Oburger, Eva; Wenzel, Walter; Glud, Ronnie N; Davison, William; Zhang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    In wetland-adapted plants, such as rice, it is typically root apexes, sites of rapid entry for water/nutrients, where radial oxygen losses (ROLs) are highest. Nutrient/toxic metal uptake therefore largely occurs through oxidized zones and pH microgradients. However, the processes controlling the acquisition of trace elements in rice have been difficult to explore experimentally because of a lack of techniques for simultaneously measuring labile trace elements and O2/pH. Here, we use new diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT)/planar optode sandwich sensors deployed in situ on rice roots to demonstrate a new geochemical niche of greatly enhanced As, Pb, and Fe(II) mobilization into solution immediately adjacent to the root tips characterized by O2 enrichment and low pH. Fe(II) mobilization was congruent to that of the peripheral edge of the aerobic root zone, demonstrating that the Fe(II) mobilization maximum only developed in a narrow O2 range as the oxidation front penetrates the reducing soil. The Fe flux to the DGT resin at the root apexes was 3-fold higher than the anaerobic bulk soil and 27 times greater than the aerobic rooting zone. These results provide new evidence for the importance of coupled diffusion and oxidation of Fe in modulating trace metal solubilization, dispersion, and plant uptake.

  1. Endodontic treatment of a C-shaped mandibular second premolar with four root canals and three apical foramina: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thikamphaa Bertrand

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes a unique C-shaped mandibular second premolar with four canals and three apical foramina and its endodontic management with the aid of cone-beam computer tomography (CBCT. C-shaped root canal morphology with four canals was identified under a dental operating microscope. A CBCT scan was taken to evaluate the aberrant root canal anatomy and devise a better instrumentation strategy based on the anatomy. All canals were instrumented to have a 0.05 taper using 1.0 mm step-back filing with appropriate apical sizes determined from the CBCT scan images and filled using a warm vertical compaction technique. A C-shaped mandibular second premolar with multiple canals is an anatomically rare case for clinicians, yet its endodontic treatment may require a careful instrumentation strategy due to the difficulty in disinfecting the canals in the thin root area without compromising the root structure.

  2. The use of cone beam computed tomography in the diagnosis and management of internal root resorption associated with chronic apical periodontitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlea, Paula; Nistor, Cristina Coralia; Iliescu, Mihaela Georgiana; Iliescu, Alexandru Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Internal root resorption is a consequence of chronic pulp inflammation. Later on, the pulp necrosis followed by a chronic apical periodontitis is installed. Hence, usually, in clinical practice, both lesions have to be simultaneously managed. Conventional periapical radiograph is mandatory in diagnosis. Improving the diagnosis and management of both lesions, cone beam computed tomography proves to be more reliable than conventional radiography.

  3. Effect of the size of the apical enlargement with rotary instruments, single-cone filling, post space preparation with drills, fiber post removal, and root canal filling removal on apical crack initiation and propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapar, İsmail Davut; Uysal, Banu; Ok, Evren; Arslan, Hakan

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of apical crack initiation and propagation in root dentin after several endodontic procedures. Sixty intact mandibular premolars were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis at 1 mm from the apex, and the apical surface was polished. Thirty teeth were left unprepared and served as a control, and the remaining 30 teeth were instrumented with ProTaper Universal instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) up to size F5. The root canals were filled with the single-cone technique. Gutta-percha was removed with drills of the Rebilda post system (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany). Glass fiber-reinforced composite fiber posts were cemented using a dual-cure resin cement. The fiber posts were removed with a drill of the post system. Retreatment was completed after the removal of the gutta-percha. Crack initiation and propagation in the apical surfaces of the samples were examined with a stereomicroscope after each procedure. The absence/presence of cracks was recorded. Logistic regression was performed to analyze statistically the incidence of crack initiation and propagation with each procedure. The initiation of the first crack and crack propagation was associated with F2 and F4 instruments, respectively. The logistic regression analysis revealed that instrumentation and F2 instrument significantly affected apical crack initiation (P .05). Rotary nickel-titanium instrumentation had a significant effect on apical crack initiation, and post space preparation with drills had a significant impact on crack propagation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Localized flux maxima of arsenic, lead, and iron around root apices in flooded lowland rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Paul N.; Santner, Jakob; Larsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    In wetland-adapted plants, such as rice, it is typically root apexes, sites of rapid entry for water/nutrients, where radial oxygen losses (ROLs) are highest. Nutrient/toxic metal uptake therefore largely occurs through oxidized zones and pH microgradients. However, the processes controlling the ...

  5. Identification of orthodontic patients at risk of severe apical root resorption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artun, J.; Hullenaar, R. Van 't; Doppel, D.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Current information suggests that the major variation in orthodontic root resorption can be explained by differences in individual predisposition. Our aim was therefore to test the predictive value of the amount of maxillary incisor resorption about 6 and 12 months after bracket

  6. Apical External Root Resorption and Repair in Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Biological Events

    OpenAIRE

    Feller, Liviu; Khammissa, Razia A. G.; Thomadakis, George; Fourie, Jeanine; Lemmer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Some degree of external root resorption is a frequent, unpredictable, and unavoidable consequence of orthodontic tooth movement mediated by odontoclasts/cementoclasts originating from circulating precursor cells in the periodontal ligament. Its pathogenesis involves mechanical forces initiating complex interactions between signalling pathways activated by various biological agents. Resorption of cementum is regulated by mechanisms similar to those controlling osteoclastogenesis and bone resor...

  7. Effect of Nd:YAG and Diode Lasers on Apical Seal of Root Canals Filled with AH Plus and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate-Based Sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Khoshbin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Laser irradiation, as an adjunct to root canal preparation, may increase the success rate of endodontic treatments. This study aimed to assess the effect of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG and diode lasers on the apical seal of the root canals filled with AH Plus® and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA-based sealers.Materials and Methods: This in-vitro experimental study was conducted on 96 single-rooted, single-canal extracted human teeth with closed apices. The root canals were prepared by using ProTaper® rotary instruments and were randomly divided into six groups (n=16: 940-nm diode laser and AH Plus® sealer (group 1, Nd:YAG laser and AH Plus® sealer (group 2, AH Plus® sealer (group 3, 940-nm diode laser and MTA-based sealer (group 4, Nd:YAG laser and MTA-based sealer (group 5, MTA-based sealer (group 6, as well as positive and negative control groups. A bacterial leakage model was used for microleakage assessment. Qualitative assessment was done by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA at the significance level of 0.05.Results: There were statistically significant differences between the experimental and control groups (P=0.002. The laser-treated groups showed a lower apical microleakage compared to the non-laser-treated groups, although the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05. No significant differences were noted between the two lasers in terms of the apical microleakage, irrespective of the type of sealer (P>0.05.Conclusions: Laser irradiation, as an adjunct to root canal preparation, has no significant effect on the level of apical microleakage.

  8. Apical root resorption in maxillary incisors when employing micro-implant and J-hook headgear anchorage: a 4-month radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhu; Chen, Wenjing; Smales, Roger J; Peng, Hui; Hu, Xiaokun; Yin, Lu

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated, over a 4-month study period, the amount of apical root resorption occurring in maxillary central incisors following their retraction when employing either micro-implant or J-hook headgear anchorage. The prospective randomised clinical trial was conducted in Orthodontic Clinic, College of Stomatology, China from 2008-2009. Subjects are patients requiring fixed appliances on waiting list (n=20). In female Han Chinese patients aged from 16-26 years, standardized periapical radiographs from 10 randomly assigned patients with maxillary protrusions comprising the micro-implant group, and from 10 similar patients comprising the J-hook headgear group, were assessed for maxillary central incisor apical root resorption. Measurements before and after orthodontic therapy were also obtained from lateral cephalometric radiographs to calculate incisor horizontal retraction and vertical intrusion distances. Estimated retraction force vectors were calculated in horizontal and vertical directions for both treatment groups. Data analysis employed t-tests and the Pearson correlation test, with α=0.05 for statistical significance. The results showed that when compared with the J-hook group, significantly more apical root resorption shortening of the maxillary central incisors was observed in the micro-implant group (1.27 mm difference, 95% CI=0.70-1.84, Pmicro-implant group resulted in significantly more apical root resorption shortening and maxillary central incisor retraction than when intermittent J-hook retraction was employed. The employment of continuous duration orthodontic forces presents a risk for increased apical root resorption that requires careful radiographic monitoring.

  9. Histological Study of the Effects of Ibuprofen on Acute Apical Inflammation Following Root Canal Therapy in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghoddusi J

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative pain following Root Canal Therapy (RCT is the common problem for patients,"ndentist and dental staff. Regardless of cause it appears that postoperative pain and discomfort is related to"nperiapical inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate histologically the effect of"nIbuprofen on acute apical inflammation following RCT. on cat. Fifty-six cuspids teeth of 14 cats were"ndivided into three groups, 6 cats for experimental group, 6 cats for positive control group and 2 cats for"nnegative control group. In first group, to anesthesize the animals each cat received 10 mg/kg Ibuprofen"n36 hours before RCT and repeated every 24 hours. In second group RCT was performed in 24 cat teeth"nwithout any prescription. In negative control groups 2 cats, no RCT were done."nFollowing vital perfusion, in interval of 6, 12, 24 hours, samples were post fixed in 10% formalin and"nfive micron sections were prepared, and stained with H&E and studied under the Mann Whitney"nparameter test. Infilteration of inflamatory cells in 6 hours interval in experimental group was"nsignificantly less than two control groups. In 12 hours samples, however, inflammation in experimental"ngroup reduced, but it was not significant. In 24 hours samples there was no significant difference"nbetween experimental groups and controls. The result of this in-vivo study shows prescription of"nIbuprofen before root canal therapy can reduce inflammatory reaction.

  10. Interference of partial visual analysis of root filling quality and apical status on retreatment decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dornelles Morgental

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The presence of periapical radiolucency has been used as a criterion for endodontic treatment failure. However, in addition to the inherent limitations of radiographic examinations, radiographic interpretations are extremely subjective. Thus, this study investigated the effect of partial analysis of root filling quality and periapical status on retreatment decisions by general dentists. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve digitalized periapical radiographs were analyzed by 10 observers. The study was conducted at three time points at 1-week intervals. Radiographs edited with the Adobe Photoshop CS4 software were analyzed at three time points: first, only root filling quality was analyzed; second, only the periapical areas of the teeth under study were visualized; finally, observers analyzed the unedited radiographic image. Spearman ’s coefficient was used to analyze the correlations between the scores assigned when the periapical area was not visible and when the unedited radiograph was analyzed, as well as between the scores assigned when root fillings where not visible and when the unedited radiograph was analyzed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values between partial images and unedited radiographs were also used to analyze retreatment decisions. The level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: The visualization of the root filling on the unedited radiograph affected the interpretation of the periapical status and the technical quality of the fillings has a greater influence on the general dentist’s decision to prescribe endodontic retreatment than the periapical condition. CONCLUSION: In order to make endodontic diagnosis, radiographic interpretation process should not only emphasize technical aspects, but also consider biological factors.

  11. Marginal Gaps between 2 Calcium Silicate and Glass Ionomer Cements and Apical Root Dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biočanin, Vladimir; Antonijević, Đorđe; Poštić, Srđan; Ilić, Dragan; Vuković, Zorica; Milić, Marija; Fan, Yifang; Li, Zhiyu; Brković, Božidar; Đurić, Marija

    2018-01-12

    The outcome of periapical surgery has been directly improved with the introduction of novel material formulations. The aim of the study was to compare the retrograde obturation quality of the following materials: calcium silicate (Biodentine; Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA+; Cerkamed Company, Stalowa Wola, Poland), and glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX; GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Materials' wettability was calculated concerning the contact angles of the cements measured using a glycerol drop. Cements' porosity was determined using mercury intrusion porosimetry and micro-computed tomographic (μCT) imaging. Extracted upper human incisors were retrofilled, and μCT analysis was applied to calculate the volume of the gap between the retrograde filling material and root canal dentin. Experiments were performed before and after soaking the materials in simulated body fluid (SBF). No statistically significant differences were found among the contact angles of the studied materials after being soaked in SBF. The material with the lowest nanoporosity (Fuji IX: 2.99% and 4.17% before and after SBF, respectively) showed the highest values of microporosity (4.2% and 3.1% before and after SBF, respectively). Biodentine had the lowest value of microporosity (1.2% and 0.8% before and after SBF, respectively) and the lowest value of microgap to the root canal wall ([10 ± 30] × 10 -3  mm 3 ). Biodentine and MTA possess certain advantages over Fuji IX for hermetic obturation of retrograde root canals. Biodentine shows a tendency toward the lowest marginal gap at the cement-to-dentin interface. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The simulation model of growth and cell divisions for the root apex with an apical cell in application to Azolla pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarska-Stachowiak, Anna; Nakielski, Jerzy

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to seed plants, the roots of most ferns have a single apical cell which is the ultimate source of all cells in the root. The apical cell has a tetrahedral shape and divides asymmetrically. The root cap derives from the distal division face, while merophytes derived from three proximal division faces contribute to the root proper. The merophytes are produced sequentially forming three sectors along a helix around the root axis. During development, they divide and differentiate in a predictable pattern. Such growth causes cell pattern of the root apex to be remarkably regular and self-perpetuating. The nature of this regularity remains unknown. This paper shows the 2D simulation model for growth of the root apex with the apical cell in application to Azolla pinnata. The field of growth rates of the organ, prescribed by the model, is of a tensor type (symplastic growth) and cells divide taking principal growth directions into account. The simulations show how the cell pattern in a longitudinal section of the apex develops in time. The virtual root apex grows realistically and its cell pattern is similar to that observed in anatomical sections. The simulations indicate that the cell pattern regularity results from cell divisions which are oriented with respect to principal growth directions. Such divisions are essential for maintenance of peri-anticlinal arrangement of cell walls and coordinated growth of merophytes during the development. The highly specific division program that takes place in merophytes prior to differentiation seems to be regulated at the cellular level.

  13. Evaluation of the Apical Sealability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Portland Cement as Root Canal Filling Cements: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Rekab

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the principle purposes of root canal obturation is to obtain hermetic sealing of the root canal system. According to the development of technology, many materials are now used in root canal filling. An in vitro dye leakage study was performed toevaluate the apical sealability of White-colored Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (WMTA and Gray-colored Portland Cement (GPC when used alone or as a sealer with gutta-percha points in root canal filling.Materials and Methods: Seventy-five single-rooted extracted human teeth were used in this study. After cleaning and shaping, the teeth were randomly divided into five equal groups of 15 teeth each based on the root canal filling material used; Group 1, (WMTAalone; Group 2, (GPC alone; Group 3, (Gutta-percha points + WMTA; Group 4,(Guttapercha points + GPC; Group 5, (Gutta-percha points + AH26. Methylene blue was used to determine the apical leakage. After sectioning the teeth longitudinally, linear dye penetrationwas measured with a caliper under the stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and one-way ANOVA tests with (P 0.05 as the level of significance.Results: The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences among the materials of five groups.Conclusion: (WMTA alone, (Gutta-percha points + WMTA, (GPC alone and (Guttapercha points + GPC may be used in the root canal filling.

  14. The difference of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid irrigation material contact time of 60 seconds and 30 seconds toward of cleanliness of apical third root canal wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Wijaya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Root canal preparation is one important step in endodontic treatment, involves the cleaning and the shaping of the root canal debris. Root canal cleaning effectiveness depends on the preparation bio-mechanical and irrigation. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the cleanliness of apical third of root canal wall from of debris, with the contact time of 17% EDTA irrigation material for 60 seconds and 30 seconds after root canal preparation using rotary NiTi instruments. This quasi-experimental study was carried out invitro, with random sampling technique. The sample used was 20 central maxillary incisors that have been extracted and divided into two experimental groups of 10 teeth each. The results were analyzed using student t statistics, showed that the average value of the debris of the two groups differed significantly. The contact time of 60 seconds of 17% EDTA showed cleaner root canal than the 30 seconds. The conclusion of this study was there were the differences of the cleanliness of apical third of the root canal with the 60 seconds contact time of 17% EDTA irrigation materials than 30 seconds contact time.

  15. Apically Extruded Debris during Root Canal Instrumentation with Reciproc Blue, HyFlex EDM, and XP-endo Shaper Nickel-titanium Files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Gülşah; Özyürek, Taha; Yılmaz, Koray; Gündoğar, Mustafa; Plotino, Gianluca

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the amount of apically extruded debris by Reciproc Blue (REC Blue; VDW, Munich, Germany), HyFlex EDM (HEDM; Coltene/Whaledent, Altstätten, Switzerland), and XP-endo Shaper (XPS; FKG Dentaire SA, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) files during root canal preparation at body temperature. Sixty extracted single-rooted mandibular premolar human teeth were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 20). The canals were instrumented using 1 of the following instruments: REC Blue, HEDM, or XPS. Apically extruded debris during instrumentation was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. All the procedures were performed at 35°C. The amount of extruded debris was calculated by subtracting the weight value of the tooth-free apparatus from the postpreparation weight value. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test at a 5% significance level. All the instruments tested caused extrusion of some debris from the apical foramen. XPS extruded significantly less debris from the apex than REC Blue (P  .05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the amount of apically extruded debris registered for the different files tested was REC Blue > HEDM > XPS, with a statistical difference only between XPS and REC Blue. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Endodontic decision making for asymptomatic root-filled teeth with apical periodontitis - A radiographic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Nessrin A; Albashaireh, Zakereyya S; Alfied, Rmdan G

    2018-03-23

    The aim of the study was to compare decision making for asymptomatic root-filled teeth among dentists with differing educational backgrounds. Case scenarios based on 14 radiographs were created and 150 participants were asked to choose from five alternative treatment decisions and to state the rationale. Demographic data of the participants were recorded. Frequency distribution and cross-tabulation were performed; chi square testing was used for comparisons and logistic regression was performed to detect significant differences. The overall response rate was 87.3%. The practitioners chose intervention predominantly with non-surgical retreatment a common choice. Poor technical quality was a driving factor, while the existing poor coronal restoration and the need for a crown were generally not taken into account by general dentists. Speciality and experience were significant factors. Practitioners were more inclined to retain rather than extract teeth. It is concluded that clear guidelines listing factors to consider for intervention are required. © 2018 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  17. A role for CSLD3 during cell-wall synthesis in apical plasma membranes of tip-growing root-hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungjin; Szumlanski, Amy L; Gu, Fangwei; Guo, Feng; Nielsen, Erik

    2011-07-17

    In plants, cell shape is defined by the cell wall, and changes in cell shape and size are dictated by modification of existing cell walls and deposition of newly synthesized cell-wall material. In root hairs, expansion occurs by a process called tip growth, which is shared by root hairs, pollen tubes and fungal hyphae. We show that cellulose-like polysaccharides are present in root-hair tips, and de novo synthesis of these polysaccharides is required for tip growth. We also find that eYFP-CSLD3 proteins, but not CESA cellulose synthases, localize to a polarized plasma-membrane domain in root hairs. Using biochemical methods and genetic complementation of a csld3 mutant with a chimaeric CSLD3 protein containing a CESA6 catalytic domain, we provide evidence that CSLD3 represents a distinct (1→4)-β-glucan synthase activity in apical plasma membranes during tip growth in root-hair cells.

  18. Radiologically determined orthodontically induced external apical root resorption in incisors after non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, Long D; Saltaji, Humam; Normando, David; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-07-23

    This study aims to critically evaluate orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR) in incisors of patients undergoing non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion by a systematic review of the published data. An electronic search of two databases was performed; the bibliographies of relevant articles were also reviewed. Studies were included if they examined the amount of OIEARR in incisors produced during non-surgical orthodontic treatment of individuals with class II division I malocclusion in the permanent dentition. Individuals had no previous history of OIEARR, syndromes, pathologies, or general diseases. Study selections, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction were performed in duplicate. Eight studies of moderate methodological quality were finally included. An increased prevalence (65.6% to 98.1%) and mild to moderate severity of OIEARR (root) were reported. No sex difference in root resorption was found. For the maxillary incisors, there was no evidence that either the central or lateral incisor was more susceptible to OIEARR. A weak to moderate positive correlation between treatment duration and root resorption, and anteroposterior apical displacement and root resorption was found. Current limited evidence suggests that non-surgical comprehensive orthodontic treatment to correct class II division 1 malocclusions causes increased prevalence and severity of OIEARR the more the incisor roots are displaced and the longer this movement takes.

  19. Apical adaptation, sealing ability and push-out bond strength of five root-end filling materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrés AMOROSO-SILVA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the fluid filtration, adaptation to the root canal walls, and the push-out bond strength of two resin-based sealers and three calcium silicate-based retrograde filling materials. Fifty maxillary canines were shaped using manual instruments and the apical portion was sectioned. Retrograde cavities of 3-mm depth were prepared. The specimens were divided into five groups (n = 10: Sealer 26 (S26; MBPc (experimental; MTA; Portland cement with 20% zirconium oxide (PC/ZO, and Portland cement with 20% calcium tungstate (PC/CT. The fluid filtration was measured at 7 and 15 days. To evaluate the interfacial adaptation, sections of the teeth, 1 and 2 mm from the apex, were prepared and the percentage of gaps was calculated. The push-out bond strength at 2 mm from the apex was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA/Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. At 7 and 15 days (p = 0.0048, p = 0.006, the PC/CT group showed higher fluid filtration values when compared to other groups. At 1 mm from the apex, no statistical differences in the adaptation were found among the cements (p = 0.44. At 2 mm from the apex, the PC/ZO group presented statistically lower percentage of gaps than S26, MBPc, and MTA (p = 0.0007. The MBPc group showed higher push-out bond strength than other cements evaluated (p = 0.0008. The fluid filtration and interfacial adaptation of the calcium silicate-based cements were similar to those of the resin-based cements. The resinous cement MBPc showed superior push-out bond strength.

  20. Evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal retreatment with two different rotary systems followed by a self-adjusting file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakici, Fatih; Cakici, Elif B; Küçükekenci, Funda Fundaoglu

    2016-02-01

    To compare the amount of apically extruded debris during root canal retreatment using ProTaper retreatment system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), ProTaper retreatment system with Self-Adjusting File (SAF) system (ReDent-Nova, Ra'anana, Israel), Mtwo retreatment system (VDW, Munich, Germany), Mtwo retreatment system with SAF instruments. In total, 72 extracted human mandibular incisor teeth were used. All root canals were prepared with ProTaper universal (Dentsply Maillefer) up to F2 file and filled with gutta percha and AH plus sealer using cold lateral condensation before being assembled randomly into 4 groups (n = 18 each). Root canal filling materials were removed using the ProTaper retreatment system, the ProTaper retreatment system followed by SAF system, Mtwo retreatment system and Mtwo retreatment system followed by SAF system. Debris extruded apically during the removal of canal filling material was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70°C for 5 days. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the preretreatment and postretreatment weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The data obtained were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. All retreatment techniques caused the apical extrusion of debris. There was no significant difference between the groups statistically (p>0.05). The results of this study showed that SAF system after Mtwo retreatment system and ProTaper retreatment system for improving retreatment has no significant effect on the amount of debris extruded apically.

  1. Evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal preparation in primary molar teeth using three different rotary systems and hand files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçuoğlu, Gamze; Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Akpek, Firdevs

    2016-09-01

    To assess the amount of debris extruded apically during root canal preparation using various nickel titanium instrumentation systems and hand files in primary molar teeth. Sixty extracted primary first mandibular molar human teeth were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 15 teeth for each group). The canals were then instrumented with the following instrument systems: Revo-S, Mtwo, ProTaper Next, and hand files. Apically extruded debris during instrumentation was collected into pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. The Eppendorf tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70°C for 5 days. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the pre-instrumentation and post-instrumentation weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey's post hoc tests. ProTaper Next files were associated with less apically extruded debris than the Mtwo, Revo-S, and hand files (P Hand files extruded more debris than Mtwo and Revo-S instruments (P 0.05). All instruments were associated with apical extrusion of debris. ProTaper Next files caused less debris extrusion compared to the other systems used. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of apical microleakage of teeth sealed with four different root canal sealers Avaliação da microinfiltração apical em dentes obturados com quatro diferentes cimentos endodônticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Dultra

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to compare the apical sealing ability of four root canal sealers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: forty extracted human maxillary canines were instrumented 1 mm short of the anatomical apex and randomly assigned to four groups (n=10, according to the root canal sealer used for obturation: Endofill, AH Plus, EndoREZ and Epiphany. Root canals were obturated with gutta-percha points, except for the Epiphany group, in which resin points (Resilon were used. The teeth were immersed in India ink for seven days and clarified using methyl salicylate. The extent of apical dye penetration was measured with a measuroscope in all aspects of the canal. RESULTS: AH Plus (0.02 mm ± 0.07, Epiphany (0.00 mm ± 0.00 and EndoREZ (0.32 mm ± 0.62 did not differ statistically to each other (p>0.01. EndoFill presented the highest dye penetration mean (0.83 mm ± 0.73 and was statistically different from the other sealers (pOBJETIVOS: comparar a capacidade de selamento apical de quatro cimentos endodônticos. MÉTODOS: quarenta caninos superiores humanos extraídos foram instrumentados 1 mm aquém do ápice anatômico e distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n=10, de acordo com o cimento endodôntico utilizado para a obturação: Endofill, AH Plus, EndoREZ e Epiphany. Os canais radiculares foram obturados pela técnica da condensação lateral com os cimentos e com cones de guta-percha, exceto o grupo do Epiphany, no qual os cones de resina (Resilon foram utilizados. Os dentes foram imersos em nanquim por sete dias e submetidos ao processo de diafanização e, então, clarificados empregando-se o salicilato de metila. A extensão de penetração via apical do corante foi medida por meio de um microscópio de mensuração em todas as faces do terço apical. RESULTADOS: AH Plus (0,02 mm ± 0,07, Epiphany (0,00 mm ± 0,00 e EndoREZ (0,32 mm ± 0,62 não diferiram estatisticamente entre si (p>0,01. EndoFill apresentou a maior média de penetração do corante (0

  3. The development of an efficient cultivar-independent plant regeneration system from callus derived from both apical and non-apical root segments of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Henken, G.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2003-01-01

    Callus induction and later plant regeneration were studied in four widely grown garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars from Europe. Root segments from in vitro plantlets were used as starting material. In addition to cultivar effects, the effects of auxin and cytokinin levels and the position of the

  4. Histological analysis of cleaning efficacy of hand and rotary instruments in the apical third of the root canal: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Ashtha; Bali, Dildeep; Grewal, Mandeep S

    2011-07-01

    To compare the cleaning efficiency of manual and rotary instrumentation in the apical third of the root canal system. In group 1 (n=10), instrumentation was performed with stainless steel K-file; in group 2 (n=10), it was done with hand ProTaper files; and in group 3 (n=10), instrumentation was done with ProTaper rotary. Distilled water was used for irrigation. The apical third was sectioned transversally and histologically processed. The cross sections were examined under optic microscope and debris was measured using Motic software. Instrumentation with stainless steel K-files showed minimum amount of debris, followed by ProTaper hand files, and rotary ProTaper files were least effective with maximum amount of debris; however, there were no significant differences between the three experimental groups. Both the manual and rotary instrumentation are relatively efficient in cleaning the apical third of the root canal system and the choice between manual and rotary instrumentation should depend on case to case basis.

  5. [The use of self-adapting system files (SAF) for controlling microbial biofilms of root canals in the treatment of apical periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarev, V N; Mamedova, L A; Siukaeva, T N; Podporin, M S

    The aim of this study was to conduct a clinical and laboratory study and evaluate the effectiveness of endodontic root canal treatment using a self-adapting files system (SAF) in the complex treatment of patients with chronic apical periodontitis. 3% sodium hypochlorite solution was used as irrigation agent in all groups which included 20 patients treated with conventional manual tools, 21 patients receiving treatment with ultrasonic activation of irrigant and 26 patients treated with SAF system. Root canal biofilm structure was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using a Quantum 3D microscope (USA). Clinical efficiency of the root canal treatment was assessed by complications frequency a year after treatment. SEM revealed the presence of high levels of microbial contamination of dentine tubules in the apical portion of the tooth. In standard method group the percentage of re-treatment and surgery was higher than in the studied groups. Use of SAF irrigation system was associated with a decrease in the number of identified pathogens. However, the study revealed high resistance of Enterococcus spp., Porphyromonas gingivalis, Candida albicans to all types of endodontic treatment, so the improvement of methods of root canal microbial biofilms removing need to be continued.

  6. Effect of immediate and delayed post space preparation on the apical seal of root canals obturated with different sealers and techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Aydemir

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available During mechanical preparation of the post space, the root canal filling may be twisted or vibrated, depending on several factors associated with the preparation technique and quality of filling. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of immediate and delayed post space preparation on the integrity of the apical seal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-four extracted human incisors were biomechanically prepared using the step-back technique. Sixty roots were randomly assigned to 6 experimental groups of 10 teeth each and the remaining 4 roots served as positive and negative controls (n=2. The root canals in the different groups were obturated with cold lateral and warm vertical condensation of gutta-percha and one of two sealers (Sealapex and Diaket. Post space was prepared either individually or simultaneously. An insulated copper wire was cut into 10-cm-long pieces. In each canal, one piece was inserted to maintain contact with gutta-percha and extended to the outside as one of two working electrodes. A stainless steel wire with the same dimensions of those of the copper wire, used as the other working electrode, was immersed into the background electrolyte from the center of the bottle. The electrical current between standard and experimental electrodes in canals was measured over a period of 10 days applying a conductivity meter. The Kruskal-Wallis test (p=0.05 determined whether there was a significant difference in microleakage among the groups and the Mann-Whitney U test (p=0.01 was used for multiple comparison grouping variables. RESULTS: The results suggest that only the differences between the root canal filling techniques were statistically significant (p0.01. CONCLUSION: The quality of the root canal filling is important for the integrity of the apical seal.

  7. Comparative evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal instrumentation using two Ni-Ti single file rotary systems: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singbal, Kiran; Jain, Disha; Raja, Kranthi; Hoe, Tan Ming

    2017-01-01

    Apical extrusion of debris during instrumentation is detrimental to the patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical extrusion of debris during root canal instrumentation using two single file rotary Ni-Ti systems. Thirty freshly extracted mandibular premolars with straight roots were sterilized and divided into two groups instrumented using: One Shape rotary Ni-Ti system with Endoflare orifice shaper (Group 1) and Neo-Niti rotary Ni-Ti system with C1 orifice shaper (Group 2). Preweighed Eppendorf tubes fitted for each tooth before instrumentation. During instrumentation, 1 mL of distilled water with a 30-gauge needle was used to irrigate after every instrument. Tips of the tooth were irrigated with 2 ml distilled water after removal from Eppendorf tubes. The total volume of irrigant in each group was the same 8 ml. All tubes were incubated at 68°C for 15 days and subsequently weighed. The difference between pre- and post-debris weights was calculated, and statistical analysis was performed using independent t -test and level of significance was set at 0.05. The difference between pre- and post-weights was significantly greater for the One Shape system. The Neolix Niti single file was associated with less extrusion compared to One Shape single file system.

  8. The outcome of apical microsurgery using MTA as the root-end filling material: 2- to 6-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, M K; Tekin, U; Kaval, M E; Solmaz, M C

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the influence of various predictors on the healing outcome 2-6 years after apical microsurgery (AMS) using MTA as the root-end filling material. A total of 90 anterior teeth with asymptomatic persistent periradicular periodontitis of strictly endodontic origin that failed after either nonsurgical or surgical treatment were included. Surgery was completed under local anaesthesia using a standardized clinical protocol. Clinical and radiographic measures as well as the follow-up period were used to determine the healing outcome. For statistical analysis of the predictors, the outcome was dichotomized into healed cases and nonhealed cases. Odds ratios were calculated, and Pearson chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used to analyse the data. Clinical and radiographic assessment of AMS revealed that 80% were healed, 14.4% were nonhealed, whilst 5.6% were judged to be uncertain. None of the various predictors investigated had a significant influence on the outcome of AMS. The results of this clinical study demonstrated that 80% of cases that received apical microsurgery healed when using MTA as the root-end filling material. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The effect of immediate and delayed post-space preparation using extended working time root canal sealers on apical leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chen

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Extended working time root canal sealers do not affect microleakage results using a warm gutta-percha vertical compaction technique. The sealing ability of extended working time root canal sealers on high heat conditions is as good as the standard working time root canal sealer during post-space preparation of different intervals.

  10. A 3D digital atlas of the Nicotiana tabacum root tip and its use to investigate changes in the root apical meristem induced by the Agrobacterium 6b oncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Taras; Haser, Thomas; Falk, Thorsten; Ronneberger, Olaf; Palme, Klaus; Otten, Léon

    2017-10-01

    Using the intrinsic Root Coordinate System (iRoCS) Toolbox, a digital atlas at cellular resolution has been constructed for Nicotiana tabacum roots. Mitotic cells and cells labeled for DNA replication with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) were mapped. The results demonstrate that iRoCS analysis can be applied to roots that are thicker than those of Arabidopsis thaliana without histological sectioning. A three-dimensional (3-D) analysis of the root tip showed that tobacco roots undergo several irregular periclinal and tangential divisions. Irrespective of cell type, rapid cell elongation starts at the same distance from the quiescent center, however, boundaries between cell proliferation and transition domains are cell-type specific. The data support the existence of a transition domain in tobacco roots. Cell endoreduplication starts in the transition domain and continues into the elongation zone. The tobacco root map was subsequently used to analyse root organization changes caused by the inducible expression of the Agrobacterium 6b oncogene. In tobacco roots that express the 6b gene, the root apical meristem was shorter and radial cell growth was reduced, but the mitotic and DNA replication indexes were not affected. The epidermis of 6b-expressing roots produced less files and underwent abnormal periclinal divisions. The periclinal division leading to mature endodermis and cortex3 cell files was delayed. These findings define additional targets for future studies on the mode of action of the Agrobacterium 6b oncogene. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Apical instrumentation in endodontic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniasri Darliana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cleaning and shaping of the root canal as the foundation for successful endodontic therapy. Cleaning of the root canal as the removal of all the contents of the root canal systems before and during shaping. Mechanical cleaning as the most important part of the root canal therapy. Instrumentation of the apical region has long been considered to be an essential component in the cleaning and shaping process. The apical area as the critical zone for instrumentation. The apical portion of the root canal system can retain microorganisms that could potentially cause periradicular inflammation. The nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation system to facilitate the cleaning and shaping process. Larger instrumentation sizes not only allow proper irrigation but also significantly decrease remaining bacteria in the canal system. How the larger apical sizes preparation must be achieved to clinical success. This paper will describe the major factors impacting the selection of final apical size, the factors are the anatomy of the apical constriction, root canal diameter, apical instrumentation, and bacteria in dentin tubuli.

  12. Radiographic comparison of apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment between bidimensional and Roth straight-wire techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Khalid H; Malki, Ghadah A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the amount of root resorption after orthodontic treatment between the bidimensional and the Roth straight-wire techniques. Another objective was to compare the amount of root resorption in the whole sample studied and record the prevalence of root resorption. The sample consisted of 40 patients (age ranged between 11 and 18 years) with Angle Class II division 1 malocclusions, treated nonextraction. Twenty patients were treated with bidimensional technique and 20 with a 0.018-inch Roth straight-wire technique. Root lengths of the maxillary incisors were measured on pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. The results demonstrated that the bidimensional and Roth straight-wire groups showed significant root resorption after treatment, 1.11 (0.17) and 0.86 (0.05), respectively, P root shortening between the bidimensional and Roth straight-wire groups, there was no significant difference between the mean change from pre- to post-treatment between bidimensional group (mean = 1.00 ± 1.34) and Roth straight-wire group (mean = 0.88 ± 0.86), P = 0.63. Considering the whole sample, there was no root resoprtion in 32.5% of the analysed teeth. There was only mild resorption in 56.2%, moderate in 8.8% and severe in only 2.5% of the teeth. Treatment with the bidimensional technique did not produce an increase in the amount of root resorption. The prevalence and amount of root resorption was similar between bidimensional and Roth straight-wire techniques.

  13. Relationship between plant growth and cytological effect in root apical meristem after exposure of wheat dry seeds to carbon ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qingfang [Radiobiology Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Zhuanzi; Zhou, Libin; Qu, Ying; Lu, Dong [Radiobiology Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000 (China); Yu, Lixia; Du, Yan [Radiobiology Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jin, Wenjie [Radiobiology Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000 (China); Li, Wenjian, E-mail: wjli@impcas.ac.cn [Radiobiology Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000 (China)

    2013-06-15

    In order to analyze the relationship between plant growth and cytological effects, wheat dry seeds were exposed to various doses of {sup 12}C{sup 6+} beams and the biological endpoints reflecting plant growth and root apical meristem (RAM) activities were investigated. The results showed that most of the seeds were able to germinate normally within all dose range, while the plant survival rate descended at higher doses. The seedling growth including root length and seedling height also decreased significantly at higher doses. Mitotic index (MI) in RAM had no changes at 10 and 20 Gy and decreased obviously at higher doses and the proportion of prophase cells had the same trend with MI. These data suggested that RAM cells experienced cell cycle arrest, which should be responsible for the inhibition of root growth after exposure to higher doses irradiation. Moreover, various types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) were observed in the mitotic cells. The frequencies of mitotic cells with lagging chromosomes and these with anaphase bridges peaked around 60 Gy, while the frequencies of these with fragments increased as the irradiation doses increased up to 200 Gy. The total frequencies of mitotic cells with CAs induced by irradiation increased significantly with the increasing doses. The serious damage of mitotic chromosomes maybe caused cell cycle arrest or cell death. These findings suggested that the influences of {sup 12}C{sup 6+} beams irradiation on plant growth were related to the alternation of mitotic activities and the chromosomal damages in RAM.

  14. Polymorphisms of genes encoding P2X7R, IL-1B, OPG and RANK in orthodontic-induced apical root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S; Lavado, N; Nogueira, L; Lopez, M; Abreu, J; Silva, H

    2014-10-01

    Orthodontic-induced external apical root resorption (EARR) is a complex phenotype determined by poorly defined mechanical and patient intrinsic factors. The aim of this work was to construct a multifactorial integrative model, including clinical and genetic susceptibility factors, to analyze the risk of developing this common orthodontic complication. This retrospective study included 195 orthodontic patients. Using a multiple-linear regression model, where the dependent variable was the maximum% of root resorption (%EARRmax) for each patient, we assessed the contribution of nine clinical variables and four polymorphisms of genes involved in bone and tooth root remodeling (rs1718119 from P2RX7, rs1143634 from IL1B, rs3102735 from TNFRSF11B, encoding OPG, and rs1805034 from TNFRSF11A, encoding RANK). Clinical and genetic variables explained 30% of%EARRmax variability. The variables with the most significant unique contribution to the model were: gender (P < 0.05), treatment duration (P < 0.001), premolar extractions (P < 0.01), Hyrax appliance (P < 0.001) and GG genotype of rs1718119 from P2RX7 gene (P < 0.01). Age, overjet, tongue thrust, skeletal class II and the other polymorphisms made minor contributions. This study highlights the P2RX7 gene as a possible factor of susceptibility to EARR. A more extensive genetic profile may improve this model. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Evaluation of apical root resorption in orthodontic patients with maxillary anterior intrusion using utility arches and mini screws: A comparative clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muraleedhara Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the amount of apical root resorption in orthodontic patients undergoing maxillary anterior intrusion using utility arches and mini screws; and to compare the efficacy of mini screws and utility arches in reducing over bite. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 20 patients, divided in two groups. Group A consisted of ten patients in whom titanium mini-screws were used Group B consisted of 10 patients in whom utility arches made of 0.017 × 0.25" TMA were used. Diagnostic records (study models and radiovisiography [RVG] were taken at 2 time intervals, T1 (just before implant/utility arch placement and T2 (at the end of intrusion 6 months later. The pre and post radiographic images were measured from incisal tip to the root apex with the help of intrascan DC software. Root resorption was computed as the difference between the pre-treatment total tooth length and the post treatment total tooth length. These values were subjected to statistical analyses using SPSS 16.00 statistical software. (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, IBM Corporation, December 2007 Results: The results showed that root resorption was seen in both groups. Amount of resorption seen was higher in mini implant group than utility arch group. Mini implants were more efficient in reducing the overbite when compared to utility arches. Conclusion: It was concluded from the study that intrusion using mini implant resulted in more root resorption than utility arch; and mini implant was more effective in intruding the incisors than utility arch.

  16. Apical cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoud, T.C.; Isler, R.J.; Novelline, R.A.; Putman, C.E.; Simeone, J.; Stark, P.

    1981-01-01

    Apical caps, either unilateral or bilateral, are a common feature of advancing age and are usually the result of subpleural scarring unassociated with other diseases. Pancoast (superior sulcus) tumors are a well recognized cause of unilateral asymmetric apical density. Other lesions arising in the lung, pleura, or extrapleural space may produce unilateral or bilateral apical caps. These include: (1) inflammatory: tuberculosis and extrapleural abscesses extending from the neck; (2) post radiation fibrosis after mantle therapy for Hodgkin disease or supraclavicular radiation in the treatment of breast carcinoma; (3) neoplasm: lymphoma extending from the neck or mediastinum, superior sulcus bronchogenic carcinoma, and metastases; (4) traumatic: extrapleural dissection of blood from a ruptured aorta, fractures of the ribs or spine, or hemorrhage due to subclavian line placement; (5) vascular: coarctation of the aorta with dilated collaterals over the apex, fistula between the subclavian artery and vein; and (6) miscellaneous: mediastinal lipomatosis with subcostal fat extending over the apices

  17. Differential spatial expression of A- and B-type CDKs, and distribution of auxins and cytokinins in the open transverse root apical meristem of Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappetta, Adriana; Bruno, Leonardo; Salimonti, Amelia; Muto, Antonella; Jones, Jessica; Rogers, Hilary J; Francis, Dennis; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2011-05-01

    Aside from those on Arabidopsis, very few studies have focused on spatial expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in root apical meristems (RAMs), and, indeed, none has been undertaken for open meristems. The extent of interfacing between cell cycle genes and plant growth regulators is also an increasingly important issue in plant cell cycle studies. Here spatial expression/localization of an A-type and B-type CDK, auxin and cytokinins are reported in relation to the hitherto unexplored anatomy of RAMs of Cucurbita maxima. Median longitudinal sections were cut from 1-cm-long primary root tips of C. maxima. Full-length A-type CDKs and a B-type CDK were cloned from C. maxima using degenerate primers, probes of which were localized on sections of RAMs using in situ hybridization. Isopentenyladenine (iPA), trans-zeatin (t-Z) and indole-3yl-acetic acid (IAA) were identified on sections by immunolocalization. The C. cucurbita RAM conformed to an open transverse (OT) meristem typified by an absence of a clear boundary between the eumeristem and root cap columella, but with a distinctive longitudinally thickened epidermis. Cucma;CDKA;1 expression was detected strongly in the longitudinally thickened epidermis, a tissue with mitotic competence that contributes cells radially to the root cap of OT meristems. Cucma;CDKB2 was expressed mainly in proliferative regions of the RAM and in lateral root primordia. iPA and t-Z were mainly distributed in differentiated cells whilst IAA was distributed more uniformly in all tissues of the RAM. Cucma;CDKA;1 was expressed most strongly in cells that have proliferative competence whereas Cucma;CDKB2 was confined mainly to mitotic cells. iPA and t-Z marked differentiated cells in the RAM, consistent with the known effect of cytokinins in promoting differentiation in root systems. iPA/t-Z were distributed in a converse pattern to Cucma;CDKB2 expression whereas IAA was detected in most cells in the RAM regardless of their proliferative

  18. iRoot FM exerts an antibacterial effect on Porphyromonas endodontalis and improves the properties of stem cells from the apical papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, J; Liu, Y; Liu, X M; Jiang, L M; Chen, X

    2018-03-07

    To investigate the antibacterial activity of a novel intracanal medicament, iRoot FM, against Porphyromonas endodontalis and its effects on the proliferation and osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP). The agar diffusion test was used to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of iRoot FM with two traditional intracanal medicaments, calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH) 2 ] and triple antibiotic paste (TAP). The CCK-8 assay was used to assess the proliferation rate of SCAP when exposed to the three intracanal medicaments. The expression levels of ALP and DMP-1 and the capacity to form mineralized nodules were used to evaluate the osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of SCAP, as assessed by real-time PCR, Western blotting and alizarin red S staining. Data were statistically analysed with one-way analysis of variance (anova), and comparisons between each of two groups were analysed by the least significance difference method. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The zone of inhibition against P. endodontalis produced by iRoot FM was 20.74 ± 4.35 mm, whilst the zones of inhibition of Ca(OH) 2 and TAP were 24.89 ± 3.84 mm and 34.51 ± 1.20 mm. The antibacterial capacity of iRoot FM was similar to that of Ca(OH) 2 (P > 0.05). SCAP, cultured in conditioned medium with iRoot FM, was associated with greater proliferation and osteo-/odontogenic differentiation capacity than those cultured in conditioned medium with Ca(OH) 2 and TAP (P endodontalis and could improve the proliferation and differentiation of SCAP. The findings provide evidence that iRoot FM has potential as an intracanal medicament for endodontic procedures in immature permanent teeth. © 2018 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Measurement of open apices in tooth roots in Colombian children as a tool for human identification in asylum and criminal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Marcela; De Luca, Stefano; Aguilar, Lina; Velandia Palacio, Luz Andrea; Galić, Ivan; Cameriere, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    Dental age estimation was recognized as an imperative issue in clinical and medico-legal practice. However, very few studies on dental age estimation in children have been published in Colombia. This study evaluated the accuracy of Cameriere's method of measurement of open apices on tooth roots in a sample of 526 digital panoramic radiographs (OPTs) of children (274 boys and 252 girls), aged between 6 and 14 years, from Bogotá, Valle del Cauca, Buga and Villavicencio, in Southwest Colombia. Only first seven permanent lower teeth, except third molar, from the left side of mandible were studied. Difference between dental age and chronological age was evaluated for boys and girls across nine age classes. Intra-class correlation coefficient and Kappa score was used to test intra- and inter-observer agreement error rate. Dental age was overestimated by 0.08 years and standard deviation (±SD) of 0.68 years in boys which was not statistically significant (p = 0.06), while in girls dental age underestimated by -0.25 ± 0.65 years which was statistically significant difference (p Colombian children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Fate of nuclear material during subsequent steps of the kinetin-induced PCD in apical parts of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedling roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Soboska, Kamila

    2018-07-01

    In animals during apoptosis, the best examined type of programmed cell death (PCD), three main phases are distinguished: (i) specification (signaling), (ii) killing and (iii) execution one. It has bean postulated that plant PCD also involves three subsequent phases: (i) transmission of death signals to cells (signaling), (ii) initiation of killing processes and (iii) destruction of cells. One of the most important hallmarks of animal and plant PCD are those regarding nucleus, not thoroughly studied in plants so far. To study kinetin-induced PCD (Kin-PCD) in the context of nuclear material faith, 2-cm apical parts of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedling roots were used. Applied assays involving spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence and white light microscopy allowed to examine metabolic and cytomorphologic hallmarks such as changes in DNA content, ssDNA formation and activity of acidic and basic nucleases (DNases and RNases) as well as malformations and fragmentation of nucleoli and nuclei. The obtained results concerning the PCD hallmarks and influence of ZnSO 4 on Kin-PCD allowed us to confirmed presence of specification/signaling, killing and execution/degradation phases of the process and broaden the knowledge about processes affecting nuclei during PCD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Apical negative pressure irrigation versus syringe irrigation: a systematic review of cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidi, E; Psimma, Z; Chávez de Paz, L E; Boutsioukis, C

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review and critically analyse the published data on the treatment outcome (primary outcome) and on the cleaning and disinfection of root canals (secondary outcomes) achieved by negative pressure irrigation as compared to syringe irrigation. An electronic search was conducted in EMBASE, LILACS, PubMed, SciELO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge using both free-text keywords and controlled vocabulary. Additional studies were sought through hand searching of endodontic journals and of the relevant chapters of endodontic textbooks. No language restriction was imposed. The retrieved studies were screened by two reviewers according to predefined criteria. Included studies were critically appraised and the extracted data were arranged in tables. The electronic search and hand search retrieved 489 titles. One clinical study and 14 in vitro studies were finally included in the review; none of these studies assessed treatment outcome, four studies assessed the antimicrobial effect, seven studies evaluated the removal of pulp tissue remnants, and four studies investigated the removal of hard tissue debris or both hard tissue debris and pulp tissue remnants. Poor standardization and description of the protocols was evident. Inconclusive results were reported about the cleaning and disinfection accomplished by the two irrigation methods. Negative pressure irrigation was more effective under certain conditions when compared to suboptimal syringe irrigation; however, the variability of the protocols hindered quantitative synthesis. There is insufficient evidence to claim general superiority of any one of these methods. The level of the available evidence is low, and the conclusions should be interpreted with caution. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. "In vitro" evaluation of the apical sealing of root canals obturated with different techniques Avaliação "in vitro" do selamento apical dos canais radiculares em função de diferentes técnicas de obturação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Haiub Brosco

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the apical sealing of root canals obturated with different techniques. One hundred-six human mandibular incisors were submitted to instrumentation by means of the step-back technique. After instrumentation, one hundred teeth received an impermeable coating on the external surfaces of the crown and root (except for the area nearby the apical foramen. Afterwards, they were divided in five groups containing twenty elements each, according to the obturation technique employed: 1. lateral condensation with Kerr file; 2. continuous wave of condensation technique with System B; 3. thermoplasticized injectable gutta-percha technique with the Ultrafil system; 4. mechanically thermoplasticized gutta-percha with the JS Quick-Fill system and 5. thermoplasticized gutta-percha associated to a master cone with the Microseal system. The six remaining teeth were employed as negative and positive controls. After obturation, the access cavities were sealed and the teeth were immersed in aqueous 2% methylene blue dye for 72 hours at 37ºC. After that, the teeth were longitudinally sectioned and the apical microleakage was evaluated in a stereomicroscope. The Microseal system presented the best apical sealing ability, followed by System B, JS Quick-Fill, Ultrafil and the lateral condensation technique. The statistical analysis of the results demonstrated that: 1. the Microseal system presented an apical sealing similar to System B and better than the other groups; 2. System B presented better apical sealing than the lateral condensation technique, being similar to the other groups; and 3. the lateral condensation, Ultrafil and JS Quick-Fill groups demonstrated similar sealing ability.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o selamento apical de canais radiculares obturados por diferentes técnicas. Cento e seis incisivos inferiores humanos tiveram seus canais instrumentados através da técnica escalonada regressiva. Após a

  3. Incidence of apical crack initiation and propagation during the removal of root canal filling material with ProTaper and Mtwo rotary nickel-titanium retreatment instruments and hand files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Düzgün, Salih; Kesim, Bertan; Tuncay, Oznur

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of crack initiation and propagation in apical root dentin after retreatment procedures performed by using 2 rotary retreatment systems and hand files with additional instrumentation. Eighty extracted mandibular premolars with single canals were selected. One millimeter from the apex of each tooth was ground perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth, and the apical surface was polished. Twenty teeth served as the control group, and no preparation was performed. The remaining 60 teeth were prepared to size 35 with rotary files and filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. Specimens were then divided into 3 groups (n = 20), and retreatment procedures were performed with the following devices and techniques: ProTaper Universal retreatment files, Mtwo retreatment files, and hand files. After retreatment, the additional instrumentation was performed by using size 40 ProTaper, Mtwo, and hand files. Digital images of the apical root surface were recorded before preparation, after instrumentation, after filling, after retreatment, and after additional instrumentation. The images were then inspected for the presence of any new apical cracks and propagation. Data were analyzed with the logistic regression and Fisher exact tests. All experimental groups caused crack initiation and propagation after use of retreatment instruments. The ProTaper and Mtwo retreatment groups caused greater crack initiation and propagation than the hand instrument group (P ProTaper and Mtwo instruments after the use of retreatment instruments caused crack initiation and propagation, whereas hand files caused neither crack initiation nor propagation (P < .05). This study showed that retreatment procedures and additional instrumentation after the use of retreatment files may cause crack initiation and propagation in apical dentin. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of debris extruded apically during the removal of root canal filling material using ProTaper, D-RaCe, and R-Endo rotary nickel-titanium retreatment instruments and hand files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Aktı, Ahmet; Tuncay, Öznur; Dinçer, Asiye Nur; Düzgün, Salih; Topçuoğlu, Gamze

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of debris extruded apically during the removal of root canal filling material using ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), D-RaCe (FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland), and R-Endo (Micro-Mega, Besançon, France) nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary retreatment instruments and hand files. Sixty extracted single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were prepared with K-files and filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany). The teeth were then randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 15 for each group) for retreatment. The removal of canal filling material was performed as follows: hand files, ProTaper, D-RaCe, and R-Endo retreatment instruments. Debris extruded apically during the removal of canal filling material was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70°C for 5 days. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the preretreatment and postretreatment weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The data obtained were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests. All retreatment techniques caused the apical extrusion of debris. Hand files produced significantly more debris when compared with ProTaper, D-RaCe, and R-Endo rotary systems (P ProTaper, D-RaCe, and R-Endo retreatment systems (P > .05). The findings showed that during the removal of root canal filling material, rotary NiTi retreatment instruments used in this study caused less apical extrusion of debris compared with hand files. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Estudo comparativo da reabsorção radicular apical em pacientes bruxônomos e pacientes sem sinais clínicos de desgaste dentário Comparative study of apical root resorption in patients whith bruxism and without clinical signs of dental wearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Odebrech

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A reabsorção radicular, assim como o bruxismo, são temas amplamente abordados na literatura, contudo, a associação dos mesmos ainda permanece pouco documentada. Desse modo, esta pesquisa objetiva comparar pacientes portadores de bruxismo e pacientes sem sinais clínicos de desgaste dentário em relação à quantidade de reabsorção radicular apical nos incisivos superiores. Para tanto foram avaliados clínica e radiograficamente 64 pacientes, perfazendo um total de 256 incisivos acompanhados. Os resultados demonstram que há uma correlação positiva entre bruxismo e reabsorção radicular.Root resorption and bruxism are largely study in literature. However their association still remains few documented. The aim of this study is compare the quantity of apical root resorption in upper permanent incisors in patients with bruxism and without clinical signs of dental wearing. 64 patients (256 incisors were evaluated clinical and radiografically. The results shows the correlation between bruxism and root resorption.

  6. Thermal effects from modified endodontic laser tips used in the apical third of root canals with erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet and erbium, chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Roy; Walsh, Laurence J

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the temperature changes occurring on the apical third of root surfaces when erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) and erbium, chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser energy was delivered with a tube etched, laterally emitting conical tip and a conventional bare design optical fiber tip. Thermal effects of root canal laser treatments on periodontal ligament cells and alveolar bone are of concern in terms of safety. A total of 64 single-rooted extracted teeth were prepared 1 mm short of the working length using rotary nickel-titanium Pro-Taper files to an apical size corresponding to a F5 Pro-Taper instrument. A thermocouple located 2 mm from the apex was used to record temperature changes arising from delivery of laser energy through laterally emitting conical tips or plain tips, using an Er:YAG or Er,Cr:YSGG laser. For the Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG systems, conical fibers showed greater lateral emissions (452 + 69% and 443 + 64%) and corresponding lower forward emissions (48 + 5% and 49 + 5%) than conventional plain-fiber tips. All four combinations of laser system and fiber design elicited temperature increases less than 2.5 degrees C during lasing. The use of water irrigation attenuated completely the thermal effects of individual lasing cycles. Laterally emitting conical fiber tips can be used safely under defined conditions for intracanal irradiation without harmful thermal effects on the periodontal apparatus.

  7. [Apical resorption in pre-surgical orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasente, M; Merlini, C; Amelotti, C; Antonioli, M; Roghi, M

    1991-07-15

    Apical root resorption is a frequent phenomenon observed in pre-surgical orthodontic; the reason is double: we deal with adult patients and we often move the teeth in the opposite direction compared to the position obtained in previous inefficacious orthodontic treatments. Notwithstanding the amount of apical root resorption we couldn't record an hyper-mobility of the teeth and a long term evaluation of occlusal stability didn't show any significant change.

  8. [Comparison of the differences in pain and the effect of ibuprofen in reducing endodontic flare-up after single-visit root canal therapy between Uyghur and Han patients with chronic apical periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei; Wang, Xin-Ying; Wan, Na; Wu, Pei-Ling

    2017-04-01

    To compare the incidence of postoperative pain of chronic periapical periodontitis patients with root canal therapy between Han and Uygur, and the effect of ibuprofen in reducing endodontic flare-up after single-visit root canal therapy between Uyghur and Han patients with chronic apical periodontitis, in order to provide a basis for clinical administration. Two hundred and fifty Uyghur and 250 Han patients with chronic apical periodontitis in their incisor, canine and premolar were collected, and randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group and control group. After single-visit root canal therapy, Uyghur patients in the experimental group (UEG) and Han patients in the experimental group (HEG) took ibuprofen capsules according to the drug instructions; while Uyghur patients in the control group (UCG) and Han patients in the control group(HCG) took placebo capsules. Both doctors and patient kept blind from the drug capsules and group of the patients. The incidence, degree of endodontic Flare-up at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 hours and 1 week after root canal therapy were recorded and analyzed by χ 2 test using SPSS11.0 software package. During the experiment, the incidence of E flare-up in Uygur patients was higher than in Han patients; the incidence of E flare-up in different groups in orders from high to low was: UCG>HCG>UEG>HEG. Chi-square test showed that there were significant differences between the two groups. In view of time distribution, most of flare-up happened between 24~48 hours after root canal therapy with the highest degree in all 4 groups. Regardless of the incidence or degree of flare-up, HEG and HCG were significantly greater than UEG and UCG. Ibuprofen can reduce and prevent flare-up for both Uyghur and Han patients, but it has better effect on Han patients.

  9. Análise radiográfica computadorizada da reabsorção radicular apical após a utilização de duas mecânicas ortodônticas Computer-assisted radiographic evaluation of apical root resorption following orthodontic treatment with two different fixed appliance techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo César Almada Santos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: a reabsorção radicular apical é uma condição comumente observada durante e após o tratamento ortodôntico e fatores como tipo de aparelhagem ortodôntica utilizada, magnitude das forças aplicadas e duração do tratamento podem estar relacionados ao processo de arredondamento do ápice radicular. Buscou-se avaliar, por meio de imagens radiográficas computadorizadas, a quantidade de reabsorção no ápice radicular, quando da utilização de duas diferentes técnicas de mecânica ortodôntica fixa: Edgewise com acessórios padrão e Edgewise com acessórios totalmente programados. METODOLOGIA: a amostra constituiu-se de 20 pacientes tratados pelo mesmo profissional na Clínica de Ortodontia da Faculdade de Odontologia de Araçatuba - UNESP. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo 1 (Tratados com Edgewise com acessórios padrão e fios de aço e grupo 2 (Tratados com Edgewise com acessórios totalmente programados e fios de níquel-titânio. A avaliação radiográfica digital foi realizada por um único operador por meio de exposições radiográficas digitais feitas no início do tratamento ortodôntico, após retração de caninos e final de tratamento, utilizando o sistema de escores proposto por Levander e Malmgren (1988. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: a análise dos escores permitiu concluir que o tratamento ortodôntico empregando a técnica Edgewise com acessórios totalmente programados e fios de níquel-titânio apresentou menores graus de reabsorção radicular apical, em comparação à técnica Edgewise com acessórios padrão e fios de aço. Observou-se que, independentemente da técnica empregada, o tratamento ortodôntico como um todo apresentou um grau moderado de reabsorção radicular apical.AIM: external apical root resorption is frequently observed during and after orthodontic treatment and can be related to factors such as mechanical factors, magnitude of forces and treatment time with fixed appliances

  10. Apical and periapical repair of dogs' teeth with periapical lesions after endodontic treatment with different root canal sealers Reparação apical e periapical de dentes de cães com lesão periapical crônica após tratamento endodôntico utilizando diferentes materiais obturadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Roberto Leonardo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical and periapical repair after root canal treatment of dogs' teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesion using different root canal sealers. After periapical lesion induction, forty-four root canals of 3 dogs were submitted to biomechanical preparation using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as an irrigating solution. A calcium hydroxide dressing (Calen PMCC was applied for 15 days and the root canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha points and Sealapex, AH Plus or Sealer Plus for sealing. After 180 days, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdose and the obtained histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for optical microscopic analysis of the apical and periapical repair. The groups filled with Sealapex and AH Plus had better histological repair (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a reparação apical e periapical pós-tratamento endodôntico de dentes de cães com necrose pulpar e reação periapical crônica, em que se utilizaram diferentes materiais obturadores. Foram utilizados 44 canais radiculares, nos quais, após indução das lesões periapicais, foi efetuado o preparo biomecânico empregando-se como solução irrigadora uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 5,25%. Após curativo de demora com pasta à base de hidróxido de cálcio (Calen PMCC, mantida no canal radicular durante 15 dias, os canais radiculares foram obturados pela técnica clássica complementada pela condensação lateral ativa, empregando-se os cimentos Sealapex, AH Plus ou Sealer Plus. Decorrido o período de 180 dias, os animais foram mortos e as peças submetidas ao processamento laboratorial. Os cortes histológicos obtidos foram corados com hematoxilina-eosina. A análise histopatológica demonstrou que nos canais radiculares obturados com os cimentos Sealapex e AH Plus ocorreu melhor reparação (p < 0,05 do que nos canais obturados com o

  11. Revascularization and Apical Plug in an Immature Molar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roghanizadeh, Leyla; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2018-01-01

    Managing of necrotic permanent teeth with immature apices is a treatment challenges. Treatment of such teeth includes apexification, apical plug and more recently, revascularization technique with the probable advantage of continuation of root development. In the present case report the referred patient had discomfort with a necrotic immature mandibular first molar. Periapical radiography showed a rather large apical lesion around immature roots. Revascularization protocol using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement was indicated for the mesial root. However, in distal canal apical plug technique was applied. At 2-year follow-up, both procedures were successful in relieving patient’s symptoms. Dentin formation and increase in length of the mesial root was obvious. Apical plug and revascularization technique proved to be successful in management of necrotic immature teeth; moreover, revascularization carried the advantage of continuation of root development. PMID:29692851

  12. Estudo da reabsorção radicular apical após o uso de aparelho extrabucal no tratamento da má oclusão do tipo Classe II, 1ª divisão dentária Study of apical root resorption after occipital headgear wear on the treatment of dental Class II, division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Célia Vieira de Siqueira

    2009-04-01

    apical root resorption of the upper first permanent molars submitted to the action of the appliance. METHODS: Were evaluated periapical X-rays of 19 leucoderms young female - with ages between 8 and 10 years, with dental Class II, division 1 malocclusion, before and after orthodontic treatment, using high-pull headgear. The 76 X-rays were divided into two groups according to their root formation. Group A consisted of 18 X-rays with incomplete root formation, except for the palatine root, before treatment and 18 after treatment. Group B consisted of 20 X-rays where root formation was completed before treatment and 20 after treatment. The root lengths were measured with digital caliper and the registered measures were submitted to the error of the method and statistical analysis, Student t test, to verify the differences regarding the root length before and after the treatment with occipital headgear. RESULTS: In group A, there was a significant increase of the root lengths, while in the group B the differences were not significant. Posttreatment Group A showed no significant differences with the mean root lengths of pretreatment group B, in other words, teeth with incomplete root formation at onset of orthodontic treatment presented normal root growth during the active treatment. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it was concluded that high-pull headgear didn't influence negatively in the root formation and it didn't provoke apical resorption of the molars submitted to the action of the appliance, suggesting that occipital headgear doesn't present risks to the root structure and formation when correctly indicated and applied.

  13. On the causes of persistent apical periodontitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P N R

    2006-04-01

    Apical periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of periradicular tissues caused by aetiological agents of endodontic origin. Persistent apical periodontitis occurs when root canal treatment of apical periodontitis has not adequately eliminated intraradicular infection. Problems that lead to persistent apical periodontitis include: inadequate aseptic control, poor access cavity design, missed canals, inadequate instrumentation, debridement and leaking temporary or permanent restorations. Even when the most stringent procedures are followed, apical periodontitis may still persist as asymptomatic radiolucencies, because of the complexity of the root canal system formed by the main and accessory canals, their ramifications and anastomoses where residual infection can persist. Further, there are extraradicular factors -- located within the inflamed periapical tissue -- that can interfere with post-treatment healing of apical periodontitis. The causes of apical periodontitis persisting after root canal treatment have not been well characterized. During the 1990s, a series of investigations have shown that there are six biological factors that lead to asymptomatic radiolucencies persisting after root canal treatment. These are: (i) intraradicular infection persisting in the complex apical root canal system; (ii) extraradicular infection, generally in the form of periapical actinomycosis; (iii) extruded root canal filling or other exogenous materials that cause a foreign body reaction; (iv) accumulation of endogenous cholesterol crystals that irritate periapical tissues; (v) true cystic lesions, and (vi) scar tissue healing of the lesion. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the causative factors of non-resolving periapical lesions that are seen as asymptomatic radiolucencies post-treatment.

  14. Enraizamento adventício de estacas apicais de figueira e desenvolvimento inicial das plantas no campo Rooting of apical cuttings and first development of the plants in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pio

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de a propagação vegetativa da figueira ser praticada há muito tempo, estudos para definir novas metodologias são importantes, notadamente com o uso de estacas apicais e reguladores vegetais. Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar o comportamento de plantas de figueira no campo, previamente enraizadas, com o uso de sacarose diluída em soluções de AIB. Estacas lenhosas e lisas da porção apical de figueira com 20 cm de comprimento foram imersas em soluções sem e com sacarose a 2%, em AIB (0, 1000, 2000, 3000 e 4000 mg.L-1, por 5 segundos. Após as imersões, as estacas foram acondicionadas em recipientes de 26 x 14 cm preenchidos com substrato à base de terra e areia (2:1 v/v e transferidas para câmara de nebulização com sistema de irrigação e temperatura controlada. Após 60 dias, realizou-se a primeira avaliação em atributos referentes ao sistema radicular e parte aérea. Uma outra parte das plantas foi transferida para recipientes constituídos de plástico rígido com capacidade de 5 litros, preenchidos com substratos constituídos de terra e esterco de curral (3:1 v/v, em campo. Após 120 dias, constatou-se que estacas tratadas e não tratadas com sacarose e AIB na fase de enraizamento possuem comportamentos semelhantes no campo, havendo necessidade do tratamento de estacas com AIB somente para aumentar a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas.Althoug the vegetative propagation of the fig tree has being practiced a long time ago, studies aiming at defining new methods are important, specially using apical cuttings and growth regulators. The present work had the objective to verify the behavior of fig plants obtained from rooting using sucrose diluted in solutions of IBA, through fast immersion. Woody and flat cuttings of the apical portion standardized with 20 cm of length were immerged in solution with and without sucrose at 2%, diluted in IBA (0, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 mg.L-1 for 5 seconds. After the immersions the

  15. A comparison of apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment with surgical exposure and traction of maxillary impacted canines versus that without impactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempesi, Evangelia; Pandis, Nikolaos; Fleming, Padhraig S; Mavragani, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Orthodontic management of maxillary canine impaction (MCI), including forced eruption, may result in significant root resorption; however, the association between MCI and orthodontically induced root resorption (OIRR) is not yet sufficiently established. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to comparatively evaluate the severity of OIRR of maxillary incisors in orthodontically treated patients with MCI. Additionally, impaction characteristics were associated with OIRR severity. The sample comprised 48 patients undergoing fixed-appliance treatment-24 with unilateral/bilateral MCI and 24 matched controls without impaction. OIRR was calculated using pre- and post-operative panoramic tomograms. The orientation of eruption path, height, sector location, and follicle/tooth ratio of the impacted canine were also recorded. Mann-Whitney U-test and univariate and multivariate linear mixed models were used to test for the associations of interest. Maxillary central left incisor underwent more OIRR in the impaction group (mean difference = 0.58mm, P = 0.04). Overall, the impaction group had 0.38mm more OIRR compared to the control (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.03, 0.74; P = 0.04). However, multivariate analysis demonstrated no difference in the amount of OIRR between impaction and non-impaction groups overall. A positive association between OIRR and initial root length was observed (95% CI: 0.08, 0.27; P Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Apical extrusion of debris using reciprocating files and rotary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Procedure: Sixty extracted human mandibular premolars were used. The root canals were instrumented using reciprocating (WaveOne, Reciproc, SafeSider) or rotary ... and cross‑sections, and kinematics, and this situation may influence the amount of apically extruded debris through the apical foramen.[15]. The aim of this ...

  17. Evaluation of the amount of apically extruded debris during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-06

    Apr 6, 2015 ... Objective: To evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris during retreatment (with or without solvent) of root canals filled by two ... These filling materials can be used with several obturation .... The tip of the master cone.

  18. Microbiology and Treatment of Acute Apical Abscesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Acute apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intraorally, but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications or even mortality. The reasons why dental root canal infections can become symptomatic and evolve to severe spreading and sometimes life-threatening abscesses remain elusive. Studies using culture and advanced molecular microbiology methods for microbial identification in apical abscesses have demonstrated a multispecies community conspicuously dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Species/phylotypes commonly found in these infections belong to the genera Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Dialister, Streptococcus, and Treponema. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have substantially enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota associated with acute apical abscesses and shed some light on the etiopathogeny of this disease. Species richness and abundance and the resulting network of interactions among community members may affect the collective pathogenicity and contribute to the development of acute infections. Disease modifiers, including transient or permanent host-related factors, may also influence the development and severity of acute abscesses. This review focuses on the current evidence about the etiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses and how the process is influenced by host-related factors and proposes future directions in research, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to deal with this disease. PMID:23554416

  19. Relationship between the Apical Preparation Diameter and the Apical Seal: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoutar Laslami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study is to define the relationship between the apical preparation diameter and the apical sealing ability to highlight the importance of the preservation of the diameter and the original position of the apical foramen. Materials and Methods. 50 extracted maxillary incisors were randomly allocated into three groups of 15 teeth each (n = 15 according to the apical preparation size: Group 1: finishing file F1 corresponding to size 20 reached the working length (ProTaper Universal system Dentsply®; Group 2: prepared up to size 30 corresponding to finishing file F30; Group 3: prepared up to size 50 corresponding to finishing file F5. Five teeth were assigned to positive and negative control groups. After the filling of the root canals, the teeth were isolated and immersed in a dye solution, then cut longitudinally, photographed, and the dye penetration were calculated using a computer software. Results. Comparison of the three different apical preparation sizes showed no statistically significant differences regarding the apical microleakage. Conclusion. The most important value of the dye penetration was observed in the group with the largest apical diameter.

  20. Apical pulmonary abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado Ferrer, Cesar A; Serrano Vasquez, Francisco O

    2004-01-01

    We presented the case of a 54 year-old man with bilateral apical pulmonary abscess who consults due to fever and bronchorrhoea, isolating moraxella catharralis that is managed with ampicillin-sulbactam with an adequate clinical and radiological evolution

  1. Ossifying fibroma misdiagnosed as chronic apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes Ramos-Perez, Flávia Maria; Soares, Ulysses Nicida; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa; da Cruz Perez, Danyel Elias

    2010-03-01

    Ossifying fibroma mimicking chronic apical periodontitis is extremely rare. This report describes a case of ossifying fibroma located in the periapical region of the mandibular right canine that was misdiagnosed as chronic apical periodontitis. A 40-year-old woman complained of slight pain in the right anterior mandibular region without mucosal abnormalities or swelling. Radiographically, a well-circumscribed, unilocular, radiolucent lesion was observed that was located in the periapical region of the mandibular right canine, which presented an endodontically treated root canal. Under local anesthesia, the lesion was fully excised. Microscopically, there was fibrocellular connective tissue associated with a mineralized component, which consisted of lamellar or trabecular and woven bone, compatible with the diagnosis of ossifying fibroma. Although it is very rare, ossifying fibroma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unusual or persistent apical radiolucencies. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Morphology of the Physiological Apical Foramen in Maxillary and Mandibular First Molars

    OpenAIRE

    Abarca, J.; Zaror, C.; Monardes, H.; Hermosilla, V.; Muñoz, C.; Cantin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Information regarding the anatomy of the physiological apical foramen is limited. Knowing its diameter and shapes contributes to clinical work, specifically to the cleaning and shaping of the apical third. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine the minimum and maximum diameters and shape of the physiological apical foramen in the roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars. A descriptive study was conducted on 89 recently extracted first molars. Roots 3–5 mm from the apex were sect...

  3. Evaluation of three instrumentation techniques at the precision of apical stop and apical sealing of obturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Genç

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of two NiTi rotary apical preparation techniques used with an electronic apex locator-integrated endodontic motor and a manual technique to create an apical stop at a predetermined level (0.5 mm short of the apical foramen in teeth with disrupted apical constriction, and to evaluate microleakage following obturation in such prepared teeth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 85 intact human mandibular permanent incisors with single root canal were accessed and the apical constriction was disrupted using a #25 K-file. The teeth were embedded in alginate and instrumented to #40 using rotary Lightspeed or S-Apex techniques or stainless-steel K-files. Distance between the apical foramen and the created apical stop was measured to an accuracy of 0.01 mm. In another set of instrumented teeth, root canals were obturated using gutta-percha and sealer, and leakage was tested at 1 week and 3 months using a fluid filtration device. RESULTS: All techniques performed slightly short of the predetermined level. Closest preparation to the predetermined level was with the manual technique and the farthest was with S-Apex. A significant difference was found between the performances of these two techniques (p<0.05. Lightspeed ranked in between. Leakage was similar for all techniques at either period. However, all groups leaked significantly more at 3 months compared to 1 week (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Despite statistically significant differences found among the techniques, deviations from the predetermined level were small and clinically acceptable for all techniques. Leakage following obturation was comparable in all groups.

  4. The resection angle in apical surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Janner, Simone F M; Jensen, Simon S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the present radiographic study was to analyse the resection angle in apical surgery and its correlation with treatment outcome, type of treated tooth, surgical depth and level of root-end filling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the context of a prospective clinical...... study, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were taken before and 1 year after apical surgery to measure the angle of the resection plane relative to the longitudinal axis of the root. Further, the surgical depth (distance from the buccal cortex to the most lingual/palatal point of the resection...... or with the retrofilling length. CONCLUSIONS: Statistically significant differences were observed comparing resection angles of different tooth groups. However, the angle had no significant effect on treatment outcome. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Contrary to common belief, the resection angle in maxillary anterior teeth...

  5. Healing of apical rarefaction of three nonvital open apex anterior teeth using a white portland cement apical plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabha Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major challenge of performing root canal treatment in an open apex pulp-less tooth is to obtain a good apical seal. MTA has been successfully used to achieve a good apical seal, wherein the root canal obturation can be done immediately. MTA and White Portland Cement has been shown similarity in their physical, chemical and biological properties and has also shown similar outcome when used in animal studies and human trials. In our study, open apex of three non vital upper central incisors has been plugged using modified white Portland cement. 3 to 6 months follow up revealed absence of clinical symptoms and disappearance of peri-apical rarefactions. The positive clinical outcome may encourage the future use of white Portland cement as an apical plug material in case of non vital open apex tooth as much cheaper substitute of MTA.

  6. Frequency and levels of candidate endodontic pathogens in acute apical abscesses as compared to asymptomatic apical periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rôças, Isabela N.; Siqueira, José F.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Acute apical abscess is caused by bacteria that leave the infected dental root canal to invade the periodontal tissues. Most species occurring in abscesses are also found in asymptomatic infections; therefore, the possibility exists that not only the presence of certain species but also their specific counts influence the appearance of symptoms. This molecular study compared the frequency and levels of several candidate endodontic pathogens in teeth with acute apical abscesses an...

  7. Revascularization and periapical repair after endodontic treatment using apical negative pressure irrigation versus conventional irrigation plus triantibiotic intracanal dressing in dogs' teeth with apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Flores, Daniel Silva Herzog; Heilborn, Carlos; Johnson, James D; Cohenca, Nestor

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in vivo the revascularization and the apical and periapical repair after endodontic treatment using 2 techniques for root canal disinfection (apical negative pressure irrigation versus apical positive pressure irrigation plus triantibiotic intracanal dressing) in immature dogs' teeth with apical periodontitis. Two test groups of canals with experimentally induced apical periodontitis were evaluated according to the disinfection technique: Group 1, apical negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system), and Group 2, apical positive pressure irrigation (conventional irrigation) plus triantibiotic intracanal dressing. In Group 3 (positive control), periapical lesions were induced, but no endodontic treatment was done. Group 4 (negative control) was composed of sound teeth. The animals were killed after 90 days and the maxillas and mandibles were subjected to histological processing. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Mallory Trichrome and examined under light microscopy. A description of the apical and periapical features was done and scores were attributed to the following histopathological parameters: newly formed mineralized apical tissue, periapical inflammatory infiltrate, apical periodontal ligament thickness, dentin resorption, and bone tissue resorption. Intergroup comparisons were done by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests (alpha = 0.05). Although statistically significant difference was found only for the inflammatory infiltrate (P irrigation with the EndoVac system can be considered as a promising disinfection protocol in immature teeth with apical periodontitis, suggesting that the use of intracanal antibiotics might not be necessary. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison between one-session root canal treatment with aPDT and two-session treatment with calcium hydroxide-based antibacterial dressing, in dog's teeth with apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Lidia Regina da Costa; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Carvalho, Fabrício Kitazono; Lucisano, Marília Pacífico; Novaes, Arthur Belem

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate one-session endodontic treatment with aPDT and two-session treatment with calcium hydroxide (CH)-based dressing in dog's teeth with apical periodontitis. After experimental induction of apical periodontitis, 48 teeth were randomly assigned to the following groups: groups OS/aPDT120d and OS/aPDT180d (one-session treatment with aPDT) and groups TS/CH120d and TS/CH180d (two-session treatment with CH-based dressing-control groups). The animals were euthanized after 120 and 180 days. After histotechnical processing, microscopic and radiographic analyses were performed. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher's exact tests (α = 0.05). Groups TS/CHs presented repaired resorbed cemental areas, with collagen bundles and few inflammatory cells. In groups OS/aPDTs, the areas of cemental resorption were not repaired with reduced presence of cells and fibers. In the analysis of the apical closure, fluorescence microscopy and percentage of radiographic reduction of lesions, there was significant difference between groups TS/CH120d and OS/aPDT120d and between TS/CH180d and OS/aPDT180d (p session endodontic treatment using a CH-based dressing in teeth with apical periodontitis.

  9. Effect of the angle of apical resection on apical leakage, measured with a computerized fluid filtration device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garip, Hasan; Garip, Yıldız; Oruçoğlu, Hasan; Hatipoğlu, Seda

    2011-03-01

    We determined the effect of the angle of apical resection on apical leakage using a computerized fluid filtration meter with a laser system and a digital air pressure regulator in 46 extracted single-rooted human teeth. Orthograde endodontic treatment was performed. The root canals were prepared up to a size 50 K-type file with 17% EDTA solution (Roth International, Chicago, IL) and 5% NaOCl solution as the irrigant. Gates Glidden burs (Maillefer Instruments, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were used to flare the coronal two thirds of the canal. All canals were dried with paper points and then obturated using cold lateral condensation (except for the positive controls) of gutta-percha points and AH plus (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany). All 40 roots were sectioned 3 mm from the apex. Forty teeth were assigned randomly into 1 of 4 experimental groups of 10 teeth each: in group 1, the teeth were resected apically (90° angle) and the cavities were obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA); in group 2, after apical resection (90° angle), a root-end cavity was prepared using ultrasonic diamond retrotips and the cavities were obturated with MTA; in group 3, the teeth were resected apically (∼45° angle) and the cavities were obturated with MTA; and in group 4, after apical resection (∼45° angle), a root-end cavity was prepared using ultrasonic diamond retrotips and the cavities were obturated with MTA. An additional 6 teeth were used as controls (3 each, negative and positive controls). Apical leakage was measured using a computerized fluid filtration meter with a laser system. The mean apical microleakage was 2.0 ± 0.4 × 10(-4), 1.6 ± 0.6 × 10(-4), 1.6 ± 0.9 × 10(-4), and 1.8 ± 0.7 × 10(-4) μL/cmH(2)O/min(-1) at 1.2 atm, in groups 1 to 4, respectively. Although the mean apical microleakage was greater in group 1, the differences among the 4 groups were not statistically significant (P > .05). The results of these in vitro studies showed that when an

  10. Apical Revascularization after Delayed Tooth Replantation: An Unusual Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pacífico Lucisano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the clinical and radiological outcome of the treatment involving a delayed tooth replantation after an avulsed immature permanent incisor, with a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. An 8-year-old boy was referred after dental trauma that occurred on the previous day. The permanent maxillary right central incisor (tooth 11 had been avulsed. The tooth was hand-held during endodontic therapy and an intracanal medication application with calcium hydroxide-based paste was performed. An apical plug with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was introduced into the apical portion of the canal. When the avulsed tooth was replanted with digital pressure, a blood clot had formed within the socket, which moved the MTA apical plug about 2 mm inside of the root canal. These procedures developed apical revascularization, which promoted a successful endodontic outcome, evidenced by apical closure, slight increase in root length, and absence of signs of external root resorption, during a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months.

  11. Dental Pulp Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Teeth with Immature Apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ashiry, Eman A; Farsi, Najat M; Abuzeid, Sawsan T; El Ashiry, Mohamed M; Bahammam, Hammam A

    The treatment of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis presents challenges in endodontic and pediatric dentistry. Revascularization is a recent treatment for such cases as an alternative to conventional apexification. The purpose is to examine the effect of a pulpal revascularization procedure on immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis. Twenty patients were enrolled for pulp revascularization procedure by root canal disinfection using a triple antibiotic mixture for 1-2 weeks, followed by creating a blood clot, sealing the root canal orifice using white mineral trioxide aggregate and a coronal seal of composite resin. Patients were recalled periodically for up to 24 months. During follow-up, all patients were asymptomatic. Three cases of chronic apical periodontitis showed clinical disappearance of the sinus tract 2 weeks after treatment. Radiography revealed progressive periapical radiolucency resolution within the first 12 months. Within 12-24 months, the treated teeth showed progressive increases in dentinal wall thickness, root length and continued root development. Clinical and radiographic evidence showed successful revascularization treatments of immature necrotic permanent teeth with apical periodontitis. More studies are necessary to understand the underlying mechanisms and to perform histopathology of the pulp space contents after revascularization procedures.

  12. Effect of reciprocating systems and working lengths on apical microcrack development: a micro-CT Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bruna Paloma de; Câmara, Andréa Cruz; Duarte, Daniel Amancio; Antonino, Antonio Celso Dantas; Aguiar, Carlos Menezes, E-mail: bruna_paloma@msn.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Heck, Richard John [Department of Land Resource Science, University of Guelph (Canada)

    2017-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of root canal preparation with single-file reciprocating systems at different working lengths on the development of apical microcracks using micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging. Forty extracted human mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10) according to the systems and working length used to prepare the root canals: Group A - WaveOne Gold at apical foramen (AF), Group B - WaveOne Gold 1 mm short of the AF (AF-1 mm), Group C - Unicone (AF) and Group D - Unicone (AF-1 mm). Micro-CT scanning was performed before and after root canal preparation at an isotropic resolution of 14 μm. Then, three examiners assessed the cross-sectional images generated to detect microcracks in the apical portion of the roots. Apical microcracks were visualized in 3, 1, 1, and 3 specimens in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. All these microcracks observed after root canal preparation already existed prior to instrumentation, and no new apical microcrack was detected. For all groups, the number of slices presenting microcracks after root canal preparation was the same as before canal preparation. Root canal preparation with WaveOne Gold and Unicone, regardless of the working length, was not associated with apical microcrack formation. (author)

  13. Effect of reciprocating systems and working lengths on apical microcrack development: a micro-CT Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Bruna Paloma de; Câmara, Andréa Cruz; Duarte, Daniel Amancio; Antonino, Antonio Celso Dantas; Aguiar, Carlos Menezes; Heck, Richard John

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of root canal preparation with single-file reciprocating systems at different working lengths on the development of apical microcracks using micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging. Forty extracted human mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10) according to the systems and working length used to prepare the root canals: Group A - WaveOne Gold at apical foramen (AF), Group B - WaveOne Gold 1 mm short of the AF (AF-1 mm), Group C - Unicone (AF) and Group D - Unicone (AF-1 mm). Micro-CT scanning was performed before and after root canal preparation at an isotropic resolution of 14 μm. Then, three examiners assessed the cross-sectional images generated to detect microcracks in the apical portion of the roots. Apical microcracks were visualized in 3, 1, 1, and 3 specimens in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. All these microcracks observed after root canal preparation already existed prior to instrumentation, and no new apical microcrack was detected. For all groups, the number of slices presenting microcracks after root canal preparation was the same as before canal preparation. Root canal preparation with WaveOne Gold and Unicone, regardless of the working length, was not associated with apical microcrack formation. (author)

  14. Antibacterial effect of root canal preparation and calcium hydroxide paste (Calen intracanal dressing in primary teeth with apical periodontitis Efeito antibacteriano do preparo biomecânico e do curativo de demora com pasta à base de hidróxido de cálcio (Calen em dentes decíduos com lesão periapical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Faria

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial action of root canal mechanical preparation using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite as the irrigating solution and a calcium hydroxide paste as the antibacterial intracanal dressing in human primary teeth root canals with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis by means of microbial culture. A total of 26 root canals of human primary teeth with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis were used. Samples were collected before, 72h after biomechanical treatment and 72h after removal of the intracanal dressing. Comparison by Wilcoxon test showed that root canal mechanical preparation effectively eliminated all microorganisms in 20% of the root canals, and the intracanal dressing in 62.5%; however, the cumulative action of biomechanical treatment and intracanal dressing eliminated the microorganisms of 70% of the root canals (pO objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, por meio de cultura bacteriológica, a ação antibacteriana do preparo biomecânico utilizando como solução irrigadora o hipoclorito de sódio a 2,5% e da pasta Calen utilizada como curativo de demora em canais radiculares de dentes decíduos de humanos com necrose pulpar e lesão periapical. Foram selecionados 26 dentes decíduos de humanos portadores de necrose pulpar e lesão periapical. As colheitas microbiológicas foram efetuadas antes e 72 horas após o preparo biomecânico e 72 horas após a remoção do curativo de demora. A comparação por meio do teste de Wilcoxon mostrou que o preparo biomecânico foi eficaz na eliminação dos microrganismos dos canais radiculares em 20% dos casos e o curativo de demora em 62,5%, enquanto que a ação cumulativa do preparo biomecânico e do curativo de demora eliminou os microrganismos em 70,0% dos casos (p<0.001. Pôde-se concluir que o preparo biomecânico, isoladamente, apresentou resultados microbiológicos inferiores àqueles obtidos quando o mesmo foi associado ao curativo de demora

  15. Monocyte chemotactic protein-3: possible involvement in apical periodontitis chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezerega, A; Osorio, C; Mardones, J; Mundi, V; Dutzan, N; Franco, M; Gamonal, J; Oyarzún, A; Overall, C M; Hernández, M

    2010-10-01

    To study the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3, also known as chemokine CCL-7) in tissue from apical lesions (AL) and to associate MCP-3 expression with symptomatic or asymptomatic apical periodontitis. To determine the expression of MCP-3 in AL, biopsies obtained during tooth extraction procedures were fixed, subjected to routine processing and diagnosed as apical granuloma (AG) (n = 7) or radicular cyst (RC) (n = 5). As controls, apical periodontal ligament (PDL) specimens from healthy premolars extracted for orthodontics reasons were included (n = 7). All specimens were immunostained for MCP-3 and examined under a light microscope. In addition, homogenates from AL (n = 14) and healthy PDL samples (n = 7) were studied through immunowestern blot. Finally, periapical exudates samples were collected from root canals of teeth having diagnosis of symptomatic (n = 14) and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (n = 14) during routine endodontic treatments and analysed by immunowestern blot and densitometry.   MCP-3 was detected in AG and RC and localized mainly to inflammatory leucocytes, whereas no expression was observed in healthy PDLs. MCP-3 was also detected in periapical exudate, and its levels were significantly higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic apical periodontitis. MCP-3 was expressed in AL and its levels associated with clinical symptoms. MCP-3 might play a role in disease pathogenesis, possibly by stimulating mononuclear chemotaxis. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  16. Quantitative assessment of apical debris extrusion and intracanal debris in the apical third, using hand instrumentation and three rotary instrumentation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H K, Sowmya; T S, Subhash; Goel, Beena Rani; T N, Nandini; Bhandi, Shilpa H

    2014-02-01

    Decreased apical extrusion of debris and apical one third debris have strong implications for decreased incidence of postoperative inflammation and pain. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess quantitatively the apical extrusion of debris and intracanal debris in the apical third during root canal instrumentation using hand and three different types of rotary instruments. Sixty freshly extracted single rooted human teeth were randomly divided into four groups. Canal preparation was done using step-back with hand instrumentation, crown-down technique with respect to ProTaper and K3, and hybrid technique with LightSpeed LSX. Irrigation was done with NaOCl, EDTA, and normal saline and for final irrigation, EndoVac system was used. The apically extruded debris was collected on the pre-weighed Millipore plastic filter disk and weighed using microbalance. The teeth were submitted to the histological processing. Sections from the apical third were analyzed by a trinocular research microscope that was coupled to a computer where the images were captured and analyzed using image proplus V4.1.0.0 software. The mean weight of extruded debris for each group and intracanal debris in the root canal was statistically analyzed by a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U test. The result showed that, hand instrumentation using K files showed the highest amount of debris extrusion apically when compared to ProTaper, K3 and LightSpeed LSX. The result also showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in relation to presence of intracanal debris in the apical one third. Based on the results, all instrumentation techniques produced debris extrusion. The engine driven Ni-Ti systems extruded significantly less apical debris than hand instrumentation. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in relation to presence of intracanal debris in the apical one third.

  17. Apical extrusion of debris during the preparation of oval root canals: a comparative study between a full-sequence SAF system and a rotary file system supplemented by XP-endo finisher file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfir, Anda; Moza-Levi, Rotem; Herteanu, Moran; Weissman, Amir; Wigler, Ronald

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the amount of apically extruded debris during the preparation of oval canals with either a rotary file system supplemented by the XP-endo Finisher file or a full-sequence self-adjusting file (SAF) system. Sixty mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to two groups: group A: stage 1-glide path preparation with Pre-SAF instruments. Stage 2-cleaning and shaping with SAF. Group B: stage 1-glide path preparation with ProGlider file. Stage 2-cleaning and shaping with ProTaper Next system. Stage 3-Final cleaning with XP-endo Finisher file. The debris extruded during each of the stages was collected, and the debris weights were compared between the groups and between the stages within the groups using t tests with a significance level set at P file followed by XP-endo Finisher file extruded significantly more debris than a full-sequence SAF system. Each stage, in either procedure, had its own contribution to the extrusion of debris. Final preparation with XP-endo Finisher file contributes to the total amount of extruded debris, but the clinical relevance of the relative difference in the amount of apically extruded debris remains unclear.

  18. Effect of apical clearing technique on the treatment outcome of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Priya; Logani, Ajay; Shah, Naseem; Pandey, R M

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to compare the periapical healing of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis treated either by conventional apical preparation (CAP) or apical clearing technique (ACT). Twenty subjects with bilateral nonvital similar teeth exhibiting comparable periapical index (PAI) score were enrolled and randomly allocated. Group I (CAP, n = 20): Apical preparation three sizes greater (master apical file [MAF]) than the first binding file at the established working length. Group II (ACT, n = 20): Apical preparation three sizes greater than the MAF that was followed by dry reaming. Root canal therapy was accomplished in single-visit for all the teeth. They were pursued radiographically at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Pre- and post-treatment PAI scores were compared. To ascertain the proportion of healed teeth between the two groups, McNemar Chi-square test was applied. At 3, 6, and 9 months' time interval the proportion of healed teeth for Group II (ACT) was greater in comparison to Group I (CAP) (P < 0.05). However, at 12 months follow-up period this difference was not significant (P = 0.08). ACT enhanced the healing kinetics. However, the long-term (12 months) radiographic outcome was similar for either technique.

  19. Systemic antibiotics for symptomatic apical periodontitis and acute apical abscess in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Anwen; Francis, Nick; Wood, Fiona; Mann, Mala K; Chestnutt, Ivor G

    2014-06-26

    Dental pain can have a considerable detrimental effect on an individual's quality of life. Symptomatic apical periodontitis and acute apical abscess are common causes of dental pain and arise from an inflamed or necrotic dental pulp, or infection of the pulpless root canal system. Clinical guidelines recommend that the first-line treatment for teeth with symptomatic apical periodontitis or an acute apical abscess should be removal of the source of inflammation or infection by local, operative measures, and that systemic antibiotics are currently only recommended for situations where there is evidence of spreading infection (cellulitis, lymph node involvement, diffuse swelling) or systemic involvement (fever, malaise). Despite this, there is evidence that dentists continue to prescribe antibiotics for these conditions. There is concern that this could contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacterial colonies both within the individual and within the community as a whole. To evaluate the effects of systemic antibiotics provided with or without surgical intervention (such as extraction, incision and drainage of a swelling or endodontic treatment), with or without analgesics, for symptomatic apical periodontitis or acute apical abscess in adults. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 1 October 2013); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 1 October 2013); EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 1 October 2013) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 1 October 2013). We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Trials Registry Platform and the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) on 1 October 2013 to identify ongoing trials. We searched for grey literature using OpenGrey (to 1 October 2013) and ZETOC Conference Proceedings (1993 to 1 October 2013). We placed no restrictions on the language or date of

  20. IN VIVO ANALYSIS OF SOME KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE APICAL ZONE IN TEETH WITH CHRONIC APICAL PERIODONTITIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Gusiyska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pathogenesis of internal and external resorptive processes in the dental tissues and those of the periapical zone is not fully understood, but the main purpose, either in teeth with internal resorption or in teeth with periapical lesions, is decontamination of the endodontic space and subsequent three-dimensional obturation in order to isolate periapical and oral tissues and prevent reinfection. Purpose: The aim of this article is to analyze in vivo some key characteristics of the apical zone in teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Material and Methods: To facilitate the clinical protocol after the radiographic analysis and assessment of patency, the working lengths of 153 root canals (n = 153 in 106 teeth were determined. The clinical widths of the apical narrowing were measured by using the last instrument (ISO 0.02 tapered file, which can move freely through the apical narrowing after electrometric determination of the working length (Raypex 5 /VDW, Germany/. Results and Discussion: Determination of working width and working length is important for realizing the first stage of decontamination – maximum instrumentation of the endodontic space and choice of a clinical protocol. The classification of root canals in a particular group according to the relative patency or lysed apical opening is important for the selection of obturation technique, which is essential for reducing the microleakage in the zone. Conclusion: Since the target of this work were teeth with CAP, in the majority of the cases with clinical findings of root canals with preexisting filling, radicular pins, obliteration, separated canal instruments, perforations at different levels, via falsa or thresholds, the access to the apical zone was not subjected to a closely observed instrumental clinical protocol. In the treatment of each case, however, the clinical principles of modern endodontic treatment were closely observed.

  1. [A retrospective study of 180 cases of apical microsurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanguo; Li, Dan; Tian, Yu; Yu, Qing

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the outcome and the potential prognostic factors of apical microsurgery. The teeth with persistent periapical diseases were treated by microsurgery using micro instruments, ultrasonic retrotips and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) under dental operate microscope. The procedure includes incision and flap retraction, osteotomy, apicoectomy, retro- preparation and retro- filling of root canal. Patients were recalled at 1, 3, 6, and 12- month intervals. The outcome was evaluated by clinical and radiographic examinations, and the potential prognostic factors were analyzed. One hundred and eighty cases (240 teeth), including 132 upper anterior teeth, 22 lower anterior teeth, 31 upper premolars, 18 lower premolars, 19 upper molars and 18 lower molars, were treated by microsurgery between July 2010 and December 2012. A total of 152 cases (207 teeth) were recalled. The application of the apical microsurgery included failure of previous endodontic treatment, periapical lesion with post, periapical cyst, calcified canals, separated instruments, overfilling, open apex, root facture, failure of previous apical surgery, apical fenestration, and special root canal system. The success rate was 90.8% (188/207). Age, sex, tooth position, type of periapical radiolucency, fistula and clinical application type appeared to have a negative effect on the outcome. Endo-perio lesion was a significant factor. Eighteen cases (19 teeth) failed mainly because of periodontally involved lesion and vertical root fracture. Apical microsurgery, which combines the magnification and illumination provided by the microscope with the proper use of micro instruments, can treat the teeth with persistent periapical diseases precisely and less traumatically with high success rate. Case selection and standardized operations play a key role for success.

  2. Novel navigation technique for the endodontic treatment of a molar with pulp canal calcification and apical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xilin; Zhao, Shiyong; Wang, Weidong; Jiang, Qianzhou; Yang, Xuechao

    2018-04-01

    Apical periodontitis, the inflammation of periapical tissue, commonly requires root canal treatment to achieve apical healing. However, if it is accompanied by pulp canal calcification, the treatment becomes complicated, and locating the root canal can be challenging. This case report describes a novel approach for treating a molar with pulp canal calcification and apical pathology. Due to the risk of perforation during treatment, a digitally printed template was used to assist in accurately locating the root canal. After six months, the patient was asymptomatic and the periradicular radiolucency was gradually reducing in size. © 2017 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  3. Pathogenesis of apical periodontitis and the causes of endodontic failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P N R

    2004-11-01

    Apical periodontitis is a sequel to endodontic infection and manifests itself as the host defense response to microbial challenge emanating from the root canal system. It is viewed as a dynamic encounter between microbial factors and host defenses at the interface between infected radicular pulp and periodontal ligament that results in local inflammation, resorption of hard tissues, destruction of other periapical tissues, and eventual formation of various histopathological categories of apical periodontitis, commonly referred to as periapical lesions. The treatment of apical periodontitis, as a disease of root canal infection, consists of eradicating microbes or substantially reducing the microbial load from the root canal and preventing re-infection by orthograde root filling. The treatment has a remarkably high degree of success. Nevertheless, endodontic treatment can fail. Most failures occur when treatment procedures, mostly of a technical nature, have not reached a satisfactory standard for the control and elimination of infection. Even when the highest standards and the most careful procedures are followed, failures still occur. This is because there are root canal regions that cannot be cleaned and obturated with existing equipments, materials, and techniques, and thus, infection can persist. In very rare cases, there are also factors located within the inflamed periapical tissue that can interfere with post-treatment healing of the lesion. The data on the biological causes of endodontic failures are recent and scattered in various journals. This communication is meant to provide a comprehensive overview of the etio-pathogenesis of apical periodontitis and the causes of failed endodontic treatments that can be visualized in radiographs as asymptomatic post-treatment periapical radiolucencies.

  4. Histology of periapical lesions obtained during apical surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Malte; von Arx, Thomas; Altermatt, Hans Jörg; Bosshardt, Dieter

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this was to evaluate the histology of periapical lesions in teeth treated with periapical surgery. After root-end resection, the root tip was removed together with the periapical pathological tissue. Histologic sectioning was performed on calcified specimens embedded in methylmethacrylate (MMA) and on demineralized specimens embedded in LR White (Fluka, Buchs, Switzerland). The samples were evaluated with light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The histologic findings were classified into periapical abscesses, granulomas, or cystic lesions (true or pocket cysts). The final material comprised 70% granulomas, 23% cysts and 5% abscesses, 1% scar tissues, and 1% keratocysts. Six of 125 samples could not be used. The cystic lesions could not be subdivided into pocket or true cysts. All cysts had an epithelium-lined cavity, two of them with cilia-lined epithelium. These results show the high incidence of periapical granulomas among periapical lesions obtained during apical surgery. Periapical abscesses were a rare occasion. The histologic findings from samples obtained during apical surgery may differ from findings obtained by teeth extractions. A determination between pocket and true apical cysts is hardly possible when collecting samples by apical surgery.

  5. Evaluation of the anatomical alterations of lower molars mesial root’s apical third

    OpenAIRE

    FRÖNER, Izabel Cristina; IMPERADOR, Cristina Aparecida; SOUZA, Luiz Gustavo de

    1999-01-01

    The anatomical apex of the mesial root of the lower molars presents a morphological complexity related to the number and shape of the root canals as well as of the apical foramen and isthmus presence. The knowledge of the complexity of the endodontic system of the molar root area is essencial to select more carefully the best instrumentation and obturation technique, to obtain a more successful endodontic therapy. A presente pesquisa analisa in vitro as alterações anatômicas dos 4 mm apic...

  6. Root Canal Microorganisms Profiles of Upper Anterior Teeth with Periapical Lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Tanumiharja; Irene E. Riewpassa; Mansjur Nasir; Burhanuddin D. Pasiga

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are the main causative agents on the development of apical periodontitis. Microorganisms infecting the root canal system are colonized in communities as biofilm. These bacterial communities show distinct pattern related to the different forms of apical periodontitis which are determined by species richness and abundance. Objective: This study is aimed to examine the root canal microorganisms on upper anterior teeth of asymptomatic apical periodontitis and chronic apical abscess...

  7. Assessment of periapical health, quality of root canal filling, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty three teeth were found to have short root canal fillings, whereas 74 teeth had adequate root canal fillings, and the remaining 10 teeth had over extended root canal filling. A significant correlation was observed between the length of root filling and apical periodontitis (P = 0,023). Inadequately dense root canal filling was ...

  8. The Effect of Canal Contamination with Saliva on Apical Sealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sabaghi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Root canal obturation aims at sealing the root canal system to prevent re-contamination of canal and periapical space. Presence of moisture in canal before obturation may posit a negative effect on the quality of canal sealing. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of canal contamination with saliva on apical microleakage. Methods: In this laboratory study, 58 human uni-root teeth were cleaned and shaped for obturation with gutta percha and sealer AH26. In the case group, specimens were contaminated with human saliva immediately before obturation, whereas the teeth in the control group were kept dry. All canals were filled by lateral condensation technique. Moreover, the teeth were placed in methylene blue dye for 3 days. Dye penetration was measured using a stereomicrosope. As a matter of fact, the study data were analyzed via utilizing t-test. Results: A significant difference was found between the two groups in regard with the apical leakage(P<0.001. The microleakage mean of dye in the dry group was 3/48mm, whereas it was 6/36mm in the saliva contaminated group. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that complete drying of canal can improve apical sealing.

  9. Assessment of Apical Extrusion of Debris during Endodontic Retreatment with 3 Rotary Nickel-Titanium Retreatment Systems and Hand Files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gkampesi S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate the amount of debris extruded apically as well as the time needed for removal of root canal filling material using ProTaper, MTwo, REndo NiTi rotary retreatment systems and hand files.

  10. Duration for Apical Barrier Formation in Necrotic Immature Permanent Incisors Treated With Calcium Hydroxide Apexification Using Ultrasonic or Hand Filing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wan Lee

    2010-08-01

    Conclusion: Ultrasonic filing with 0.2% chlorhexidine as an irrigant is effective for disinfection of the root canal and can shorten the duration for apical barrier formation in necrotic permanent incisors treated with calcium hydroxide apexification.

  11. Prevalence of ciliated epithelium in apical periodontitis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Siqueira, José F; Abdelsayed, Rafik A

    2014-04-01

    This article reports on the morphologic features and the frequency of ciliated epithelium in apical cysts and discusses its origin. The study material consisted of 167 human apical periodontitis lesions obtained consecutively from patients presenting for treatment during a period of 12 years in a dental practice operated by one of the authors. All of the lesions were obtained still attached to the root apices of teeth with untreated (93 lesions) or treated canals (74 lesions). The former were obtained by extraction and the latter by extraction or apical surgery. Specimens were processed for histopathologic and histobacteriologic analyses. Lesions were classified, and the type of epithelium, if present, was recorded. Of the lesions analyzed, 49 (29%) were diagnosed as cysts. Of these, 26 (53%) were found in untreated teeth, and 23 (47%) related to root canal-treated teeth. Ciliated columnar epithelium was observed partially or completely lining the cyst wall in 4 cysts, and all of them occurred in untreated maxillary molars. Three of these lesions were categorized as pocket cysts, and the other was a true cyst. Ciliated columnar epithelium-lined cysts corresponded to approximately 2% of the apical periodontitis lesions and 8% of the cysts of endodontic origin in the population studied. This epithelium is highly likely to have a sinus origin in the majority of cases. However, the possibility of prosoplasia or upgraded differentiation into ciliated epithelium from the typical cystic lining squamous epithelium may also be considered. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Regenerative Endodontics Versus Apexification in Immature Permanent Teeth with Apical Periodontitis: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiacheng; Zeng, Qian; Wei, Xi; Zhao, Wei; Cui, Minyi; Gu, Jing; Lu, Jiaxuan; Yang, Maobin; Ling, Junqi

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the outcomes of regenerative endodontic treatment (RET) and apexification on immature permanent teeth with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis. A total of 118 patients (118 teeth) were recruited and randomly assigned to either RET or apexification treatment. Each treatment group was divided into 2 subgroups according to the etiology: dens evaginatus or trauma. Clinical symptoms and complications were recorded, and cone-beam computed tomographic imaging with a limited field of view was used to measure the change of root length, root thickness, and apical foramen size at the 12-month follow-up. The t test/rank sum test and Fisher exact test were applied to compare the change of root morphology between RET and apexification. One hundred three of 118 cases were completed at the 12-month follow-up. The survival rate was 100% for both treatment groups. All cases were asymptomatic with apical healing. The RET group showed a significant increase in root length and root thickness compared with the apexification group (P apical healing. RET showed a better outcome than apexification regarding increased root thickness and root length. The etiology had an impact on the outcome of RET. Dens evaginatus cases showed better prognoses than trauma cases after RET. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of cervical preflaring on apical file size determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, J D; Capelli, A; Guerisoli, D M Z; Spanó, J C E; Estrela, C

    2005-07-01

    To investigate the influence of cervical preflaring with different instruments (Gates-Glidden drills, Quantec Flare series instruments and LA Axxess burs) on the first file that binds at working length (WL) in maxillary central incisors. Forty human maxillary central incisors with complete root formation were used. After standard access cavities, a size 06 K-file was inserted into each canal until the apical foramen was reached. The WL was set 1 mm short of the apical foramen. Group 1 received the initial apical instrument without previous preflaring of the cervical and middle thirds of the root canal. Group 2 had the cervical and middle portion of the root canals enlarged with Gates-Glidden drills sizes 90, 110 and 130. Group 3 had the cervical and middle thirds of the root canals enlarged with nickel-titanium Quantec Flare series instruments. Titanium-nitrite treated, stainless steel LA Axxess burs were used for preflaring the cervical and middle portions of root canals from group 4. Each canal was sized using manual K-files, starting with size 08 files with passive movements until the WL was reached. File sizes were increased until a binding sensation was felt at the WL, and the instrument size was recorded for each tooth. The apical region was then observed under a stereoscopic magnifier, images were recorded digitally and the differences between root canal and maximum file diameters were evaluated for each sample. Significant differences were found between experimental groups regarding anatomical diameter at the WL and the first file to bind in the canal (P Flare instruments were ranked in an intermediary position, with no statistically significant differences between them (0.093 mm average). The instrument binding technique for determining anatomical diameter at WL is not precise. Preflaring of the cervical and middle thirds of the root canal improved anatomical diameter determination; the instrument used for preflaring played a major role in determining the

  14. Light and decapitation effects on in vitro rooting in maize root segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golaz, F W; Pilet, P E

    1985-10-01

    The effects of white light and decapitation on the initiation and subsequent emergence and elongation of lateral roots of apical maize (Zea mays L. cv LG 11) root segments have been examined. The formation of lateral root primordium was inhibited by the white light. This inhibition did not depend upon the presence of the primary root tip. However, root decapitation induced a shift of the site of appearance of the most apical primordium towards the root apex, and a strong disturbance of the distribution pattern of primordium volumes along the root axis. White light had a significant effect neither on the distribution pattern of primordium volumes, nor on the period of primordium development (time interval required for the smallest detectable primordia to grow out as secondary roots). Thus, considering the rooting initiation and emergence, the light effect was restricted to the initiation phase only. Moreover, white light reduced lateral root elongation as well as primary root growth.

  15. Assessment of apical periodontitis by MRI. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geibel, M.A. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Schreiber, E.S.; Bracher, A.K.; Rasche, V. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Internal Medicine II; Hell, E.; Ulrici, J. [Sirona Dental Systems GmbH, Bensheim (Germany). Dental Imaging; Sailer, L.K. [DOC Praxisklinik im Wiley, Neu-Ulm (Germany). MKG; Ozpeynirci, Y. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this clinical feasibility study was to evaluate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of apical periodontitis in direct comparison with cone beam CT (CBCT). 19 consecutive patients (average age 43 ± 13 years) with 34 lesions in total (13 molars, 14 premolars and 7 front teeth) were enrolled in this feasibility study. Periapical lesions were defined as periapical radiolucencies (CBCT) or structural changes in the spongy bone signal (MRI), which were connected with the apical part of a root and with at least twice the width of the periodontal ligament space. The location and dimension of the lesions were compared between MRI and CBCT. While mainly mineralized tissue components such as teeth and bone were visible with CBCT, complimentary information of the soft tissue components was assessable with MRI. The MRI images provided sufficient diagnostic detail for the assessment of the main structures of interest. Heterogeneous contrast was observed within the lesion, with often a clear enhancement close to the apical foramen and the periodontal gap. No difference for lesion visibility was observed between MRI and CBCT. The lesion dimensions corresponded well, but were slightly but significantly overestimated with MRI. A heterogeneous lesion appearance was observed in several patients. Four patients presented with a well circumscribed hyperintense signal in the vicinity of the apical foramen. The MRI capability of soft tissue characterization may facilitate detailed analysis of periapical lesions. This clinical study confirms the applicability of multi-contrast MRI for the identification of periapical lesions.

  16. Assessment of apical periodontitis by MRI. A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geibel, M.A.; Schreiber, E.S.; Bracher, A.K.; Rasche, V.; Hell, E.; Ulrici, J.; Sailer, L.K.; Ozpeynirci, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical feasibility study was to evaluate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of apical periodontitis in direct comparison with cone beam CT (CBCT). 19 consecutive patients (average age 43 ± 13 years) with 34 lesions in total (13 molars, 14 premolars and 7 front teeth) were enrolled in this feasibility study. Periapical lesions were defined as periapical radiolucencies (CBCT) or structural changes in the spongy bone signal (MRI), which were connected with the apical part of a root and with at least twice the width of the periodontal ligament space. The location and dimension of the lesions were compared between MRI and CBCT. While mainly mineralized tissue components such as teeth and bone were visible with CBCT, complimentary information of the soft tissue components was assessable with MRI. The MRI images provided sufficient diagnostic detail for the assessment of the main structures of interest. Heterogeneous contrast was observed within the lesion, with often a clear enhancement close to the apical foramen and the periodontal gap. No difference for lesion visibility was observed between MRI and CBCT. The lesion dimensions corresponded well, but were slightly but significantly overestimated with MRI. A heterogeneous lesion appearance was observed in several patients. Four patients presented with a well circumscribed hyperintense signal in the vicinity of the apical foramen. The MRI capability of soft tissue characterization may facilitate detailed analysis of periapical lesions. This clinical study confirms the applicability of multi-contrast MRI for the identification of periapical lesions.

  17. Orthograde retreatment failure with extruded MTA apical plug in a large periradicular lesion followed by surgical intervention: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Junior, Manoel; Faria-e-Silva, Andre Luis; Quintino, Alex Carvalho; Moreira-Junior, Gil; Geber, Mauro; Camilo, Carla Cristina; Soares, Janir Alves

    2012-01-01

    Absence of periapical healing after orthograde retreatment using an apical plug with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) can require surgical intervention. A patient with a root-filled maxillary central incisor with chronic apical periodontitis and sinus tract was referred for endodontic retreatment. Excessive apical enlargement was verified, indicating an MTA apical plug placement; however, an unintentional extrusion of MTA occurred during this step. The root canal was filled with gutta-percha and sealer, and periodic recalls were scheduled. The sinus tract was observed after six months and the lesion remained unaltered, although the extruded MTA had resorbed; therefore, an apicoectomy and retrograde root-end filling with MTA were performed. Absence of sinus tract, normal clinical aspect, and complete repair of the lesion were observed at the two-year follow-up.

  18. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  19. The Effect of Canal Contamination with Saliva on Apical Sealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sabaghi

    2014-08-01

    Methods: In this laboratory study, 58 human uni-root teeth were cleaned and shaped for obturation with gutta percha and sealer AH26. In the case group, specimens were contaminated with human saliva immediately before obturation, whereas the teeth in the control group were kept dry. All canals were filled by lateral condensation technique. Moreover, the teeth were placed in methylene blue dye for 3 days. Dye penetration was measured using a stereomicrosope. As a matter of fact, the study data were analyzed via utilizing t-test. Results: A significant difference was found between the two groups in regard with the apical leakage(P<0.001. The microleakage mean of dye in the dry group was 3/48mm, whereas it was 6/36mm in the saliva contaminated group. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that complete drying of canal can improve apical sealing.

  20. Immediate Implant Placement in Sockets with Asymptomatic Apical Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Roberto; Capparé, Paolo; Crespi, Giovanni; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Gherlone, Enrico

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if the presence of granulation tissue in asymptomatic apical periodontitis compromised immediate implant placement. Patients requiring extraction of one tooth (maxillary and mandibular incisive, canine or premolar) with asymptomatic apical periodontitis, were recruited for this prospective study. They were randomly scheduled into two groups: in first group (A) including 30 teeth, reactive soft tissue was debrided before implant placement, and in second group (B) including 30 teeth, reactive soft tissue was left in the apical lesion. Implants were positioned immediately after tooth extraction, and were loaded after 3 months in both groups. Cone beam computed tomography was performed before tooth extraction and at 1-year follow-up to evaluate the radiolucency around the root apex and the implant, bucco-lingual bone levels were also checked. Sixty patients were included in this study. Sixty implants were placed immediately after tooth extraction and, at 1-year follow-up, a survival rate of 100% was reported. After one year both groups showed absence of radiolucent zone at the apical region of implants. All fresh sockets presented a buccal-palatal bone reduction in both groups after one year, even if not statistically significant differences were found between baseline bone levels and within groups. Within the limitations of the present study, the immediate placement of implants into the extraction sockets with asymptomatic apical periodontitis, in presence of primary stability, did not lead to an increased rate of complications and rendered an equally favorable type of tissue integration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. USAGE OF PASTE FOR TEMPORARY PLACEMENT IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC APICAL PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Borysenko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The aim of the present investigation was usage of medicamental paste with antibacterial and regeneration action for temporary placement in the treatment of chronic apical periodontitis. Materials and method: The medicamental paste for temporary placement of root canals consists of a mixture of metronidazole, Enterosgel (Silm and Alflutop (Biotehnos S.A., Romania. Thë paste was used for the treatment of 30 teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Final obturation of the root canals was performed with gutta percha cones and sealer. The efficiency of the treatment was appreciated after examination on the basis of clinical and radiographic findings. Results: During the treatment of the 30 teeth, no exacerbations of the pathological process were recorded. Pain after obturation of the root canals was revealed in only 6 (20% of the treated teeth. No pain, pathologic changes of gingiva, good mastication efficiency in all teeth after treatment were revealed. Conclusions: The high clinical efficiency of the medicamental paste with antibacterial and regeneration action at the level of temporary root canals placement in the treatment of chronic apical periodontitis was shown. Keywords: chronic apical periodontitis, medicamental paste for temporary root canals placement, metronidazole, Enterosgel (Silm and Alflutop (Biotehnos S.A., Romania

  2. A comparison of apical transportation between FlexMaster and Twisted Files rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran-Sindreu, Fernando; García, Marc; Olivieri, Juan Gonzalo; Mercadé, Montse; Morelló, Sergio; Roig, Miguel

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate apical transportation in root canals after the use of Twisted Files (TF; SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and FlexMaster (VDW, Munich, Germany) #40/04 rotary files. A double-digital radiographic technique was used to compare apical transportation between the TF and FlexMaster systems. Each rotary system was used to instrument mesial canals from 80 extracted mandibular molars. The central axes of the file imaged before instrumentation (#15 K-file) and the master apical rotary file (#40/04) were superimposed digitally. AutoCAD 2008 (Autodesk Inc, San Rafael, CA) was used to measure apical transportation at 0.5 mm from the working length (WL). The data were analyzed using the Student's t test, and significance was set at P < .05. The mean amount of apical transportation at 0.5 mm from the WL was 0.17 ± 0.09 mm for the FlexMaster group and 0.19 ± 0.12 mm for the TF group. No statistically significant differences in apical transportation were found between the 2 groups. Under the conditions of the study, no statistically significant differences in apical transportation were observed between FlexMaster and TF rotary files. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Utilizing the GentleWave® System for Debridement of Undetected Apical Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael W

    2018-03-01

    Debriding and disinfecting complex anatomies within the root canal system pose a major challenge during root canal therapy. Even with current chemomechanical techniques, debris and bacterial remnants are commonly left behind, which are generally believed to increase the risk of endodontic failure. This case details the use of a new technique to debride complex apical anatomy in a maxillary molar. A 48-year-old female presented to the clinic with a chief complaint of increasing pain in her tooth. Clinical examination of the right first maxillary molar (#3) revealed moderate sensitivity to percussion and mild sensitivity to palpation. A pulpal diagnosis of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis and a periapi-cal diagnosis of symptomatic apical periodontitis were made. Mechanical instrumentation was performed using rotary file size #25/.04 for the mesiobuccal and distobuccal canals and size #25/.06 for the palatal canal to create a fluid path and enable obturation of the root canal system following the GentleWave® Procedure. The GentleWave Procedure was completed using Multisonic Ultracleaning™ for complete debridement and disinfection of the root canal system. The tooth was obturated using a warm vertical continuous wave obturation technique. Postoperative radiographs revealed complex anatomy within the apical third that was undetected both during pre-operative radiography and mechanical instrumentation. The palatal canal exhibited a complex apical delta with multiple points of exit, and the mesiobuccal canal revealed an undetected lateral canal within the apical third that had a separate and distinct egress. Conclusion and clinical significance: It is important for the clinician to debride and disinfect complex anatomy within the root canal system to reduce the risk of endodontic failure. This case report highlights the clinical significance of utilizing the GentleWave Procedure for detecting complex apical anatomy during endodontic therapy.

  4. Frequency and levels of candidate endodontic pathogens in acute apical abscesses as compared to asymptomatic apical periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Acute apical abscess is caused by bacteria that leave the infected dental root canal to invade the periodontal tissues. Most species occurring in abscesses are also found in asymptomatic infections; therefore, the possibility exists that not only the presence of certain species but also their specific counts influence the appearance of symptoms. This molecular study compared the frequency and levels of several candidate endodontic pathogens in teeth with acute apical abscesses and asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Methods Samples were taken from the root canals of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis (n = 73) and by aspiration of purulent exudate from acute abscesses (n = 55). DNA was extracted from samples and bacterial identifications were performed by a closed-ended semi-quantitative reverse-capture checkerboard approach targeting 40 bacterial species/phylotypes. Results Bacterial DNA was detected in all cases. In abscesses, the most prevalent taxa were Fusobacterium nucleatum (60%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (53%), Parvimonas micra (51%), and Streptococcus species (45%). The most frequently detected taxa in asymptomatic teeth were P. endodontalis (63%), Dialister invisus (58%), Olsenella uli (56%), and F. nucleatum (51%). None of the targeted taxa were significantly associated with abscesses when only mere presence was evaluated (p>0.05). However, semi-quantitative data demonstrated that P. endodontalis, Prevotella baroniae, Treponema denticola and Streptococcus species were significantly more frequent at levels >105 in abscesses than in asymptomatic cases (pabscesses in terms of frequency. However, some taxa were significantly found in higher levels in abscesses. Presence of a potentially virulent pathogen in high counts may increase the collective pathogenicity of the bacterial community and give rise to symptoms. PMID:29293651

  5. Frequency and levels of candidate endodontic pathogens in acute apical abscesses as compared to asymptomatic apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2018-01-01

    Acute apical abscess is caused by bacteria that leave the infected dental root canal to invade the periodontal tissues. Most species occurring in abscesses are also found in asymptomatic infections; therefore, the possibility exists that not only the presence of certain species but also their specific counts influence the appearance of symptoms. This molecular study compared the frequency and levels of several candidate endodontic pathogens in teeth with acute apical abscesses and asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Samples were taken from the root canals of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis (n = 73) and by aspiration of purulent exudate from acute abscesses (n = 55). DNA was extracted from samples and bacterial identifications were performed by a closed-ended semi-quantitative reverse-capture checkerboard approach targeting 40 bacterial species/phylotypes. Bacterial DNA was detected in all cases. In abscesses, the most prevalent taxa were Fusobacterium nucleatum (60%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (53%), Parvimonas micra (51%), and Streptococcus species (45%). The most frequently detected taxa in asymptomatic teeth were P. endodontalis (63%), Dialister invisus (58%), Olsenella uli (56%), and F. nucleatum (51%). None of the targeted taxa were significantly associated with abscesses when only mere presence was evaluated (p>0.05). However, semi-quantitative data demonstrated that P. endodontalis, Prevotella baroniae, Treponema denticola and Streptococcus species were significantly more frequent at levels >105 in abscesses than in asymptomatic cases (p<0.05). None of the target species/phylotypes were associated with abscesses in terms of frequency. However, some taxa were significantly found in higher levels in abscesses. Presence of a potentially virulent pathogen in high counts may increase the collective pathogenicity of the bacterial community and give rise to symptoms.

  6. Revitalization of open apex teeth with apical periodontitis using a collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Alan J; Cymerman, Jerome J

    2015-06-01

    An enhanced revision of the revitalization endodontic technique for immature teeth with apical periodontitis has been described. It includes the addition of collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold to the currently practiced revascularization technique. Four cases treated in series are presented in this report, 1 case involving 2 teeth. Periapical diagnoses of immature teeth included "asymptomatic apical periodontitis," "symptomatic apical periodontitis," and "acute apical abscess." Additionally, 1 fully developed tooth that had undergone root canal treatment that failed had a periapical diagnosis of acute apical abscess. An established revascularization protocol was used for all teeth. In addition to stimulating blood clots, all teeth were filled with collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Periapical radiolucencies healed in all teeth, and diffuse radiopacity developed within the coronal portions of canal spaces. Root development with root lengthening occurred in the immature nonvital maxillary premolar that had not undergone prior treatment. The technique of adding a collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold to the existing revitalization protocol has been described in which substantial hard tissue repair has occurred. This may leave teeth more fully developed and less likely to fracture. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Instrumentation Length and Instrumentation Systems: Hand Versus Rotary Files on Apical Crack Formation - An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devale, Madhuri R; Mahesh, M C; Bhandary, Shreetha

    2017-01-01

    Stresses generated during root canal instrumentation have been reported to cause apical cracks. The smaller, less pronounced defects like cracks can later propagate into vertical root fracture, when the tooth is subjected to repeated stresses from endodontic or restorative procedures. This study evaluated occurrence of apical cracks with stainless steel hand files, rotary NiTi RaCe and K3 files at two different instrumentation lengths. In the present in vitro study, 60 mandibular premolars were mounted in resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligament. Apical 3 mm of the root surfaces were exposed and stained using India ink. Preoperative images of root apices were obtained at 100x using stereomicroscope. The teeth were divided into six groups of 10 each. First two groups were instrumented with stainless steel files, next two groups with rotary NiTi RaCe files and the last two groups with rotary NiTi K3 files. The instrumentation was carried out till the apical foramen (Working Length-WL) and 1 mm short of the apical foramen (WL-1) with each file system. After root canal instrumentation, postoperative images of root apices were obtained. Preoperative and postoperative images were compared and the occurrence of cracks was recorded. Descriptive statistical analysis and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the results. Apical root cracks were seen in 30%, 35% and 20% of teeth instrumented with K-files, RaCe files and K3 files respectively. There was no statistical significance among three instrumentation systems in the formation of apical cracks (p=0.563). Apical cracks were seen in 40% and 20% of teeth instrumented with K-files; 60% and 10% of teeth with RaCe files and 40% and 0% of teeth with K3 files at WL and WL-1 respectively. For groups instrumented with hand files there was no statistical significance in number of cracks at WL and WL-1 (p=0.628). But for teeth instrumented with RaCe files and K3 files significantly more number of cracks were seen at WL than

  8. Effect of Instrumentation Length and Instrumentation Systems: Hand Versus Rotary Files on Apical Crack Formation – An In vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, MC; Bhandary, Shreetha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Stresses generated during root canal instrumentation have been reported to cause apical cracks. The smaller, less pronounced defects like cracks can later propagate into vertical root fracture, when the tooth is subjected to repeated stresses from endodontic or restorative procedures. Aim This study evaluated occurrence of apical cracks with stainless steel hand files, rotary NiTi RaCe and K3 files at two different instrumentation lengths. Materials and Methods In the present in vitro study, 60 mandibular premolars were mounted in resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligament. Apical 3 mm of the root surfaces were exposed and stained using India ink. Preoperative images of root apices were obtained at 100x using stereomicroscope. The teeth were divided into six groups of 10 each. First two groups were instrumented with stainless steel files, next two groups with rotary NiTi RaCe files and the last two groups with rotary NiTi K3 files. The instrumentation was carried out till the apical foramen (Working Length-WL) and 1 mm short of the apical foramen (WL-1) with each file system. After root canal instrumentation, postoperative images of root apices were obtained. Preoperative and postoperative images were compared and the occurrence of cracks was recorded. Descriptive statistical analysis and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the results. Results Apical root cracks were seen in 30%, 35% and 20% of teeth instrumented with K-files, RaCe files and K3 files respectively. There was no statistical significance among three instrumentation systems in the formation of apical cracks (p=0.563). Apical cracks were seen in 40% and 20% of teeth instrumented with K-files; 60% and 10% of teeth with RaCe files and 40% and 0% of teeth with K3 files at WL and WL-1 respectively. For groups instrumented with hand files there was no statistical significance in number of cracks at WL and WL-1 (p=0.628). But for teeth instrumented with RaCe files and K3 files

  9. Calcium hydroxide as intracanal dressing for teeth with apical periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Dewiyani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Root canal infection and periapical diseases are caused by bacteria and their products. Long term infection may spread bacteria throughout the root canal system. Apical periodontitis caused by infectious microbe that persistent in root canals can cause radiographic and histopathology periapical changes. Chemomechanical preparation and intracanal dressing then are recommended to be conducted and used in between visits to eliminate microbes in root canals. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 can be used as intracanal dressing since it can be used as musical physical defense barrier to eliminate re-infection in root canal and to disturb nutrition supply for bacterial development. Purpose: The aim of this study is observe the effectiveness of Ca(OH2 in treating endodontic teeth with apical periodontitis. Cases: Case 1 and 3 are about patients whose left posterior mandibular teeth had spontaneous intermittent pain. Case 2 is about a patient whose left posterior maxillary teeth had gingival abscess and fracture history. Based on the radiographic examination, it was known that the filling of root canal was incomplete and there was radiolucency in the apical area. Case management: The cases were treated with triad endodontics, which involves preparation, disinfection by using 2.5% NaOCl as irrigation substance and calcium hydroxide as intracanal dressing, and then the filling of root canal with gutta percha and endomethasone root canal cement. Evaluations were conducted one month, 12 months, and 24 months after the treatment. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxide is effective to be used as intracanal dressing in apical periodontitis cases.Latar belakang: Infeksi saluran akar dan penyakit periapeks disebabkan oleh mikroba dan produknya. Infeksi yang berlangsung lama memungkinkan bakteri masuk ke dalam seluruh sistem saluran akar. Periodontitis apikal disebabkan oleh infeksi persisten mikroba di dalam sistem saluran akar disertai perubahan radiografik dan

  10. Comparison of apical debris extrusion using a conventional and two rotary techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adl, Alireza; Sahebi, Safoora; Moazami, Fariborz; Niknam, Mahnaz

    2009-01-01

    Preparation techniques and instruments produce and push debris out of canals. This can induce inflammation within the periapical area. Therefore, instrumentation that causes less extrusion of debris is more desirable. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the quantity of debris extruded from the apical foramen during root canal preparation by using one hand, and two rotary instrumentation techniques. Three different groups each with 12 mesiobuccal roots of human maxillary first molar were instrumented using either step-back technique with hand instruments, FlexMaster or Mtwo rotary system. Debris extruded from the apical foramen during canal preparation was collected. The mean dry weights of debris were compared using one-way ANOVA. Step-back group had a significantly greater mean weight of debris compared to the other two groups (Pengine driven techniques were associated with less apical debris extrusion. [Iranian Endodontic Journal 2009;4(4):135-8].

  11. A reappraisal of the role of abscisic acid and its interaction with auxin in apical dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Morris G; Oh, Choonseok

    2006-10-01

    Evidence from pea rms1, Arabidopsis max4 and petunia dad1 mutant studies suggest an unidentified carotenoid-derived/plastid-produced branching inhibitor which moves acropetally from the roots to the shoots and interacts with auxin in the control of apical dominance. Since the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), known to inhibit some growth processes, is also carotenoid derived/plastid produced, and because there has been indirect evidence for its involvement with branching, a re-examination of the role of ABA in apical dominance is timely. Even though it has been determined that ABA probably is not the second messenger for auxin in apical dominance and is not the above-mentioned unidentified branching inhibitor, the similarity of their derivation suggests possible relationships and/or interactions. The classic Thimann-Skoog auxin replacement test for apical dominance with auxin [0.5 % naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)] applied both apically and basally was combined in similar treatments with 1 % ABA in Ipomoea nil (Japanese Morning Glory), Solanum lycopersicum (Better Boy tomato) and Helianthus annuus (Mammoth Grey-striped Sunflower). Auxin, apically applied to the cut stem surface of decapitated shoots, strongly restored apical dominance in all three species, whereas the similar treatment with ABA did not. However, when ABA was applied basally, i.e. below the lateral bud of interest, there was a significant moderate repression of its outgrowth in Ipomoea and Solanum. There was also some additive repression when apical auxin and basal ABA treatments were combined in Ipomoea. The finding that basally applied ABA is able partially to restore apical dominance via acropetal transport up the shoot suggests possible interactions between ABA, auxin and the unidentified carotenoid-derived branching inhibitor that justify further investigation.

  12. Tolerance of brightness and contrast adjustments on chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamasari, L.; Iskandar, H. H. B.; Makes, B. N.

    2017-08-01

    In digitized radiography techniques, adjusting the image enhancement can improve the subjective image quality by optimizing the brightness and contrast for diagnostic needs. To determine the value range of image enhancement (brightness and contrast) on chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma interpretation. 30 periapical radiographs that diagnosed chronic apical abscess and 30 that diagnosed apical granuloma were adjusted by changing brightness and contrast values. The value range of brightness and contrast adjustment that can be tolerated in radiographic interpretations of chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma spans from -10 to +10. Brightness and contrast adjustments on digital radiographs do not affect the radiographic interpretation of chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma if conducted within the value range.

  13. The Effect of Calcium Hydroxide As an Intracanal Medication of The Apical Microleakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat Mohajer AR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Nowadays, calcium hydroxide is used as a dressing for canal sterilization and repair progression of apical lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament on the apical microleakage of root filling.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 46 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with step-back technique to master apical file (MAF size 35. Specimens were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 20. In group 1, the specimens were treated with calcium hydroxide intracanal medication; and in group 2, the samples did not receive any medication. The teeth were incubated in 100% humidity at 37°C for one week. After that, calcium hydroxide was removed using irrigation with normal saline and reaming with MAF. The root canals were obturated with gutta- percha and AH26 sealer using lateral compaction technique. Specimens were incubated in 100% humility at 37°C for 72 hours and then immersed in India ink for 1 week. Finally, the teeth were cleared and the maximum linear dye penetration was measured under a stereomicroscope at 4X magnification. The data were analyzed by T-test and Chi-square.Results: There was no significant difference between the two experimental groups (P=0.068. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that using calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament did not influence the apical microleakage after final obturation of the root canal system.

  14. Single Versus Multi‑visit Endodontic Treatment of Teeth with Apical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Apical periodontitis (AP) is one of the most prevalent diseases of the teeth. Treatment of AP is based on the removal of the cause, i.e., bacteria from the root canals. Achievement of adequate bacterial eradication in one appointment treatment remains a controversy. Aim: This prospective study was conducted ...

  15. Conservative treatment of immature teeth with apical periodontitis using triple antibiotic paste disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Yea-Huey Melody; Chen, Kuan-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present conservative treatment for two immature premolars with apical periodontitis. A triple antibiotic paste was used to disinfect the root canal systems for revascularization. In both cases, residual vital pulp tissue was noted in the root canal system after the opening of each premolar. The canals in both cases were irrigated with copious sodium hypochlorite solution and medicated with a paste consisting of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline. Th...

  16. Apically-extruded debris using the ProTaper system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Nasim Gheshlaghi; Ebrahimi, Gholamreza

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the quantity of debris and irrigant extruded apically using the ProTaper system compared to ProFiles and K-Flexofiles. Thirty-six mesio-buccal root canals of human mandibular molars were selected and divided into three groups of twelve canals. Two groups were instrumented with ProFiles and ProTapers according to the manufacturer's instructions. The other group was instrumented with K-Flexofiles using the step-back technique. A standard amount of irrigant was used for each canal. Apically-extruded debris and irrigant was collected in pre-weighed vials. The mean weight of extruded debris and irrigant for each group was statistically analysed using Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA. All instrumentation techniques produced extruded debris and irrigant. Although the mean amount of extrusion with the step-back technique was higher than the two rotary systems, there was no significant difference between the three groups (p > 0.05). NiTi rotary systems were associated with less apical extrusion, but were not significantly better than hand file instrumentation. All techniques extruded debris.

  17. An Innovative Regenerative Endodontic Procedure Using Leukocyte and Platelet-rich Fibrin Associated with Apical Surgery: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Nelson; Harnish, Alexandra; Cabrera, Carolina; Andrade, Catherine; Druttman, Tony; Brizuela, Claudia

    2017-11-01

    Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) associated with apical surgery could represent an alternative treatment strategy for patients whose teeth present incomplete root formation and extensive apical lesions. Leukocyte platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) has potential benefits in REPs; it could promote apical root formation and optimal bone healing. The aim of this case report was to describe innovative regenerative endodontic therapy using L-PRF in the root canal and an extensive apical lesion in an immature tooth with dens invaginatus and asymptomatic apical periodontitis. A healthy 20-year-old woman was referred to the dental clinic of the Universidad de Los Andes, Santiago, Chile, for endodontic treatment in tooth # 22 with incomplete root development and an extensive apical lesion. The diagnosis was asymptomatic apical periodontitis associated with dens invaginatus type II. The patient was treated with an innovative approach using L-PRF in REPs associated with apical surgery. Follow-ups were performed at 6 months and 1 year later. They included periapical radiographs, cone-beam computed tomographic imaging, sensitivity, and vitality tests. The clinical evaluations performed at 6 months and 1 year revealed an absence of symptoms. The radiographic evaluations showed that the apical lesion was resolved. The cone-beam images indicated that the root length increased and the walls had thickened. The sensitivity tests were positive, and the laser Doppler flowmetry showed positive blood flow after 1 year. The success of the results in this case report indicate that L-PRF can be used as a complement in apical surgery and REPs and could provide an innovative alternative treatment strategy for complex clinical cases like these. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Comparison of Apical Transportation in Severely Curved Canals Induced by Reciproc and BioRaCe Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Mohammadreza; Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Khojastepour, Leila; Amirhosseini, Mohsen; Kiani, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Preserving the apical root structure during cleaning and shaping of the canal has always been a challenge in endodontics particularly when the root canals are curved. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the apical transportation induced by the Reciproc and BioRaCe rotary systems in preparing the mesiobuccal root canal of the human maxillary molars. The mesiobuccal canals of sixty extracted maxillary molars with curvature angle of 25˚-35˚ were selected and randomly assigned into two groups. Each canal was prepared by either Reciproc or BioRaCe rotary systems. A double-digital radiographic technique and AutoCAD software were used to compare the apical transportation at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm distances from the working length (WL). The distance between the master apical rotary file and the initial K-file in the superimposed radiographs determined the amount of apical transportation. An independent t-test was used to compare the groups. The statistical significant level was set at 0.05. Apical transportation of the Reciproc group was significantly greater than the BioRaCe group in all distances (P<0.001). The maximum apical transportation occurred in the Reciproc group at 0.5 mm from the WL (0.048±0.0028 mm) and the minimum occurred for BioRaCe at 5 mm from the WL (0.010±0.0005 mm). The Reciproc system produced significantly more apical transportation than the BioRaCe, but this fact does not seem to negatively alter the clinical success or quality of root canal treatment.

  19. Non-surgical retreatment of a failed apicoectomy without retrofilling using white mineral trioxide aggregate as an apical barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefopoulos, Spyridon; Tzanetakis, Giorgos N; Kontakiotis, Evangelos G

    2012-01-01

    Root-end resected teeth with persistent apical periodontitis are usually retreated surgically or a combination of non-surgical and surgical retreatment is employed. However, patients are sometimes unwilling to be subjected to a second surgical procedure. The apical barrier technique that is used for apical closure of immature teeth with necrotic pulps may be an alternative to non-surgically retreat a failed apicoectomy. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has become the material of choice in such cases because of its excellent biocompatibility, sealing ability and osseoinductive properties. This case report describes the non-surgical retreatment of a failed apicoectomy with no attempt at retrofilling of a maxillary central incisor. White MTA was used to induce apical closure of the wide resected apical area. Four-year follow-up examination revealed an asymptomatic, fully functional tooth with a satisfactory healing of the apical lesion. White MTA apical barrier may constitute a reliable and efficient technique to non-surgically retreat teeth with failed root-end resection. The predictability of such a treatment is of great benefit for the patient who is unwilling to be submitted to a second surgical procedure.

  20. Root tips moving through soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    Root elongation occurs by the generation of new cells from meristematic tissue within the apical 1–2 mm region of root tips. Therefore penetration of the soil environment is carried out by newly synthesized plant tissue, whose cells are inherently vulnerable to invasion by pathogens. This conundrum, on its face, would seem to reflect an intolerable risk to the successful establishment of root systems needed for plant life. Yet root tip regions housing the meristematic tissues repeatedly have been found to be free of microbial infection and colonization. Even when spore germination, chemotaxis, and/or growth of pathogens are stimulated by signals from the root tip, the underlying root tissue can escape invasion. Recent insights into the functions of root border cells, and the regulation of their production by transient exposure to external signals, may shed light on long-standing observations. PMID:21455030

  1. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for the treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis: a histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Novaes, Arthur B; de Oliveira, Rafael R; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Santamaria, Milton; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo response of apical and periapical tissues of dogs' teeth with apical periodontitis after one-session endodontic treatment with and without antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). Sixty root canals with experimentally induced apical periodontitis were instrumented and assigned to 4 groups receiving aPDT and root canal filling (RCF) or not: group aPDT+/RCF+ (n = 20): aPDT (photosensitizer phenothiazine chloride at 10 mg/mL for 3 minutes and diode laser [λ = 660 nm, 60 mW/cm(2)] for 1 minute) and RCF in the same session; group aPDT+/RCF- (n = 10); group aPDT-/RCF+ (n = 20), and group aPDT-/RCF- (n = 10). Teeth were restored, and the animals were killed after 90 days. Sections from the maxillas and mandibles were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Mallory trichrome and examined under light microscopy. Descriptive (ie, newly formed apical mineralized tissue, periapical inflammatory infiltrate, apical periodontal ligament thickness, and mineralized tissue resorption) and quantitative (ie, periapical lesion size and number of inflammatory cells) microscopic analysis was performed. Quantitative data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (α = .05). In the aPDT-treated groups, the periapical region was moderately/severely enlarged with no inflammatory cells, moderate neoangiogenesis and fibrogenesis, and the smallest periapical lesions. Although apical closure by mineralized tissue deposition was not achieved, the absence of inflammatory cells, moderate neoangiogenesis, and fibrogenesis in the periapical region in the groups treated with aPDT indicate that this can be a promising adjunct therapy to cleaning and shaping procedures in teeth with apical periodontitis undergoing one-session endodontic treatment. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Five-year longitudinal assessment of the prognosis of apical microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Hänni, Stefan; Friedman, Shimon

    2012-05-01

    Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis. Knowledge of the long-term prognosis is necessary when weighing apical surgery against alternative treatments. This study assessed the 5-year outcome of apical surgery and its predictors in a cohort for which the 1-year outcome was previously reported. Apical microsurgery procedures were uniformly performed using SuperEBA (Staident International, Staines, UK) or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (ProRoot MTA; Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) root-end fillings or alternatively Retroplast capping (Retroplast Trading, Rorvig, Denmark). Subjects examined at 1 year (n = 191) were invited for the 5-year clinical and radiographic examination. Based on blinded, independent assessment by 3 calibrated examiners, the dichotomous outcome (healed or nonhealed) was determined and associated with patient-, tooth-, and treatment-related variables using logistic regression. At the 5-year follow-up, 9 of 191 teeth were unavailable, 12 of 191 teeth were extracted, and 170 of 191 teeth were examined (87.6% recall rate). A total of 129 of 170 teeth were healed (75.9%) compared with 83.8% at 1 year, and 85.3% were asymptomatic. Two significant outcome predictors were identified: the mesial-distal bone level at ≤ 3 mm versus >3 mm from the cementoenamel junction (78.2% vs 52.9% healed, respectively; odds ratio = 5.10; confidence interval, 1.67-16.21; P apical microsurgery was 8% poorer than assessed at 1 year. It also suggested that the prognosis was significantly impacted by the interproximal bone levels at the treated tooth and by the type of root-end filling material used. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  3. Pulp Revascularization on Permanent Teeth with Open Apices in a Middle-aged Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Zhu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Chengfei

    2015-09-01

    Pulp revascularization is a promising procedure for the treatment of adolescents' immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulp and/or apical periodontitis. However, the ability to successfully perform pulp revascularization in a middle-aged patient remains unclear. A 39-year-old woman was referred for treatment of teeth #20 and #29 with necrotic pulp, extensive periapical radiolucencies, and incomplete apices. Pulp revascularization procedures were attempted, including root canal debridement, triple antibiotic paste medication, and platelet-rich plasma transplantation to act as a scaffold. Periapical radiographic and cone-beam computed tomographic examinations were used to review the changes in the apical lesions and root apex configuration. The patient remained asymptomatic throughout the 30-month follow-up. Periapical radiographic examination revealed no change in the apical lesions of either tooth at 8 months. The periapical radiolucency disappeared on tooth #20 and significantly decreased on tooth #29 by the 30-month follow-up, findings that were also confirmed by cone-beam computed tomographic imaging. No evidence of root lengthening or thickening was observed. Successful revascularization was achieved in a middle-aged patient's teeth. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Absorbable Suture as an Apical Matrix in Single Visit Apexification with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayush Goyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several procedures have been recommended to induce the root end barrier formation in teeth with open apices. Conventional treatment for such cases will require many appointments with an average duration of 12.9 months. During this period, the root canal is susceptible to reinfection from around the provisional restoration, which may promote apical periodontitis and arrest of apical repair. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA has been successfully used for one visit apexification wherein the root canal can be obturated within 24 hours after placement of MTA. Using a matrix prior to the placement of MTA avoids its extrusion, reduces leakage in the sealing material, and allows favorable response of the periapical tissues. This report presents a case of apexification where an absorbable suture was used as an apical matrix. Use of an absorbable suture circumvents all the problems associated with other conventional materials. Conclusion. Placement of the matrix made from the suture material is predictable and is easily positioned at the apex and the length can be adjusted as required. 10-month follow-up of the case shows resorbed matrix and bone healing in the periapical region. The patient was asymptomatic during the whole follow-up period and tooth exhibited mobility within physiologic limits and was functioning normally.

  5. Absorbable Suture as an Apical Matrix in Single Visit Apexification with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ayush; Nikhil, Vineeta; Jha, Padmanabh

    2016-01-01

    Several procedures have been recommended to induce the root end barrier formation in teeth with open apices. Conventional treatment for such cases will require many appointments with an average duration of 12.9 months. During this period, the root canal is susceptible to reinfection from around the provisional restoration, which may promote apical periodontitis and arrest of apical repair. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been successfully used for one visit apexification wherein the root canal can be obturated within 24 hours after placement of MTA. Using a matrix prior to the placement of MTA avoids its extrusion, reduces leakage in the sealing material, and allows favorable response of the periapical tissues. This report presents a case of apexification where an absorbable suture was used as an apical matrix. Use of an absorbable suture circumvents all the problems associated with other conventional materials. Conclusion . Placement of the matrix made from the suture material is predictable and is easily positioned at the apex and the length can be adjusted as required. 10-month follow-up of the case shows resorbed matrix and bone healing in the periapical region. The patient was asymptomatic during the whole follow-up period and tooth exhibited mobility within physiologic limits and was functioning normally.

  6. Conservative treatment of immature teeth with apical periodontitis using triple antibiotic paste disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ju Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this report is to present conservative treatment for two immature premolars with apical periodontitis. A triple antibiotic paste was used to disinfect the root canal systems for revascularization. In both cases, residual vital pulp tissue was noted in the root canal system after the opening of each premolar. The canals in both cases were irrigated with copious sodium hypochlorite solution and medicated with a paste consisting of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline. The teeth were sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate and restored with composite resin. There were satisfactory outcomes after 18 months. The patients were asymptomatic, with radiographic evidence of complete resolution of radiolucency, continual thickening of dentinal walls, apical closure, and increased root length.

  7. Single visit root canal treatment: A prospective study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... periodontitis were included in the study. ... Conclusion: Single visit RCT is a viable treatment option for teeth having irreversible pulpitis or apical periodontitis ... been previously root treated, required surgical endodontic.

  8. Guided Endodontics: a novel treatment approach for teeth with pulp canal calcification and apical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastl, Gabriel; Zehnder, Marc S; Connert, Thomas; Weiger, Roland; Kühl, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    To present a new treatment approach for teeth with pulp canal calcification (PCC) which require root canal treatment. A 15-year-old male patient presented with pain of his upper right central incisor. The tooth showed signs of apical periodontitis. Due to PCC, location of the root canal was judged to be difficult and associated with a high risk of perforation. A cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and an intra-oral surface scan were performed and matched using software for virtual implant planning. After planning the position of the drill for root canal location, a virtual template was designed, and the data were exported as an STL file and sent to a 3D printer for template fabrication. The template was positioned on the anterior maxillary teeth. A specific drill was used to penetrate through the obliterated part of the root canal and obtain minimally invasive access to the apical part. The root canal was accessible at 9 mm distance from the apex. Further root canal preparation was carried out using an endodontic rotary instrumentation system. After an interappointment dressing for 4 weeks, the root canal was filled with vertically condensed gutta-percha using an epoxy sealer. The access cavity was restored with a composite material. After 15 months, the patient was clinically asymptomatic with no pain on percussion. The radiograph showed no apical pathology. The presented guided endodontic approach seems to be a safe, clinically feasible method to locate root canals and prevent root perforation in teeth with PCC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Treatment of root fracture with accompanying resorption using cermet cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, J L

    1992-02-01

    A method of treating an apical root fracture with accompanying resorption at the junction of the fracture fragments using glass-cermet cement is described. Endodontically, the material had previously been used for repair of lateral resorptive root defects and retrograde root fillings. Complete bone regeneration was observed three years post-operatively following treatment of the root fracture in the conventional manner. The various advantages of glass-cermet cement as a root filling material used in the technique described are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of Apical Vapor Lock Formation and comparative Evaluation of its Elimination using Three different Techniques: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anand; Deore, Rahul B; Rudagi, Kavitarani; Nanda, Zinnie; Baig, Mirza Osman; Fareez, Md Adil

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was (i) to evaluate the formation of air bubbles in the apical region of root canal (apical vapor lock) during syringe irrigation, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and (ii) comparative evaluation of the elimination of an established vapor lock by EndoActivator, ultrasonics, and manual dynamic agitation (MDA), using CBCT. A total of 60 extracted human single-rooted teeth were equally divided into three groups of 20 teeth each. The samples were decoronated 17 mm from the apex, cleaned, and shaped to size F4 Protaper using 3% sodium hypochlorite. Samples were irrigated with 3% sodium hypochlorite + cesium chloride radiopaque dye, and preoperative CBCT images were obtained. After formation of apical vapor lock in the scanned teeth, EndoActivator (group I), passive ultrasonic irrigation (group II), and MDA with K-file (group III) were performed and the teeth were again placed in CBCT scanner and results analyzed using the chi-square test. The apical vapor lock was formed in all the samples. Out of the 20 teeth in each group, the apical vapor lock was eliminated in 18 samples of EndoActivator group (90%), 16 samples of ultrasonic group (80%), while it was eliminated in 10 samples by MDA (50%). It is concluded that (1) apical vapor lock is consistently formed during endodontic irrigation in closed canal systems and (2) sonic activation performs better than the ultrasonics and MDA in eliminating the apical vapor lock, with statistically significant difference between all the three groups (p < 0.05). The results suggest that the apical vapor lock (dead water zone) is consistently formed during routine endodontic irrigation which impedes irrigant penetration till the working length, thereby leading to inefficient debridement. Hence, to eliminate this vapor lock, techniques, such as sonics or ultrasonics should be used along with the irrigant after shaping and cleaning of the root canal.

  11. An investigation on the effects of resection angle on apical sea!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmi H

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The goal of a successful endodontic surgery is to establish an adequate seal in apical region. Therefore during surgery, root-end resection is essential for an appropriate situation and proper access."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate root-end resection angle to establish adequate apical seal in periapical surgery,"nMaterials and Methods: Forty-five intact extracted human maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into three 15-tooth groups. The root canals were instrumented and then obturated using lateral condensation technique. AM roots were resected at 3mm from apical portion. Angles of root resection for each group were 0, 30 and 45 degrees. Then all teeth surfaces, except the cut ones, were covered with nail polish and immersed in methylen blue for 7 days. After 7 days, nail polish was removed from the surfaces and samples were split in buccolingual direction. Then, dye penetration (mm was measured using a stereozoom microscope (Loupe [X4 magnification] and eye lens. In order to analyze the data, unilateral variance analysis was used."nResults: The values of dye penetration were: 7.23±3.34 (0°, 8.46±3.01(30° and 9.74±4.11 (45°. There"nwas no significant difference between three groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: It is suggested that the angle of root-end resection put a limited effect on apical seal if retrograde cavity depth is increased.

  12. Sealing ability of grar MTA AngelusTM, CPM TM and MBPc used as apical plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, Fernando Accorsi; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bernadineli, Norberti; Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes de

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the sealing ability of apical plugs fabricated with gray MTA Angelus sealer, CPM TM sealer and MBPc sealer. The root canals of 98 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with #5 to #1 Gates Glidden drills according to the crown-down technique until the #1 drill could pass through the apical foramen. The specimens were then prepared with K-files, starting with an ISO 50 until an ISO 90 could be visualized 1 mm beyond the apex. After root canal preparation, the external surface of each root was rendered impermeable and roots were assigned to 3 experimental groups (n = 30), which received a 5-mm thick apical plug of gray MTA Angelus, CPM and MBPc, and two control groups (n=4). The remaining portion of the canal in the experimental groups was filled by the lateral condensation technique. The teeth of each group, properly identified, were fixed on utility wax by their crowns and were placed in plastic flasks, leaving the apex free and facing upward. The flasks were filled with 0.2% Rhodamine B solution, pH 7.0, so as to completely cover the root apex of all teeth. The sealing ability was analyzed by measuring 0.2% Rhodamine B leakage after all groups had been maintained in this solution for 48 hours. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn test with a=5%. The results showed that, among the tested materials used for fabrication of apical plugs, MBPc sealer had the least amount of leakage with statistically significant difference (p<0.05).

  13. Sealing ability of grar MTA AngelusTM, CPM TM and MBPc used as apical plugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Accorsi Orosco

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the sealing ability of apical plugs fabricated with gray MTA AngelusTM sealer, CPM TM sealer and MBPc sealer. The root canals of 98 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with #5 to #1 Gates Glidden drills according to the crown-down technique until the #1 drill could pass through the apical foramen. The specimens were then prepared with K-files, starting with an ISO 50 until an ISO 90 could be visualized 1 mm beyond the apex. After root canal preparation, the external surface of each root was rendered impermeable and roots were assigned to 3 experimental groups (n = 30, which received a 5-mm thick apical plug of gray MTA AngelusTM, CPM TM and MBPc, and two control groups (n=4. The remaining portion of the canal in the experimental groups was filled by the lateral condensation technique. The teeth of each group, properly identified, were fixed on utility wax by their crowns and were placed in plastic flasks, leaving the apex free and facing upward. The flasks were filled with 0.2% Rhodamine B solution, pH 7.0, so as to completely cover the root apex of all teeth. The sealing ability was analyzed by measuring 0.2% Rhodamine B leakage after all groups had been maintained in this solution for 48 hours. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn test with a=5%. The results showed that, among the tested materials used for fabrication of apical plugs, MBPc sealer had the least amount of leakage with statistically significant difference (p<0.05.

  14. Computed tomographic features of apical infection of equine maxillary cheek teeth: a retrospective study of 49 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, M; Fürst, A; Lewis, F I; Kummer, M; Ohlerth, S

    2014-07-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) studies evaluating the relevance of individual CT features of apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth are lacking. To study the prevalence and relationship of single CT features in horses with and without clinical evidence of apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth. Retrospective case-control study. Multislice CT scans of the head of 49 horses were evaluated retrospectively. Changes of the infundibulum, pulp, root, lamina dura, periodontal space and alveolar bone in maxillary cheek teeth were recorded. Single CT changes were much more prevalent in the 28 horses with clinical signs. However, infundibular changes and a nondetectable lamina dura were also common in the 21 horses without clinical evidence of apical infection. Computed tomographic abnormalities of the pulp, root, periapical bone and periodontal space and the presence of a tooth fracture were significantly related. Infundibular changes were not associated with other CT signs of apical infection. Although nondetectable lamina dura was the most frequent CT change in all teeth in both studied groups, it was most commonly a solitary feature in otherwise normal teeth. Apical infections, defined as ≥3 CT changes, occurred mainly in the 108/208, 109/209 and 110/210 (Triadan numbers) and were found only in horses with clinical evidence of apical infection, except in one horse without clinical signs that had one affected root. Combined CT changes of the pulp, root, lamina dura, periapical bone and periodontal space and the presence of a tooth fracture appear to be reliable features to diagnose apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth. As a solitary feature, a nondetectable lamina dura should be interpreted cautiously and may even be considered normal due to its minor thickness and/or too low resolution of the imaging modality. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Effect of photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming on removal of apically placed dentinal debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, H; Capar, I D; Saygili, G; Gok, T; Akcay, M

    2014-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) technique with conventional, sonic and ultrasonic irrigation on the removal of apically placed dentinal debris from an artificial groove created in a root canal. Root canal preparation was performed up to size 40 on 48 extracted single-rooted teeth using ProTaper rotary instruments. The specimens were then split longitudinally, and a standardized groove was prepared in the apical part of each segment. Each groove was filled with dentinal debris mixed with 5% NaOCl. Each tooth was reassembled and irrigated as follows: (i) conventional irrigation with 1% NaOCl, (ii) sonic, (iii) ultrasonic irrigation, and (iv) PIPS. The root segments were disassembled, and the amount of remaining dentinal debris was evaluated under a stereomicroscope at 20× magnification, using a four-grade scoring system. The data were evaluated statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests with a 95% confidence level (P = 0.05). Photon-induced photoacoustic streaming removed significantly more dentinal debris than conventional irrigation (P streaming was more effective than conventional, sonic and ultrasonic irrigation in the removal of apically placed dentinal debris. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A Comparative Study of Apical Healing of Open Apices Using MTA and Ca(OH2 Apical Plugs in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Zarrabi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Endodontic treatment of necrotic teeth with open apices is a challenge. After ruling out surgery as a treatment scheme and introduction of the multivisit apexification which in turn had its disadvantages, apical plug seems to be a suitable substitute treatment plan for such cases. Apical plug makes the treatment through formation of a barrier against the obturating material in a single visit.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare histologically the periapical healing using MTA and calcium hydroxide apical plugs after intervals of 4 and 12 weeks in cats.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 64 canines of 16 healthy and mature cats were divided into 3 groups after a periapical lesion formation by over instrumentation in the apical area with files up to no.120. The first group included 24 teeth on which MTA apical plug was applied. The second group included 24 teeth on which Ca (OH 2 apical plug was applied. In both groups the canals were filled with gutta percha and sealer. The third group included 16 control teeth whose canals were left empty after instrumentation and debridement. The access cavities of all teeth were sealed with varnish and amalgam and the vital perfusion of cats was performed in 4 and 12 week intervals. Statistical analysis was established by χ2 and independence test.Results: After 4 weeks, periapical healing in the first group was 90%, in the second group 80% and in the third group, it was only 12.5 %. After 12 weeks, periapical healing occurred in 100% of the MTA group, while it was 57.1% in the second and 40%in the third group .Generally, in the study of histological parameters of healing, no statistical significant difference was observed between the 2 experimental groups,although the MTA group results were much better than the Ca (OH 2 group especially at 12 weeks.Conclusion: The use of MTA apical plug is more effective than Ca (OH 2 in treatment of necrotic teeth with open

  17. Morphology of the Physiological Apical Foramen in Maxillary and Mandibular First Molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, J.; Zaror, C.; Monardes, H.; Hermosilla, V.; Muñoz, C.; Cantin, M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Information regarding the anatomy of the physiological apical foramen is limited. Knowing its diameter and shapes contributes to clinical work, specifically to the cleaning and shaping of the apical third. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine the minimum and maximum diameters and shape of the physiological apical foramen in the roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars. A descriptive study was conducted on 89 recently extracted first molars. Roots 3–5 mm from the apex were sectioned and prepared for analysis at 40× magnification. The minimum and maximum diameters of each physiological foramen were measured using the program Motic Images plus 2.0 ML. The shape of the foramina, classified as round, oval or irregular, was determined by the difference between the maximum and minimum diameters. A total of 174 physiological foramina were analyzed. The average of the minimum and maximum diameters was between 0.24–0.33 mm in maxillary first molars and between 0.25–0.33 mm in mandibular first molars. In maxillary molars, the most common shape of the foramen was oval (50%), then irregular (32%), then round (18%). In mandibular molars, the oval shape was also the most frequent (59%), followed by irregular (23%) and round (18%). The findings of this study regarding the morphology of physiological apical foramina in first molars make it easier for the operator to choose the appropriately-sized instruments to perform endodontic therapy successfully. PMID:25937698

  18. Morphology of the Physiological Apical Foramen in Maxillary and Mandibular First Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, J; Zaror, C; Monardes, H; Hermosilla, V; Muñoz, C; Cantin, M

    2014-06-01

    Information regarding the anatomy of the physiological apical foramen is limited. Knowing its diameter and shapes contributes to clinical work, specifically to the cleaning and shaping of the apical third. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine the minimum and maximum diameters and shape of the physiological apical foramen in the roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars. A descriptive study was conducted on 89 recently extracted first molars. Roots 3-5 mm from the apex were sectioned and prepared for analysis at 40× magnification. The minimum and maximum diameters of each physiological foramen were measured using the program Motic Images plus 2.0 ML. The shape of the foramina, classified as round, oval or irregular, was determined by the difference between the maximum and minimum diameters. A total of 174 physiological foramina were analyzed. The average of the minimum and maximum diameters was between 0.24-0.33 mm in maxillary first molars and between 0.25-0.33 mm in mandibular first molars. In maxillary molars, the most common shape of the foramen was oval (50%), then irregular (32%), then round (18%). In mandibular molars, the oval shape was also the most frequent (59%), followed by irregular (23%) and round (18%). The findings of this study regarding the morphology of physiological apical foramina in first molars make it easier for the operator to choose the appropriately-sized instruments to perform endodontic therapy successfully.

  19. Effect of diode laser irradiation on the apical sealing of MTA retrofillings Efeito da irradiação de laser de diodo no selamento apical em retrobturações com MTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Barbosa de Souza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Apical sealing is essential for the success of paraendodontic surgery, so any procedure that may favor an adequate sealing of the apical remainder should be performed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of diode laser irradiation on the apical sealing of root-end cavities with MTA retrofillings. Root canals in twenty extracted human teeth were shaped with K-files and filled with gutta-percha. The apexes were cut off and root-end preparations were performed. The roots were divided randomly in 2 groups. Group 1 (ten specimens was retrofilled with MTA. Group 2 was irradiated with diode laser, with 1 W for 20 seconds, on the apical surface and root end cavity before retrofilling with MTA. The specimens had their external surfaces impermeabilized with cyanoacrylate, except for the apical surface, and were then immersed in 1% rhodamine B dye for 72 h and placed in plaster stone. After that, the specimens were submitted to longitudinal abrasion until half of the root remained. The linear dye leakage was observed in these mid-roots between the root canal wall and retrofilling. The linear dye leakage was measured with Image Lab software, and the results were statistically analyzed with Student's t test. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (p > 0.05. The diode laser irradiation did not improve the apical sealing of MTA retrofillings under the conditions of this in vitro study.O selamento apical é fundamental para o sucesso da cirurgia parendodôntica. Assim, procedimentos que melhorem o selamento do remanescente apical devem ser utilizados. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se a irradiação de laser de diodo poderia aumentar o selamento apical em cavidades retrógradas obturadas com MTA. Foram utilizadas 20 raízes de dentes humanos extraídos que, após preparo com lima tipo K, tiveram seus canais obturados com guta-percha. Os ápices foram cortados e sofreram preparo de cavidades retr

  20. Root rots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn Robbins; Philip M. Wargo

    1989-01-01

    Root rots of central hardwoods are diseases caused by fungi that infect and decay woody roots and sometimes also invade the butt portion of the tree. By killing and decaying roots, root rotting fungi reduce growth, decrease tree vigor, and cause windthrow and death. The most common root diseases of central hardwoods are Armillaria root rot, lnonotus root rot, and...

  1. Morphological evaluation of maxillary second molars with fused roots: a micro-CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordinola-Zapata, R; Martins, J N R; Bramante, C M; Villas-Boas, M H; Duarte, M H; Versiani, M A

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the internal and external morphologies of fused-rooted maxillary second molars by means of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. A total of 100 fused-rooted maxillary second molars from a Brazilian subpopulation were divided into six groups according to the root morphology. The samples were scanned at a resolution of 19.6 μm and evaluated with regard to the external morphology of the roots, the root canal configuration, the percentage frequency of C-shaped canals and isthmuses, as well as the morphology of the root canal system at 1, 2 and 3 mm from the anatomical apex of the fused roots. The most prevalent root canal fusions were type 1, mesiobuccal root fused with distobuccal root (32%), followed by type 3, DB root fused with P root (27%), and type 4, MB root fused with DB root, and P root fused with MB or DB roots (21%). The prevalence of C-shaped root canal systems were 22%. Depending on the type of root fusion, the percentage frequency of isthmuses in the apical level varied from 9.3% to 42.8%, whilst the presence of apical deltas ranged from 18.5% to 57.1% of teeth. The root canal system of maxillary second molars with fused roots may have a high incidence of merging canals, isthmuses, apical deltas and C-shaped configurations. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effect of apical clearing technique on the treatment outcome of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Mittal; Ajay Logani; Naseem Shah; R M Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to compare the periapical healing of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis treated either by conventional apical preparation (CAP) or apical clearing technique (ACT). Materials and Methods: T wenty subjects with bilateral nonvital similar teeth exhibiting comparable periapical index (PAI) score were enrolled and randomly allocated. Group I (CAP, n = 20): Apical preparation three sizes greater (master apical file [MAF]) than the first binding file at the establis...

  3. Effectiveness of EDTA as the irrigation solution to remove smear layer in root canal

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniasri Amas Achiar; Endang Sukartini

    2009-01-01

    One of the objectives of successful endodontic treatment is the hermetic obturation of the root canal system. To achieve this, the root canal filling must seal the canal space both apically and coronally to prevent the ingress of microorganisms or tissue fluids into the canal space. Apical leakage is reported a common reason for the clinical failure of endodontic therapy. Leakage through an obturated root canal is expected to take place at interfaces between sealer and dentin or sealer and gu...

  4. Root Canal Microorganisms Profiles of Upper Anterior Teeth with Periapical Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tanumiharja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are the main causative agents on the development of apical periodontitis. Microorganisms infecting the root canal system are colonized in communities as biofilm. These bacterial communities show distinct pattern related to the different forms of apical periodontitis which are determined by species richness and abundance. Objective: This study is aimed to examine the root canal microorganisms on upper anterior teeth of asymptomatic apical periodontitis and chronic apical abscess. Methods: Samples were collected from patients referring to Endodontic Department of Hasanuddin University Dental Hospital from July 2013 to September 2013. Twenty two samples, aged 17-40 were collected from 16 patients with asymptomatic apical periodontitis, and 36 samples, aged 18-50 were collected from 36 patients with chronic apical abscess. Microorganisms were evaluated using cultural technique. Results: The results showed predominant bacteria in asymptomatic apical periodontitis is Porhyromonas spp while in chronic apical abscess both Streptococcus spp and Porhyromonas spp showed similar frequencies. Conclusion: This study shows Porhyromonas spp play dominant role in apical periodontitis either in asymptomatic apical periodontitis or chronic apical abscess.

  5. Cytokinin signaling during root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishopp, Anthony; Help, Hanna; Helariutta, Ykä

    2009-01-01

    The cytokinin class of phytohormones regulates division and differentiation of plant cells. They are perceived and signaled by a phosphorelay mechanism similar to those observed in prokaryotes. Research into the components of phosphorelay had previously been marred by genetic redundancy. However, recent studies have addressed this with the creation of high-order mutants. In addition, several new elements regulating cytokinin signaling have been identified. This has uncovered many roles in diverse developmental and physiological processes. In this review, we look at these processes specifically in the context of root development. We focus on the formation and maintenance of the root apical meristem, primary and secondary vascular development, lateral root emergence and development, and root nodulation. We believe that the root is an ideal organ with which to investigate cytokinin signaling in a wider context.

  6. Physical root-soil interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Evelyne; Legué, Valérie; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice

    2017-12-01

    Plant root system development is highly modulated by the physical properties of the soil and especially by its mechanical resistance to penetration. The interplay between the mechanical stresses exerted by the soil and root growth is of particular interest for many communities, in agronomy and soil science as well as in biomechanics and plant morphogenesis. In contrast to aerial organs, roots apices must exert a growth pressure to penetrate strong soils and reorient their growth trajectory to cope with obstacles like stones or hardpans or to follow the tortuous paths of the soil porosity. In this review, we present the main macroscopic investigations of soil-root physical interactions in the field and combine them with simple mechanistic modeling derived from model experiments at the scale of the individual root apex.

  7. A possible association between early apical resorption of primary teeth and ectodermal characteristics of the permanent dentition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, M L B; Kvetny, M J; Kjaer, I

    2008-01-01

    apical resorption in the primary dentition. Panoramic radiographs of 12 children (7 boys and 5 girls) aged 6 years 4 months to 8 years 9 months with unexpected early apical resorption of primary teeth were identified from a dental archive of 588 patients. After written request, follow-up radiographs were......The hypothesis of this study is that children with unexpected early apical resorption of the primary teeth are also predisposed to resorption in the permanent dentition. Accordingly, the aim was to perform a longitudinal study focussing on the permanent teeth in children with unexpected early...... obtained (2-15 year interval between early and follow-up radiographs). The radiographs were examined in order to verify the abnormal resorption pattern of the primary teeth and dental deviations in the permanent teeth, known to predispose for root resorption (i.e. invaginations, narrow crowns, abrupt root...

  8. Inadvertent Apical Extrusion of Sodium Hypochlorite with Evaluation by Dental Volumetric Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Delve Başer Can

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the tissue injury caused by inadvertently extruded NaOCl through the apical constriction. A 56-year-old female patient with complaints of pain, swelling, and ecchymosis on the left side of her face was referred to our clinic. The symptoms had emerged following root canal treatment of the maxillary left first premolar, and a soft tissue complication due to apical extrusion of NaOCl was diagnosed. Antibiotics and analgesics were prescribed. DVT images revealed that the buccal root apex had perforated the maxillary bone. The patient was followed up every other day and became asymptomatic on the 10th day. Endodontic therapy was completed with routine procedures. Determining working length precisely and following irrigation protocols meticulously are indispensable to prevent this type of complication. 3D visualization of the affected area may reveal the cause of the incident.

  9. Complicated untreated apical periodontitis causing paraesthesia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Siqueira, José F

    2017-08-14

    The purpose of this article was to report a case of untreated apical periodontitis resulting in severe late complications. A patient with an asymptomatic crowned root canal-treated mandibular molar revealing a radiographic substandard endodontic treatment and a slight periapical radiolucency was made aware of the treatment options and opted for no treatment. The lesion slightly increased in size after 6 years, but the tooth remained asymptomatic and endodontic retreatment was again refused. After 4 more years, the patient presented with an abscess and severe pain, complicated by paraesthesia of the left chin and lip. Radiographic examination revealed that the lesion had increased considerably to involve the mandibular canal. The treatment protocol included long-term intracanal medication with calcium hydroxide and follow-ups revealed complete resolution of the periapical radiolucency and the paraesthesia had completely subsided. © 2017 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  10. Endodontic medicine: connections between apical periodontitis and systemic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Egea, J J; Martín-González, J; Castellanos-Cosano, L

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) in Europe has been reported to affect 61% of individuals and 14% of teeth, and increase with age. Likewise, the prevalence of root canal treatment (RCT) in Europe is estimated to be around 30-50% of individuals and 2-9% of teeth with radiographic evidence of chronic persistent AP in 30-65% of root filled teeth (RFT). AP is not only a local phenomenon and for some time the medical and dental scientific community have analysed the possible connection between apical periodontits and systemic health. Endodontic medicine has developed, with increasing numbers of reports describing the association between periapical inflammation and systemic diseases. The results of studies carried out both in animal models and humans are not conclusive, but suggest an association between endodontic variables, that is AP and RCT, and diabetes mellitus (DM), tobacco smoking, coronary heart disease and other systemic diseases. Several studies have reported a higher prevalence of periapical lesions, delayed periapical repair, greater size of osteolityc lesions, greater likelihood of asymptomatic infections and poorer prognosis for RFT in diabetic patients. On the other hand, recent studies have found that a poorer periapical status correlates with higher HbA1c levels and poor glycaemic control in type 2 diabetic patients. However, there is no scientific evidence supporting a causal effect of periapical inflammation on diabetes metabolic control. The possible association between smoking habits and endodontic infection has also been investigated, with controversial results. The aim of this paper was to review the literature on the association between endodontic variables and systemic health (especially DM and smoking habits). © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Biomechanical aspects of external root resorption in orthodontic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Abuabara, Allan

    2007-01-01

    External apical root resorption is a common phenomenon associated with orthodontic treatment. The factors relevant to root resorption can be divided into biological and mechanical factors. Some mechanical and biological factors might be associated with an increased or decreased risk of root resorption during orthodontic treatment. For mechanical factors, the extensive tooth movement, root torque and intrusive forces, movement type, orthodontic force magnitude, duration and type of force a...

  12. Optimizing the chemical aspect of root canal irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    de Macedo, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    Root canal treatment is aimed at the removal of inflamed and infected tissue present in the root canal system. It will prevent the entrance of new microorganisms or nutrients in order to maintain or create a healthy environment around the root. There is sufficient evidence that shows that traditional endodontic therapy cannot make the root canal system completely free of bacteria. Moreover, it may not always result in complete healing of apical periodontitis, highlighting the need of optimizi...

  13. FISHing for gutta-percha-adhered biofilms in purulent post-treatment apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, M; Rechenberg, D-K; Thurnheer, T; Lüthi-Schaller, H; Belibasakis, G N

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the possibility of depicting individual taxa in clinically relevant biofilms using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Gutta-percha samples were collected from the apical aspect of root canals associated with a chronic apical abscess (test samples, n = 8). Corresponding control samples were obtained from previously filled root canals with apparently normal periapical tissues (n = 3). The transport medium was investigated for detached biofilm fragments using FISH staining and conventional epifluorescence microscopy. Gutta-percha samples were stained by multiplex FISH, and inspected using confocal laser scanning microscopy. FISH of the transport medium confirmed the presence of the main species formerly identified by conventional methods in post-treatment purulent endodontic infections, most prominently Fusobacterium spp., Bacteroidetes and Prevotellaceae. Treponemes were identified in five of eight cases associated with purulent infections, but Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus spp. were not identified. The biofilms on gutta-percha from root canals associated with apical periodontitis showed dense aggregates of variable composition. Control samples contained few, if any, bacteria in the transport medium, and featured no biofilms on the respective gutta-percha specimens. The current study revealed some direct, visual in situ information on the nature of biofilms associated with purulent periapical infections in man. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Incidental apical disease at CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoud, T.C.; Satoh, K.; Shepard, J.O.; Moore, E.H.; Kosiuk, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Apical caps are commonly noted on standard radiographs. This paper determines how often abnormalities in the extreme apex of the lung could be identified on CT scans obtained for other reasons. A total of 158 consecutive CT scans were reviewed prospectively. Excluded were patients with obvious upper lobe pleural or parenchymal disease. Apical abnormalities were identified in 74 (46.8%) of the 158 cases. The prevalence increased with age (19% in the 8-39-year age group and 82% in patients older than 80 years). Opacities were unilateral in 44.5% and bilateral in 55.5%. The most common abnormality was linear opacities (95%)

  15. Root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatania, Archana; Shivalinga, B M; Kiran, Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Root resorption that occurs in permanent teeth is an unwanted process and is considered pathologic. Although apical root resorption occurs in individuals who have never experienced orthodontic tooth movement, the incidence among treated individuals is seen to be significantly higher. Some resorption occurs in most orthodontic patients, but because of repair the changes are difficult to detect with radiographic examination and therefore are clinically insignificant. This article gives a review of the various types of root resorption, the etiological factors, the biology and the identification of root resorption.

  16. Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal: analysis of apical transportation using new software

    Science.gov (United States)

    GIANNASTASIO, Daiana; da ROSA, Ricardo Abreu; PERES, Bernardo Urbanetto; BARRETO, Mirela Sangoi; DOTTO, Gustavo Nogara; KUGA, Milton Carlos; PEREIRA, Jefferson Ricardo; SÓ, Marcus Vinícius Reis

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study has two aims: 1) to evaluate the apical transportation of the Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal after preparation of simulated root canals; 2) to compare, with Adobe Photoshop, the ability of a new software (Regeemy) in superposing and subtracting images. Material and Methods Twenty five simulated root canals in acrylic-resin blocks (with 20º curvature) underwent cone beam computed tomography before and after preparation with the rotary systems (70 kVp, 4 mA, 10 s and with the 8×8 cm FoV selection). Canals were prepared up to F2 (ProTaper) and 24.04 (Wizard CD Plus) instruments and the working length was established to 15 mm. The tomographic images were imported into iCAT Vision software and CorelDraw for standardization. The superposition of pre- and post-instrumentation images from both systems was performed using Regeemy and Adobe Photoshop. The apical transportation was measured in millimetres using Image J. Five acrylic resin blocks were used to validate the superposition achieved by the software. Student's t-test for independent samples was used to evaluate the apical transportation achieved by the rotary systems using each software individually. Student's t-test for paired samples was used to compare the ability of each software in superposing and subtracting images from one rotary system per time. Results The values obtained with Regeemy and Adobe Photoshop were similar to rotary systems (P>0.05). ProTaper Universal and Wizard CD Plus promoted similar apical transportation regardless of the software used for image's superposition and subtraction (P>0.05). Conclusion Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal promoted little apical transportation. Regeemy consists in a feasible software to superpose and subtract images and appears to be an alternative to Adobe Photoshop. PMID:24212994

  17. Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal: analysis of apical transportation using new software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Giannastasio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study has two aims: 1 to evaluate the apical transportation of the Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal after preparation of simulated root canals; 2 to compare, with Adobe Photoshop, the ability of a new software (Regeemy in superposing and subtracting images. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty five simulated root canals in acrylic-resin blocks (with 20º curvature underwent cone beam computed tomography before and after preparation with the rotary systems (70 kVp, 4 mA, 10 s and with the 8×8 cm FoV selection. Canals were prepared up to F2 (ProTaper and 24.04 (Wizard CD Plus instruments and the working length was established to 15 mm. The tomographic images were imported into iCAT Vision software and CorelDraw for standardization. The superposition of pre- and post-instrumentation images from both systems was performed using Regeemy and Adobe Photoshop. The apical transportation was measured in millimetres using Image J. Five acrylic resin blocks were used to validate the superposition achieved by the software. Student's t-test for independent samples was used to evaluate the apical transportation achieved by the rotary systems using each software individually. Student's t-test for paired samples was used to compare the ability of each software in superposing and subtracting images from one rotary system per time. RESULTS: The values obtained with Regeemy and Adobe Photoshop were similar to rotary systems (P>0.05. ProTaper Universal and Wizard CD Plus promoted similar apical transportation regardless of the software used for image's superposition and subtraction (P>0.05. CONCLUSION: Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal promoted little apical transportation. Regeemy consists in a feasible software to superpose and subtract images and appears to be an alternative to Adobe Photoshop.

  18. Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal: analysis of apical transportation using new software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannastasio, Daiana; Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Peres, Bernardo Urbanetto; Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; Dotto, Gustavo Nogara; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis

    2013-01-01

    This study has two aims: 1) to evaluate the apical transportation of the Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal after preparation of simulated root canals; 2) to compare, with Adobe Photoshop, the ability of a new software (Regeemy) in superposing and subtracting images. Twenty five simulated root canals in acrylic-resin blocks (with 20º curvature) underwent cone beam computed tomography before and after preparation with the rotary systems (70 kVp, 4 mA, 10 s and with the 8×8 cm FoV selection). Canals were prepared up to F2 (ProTaper) and 24.04 (Wizard CD Plus) instruments and the working length was established to 15 mm. The tomographic images were imported into iCAT Vision software and CorelDraw for standardization. The superposition of pre- and post-instrumentation images from both systems was performed using Regeemy and Adobe Photoshop. The apical transportation was measured in millimetres using Image J. Five acrylic resin blocks were used to validate the superposition achieved by the software. Student's t-test for independent samples was used to evaluate the apical transportation achieved by the rotary systems using each software individually. Student's t-test for paired samples was used to compare the ability of each software in superposing and subtracting images from one rotary system per time. The values obtained with Regeemy and Adobe Photoshop were similar to rotary systems (P>0.05). ProTaper Universal and Wizard CD Plus promoted similar apical transportation regardless of the software used for image's superposition and subtraction (P>0.05). Wizard CD Plus and ProTaper Universal promoted little apical transportation. Regeemy consists in a feasible software to superpose and subtract images and appears to be an alternative to Adobe Photoshop.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Rothia mucilaginosa DY-18: A Clinical Isolate with Dense Meshwork-Like Structures from a Persistent Apical Periodontitis Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-25

    dermatitis associated with Rothia mucilaginosa bacteremia: a case report ,”American Journal of Dermatopathol- ogy, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 175–179, 2010. [5] P...root- filled teeth with chronic apical periodontitis ,” International Endodontic Journal, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 429–434, 2001. [12] L. C. de Paz...of Rothiamucilaginosa DY-18: A Clinical Isolate with DenseMeshwork-Like Structures from a Persistent Apical Periodontitis Lesion Kazuyoshi Yamane,1

  20. Comparison of apical transportation and change of working length in K3, NRT AND PROFILE rotary instruments using transparent resin block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jung Yoon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study is to compare the apical transportation and working length change in curved root canals created in resin blocks, using 3 geometrically different types of Ni-Ti files, K3, NRT, and Profile. Materials and Methods The curvature of 30 resin blocks was measured by Schneider technique and each groups of Ni-Ti files were allocated with 10 resin blocks at random. The canals were shaped with Ni-Ti files by Crown-down technique. It was analyzed by Double radiograph superimposition method (Backman CA 1992, and for the accuracy and consistency, specially designed jig, digital X-ray, and CAD/CAM software for measurement of apical transportation were used. The amount of apical transportation was measured at 0, 1, 3, 5 mm from 'apical foramen - 0.5 mm' area, and the alteration of the working length before and after canal shaping was also measured. For statistics, Kruskal-Wallis One Way Analysis was used. Results There was no significant difference between the groups in the amount of working length change and apical transportation at 0, 1, and 3 mm area (p = 0.027, however, the amount of apical transportation at 5 mm area showed significant difference between K3 and Profile system (p = 0.924. Conclusions As a result of this study, the 3 geometrically different Ni-Ti files showed no significant difference in apical transportation and working length change and maintained the original root canal shape.

  1. Semiconductor laser irradiation improves root canal sealing during routine root canal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingxue; Wang, Dashan; Cui, Ting; Yao, Ruyong

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of semiconductor laser irradiation on root canal sealing after routine root canal therapy (RCT). Methods Sixty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). The anatomic crowns were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction and the remaining roots were prepared endodontically with conventional RCT methods. Groups A and B were irradiated with semiconductor laser at 1W for 20 seconds; Groups C and D were ultrasonically rinsed for 60 seconds as positive control groups; Groups E and F without treatment of root canal prior to RCT as negative control groups. Root canal sealing of Groups A, C and E were evaluated by measurements of apical microleakage. The teeth from Groups B, D and F were sectioned, and the micro-structures were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One way ANOVA and LSD-t test were used for statistical analysis (α = .05). Results The apical sealing of both the laser irradiated group and the ultrasonic irrigated group were significantly different from the control group (pirrigated group (p>0.5). SEM observation showed that most of the dentinal tubules in the laser irradiation group melted, narrowed or closed, while most of the dentinal tubules in the ultrasonic irrigation group were filled with tooth paste. Conclusion The application of semiconductor laser prior to root canal obturation increases the apical sealing of the roots treated. PMID:28957407

  2. Association of manual or engine-driven glide path preparation with canal centring and apical transportation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, R C; Peters, O A; de Figueiredo, J A P; Rossi-Fedele, G

    2018-04-28

    The role and effect of glide path preparation in root canal treatment remain controversial. This systematic review aims to compare apical transportation and canal centring of different glide path preparation techniques, with or without subsequent engine-driven root canal preparation. A database search in PubMed, PubMed Central, Embase, Scopus, EBSCO Dentistry & Oral Sciences Source and Virtual Health Library was conducted, using appropriate key words to identify the effect of glide path preparation (or its absence) on apical transportation and canal centring. An assessment for the risk of bias in included studies was carried out. Amongst 2146 studies, 18 satisfied the inclusion criteria. Nine studies assessed glide path preparation per se, comparing apical transportation and canal centring of rotary systems and/or manual files; eleven further investigations examined the efficacy of the glide path prior to final canal preparation with different engine-driven systems. Risk of bias and other study design features with potential influence on study outcomes and clinical implications were assessed. Based on the available evidence, and within the limitation of the studies included, preparation of a glide path using rotary sequences performs similarly (in most of the component studies) or significantly better than manual preparation when assessing apical transportation or canal centring. When compared to the absence of a glide path, canal shaping following glide path preparation was of similar, or significantly better quality, in regard to apical transportation or canal centring. © 2018 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Similar expression of through-and-through fluid movement along orthograde apical plugs of MTA Bio and white Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, G; Audi, C; Murad, C; Fidel, S; Fidel, R

    2008-12-01

    To compare the sealing ability of four hydraulic cements when used as an apical plug in teeth with wide-open apices. A sample of 70 maxillary central incisors were divided into four groups (n = 15) and a further 10 teeth served as controls. An artificial open apex was created in the teeth using Gates Glidden drills numbers 6-1 in a crown-down manner until the size 1 bur passed through the foramen. A divergent open apex was prepared to a size of 1.24 mm at the foramen by retrograde apical transportation using a number 8 (0.60) Profile Series 29 0.4 taper instrument inserted to the length of the cutting blade. In G1, the open apices were repaired with WMTA Angelus whilst in G2, G3 and G4 MTA Bio, Pro-Root MTA and Portland cement was employed respectively. Each root was assembled in a hermetic cell to allow the evaluation of fluid filtration. Leakage was measured by the movement of an air bubble travelling within a pipette connected to the teeth. Measurements of the air bubble movement were made after 10 min at a constant pressure of 50 cm H(2)O. The Kruskal-Wallis H-test was applied to the fluid flow data to detect differences between the experimental groups (P 0.05). Fluid movement through teeth with open apices and filled with four hydraulic cements was similar. All cements allowed fluid movement.

  4. Assessment of root surfaces of apicected teeth: A scanning electron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the apical surface characteristics and presence of dental cracks in single‑rooted premolars, resected 3.0 mm from the root apex, using the Er: YAG laser, tungsten carbide bur, and diamond‑coated tip, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Experimental design: Thirty ...

  5. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia mimicking apical periodontitis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekabi, Ali Reza; Ashouri, Rezvan; Torabi, Molok; Parirokh, Masoud; Abbott, Paul V

    2013-12-01

    Cemento-osseous dysplasia may present as a focal, periapical or florid lesion in the mandible or maxilla. The lesion may sometimes appear similar to peri-radicular lesions on a periapical radiograph. This report presents a case with irreversible pulpitis and root resorption as well as a mixed radiolucent/radiopaque lesion around a mandibular molar tooth root. Root canal treatment was performed and because of the radiographic signs of root resorption and the patient's fear of having a malignant disease, periapical surgery was also performed. The histopathology report confirmed the presence of florid cement-osseous dysplasia which was mimicking apical periodontitis. Follow-up radiography 12 months after the surgery illustrated complete healing of the radiolucent area. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2011 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  6. Distribution of Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotypes in chronic apical periodontitis associated with symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhou, Xue-dong; Zheng, Qing-hua; Wang, Yao; Tang, Lu; Huang, Ding-ming

    2010-11-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is an anaerobic bacterium involved in root canal infections whose fimbriae are classified into six genotypes (types I-V and Ib) based on nucleotide sequence. Accumulated evidence suggests there is significant association between P. gingivalis and some clinical symptoms of periodontal diseases. The present study aims to determine the prevalence of P. gingivalis fimA genotypes in apical periodontitis and to investigate the correlation between P. gingivalis fimA genotypes and clinical symptoms. Samples were obtained from 158 infected root canals with apical periodontitis. DNA was extracted and analyzed with a polymerase chain reaction-based identification assay. Odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and contingency coefficient were calculated for associating the fimA-specific genes with clinical symptoms. P. gingivalis was detected in 39.9% of the inflected root canal samples and was found in 44.5% of P. gingivalis-positive specimens with symptoms. Types II (69.4%) were the most frequent in the symptomatic cases followed by type IV (32.7%). The occurrence of type I (64.3%) was significantly higher than any other genotypes in the asymptomatic apical periodontitis, whereas type II and type Ib were not identified. Statistical analysis revealed that the occurrences of types II, IV, and Ib fimA were associated with greater risk of clinical signs (swelling, sinus tract, or intracanal exudates) than type I. Results from this study reinforce the association between P. gingivalis-specific fimA genotypic clones and apical periodontitis, indicating that fimA genotypes (types II, IV, and Ib) were related to the etiology of symptomatic periradicular diseases. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Apically extruded dentin debris by reciprocating single-file and multi-file rotary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, Gustavo; Neves, Aline; Silva, Emmanuel João; Mendonça, Thais Accorsi; Lourenço, Caroline; Calixto, Camila; Lima, Edson Jorge Moreira

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the apical extrusion of debris by the two reciprocating single-file systems: WaveOne and Reciproc. Conventional multi-file rotary system was used as a reference for comparison. The hypotheses tested were (i) the reciprocating single-file systems extrude more than conventional multi-file rotary system and (ii) the reciprocating single-file systems extrude similar amounts of dentin debris. After solid selection criteria, 80 mesial roots of lower molars were included in the present study. The use of four different instrumentation techniques resulted in four groups (n = 20): G1 (hand-file technique), G2 (ProTaper), G3 (WaveOne), and G4 (Reciproc). The apparatus used to evaluate the collection of apically extruded debris was typical double-chamber collector. Statistical analysis was performed for multiple comparisons. No significant difference was found in the amount of the debris extruded between the two reciprocating systems. In contrast, conventional multi-file rotary system group extruded significantly more debris than both reciprocating groups. Hand instrumentation group extruded significantly more debris than all other groups. The present results yielded favorable input for both reciprocation single-file systems, inasmuch as they showed an improved control of apically extruded debris. Apical extrusion of debris has been studied extensively because of its clinical relevance, particularly since it may cause flare-ups, originated by the introduction of bacteria, pulpal tissue, and irrigating solutions into the periapical tissues.

  8. Periapical fluid RANKL and IL-8 are differentially regulated in pulpitis and apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenberg, Dan-K; Bostanci, Nagihan; Zehnder, Matthias; Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2014-09-01

    The dental pulp space can become infected due to a breach in the surrounding hard tissues. This leads to inflammation of the pulp (pulpitis), soft tissue breakdown, and finally to bone loss around the root apex (apical periodontitis). The succession of the molecular events leading to apical periodontitis is currently not known. The main inflammatory mediator associated with neutrophil chemotaxis is interleukin-8 (IL-8), and with bone resorption the dyad of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The levels of RANKL, OPG and IL-8 were studied in periapical tissue fluid of human teeth (n = 48) diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIP) and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP). SIP represents the starting point, and AAP an established steady state of the disease. Periapical tissue fluid samples were collected using paper points and then evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Target protein levels per case were calibrated against the corresponding total protein content, as determined fluorometrically. RANKL was expressed at significantly higher levels in SIP compared to AAP (P apical periodontitis, periapical bone resorption signaling, as determined by RANKL, occurs prior to inflammatory cell recruitment signaling, as determined by IL-8. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Regeneration of okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus L.) via apical shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. Monech) via apical shoot culture system. The study of apical shoot culture system was found effective for regeneration of apical shoots. The okra (A. esculentus L. Monech) N-550 line evolved at R&D, Nirmal Seeds Pvt. Ltd., ...

  10. Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants using hand and three rotary instrumentation systems- An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppolu Madhusudhana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sterilization of the root canal is a prime aim of successful endodontics. The cleaning and shaping of the canal is directed as achieving this goal. The extrusion of apical debris has a deleterious effect on the prognosis of root canal treatment. Several instrument designs and instrumentation techniques have been developed to prevent this. Materials and Methods: Forty caries free single rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were divided in four groups of ten teeth each. Teeth in each group were instrumented until the working length with rotary ProTaper, K3, Mtwo systems, and hand K-type stainless steel files. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials and the amounts were quantitatively determined. The data obtained were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The results show that all instrumentation techniques produced significant amount of extruded debris and irrigant. The engine-driven nickel-titanium systems showed less apical extrusion of debris and irrigant than manual technique. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups at [P > 0.05]. Maximum apical debris and irrigant extrusion was seen with K-file group and least in the Mtwo group. Conclusions: The use of rotary files and techniques to perform instrumentation does show less extrusion of the debris and irrigant from the apex. This can contribute to more successful endodontic therapy.

  11. Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants using hand and three rotary instrumentation systems − An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhana, Koppolu; Mathew, Vinod Babu; Reddy, Nelaturi Madhusudhan

    2010-10-01

    Sterilization of the root canal is a prime aim of successful endodontics. The cleaning and shaping of the canal is directed as achieving this goal. The extrusion of apical debris has a deleterious effect on the prognosis of root canal treatment. Several instrument designs and instrumentation techniques have been developed to prevent this. Forty caries free single rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were divided in four groups of ten teeth each. Teeth in each group were instrumented until the working length with rotary ProTaper, K3, Mtwo systems, and hand K-type stainless steel files. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials and the amounts were quantitatively determined. The data obtained were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U tests. The results show that all instrumentation techniques produced significant amount of extruded debris and irrigant. The engine-driven nickel-titanium systems showed less apical extrusion of debris and irrigant than manual technique. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups at [P > 0.05]. Maximum apical debris and irrigant extrusion was seen with K-file group and least in the Mtwo group. The use of rotary files and techniques to perform instrumentation does show less extrusion of the debris and irrigant from the apex. This can contribute to more successful endodontic therapy.

  12. Influence of apical enlargement and complementary canal preparation with the Self-Adjusting File on endotoxin reduction in retreatment cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E J N L; Ferreira, V M; Silva, C C; Herrera, D R; De-Deus, G; Gomes, B P

    2017-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of large apical preparations and complementary canal preparation with the Self-Adjusting File (SAF) in removing endotoxins from the root canal of teeth with apical periodontitis. Ten single-rooted and single-canaled teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis were selected. Endotoxin samples were taken after removal of the root filling (S1), after chemomechanical preparation (CMP) using 2.5% NaOCl and an R25 file (S2), after CMP using 2.5% NaOCl and an R40 file (S3) and after complementary CMP using the SAF system (S4). Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) was used to measure endotoxin levels. The Friedman and Wilcoxon tests were used to compare endotoxin levels at each clinical intervention (P file was able to significantly reduce endotoxin levels (P file (P  0.05) following the use of the R40 instrument. Apical enlargement protocols were effective in significantly reducing endotoxin levels. Complementary preparation with the SAF system failed to eliminate residual endotoxin contents beyond those obtained with the R40 instrument. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants using hand and three rotary instrumentation systems– An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhana, Koppolu; Mathew, Vinod Babu; Reddy, Nelaturi Madhusudhan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Sterilization of the root canal is a prime aim of successful endodontics. The cleaning and shaping of the canal is directed as achieving this goal. The extrusion of apical debris has a deleterious effect on the prognosis of root canal treatment. Several instrument designs and instrumentation techniques have been developed to prevent this. Materials and Methods: Forty caries free single rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were divided in four groups of ten teeth each. Teeth in each group were instrumented until the working length with rotary ProTaper, K3, Mtwo systems, and hand K-type stainless steel files. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials and the amounts were quantitatively determined. The data obtained were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The results show that all instrumentation techniques produced significant amount of extruded debris and irrigant. The engine-driven nickel-titanium systems showed less apical extrusion of debris and irrigant than manual technique. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups at [P > 0.05]. Maximum apical debris and irrigant extrusion was seen with K-file group and least in the Mtwo group. Conclusions: The use of rotary files and techniques to perform instrumentation does show less extrusion of the debris and irrigant from the apex. This can contribute to more successful endodontic therapy. PMID:22114427

  14. A Comparison of Profile, Race and FKG Systems in Eliminating Enterococcus Faecalis from the Apical Third of Mandibular Premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nazari Moghaddam

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Microorganisms are essential for the development of periradicular diseases and are one of the major causative factors associated with endodontic treatment failures. Different instruments and preparation techniques have been developed in Endodontics to eliminate or reduce intracanal bacteria.Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the amount of remaining E. faecalis in the apical third of root canals following instrumentation with Profile, Race and FKG files.Materials and Methods: Ninety freshly extracted mandibular single canal premolars were selected. A horizontal groove was made circumferentially around the roots at a depth of 0.5mm and a distance of 5 mm from the anatomic apex. All the equipments were sterilized overnight by ethylene oxide gas. Root canals, inoculated with E. faecalis suspension, were prepared using Profile, Race or FKG instruments in a step-back technique. Master apical file, amount of irrigant for each canal and working length were similar in all specimens groups. Following preparation, the apical portions of the roots were separated from the previously made grooves and were sampled by sterile paper points. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range tests.Results: Profile was significantly more effective in eliminating E. faecalis as compared to Race. A significant difference was not observed between FKG and the other two studied instrumentation techniques.Conclusions: Neither of the methods could completely eliminate E. faecalis from the root canals.

  15. One- versus two-visit endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis: a histobacteriologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jorge; Siqueira, José F; Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Fernández, Nancy; Flores, Belina; Cruz, Alvaro G

    2012-08-01

    This study analyzed the in vivo microbiological status of the root canal systems of mesial roots of mandibular molars with primary apical periodontitis after 1- or 2-visit endodontic treatment. Mesial root canals were instrumented by using either a combination of K3 and LightSpeed instruments (mesiobuccal canals) or the ProTaper system (mesiolingual canals), with 5% NaOCl irrigation. Patency files were used. Smear layer was removed, and a final rinse with 5 mL of 2% chlorhexidine was performed. In the 2-visit group (7 roots, 14 canals), canals were medicated with calcium hydroxide for 1 week and then obturated by using the continuous wave of compaction technique. In the 1-visit group (6 roots, 12 canals), canals were immediately obturated after chemomechanical procedures. Teeth were extracted 1 week after root canal instrumentation and processed for histobacteriologic analysis. In the 1-visit group, no case was completely free of bacteria; residual bacteria occurred in the main root canal (5 of 6 cases), isthmus (5 of 6), apical ramifications (4 of 6), and dentinal tubules (5 of 6). In the 2-visit group, 2 cases were rendered bacteria-free; residual bacteria were found in the main canal only in 2 cases (none of them with persistent dentinal tubule infection), in the isthmus (4 of 7 cases), and in ramifications (2 of 7). The 2 instrumentation techniques performed similarly. When filling material was observed in ramifications, it was usually intermixed with necrotic tissue, debris, and bacteria. The 2-visit protocol by using an interappointment medication with calcium hydroxide resulted in improved microbiological status of the root canal system when compared with the 1-visit protocol. Residual bacteria were more frequent and abundant in ramifications, isthmuses, and dentinal tubules when root canals were treated without an interappointment medication. Apical ramifications and isthmuses were never completely filled. The use of an antibacterial interappointment agent

  16. Assessment of apically extruded debris produced by the self-adjusting file system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, Gustavo André; Nogueira Leal Silva, Emmanuel João; Moreira, Edson Jorge; de Almeida Neves, Aline; Belladonna, Felipe Gonçalves; Tameirão, Michele

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris by the Self-Adjusting-File system (SAF; ReDent-Nova, Ra'anana, Israel). Hand and rotary instruments were used as references for comparison. Sixty mesial roots of mandibular molars were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 20). The root canals were instrumented with hand files using a crown-down technique. The ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and SAF systems were used according to the manufacturers' instructions. Sodium hypochlorite was used as an irrigant, and the apically extruded debris was collected in preweighted glass vials and dried afterward. The mean weight of debris was assessed with a microbalance and statistically analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and the post hoc Tukey multiple comparison test. Hand file instrumentation produced significantly more debris compared with the ProTaper and SAF systems (P system produced significantly more debris compared with the SAF system (P systems caused apical debris extrusion. SAF instrumentation was associated with less debris extrusion compared with the use of hand and rotary files. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro evaluation of apical extrusion of bacteria following use of new rotary instrumentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the number of bacteria extruded apically from extracted teeth ex vivo after canal instrumentation using two engine-driven nickel-titanium instruments (Flex Master and V-Taper). Seventy extracted maxillary central incisor teeth were used. After preparing access cavities, root canals were contaminated with a suspension of Enterococcus faecalis, then dried. The contaminated roots were divided into two experimental groups of 30 teeth each and one control group of 10 teeth. Bacteria extruded from the apical foramen during instrumentation were collected into vials. The microbiological samples from the vials were incubated in culture media for 24 hours. Colonies of bacteria were counted, and the results were given as number of colony-forming units. The data obtained were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U-tests, with alpha = 0.05 as the level for statistical significance. Results showed that there was no significant difference as to the number of extruded bacteria between the two engine-driven systems (P > 0.05). Both engine-driven nickel-titanium systems extruded bacteria through the apical foramen.

  18. Light microscopic study of periapical lesions associated with asymptomatic apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, S L; Kabak, Y S; Anischenko, S L

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of the study has been to evaluate the degree of chronic inflammation in tissues surrounding the apex of the tooth root in patients with apical periodontitis in the remission phase. The material included 37 apical granulomas and radicular cysts obtained as a result of apiectomy, and 20 teeth which were removed together with the focus of the periapical inflammation. Routine histological techniques, as well as the immunofluorescent and immuno-chemical methods were used to examine the material. Despite the absence of clinical symptoms in 23 of 57 cases, the morphological signs of chronic inflammation were observed in the apical area of the tooth root. Morphological signs of viral invasion of epithelial and stromal cells in the radicular cyst wall were revealed in six cases. The presence of the virus of Herpes simplex I in epithelial cells (five cases) and adenoviral invasion (one case) was confirmed by immuno-fluorescent and immuno-chemical methods. Histological examination often reveals morphological signs of an active inflammatory process in the periapical tissues of patients treated during clinical remission. In our opinion, the presence of viruses in the epithelial cells of the radicular cyst may contribute to the persistence of the active stage of the inflammatory process.

  19. Periapical repair after root canal filling with different root canal sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Tanomaru, Juliane Maria Guerreiro; Leonardo, Mario Roberto; da Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate periapical repair after root canal filling with different endodontic sealers. Sixty-four root canals from dog s teeth were filled, divided into 4 groups (n=16). Root canals were instrumented with K-type files and irrigated with 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Root canals were filled in the same session by active lateral condensation of the cones and sealers: Intrafill, AH Plus, Roeko Seal and Resilon/Epiphany System. After 90 days, the animals were euthanized and the tissues to be evaluated were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. For histopathological analysis, the following parameters were evaluated: inflammatory process, mineralized tissue resorption, and apical mineralized tissue deposition. Histopathological analysis demonstrated that Intrafill had less favorable results in terms of apical and periapical repair, compared to the other sealers (p0.05). In conclusion, AH Plus and the materials Roeko Seal and Epiphany are good options for clinical use in Endodontics.

  20. Microcomputed tomography analysis of mesiobuccal orifices and major apical foramen in first maxillary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Ametrano, Gianluca; D'Antò, Vincenzo; Formisano, Anna; Simeone, Michele; Riccitiello, Francesco; Amato, Massimo; Rengo, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study was to determined by microcomputed tomography (µCT) the horizontal distance between the main (MB1) and the second mesiobuccal canal (MB2) orifices, the vertical distance between the MB1 and MB2 orifices planes, and the distance between the anatomic apex and major apical foramen (AF). Furthermore, we characterized the entire internal and external anatomy of the MB, distalbuccal (DB) and palatal (P) maxillary first molars roots. Twenty-two intact extracted first maxillary molars were scanned by X-ray computed transaxial µCT and then 2D and 3D images were processed and analyzed. The results showed that 77.27% of the mesiobuccal (MB) roots presented a second MB canal, and 29.41% of the MB2 were independent from the MB1 canals. In 15 teeth, there were three root canal orifices on the chamber floor, and 10 of these teeth presented MB2 canals. The mean vertical distance between the MB1 and MB2 planes was 1.68 ± 0.83 mm. Seven teeth had four orifices. The mean horizontal interorificial distance between the MB1 and MB2 orifices was 1.21 ± 0.5 mm. Accessory canals were observed in 33.33% of the roots, loops in 6.06%, while isthmuses were found in 15 of the 22 MB roots. Of the total roots, 74.24% presented one foramen, while all of the roots showed a major apical foramen that was not coincident with the anatomic apex. Our µCT analysis provided interesting features on the horizontal and vertical distance between the MB1 and MB2 orifices and on the distance of AF and anatomic apex. These results have an important clinical value because might support the endodontist in the recruitment, negotiation and obturation of maxillary first molar canal system.

  1. Relationship between root growth, temperature and anion uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holobrada, M; Mistrik, I; Kolek, J [Institute of Experimental Biology and Ecology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)

    1980-01-01

    The uptake and release were studied of /sup 35/S-sulfate ions by whole intact roots of maize seedlings. From the total incorporated sulfur only 20% were released back to the unlabelled culture solution. In correspondence to the physiological and biochemical-structural vertical gradient of the growing differentiating roots, the release of /sup 35/S from the apical root part was much lower than from the differentiated tissues.

  2. The relationship between root growth, temperature and anion uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holobrada, M.; Mistrik, I.; Kolek, J.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake and release were studied of 35 S-sulfate ions by whole intact roots of maize seedlings. From the total incorporated sulfur only 20% were released back to the unlabelled culture solution. In correspondence to the physiological and biochemical-structural vertical gradient of the growing differentiating roots, the release of 35 S from the apical root part was much lower than from the differentiated tissues. (author)

  3. Nonsurgical management of an extensive endodontic lesion in an orthodontic patient by calcium-enriched mixture apical plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asgary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periapical lesion is a general term used to describe the periapical inflammatory process that occurs in response to the invasion of micro-organisms in the root canal system as well as inflamed vital pulp. This phenomenon necessitates endodontic intervention and if the necrosis has occurred prior to tooth maturation, wide patency of the apical foramen requires some treatment modalities such as apexification or apical plug. Orthodontic treatment, on the other hand, is cautiously done for previously traumatized teeth due to increased risk for necrosis of the compromised tooth. This article tends to review the successful treatment process with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM cement apical plug for an immature previously traumatized incisor tooth with an extensive periapical lesion, which was under orthodontic treatment as well.

  4. Evaluation of the endodontic apical seal after post insertion by synchrotron radiation microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contardo, L.; De Luca, M.; Biasotto, M.; Longo, R.; Olivo, A.; Pani, S.; Di Lenarda, R.

    2005-01-01

    The commonly used methods for evaluating the endodontic apical seal, such as longitudinal and transversal section and diaphanization, show some operative difficulties and intrinsic limitation. This study suggests and describes a new method of analysis using a synchrotron radiation microtomography to analyse the root apex after post insertion, creating a three-dimensional image and analysing sections of the specimen every 5μm. The study was performed at SYRMEP beam line at the Electra Synchrotron in Trieste using monochromatic X-rays of 32KeV. Eleven monoradicular teeth were prepared using NiTi GT Rotary files instruments to an apical size 20 with conicity .06 and divided in four groups: in G1 (n=4) and G2 (n=2), the specimens were endodontically filled with guttapercha and a zinc-oxide sealer, in G3 (n=3) and G4 (n=2) guttapercha and a silicon-based sealer were used. An endodontic post was inserted in specimens of groups 1 and 3 following the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens were analysed using monochromatic X-rays of 32KeV. A CCD detector with pixel dimension pf 5x5μm 2 was used for the acquisition process. Seven hundred and twenty projections were performed over 180 o range using a high-resolution rotator. The projections were reconstructed using standard algorithms for tomographic reconstruction. The apical infiltration was evaluated by verifying if black spots were detectable on the images. The specimens of groups 3 and 4 showed a better apical seal than the ones of groups 1 and 2. Post insertion, when a ZOE-based sealer is used, increases the apical gap even if it does not seem to be clinically relevant and sufficient to be a cause of endodontic failure. The new method for analysis appeared to be effective to detect small defects in endodontic obturation, analysing guttapercha-sealer and sealer-dentin interfaces

  5. Management of immature teeth with apical infections using mineral trioxide aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injuries to the young permanent teeth lead to devitalization of the pulp with concomitant arrest in further development of the immature root of the involved tooth. Hermetic seal of the root canal system during obturation is not possible in such cases, due to the lack of an apical constriction. The traditional management technique in such cases has been apexification involving induction of a calcific barrier at the apex using calcium hydroxide, which in turn facilitates obturation of the root canal. However this becomes complicated when there is persistent infection leading to periapical changes. This case report describes the use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA for management of a periapically compromised immature tooth.

  6. Nitrogen uptake and assimilation by corn roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Akiyama, Yoko; Kumazawa, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    The site of nitrogen uptake in the apical root zone of corn was experimentally investigated. Two experiments were performed. The one is to see the assimilation of nitrate and ammonium and the effects of low temperature on it. The 4-day-old roots were treated with 15 N-labelled inorganic nitrogen of 20 ppm N in 5 x 10 -4 M CaSO 4 solution at 30 deg. C and 0 deg. C. The other is to see the nitrogen uptake at apical root zone and the utilization of newly absorbed nitrogen at the root top. The 4-day-old roots were transferred into 5 x 10 -4 M CaSO 4 solution containing 15 N-labelled ammonium nitrate of 40 ppm N. As a result, the effect of low temperature on the nitrogen uptake appeared to be more drastic in the case of nitrate than ammonium. The 15 N content of amino acids indicates that ammonium is assimilated into amino acids even at 0 deg. C, but nitrate is not. The ammonium nitrogen seemed to be absorbed at both cell dividing and elongating zones. On the other hand, nitrate nitrogen seemed to be strongly absorbed at cell elongating zone. The nitrogen in the apical part may be supplied not only by direct absorption but also by translocation from the basal part. The clear difference was found in the utilization of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen at the root top when the root was elongating. This may be due to the difference of assimilation products of inorganic nitrogen. Newly absorbed ammonium nitrogen is more utilizable for the growth of root top than nitrate nitrogen. (Iwakiri, K.)

  7. Comparison of the amount of apical debris extrusion associated with different retreatment systems and supplementary file application during retreatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Ersan; Koçak, Mustafa Murat; Koçak, Sibel; Sağlam, Baran Can

    2016-01-01

    The type of instrument affects the amount of debris extruded. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of retreatment systems and supplementary file application on the amount of apical debris extrusion. Forty-eight extracted mandibular premolars with a single canal and similar length were selected. The root canals were prepared with the ProTaper Universal system with a torque-controlled engine. The root canals were dried and were obturated using Gutta-percha and sealer. The specimens were randomly divided into four equal groups according to the retreatment procedures (Group 1, Mtwo retreatment files; Group 2, Mtwo retreatment files + Mtwo rotary file #30 supplementary file; Group 3, ProTaper Universal retreatment (PTUR) files; and Group 4, PTUR files + ProTaper F3 supplementary file). The extruded debris during instrumentation were collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The amount of apically extruded debris was calculated by subtracting the initial weight of the tube from the final weight. Three consecutive weights were obtained for each tube. No statistically significant difference was found in the amount of apically extruded debris between Groups 1 and 3 (P = 0.590). A significant difference was observed between Groups 1 and 2 (P file significantly increased the amount of apically extruded debris.

  8. Assessment of age of majority by measurement of open apices of the third molars using Cameriere's third molar maturity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Preeti; Wadhwan, Vijay; Ravi Prakash, S M; Aggarwal, Pooja; Sharma, Neeraj

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of biological age of a living subject around the legal cutoff age for adulthood has become a grave concern for forensic experts in India, mainly due to the consequences of criminal obligations in judicial proceedings. Thus, this study was planned to examine the open apices of third molars in discriminating between individuals who are aged 18 years or older and who are not 18 years or older and to assign a cutoff for estimation of the age of 18 years. Orthopantomographs of 1062 individuals (14 and 23 years) were assessed, to verify Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I 3M ). The apical ends of the roots of the left mandibular third molar were analyzed. If the apical ends of the roots are completely closed, then I 3M is zero; otherwise, it is calculated as the sum of the distances between the inner sides of the two open apices divided by the tooth length. The sensitivity of the test for 0.08 value was 74.7% for males and 66% for females. Specificity was 83.6% for males and 79.6% for females. The probability that an Indian individual with an I 3M age in Indian population.

  9. The Root Transition Zone: A Hot Spot for Signal Crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangpei; Liu, Guangchao; Liu, Jiajia; Ding, Zhaojun

    2018-05-01

    The root transition zone (TZ), located between the apical meristem and basal elongation region, has a unique role in root growth and development. The root TZ is not only the active site for hormone crosstalk, but also the perception site for various environmental cues, such as aluminum (Al) stress and low phosphate (Pi) stress. We propose that the root TZ is a hot spot for the integration of diverse inputs from endogenous (hormonal) and exogenous (sensorial) stimuli to control root growth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Apical Cyst Theory: a Missing Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, George T-J

    2010-10-05

    The mechanism of the formation of apical cyst has been elusive. Several theories have long been proposed and discussed speculating how an apical cyst is developed and formed in the jaw bone resulting from endododontic infection. Two popular theories are the nutritional deficiency theory and the abscess theory. The nutritional deficiency theory assumes that the over proliferated epithelial cells will form a ball mass such that the cells in the center of the mass will be deprived of nutrition. The abscess theory postulates that when an abscess cavity is formed in connective tissue, epithelial cells proliferate and line the preexisting cavity because of their inherent tendency to cover exposed connective tissue surfaces. Based on the nature of epithelial cells and the epithelium, nutritional theory is a fairy tale, while abscess theory at best just indicates that abscess may be one of the factors that allows the stratified epithelium to form but not to explain a mechanism that makes the cyst to form. Apical cyst formation is the result of proliferation of resting epithelial cells, due to inflammation, to a sufficient number such that they are able to form a polarized and stratified epithelial lining against dead tissues or foreign materials. These stratified epithelial lining expands along the dead tissue or foreign materials and eventually wrap around them as a spherical sac, i.e. a cyst. The space in the sac is considered the external environment separating the internal (tissue) environment - the natural function of epithelium. This theory may be tested by introducing a biodegradable device able to slowly release epithelial cell mitogens in an in vivo environment implanted with epithelial cells next to a foreign object. This will allow the cells to continuously proliferate which may form a cystic sac wrapping around the foreign object.

  11. Determination of the Apical Sealing Abilities of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Portland Cement, and Bioaggregate After Irrigation with Different Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, H Melike; Saklar, Feridun; Bayram, Emre; Orucoglu, Hasan; Bozkurt, Alperen

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sealing ability of root-end filling materials such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Portland cement, and bioaggregate (BA) after irrigation with different solutions. We examined 130 human maxillar central teeth. After cutting the teeth at the cementoenamel junction, the root canals were expanded using nickel-titanium rotary instruments. Root canals were filled with AH-plus and gutta-percha. Then, the roots were cut apically, and 3 mm deep retrograde cavities were prepared. The roots were divided 12 experimental groups, consisting 10 teeth each; the positive and negative control groups contained five teeth each. The retrograde cavities were rinsed using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), chlorhexidine (CHX), BioPure(™) mixture of a tetracycline isomer, an acid, and a detergent (MTAD), or distilled water. Next, groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were sealed with MTA; groups 5, 6, 7, and 8 were sealed with Portland cement; and groups 9, 10, 11, and 12 were sealed with BA. Then, apical microleakage was evaluated by using a computerized fluid filtration method. The results of the leakage test were statistically evaluated by the post-hoc Tukey's test. MTA, Portland cement, and BA root-end filling materials showed the least leakage in the CHX and distilled water groups. The highest leakage was observed in the EDTA and MTAD groups. The sealing ability of BA was as good as that of MTA. EDTA and MTAD increased the apical leakage and CHX and distilled water decreased the leakage of the root-end filling materials examined in this study.

  12. Regenerative treatment of an immature, traumatized tooth with apical periodontitis: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Elisabetta; Mereu, Manuela; Lusso, Daniela

    2008-05-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a necrotic immature permanent central incisor with complete crown fracture, suspected root fracture, and sinus tract, which was not treated with conventional apexification techniques. Instead, a regenerative approach based on the trauma literature's methods for revascularization was provided. The root canal was gently debrided of necrotic tissue with a sharp spoon excavator and irrigated for only one third of its length with NaOCl and then medicated with calcium hydroxide. After 15 days the sinus tract had healed, and the tooth was asymptomatic. The tooth was accessed, calcium hydroxide was removed, bleeding was stimulated to form an intracanal blood clot, and mineral trioxide aggregate was placed coronally to the blood clot. After 8 months, a coronal calcified barrier was radiographically evident and accompanied with progressive thickening of the root wall and apical closure. Two and a half years after treatment was initiated, the tooth remained asymptomatic, and the sinus tract had not reappeared. The progressive increase in the thickness of the dentinal walls and subsequent apical development suggest that appropriate biologic responses can occur with this type of treatment of the necrotic immature permanent tooth with sinus tract.

  13. Localized iron supply triggers lateral root elongation in Arabidopsis by altering the AUX1-mediated auxin distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giehl, Ricardo F H; Lima, Joni E; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation.

  14. IAA transport in corn roots includes the root cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenstein, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    In earlier reports we concluded that auxin is the growth regulator that controls gravicurvature in roots and that the redistribution of auxin occurs within the root cap. Since other reports did not detect auxin in the root cap, we attempted to confirm the IAA does move through the cap. Agar blocks containing 3 H-IAA were applied to the cut surface of 5 mm long apical segments of primary roots of corn (mo17xB73). After 30 to 120 min radioactivity (RA) of the cap and root tissue was determined. While segments suspended in water-saturated air accumulated very little RA in the cap, application of 0.5 μ1 of dist. water to the cap (=controls) increased RA of the cap dramatically. Application to the cap of 0.5 μ1 of sorbitol or the Ca 2+ chelator EGTA reduced cap RA to 46% and 70% respectively compared to water, without affecting uptake. Control root segments gravireacted faster than non-treated or osmoticum or EGTA treated segments. The data indicate that both the degree of hydration and calcium control the amount of auxin moving through the cap

  15. Prevalence and morphometric analysis of three-rooted mandibular first molars in a Brazilian subpopulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Teles Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The knowledge of the internal anatomy of three-rooted mandibular molars may help clinicians to diagnose and plan the root canal treatment in order to provide adequate therapy when this variation is present. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of three-rooted mandibular molars in a Brazilian population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT and to analyze the anatomy of mandibular first molars with three roots through micro-CT. Material and Methods: CBCT images of 116 patients were reviewed to determine the prevalence of three-rooted first mandibular molars in a Brazilian subpopulation. Furthermore, with the use of micro-CT, 55 extracted three-rooted mandibular first molars were scanned and reconstructed to assess root length, distance between canal orifices, apical diameter, Vertucci's classification, presence of apical delta, number of foramina and furcations, lateral and accessory canals. The distance between the orifice on the pulp chamber floor and the beginning of the curvature and the angle of canal curvature were analyzed in the distolingual root. Data were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05. Results: The prevalence of three-rooted mandibular first molars was of 2.58%. Mesial roots showed complex distribution of the root canal system in comparison to the distal roots. The median of major diameters of mesiobuccal, mesiolingual and single mesial canals were: 0.34, 0.41 and 0.60 mm, respectively. The higher values of major diameters were found in the distobuccal canals (0.56 mm and the lower diameters in the distolingual canals (0.29 mm. The lowest orifice distance was found between the mesial canals (MB-ML and the highest distance between the distal root canals (DB-DL. Almost all distal roots had one root canal and one apical foramen with few accessory canals. Conclusions: Distolingual root generally has short length, severe curvature and a single root canal with low apical diameter.

  16. Prevalence and morphometric analysis of three-rooted mandibular first molars in a Brazilian subpopulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Clarissa Teles; de Oliveira-Santos, Christiano; Bernardineli, Norberti; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Minotti-Bonfante, Paloma Gagliardi; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The knowledge of the internal anatomy of three-rooted mandibular molars may help clinicians to diagnose and plan the root canal treatment in order to provide adequate therapy when this variation is present. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of three-rooted mandibular molars in a Brazilian population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to analyze the anatomy of mandibular first molars with three roots through micro-CT. Material and Methods: CBCT images of 116 patients were reviewed to determine the prevalence of three-rooted first mandibular molars in a Brazilian subpopulation. Furthermore, with the use of micro-CT, 55 extracted three-rooted mandibular first molars were scanned and reconstructed to assess root length, distance between canal orifices, apical diameter, Vertucci's classification, presence of apical delta, number of foramina and furcations, lateral and accessory canals. The distance between the orifice on the pulp chamber floor and the beginning of the curvature and the angle of canal curvature were analyzed in the distolingual root. Data were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05). Results: The prevalence of three-rooted mandibular first molars was of 2.58%. Mesial roots showed complex distribution of the root canal system in comparison to the distal roots. The median of major diameters of mesiobuccal, mesiolingual and single mesial canals were: 0.34, 0.41 and 0.60 mm, respectively. The higher values of major diameters were found in the distobuccal canals (0.56 mm) and the lower diameters in the distolingual canals (0.29 mm). The lowest orifice distance was found between the mesial canals (MB-ML) and the highest distance between the distal root canals (DB-DL). Almost all distal roots had one root canal and one apical foramen with few accessory canals. Conclusions: Distolingual root generally has short length, severe curvature and a single root canal with low apical diameter. PMID:27812625

  17. Composite Cucurbita pepo plants with transgenic roots as a tool to study root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilina, Elena L; Logachov, Anton A; Laplaze, Laurent; Demchenko, Nikolay P; Pawlowski, Katharina; Demchenko, Kirill N

    2012-07-01

    In most plant species, initiation of lateral root primordia occurs above the elongation zone. However, in cucurbits and some other species, lateral root primordia initiation and development takes place in the apical meristem of the parental root. Composite transgenic plants obtained by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation are known as a suitable model to study root development. The aim of the present study was to establish this transformation technique for squash. The auxin-responsive promoter DR5 was cloned into the binary vectors pKGW-RR-MGW and pMDC162-GFP. Incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) was used to evaluate the presence of DNA-synthesizing cells in the hypocotyl of squash seedlings to find out whether they were suitable for infection. Two A. rhizogenes strains, R1000 and MSU440, were used. Roots containing the respective constructs were selected based on DsRED1 or green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence, and DR5::Egfp-gusA or DR5::gusA insertion, respectively, was verified by PCR. Distribution of the response to auxin was visualized by GFP fluorescence or β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity staining and confirmed by immunolocalization of GFP and GUS proteins, respectively. Based on the distribution of EdU-labelled cells, it was determined that 6-day-old squash seedlings were suited for inoculation by A. rhizogenes since their root pericycle and the adjacent layers contain enough proliferating cells. Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000 proved to be the most virulent strain on squash seedlings. Squash roots containing the respective constructs did not exhibit the hairy root phenotype and were morphologically and structurally similar to wild-type roots. The auxin response pattern in the root apex of squash resembled that in arabidopsis roots. Composite squash plants obtained by A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation are a good tool for the investigation of root apical meristem development and root branching.

  18. Micro-Computed Tomography Analysis of the Root Canal Morphology of Palatal Roots of Maxillary First Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceliano-Alves, Marília; Alves, Flávio Rodrigues Ferreira; Mendes, Daniel de Melo; Provenzano, José Claudio

    2016-02-01

    A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy is critical for successful root canal treatments. This study evaluated the internal anatomy of the palatal roots of maxillary first molars with micro-computed tomography (microCT). The palatal roots of extracted maxillary first molars (n = 169) were scanned with microCT to determine several anatomic parameters, including main canal classification, lateral canal occurrence and location, degree of curvature, main foramen position, apical constriction presence, diameters 1 and 2 mm from the apex and 1 mm from the foramen, minor dentin thickness in those regions, canal volume, surface area, and convexity. All canals were classified as Vertucci type I. The cross sections were oval in 61% of the canals. Lateral canals were found in 25% of the samples. The main foramen did not coincide with the root apex in 95% of the cases. Only 8% of the canals were classified as straight. Apical constriction was identified in 38% of the roots. The minor and major canal diameters and minor dentin thickness were decreased near the apex. The minor dentin thickness 1 mm from the foramen was 0.82 mm. The palatal canals exhibited a volume of 6.91 mm(3) and surface area of 55.31 mm(2) and were rod-shaped. The root canals of the palatal roots were classified as type I. However, some factors need to be considered during the treatment of these roots, including the frequent ocurrence of moderate/severe curvatures, oval-shaped cross-sections, and lateral canals, noncoincidence of the apical foramen with the root apex, and absence of apical constriction in most cases. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of apical extrusion of intracanal bacteria using rotary ProTaper, K3XF, twisted and hand K-file system: An ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghogre, Priyanka; Chourasia, Hemant Ramesh; Agarwal, Manish; Singh, M P; Gurav, Sandeep; Ghogre, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the number of intracanal bacteria extruded apically during root canal preparation using rotary ProTaper, K3XF, twisted, and hand K-file system. Seventy extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were used. Access cavities were prepared and the teeth were mounted in glass vials. Root canals were then contaminated with a pure culture of Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The contaminated roots were divided into four experimental groups of 15 teeth each and one control group of 10 teeth. Group 1: ProTaper; Group 2: K3XF; Group 3: Twisted file; Group 4: Hand K-file; Group 5: Control group. Bacteria extruded from the apical foramen during instrumentation were collected into vials. The microbiological samples were incubated in culture media for 24 h. Colonies of bacteria were counted and the results were given as number of colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. The obtained data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U-tests. There was a significant difference between the rotary and hand instrumentation system related to the apically extruded intracanal bacteria. Both the rotary and hand instrumentation systems extruded intracanal bacteria through the apical foramen. K3XF file system showed least bacterial extrusion amongst all instrumentation groups.

  20. Single-visit endodontic treatment of mature teeth with chronic apical abscesses using mineral trioxide aggregate cement: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulaimani, Reem Siraj

    2016-08-23

    Mature teeth with chronic apical abscesses characterized by intermittent discharge of pus through an associated sinus tract. This communication between oral mucosa and periapical inflammation is challenging for the sealing ability of root canal obturation material. Therefore, the study aim was to compare the outcomes of endodontic treatment using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cement to the conventional gutta-percha cone and root canal sealer as an obturation material in mature teeth with chronic apical abscesses. Mature teeth with chronic apical abscesses referred to our clinic for root canal treatment between 2010 and 2012 were treated in a single visit and distributed among treatment (T) and control (C) groups using a predetermined randomization block (TCTC). After chemo-mechanical preparation, teeth in group T received MTA cement mixed in a 0.26 water to powder ratio, and teeth group C received gutta-percha and root canal sealer using the warm vertical technique. The treatment outcomes were defined as obturation length, periapical healing, resorption of extruded material, and survival rate at least 2.5 years after treatment. Three endodontists blinded to the type of obturation material documented treatment outcomes. Statistical analysis at P chronic apical abscesses using MTA cement were better, but not statistically significant, compared to conventional treatment. ISRCTN15285974 . Registered retrospectively 23 June 2015.

  1. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  2. Apical Extrusion of Debris Produced during Continuous Rotating and Reciprocating Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Nevares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse and compare apical extrusion of debris in canals instrumented with systems used in reciprocating and continuous motion. Sixty mandibular premolars were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=20: the Reciproc (REC, WaveOne (WO, and HyFlex CM (HYF groups. One Eppendorf tube per tooth was weighed in advance on an analytical balance. The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturer’s instructions, and standardised irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite was performed to a total volume of 9 mL. After instrumentation, the teeth were removed from the Eppendorf tubes and incubated at 37°C for 15 days to evaporate the liquid. The tubes were weighed again, and the difference between the initial and final weight was calculated to determine the weight of the debris. The data were statistically analysed using the Shapiro-Wilk, Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney tests (α=5%. All systems resulted in the apical extrusion of debris. Reciproc produced significantly more debris than WaveOne (p<0.05, and both systems produced a greater apical extrusion of debris than HyFlex CM (p<0.001. Cross section and motion influenced the results, despite tip standardization.

  3. Symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis associated with red complex bacteria: clinical and microbiological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonavoglia, Alessio; Latronico, Francesca; Pirani, Chiara; Greco, Maria Fiorella; Corrente, Marialaura; Prati, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the association of red complex (RC) bacteria that include Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia and Porphyromonas gingivalis with acute, exacerbated or chronic apical periodontitis was evaluated. Seventy-one patients with periapical disease were evaluated by clinical examination and microbiological samples obtained from the root canals were analyzed by a polymerase chain reaction assay. Twenty-one (29.6%) samples were positive for RC bacteria, with T. denticola, T. forsythia and P. gingivalis being detected in 14 (19.7%), 10 (14.1%) and 6 (8.5%) samples, respectively. RC bacteria were mainly associated with acute apical periodontitis (29.2%) and phoenix abscess (63.2%), while they were only sporadically detected (7.1%) in patients with chronic apical periodontitis. Generally, RC bacteria were associated with pain and a higher frequency of intracanalar/intrasulcular pus drainage. Involvement of RC bacteria in symptomatic periapical disease should be suspected in the presence of particularly severe clinical pain and pus drainage.

  4. An in vitro evaluation of the apical sealing ability of new polymeric endodontic filling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onay, Emel Olga; Ungor, Mete; Unver, Saadet; Ari, Hale; Belli, Sema

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term sealing abilities of recently introduced polymeric endodontic filling systems. Root canals of 120 extracted and decoronated human single-rooted teeth were instrumented using crown-down technique with HERO Shaper rotary instruments. The roots were divided randomly into 8 groups (6 experimental and 2 control groups of 15 roots each) and filled with different combinations of core and sealer as follows: group 1, RealSeal/Resilon; group 2, RealSeal/Herofill; group 3, Hybrid Root Seal/Resilon; group 4, Hybrid Root Seal/Herofill; group 5, MM-Seal/Resilon; group 6, MM-Seal/Herofill; group 7, positive controls (Herofill only); group 8, negative controls. Apical leakage quantity was evaluated after 1 week by using a fluid filtration model. For each sample, measurements of fluid movement were recorded at 2-minute intervals for a total of 8 minutes, and then averaged. The data were calculated and analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the Tukey test. Significance was set at P less than .05. Multiple paired comparisons (Tukey test) showed that, of all the groups, MM-Seal/Herofill combination exhibited the least microleakage, and RealSeal/Herofill combination ranked second in this regard. The mean leakage values for the RealSeal/Resilon and MM-Seal/Resilon combinations were both significantly higher than the means for the other 4 experimental groups (P < .01). Hybrid Root Seal combined with Resilon resulted in significantly less microleakage than Hybrid Root Seal combined with Herofill (P = .001). The results suggest that the sealing properties of epoxy-resin-based sealer (MM-Seal) combined with gutta-percha (Herofill) are superior to those of methacrylate-based sealers (Hybrid Root Seal and Realseal) combined with Resilon.

  5. [Root canal treatment of mandibular first premolar with 4 root canals: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-yang; Zhan, Fu-Liang

    2015-10-01

    The mandibular first premolar can be considered one of the most challenging teeth to treat, due to the complexity of its root canal morphology and increased incidence of multiple canals. A case of endodontic treatment of a mandibular first premolar exhibiting a total of 4 distinct root canals and 4 apical foramina was described. Anatomic variation of root canal morphology should be considered in endodontic treatment to ensure a favorable healing outcome, and its identification could be enhanced by careful examination using a dental operating microscope. Obturation of root canals using a warm vertical compaction technique with a highly-radiopaque root canal sealer, such as AH Plus, after careful ultrasonic activated irrigation might allow the flow of sealer into the narrowed but unprepared part of the canal, thereby facilitating optimum chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of apical extrusion of debris and irrigants using four rotary instrumentation systems: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaveni, S Aspalli; Balakoti, K Reddy; Smita, Karan; Ratnakar, P; Satish, S V; Aravind, T

    2013-11-01

    The apical extrusion of infected debris may have the potential to disrupt the balance between microbial aggression and host defense, resulting in incidents of acute inflammation. During preparation, irrigants and debris, such as bacteria, dentin filings and necrotic tissue may be extruded into the periradicular region leading to periapical inflammation and postoperative flare ups. Using an instrumentation technique that minimizes apical extrusion would be beneficial to both the practitioner and patient. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the weight of debris and volume of irrigant extruded apically from extracted teeth in vitro after endodontic instrumentation using four different rotary root canal instrumentation systems. Four groups of each 20 extracted mandibular premolars were instrumented using one of the four systems: ProTaper Universal (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland)), Hero-shaper (MicroMega, Besancon, France), RaCe (FKG Dentaire, La-Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) and K3 (SybronEndo, West Collins, CA). Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen during instrumentation were collected in preweighed test tubes. Volume of irrigant extruded was noted. The containers were stored in incubator at 70° for two days to evaporate the moisture. Weight of dry debris was noted. Data was analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test at a significance of 0.001. The results indicated that all of the instrumentation systems tested caused measurable apical extrusion of debris and irrigants. Higher extrusion was observed with Protaper system which was statistically significant with Hero-Shaper, RaCe and K3 systems. There were no statistical differences between Hero-shaper, K3 and RaCe systems (p < 0.05). All instrumentation techniques apically extruded debris and irrigant. However, Hero-shaper, K3 and RaCe systems produced less extruded debris and irrigant than the Protaper system.

  7. Etiology and sequelae of root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskalic, V; Boyd, R L; Baumrind, S

    1998-06-01

    This article reviews the current status of investigation into apical root resorption within the context of orthodontic treatment. Treatment and patient factors that have traditionally been investigated are discussed, along with the results of current research in this area. The need for rethinking traditional research strategies in the quest for identifying both control and causative mechanisms is explored. Finally, proposals for key areas of future interest are highlighted.

  8. Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Association with PulmonaryArtery Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Peighambari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is an uncommon condition constituting 1% -2% of the cases with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM diagnosis. We interestingly report two patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in association with significant pulmonary artery hypertension without any other underlying reason for pulmonary hypertension. The patients were assessed by echocardiography, cardiac catheterization and pulmonary function parameters study.

  9. [The accidental detection of apical periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselink, P R

    2011-04-01

    Accidental detection of an asymptomatic apical periodontitis raises the question whether this lesion should be treated or not. Arguments favouring treatment are that the inflammation may cause pain in the future, may enlarge or may negatively affect the host's resistance. Reasons for not treating may be that treatment weakens the tooth, may cause iatrogenic damage and that treatment is expensive and burdensome for the patient and does not lead in all cases to complete healing. Scientific evidence supporting either choice, whether treating the lesion or not, is lacking. In making such decisions, therefore, personal judgments by the patient and the dentist concerning the impact on the quality of life of the patient play an important role.

  10. An auxin responsive CLE gene regulates shoot apical meristem development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan eGuo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant hormone auxin regulates most, if not all aspects of plant growth and development, including lateral root formation, organ pattering, apical dominance and tropisms. Peptide hormones are peptides with hormone activities. Some of the functions of peptide hormones in regulating plant growth and development are similar to that of auxin, however, the relationship between auxin and peptide hormones remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of OsCLE48, a rice (Oryza sativa CLE (CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION gene, as an auxin response gene, and the functional characterization of OsCLE48 in Arabidopsis and rice. OsCLE48 encodes a CLE peptide hormone that is similar to Arabidopsis CLEs. RT-PCR analysis showed that OsCLE48 was induced by exogenously application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid, a naturally occurred auxin. Expression of integrated OsCLE48p:GUS reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was also induced by exogenously IAA treatment. These results indicate that OsCLE48 is an auxin responsive gene. Histochemical staining showed that GUS activity was detected in all the tissue and organs of the OsCLE48p:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis inhibited shoot apical meristem development. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the CLV3 native regulatory elements almost completely complemented clv3-2 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that OsCLE48 is functionally similar to CLV3. On the other hand, expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis has little, if any effects on root apical meristem development, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsCLE48 are morphologically indistinguishable from wild type plants, suggesting that the functions of some CLE peptides may not be fully conserved in Arabidopsis and rice.

  11. Apical extrusion of bacteria when using reciprocating single-file and rotary multifile instrumentation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, J M; De-Deus, G; Tinoco, E M B; Saavedra, F; Fidel, R A S; Sassone, L M

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate ex vivo, apical bacterial extrusion associated with two reciprocating single-file systems (WaveOne and Reciproc) compared with a conventional multifile rotary system (BioRace). Forty-five human single-rooted mandibular incisors were used. Endodontic access cavities were prepared, and root canals were contaminated with an Enterococcus faecalis suspension. Following incubation at 37 °C for thirty days, the contaminated teeth were divided into three groups of 15 specimens each (G1 - Reciproc, G2 - WaveOne and G3 - BioRace). Positive and negative controls consisted of 5 infected teeth and 3 uninfected incisors that were instrumented with one of the tested NiTi systems, respectively. Bacteria extruded from the apical foramen during instrumentation were collected into vials containing 0.9% NaCl. The microbiological samples were taken from the vials and incubated in brain heart agar medium for 24 h. The resulting bacterial titre, in colony-forming units (CFU) per mL, was determined, and these data were analysed by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test and Kruskal-Wallis H-test. The level of significance was set at α = 0.05. No significant difference was found in the number of CFU between the two reciprocating systems (P = 0.41). The conventional multifile rotary system group was associated with significantly higher CFU than both of the two reciprocating groups (P = 0.01). All instrumentation systems extruded bacteria beyond the foramen. However, both reciprocating single-file systems extruded fewer bacteria apically than the conventional multifile rotary system. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Variations in the Root Form and Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Mandibular First Molars in a Sri Lankan Population

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    Roshan Peiris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the number of roots and morphology of the root canal system of permanent mandibular first molars (M1 in a Sri Lankan population. Sample of 529 M1 teeth was used. The number of roots was examined and the lengths of the mesial and distal roots were measured to the nearest 0.01 mm. Vacuum injection protocol was used to inject China ink into the root canal system, making it transparent. Root canal morphology was recorded using Vertucci’s classification. Presence of furcation canals, position of lateral canals, intercanal communications, level of bifurcation, and convergence of the root canal system were recorded. M1 showed three roots in 4.1% of the sample. Commonest root canal morphology of the mesial root was type IV and the distal root was type I. The level of bifurcation of the root canals was commonly observed in the cervical one-third of the root while convergence was observed in the apical one-third in both roots. Prevalence of three rooted mandibular first molars is less than 5%. Mesial root showed the most variable canal morphology. Prevalence of furcation canals was 1.5% while that of middle mesial canals was 0.2%.

  13. Histologic study of a human immature permanent premolar with chronic apical abscess after revascularization/revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Patricia; Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Gibbs, Jennifer L; Lin, Louis M

    2014-01-01

    Histologic studies of teeth from animal models of revascularization/revitalization are available; however, specimens from human studies are lacking. The nature of tissues formed in the canal of human revascularized/revitalized teeth was not well established. An immature mandibular premolar with infected necrotic pulp and a chronic apical abscess was treated with revascularization/revitalization procedures. At both the 18-month and 2-year follow-up visits, radiographic examination showed complete resolution of the periapical lesion, narrowing of the root apex without root lengthening, and minimal thickening of the canal walls. The revascularized/revitalized tooth was removed because of orthodontic treatment and processed for histologic examination. The large canal space of revascularized/revitalized tooth was not empty and filled with fibrous connective tissue. The apical closure was caused by cementum deposition without dentin. Some cementum-like tissue was formed on the canal dentin walls. Inflammatory cells were observed in the coronal and middle third of revascularized/revitalized tissue. In the present case, the tissue formed in the canal of a human revascularized/revitalized tooth was soft connective tissue similar to that in the periodontal ligament and cementum-like or bone-like hard tissue, which is comparable with the histology observed in the canals of teeth from animal models of revascularization/revitalization. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Diabetes enhances dental caries and apical periodontitis in caries-susceptible WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-02-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and alveolar bone resorption were much higher in male WBN/KobSlc rats with chronic diabetes than in nondiabetic female rats of the same strain. Histopathologic examination showed that dental caries progressed from acute to subacute inflammation due to bacterial infections and necrosis in the pulp when the caries penetrated the dentin. In the most advanced stage of dental caries, inflammatory changes caused root abscess and subsequent apical periodontitis, with the formation of granulation tissue around the dental root. Inflammatory changes resulted in resorption of alveolar bone and correlated well with the severity of molar caries. Our results suggest that diabetic conditions enhance dental caries in WBN/KobSlc rats and that periodontal lesions may result from the apical periodontitis that is secondary to dental caries.

  15. Wear promoted in the apical third of simulated canals after instrumentation with protaper universal system

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    Kathrein Tapia da Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the wear in the apical third of simulate canals after preparation with ProTaper Universal Rotary System. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 24 sets of instruments were used in 24 simulated canals in transparent epoxy resin blocks with degree of curvature of either 20°or 40°. The canals were photographed preoperatively and after preparation of the apical stop with ProTaper F3, F4 and F5 instruments. The initial and final images were exported to Adobe Photoshop® software and superimposed to detect the root canal wall differences (in mm between them, in two points located 1 (A and 5 (B mm from the point where the working length was established. Data were subjected to analysis of variance to verify the existence of interaction among the factors: canal curvature, instrument size and curve location. Significant level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Regardless of the location and the canal curvature, F4 and F5 instruments produced the greatest wear (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: There was a deviation from the original pathway towards the outside of the root curvature in both analyzed points. All instruments produced canal transportation, but the F4 and F5 instruments produced more than the other instruments, and should thus be used with care in curved canals.

  16. Pain following foraminal enlargement in mandibular molars with necrosis and apical periodontitis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, H R; Sangwan, P; Sangwan, A

    2016-12-01

    This randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of foraminal enlargement during chemomechanical root canal preparation on postoperative pain. Seventy mandibular first molars with asymptomatic pulp necrosis and chronic apical periodontitis were randomized into two groups - foraminal enlargement (FE) and conventional nonforaminal enlargement (NFE). Canals were prepared according to the respective protocols, and the teeth were restored temporarily. Postoperatively, the patients were prescribed ibuprofen 400 mg, to be taken if required. Pain experience and analgesic intake were recorded for 7 days following chemomechanical preparation. The data were analysed using Mann-Whitney U-test and chi-square tests. Pain experience was higher with foraminal enlargement than when using a conventional technique. A significant difference was observed in postoperative pain during the first 4 days and the sixth day (P  0.05). Enlargement of the apical foramen during root canal treatment increased the incidence and intensity of postoperative pain. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Cutting efficiency of apical preparation using ultrasonic tips with microprojections: confocal laser scanning microscopy study

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    Sang-Won Kwak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the cutting efficiency of a newly developed microprojection tip and a diamond-coated tip under two different engine powers. Materials and Methods The apical 3-mm of each root was resected, and root-end preparation was performed with upward and downward pressure using one of the ultrasonic tips, KIS-1D (Obtura Spartan or JT-5B (B&L Biotech Ltd.. The ultrasonic engine was set to power-1 or -4. Forty teeth were randomly divided into four groups: K1 (KIS-1D / Power-1, J1 (JT-5B / Power-1, K4 (KIS-1D / Power-4, and J4 (JT-5B / Power-4. The total time required for root-end preparation was recorded. All teeth were resected and the apical parts were evaluated for the number and length of cracks using a confocal scanning micrscope. The size of the root-end cavity and the width of the remaining dentin were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and a Mann-Whitney test. Results There was no significant difference in the time required between the instrument groups, but the power-4 groups showed reduced preparation time for both instrument groups (p < 0.05. The K4 and J4 groups with a power-4 showed a significantly higher crack formation and a longer crack irrespective of the instruments. There was no significant difference in the remaining dentin thickness or any of the parameters after preparation. Conclusions Ultrasonic tips with microprojections would be an option to substitute for the conventional ultrasonic tips with a diamond coating with the same clinical efficiency.

  18. Cutting efficiency of apical preparation using ultrasonic tips with microprojections: confocal laser scanning microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Sang-Won; Moon, Young-Mi; Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Baek, Seung-Ho; Lee, WooCheol; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cutting efficiency of a newly developed microprojection tip and a diamond-coated tip under two different engine powers. The apical 3-mm of each root was resected, and root-end preparation was performed with upward and downward pressure using one of the ultrasonic tips, KIS-1D (Obtura Spartan) or JT-5B (B&L Biotech Ltd.). The ultrasonic engine was set to power-1 or -4. Forty teeth were randomly divided into four groups: K1 (KIS-1D / Power-1), J1 (JT-5B / Power-1), K4 (KIS-1D / Power-4), and J4 (JT-5B / Power-4). The total time required for root-end preparation was recorded. All teeth were resected and the apical parts were evaluated for the number and length of cracks using a confocal scanning micrscope. The size of the root-end cavity and the width of the remaining dentin were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and a Mann-Whitney test. There was no significant difference in the time required between the instrument groups, but the power-4 groups showed reduced preparation time for both instrument groups (p < 0.05). The K4 and J4 groups with a power-4 showed a significantly higher crack formation and a longer crack irrespective of the instruments. There was no significant difference in the remaining dentin thickness or any of the parameters after preparation. Ultrasonic tips with microprojections would be an option to substitute for the conventional ultrasonic tips with a diamond coating with the same clinical efficiency.

  19. A comparative evaluation of gutta percha removal and extrusion of apical debris by rotary and hand files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar; Ebenezar, A V Rajesh; Kumar, Mohan; Sivakumar, A

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Protaper retreatment files in comparison with RaCe, K3 and H-files for removal of gutta-percha and apically extruded debris using volumetric analysis. Forty extracted single rooted maxillary incisor teeth with straight canals and mature apices were selected for the study. After access cavity preparation, apical patency was confirmed with a size 10 K-file extending 1mm beyond the point at which it was first visible at the apical end. Working lengths were determined with the use of size 15 K-file. The canals were prepared in a step-back technique and the master apical file was size 30 for all teeth. 3% sodium hypochlorite was used as an irrigant after each instrumentation. Before final rinse, size 20 K-file was passed 1mm beyond the apex to remove any dentinal shaving plugs and maintain the apical patency. Then the canals were dried with paper points. The root canal was filled using standard gutta-percha points and zinc oxide eugenol sealer under lateral condensation technique. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups of ten teeth each based on the instrument used for gutta percha removal. All the rotary instruments used in this study were rotated at 300rpm. The instruments used were: Group 1 - RaCe Files, Group 2 - ProTaper retreatment Files, Group 3 - K3 Files and Group 4 - H Files. The volume of the obturating material was calculated before and after removal using volumetric analysis with spiral CT. The removal efficacy with each instrument was calculated and statistically analysed. The results of the study show that the ProTaper retreatment files (Group 2) (97.4%) showed the highest efficiency in the removal of obturating material, which was followed by RaCe (95.74%), K3 (92.86%) and H files (90.14%) with the efficiency in the decreasing order. Similarly the mean apical extrusion in H files (0.000 ± 0.002) was significantly lower than all the rotary instruments. However, the difference among the

  20. [Comparison of root resorption between self-ligating and conventional brackets using cone-beam CT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Guo, Hong-ming

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the differences of root resorption between passive self-ligating and conventional brackets, and to determine the relationship between passive self-ligating brackets and root resorption. Fifty patients were randomly divided into 2 groups using passive self-ligating brackets or conventional straight wire brackets (0.022 system), respectively. Cone-beam CT was taken before and after treatment. The amount of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors was measured on CBCT images. Student's t test was performed to analyze the differences of root apical resorption between the 2 groups with SPSS17.0 software package. No significant difference(P> 0.05) in root resorption of maxillary incisors was found between passive self-ligating brackets and conventional brackets. Passive self-ligating brackets and conventional brackets can cause root resorption, but the difference was not significant. Passive self-ligating brackets do not induce more root resorption.

  1. Vegetative propagation by root and stem cuttings of Leptadenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of the propagation of Leptadenia hastata cuttings during the 3 seasons of the year in Sahel. The cuttings of 20 cm of length, collected from the basal, apical and root parts of the plants, were used. Study investigations consisted in observing the buds and leaves ...

  2. Influence of Heat Treatment of Nickel-Titanium Rotary Endodontic Instruments on Apical Preparation: A Micro-Computed Tomographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Bernardo Corrêa; Ormiga, Fabíola; de Araújo, Marcos César Pimenta; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lima, Inayá Corrêa Barbosa; dos Santos, Bernardo Camargo; Gusman, Heloisa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to make a 3-dimensional comparison of the canal transportation and changes in apical geometry using micro-computed tomographic imaging after canal preparation with K3 (SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and K3XF (SybronEndo) file systems. Twenty-eight mandibular molars were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the rotary system used in instrumentation: K3 or K3XF. The specimens were scanned by micro-computed tomographic imaging before and after instrumentation. Images before and after instrumentation from each group were compared with regard to canal volume, surface area, and structure model index (SMI) (paired t test, P instrumentation, the canals from each group were compared regarding the changes in volume, surface area, SMI, and canal transportation in the last 4 apical mm (t test, P Instrumentation with the 2 rotary systems significantly changed the canal volume, surface area, and SMI (P instrument types concerning these parameters (P > .05). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with regard to canal transportation in the last 4 apical mm (P > .05). Both rotary systems showed adequate canal preparations with reduced values of canal transportation. Heat treatment did not influence changes in root canal geometry in the apical region. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of the amount of apically extruded debris produced by four retreatment techniques: an ex vivo study

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    Cristiane Ferreira Alfenas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this study was to compare the amount of apically extruded debris during the removal of root canal filling material using nickel-titanium rotary retreatment instruments and Hedström files. Material and Methods: sixty mandibular incisors with a single canal were instrumented and obturated by cold lateral compaction. For retreatment, specimens were randomly divided into four groups (n = 15: Hedström files with or without solvent; D-RaCe system and Mtwo retreatment system. Debris extruded apically during the removal of canal filling material was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70°C for 5 days. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the preretreatment and postretreatment weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The mean weights of extruded material were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: the results showed that all retreatment techniques caused apical extrusion of debris, but no statistically significant difference was observed between groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: under the conditions of this study, all retreatment techniques caused apical debris extrusion.

  4. Assessment of apically extruded debris produced by the single-file ProTaper F2 technique under reciprocating movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, Gustavo; Brandão, Maria Claudia; Barino, Bianca; Di Giorgi, Karina; Fidel, Rivail Antonio Sergio; Luna, Aderval Severino

    2010-09-01

    This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the amount of dentin debris extruded from the apical foramen by comparing the conventional sequence of the ProTaper Universal nickel-titanium (NiTi) files with the single-file ProTaper F2 technique. Thirty mesial roots of lower molars were selected, and the use of different instrumentation techniques resulted in 3 groups (n=10 each). In G1, a crown-down hand-file technique was used, and in G2 conventional ProTaper Universal technique was used. In G3, ProTaper F2 file was used in a reciprocating motion. The apical finish preparation was equivalent to ISO size 25. An apparatus was used to evaluate the apically extruded debris. Statistical analysis was performed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparisons. No significant difference was found in the amount of the debris extruded between the conventional sequence of the ProTaper Universal NiTi files and the single-file ProTaper F2 technique (P>.05). In contrast, the hand instrumentation group extruded significantly more debris than both NiTi groups (P<.05). The present results yielded favorable input for the F2 single-file technique in terms of apically extruded debris, inasmuch as it is the most simple and cost-effective instrumentation approach. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro comparison in a manikin model: increasing apical enlargement with K3 and K3XF rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Juan Gonzalo; Stöber, Eva; García Font, Marc; González, Jose Antonio; Bragado, Pablo; Roig, Miguel; Duran-Sindreu, Fernando

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the K3 and K3XF systems (SybronEndo, Glendora, CA) after 1 and 2 uses by evaluating apical transportation, working length loss, and working time in a manikin model. Mesial canals of 40 extracted first mandibular molars were instrumented. Radiographs taken after instrumentation with #25, #30, #35, and #40 files were superimposed on the preoperative image in both mesiodistal and buccolingual angulations. AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc, San Rafael, CA) was used to measure working length loss and apical transportation at 0, 0.5, and 1 mm from the working length (WL). The working time was measured. Group comparison was analyzed using post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference tests (P < .05). No significant differences were found in apical transportation, working length loss between K3 and K3XF systems, or between the number of uses. Significant differences were found when canal enlargement was performed to a #35-40 (P < .05). K3 instrumentation performed significantly faster (29.6 ± 15.4) than with the K3XF system (40.2 ± 17.7) (P < .05). No differences were observed in working time when comparing the number of uses. K3 and R-phase K3XF rotary systems shaped curved root canals safely with minimal apical transportation, even up to a 40/04 file. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Roots & Hollers

    OpenAIRE

    Kollman, Patrick L; Gorman, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    Roots & Hollers, 2011 A documentary by Thomas Gorman & Patrick Kollman Master’s Project Abstract: Roots & Hollers uncovers the wild American ginseng trade, revealing a unique intersection between Asia and rural America. Legendary in Asia for its healing powers, ginseng helps sustain the livelihoods of thousands in Appalachia. A single root can sell for thousands of dollars at auction. Shot on-location in the mountains of Kentucky and West Virginia, this student doc...

  7. Comparison of relationship between antral floor and maxillary root apex in bisecting and panoramic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Dong Soo; Kim, In Soo

    1986-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the difference of intraoral bisecting and panoramic techniques in evaluating the relationship of antral floor and maxillary roots. The vertical distances form maxillary root apices to antral floor were measured on both orthopantomograms and bisecting projections obtained form fifth subjects. The results were as follows: 1. Tooth lengths measured on orthopantomogram were larger than on bisecting projection and the magnification ratios were 1.08-1.17. 2. The dimensions from maxillary root apices to antral floor measured on orthopantomogram were larger than on bisecting projection. 3. The above results held true regardless of age and sex.

  8. An unusual presentation of all the mandibular anterior teeth with two root canals - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiku A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of two root canals in all mandibular anterior teeth is presented. The patient initially reported for the treatment of mandibular right central and lateral incisors. However, radiographic evaluation revealed variant root canal and apical foramen patterns.

  9. Black-pigmented Bacteroides spp. in human apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, M; Ranta, H; Ranta, K; Shah, H

    1986-07-01

    The incidence of black-pigmented (BP) Bacteroides spp. in 62 human dental root canal infections (35 acute and 27 clinically asymptomatic cases of apical periodontitis) in 57 adults was studied. Altogether 37 strains of BP Bacteroides were found in 31 infections, always in mixed anaerobic infections. Two different BP Bacteroides species were present in six infections. B. intermedius was most frequently isolated (15 of 62 canals; 24%) followed by B. denticola which was present in 12 cases. Asaccharolytic BP Bacteroides species, B. gingivalis and B. endodontalis, were found in eight cases. BP Bacteroides species were found both from symptomatic and asymptomatic infections, but there were also several symptomatic cases from which BP Bacteroides species were not isolated. B. gingivalis and B. endodontalis were present only in acute infections, B. intermedius was found both in symptomatic and asymptomatic infections, and B. denticola occurred mostly in asymptomatic infections. BP Bacteroides species were isolated initially from 9 of the 11 teeth with symptoms at 1 week, but only from 22 of the 51 teeth that were symptomless at 1 week. Two strains of B. denticola were resistant to penicillin G at a concentration of 2.4 micrograms/ml, but the MIC of penicillin G for all other strains was 0.6 micrograms/ml or lower. Forty-two randomly selected patients received penicillin V (oral administration, 650 mg, three times daily) during the first week of endodontic therapy. Penicillin had no effect on the occurrence of symptoms after 1 week compared with the control group (20 patients).

  10. Association of human herpesvirus 6 subtypes with symptomatic apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernádi, Katinka; Csoma, Eszter; Adám, Balázs; Szalmás, Anita; Gyöngyösi, Eszter; Veress, György; Ildikó-Márton; Kónya, József

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of human herpesvirus (HHV) 6 subtypes A and B in apical periodontitis was determined. The relationship of HHV-6 subtypes to other disease associated herpesviruses, i.e., Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus, was also investigated. Forty apical periodontitis samples (17 symptomatic and 23 asymptomatic) and 40 healthy pulp control samples were collected. Nested polymerase chain reaction was used to detect HHV-6 DNA. HHV-6 DNA was observed in significantly higher frequencies in apical periodontitis samples than in control samples (20% vs. 2.5%; P = .03). Further classification of apical lesions revealed that subtype B of HHV-6 was significantly associated with large-sized and symptomatic lesions (P apical lesions (77%) harbored ≥1 of the tested herpesviruses: EBV was the most frequent herpesvirus (72.5%) in apical periodontitis, followed by HHV-6 (20%). Our findings suggest that EBV and HHV-6B infections can be associated with symptomatic apical periodontitis. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bony change of apical lesion healing process using fractal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Min; Park, Hyok; Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To investigate the change of bone healing process after endodontic treatment of the tooth with an apical lesion by fractal analysis. Radiographic images of 35 teeth from 33 patients taken on first diagnosis, 6 months, and 1 year after endodontic treatment were selected. Radiographic images were taken by JUPITER computerized Dental X-ray System. Fractal dimensions were calculated three times at each area by Scion Image PC program. Rectangular region of interest (30 x 30) were selected at apical lesion and normal apex of each image. The fractal dimension at apical lesion of first diagnosis (L{sub 0}) is 0.940 {+-} 0.361 and that of normal area (N{sub 0}) is 1.186 {+-} 0.727 (p<0.05). Fractal dimension at apical lesion of 6 months after endodontic treatment (L{sub 1}) is 1.076 {+-} 0.069 and that of normal area (N{sub 1}) is 1.192 {+-} 0.055 (p<0.05). Fractal dimension at apical lesion of 1 year after endodontic treatment (L{sub 2}) is 1.163 {+-} 0.074 and that of normal area (N{sub 2}) is 1.225 {+-} 0.079 (p<0.05). After endodontic treatment, the fractal dimensions at each apical lesions depending on time showed statistically significant difference. And there are statistically significant different between normal area and apical lesion on first diagnosis, 6 months after, 1 year after. But the differences were grow smaller as time flows. The evaluation of the prognosis after the endodontic treatment of the apical lesion was estimated by bone regeneration in apical region. Fractal analysis was attempted to overcome the limit of subjective reading, and as a result the change of the bone during the healing process was able to be detected objectively and quantitatively.

  12. Unpredictable Root Canal Morphology: Expect the Unexpected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohez J Makani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A maxillary first molar with more than four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations, especially when two of these canals are detected, with separate apical foramen in the distal root. The inability to locate the unexpected canals of various anatomical configuration and subsequently treat them , may lead to therapeutic failures. Endodontic retreatment is usually the modality of choice in such cases. This report describes a case of a maxillary first molar with five canals (two mesial canals in mesial root, two distal canals in two distal roots and a palatal canal in palatal root. Additionally it shows a rare anatomic configuration and emphasizes the importance of identifying additional canals.

  13. Evaluation of bacterial leakage of four root- end filling materials: Gray Pro Root MTA, White Pro Root MTA, Root MTA and Portland Cement (type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarabian M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Today several materials have been used for root- end filling in endodontic surgery. Optimal properties of Pro Root MTA in in-vitro and in-vivo studies has been proven. On the other hand, based on some studies, Root MTA (Iranian Pro Root MTA and Portland cement are similar to Pro Root MTA in physical and biologic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate bacterial leakage (amount and mean leakage time of four root- end filling materials. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in-vitro study, seventy six extracted single- rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups for root-end filling with gray Pro Root MTA, white Pro Root MTA, Root MTA (Iranian Pro Root MTA, Portland Cement (type I and positive and negative control groups. Root canals were instrumented using the step- back technique. Root- end filling materials were placed in 3mm ultra sonic retro preparations. Samples and microleakage model system were sterilized in autoclave. The apical 3-4 mm of the roots were immersed in phenol red with 3% lactose broth culture medium. The coronal access of each specimen was inoculated every 24h with a suspension of Streptococcus sanguis (ATCC 10556. Culture media were observed every 24h for colour change indicating bacterial contamination for 60 days. Statistical analysis was performed using log- rank test with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: At the end of study 50%, 56.25%, 56.25% and 50% of specimens filled with Gray Pro Root MTA, White Pro Root MTA. Root MTA and Portland Cement (type I had evidence of leakage respectively. The mean leakage time was 37.19±6.29, 36.44±5.81, 37.69±5.97 and 34.81±6.67 days respectively. Statistical analysis of data showed no significant difference among the leakage (amount and mean leakage time of the four tested root- end filling materials (P=0.9958. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, there were no significant differences in leakage among the four

  14. Localized Iron Supply Triggers Lateral Root Elongation in Arabidopsis by Altering the AUX1-Mediated Auxin Distribution[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giehl, Ricardo F.H.; Lima, Joni E.; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation. PMID:22234997

  15. Virus interaction with the apical junctional complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mariscal, Lorenza; Garay, Erika; Lechuga, Susana

    2009-01-01

    In order to infect pathogens must breach the epithelial barriers that separate the organism from the external environment or that cover the internal cavities and ducts of the body. Epithelia seal the passage through the paracellular pathway with the apical junctional complex integrated by tight and adherens junctions. In this review we describe how viruses like coxsackie, swine vesicular disease virus, adenovirus, reovirus, feline calcivirus, herpes viruses 1 and 2, pseudorabies, bovine herpes virus 1, poliovirus and hepatitis C use as cellular receptors integral proteins present at the AJC of epithelial cells. Interaction with these proteins contributes in a significant manner in defining the particular tropism of each virus. Besides these proteins, viruses exhibit a wide range of cellular co-receptors among which proteins present in the basolateral cell surface like integrins are often found. Therefore targeting proteins of the AJC constitutes a strategy that might allow viruses to bypass the physical barrier that blocks their access to receptors expressed on the basolateral surface of epithelial cells.

  16. Root patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, Ben; Laskowski, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that pattern lateral root primordial are essential for the elaboration of root system architecture, a trait of key importance for future crop breeding. But which are most important: periodic or local cues? In this issue of Journal of Experimental Botany (pages 1411-1420), Kircher

  17. Autologus Platelet Rich Fibrin aided Revascularization of an immature, non-vital permanent tooth with apical periodontitis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Shah, Dipali; Raghvendra, Srinidhi Surya

    2015-01-01

    Caries or trauma induced non-vital immature permanent tooth with blunderbuss, thin root which are very common among childrens are corrected using regenerative endodontic (revascularization) procedures. In the presented case, a 16-year-old boy reported with chief complaint of pain in maxillary left central incisor (Tooth #21). Tooth #21 showed grade III mobility, draining labial sinus, and short blunderbuss root with diffuse periapical radiolucency. Patient was explained the treatment plan and written informed consent was taken. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) was prepared according to standard protocol. Autologous PRF was carried to the apical portion of the root canal after inducing revascularization. Access opening was double sealed with MTA and resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI). Baseline, 12 month and 18 month follow-up intraoral radiographs were taken. Clinically case was asymptomatic with complete resolution of intraoral sinus. Periapical healing, apical closure, root lengthening and dentinal wall thickening were uneventful. Thus PRF supplementation hastens the predictability and rate of revascularization in non-vital immature permanent teeth.

  18. Marginal adaptation of newer root canal sealers to dentin: A SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polineni, Swapnika; Bolla, Nagesh; Mandava, Pragna; Vemuri, Sayesh; Mallela, Madhusudana; Gandham, Vijaya Madhuri

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated and compared the marginal adaptation of three newer root canal sealers to root dentin. Thirty freshly extracted human single-rooted teeth with completely formed apices were taken. Teeth were decoronated, and root canals were instrumented. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) based upon the sealer used. Group 1 - teeth were obturated with epoxy resin sealer (MM-Seal). Group 2 - teeth were obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) based sealer (MTA Fillapex), Group 3 - teeth were obturated with bioceramic sealer (EndoSequence BC sealer). Later samples were vertically sectioned using hard tissue microtome and marginal adaptation of sealers to root dentin was evaluated under coronal and apical halves using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and marginal gap values were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple post hoc test. The highest marginal gap was seen in Group 2 (apical-16680.00 nm, coronal-10796 nm) and the lowest marginal gap was observed in Group 1 (apical-599.42 nm, coronal-522.72 nm). Coronal halves showed superior adaptation compared to apical halves in all the groups under SEM. Within the limitations of this study epoxy resin-based MM-Seal showed good marginal adaptation than other materials tested.

  19. Sites and regulation of auxin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung, Karin; Hull, Anna K; Celenza, John; Yamada, Masashi; Estelle, Mark; Normanly, Jennifer; Sandberg, Göran

    2005-04-01

    Auxin has been shown to be important for many aspects of root development, including initiation and emergence of lateral roots, patterning of the root apical meristem, gravitropism, and root elongation. Auxin biosynthesis occurs in both aerial portions of the plant and in roots; thus, the auxin required for root development could come from either source, or both. To monitor putative internal sites of auxin synthesis in the root, a method for measuring indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis with tissue resolution was developed. We monitored IAA synthesis in 0.5- to 2-mm sections of Arabidopsis thaliana roots and were able to identify an important auxin source in the meristematic region of the primary root tip as well as in the tips of emerged lateral roots. Lower but significant synthesis capacity was observed in tissues upward from the tip, showing that the root contains multiple auxin sources. Root-localized IAA synthesis was diminished in a cyp79B2 cyp79B3 double knockout, suggesting an important role for Trp-dependent IAA synthesis pathways in the root. We present a model for how the primary root is supplied with auxin during early seedling development.

  20. Three-rooted premolar analyzed by high-resolution and cone beam CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marca, Caroline; Dummer, Paul M H; Bryant, Susan; Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana Vieira; Só, Marcus Vinicius Reis; Fontanella, Vania; Dutra, Vinicius D'avila; de Figueiredo, José Antonio Poli

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the variations in canal and root cross-sectional area in three-rooted maxillary premolars between high-resolution computed tomography (μCT) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Sixteen extracted maxillary premolars with three distinct roots and fully formed apices were scanned using μCT and CBCT. Photoshop CS software was used to measure root and canal cross-sectional areas at the most cervical and the most apical points of each root third in images obtained using the two tomographic computed (CT) techniques, and at 30 root sections equidistant from both root ends using μCT images. Canal and root areas were compared between each method using the Student t test for paired samples and 95 % confidence intervals. Images using μCT were sharper than those obtained using CBCT. There were statistically significant differences in mean area measurements of roots and canals between the μCT and CBCT techniques (P < 0.05). Root and canal areas had similar variations in cross-sectional μCT images and became proportionally smaller in a cervical to apical direction as the cementodentinal junction was approached, from where the area then increased apically. Although variation was similar in the roots and canals under study, CBCT produced poorer image details than μCT. Although CBCT is a strong diagnosis tool, it still needs improvement to provide accuracy in details of the root canal system, especially in cases with anatomical variations, such as the three-rooted maxillary premolars.

  1. Traumatic bone cyst resembling apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, D J; Ardekian, L; Machtei, E E; Peled, M; Manor, R; Laufer, D

    1997-10-01

    Among the pseudocysts of the jaws, the traumatic bone cyst is known as an asymptomatic lesion often noted unintentionally during routine radiographic examinations. The lesion neither devitalizes the teeth within its borders, nor does it cause resorption of their roots. The well-demarcated traumatic bone cyst often projects into the intraradicular septa and hence has been described as having scalloped borders. The following presentation is of a traumatic bone cyst that resembled periodontal pathology in its appearance.

  2. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mid-ventricular obstruction and apical aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Oryshchyn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A case report of apical left ventricular aneurysm in patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mid-ventricular obstruction (diagnosis and surgical treatment is presented. We revealed apical aneurysm and mid-ventricular obstruction during echocardiography and specified anatomical characteristics of aneurysm during computer tomography. There was no evidence of obstructive coronary artery disease during coronary angiography. Taking into consideration multiple cerebral infarcts, aneurysm resection and left ventricular plastics was performed. Electronic microscopy of myocardium confirmed the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  3. Herpesviruses in asymptomatic apical periodontitis lesions: an immunohistochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboia-Dantas, C J; Coutrin de Toledo, L F; Sampaio-Filho, H R; Siqueira, J F

    2007-10-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been recently detected in samples from apical periodontitis lesions by means of molecular biology techniques and a role in the pathogenesis of this disease has been suggested. The present study was designed to survey asymptomatic primary apical periodontitis lesions for the presence of HCMV- and/or EBV-infected cells by means of immunohistochemistry. Apical periodontitis lesions were obtained from 35 patients [26 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -seronegative patients and nine HIV-seropositive patients] after tooth extraction and subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies specific for HCMV and EBV. Fifteen of the 35 apical periodontitis lesions were positive for the target herpesviruses. Overall, EBV was found in 31% of the samples and HCMV in 23%, with 14% of the lesions showing EBV and HCMV dual infection. No association was found between HCMV or EBV with any particular histopathological type of apical periodontitis (P > 0.05). HCMV was significantly more frequent in apical periodontitis lesions from HIV-positive patients (67%) than in lesions from HIV-negative patients (8%) (P = 0.001). EBV was detected in 44% of lesions from HIV-positive patients and in 27% of lesions from HIV-negative patients, but this difference was not significant (P = 0.91). Our results showed that cells infected by HCMV and EBV can be found in apical periodontitis lesions, with a higher prevalence in HIV-positive patients. The specific role that these viruses play in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis remains to be described.

  4. Oral microbiota species in acute apical endodontic abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    Noelle George; Erin Flamiatos; Kellie Kawasaki; Namgu Kim; Charles Carriere; Brian Phan; Raphael Joseph; Shay Strauss; Richie Kohli; Dongseok Choi; J. Craig Baumgartner; Christine Sedgley; Tom Maier; Curtis A. Machida

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Acute apical abscesses are serious endodontic diseases resulting from pulpal infection with opportunistic oral microorganisms. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the oral microbiota in patients (N=18) exhibiting acute apical abscesses, originating from the demographic region in Portland, Oregon. The study hypothesis is that abscesses obtained from this demographic region may contain unique microorganisms not identified in specimens from other re...

  5. Evaluation of apically extruded debris during removal of gutta-percha and ResilonTM using different instrumentation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Dragana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Apical extrusion of material is considered as one of the very important factor for endodontic treatment success. Microorganisms, necrotic tissue, filling material and irrigants, which can be extruded apically during endodontic retreatment, may jeopardize the success of the therapy. The aim of this in vitro study was to quantitatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris during endodontic retreatment of teeth obturated with two different materials, using one hand and three rotary instrumentation techniques. Methods. Ninety-six extracted single-rooted teeth were endodontically treated and enlarged to size 40 using BioRaCe system, and then randomly divided into 8 groups of 12 specimens each. Half of the specimens were obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus® sealer and another half with RealSeal SE system, using lateral condensation technique. Retreatment was performed using: Hedström files; ProFile rotary files; ProTaper Retreatment system and D-RaCe system. Apically extruded debris was collected in pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes and evaluated using an electronic microbalance. Data were analyzed statistically using t-test and analysis of variance. Results. In the AH Plus/gutta-percha group, all tested rotary instruments gave significantly less extruded debris compared with Hedström files (p < 0.05. In theRealSeal group, there was significant difference between DRaCe and Hedström instruments (p < 0.05. Conclusion. All retreatment techniques resulted in apical extrusion. DRaCe system produced significantly less extruded debris compared to hand files. No significant difference was found when comparing two instruments specially designed for retreatment: D-RaCe and ProTaper systems.

  6. Comparison of the accuracies of multi-frequency electronic apex locators in teeth with enlarged apical foramina: ex vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mügem Aslı Ekici

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of a newly developed multi-frequency electronic apex locator iPex II with three different multi-frequency electronic apex locators in teeth with different sizes of apical foramina. Materials and Method: Twenty-six extracted mandibular premolars were used in this study. The teeth were decoronated, and the root canals were coronally flared. Actual working length was determined by inserting a #15 K-file until the tip was visualized just within apical foramen. Actual working length was established 0.5 mm short of the distance between the rubber stopper and the file tip. Using Protaper F1, F2 and F3 files (Dentsply Maillefer, over-instrumentation 1 mm beyond the apical foramen was done. The teeth were embedded in teflon molds with alginate exposing the coronal 5 mm. Electronic working length measurements were done by using Raypex 5 (VDW, Raypex 6 (VDW, iPex (NSK Inc. and iPex II (NSK Inc. electronic apex locators. Differences between the electronic and actual working lengths were calculated. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for the statistical analysis of the accuracies of the electronic apex locators (α=0.05. Results: Inter-group comparisons revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between the accuracies of the different electronic apex locators (p>0.05. Intra-group comparisons also revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between different apical foramen sizes (p>0.05. Conclusion: iPex II and the other electronic apex locators provided similar endodontic working length measurements in teeth with enlarged apical foramina. All electronic apex locators tested in this study were found clinically acceptable for working length determination.

  7. Cadmium translocation by contractile roots differs from that in regular, non-contractile roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Alexander; Lackovič, Andrej; Van Staden, Johannes; Lišková, Desana; Kohanová, Jana; Martinka, Michal

    2015-06-01

    Contractile roots are known and studied mainly in connection with the process of shrinkage of their basal parts, which acts to pull the shoot of the plant deeper into the ground. Previous studies have shown that the specific structure of these roots results in more intensive water uptake at the base, which is in contrast to regular root types. The purpose of this study was to find out whether the basal parts of contractile roots are also more active in translocation of cadmium to the shoot. Plants of the South African ornamental species Tritonia gladiolaris were cultivated in vitro for 2 months, at which point they possessed well-developed contractile roots. They were then transferred to Petri dishes with horizontally separated compartments of agar containing 50 µmol Cd(NO3)2 in the region of the root base or the root apex. Seedlings of 4-d-old maize (Zea mays) plants, which do not possess contractile roots, were also transferred to similar Petri dishes. The concentrations of Cd in the leaves of the plants were compared after 10 d of cultivation. Anatomical analyses of Tritonia roots were performed using appropriately stained freehand cross-sections. The process of contraction required specific anatomical adaptation of the root base in Tritonia, with less lignified and less suberized tissues in comparison with the subapical part of the root. These unusual developmental characteristics were accompanied by more intensive translocation of Cd ions from the basal part of contractile roots to the leaves than from the apical-subapical root parts. The opposite effects were seen in the non-contractile roots of maize, with higher uptake and transport by the apical parts of the root and lower uptake and transport by the basal part. The specific characteristics of contractile roots may have a significant impact on the uptake of ions, including toxic metals from the soil surface layers. This may be important for plant nutrition, for example in the uptake of nutrients from

  8. Orthodontic treatment in patient with idiopathic root resorption: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Diego; Smit, Rosana Martínez; Gamboa, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Multiple idiopathic external root resorption is a rare pathological condition usually detected as an incidental radiographic finding. External root resorption of permanent teeth is a multifactorial process related to several local and systemic factors. If an etiological factor cannot be identified for root resorption, the term "idiopathic" is applied. This report presents a case of multiple idiopathic apical root resorption. The condition was found in a young female patient seeking orthodontic treatment due to malocclusion. This kind of resorption starts apically and progresses coronally, causing a gradual shortening and rounding of the remaining root. Patients with this condition are not the ideal candidates for orthodontic treatment; however, the aim of this report is to describe an unusual case of idiopathic root resorption involving the entire dentition, and to present the orthodontic treatment of this patient. It describes the progress and completion of orthodontic therapy with satisfactory end results.

  9. Orthodontic treatment in patient with idiopathic root resorption: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rey

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple idiopathic external root resorption is a rare pathological condition usually detected as an incidental radiographic finding. External root resorption of permanent teeth is a multifactorial process related to several local and systemic factors. If an etiological factor cannot be identified for root resorption, the term "idiopathic" is applied. This report presents a case of multiple idiopathic apical root resorption. The condition was found in a young female patient seeking orthodontic treatment due to malocclusion. This kind of resorption starts apically and progresses coronally, causing a gradual shortening and rounding of the remaining root. Patients with this condition are not the ideal candidates for orthodontic treatment; however, the aim of this report is to describe an unusual case of idiopathic root resorption involving the entire dentition, and to present the orthodontic treatment of this patient. It describes the progress and completion of orthodontic therapy with satisfactory end results.

  10. Apical Transportation, Centering Ability, and Cleaning Effectiveness of Reciprocating Single-file System Associated with Different Glide Path Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Guilherme Moreira; Sponchiado Junior, Emílio Carlos; Garrido, Angela Delfina Bittencourt; Lia, Raphael Carlos Comelli; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Marques, André Augusto Franco

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical transportation, the centering ability, and the cleaning effectiveness of a reciprocating single-file system associated to different glide path techniques. The mesial root canals of 52 mandibular molars were randomly distributed into 4 groups (n = 13) according to the different glide path techniques used before biomechanical preparation with Reciproc System (RS): KF/RS (sizes 10 and 15 K-files), NGP/RS (no glide path, only reciprocating system), PF/RS (sizes 13, 16, and 19 PathFile instruments), and NP (no preparation). Cone-beam computed tomography analysis was performed before and after instrumentation for apical third images acquisition. Apical transportation and its direction were evaluated by using the formula D = (X1 - X2) - (Y1 - Y2), and the centering ability was analyzed by the formula CC = (X1 - X2/Y1 - Y2 or Y1 - Y2/X1 - X2). The samples were submitted to histologic processing and analyzed under a digital microscope for debris quantification. The values were statistically analyzed (Kruskal-Wallis, the Dunn multiple comparisons test, P .05). Groups had a tendency toward transportation in the mesial direction. No technique had perfect centering ability (=1.0), with no significant difference among them. KF/RS had larger amount of debris, with statistically significant difference in comparison with NGP/RS (P > .05). The different glide path techniques promoted minimal apical transportation, and the reciprocating single-file system tested remained relatively centralized within the root canal. Also, the different techniques interfered in the cleaning effectiveness of the reciprocating system. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tissue Engineering of Necrotic Dental Pulp of Immature Teeth with Apical Periodontitis in Dogs: Radiographic and Histological Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ashiry, Eman A; Alamoudi, Najlaa M; El Ashiry, Mahmoud K; Bastawy, Hagar A; El Derwi, Douaa A; Atta, Hazem M

    2018-05-15

    To evaluate tissue engineering technology to regenerate pulp-dentin like tissues in pulp canals of immature necrotic permanent teeth with apical periodontitis in dogs. The study was performed on 36 teeth in 12 dogs. The experiment was carried out using split mouth design. In each dog 3 teeth were selected for implementing the study procedure. Apical periodontitis was induced in Group A and B teeth. Group (A): immature upper left 2 nd permanent incisors that were transplanted with a construct of autologous dental pulp stem cells with growth factors seeded in a chitosn hydrogel scaffold. Group (B): immature upper right 2 nd permanent incisor that received only growth factors with scaffold. A third tooth in each dog was selected randomly for isolation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Both groups were closed with a double coronal seal of white MTA (Mineral trioxide aggregate) and glass ionomer cement. Both groups were monitored radiographically for 4 months and histologically after sacrificing the animals. There was no statistically significant difference in radiographic findings between group (A) and group (B) for healing of radiolucencies, while there was statistically significant difference between group (A) and group (B) regarding radicular thickening, root lengthening and apical closure. Histologically, group (A) teeth showed regeneration of pulp-dentin like tissue while group (B) teeth did not show any tissue regeneration. Dental pulp stem cells and growth factors incorporated in chitosan hydrogel are able to regenerate pulp-dentine like tissue and help in complete root maturation of non-vital immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis in dogs.

  12. Five-year longitudinal assessment of the prognosis of apical microsurgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Hänni, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis. Knowledge of the long-term prognosis is necessary when weighing apical surgery against alternative treatments. This study assessed the 5-year outcome of apical surgery and its predictors in a cohor...

  13. Root fracture in immature anterior teeth followed for 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, T; Kojima, Y; Nishioka, T; Maki, K; Kimura, M

    2005-08-01

    We report a case of injury to an immature tooth, observed over a period of 15 years. In 1987, a 9-year-old boy fell down in a schoolyard. The right central incisor demonstrated palato-version and radiographic observations revealed that the roots of both central incisors were incomplete. Further, a root fracture in the apical region of the central incisors was observed. During the first treatment visit, the right central incisor was repositioned and both teeth splinted. After confirming that the line of fracture was aligned, the fixation was continued for 2 months. The teeth were examined periodically for the next 15 years. Both teeth had favorable outcomes with continued root development of both the apical and coronal segments with good apposition of the fracture lines.

  14. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost...... processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has...

  15. Comparison of debris extruded apically and working time used by ProTaper Universal rotary and ProTaper retreatment system during gutta-percha removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kinue Nakamune Uezu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro action of ProTaper retreatment files and ProTaper Universal in the retreatment of mandibular premolars. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The amount of debris extruded apically was measured and the time to reach the working length and to complete the removal of gutta-percha was observed. Thirty teeth had their canals prepared using ProTaper Universal files and were obturated by the single cone technique. The teeth were then stored at 37ºC in a humid environment for 7 days. During the use of the rotary instruments for root canal filling removal, the apical portions of the teeth were attached to the open end of a resin tube to collect the apically extruded debris. RESULTS: ProTaper Universal files were significantly faster (p=0.0011 than the ProTaper retreatment files to perform gutta-percha removal, but no significant difference was found between the files regarding the time to reach the working length or the amount of apical extrusion. CONCLUSIONS: ProTaper Universal rotary had better results for endodontic retreatment, and both techniques promote similar apical extrusion of debris.

  16. Histopathological, Microbiological, and Radiographic Analysis of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy for the Treatment of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis: A Study in Rats' Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Alessandra Cesar; de Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli; de Oliveira, Sílvia Dias; Barth Junior, Valdir Cristóvão; Gallo, Stephanie Wagner; Follmann, Carina; Wolle, Carlos Frederico Brilhante; Steier, Liviu; Morgental, Renata Dornelles; Weber, João Batista Blessmann

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo, by histological and radiographic analysis, the response of apical tissues of rats' teeth with experimentally induced apical periodontitis, after one- and two-session endodontic treatment with and without photodynamic therapy (PDT). A microbiological analysis was also performed to verify bacterial reduction after each treatment. Studies carried out in recent years highlighted the antibacterial potential of PDT when associated with conventional endodontic therapy in vitro. Although the antimicrobial effect of PDT is well-established, tissue response to PDT in teeth with apical periodontitis lacks studies. Thirty-two rats' root canals were assigned to four groups: one session/PDT-[chemomechanical preparation (CMP)+root canal filling (RCF)]; two sessions/PDT- [CMP+calcium hydroxide (CH) for 14 days+RCF]; one session/PDT+ [CMP+PDT+RCF], and two sessions/PDT+ [CMP+PDT+CH for 14 days+RCF]. For microbiological evaluation, samples were collected before and after proposed treatments. For radiographic and histological analysis, the animals were euthanized after 28 days and the mandibles surgically removed. PDT associated with conventional endodontic therapy was able to promote significant bacterial reduction in root canals with induced apical periodontitis, but this reduction was not significantly different to conventional endodontic therapy alone. Although radiographic evaluation showed no significant differences, histological analysis showed lower scores for neutrophils/eosinophils in PDT-treated groups and macrophages/giant cells in CH groups. The use of low-level laser as light source did not promote major improvement on radiographic and histological repair, but since the number of inflammatory cells slightly decreased, it may optimize repair by modulating inflammatory process. PDT may be indicated as an adjunct to conventional endodontic therapy for teeth with apical periodontitis, in association with an interappointment

  17. Regeneration of roots from callus reveals stability of the developmental program for determinate root growth in Sonoran Desert Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkova, Svetlana; García-Mendoza, Edith; Castillo-Díaz, Vicente; Moreno, Norma E; Arellano, Jesús; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2007-05-01

    In some Sonoran Desert Cactaceae the primary root has a determinate root growth: the cells of the root apical meristem undergo only a few cell division cycles and then differentiate. The determinate growth of primary roots in Cactaceae was found in plants cultivated under various growth conditions, and could not be reverted by any treatment tested. The mechanisms involved in root meristem maintenance and determinate root growth in plants remain poorly understood. In this study, we have shown that roots regenerated from the callus of two Cactaceae species, Stenocereus gummosus and Ferocactus peninsulae, have a determinate growth pattern, similar to that of the primary root. To demonstrate this, a protocol for root regeneration from callus was established. The determinate growth pattern of roots regenerated from callus suggests that the program of root development is very stable in these species. These findings will permit future analysis of the role of certain Cactaceae genes in the determinate pattern of root growth via the regeneration of transgenic roots from transformed calli.

  18. Apical surgery vs apical surgery with simultaneous orthograde retreatment: A prospective cohort clinical study of teeth affected by persistent periapical lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Prati

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This prospective clinical study analyzed the 24-month outcome of conventional apical surgery retro-filled with calcium-silicate cement versus apical surgery with simultaneous orthograde retreatment by means of clinical and radiographic criteria. Materials and methods: This study included 83 teeth affected by persistent periapical lesions in 68 patients. Mean age was 52 years (median = 51 years; range 19–81 years. Twenty-eight cases were treated with apical surgery, 16 cases with apical surgery with simultaneous orthograde retreatment and 39 cases with orthograde retreatment in previously treated teeth established as control group. Periapical index score (PAI was used as radiographic criteria. Teeth were examined at 6 months, 1 and 2 years and classified as healed (without any symptoms and PAI ≤ 2, healing (without any symptoms and PAI = 3 or diseased (with symptoms or PAI ≥ 4 and not functional on the basis of radiographic and clinical criteria. At 24 months evaluation, healed and healing were considered as success and diseased and fracture as failure. Multilevel GLM model and an ordered logistic regression as statistical analysis was made with level of significance set at p < 0.05. Results: Total drop-out was 7% (n = 6. After 6–9 months, 6 teeth (3 from apical surgery, 2 from simultaneous treatment and 1 from orthograde retreatment were extracted for root fracture. Twenty-four-month success rate of apical surgery group was 78% (n = 17, apical surgery with simultaneous orthograde retreatment presented 81% (n = 10 and orthograde retreatment success was 80% (n = 24. There was no statistically difference between the groups at 24 months (p = 0.890. Conclusions: Both surgical techniques revealed a high percentage of healing, similar to that reported by previous studies. Apical surgery with simultaneous orthograde retreatment showed a faster healing after 12 months comparing to the control group. Riassunto: Scopo: In

  19. Bony change of apical lesion healing process using fractal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Min; Park, Hyok; Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the change of bone healing process after endodontic treatment of the tooth with an apical lesion by fractal analysis. Radiographic images of 35 teeth from 33 patients taken on first diagnosis, 6 months, and 1 year after endodontic treatment were selected. Radiographic images were taken by JUPITER computerized Dental X-ray System. Fractal dimensions were calculated three times at each area by Scion Image PC program. Rectangular region of interest (30 x 30) were selected at apical lesion and normal apex of each image. The fractal dimension at apical lesion of first diagnosis (L 0 ) is 0.940 ± 0.361 and that of normal area (N 0 ) is 1.186 ± 0.727 (p 1 ) is 1.076 ± 0.069 and that of normal area (N 1 ) is 1.192 ± 0.055 (p 2 ) is 1.163 ± 0.074 and that of normal area (N 2 ) is 1.225 ± 0.079 (p<0.05). After endodontic treatment, the fractal dimensions at each apical lesions depending on time showed statistically significant difference. And there are statistically significant different between normal area and apical lesion on first diagnosis, 6 months after, 1 year after. But the differences were grow smaller as time flows. The evaluation of the prognosis after the endodontic treatment of the apical lesion was estimated by bone regeneration in apical region. Fractal analysis was attempted to overcome the limit of subjective reading, and as a result the change of the bone during the healing process was able to be detected objectively and quantitatively.

  20. Cimentos endodônticos - selamento marginal apical imediato e após armazenamento de seis meses Endodontic cements - immediate apical sealing and after a six-month storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Carneiro VALERA

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o selamento marginal apical de canais radiculares obturados com os cimentos endodônticos Sealapex, Apexit, Sealer 26 e Ketac Endo. Utilizaram-se 136 raízes, cujos canais radiculares, após o preparo biomecânico, foram obturados pela técnica da condensação lateral ativa com os cimentos em estudo. Metade das amostras, imediatamente após as obturações, foram imersas na solução de azul de metileno a 2% e a outra metade após 6 meses de armazenamento em plasma sangüíneo humano. Observou-se que os cimentos Sealapex e Sealer 26 apresentaram infiltrações médias estatisticamente iguais entre si e menores que as observadas para os demais cimentos (p The aim of this study was to verify the apical sealing of root canals obturated with Sealapex, Apexit, Sealer 26, and Ketac Endo cements. A hundred and thirty six dental roots were used for the experiment. After biomechanical preparation and lateral condensation filling, half of the roots were placed in human blood plasma storage medium for 6 months. The remaining samples were immediately placed in methylene blue, under a temporary vacuum, and after one week the amount of dye penetration measured. The stored samples were similarly treated after the 6-month storage period. Statistical analysis of the results revealed that the groups obturated with Sealapex and Sealer 26 showed the smallest amount of apical leakage (p < 0.05. There were significant differences in the amount of dye penetration after 6 months of storage (1.275 mm, when compared to the results found without storage (0.829 mm (p < 0.05.

  1. Apically extruded debris with reciprocating single-file and full-sequence rotary instrumentation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürklein, Sebastian; Schäfer, Edgar

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the amount of apically extruded debris using rotary and reciprocating nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Eighty human mandibular central incisors were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 20 teeth per group). The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturers' instructions using the 2 reciprocating single-file systems Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) and WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and the 2 full-sequence rotary Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) and ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) instruments. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant. The apically extruded debris was collected in preweighted glass vials using the Myers and Montgomery method. After drying, the mean weight of debris was assessed with a microbalance and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and the post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test. The time required to prepare the canals with the different instruments was also recorded. The reciprocating files produced significantly more debris compared with both rotary systems (P rotary instruments (P > .05), the reciprocating single-file system Reciproc produced significantly more debris compared with all other instruments (P Instrumentation was significantly faster using Reciproc than with all other instrument (P rotary instrumentation was associated with less debris extrusion compared with the use of reciprocating single-file systems. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transient apical breakdown and its relationship with orthodontic forces: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Oscar Lozano; Vera, Jorge; Orozco, Marco Salas; Mancera, Jaime Trigueros; González, Karla Vidal; Malagón, Genaro Vega

    2014-08-01

    Transient apical breakdown (TAB) caused by orthodontic treatment is a reversible resorptive process in which the apex of a tooth shows some radiographic evidence of resorption and the crown may display some discoloration. It usually requires no treatment other than monitoring and elimination of the orthodontic forces applied to the tooth. This report describes the case of a 48-year-old man patient who was referred to the department of endodontics for evaluation of some discoloration of his upper right central incisor, which was undergoing orthodontic treatment. The tooth was nonresponsive to sensitivity tests, it was sensitive to percussion, and, radiographically, there was some evidence of root resorption and apical radiolucency. Because TAB was the suspected cause of the signs and symptoms, no treatment was performed on the tooth except for periodic recalls, and lightening and eventual removal of the orthodontic appliances was indicated. Ten weeks after the initial appointment and removal of the applied orthodontic forces, color improvement was observed, accompanied by a return of tooth sensitivity to cold tests. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Conservative management of displaced horizontal root fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kunhappan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injuries of teeth are the main cause of emergency treatment in dental practice. Radicular fractures in permanent teeth are uncommon, being only 0.5-7% of the cases. Horizontal root fractures are more frequently observed in the maxillary anterior region of young male patients and vary in severity from enamel fractures to avulsions. Fracture occurs often in the middle-third of the root followed by apical and coronal third. The present case report describes a clinical case of a horizontal root fracture located at the middle third of a maxillary left-central incisor treated endodontically after approximating fracture segment with the help of orthodontic appliance. After 6 months follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic with normal periodontal health.

  4. Evaluation of apical force distribution for orthodontic tooth movements -A flnite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rex

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available FEM is defined as a technique of discrediting a continuum into simple geometric shapes elements, enforcing material properties and governing relationships on these elements giving due consideration to loading and boundary conditions which results in a set of equation, solution which gives the approximate behaviour of the continuum.This study was undertaken to determine the types of orthodontic forces that cause high stress at the root apex. A 3-dimensional finite clement model of a maxillary central incisor, its periodontal ligament (POL,and alveolar bone was constructed on the basis of average anatomic morphology.The maxillary centralincisor was chosen for study because it is one of the teeth at greatest risk for apical root resorption. The material properties of enamel dentin, POL, and bone and 5 different load systems (tipping, intrusion,extrusion,bodily movement,and rotational force were tested. The finite element analysis showed that purely intrusive, extrusive, and rotational forces had stresses concentrated at the apex of the root. The principal stress from a tipping force was located at the alveolar crest. For bodily movement,stress was distributed throughout the PDL;however,it was concentrated more at the alveolar crest. We conclude that intrusive,extrusive, and rotational forces produce more stress at the apex. Bodily movement and tipping forces concentrate forces at the alveolar crest, not at the apex.

  5. [Significance of the bacterial flora in the etiology of apical periodontitis. Qualitative, quantitative and topographical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accorsi, S; Lavagnoli, G; Frigeri, S; Fiamminghi, L

    1990-01-01

    In the international literature it is shown the central role of root canal infection in the etiology of periapical lesions. As a matter of fact it has been proved (13) that sterile necrotic pulp tissue is completely unable to cause inflammatory reactions at the periapex. Infection of endodontic origin extends to the supporting tissues of the tooth only in the case of their acute inflammation (e.g. acute apical periodontitis, acute alveolar abscess, phoenix abscess). On the other hand in chronic inflammation bacteria remain confined in the endodontic space. Only few exceptions to this general rule have been experimentally proved. In endodontics we deal with a mixed infection which is composed by obligate anaerobes and by facultative anaerobes. The most frequently found obligate anaerobes are Bacteroides sp. and Fusobacterium sp. (Gram- rods) Anaerobic Diphtheroides (Gram+ rods) Peptostreptococcus sp. (Gram+ cocci) and Veilonella sp. (Gram- cocci). Actinomyces sp., Lactobacillus sp., Streptococcus sp., and Staphilococcus sp. are the facultative anaerobes most frequently found.

  6. Apical microinfiltration evaluation of radicular channels irradiated with Er:YAG laser in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebrao, Catia Cilene Nass

    2003-01-01

    It was evaluated, in vitro, the adaptation of the filling material (Sealer 2S R ) to the root channels dentine walls treated using the endodontic technique and prepared with the Er:YAG laser, by the technique of infiltration of methylene blue dye. Using scanning electronic microscopy, the morphologic alteration of the root channel dentine was observed for one sample per studied group. Also, an evaluation of the temperature increase in the external surface of the root during the irradiations was performed for two samples per group. For each group of samples, with eleven roots each, two sub-groups had been considered: the dry, irradiated after completely dry with absorbent cones of paper, and the humid, where a cone of absorbent paper was applied for two seconds in the root canal, leaving them lightly humidified. Considering the used energies for the irradiations, the groups are: G1, control (without irradiation), G2-dry (100 mJ-10 Hz), G2-humid (100 mJ-10 Hz), G3-dry (140 mJ-6 Hz), G3-humid (140 mJ-6 Hz), G4-dry (180 mJ-6 Hz), and G4-humid (180 mJ-6 Hz). The results had shown that apical microinfiltration did not exhibit significant difference among groups. The highest increase in temperature was observed for the dry groups, with the maximum variation of temperature of 6.5 deg C. Under the scanning electronic microscopy analysis, the humid groups had presented cleaner surfaces than the dry groups. The G4-humid group presented extensive regions of fusion and resolidification of the dentine. (author)

  7. Micro-computed tomography study of the internal anatomy of mesial root canals of mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas-Bôas, Marcelo Haas; Bernardineli, Norberti; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Marciano, Marina; Del Carpio-Perochena, Aldo; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Duarte, Marco H; Bramante, Clovis M; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the mesiodistal and buccolingual diameter, apical volume, and the presence of isthmuses at the apical level of mesial root canals of mandibular molars. Sixty extracted first and second mandibular molars were scanned by using a SkyScan 1076 micro-computed tomography system with a voxel size of 18 μm. The apical thirds of the samples were reconstructed to allow a perpendicular section of the apical third by using the multiplanar reconstruction tool of the OsiriX software. The mesiodistal and the buccolingual distances of root canals were measured between the 1- to 4-mm levels. The type of root canal isthmuses present at these levels was classified by using modified criteria of Hsu and Kim. The volume of the root canal anatomy between the 1- to 3-mm apical levels was obtained by using the CTAN-CTVOL software. The medians of the mesiodistal diameter at the 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-mm levels in the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals were 0.22 and 0.23 mm, 0.27 and 0.27 mm, 0.30 and 0.30 mm, and 0.36 and 0.35 mm, respectively. The buccolingual lengths at the 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-mm levels were 0.37-0.35 mm, 0.55-0.41 mm, 0.54-0.49 mm, and 0.54 and 0.60 mm, respectively. The presence of isthmuses was more prevalent at the 3- to 4-mm level. However, 27 cases presented complete or incomplete isthmuses at the 1-mm apical level. The mean of the volume of the apical third was 0.83 mm(3), with a minimum value of 0.02 and a maximum value of 2.4 mm(3). Mesial root canals of mandibular molars do not present a consistent pattern. A high variability of apical diameters exists. The presence of isthmuses at the apical third was not uncommon even at the 1-mm apical level. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of Apical Extrusion of Debris by Using Single-File, Full-Sequence Rotary and Reciprocating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ehsani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: During root canal preparation, apical extrusion of debris can cause inflammation, flare-ups, and delayed healing. Therefore, instrumentation techniques that cause the least extrusion of debris are desirable. This study aimed to compare apical extrusion of debris by five single-file, full-sequence rotary and reciprocating systems.Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty human mandibular premolars with similar root lengths, apical diameters, and canal curvatures were selected and randomly assigned to six groups (n=20: Reciproc R25 (25, 0.08, WaveOne Primary (25, 0.08, OneShape (25, 0.06, F360 (25, 0.04, Neoniti A1 (25, 0.08, and ProTaper Universal. Instrumentation of the root canals was performed in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions. Each tooth's debris was collected in a pre-weighed vial. After drying the debris in an incubator, the mass was measured three times consecutively; the mean was then calculated. The preparation time by each system was also measured. For data analysis, one-way ANOVA and Games-Howell post hoc test were used.Results: The mean masses (±standard deviation of the apical debris were as follows: 2.071±1.38mg (ProTaper Universal, 1.702±1.306mg (Neoniti A1, 1.295±0.839mg (OneShape, 1.109±0.676mg (WaveOne, 0.976±0.478mg (Reciproc and 0.797±0.531mg (F360. Compared to ProTaper Universal, F360 generated significantly less debris (P=0.02. The ProTaper system required the longest preparation time (mean=88.6 seconds; the Reciproc (P=0.008, OneShape (P=0.006, and F360 (P=0.001 required significantly less time (P<0.05.Conclusions: All instruments caused extrusion of debris through the apex. The F360 produced significantly less debris than did the ProTaper Universal.Keywords: Dentistry; Endodontics; Root Canal Preparation; Instrumentation

  9. Apically extruded debris with three contemporary Ni-Ti instrumentation systems: An ex vivo comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Logani Ajay; Shah Naseem

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To comparatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris when ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile systems were used for the instrumentation of root canals. Materials and Methods: Thirty minimally curved, mature, human mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly divided into three groups of ten teeth each. Each group was instrumented using one of the three instrumentation systems: ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile. Five milliliters of sterile water wer...

  10. Microbial community in persistent apical periodontitis: a 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, M N; Takeshita, T; Shibata, Y; Maeda, H; Wada, N; Akamine, A; Yamashita, Y

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the microbial composition of persistent periapical lesions of root filled teeth using a molecular genetics approach. Apical lesion samples were collected from 12 patients (23-80 years old) who visited the Kyushu University Hospital for apicectomy with persistent periapical lesions associated with root filled teeth. DNA was directly extracted from each sample and the microbial composition was comprehensively analysed using clone library analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and specific fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with specific primers. Bacteria were detected in all samples, and the dominant findings were P. gingivalis (19.9%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (11.2%) and Propionibacterium acnes (9%). Bacterial diversity was greater in symptomatic lesions than in asymptomatic ones. In addition, the following bacteria or bacterial combinations were characteristic to symptomatic lesions: Prevotella spp., Treponema spp., Peptostreptococcaceae sp. HOT-113, Olsenella uli, Slackia exigua, Selemonas infelix, P. gingivalis with type IV fimA, and a combination of P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum, and Peptostreptococcaceae sp. HOT-113 and predominance of Streptococcus spp. On the other hand, neither Enterococcus faecalis nor C. albicans were detected in any of the samples. Whilst a diverse bacterial species were observed in the persistent apical lesions, some characteristic patterns of bacterial community were found in the symptomatic lesions. The diverse variation of community indicates that bacterial combinations as a community may cause persistent inflammation in periapical tissues rather than specific bacterial species. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of conventional, protaper hand and protaper rotary instrumentation system for apical extrusion of debris, irrigants and bacteria- An in vitro randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Pinky; Rao, Arathi; Suman, Ethel; Shenoy, Ramya; Suprabha, Baranya-Shrikrishna

    2017-01-01

    Background Endodontic instrumentation carries the risk of over extrusion of debris and bacteria. The technique used and the type of instrumentation influences this risk. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the K-file, ProTaper hand and ProTaper rotary instrumentation systems for the amount of apically extruded debris, irrigant solution and intracanal bacteria. Design Experimental single blinded randomized type of in vitro study with sample of 30 single rooted teeth. Endo...

  12. Evaluation of the reinforcement effect on teeth with different apical foramen diameters of retrograde or orthograde MTA application with internal matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the apical foramen diameter and different application methods of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA on the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth using a Universal Testing Machine. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Ninety extracted human teeth were used for the fracture resistance test. The apical foramen was prepared to a diameter of 1.0 mm or 1.4 mm to simulate the open apex of immature teeth. MTA was mixed according to manufacturer's recommendations and placed into the root canals with different apical foramen diameter by four different root filling techniques: retrograde, two-phased orthograde, and ortograde with or without internal matrix. Prepared roots were marked 2 mm below the cemento-enamel junction and embedded in transparent acrylic resin in cylinder moulds. Vertical force was applied along the long axis of the tooth at a speed of 5 mm/min, and the maximum resistance to fracture for each tooth was determined in Newton. A software package was used for the statistical analysis. The data were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference could not be observed between the groups (p>0.05 whereas statistically significant differences were found between the test groups and the control groups (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference between different vertical root filling techniques in increasing the fracture strength of the teeth. The diameter of the apical foramen did not have a significant effect on the fracture resistance.

  13. Management of curved root canals in endodontics: clinical case of retreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses Guzman, Jose Pablo

    2005-01-01

    The management of curved root canals in endodontics therapy has required time, patience and skill of the operator, and lots collaboration by the patient. Proper cleaning, disinfection, conformation and root canal filling, in most cases, has prevented the appearance of lesions of bacterial origin to apical or maintenance of these lesions in teeth that are portrayed level. A clinical case is described of retreatment of a first mandibular molar by conventional endodontic treatment with their respective steps, to achieve signs of tissue repair at the apical level. (author) [es

  14. Maxillary first molar with an O-shaped root morphology:report of a case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yooseok Shin; Yemi Kim; Byoung-Duck Roh

    2013-01-01

    This case report is to present a maxillary first molar with one O-shaped root, which is an extended C-shaped canal system. Patient with chronic apical periodontitis in maxillary left first molar underwent replantation because of difficulty in negotiating all canals. Periapical radiographs and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) were taken. All roots were connected and fused to one root, and all canals seemed to be connected to form an O-shape. The apical 3 mm of the root were resected and retrograde filled with resin-modified glass ionomer. Intentional replantation as an alternative treatment could be considered in a maxillary first molar having an unusual O-shaped root.

  15. Maxillary first molar with an O-shaped root morphology: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yooseok; Kim, Yemi; Roh, Byoung-Duck

    2013-12-01

    This case report is to present a maxillary first molar with one O-shaped root, which is an extended C-shaped canal system. Patient with chronic apical periodontitis in maxillary left first molar underwent replantation because of difficulty in negotiating all canals. Periapical radiographs and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) were taken. All roots were connected and fused to one root, and all canals seemed to be connected to form an O-shape. The apical 3 mm of the root were resected and retrograde filled with resin-modified glass ionomer. Intentional replantation as an alternative treatment could be considered in a maxillary first molar having an unusual O-shaped root.

  16. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuncer, M.; Gumrukcuoglu, H.A.; Ekim, H.; Gunes, Y.; Simsek, H.

    2010-01-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a relatively uncommon inherited disease. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is also uncommonly observed, which often occurs in pregnant or post partum women but is rare in men. This report describes a 38 years old man with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who developed SCAD leading to acute inferior myocardial infarction. After emergent appendectomy operation at another hospital, he was immediately transferred to the Cardiology Department of our hospital due to acute myocardial infarction. He emergently underwent coronary angiography which showed a long dissection involving the right coronary. He underwent an emergent CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and he was discharged. According to our knowledge, no case of spontaneous coronary artery dissection associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy unrelated to postpartum period or oral contraceptive use has been reported so far. (author)

  17. Proliferation of epithelial cell rests, formation of apical cysts, and regression of apical cysts after periapical wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Louis M; Huang, George T-J; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2007-08-01

    There is continuing controversy regarding the potential for inflammatory apical cysts to heal after nonsurgical endodontic therapy. Molecular cell biology may provide answers to a series of related questions. How are the epithelial cell rests of Malassez stimulated to proliferate? How are the apical cysts formed? How does the lining epithelium of apical cysts regress after endodontic therapy? Epithelial cell rests are induced to divide and proliferate by inflammatory mediators, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors released from host cells during periradicular inflammation. Quiescent epithelial cell rests can behave like restricted-potential stem cells if stimulated to proliferate. Formation of apical cysts is most likely caused by the merging of proliferating epithelial strands from all directions to form a three-dimensional ball mass. After endodontic therapy, epithelial cells in epithelial strands of periapical granulomas and the lining epithelium of apical cysts may stop proliferating because of a reduction in inflammatory mediators, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors. Epithelial cells will also regress because of activation of apoptosis or programmed cell death through deprivation of survival factors or by receiving death signals during periapical wound healing.

  18. Apical extrusion of intracanal debris using two engine driven and step-back instrumentation techniques: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustarci, Alper; Akdemir, Neslihan; Siso, Seyda Herguner; Altunbas, Demet

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare in-vitro the amount of debris extruded apically from extracted teeth, using K3, Protaper rotary instruments and manual step-back technique. Forty five human single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups. The teeth in 3 groups were instrumented until reaching the working length with K3, Protaper rotary instruments and K-type stainless steel instruments with manual step-back technique, respectively. Debris extruded from the apical foramen was collected into centrifuge tubes and the amount was determined. The data obtained were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U tests, with P=.05 as the level for statistical significance. Statistically significant difference was observed between K3, Protaper and step-back groups in terms of debris extrusion (PStep-back group had the highest mean debris weight, which was significantly different from the K3 and Protaper groups (Pengine-driven Ni-Ti systems extruded significantly less apical debris than step-back technique. However, Protaper rotary instruments extruded significantly more debris than K3 rotary instruments.

  19. The apical leakage of mineral trioxide aggregate as the retrograde filling material with various mixing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema Mulyawati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA is relatively considered as a new material in endodontic. It even has been used as retrograde filling material due to its biocompatibility, antibacterial effect, sealing ability and anti-moist effect. Some materials have been used as mixing agent to achieve an appropiate setting of MTA. Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the mixing agents of MTA towards the apical leakage when they are used together as retrograde filling materials. Method: The samples of this research consist of 30 human extracted upper central incisors. First, the crown of each tooth is sectioned. The root canals are prepared by using the conventional technique and then are obturated with gutta percha. After cutting the root apex, 2 mm from apical, class 1 cavities are prepared by using fissure bur with the depth of 3 mm. The samples then are divided into 3 groups with 10 teeth for each. Group I uses aquabidest as mixing agent of MTA (MTA-aquabidest, group II uses saline (MTA-saline, while group III uses 0.12% chlorhexidine (MTA-chlorhexidine. The apex of each group then is filled with the mixing MTA determined already. Afterwards, clearing method is used to evaluate the apical leakage. The apical leakage actually is determined by measuring the depth of methylene blue penetration with stereomicroscope. The statictical analyses of the linear dye penetration then are performed with analysis of varians ANOVA. Result: The dye penetration for both MTA-aquadest and MTA-saline groups indicates the lowest penetration, and there is even a significant difference compared with MTA-0.12% chlorhexidine group (p<0.005. Conclusion: It can be concluded that aquabidest and saline as mixing agents of MTA produce less apical leakage compared with 0.12% chlorhexidine.Latar belakang: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA merupakan bahan yang relatif baru dalam bidang endodontik. Bahan tersebut diindikasikan sebagai bahan pengisi

  20. Dental Apical Papilla as Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Berdt, P; Vanacker, J; Ucakar, B; Elens, L; Diogenes, A; Leprince, J G; Deumens, R; des Rieux, A

    2015-11-01

    Stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP) represent great promise regarding treatment of neural tissue damage, such as spinal cord injury (SCI). They derive from the neural crest, express numerous neurogenic markers, and mediate neurite outgrowth and axonal targeting. The goal of the present work was to investigate for the first time their potential to promote motor recovery after SCI in a rat hemisection model when delivered in their original stem cell niche-that is, by transplantation of the human apical papilla tissue itself into the lesion. Control groups consisted of animals subjected to laminectomy only (shams) and to lesion either untreated or injected with a fibrin hydrogel with or without human SCAP. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor scores at 1 and 3 d postsurgery confirmed early functional decline in all SCI groups. This significant impairment was reversed, as seen in CatWalk analyses, after transplantation of apical papilla into the injured spinal cord wound, whereas the other groups demonstrated persistent functional impairment. Moreover, tactile allodynia did not develop as an unwanted side effect in any of the groups, even though the SCAP hydrogel group showed higher expression of the microglial marker Iba-1, which has been frequently associated with allodynia. Notably, the apical papilla transplant group presented with reduced Iba-1 expression level. Masson trichrome and human mitochondria staining showed the preservation of the apical papilla integrity and the presence of numerous human cells, while human cells could no longer be detected in the SCAP hydrogel group at the 6-wk postsurgery time point. Altogether, our data suggest that the transplantation of a human apical papilla at the lesion site improves gait in spinally injured rats and reduces glial reactivity. It also underlines the potential interest for the application of delivering SCAP in their original niche, as compared with use of a fibrin hydrogel. © International & American

  1. Three-dimensional analysis of mesiobuccal root canal of Japanese maxillary first molar using Micro-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masashi; Ide, Yoshinobu; Matsunaga, Satoru; Kato, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Kan-Ichi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to three-dimensionally observe the morphological characteristics of mesiobuccal root canals of Japanese maxillary first molars using microcomputed tomography (Micro-CT) and classify root canal variations. This study used 90 maxillary first molars. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed using data obtained by Micro-CT, and cross-sections of the root canals were observed. Moreover, the root canal morphology was classified by the configuration and root canal diameter, and was evaluated for occurrence using the classification by Weine et al. (1969) as a reference. Overall, single root canals were observed in 44.4%, incomplete separation root canals in 22.3%, and completely separate root canals (upper and lower separation root canals) in 33.3%. Mesiobuccal root canals often had intricate configurations, and accessory root canals (lateral canals and apical ramifications) were observed in most of the mesiobuccal root canals (76.7%), irrespective of whether there were ramifications of the main root canals. While there were no marked differences in the incidence of root canal ramifications between this study and earlier reports, the incidence of accessory root canals was higher in this study. This result may be explained by the far more superior visualization ability of Micro-CT than conventional methods, which allowed the detection of microscopic apical ramifications previously difficult to observe. (author)

  2. Root (Botany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1981-01-01

    Plant roots can contribute significantly to the stability of steep slopes. They can anchor through the soil mass into fractures in bedrock, can cross zones of weakness to more stable soil, and can provide interlocking long fibrous binders within a weak soil mass. In deep soil, anchoring to bedrock becomes negligible, and lateral reinforcement predominates

  3. Novel use of platelet-rich fibrin matrix and MTA as an apical barrier in the management of a failed revascularization case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pankaj; Pruthi, Preeti Jain; Naval, Ruchika Roongta; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

    2015-08-01

    We report management of a failed revascularization/revitalization case, which could be due to inadequate removal of biofilm and bacteria in dentinal tubules. The use of an apical matrix barrier in form of a platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) membrane for stabilization of MTA in root end apexification procedure is described. The canal was cleansed of old MTA present in the cervical third using H files, irrigated using saline and finally irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl and saline. To obtain canal disinfection, calcium hydroxide paste was temporized in the canal. In subsequent appointments, PRF was placed at the root tip followed by 5-mm apical plug with mineral trioxide aggregate. One week later, the root canal was obturated with thermoplasticized gutta-percha. A 6-month and a 2-year follow ups showed reduction of periapical radiolucency and adequately functional tooth. One-visit apexification techniques provide an alternative treatment for failed revascularization cases. Follow up confirmed complete healing periradicularly. Apexification in one step using an apical barrier of PRF and a plug of MTA can be considered a predictable treatment and may be an alternative to long-term revascularization failures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Aluminium-induced reduction of plant growth in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is mediated by interrupting auxin transport and accumulation in roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengyin; Ren, Xiaoyan; Huang, Bingru; Wang, Ge; Zhou, Peng; An, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate Al3+-induced IAA transport, distribution, and the relation of these two processes to Al3+-inhibition of root growth in alfalfa. Alfalfa seedlings with or without apical buds were exposed to 0 or 100 μM AlCl3 and were foliar sprayed with water or 6 mg L−1 IAA. Aluminium stress resulted in disordered arrangement of cells, deformed cell shapes, altered cell structure, and a shorter length of the meristematic zone in root tips. Aluminium stress significantly decreased the IAA concentration in apical buds and root tips. The distribution of IAA fluorescence signals in root tips was disturbed, and the IAA transportation from shoot base to root tip was inhibited. The highest intensity of fluorescence signals was detected in the apical meristematic zone. Exogenous application of IAA markedly alleviated the Al3+-induced inhibition of root growth by increasing IAA accumulation and recovering the damaged cell structure in root tips. In addition, Al3+ stress up-regulated expression of AUX1 and PIN2 genes. These results indicate that Al3+-induced reduction of root growth could be associated with the inhibitions of IAA synthesis in apical buds and IAA transportation in roots, as well as the imbalance of IAA distribution in root tips. PMID:27435109

  5. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent

  6. Effectiveness of EDTA as the irrigation solution to remove smear layer in root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniasri Amas Achiar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of successful endodontic treatment is the hermetic obturation of the root canal system. To achieve this, the root canal filling must seal the canal space both apically and coronally to prevent the ingress of microorganisms or tissue fluids into the canal space. Apical leakage is reported a common reason for the clinical failure of endodontic therapy. Leakage through an obturated root canal is expected to take place at interfaces between sealer and dentin or sealer and gutta-percha, or through voids within the sealer. Hence, the sealing quality of root canal filling depends much on the sealing ability of the sealer. Therefore, anything that may influence the adaptation of the root filling to the canal wall is can determine the degree and the extent of leakage, and ultimately the prognosis of the endodontic therapy. In endodontic therapy, the smear layer formation results from root canal preparation and may influence the effective seal of the root canal system. The smear layer formation is mainly composed of inorganic components (dentin debris and organic materials, such as pulp tissue remnant, bacteria, and blood cells. Removal of the smear layer from the root canal walls before the obturation can reduce the leakage of root canal sealer. To remove the smear layer use 10 ml 17% EDTA followed by 10 ml of 5.25% NaOCl as irrigating solution. This paper discribe about how the effectivity of EDTA as irigating solution to remove the smear layer especially in the apical root canal with many lateral canal to reduce the apical leakage.

  7. Root nodule structure in Chamaecytisus podolicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skawińska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available By means of microscopic analyses, it was shown that root nodules formed by Chamaecytisus podolicus exhibited all structural features typical for indeterminate nodules of temperate genistean shrubs: (i apical nodule meristem composed of infected and non-infected domains, (ii parenchymatous bacteroid-containing tissue with infected cells only resulting from mitotic activity of infected meristematic cells, (iii absence of infection threads, and (iv convoluted bacteroids singly enclosed in a symbiosome membrane. For the first time, it was shown that the nodule meristem is organized into longitudinal files of sister cells.

  8. Evaluation of Enterococcus faecalis adhesion, penetration, and method to prevent the penetration of Enterococcus faecalis into root cementum: Confocal laser scanning microscope and scanning electron microscope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkai, Rahul S; Hegde, Mithra N; Halkai, Kiran R

    2016-01-01

    To ascertain the role of Enterococcus faecalis in persistent infection and a possible method to prevent the penetration of E. faecalis into root cementum. One hundred and twenty human single-rooted extracted teeth divided into five groups. Group I (control): intact teeth, Group II: no apical treatment done, Group III divided into two subgroups. In Groups IIIa and IIIb, root apex treated with lactic acid of acidic and neutral pH, respectively. Group IV: apical root cementum exposed to lactic acid and roughened to mimic the apical resorption. Group V: apical treatment done same as Group IV and root-end filling done using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Apical one-third of all samples immersed in E. faecalis broth for 8 weeks followed by bone morphogenetic protein and obturation and again immersed into broth for 8 weeks. Teeth split into two halves and observed under confocal laser scanning microscope and scanning electron microscope, organism identified by culture and polymerase chain reaction techniques. Adhesion and penetration was observed in Group IIIa and Group IV. Only adhesion in Group II and IIIB and no adhesion and penetration in Group I and V. Adhesion and penetration of E. faecalis into root cementum providing a long-term nidus for subsequent infection are the possible reason for persistent infection and root-end filling with MTA prevents the adhesion and penetration.

  9. Effectiveness of Various Irrigation Protocols in Removing Calcium Hydroxide from Root Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Göktürk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the removal efficiency of calcium hydroxide (CH by CanalBrush, Vibringe, laser-activated irrigation (LAI, conventional syringe irrigation (CSI, XP-endo Finisher, and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI in the root canal walls. Materials and Methods: Ninety-eight human mandibular premolar teeth were prepared. Root canals were filled with CH. The roots were divided into six experimental groups (n=15/group according to the irrigation protocol used: group 1 (CSI, group 2 (Vibringe, group 3 (CanalBrush, group 4 (XP-endo Finisher, group 5 (PUI, and group 6 (LAI. The amount of residual CH in the canal walls for each canal third was scored. Data were analysed by using Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni-correction Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: None of the investigated protocols renders the root canal walls free of CH remnants. Significant differences were found between tooth regions in terms of CH removal (p<0.05, and all groups except group 6 (LAI showed more residual CH in the apical region. PUI and LAI eliminated significantly more CH than CSI from the middle and apical thirds of the root canal, respectively. Conclusion: The activation of sodium hypochlorite with various devices increased CH removal at the apical and middle part of the canal. LAI and PUI produce better results in the apical and middle thirds, respectively.

  10. Hypercementosis and odontogenic epithelial hyperplasia associated with a tooth root remnant mimicking a neoplasm. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zustin, J; Friedrich, R E

    2010-01-01

    Hypercementosis presents as painless, single or multiple non-neoplastic cementum formation beyond the physiological limits of the tooth. It often occurs in the apical area of the involved tooth following infection, chemical or mechanical trauma. We report on radiographic and histopathological findings in a single case of late intraosseous hypercementosis and odontogenic epithelial hyperplasia associated with a minute apical tooth root remnant years after its extraction, mimicking a tumour.

  11. Effects of cations on hormone transport in primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    We examined the influence of aluminum and calcium (and certain other cations) on hormone transport in corn roots. When aluminum was applied unilaterally to the caps of 15 mm apical root sections the roots curved strongly away from the aluminum. When aluminum was applied unilaterally to the cap and 3H-indole-3-acetic acid was applied to the basal cut surface twice as much radioactivity (assumed to be IAA) accumulated on the concave side of the curved root as on the convex side. Auxin transport in the apical region of intact roots was preferentially basipetal, with a polarity (basipetal transport divided by acropetal transport) of 6.3. In decapped 5 mm apical root segments, auxin transport was acropetally polar (polarity = 0.63). Application of aluminum to the root cap strongly promoted acropetal transport of auxin reducing polarity from 6.3 to 2.1. Application of calcium to the root cap enhanced basipetal movement of auxin, increasing polarity from 6.3 to 7.6. Application of the calcium chelator, ethylene-glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, greatly decreased basipetal auxin movement, reducing polarity from 6.3 to 3.7. Transport of label after application of tritiated abscisic acid showed no polarity and was not affected by calcium or aluminum. The results indicate that the root cap is particularly important in maintaining basipetal polarity of auxin transport in primary roots of corn. The induction of root curvature by unilateral application of aluminum or calcium to root caps is likely to result from localized effects of these ions on auxin transport. The findings are discussed relative to the possible role of calcium redistribution in the gravitropic curvature of roots and the possibility of calmodulin involvement in the action of calcium and aluminum on auxin transport.

  12. Microbiological examination of infected dental root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B P F A; Pinheiro, E T; Gadê-Neto, C R; Sousa, E L R; Ferraz, C C R; Zaia, A A; Teixeira, F B; Souza-Filho, F J

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the root canal microbiota of primary and secondary root-infected canals and the association of constituent species with specific endodontic signs and symptoms. Microbial samples were taken from 60 root canals, 41 with necrotic pulp tissues (primary infection) and 19 with failed endodontic treatment (secondary infection). Strict anaerobic techniques were used for serial dilution, plating, incubation and identification. A total of 224 cultivable isolates were recovered belonging to 56 different bacterial species. Individual root canals yielded a maximum of 10 bacterial species. Of the bacterial isolates, 70% were either strict anaerobes or microphilic. The anaerobes most frequently isolated were: Peptostreptococcus micros (35%), Fusobacterium necrophorum (23.3%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (11.7%), Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens (16.7%), Porphyromonas gingivalis (6.7%) and Porphyromonas endodontalis (5%). The root canal microflora of untreated teeth with apical periodontitis was found to be mixed, comprising gram-negative and gram-positive and mostly anaerobic microorganisms and usually containing more than 3 species per canal. On the other hand, facultative anaerobic and gram-positive bacteria predominated in canals with failed endodontic treatment, which harbored 1-2 species per canal. Suggested relationships were found between anaerobes, especially gram-negatives, and the presence or history of pain, tenderness to percussion and swelling (PEubacterium spp. (both Pspp. (Pspp. (Pspp. (Pspp. (Pspp. (Pspp. (Pspp. (Pspp., P. micros, F. necrophorum (P<0.05). Our findings indicate potential complex interactions of species resulting in characteristic clinical pictures which cannot be achieved by individual species alone. They also indicate that the microbiota of primary infected canals with apical periodontitis differs in number and in species from the secondary infected canals by using the culture technique.

  13. Number, position, diameter and initial direction of growth of primary roots in Musa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Francois; Vaucelle, Aurelien; Pages, Loic; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry

    2002-07-01

    To understand soil colonization by a root system, information is needed on the architecture of the root system. In monocotyledons, soil exploration is mainly due to the growth of adventitious primary roots. Primary root emergence in banana was quantified in relation to shoot and corm development. Root emergence kinetics were closely related to the development of aerial organs. Root position at emergence on the corm followed an asymptotic function of corm dry weight, so that the age of each root at a given time could be deduced from its position. Root diameter at emergence was related to the position of the roots on the corm, with younger roots being thicker than older ones. However, root diameters were not constant along a given root, but instead decreased with the distance to the base; roots appear to be conical in their basal and apical parts. Root growth directions at emergence were variable, but a high proportion of the primary roots emerged with a low angle to the horizontal. Further research is needed to evaluate whether these initial trajectories are conserved during root development. Results presented in this study are in good agreement with those reported for other monocotyledons such as maize and rice. They give quantitative information that will facilitate the development of models of root system architecture in banana.

  14. Analysis of marginal seal of ProRoot MTA, MTA Angelus biodentine, and glass ionomer cement as root-end filling materials: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Malhotra

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Microleakage was present in all the samples. Least amount of apical dye microleakage was seen in biodentine with mean value of 0.16 mm followed by ProRoot MTA 0.68 mm, MTA Angelus 0.74 mm, and GIC 1.53 mm. The best sealing ability was seen in biodentine, and this difference was statistically significant.

  15. In vitro comparison of apical microleakage following canal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... The purpose of this study was to compare apical microleakage following canal obturation with lateral ..... heat-induced bone tissue injury: A vital microscopic study in the rabbit. J. Prosthet. ... In: Pathways of the Pulp. 9th Ed ...

  16. [Nonsurgical retreatment in a case of a radiolucent apical lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente Gómez, A; Rodríguez Ponce, A

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of failure that was helpful solved without surgical endodontic treatment. We don't achieve clinical success besides endodontic treatment was twice remade. Finally we decided to put a temporary filling with calcium hydroxide and wait until apical radiolucency disappear and complete our treatment with gutta-percha, sealer and lateral condensation.

  17. Protein modeling of apical membrane antigen-1(AMA-1) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apical membrane Antigen-1(AMA-1), an asexual blood stage antigen of Plasmodium cynomolgi, is an important candidate for testing as a component of malarial vaccine. The degree of conservation of. AMA-1 sequences implies a conserved function for this molecule across different species of Plasmodium. Since the AMA-1 ...

  18. Apical dominance and growth in vitro of Alstroemeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pumisutapon, P.

    2012-01-01

    In Alstroemeria, micropropagation is achieved by axillary bud outgrowth. However, the multiplication rate is rather low (1.2–2.0 per cycle of 4 weeks) due to strong apical dominance. Even though several factors (i.e. culture media, growth regulators, and environmental conditions) have

  19. Cellular and Molecular Pathways Leading to External Root Resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Linares, A.; Hartsfield, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    External apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment implicates specific molecular pathways that orchestrate nonphysiologic cellular activation. To date, a substantial number of in vitro and in vivo molecular, genomic, and proteomic studies have supplied data that provide new insights into root resorption. Recent mechanisms and developments reviewed here include the role of the cellular component—specifically, the balance of CD68+, iNOS+ M1- and CD68+, CD163+ M2-like macrophages associated with root resorption and root surface repair processes linked to the expression of the M1-associated proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor, inducible nitric oxide synthase, the M1 activator interferon γ, the M2 activator interleukin 4, and M2-associated anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 and arginase I. Insights into the role of mesenchymal dental pulp cells in attenuating dentin resorption in homeostasis are also reviewed. Data on recently deciphered molecular pathways are reviewed at the level of (1) clastic cell adhesion in the external apical root resorption process and the specific role of α/β integrins, osteopontin, and related extracellular matrix proteins; (2) clastic cell fusion and activation by the RANKL/RANK/OPG and ATP-P2RX7-IL1 pathways; and (3) regulatory mechanisms of root resorption repair by cementum at the proteomic and transcriptomic levels. PMID:27811065

  20. Comparison of Apical Extrusion of Debris by Using Single-File, Full-Sequence Rotary and Reciprocating Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Maryam; Farhang, Robab; Harandi, Azadeh; Tavanafar, Saeid; Raoof, Maryam; Galledar, Saeedeh

    2016-11-01

    During root canal preparation, apical extrusion of debris can cause inflammation, flare-ups, and delayed healing. Therefore, instrumentation techniques that cause the least extrusion of debris are desirable. This study aimed to compare apical extrusion of debris by five single-file, full-sequence rotary and reciprocating systems. One hundred twenty human mandibular premolars with similar root lengths, apical diameters, and canal curvatures were selected and randomly assigned to six groups (n=20): Reciproc R25 (25, 0.08), WaveOne Primary (25, 0.08), OneShape (25, 0.06), F360 (25, 0.04), Neoniti A1 (25, 0.08), and ProTaper Universal. Instrumentation of the root canals was performed in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions. Each tooth's debris was collected in a pre-weighed vial. After drying the debris in an incubator, the mass was measured three times consecutively; the mean was then calculated. The preparation time by each system was also measured. For data analysis, one-way ANOVA and Games-Howell post hoc test were used. The mean masses (±standard deviation) of the apical debris were as follows: 2.071±1.38mg (ProTaper Universal), 1.702±1.306mg (Neoniti A1), 1.295±0.839mg (OneShape), 1.109±0.676mg (WaveOne), 0.976±0.478mg (Reciproc) and 0.797±0.531mg (F360). Compared to ProTaper Universal, F360 generated significantly less debris (P=0.02). The ProTaper system required the longest preparation time (mean=88.6 seconds); the Reciproc (P=0.008), OneShape (P=0.006), and F360 (P=0.001) required significantly less time (P<0.05). All instruments caused extrusion of debris through the apex. The F360 produced significantly less debris than did the ProTaper Universal.

  1. Present and future in the use of micro-CT scanner 3D analysis for the study of dental and root canal morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola M. Grande; Gianluca Plotino; Gianluca Gambarini; Luca Testarelli; Ferdinando D’Ambrosio; Raffaella Pecci; Rossella Bedini

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present article is to illustrate and analyze the applications and the potential of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) in the analysis of tooth anatomy and root canal morphology. The authors performed a micro-CT analysis of the following different teeth: maxillary first molars with a second canal in the mesiobuccal (MB) root, mandibular first molars with complex anatomy in the mesial root, premolars with single and double roots and with complicated apical anatomy. The hardware...

  2. Evaluation of apical extrusion of debris and irrigant using two new reciprocating and one continuous rotation single file systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudutt Nayak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants during cleaning and shaping of the root canal is one of the main causes of periapical inflammation and postoperative flare-ups. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure the amount of debris and irrigants extruded apically in single rooted canals using two reciprocating and one rotary single file nickel-titanium instrumentation systems.Sixty human mandibular premolars, randomly assigned to three groups (n = 20 were instrumented using two reciprocating (Reciproc and Wave One and one rotary (One Shape single-file nickel-titanium systems. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant with traditional needle irrigation delivery system. Eppendorf tubes were used as test apparatus for collection of debris and irrigant. The volume of extruded irrigant was collected and quantified via 0.1-mL increment measure supplied on the disposable plastic insulin syringe. The liquid inside the tubes was dried and the mean weight of debris was assessed using an electronic microbalance. The data were statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann Whitney U test with Bonferroni adjustment. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant.The Reciproc file system produced significantly more debris compared with OneShape file system (P0.05. Extrusion of irrigant was statistically insignificant irrespective of the instrument or instrumentation technique used (P >0.05.Although all systems caused apical extrusion of debris and irrigant, continuous rotary instrumentation was associated with less extrusion as compared with the use of reciprocating file systems.

  3. Evaluation of apical extrusion of debris and irrigant using two new reciprocating and one continuous rotation single file systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Gurudutt; Singh, Inderpreet; Shetty, Shashit; Dahiya, Surya

    2014-05-01

    Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants during cleaning and shaping of the root canal is one of the main causes of periapical inflammation and postoperative flare-ups. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure the amount of debris and irrigants extruded apically in single rooted canals using two reciprocating and one rotary single file nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Sixty human mandibular premolars, randomly assigned to three groups (n = 20) were instrumented using two reciprocating (Reciproc and Wave One) and one rotary (One Shape) single-file nickel-titanium systems. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant with traditional needle irrigation delivery system. Eppendorf tubes were used as test apparatus for collection of debris and irrigant. The volume of extruded irrigant was collected and quantified via 0.1-mL increment measure supplied on the disposable plastic insulin syringe. The liquid inside the tubes was dried and the mean weight of debris was assessed using an electronic microbalance. The data were statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann Whitney U test with Bonferroni adjustment. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. The Reciproc file system produced significantly more debris compared with OneShape file system (P0.05). Extrusion of irrigant was statistically insignificant irrespective of the instrument or instrumentation technique used (P >0.05). Although all systems caused apical extrusion of debris and irrigant, continuous rotary instrumentation was associated with less extrusion as compared with the use of reciprocating file systems.

  4. Decreased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in root-canal exudates during root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamapun, Kassara; Handagoon, Sira; Sastraruji, Thanapat; Gutmann, James L; Pavasant, Prasit; Krisanaprakornkit, Suttichai

    2017-10-01

    To determine the matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) levels in root-canal exudates from teeth undergoing root-canal treatment. The root-canal exudates from six teeth with normal pulp and periradicular tissues that required intentional root canal treatment for prosthodontic reasons and from twelve teeth with pulp necrosis and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP) were sampled with paper points for bacterial culture and aspirated for the detection of proMMP-2 and active MMP-2 by gelatin zymography and the quantification of MMP-2 levels by ELISA. By gelatin zymography, both proMMP-2 and active MMP-2 were detected in the first collection of root-canal exudates from teeth with pulp necrosis and AAP, but not from teeth with normal pulp, and their levels gradually decreased and disappeared at the last collection. Consistently, ELISA demonstrated a significant decrease in MMP-2 levels in the root-canal exudates of teeth with pulp necrosis and AAP following root canal procedures (papical lesions, similar to the clinical application of MMP-8 as a biomarker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An in vitro comparison of apically extruded debris using three rotary nickel-titanium instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Tasdemir

    2010-09-01

    Conclusion: According to this study, all instrumentation techniques apically extruded debris through the apical foramen. However, the BioRaCe instruments induced less extruded debris than the ProTaper Universal and Mtwo rotary systems.

  6. Ultrastructure of the harmful unarmored dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides (Dinophyceae) with reference to the apical groove and Flagellar apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwataki, Mitsunori; Hansen, Gert; Moestrup, Øjvind; Matsuoka, Kazumi

    2010-01-01

    The external and internal ultrastructure of the harmful unarmored dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef has been examined with special reference to the apical groove and three-dimensional structure of the flagellar apparatus. The apical groove is U-shaped and connected to the anterior sulcal extension on the dorsal side of the epicone. The eyespot is located dorsally and composed of two layers of globules situated within the chloroplast. A narrow invagination of the plasma membrane is associated with the eyespot. The nuclear envelope has normal nuclear pores similar to other eukaryotes but different from the Gymnodinium group with diagnostic nuclear chambers. The longitudinal and transverse basal bodies are separated by approximately 0.5-1.0 microm and interconnected directly by a striated basal body connective and indirectly by microtubular and fibrous structures. Characteristic features of the flagellar apparatus are as follows: (1) a nuclear extension projects to the R1 (longitudinal microtubular root) and is connected to the root by thin fibrous material; (2) fibrillar structures are associated with the longitudinal and transverse flagellar canal; and (3) a striated ventral connective extends toward the posterior end of the cell along the longitudinal flagellar canal. We conclude, based on both morphological and molecular evidence, that Cochlodinium is only distantly related to Gymnodinium.

  7. The Use of Different Irrigation Techniques to Decrease Bacterial Loads in Healthy and Diabetic Patients with Asymptomatic Apical Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Mai; Saber, Shehab ElDin; El-Badry, Tarek; Obeid, Maram; Hassib, Nehal

    2016-12-15

    Diabetes mellitus is a multisystem disease which weakens the human's immunity. Subsequently, it worsens the sequelae of apical periodontitis by raising a fierce bacterial trait due to the impaired host response. This study aimed to estimate bacterial reduction after using different irrigation techniques in systemically healthy and diabetic patients with asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Enterococcus faecalis , Peptostreptococcus micros , and Fusobacterium necleatum bacteria were chosen, as they are the most common and prevailing strains found in periodontitis. Bacterial samples were retrieved from necrotic root canals of systemically healthy and diabetic patients, before and after endodontic cleaning and shaping by using two different irrigation techniques; the conventional one and the EndoVac system. Quantitive polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was utilised to detect the reduction in the bacterial count. The EndoVac irrigation system was effective in reducing bacteria, especially Peptostreptococcus micros in the diabetic group when compared to conventional irrigation technique with a statistically significant difference. The EndoVac can be considered as a promising tool in combination with irrigant solution to defeat the bacterial colonies living in the root canal system. Additional studies ought to be done to improve the means of bacterial clearance mainly in immune-compromised individuals.

  8. Evaluation of technical quality and periapical health of root-filled teeth by using cone-beam CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Gülsüm NUR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to assess the quality of root fillings, coronal restorations, complications of all root-filled teeth and their association with apical periodontitis (AP detected by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT images from an adult Turkish subpopulation. Material and Methods The sample for this study consisted of 242 patients (aging from 15 to 72 years with 522 endodontically treated teeth that were assessed for technical quality of the root canal filling and periapical status of the teeth. Additionally, the apical status of each root-filled tooth was assessed according to the gender, dental arch, tooth type and age classification, undetected canals, instrument fracture, root fracture, apical resorption, apical lesion, furcation lesion and type and quality of the coronal structure. Statistical analysis was performed using percentages and chi-square test. Results The success rate of the root canal treatment was of 54.4%. The success rates of adequate and inadequate root canal treatment were not significantly different (p>0.05. Apical periodontitis was found in 228 (45.6% teeth treated for root canals. Higher prevalence of AP was found in patients aging from 20 to 29 years [64 (27% teeth] and in anterior (canines and incisors teeth [97 (41% teeth]. Conclusions The technical quality of root canal filling performed by dental practitioners in a Turkish subpopulation was consistent with a high prevalence of AP. The probable reasons for this failure are multifactorial, and there may be a need for improved undergraduate education and postgraduate courses to improve the clinical skills of dental practitioners in endodontics.

  9. Determination of apical constriction and apical foramen using electronic apex locator in vivo: Comparison between vital and nonvital teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Aggarwal

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The study supports that EAL measures the location of AC and apical foramen with similar accuracy in vital and nonvital teeth. Furthermore, the distance between the two is reliable when compared with the actual distance observed under stereomicroscope supporting its widespread usage in clinical endodontics.

  10. Locally Finite Root Supersystems

    OpenAIRE

    Yousofzadeh, Malihe

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the notion of locally finite root supersystems as a generalization of both locally finite root systems and generalized root systems. We classify irreducible locally finite root supersystems.

  11. Thorascopic resection of an apical paraspinal schwannoma using the da Vinci surgical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, David; Sherman, Jonathan H; Avila, Edward; Bilsky, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Posterior mediastinal neurogenic tumors have traditionally been resected via an open posterolateral thoracotomy. Video-assisted thorascopic surgery has emerged as an alternative technique allowing for improved morbidity with decreased blood loss, less postoperative pain, and a shorter recovery period, among others. The da Vinci surgical system, as first described for urologic procedures, has recently been reported for lung lobectomy. This technique provides the advantages of instrumentation with 6 degrees of freedom, stable operating arms, and improved visualization with the three-dimensional high-definition camera. We describe the technique for thorascopic resection of an apical paraspinal schwannoma of the T1 nerve root with the da Vinci surgical system. This technique used a specialized intraoperative neuromonitoring probe for free-running electromyography (EMG) and triggered EMG. We demonstrate successful resection of a posterior paraspinal schwannoma with the da Vinci surgical system while preserving neurologic function. The patient displayed stable intraoperative monitoring of the T1 nerve root and full intrinsic hand strength postoperatively. The technique described in this article introduces robotic system accuracy and precludes the need for an open thoracotomy. In addition, this approach demonstrates the ability of the da Vinci surgical system to safely dissect tumors from their neural attachments and is applicable to other such lesions of similar size and location. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Comparative evaluation of apical extrusion of bacteria using hand and rotary systems : An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghivari, Sheetal B; Kubasad, Girish C; Deshpande, Preethi

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the bacteria extruded apically during root canal preparation using two hand and rotary instrumentation techniques. Materials and Methods: Eighty freshly extracted mandibular premolars were mounted in bacteria collection apparatus. Root canals were contaminated with the pure culture of Enterococcus fecalis (ATCC 29212) and dried at 37°C for 24 h. Bacteria extruded were collected, incubated in brain heart infusion agar for 24 h at 36°C and the colony forming units (CFU) were counted. Statistical Analysis: The mean number of colony forming units were calculated by One-way ANOVA and comparison between the groups made by multiple comparison (Dunnet D) test. Results: The step-back technique extruded highest number of bacteria in comparison to other hand and rotary Ni–Ti systems. Conclusion: Under the limitation of this study all hand and rotary instrumentation techniques extruded bacteria. Among all the instrumentation techniques step-back technique extruded more number of bacteria and K-3 system the least. Further in vivo research in this direction could provide more insight into the biologic factors associated and focus on bacterial species that essentially play a major role in post instrumentation flare-ups. PMID:22368332

  13. Participation of gibberellin in the control of apical dominance in soybean and redwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruddat, M.; Pharis, R.P.

    1966-01-01

    Loss of apical dominance in soybeans and redwood was increased when the plants were treated with the growth retardant AMO-1618. Simultaneous application of gibberellin reduced the number of elongating buds and promoted growth of the first or second uppermost auxillary bud, thus restoring apical dominance. It is concluded that gibberellin participates in the expression of apical dominance. 30 references, 2 tables.

  14. Intraradicular Splinting with Endodontic Instrument of Horizontal Root Fracture

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    Ersan Çiçek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Root fractures, defined as fractures involving dentine, cementum, and pulpal and supportive tissues, constitute only 0.5–7% of all dental injuries. Horizontal root fractures are commonly observed in the maxillary anterior region and 75% of these fractures occur in the maxillary central incisors. Methods. A 14-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic three days after a traffic accident. In radiographic examination, the right maxillary central incisor was fractured horizontally in apical thirds. Initially, following local infiltrative anesthetics, the coronal fragment was repositioned and this was radiographically confirmed. Then the stabilization splint was applied and remained for three months. After three weeks, according to the results of the vitality tests, the right and left central incisors were nonvital. For the right central incisor, both the coronal and apical fragments were involved in the endodontic preparation. Results. For the right central tooth, both the coronal and apical root fragments were endodontically treated and obturated at a single visit with white mineral trioxide aggregate whilst the fragments were stabilized internally by insertion of a size 40 Hedstrom stainless-steel endodontic file into the canal. Conclusion. Four-year follow-up examination revealed satisfactory clinical and radiographic findings with hard tissue repair of the fracture line.

  15. Through-flow of water in leaves of a submerged plant is influenced by the apical opening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Submerged plant, apical opening, hydathode, Sparganium, hydraulic architecture, leaf specific conductivity......Submerged plant, apical opening, hydathode, Sparganium, hydraulic architecture, leaf specific conductivity...

  16. Root anatomy and canal configuration of the permanent mandibular first molar: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablo, Oliver Valencia; Estevez, Roberto; Péix Sánchez, Manuel; Heilborn, Carlos; Cohenca, Nestor

    2010-12-01

    The main goal of endodontic therapy is to prevent or heal apical periodontitis. However, root canal anatomy might present a clinical challenge directly related to the treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to review published literature related to root anatomy and root canal configuration of the permanent mandibular first molar. An exhaustive search was undertaken to identify published literature related to the root anatomy and root canal morphology of the permanent mandibular first molar by using key words. The search of the MEDLINE database included all publications from 1966-May 2010. Selected articles were then obtained and reviewed. Data evaluated and summarized in the data sheet included methodology, population, number of teeth per study (power), number of root canals, type of root canal configuration, and identification of number of apical foramina. Forty-one studies were identified including a total of 18,781 teeth. The incidence of a third root was 13% and was strongly correlated with the ethnicity of the studied population. Three canals were present in 61.3%, 4 canals in 35.7%, and 5 canals in approximately 1%. Root canal configuration of the mesial root revealed 2 canals in 94.4% and 3 canals in 2.3%. The most common canal system configuration was Vertucci type IV (52.3%), followed by type II (35%). Root canal configuration of the distal root revealed type I configuration in 62.7%, followed by types II (14.5%) and IV (12.4%). The presence of isthmus communications averaged 54.8% on the mesial and 20.2% on the distal root. The number of roots on the mandibular first molar is directly related to ethnicity. Root canal morphology and configuration might present the clinician with a complex anatomy requiring more diagnostic approaches, access modifications, and clinical skills to successfully localize, negotiate, disinfect, and seal the root canal system. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Apically extruded debris with three contemporary Ni-Ti instrumentation systems: An ex vivo comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logani Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To comparatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris when ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile systems were used for the instrumentation of root canals. Materials and Methods: Thirty minimally curved, mature, human mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly divided into three groups of ten teeth each. Each group was instrumented using one of the three instrumentation systems: ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile. Five milliliters of sterile water were used as an irrigant. Debris extruded was collected in preweighed polyethylene vials and the extruded irrigant was evaporated. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by comparing the pre- and postinstrumentation weight of polyethylene vials for each group. Statistical Analysis: The Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann-Whitney U test were applied to determine if significant differences existed among the groups ( P < 0.05. Results: All instruments tested produced a measurable amount of debris. No statistically significant difference was observed between ProTaper hand and ProFile system ( P > 0.05. Although ProTaper rotary extruded a relatively higher amount of debris, no statistically significant difference was observed between this type and the ProTaper hand instruments ( P > 0.05. The ProTaper rotary extruded significantly more amount of debris compared to the ProFile system ( P < 0.05. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that all instruments tested produced apical extrusion of debris. The ProTaper rotary extruded a significantly higher amount of debris than the ProFile.

  18. Tissue response to silicone rubber when used as a root canal filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasman, F G; Goldman, M

    1977-04-01

    To test the tissue compatibility of silicone rubber when it is used as a root canal filler, excess material was intentionally forced into the apical tissues in primates. The tissue response was one of general acceptance, with the usual response being fibrotic encapsulation. A low degree of inflammation was noted. Further studies are in progress.

  19. Comparative evaluation of apically extruded debris with V-Taper, ProTaper Next, and the Self-adjusting File systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyavahare, Nishant K; Raghavendra, Srinidhi Surya; Desai, Niranjan N

    2016-01-01

    Complete cleaning of the root canal is the goal for ensuring success in endodontics. Removal of debris plays an important role in achieving this goal. In spite of advancements in instrument design, apical extrusion of debris remains a source of inflammation in the periradicular region. To comparatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris with V-Taper, ProTaper Next, and the self-adjusting File (SAF) system. Sixty-four extracted human mandibular teeth with straight root canals were taken. Access openings were done and working length determined. The samples were randomly divided into three groups: Group I - V-Taper files (n = 20), Group II - ProTaper Next (n = 20), Group III - SAF (n = 20). Biomechanical preparation was completed and the debris collected in vials to be quantitatively determined. The data obtained was statistically analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test. All the specimens showed apical debris extrusion. SAF showed significantly less debris extrusion compared to V-Taper and ProTaper Next (P endodontic instruments. This indicates that the incidence of inter-treatment flare-ups due to debris extrusion would be less with the SAF.

  20. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  1. Blunt apical dissection during anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoub Saif

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meticulous apical dissection during a radical prostatectomy is imperative to achieve desirable pathologic and quality of life outcomes. Findings We describe a novel technique using careful blunt dissection to better delineate the apex of the prostate, providing a simple means to potentially lessen positive surgical margins at the apex and promote better continence and erectile function in men undergoing an anatomic radical prostatectomy. Median operative time and blood loss were 190 minutes and 675 mL, respectively. Only 10 percent of the patients with positive surgical margins were found to have apical positive surgical margins. Ninety-three percent of patients reported no urinary leakage. Conclusion We believe our technique of isolating the DVC with blunt dissection and then ligating and transecting the DVC to be feasible approach that requires larger studies to truly confirm its utility.

  2. Viral-bacterial associations in acute apical abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Dennis C; Rôças, Isabela N; Paiva, Simone S M; Carmo, Flávia L; Cavalcante, Fernanda S; Rosado, Alexandre S; Santos, Kátia R N; Siqueira, José F

    2011-08-01

    Viral-bacterial and bacterial synergism have been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of several human diseases. This study sought to investigate the possible associations between 9 candidate endodontic bacterial pathogens and 9 human viruses in samples from acute apical abscesses. DNA extracts from purulent exudate aspirates of 33 cases of acute apical abscess were surveyed for the presence of 9 selected bacterial species using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. Single or nested PCR assays were used for detection of the human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpesviruses types 1 to 8. Two-thirds of the abscess samples were positive for at least one of the target viruses. Specifically, the most frequently detected viruses were HHV-8 (54.5%); HPV (9%); and varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and HHV-6 (6%). Bacterial DNA was present in all cases and the most prevalent bacterial species were Treponema denticola (70%), Tannerella forsythia (67%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (67%), Dialister invisus (61%), and Dialister pneumosintes (57.5%). HHV-8 was positively associated with 7 of the target bacterial species and HPV with 4, but all these associations were weak. Several bacterial pairs showed a moderate positive association. Viral coinfection was found in 6 abscess cases, but no significant viral association could be determined. Findings demonstrated that bacterial and viral DNA occurred concomitantly in two-thirds of the samples from endodontic abscesses. Although this may suggest a role for viruses in the etiology of apical abscesses, the possibility also exists that the presence of viruses in abscess samples is merely a consequence of the bacterially induced disease process. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of these viral-bacterial interactions, if any, in the pathogenesis of acute apical abscesses. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Local immune and oxidative status in exacerbated chronic apical periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoplya, A I; Goldobin, D D; Loktionov, A L

    The aim of the study was to define local immune and oxidative changes in patients with exacerbated chronic apical periodontitis. These changes were assessed in saliva of 67 patients with the mean age of 31±2.5 before and after treatment. The study revealed disturbances in cytokines and complement system balance and activation of lipids peroxidation. Combination of Gepon or Vobenzim with Essentiale forte H and Kaskatol proved to be the most effective for correction of this imbalance.

  4. Bone resorptive activity in symptomatic and asymptomatic apical lesions of endodontic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Muñoz, M; Garrido-Flores, M; Baeza, M; Huamán-Chipana, P; García-Sesnich, J; Bologna, R; Vernal, R; Hernández, M

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the levels and diagnostic accuracy of a set of bone resorption biomarkers, including TRAP-5, RANKL, and OPG in symptomatic and asymptomatic apical lesions and controls. Apical tissues from symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis patients and periodontal ligaments from healthy teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were processed for tissue homogenization and the levels of TRAP-5, RANKL, and OPG were determined by multiplex assay. Marker levels were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis test, and diagnostic accuracy was analyzed with ROC curves. Higher levels of RANKL, OPG, and RANKL/OPG ratio were determined in both types of apical lesions compared to healthy periodontal ligament, whereas higher TRAP-5 levels were found only in symptomatic apical lesions (p apical lesions versus healthy controls (AUC = 0.69, p asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AUC = 0.71, p Apical lesions showed higher RANKL and OPG levels than healthy tissues. TRAP-5 levels were the highest in symptomatic apical lesions, suggesting that these represent a progressive state, and showed diagnostic potential. Clinically symptomatic apical periodontitis might represent biologically progressive apical lesions based on TRAP5 levels. TRAP5 has diagnostic potential to identify these lesions, representing a candidate prognostic biomarker.

  5. Root - shoot - signaling in Chenopodium rubrum L. as studied by 15O labeled water uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Tanoi, K.; Rai, H.; Nakanishi, T.M.; Suzuki, K.; Albrechtova, J.T.P.; Wagner, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: It has been demonstrated with C. rubrum that the different organ systems are transmitting surface action potentials which might be the basis for systemic signal transduction. Shoot tip respectively root generated action potentials travel along the stem axis. Shoot tip generated action potentials arriving at the basis can be reflected and travel upwards. The radioactive labeling technique was established at the NIRS in Inage, Japan. About 2 GBq of 15 O labeled Hoagland's solution was supplied to the plant root or cut stem in a phytotron at 25 o C with 45 % of relative humidity and continuous light. By cutting the shoot apical bud and the apices of main side branches the uptake of 15 O labeled water was inhibited in plants with intact roots but not in plants with roots cut. Because of the short half-life of 15 O (2 min), experiments could be repeated in hourly intervals. Cutting the apex probably limits root water uptake via a hydraulic-electrochemical signal. The results are discussed with respect to the significance of a continuous communication between the root system and the shoot apical meristem(s) in the adaptation of plants to their environment. (author)

  6. Revascularization procedure in an open apex tooth with external root resorption: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Dastpak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available External inflammatory root resorption (EIR represents a challenge in endodontic practice. EIR commonly occurs after dental trauma that results in periodontal ligament injury, pulp necrosis and subsequent infection.  Treatment of EIR is based on disinfecting the root canal system through chemomechanical procedures and then filling it with calcium hydroxide or triple antibiotic paste. Dental trauma commonly occurs in young patients whose teeth are not fully formed and have thin dentinal walls and open apices. Revascularization therapy has proven to be suitable for treatment of root canals of teeth with pulp necrosis and open apices. This case report presents successful revascularization treatment of a permanent immature tooth with external root resorption and chronic apical periodontitis. The tooth was treated by the protocol suggested by the American Association of Endodontics (AAE, consisted of disinfecting the root canal system, filling it with blood clot and sealing the root canal with mineral trioxide aggregate followed by bonded resin restoration. The symptoms disappeared, the size of the periapical lesion reduced and the tooth was asymptomatic during the 12 month follow up period.

  7. Cryopreservation of in vitro shoot apices of Oxalis tuberosa Mol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benito, M E; Mendoza-Condori, V H; Molina-Garcia, A D

    2007-01-01

    Oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.) is an under-utilized tuber crop from the Andean region. Cryopreservation would allow the safe and long-term preservation of the genetic resources of this crop. A protocol for the cryopreservation of in vitro grown shoots has been developed using the vitrification solution PVS2. Two genotypes were studied (G1 and G27). Nodal segments were cultured on MS medium and incubated at 10 degree C with 16 h photoperiod and 10 mol per square meter per second irradiance, for two weeks. Apices were then excised and cultured on MS+0.15 M sucrose for 3 days at 5 degree C in darkness. Subsequently, apices were immersed in a loading solution (liquid MS medium+2 M glycerol+0.4 M sucrose), and then treated with the vitrification solution PVS2 for 0 to 40 minutes. Cryovials were then immersed in liquid nitrogen. Four weeks after rewarming and culture on recovery medium, genotype G1 showed approximately 60 percent recovery (normal growth) with 20 min PVS2 treatment. Genotype G27 showed lower recovery (30 percent). Differential scanning calorimetry yielded a Tg midpoint for PSV2 solution of ca. -120 degree C. Calorimetric studies on apices at different stages of the cryopreservation protocol showed a change in calorimetric parameters consistent with a decrease in the amount of frozen water as the protocol advanced.

  8. Clinical Management of Two Root Resorption Cases in Endodontic Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mincik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root resorption is a pathological process involving loss of hard dental tissues. It may occur as a consequence of dental trauma, orthodontic treatment, and bleaching, and occasionally it accompanies periodontal disease. Although the mechanism of resorption process is examined in detail, its etiology is not fully understood. Wide open apical foramen is more difficult to manage and the root canal may often overfill. In this report we present two cases of root resorption and describe means for its clinical management. We conclude that useful measure of a success or failure in managing root resorption is the persistence of the resorption process. It is a clear sign of an active ongoing inflammatory process and shows the clinical need for retreatment.

  9. Maxillary second molar with four roots and five canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjia Sha

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this case report, we present a maxillary second molar variant, which had two palatal roots with two canals and two buccal roots with three canals, including a second mesiobuccal canal. A 44-year-old female patient complained about a tooth crown fracture and severe pain in her right maxillary second molar. A clinical intraoral inspection and radiography were carried out on the tooth, and a diagnosis of chronic apical periodontitis was made. Four roots (two buccal and two palatal and five canals (three buccal and two palatal were found. The anatomical variation of the tooth was further confirmed by cone-beam computed tomography, a cone-fit procedure, and a radiograph with a shifted projection angle. Root-canal treatment was performed under an endodontic microscope.

  10. Clinical, radiographic, and histological observation of a human immature permanent tooth with chronic apical abscess after revitalization treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Emi; Ricucci, Domenico; Albert, Jeffrey; Alobaid, Adel S; Gibbs, Jennifer L; Huang, George T-J; Lin, Louis M

    2013-08-01

    Revitalization procedures have been widely used for the treatment of immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis. The treatment procedures appear to be capable of encouraging continued root development and thickening of the canal walls. The nature of tissues formed in the canal space and at the root apex after revitalization has been shown histologically in several animal studies; similar studies in humans were recently reported. A 9-year-old boy had a traumatic injury to his upper anterior teeth. Tooth #9 suffered a complicated crown fracture with a pulp exposure, which was restored with a composite resin. The tooth developed a chronic apical abscess. Revitalization procedures were performed on tooth #9 because it was an immature permanent tooth with an open apex and thin canal walls. Twenty-six months after revitalization, the tooth had a horizontal crown fracture at the cervical level and could not be restored. The tooth was extracted and processed for routine histological and immunohistochemical examination to identify the nature of tissues formed in the canal space. Clinically and radiographically, the revitalization of the present case was successful because of the absence of signs and symptoms and the resolution of periapical lesion as well as thickening of the canal walls and continued root development. The tissue formed in the canal was well-mineralized cementum- or bone-like tissue identified by routine histology and immunohistochemistry. No pulp-like tissue characterized by the presence of polarized odontoblast-like cells aligning dentin-like hard tissue was observed. The tissues formed in the canal of revitalized human tooth are similar to cementum- or bone-like tissue and fibrous connective tissue. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Push-out bond strength of different tricalcium silicate-based filling materials to root dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Henrique Stefaneli Marques

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of different triccalcium silicate cements to retrograde cavity using a push out test. Thirty maxillary central incisors were shaped using #80 hand files and sectioned transversally. Root slices were obtained from the apical 4 mm after eliminating the apical extremity. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin and positioned at 45° to the horizontal plane for preparation of root-end cavities with a diamond ultrasonic retrotip. The samples were divided into three groups according to the root-end filling material (n = 10: MTA Angelus, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. A gutta-percha cone (#80 was tugged-back at the limit between the canal and the root-end cavity. The root-end cavity was filled and the gutta-percha cone was removed after complete setting of the materials. The specimens were placed in an Instron machine with the root-end filling turned downwards. The push-out shaft was inserted in the space previously occupied by the gutta-percha cone and push out testing was performed at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. There was no statistically significant difference in resistance to push out by the materials tested (p > 0.01. MTA Angelus and ProRoot MTA showed predominantly mixed failure while Biodentine exhibited mixed and cohesive failures. The tricalcium silicate-based root-end filling materials showed similar bond strength retrograde cavity.

  12. Push-out bond strength of different tricalcium silicate-based filling materials to root dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaneli Marques, Jorge Henrique; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa; Rached-Júnior, Fuad Jacob Abi; Macedo, Luciana Martins Domingues de; Mazzi-Chaves, Jardel Francisco; Camilleri, Josette; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2018-03-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of different triccalcium silicate cements to retrograde cavity using a push out test. Thirty maxillary central incisors were shaped using #80 hand files and sectioned transversally. Root slices were obtained from the apical 4 mm after eliminating the apical extremity. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin and positioned at 45° to the horizontal plane for preparation of root-end cavities with a diamond ultrasonic retrotip. The samples were divided into three groups according to the root-end filling material (n = 10): MTA Angelus, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. A gutta-percha cone (#80) was tugged-back at the limit between the canal and the root-end cavity. The root-end cavity was filled and the gutta-percha cone was removed after complete setting of the materials. The specimens were placed in an Instron machine with the root-end filling turned downwards. The push-out shaft was inserted in the space previously occupied by the gutta-percha cone and push out testing was performed at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. There was no statistically significant difference in resistance to push out by the materials tested (p > 0.01). MTA Angelus and ProRoot MTA showed predominantly mixed failure while Biodentine exhibited mixed and cohesive failures. The tricalcium silicate-based root-end filling materials showed similar bond strength retrograde cavity.

  13. Dynamic Torque and Vertical Force Analysis during Nickel-titanium Rotary Root Canal Preparation with Different Modes of Reciprocal Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokita, Daisuke; Ebihara, Arata; Nishijo, Miki; Miyara, Kana; Okiji, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare 2 modes of reciprocal movement (torque-sensitive and time-dependent reciprocal rotation) with continuous rotation in terms of torque and apical force generation during nickel-titanium rotary root canal instrumentation. A custom-made automated root canal instrumentation and torque/force analyzing device was used to prepare simulated canals in resin blocks and monitor the torque and apical force generated in the blocks during preparation. Experimental groups (n = 7, each) consisted of (1) torque-sensitive reciprocal rotation with torque-sensitive vertical movement (group TqR), (2) time-dependent reciprocal rotation with time-dependent vertical movement (group TmR), and (3) continuous rotation with time-dependent vertical movement (group CR). The canals were instrumented with TF Adaptive SM1 and SM2 rotary files (SybronEndo, Orange, CA), and the torque and apical force were measured during instrumentation with SM2. The mean and maximum torque and apical force values were statistically analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test (α = 0.05). The recordings showed intermittent increases of upward apical force and clockwise torque, indicating the generation and release of screw-in forces. The maximum upward apical force values in group TmR were significantly smaller than those in group CR (P forces when compared with continuous rotation. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Seedling root targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane L. Haase

    2011-01-01

    Roots are critical to seedling performance after outplanting. Although root quality is not as quick and simple to measure as shoot quality, target root characteristics should be included in any seedling quality assessment program. This paper provides a brief review of root characteristics most commonly targeted for operational seedling production. These are: root mass...

  15. Proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla regulated by Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fang; Gao, Lifen; Lu, Yating; Ma, Hongxin; Wang, Hongxing; Liang, Xiaohong; Wang, Yan; Ma, Chunhong

    2016-01-15

    In the process of tooth root development, stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) can differentiate into odontoblasts and form root dentin, however, molecules regulating SCAPs differentiation have not been elucidated. Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2 (ZHX2) is a novel transcriptional inhibitor. It is reported to modulate the development of nerve cells, liver cells, B cells, red blood cells, and so on. However, the role of ZHX2 in tooth root development remains unclear. In this study, we explored the potential role of ZHX2 in the process of SCAPs differentiation. The results showed that overexpression of ZHX2 upregulated the expression of osteo/odontogenic related genes and ALP activity, inhibited the proliferation of SCAPs. Consistently, ZHX2 knockdown reduced SCAPs mineralization and promoted SCAPs proliferation. These results indicated that ZHX2 plays a critical role in the proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An evaluation of canal curvature at the apical one third in type II mesial canals of mandibular molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Rim Yun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the buccolingual curvature at the apical one third in type II mesial canals of mandibular molars using the radius and angle of curvature. Materials and Methods Total 100 mandibular molars were selected. Following an endodontic access in the teeth, their distal roots were removed. #15 H- or K-files (Dentsply Maillefer were inserted into the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals of the teeth. Radiographs of the teeth were taken for the proximal view. Among them, type II canals were selected and divided into two subgroups, IIa and IIb. In type IIa, two separate canals merged into one canal before reaching the apex and in type IIb, two separate canals merged into one canal within the apical foramen. The radius and angle of curvature of specimens were examined. Results In type II, mean radius of curvature in mesiolingual and mesiobuccal canals were 2.82 mm and 3.58 mm, respectively. The radius of the curvature of mesiolingual canals were significantly smaller than that of mesiobuccal canals in type II, and especially in type IIa. However, there were no statistically significant differences in radius of curvature between mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals in type IIb and there were no significant differences in angle of curvature between type IIa and IIb. Conclusion In this study, type II mesial canals of mandibular molars showed severe curvature in the proximal view. Especially, mesiolingual canals of type IIa had more abrupt curvature than mesiobuccal canals at the apical one third.

  17. The TOR Complex: An Emergency Switch for Root Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokawa, Ken; Baluška, František

    2016-01-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is known to be a controller of cell growth and aging, which determines the fine balance between growth rates and energy availabilities. It has been reported that many eukaryotes express TOR genes. In plants, TOR signaling modifies growth and development in response to a plant's energy status. An example of TOR action can be found in the root apices, which are active organs that explore the soil environment via vigorous growth and numerous tropisms. The exploratory nature of root apices requires a large energy supply for signaling, as well as for cell division and elongation. In the case of negative tropisms, roots must respond quickly to avoid patches of unfavorable soil conditions, again by consuming precious energy reserves. Here we review the current findings on TOR signaling in plants and animals, and propose possible roles for this important complex in driving plant root negative tropisms, particularly during light escape and salt avoidance behavior. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Comparison of the Effect of Canal Preparation by Step Back Technique Using Hand Instruments and Gates Glidden Drills with ProTaper Universal Rotary System on the Root Resistance to Vertical Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    A Abbaszadegan; Z Sadat Aleyasin; M Sedigh Shamsi; Sh Shahriari

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Cleaning and shaping of the root canal system with an efficient and safe technique are the major goals of root canal treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the conventional root canal preparation technique by hand instruments and Gates Glidden drills with ProTaper Universal Rotary system on the root susceptibility to vertical fracture. Methods: Thirty extracted human mandibular premolars were randomly assigned to two groups. In group I, apical preparation was performed ...

  19. Volume of sealer in the apical region of teeth filled by different techniques: a micro-CT analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Vanessa Lessa; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Cruz Filho, Antonio Miranda da; Pecora, Jesus Djalma; Silva, Ricardo Gariba, E-mail: vanessalessa@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Escola de Odontologia. Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora

    2016-05-01

    The volume of sealer in the apical 1 mm of teeth filled using different techniques was evaluated by micro-commuted tomography (micro-CT). Sixty-four maxillary central incisors were prepared using NiTi rotary instruments. Teeth were randomly distributed into four groups according to root canal sealers (AH Plus, Endofill, Sealapex, and Sealer 26) and subdivided into two subgroups according to the filling techniques (active and passive lateral condensation; n = 8 each). Subsequently, teeth were examined using the 1174 SkyScan micro-CT device. Images were reconstructed using the NRecon software, and the sealer volume (mm{sup 3}) in the apical region was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test (α = 0.05). The lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex (0.100 ± 0.009) and Endofill (0.103 ± 0.010). The highest volume was observed in teeth filled with AH Plus (0.112 ± 0.008) and Sealer 26 (0.109 ± 0.018) (p > 0.05). Regarding the filling technique, a lower sealer volume was observed using the active lateral condensation technique compared with that using the passive lateral condensation technique (0.100 ± 0.010 vs. 0.111 ± 0.012) (p < 0.05). Therefore, the lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex and Endofill using the active lateral condensation technique. (author)

  20. Volume of sealer in the apical region of teeth filled by different techniques: a micro-CT analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Vanessa Lessa; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Cruz Filho, Antonio Miranda da; Pecora, Jesus Djalma; Silva, Ricardo Gariba

    2016-01-01

    The volume of sealer in the apical 1 mm of teeth filled using different techniques was evaluated by micro-commuted tomography (micro-CT). Sixty-four maxillary central incisors were prepared using NiTi rotary instruments. Teeth were randomly distributed into four groups according to root canal sealers (AH Plus, Endofill, Sealapex, and Sealer 26) and subdivided into two subgroups according to the filling techniques (active and passive lateral condensation; n = 8 each). Subsequently, teeth were examined using the 1174 SkyScan micro-CT device. Images were reconstructed using the NRecon software, and the sealer volume (mm 3 ) in the apical region was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test (α = 0.05). The lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex (0.100 ± 0.009) and Endofill (0.103 ± 0.010). The highest volume was observed in teeth filled with AH Plus (0.112 ± 0.008) and Sealer 26 (0.109 ± 0.018) (p > 0.05). Regarding the filling technique, a lower sealer volume was observed using the active lateral condensation technique compared with that using the passive lateral condensation technique (0.100 ± 0.010 vs. 0.111 ± 0.012) (p < 0.05). Therefore, the lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex and Endofill using the active lateral condensation technique. (author)

  1. Apical Extrusion of Intracanal Bacteria following use of Two Engine-driven Instrumentation Techniques: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Niyaz; Noushad, M C; Balan, Biji; Dhanesh, N; Jayasheelan, Nishi; Revankar, Vanita D

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare in vitro the amount of debris extruded apically from extracted teeth, using Twisted files and ProTaper rotary during two different instrumentation systems. Forty-five human single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were randomly divided into three groups and contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. The teeth in experimental groups were instrumented until reaching the working length with ProTaper rotary instruments and Twisted files with XSmart and XSmart Dual groups. Debris extruded from the apical foramen was collected into glass vials and the amount of bacteria was calculated. The data obtained were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U tests, with p = 0.05 as the level for statistical significance. The XSmart Dual group extruded comparatively lesser bacteria compared to the XSmart group. Lesser amount of bacterial extrusion was seen when Twisted files were used compared to the ProTaper files (p endodontic care for our patients. The newer instrument designs, including noncutting tips, different cross sections, radial lands, and variable tapers, are better for the clinicians to improve working safety, to reduce the working time, and to create a greater flare within the preparations.

  2. Locus of the apices of projectile trajectories under constant drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Saldaña, H.

    2017-11-01

    Using the hodograph method, we present an analytical solution for projectile coplanar motion under constant drag, parametrised by the velocity angle. We find the locus formed by the apices of the projectile trajectories, and discuss its implementation for the motion of a particle on an inclined plane in presence of Coulomb friction. The range and time of flight are obtained numerically, and we find that the optimal launching angle is smaller than in the drag-free case. This is a good example of a problem with constant dissipation of energy that includes curvature; it is appropriate for intermediate courses of mechanics.

  3. Morphometric analysis of epidermal differentiation in primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Smith, H. S.

    1990-01-01

    Epidermal differentiation in primary roots of Zea mays was divided into six cell types based on cellular shape and cytoplasmic appearance. These six cell types are: 1) apical protoderm, located at the tip of the root pole and characterized by periclinally flattened cells; 2) cuboidal protoderm, located approximately 230 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells; 3) tabular epidermis, located approximately 450 microns from the root pole and characterized by anticlinally flattened cells; 4) cuboidal epidermis, located approximately 900 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells having numerous small vacuoles; 5) vacuolate cuboidal epidermis, located approximately 1,500 microns from the root pole and characterized by cuboidal cells containing several large vacuoles; and 6) columnar epidermis, located approximately 2,200 microns from the root pole (i.e., at the beginning of the zone of elongation) and characterized by elongated cells. We also used stereology to quantify the cellular changes associated with epidermal differentiation. The quiescent center and the apical protoderm have significantly different ultrastructures. The relative volume of dictyosomes increases dramatically during the early stages of epidermal differentiation. This increase correlates inversely with the amount of coverage provided by the root cap and mucilage.

  4. Apical microinfiltration evaluation of radicular channels irradiated with Er:YAG laser in vitro; Avaliacao da microinfiltracao apical de condutos radiculares irradiados in vitro com laser de Er:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebrao, Catia Cilene Nass

    2003-07-01

    It was evaluated, in vitro, the adaptation of the filling material (Sealer 2S{sup R}) to the root channels dentine walls treated using the endodontic technique and prepared with the Er:YAG laser, by the technique of infiltration of methylene blue dye. Using scanning electronic microscopy, the morphologic alteration of the root channel dentine was observed for one sample per studied group. Also, an evaluation of the temperature increase in the external surface of the root during the irradiations was performed for two samples per group. For each group of samples, with eleven roots each, two sub-groups had been considered: the dry, irradiated after completely dry with absorbent cones of paper, and the humid, where a cone of absorbent paper was applied for two seconds in the root canal, leaving them lightly humidified. Considering the used energies for the irradiations, the groups are: G1, control (without irradiation), G2-dry (100 mJ-10 Hz), G2-humid (100 mJ-10 Hz), G3-dry (140 mJ-6 Hz), G3-humid (140 mJ-6 Hz), G4-dry (180 mJ-6 Hz), and G4-humid (180 mJ-6 Hz). The results had shown that apical microinfiltration did not exhibit significant difference among groups. The highest increase in temperature was observed for the dry groups, with the maximum variation of temperature of 6.5 deg C. Under the scanning electronic microscopy analysis, the humid groups had presented cleaner surfaces than the dry groups. The G4-humid group presented extensive regions of fusion and resolidification of the dentine. (author)

  5. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-07-01

    The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no influences observed on the root apical meristem

  6. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Methods Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. Key Results The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. Conclusions The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no

  7. Early development and gravitropic response of lateral roots in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyomarc'h, S; Léran, S; Auzon-Cape, M; Perrine-Walker, F; Lucas, M; Laplaze, L

    2012-06-05

    Root system architecture plays an important role in determining nutrient and water acquisition and is modulated by endogenous and environmental factors, resulting in considerable developmental plasticity. The orientation of primary root growth in response to gravity (gravitropism) has been studied extensively, but little is known about the behaviour of lateral roots in response to this signal. Here, we analysed the response of lateral roots to gravity and, consistently with previous observations, we showed that gravitropism was acquired slowly after emergence. Using a lateral root induction system, we studied the kinetics for the appearance of statoliths, phloem connections and auxin transporter gene expression patterns. We found that statoliths could not be detected until 1 day after emergence, whereas the gravitropic curvature of the lateral root started earlier. Auxin transporters modulate auxin distribution in primary root gravitropism. We found differences regarding PIN3 and AUX1 expression patterns between the lateral root and the primary root apices. Especially PIN3, which is involved in primary root gravitropism, was not expressed in the lateral root columella. Our work revealed new developmental transitions occurring in lateral roots after emergence, and auxin transporter expression patterns that might explain the specific response of lateral roots to gravity.

  8. Prevalence and features of distolingual roots in mandibular molars analyzed by cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Mi Ree; Moon, Young Mi; Seo, Min Seock

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of distolingual roots in mandibular molars among Koreans, the root canal system associated with distolingual roots, and the concurrent appearance of a distolingual root in the mandibular first molar and a C-shaped canal in the mandibular second molar. Cone-beam computed tomographic images of 264 patients were screened and examined. Axial sections of 1056 mandibular molars were evaluated to determine the number of roots. The interorifice distances from the distolingual canal to the distobuccal canal were also estimated. Using an image analysis program, the root canal curvature was calculated. Pearson's chi-square test, the paired t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and post-hoc analysis were performed. Distolingual roots were observed in 26.1% of the subjects. In cases where a distolingual root was observed in the mandibular molar, a significant difference was obser