Sample records for roman region central

  1. Reconstructing production technology and distribution, using thin section petrography: A pilot study of Roman pottery production in the Pontine region, Central Italy

    Borgers, B.; Tol, G.; de Haas, T.


    This paper explores aspects of production and distribution of local Roman pottery from the Pontine region, Central Italy, based on ceramics recovered in surveys carried out within the ‘Minor Centres’ project. The aim of this project was to investigate the role of minor centres in local economies of

  2. Roman Empire and Central Asia

    Ubaldo Lugli


    Full Text Available This article is aimed at retracing the interrelations of ancient Roman and Asian civilizations; a key focus is made on Asian cultural heritage. The commercial and trade commercial relations are considered, which led the way to development of both as well as military clashes and claiming territories by both civilizations. A due attention is paid to the influence of different ancient establishments on the Asian territory, converting thereafter Rome into a truly multicultural and cosmopolitan empire.

  3. Geomorphological and geophysical investigations for the characterization of the Roman Carsulae site (Tiber basin, Central Italy)

    Bottari, C.; Aringoli, D.; Carluccio, R.; Castellano, C.; D'Ajello Caracciolo, F.; Gasperini, M.; Materazzi, M.; Nicolosi, I.; Pambianchi, G.; Pieruccini, P.; Sepe, V.; Urbini, S.; Varazi, F.


    This paper aims to bring to light the possible linkage between karstic phenomena and the human occupation of the Roman site of Carsulae (Tiber basin, Central Italy). Dolines are a typical morphological expression of karst rocks' dissolution and collapse and, usually, they represent a potential hazard for human activities and, in particular, in the care and maintenance of cultural heritage sites. In this study, we observed that the development of a subsidence doline caused severe damage to some archaeological structures at the Carsulae monumental site. According to the results obtained in our investigation, three sites at least with karst dissolution phenomena in the shallow calcareous tufa layer have been identified. One of them subsided probably in Roman times and produced a sharp deformation of the decumanus. In order to understand the evolution of this territory an integrated geomorphological and geophysical survey was carried out. The combination between the information derived from different geophysical techniques, such as: Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Frequency-Domain Electromagnetism (FDEM), and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) clearly pointed out that the calcareous tufa layer is characterized by an irregular geometry and this resulted in the investigated area being affected by karst dissolution in several parts. Four boreholes opportunely located, provided direct information about the depth and the alteration of the calcareous tufa basement and precious calibration data for the geophysical methods. This study contributes to improving our knowledge on the evolution of the Carsulae archaeological site providing a new insight into the adaptation of ancient human societies in this problematic territory.

  4. Petrology of the most recent ultrapotassic magmas from the Roman Province (Central Italy)

    Gaeta, M.; Freda, C.; Marra, F.; Di Rocco, T.; Gozzi, F.; Arienzo, I.; Giaccio, B.; Scarlato, P.


    We report on the newly discovered lava flow that erupted in the Colli Albani Volcanic District, which is the most recent and, geochemically the most peculiar effusive event recognised in the entire ultrapotassic Roman Province (Central Italy). This lava flow is associated with the Monte Due Torri scoria cone, located approximately 5 km south of the Albano hydromagmatic centre (69-36 ka). The Monte Due Torri scoria cone displays well-preserved morphological characteristics and the 40 ± 7 ka age determined for the associated lava flow indicates that its activity was nearly contemporaneous to the most recent, explosive activity that occurred at the Albano centre from 41 to 36 ka. By comparing chemical and petrological features of the Monte Due Torri lava flow, Albano products, and older products (> 69 ka), we show that the youngest Colli Albani eruptions were fed by two new batches of parental magmas that originated in a phlogopite-bearing metasomatised mantle, each one feeding one of the two youngest eruptive cycles (at 69 ka and 41-36 ka). The trace element signature, e.g., very low Pb content, of primitive (MgO > 3 wt.%) magmas feeding the initiation of the hydromagmatic activity at Albano (69 ka) and the subsequent effusive activity at Monte Due Torri (40 ka) indicates that a magma chamber located in the deep anhydrite-bearing dolomite formation was tapped. However, the polygenic activity, the changes in magma composition, and the variable thermometamorphic clasts occurring in the hydromagmatic deposits (recording variable substrata) suggest, particularly for the Albano eruptive centre, a more complex plumbing system consisting of at least two more magma chambers at a shallower depth, i.e., in the Mesozoic limestone and Pliocene pelite formations. The large amount of stratigraphic, volcanological, and geochemical data collected for the Colli Albani Volcanic District, one of the main districts in the ultrapotassic Roman Province, enable us to contribute insights

  5. Company activities - central region

    Ayling, G.


    The first section of the article gives an overview of exploration and new developments in the field of gold, nickel, diamond and opal mining in central Queensland. The second part looks at coal, coal seam gas and petroleum exploration and development projects in the area. 1 fig.

  6. The genetic profile of susceptibility to infectious diseases in Roman-Period populations from Central Poland.

    Lewandowska, Magda; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Zamerska, Alicja; Płoszaj, Tomasz; Witas, Henryk W


    For thousands of years human beings have resisted life-threatening pathogens. This ongoing battle is considered to be the major force shaping our gene pool as every micro-evolutionary process provokes specific shifts in the genome, both that of the host and the pathogen. Past populations were more susceptible to changes in allele frequencies not only due to selection pressure, but also as a result of genetic drift, migration and inbreeding. In the present study we have investigated the frequency of five polymorphisms within innate immune-response genes (SLC11A1 D543N, MBL2 G161A, P2RX7 A1513C, IL10 A-1082G, TLR2 -196 to -174 ins/del) related to susceptibility to infections in humans. The DNA of individuals from two early Roman-Period populations of Linowo and Rogowo was analysed. The distribution of three mutations varied significantly when compared to the modern Polish population. The TAFT analysis suggests that the decreased frequency of SLC11A1 D543N in modern Poles as compared to 2nd century Linowo samples is the result of non-stochastic mechanisms, such as purifying or balancing selection. The disparity in frequency of other mutations is most likely the result of genetic drift, an evolutionary force which is remarkably amplified in low-size groups. Together with the FST analysis, mtDNA haplotypes' distribution and deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we suggest that the two populations were not interbreeding (despite the close proximity between them), but rather inbreeding, the results of which are particularly pronounced among Rogowo habitants.

  7. Roman Warfare

    D.B. Saddington


    Full Text Available

    ROTH, Jonathan P 2009. Roman Warfare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pbk. R250. ISBN 978-0-521-53726-1.

    Jonathan Roth of San Jose State University, known as an expert on military logistics, has written this attractive Cambridge Introduction to Roman Civilization volume on Roman Warfare. The series is designed for students with no prior knowledge of Roman antiquity. The book comprises an Introduction on Sources and Methods (pp. 1-6 and 15 chapters on Roman warfare from the beginnings to the fall of the Western Empire in AD 476, using a chronological approach. There are 68 illustrations and maps, a Timeline, a Glossary, a Glossary of People, a Bibliography (which includes several websites and an Index.

  8. Early urban and colonized regions of central and south Italy : A case study in comparative landscape archaeology

    Attema, P; Darvill, T; Gojda, M


    Systematic field surveys and topographical research undertaken to date in various Italian regions south of Rome shou, that responses to early urbanization in central and south Italy, and the interplay of early urbanization with Greek and Roman colonization, differed widely between regions. In this p

  9. "Super Roman Pots"

    CERN PhotoLab


    Remotely controlled re-entrant vacuum vessels, with very thin (0.17 mm) central windows, that will be installed in each downstream arm of intersection I-8. Detectors for a coming physics experiment, placed inside these "Super Roman Pots", can be moved very close to the circulating ISR beams.

  10. A Super Roman Pot


    Remotely controlled re-entrant vacuum vessels, with very thin (0.17 mm) central windows, that were installed in each downstream arm of the ISR intersection I-8. Detectors placed inside these Super Roman Pots could be moved very close to the circulating ISR beams. (See Annual Report 1974 p. 110.)

  11. CERN Central Library : 2000 year old technology transfer. Two fragments of columns from a Roman building discovered during excavations for the PS in 1956 have prominent places in the Library where they can be enjoyed by all

    Laurent Guiraud


    CERN Central Library : 2000 year old technology transfer. Two fragments of columns from a Roman building discovered during excavations for the PS in 1956 have prominent places in the Library where they can be enjoyed by all

  12. Contribution to the use of marble in Central-Lusitania in Roman times: The stone architectural decoration of Ammaia (São Salvador da Aramenha, Portugal

    Taelman, Devi


    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a quantitative and qualitative study of the imported architectural decorative stone of the Roman town of Ammaia (São Salvador da Aramenha, Portugal, located centrally in the province of Lusitania. All studied ornamental stones were counted, weighed, classified and their provenance was determined. Six types of stone were used for the architectural decoration at Ammaia: white marble, pink–purple limestone, grey– white marble, two marble breccias and granite. Granite was the most widely used building stone and was used for the production of columns and capitals. Previous studies have established a local source for the Ammaia granite (Taelman et alii in press. The provenance of the remaining ornamental stones is primarily regional (the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Only the two marble breccia varieties were imported from the Mediterranean: africano from Teos (Turkey and breccia di Sciro from the island of Skyros also (Greece. The predominant use of regionally available stones is observed in other Roman towns located in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula, such as Emerita Augusta, Asturica Augusta and Munigua, and results mainly from the geographic location of the sites, remote from any seaport and/or navigable river.El presente trabajo presenta los resultados de una valorización cuantitativa y cualitativa de la utilización de las piedras decorativas arquitectónicas importadas de la ciudad romana lusitana de Ammaia (São Salvador da Aramenha, Portugal. Todas las piedras decorativas estudiadas fueron contadas, pesadas, clasificadas y su procedencia fue determinada. En la época romana se utilizaron seis tipos de piedra para la decoración arquitectónica de la ciudad de Ammaia: mármol blanco, caliza morada–rosa, mármol blanco y gris, dos brechas compuestas de fragmentos de mármol blanco y granito. El granito fue la piedra de construcción principal en Ammaia. Además, el granito se utiliz

  13. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  14. A new approach to the study of Romanization in Britain: a regional perspective of cultural change in late iron age and roman dorset using the siler and gompertz-makeham models of mortality.

    Redfern, Rebecca C; Dewitte, Sharon N


    This is the first study of health in the Roman Empire to use the Siler and Gompertz-Makeham models of mortality to investigate the health consequences of the 43 AD conquest of Britain. The study examined late Iron Age and Romano-British populations (N = 518) from Dorset, England, which is the only region of Britain to display continuity in inhumation burial practice and cemetery use throughout the two periods. Skeletal evidence for frailty was assessed using cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, periosteal lesions, enamel hypoplasia, dental caries, tuberculosis, and rickets. These health variables were chosen for analysis because they are reliable indicators of general health for diachronic comparison (Steckel and Rose: The backbone of history: health and nutrition in the western hemisphere (2002)) and are associated with the introduction of urbanism in Britain during the Roman period (Redfern: J Rom Archaeol Supp Series 64 (2007) 171-194; Redfern: Britannia 39 (2008a) 161-191; Roberts and Cox: Health and disease in Britain: from prehistory to the present day (2003)). The results show that levels of frailty and mortality were lower in the late Iron Age period, and no sex differences in mortality was present. However, post-conquest, mortality risk increased for children and the elderly, and particularly for men. The latter finding challenges received wisdom concerning the benefits of incorporation into the Empire and the higher status of the male body in the Roman world. Therefore, we conclude that the consequences of urbanism, changes in diet, and increased population heterogeneity negatively impacted health, to the extent that the enhanced cultural buffering of men did not outweigh underlying sex differences in biology that advantage women.

  15. Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile Central Europe


    the surveillance of this zoonosis in Central Europe. The primary mode of transmission in the region is by direct contact of the skin or conjunctivae...This constitutes true parasitism and is essentially a zoonosis . Obligate myiasis is a serious pathology. In humans, obligate myiasis results...infectious agent. xerophilic - tolerant of dry environments. zoonosis - an infectious disease of animals transmissible under natural conditions from

  16. Regional sinkhole susceptibility maps: The Latium Region case (central Italy)

    La Vigna, F.; Teoli, P.; Mazza, R.; Leoni, G.; Capelli, G.


    Several and frequent studies were internationally presented about landslide susceptibility, meanwhile in literature is missing a broad diffusion of studies regarding sinkhole susceptibility. That's why sinkhole recurrence depends on several geological conditions related to specific geological and hydrogeological context (sinkhole prone area) that vary case by case. Notwithstanding this regionalization problem of sinkhole recurrence, in the central Appenine sedimentary basins (Italy) a certain number of geological, geomorphologic and hydrogeological conditions (sinkhole predisposing issues) can be considered in common between the surveyed sinkholes. Eventually this could be compared with similar geological conditions and sinkhole occurrence in the rest of Italy or in other countries. In this case study is presented a probabilistic approach regarding the Latium Region deriving from the comparison between the regional sinkhole inventory realized during a precedent project and the dataset of the new Hydrogeological Map of Latium Region (scale 1:100.000). Indexed elements, chosen because associated to the majority of sinkhole phenomena, are: outcropping lithologies, water table depth, main faults (even if buried), hydrothermal springs, land use and the epicentres of recent earthquakes. These indexed elements were weighted and combined in a matrix which preliminary result is the sinkhole susceptibility map of Latium Region. When definitively validated, this approach could be suitable for local authorities to planning more targeted studies in major hazard areas.

  17. Transmission Reinforcements in the Central American Regional Power System

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Vallem, Mallikarjuna R.; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Nguyen, Tony B.; Munoz, Christian; Herrera, Ricardo; Midence, Diego; Shpitsberg, Anna


    The Central American regional interconnected power system (SER) connects the countries members of the Central American regional electricity market (MER): Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. The SER was a result of a long term regional effort, and was initially conceived to transfer 300 MW between countries. However, the current transfer limits between countries range from 70 MW to 300 MW. Regional entities, like CRIE (Regional Commission of Electrical Interconnection), EOR (Central American Regional System Operator), and CDMER (Board of Directors of the Central American Market) are working on coordinating the national transmission expansion plans with regional transmission planning efforts. This paper presents experience in Central America region to recommend transmission reinforcements to achieve 300 MW transfer capacity between any pair of member countries of the Central American regional electricity market (MER). This paper also provides a methodology for technical analysis and for coordination among the regional and national entities. This methodology is unique for transmission systems of these characteristics.

  18. Las actividades físico-deportivas en la Bética Romana=The physical-sport activities in the Roman Betica region

    Juan Carlos Fernández Truan


    Full Text Available Muchos  son los conocimientos que se tienen en Ia actualidad,  sobre como era el mundo  en la época  romana, máxime con el giro que en los últimos  años ha experimentado la arqueología  y la investigación histórica, al abandonar un poco los grandes acontecimientos y las biografías   de grandes personajes, en beneficio de la vida cotidiana de los ciudadanos corrientes. En este  sentido, mucho se ha descubierto sobre los aspectos habituales de la vida de los ciudadanos   de Roma y entre ellos, de sus diversiones y entretenimientos, tanto públicos como privados; sin embargo, poco se conoce de aquellas actividades físicas que servían de entretenimiento y  diversión a los hispano-romanos que habitan la provincia Baetica en la Hispania. EI presente  trabajo, intenta recopilar las fuentes básicas encontradas hasta el momento en nuestra región,  que pueden servirnos de base para conocer cuáles eran las actividades físicas que  practicaban aquellos primeros andaluces como medio de formación y diversión.---------------------------------------------------------------------Nowadays we have a deep knowledge about the world in Roman times, specially with the shift that has taken place in the last years in archaeology and historical research, with major events  and the biography of great personages been somehow dismissed in the benefit of the daily  lives of common citizens. In this sense, a lot has been discovered about usual aspects of Roma citizens' lives, among others about their amusement and entertainment    practices, both public and private; nevertheless, the physical activities providing fun and entertainment to the Spanish-Roman people living in the Baetica province of Hispania are largely unknown. This work tries to compile the basic sources found so far in our region, which can be the basis to get to know the physical activities that were practised by those first Andalusian people for training and recreation

  19. Air Quality in the Central Ontario Region

    Gbor, P. K.; Meng, F.; Singh, R.; Galvez, O.; Sloan, J. J.


    The Central Ontario Region (COR) is the most densely populated area in Canada. With a population of 7.3 million, it contains 23% of the total population of Canada. It extends from the extreme south west end of Ontario to the eastern end of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and includes the Niagara, Hamilton and Waterloo Regions,. The air quality of this region is frequently severely impaired in the summer months. In the larger metropolitan areas (Toronto and Hamilton) air pollution is a concern throughout the year. Local health authorities attribute about 1000 premature deaths per year in the GTA alone to air pollution. Average air pollution levels in Ontario have decreased significantly during the past 30 years, despite significant growth in both population and industry. The concentrations of SO2 and CO have decreased by over 80% and the concentration of NOX has decreased by about 50% over the past 26 years. Currently, the concentrations of NOX, CO, SO2 and VOCs in the COR are well below the Provincial and Federal air quality criteria. Ozone, PM2.5 and PM10, however, remain above the Provincial guidelines, so smog still remains a problem. The pollutants in the atmosphere of the COR are caused by both local emissions and long range transport. The COR contributes over 50% of the NOx, VOC and CO emissions in Ontario. Over 58% of NOX and CO emissions in the COR are due to mobile sources while about 50% of VOC and PM emissions are due to area sources. The proximity of the COR to the Canada-U.S. border makes it vulnerable to long range transport of pollutants stemming from the much larger population in the United States. The Canadian government, industries and non-governmental organizations are all taking steps to help reduce the level of pollution in Canada. The Canadian federal government also participates in extensive consultations and cooperative programs with the United States designed to reduce the mutually detrimental effects of cross-border pollution. These

  20. Roman historique et Histoire dans le roman

    Christine Di Benedetto


    Full Text Available Engager une réflexion sur le « roman historique » dans l’Espagne de l’après-transition démocratique conduit ici à aborder les questions, plus vastes, d’Histoire dans le roman et de roman de la mémoire. Mais les notions de passé et de présent et leurs rapports se définissent au regard de la situation particulière de l’Espagne. L’interprétation de la place qu’occupe le roman historique dans le panorama romanesque espagnol s’enrichit alors des perspectives issues de la philosophie et de la sociologie.Au confluent de ces démarches, des exemples tirés de la littérature contemporaine et étayés par des éléments d’analyse fictionnelle et narrative figurent trois niveaux d’intégration de l’Histoire récente dans le roman espagnol. Et une identité en devenir se dessine, alors que la mémoire historique arrive clairement sur la scène littéraire en même temps qu’elle s’insinue dans les problématiques qui occupent la société espagnole de la fin du millénaire.Adentrarse en una reflexión sobre “la novela histórica” en la España de la post- transición democrática lleva aquí a acercarse a los temas, más amplios, de Historia en la novela y de novela de la memoria. Pero las nociones de pasado y de presente se definen en el ámbito de la situación peculiar de España, y de allí el vínculo cualitativo entre las dos. La interpretación del puesto que ocupa en la narrativa española se enriquece entonces de las perspectivas que proceden de la filosofía y de la sociología.En el confluente de estas modalidades reflexivas, unos ejemplos, sacados de la literatura contemporánea y estudiados gracias a elementos de análisis de la ficción y de la narración destacan tres niveles de integración de la Historia reciente en la novela española. De modo que una búsqueda identitaria se define, mientras la memoria histórica llega claramente al escenario literario, al mismo tiempo que se cuela dentro de las

  1. Magna Carta And The Roman Law Tradition

    Mehmeti Sami


    Full Text Available Magna Carta is one of the most important illustrations of the exceptionalism of English common law. Within a completely feudal framework it gave the clearest possible articulation to the concept of the rule of law and at the same time it also showed that there were certain basic rights which every freeman enjoyed without any specific conferment by the king. From English perspective, continental European law after the process of the reception of Roman law was commonly regarded to be apart and different from the English legal tradition, as well as being perceived to pose a continual threat. The English Parliament constantly turned down royal attempts to emulate the continental reception of Roman law by characterizing it as something entirely foreign to English law. Roman law was supposed to promote an authoritarian and absolutist vision of the relationship between rule and subjection and this was expressed in the famous phrases 'princeps legibus solutus' and 'quod principi placuit legis habet vigorem'. Roman law was also anti-feudal, because one of its main principles that all power originated from one central source was the antithesis of the distribution of power over multiple centers, which was a crucial element of the feudal society. Many English historians have held the view that the English law is democratic, whereas the continental tradition is undemocratic and authoritarian, and this is why the Roman law succeeded on the Continent and failed in England.

  2. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Jones, Peter


    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  3. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Jones, Peter


    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  4. Greco-Roman Astrology

    Beck, Roger

    Astrology was entrenched in the culture of the Roman Empire. The system and its influence is described as well as its relationship to mathematical astronomy at the time. The material remains are of two sorts: papyrus horoscopes and coins with astrological motifs.

  5. Greek and Roman Myths.

    Carr, Fredella; Faggionato, Michael

    Designed for use with the text "Greek and Roman Myths," this junior high school learning activity packet introduces students to mythology and examines the influence of myths on contemporary culture. Over 20 exercises, tagged to specific readings in the text, cover identification of the major gods, the Prometheus myth, the Atlas myth, Pandora's…

  6. Lead and the Romans

    Reddy, Aravind; Braun, Charles L.


    Lead poisoning has been a problem since early history and continues into modern times. An appealing characteristic of lead is that many lead salts are sweet. In the absence of cane and beet sugars, early Romans used "sugar of lead" (lead acetate) to sweeten desserts, fruits, and sour wine. People most at risk would have been those who…

  7. Greek and Roman Myths.

    Carr, Fredella; Faggionato, Michael

    Designed for use with the text "Greek and Roman Myths," this junior high school learning activity packet introduces students to mythology and examines the influence of myths on contemporary culture. Over 20 exercises, tagged to specific readings in the text, cover identification of the major gods, the Prometheus myth, the Atlas myth,…

  8. Greek & Roman Mythology.

    Bigelow, Alma

    Activities and background information on Greek and Roman mythology are presented. The unit is designed for eighth graders, but many of the activities can be modified for other grade levels. The unit includes: (1) a content outline; (2) a list of instructional materials including suggested textbooks, teacher-prepared materials, and resource…

  9. Lead and the Romans

    Reddy, Aravind; Braun, Charles L.


    Lead poisoning has been a problem since early history and continues into modern times. An appealing characteristic of lead is that many lead salts are sweet. In the absence of cane and beet sugars, early Romans used "sugar of lead" (lead acetate) to sweeten desserts, fruits, and sour wine. People most at risk would have been those who consumed the…

  10. Regional Strategic Appraisal of Central America


    originally consisted of five states that gained their independence from Spain in 1821 and formed a single country, called Central America Federation ...and in each case a civilian president has voluntarily yielded power to another elected civilian. Electoral processes have nearly acquired a “life of...Observatorio de Seguridad y Defensa en America Latina (OSAL), Instituto Universitario Ortega y Gasset. 38 Ibid. 26 BIBLIOGRAPHY Agosin, Manuel R., David

  11. Greco-Roman Stone Disease

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine


    Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

  12. The Roman Bazaar

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    The Roman bazaar et et komparativt studie af handels og markedsforhold i Romerriget. Det er bogens tese, at vi bedre forstår den økonomiske udvikling i Romerriget hvis vi skifter vores sammenligningsgrundlag fra den tidligt moderne, europæiske kapitalisme til store agrare eller tributære imperier......, som fx Mogulernes rige i Indien. Hovedemner er den imperiale mobilisering af den agrare produktion og markedernes ofte fragmenterede karakter. Det sidste punkt understøttes vha. Clifford Geertz' analyse af Bazaar-markeder....

  13. Greek and roman calendars

    Hannah, Robert


    The smooth functioning of an ordered society depends on the possession of a means of regularising its activities over time. That means is a calendar, and its regularity is a function of how well it models the more or less regular movements of the celestial bodies - of the moon, the sun or the stars. Greek and Roman Calendars examines the ancient calendar as just such a time-piece, whose elements are readily described in astronomical and mathematical terms. The story of these calendars is one of a continuous struggle to maintain a correspondence with the regularity of the seasons and the sun, d

  14. The Romans and ritual murder.

    Schultz, Celia E


    The Roman abhorrence of human sacrifice presented by ancient literary sources stands in contrast to the frequency of rites requiring the death of a human being performed by the Romans during the Republic (509-44 BCE). After examining the ways our sources talk about ritual murder, especially as it was practiced by foreign peoples and subversive or tyrannical elements within Roman society, this discussion turns to the issue of the forms of ritual murder performed by the Romans. Of these various rites, the only one clearly identified by them as human sacrifice, that is, as an offering to the gods of a human life, is the live interment of Gauls and Greeks. Other forms of ritual murder-the burial of unchaste Vestal Virgins and the drowning of hermaphroditic children-were not, in Roman opinion, sacrifice. This distinction made the disposal of Vestal Virgins and hermaphrodites acceptable.

  15. Regional flood-frequency relations for west-central Florida

    Seijo, M.A.; Giovannelli, R.F.; Turner, J.F.


    This report presents regional relations for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods on streams in west-central Florida. Flood prediction equations derived cover 20, 5-, 25-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals. Annual floods for three geographic areas of west-central Florida were found to relate significantly to basin characteristics. Basin characteristics include drainage area, soils index, slope, and lake area. The average standard error of estimate for regional flood relations ranged from 38.4 to 52.1 percent with a mean of 43.5 percent. The average multiple correlation coefficient if 0.94. Regional relations apply to gaged and ungaged sites whose drainage areas are greater than 10 but less than 2,500 square miles. Tables of maximum known floods for 64 streamflow stations used in the analysis are included. Tables comparing station, weighted, and regional flood-peak discharges are also included. (Kosco-USGS)

  16. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.


    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  17. Roman iron axes manufacturing technology

    Barrena, M.I. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:; Gomez de Salazar, J.M. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:; Soria, A. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:


    The results of metallographic, chemical and mechanical analysis of two Roman axes are presented. Insights into the technologies used by the Romans are considered. These axes were buried in a Roman village in La Olmeda, Palencia, Spain, which was built around the first century BC and it was later abandoned and destroyed in the fifth century AD. It has been observed that some artefacts, specifically axes show that the technology existed to increase hardness by solid-state welding of sheet steel of different carbon contents.

  18. Possible existence of wormholes in the central regions of halos

    Rahaman, Farook, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); Salucci, P., E-mail: [SISSA, International School for Advanced Studies, Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127, Trieste (Italy); Kuhfittig, P.K.F., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, WI 53202-3109 (United States); Ray, Saibal, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Kolkata 700010, West Bengal (India); Rahaman, Mosiur, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Meghnad Saha Institute of Technology, Kolkata 700150 (India)


    An earlier study (Rahaman, et al., 2014 and Kuhfittig, 2014) has demonstrated the possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of the galactic halo, based on the Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) density profile. This paper uses the Universal Rotation Curve (URC) dark matter model to obtain analogous results for the central parts of the halo. This result is an important compliment to the earlier result, thereby confirming the possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies. - Highlights: • Earlier we showed possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of halo. • We obtain here analogous results for the central parts of the galactic halo. • Our result is an important compliment to the earlier result. • This confirms possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies.

  19. The magnetic environment in the central region of nearby galaxies

    Lang, Cornelia C


    The central regions of galaxies harbor some of the most extreme physical phenomena, including dense stellar clusters, non-circular motions of molecular clouds and strong and pervasive magnetic field structures. In particular, radio observations have shown that the central few hundred parsecs of our Galaxy has a striking magnetic field configuration. It is not yet clear whether these magnetic structures are unique to our Milky Way or a common feature of all similar galaxies. Therefore, we report on (a) a new radio polarimetric survey of the central 200 pc of the Galaxy to better characterize the magnetic field structure and (b) a search for large-scale and organized magnetized structure in the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies using data from the Very Large Array (VLA) archive. The high angular resolution of the VLA allows us to study the central 1 kpc of the nearest galaxies to search for magnetized nuclear features similar to what is detected in our own Galactic center. Such magnetic features play a importa...

  20. Trade policy and regionalism in the Central African Republic

    Walkenhorst, Peter


    This paper reviews the trade policy situation in the Central African Republic (CAR) and identifies a number of key issues and challenges for the country. The focus of the study is thereby on how trade taxes and quantitative restrictions affect the goods sector. The analysis falls into three parts. First, the state of domestic trade policy is described, with particular emphasis on the structure and economic effects of border policies. Then, CAR’s regional integration efforts are examined, ...

  1. Global Politics, Regional Competition: Great Power Politics in Central Asia

    Artur Lakatos


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of competing great power interests in Central Asia, known for specialists in international relations as the New Great Game. The focus is in first hand on interests of the “Big Four” global powers and secondly, on the interests of a series of regional powers which can bring decisive contributions to the New Great Game. The analysis has two directions: one concentrated on strategic analysis, and the second focused on economic interests.

  2. Research on Optimal Development Pattern of Yunnan Central Economic Region

    Diego Salmero; Suman Rana


    By the case study on the Urban Agglomeration Plan of Yunnan Central Economic Region (YCER), which is jointly made by Chinese and Swiss scholars, with the adoption of GIS and traditional urban planning methods, this paper uses multiple scenarios to analyze four development models of "Scattered Yunnan," "Regional Yunnan," "Metropolitan Yunnan" and "Network Yunnan." It also explores the relatively rational scenarios for the future development of YCER, i.e., up to 2030, the development model of YCER will be "Regional," and after 2030 it will be "Network." In this way, YCER will be developed stably and methodically, and finally achieve the unification of ecological safety, intensified energy and resources, as well as prosperous economy.

  3. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.


    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  4. Restrained roman domination in graphs

    Roushini Leely Pushpam


    Full Text Available A Roman dominating function (RDF on a graph G = (V,E is defined to be a function satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2. A set S V is a Restrained dominating set if every vertex not in S is adjacent to a vertex in S and to a vertex in . We define a Restrained Roman dominating function on a graph G = (V,E to be a function satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2 and at least one vertex w for which f(w = 0. The weight of a Restrained Roman dominating function is the value . The minimum weight of a Restrained Roman dominating function on a graph G is called the Restrained Roman domination number of G and denoted by . In this paper, we initiate a study of this parameter.

  5. Central and regional hemodynamics in prolonged space flights

    Gazenko, O. G.; Shulzhenko, E. B.; Turchaninova, V. F.; Egorov, A. D.

    This paper presents the results of measuring central and regional (head, forearm, calf) hemodynamics at rest and during provocative tests by the method of tetrapolar rheography in the course of Salyut-6-Soyuz and Salyut-7-Soyuz missions. The measurements were carried out during short-term (19 man-flights of 7 days in duration) and long-term (21 man-flights of 65-237 days in duration) manned missions. At rest, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) as well as heart rate (HR) decreased insignificantly (in short-term flights) or remained essentially unchanged (in long-term flights). In prolonged flights CO increased significantly in response to exercise tests due to an increase in HR and the lack of changes in SV. After exercise tests SV and CO decreased as compared to the preflight level. During lower body negative pressure (LBNP) tests HR and CO were slightly higher than preflight. Changes in regional hemodynamics included a distinct decrease of pulse blood filling (PBF) of the calf, a reduction of the tone of large vessels of the calf and small vessels of the forearm. Head examination (in the region of the internal carotid artery) showed a decrease of PBF of the left hemisphere (during flight months 2-8) and a distinct decline of the tone of small vessels, mainly, in the right hemisphere. During LBNP tests the tone of pre- and postcapillary vessels of the brain returned to normal while PBF of the right and left hemisphere vessels declined. It has been shown that regional circulation variations depend on the area examined and are induced by a rearrangement of total hemodynamics of the human body in microgravity. This paper reviews the data concerning changes in central and regional circulation of men in space flights of different duration.

  6. Seismicity Surveying in Central and North Mexico Regions

    Nieto-Samaniego, A.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. M.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Zuniga, R.; Alaniz-Alvarez, S.; Barboza, R.; Davalos, O.


    The seismic nature of Central Mexico is poorly understood due to insufficient sampling. We carried out a seismic survey in part of the TransMexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the Central Altiplano. These regions are characterized by a very low deformation rates. Seismic activity is variable and ranges from microseismicity to large earthquakes, but no large historic earthquake has been instrumentally recorded. Only few direct observations such as intensity reconstructions and recent paleoseismic studies (e.g. the Acambay-Tixmadej earthquake of 1912) are available. Large earthquakes have occurred but their recurrence period is unknown; structural studies show this recurrence could range from hundreds to thousands of years. In order to understand the regional seismic behavior, we installed a temporal network. This network consists of 3-5 short period instruments, consisting of 16-bits triaxial digital velocity recorders (0.01-4.5 Hz). We registered several seismic sequences over a period of several months. One of them took place in Guanajuato within a graben structure in the TMVB and lasted for 2 weeks. Another sequence occurred at the northern limit of the TMVB in the Sierra Gorda. Over five weeks, several micro-earthquakes M Sierra Gorda, the event distribution is aligned along a small valley, but perpendicular to the main structural grain imposed by the Sierra Madre Oriental range. In no instances have surface ruptures been observed; those seismogenic structures could be blind ones. A challenge is to locate this structures which are may be too old to be still active. Increased seismotectonic knowledge of this region will yield further insight into the details of the interaction between surface structures driven by the regional stress field. Our results provide evidence that the region requires more intensive seismic surveying, and in some cases that some structures have been reactivated recently.

  7. Genetics/Genomics Research in the Central Region



    Genetics-based research within the Biological Resources Discipline (BRD) Science Centers in the Central Region incorporates many aspects of the field of genetics. Research activities range from documenting patterns of genetic variation in order to investigate relationships among species, populations and individuals to investigating the structure, function and expression of genes and their response to environmental stressors. Research in the broad areas of genetics requires multidisciplinary expertise and specialized equipment and instrumentation. Brief summaries of the capabilities of the five BRD Centers are given below.

  8. Extragalactic sources towards the central region of the Galaxy

    Roy, Subhashis; Subrahmanyan, Ravi


    We have observed a sample of 64 small diameter sources towards the central -6 degree < l< 6 degree, -2 degree < b < 2 degree of the Galaxy with the aim of studying the Faraday rotation measure near the Galactic Centre (GC) region. All the sources were observed at 6 and 3.6 cm wavelengths using the ATCA and the VLA. Fifty nine of these sources are inferred to be extragalactic. The observations presented here constitute the first systematic study of the radio polarisation properties of the background sources towards this direction and increases the number of known extragalactic radio sources in this part of the sky by almost an order of magnitude. Based on the morphology, spectral indices and lack of polarised emission, we identify four Galactic HII regions in the sample.

  9. Seismicity surveying in central and north mexico region

    Gómez, J. M.; Guzmán, M.; Nieto, A.; Zúñiga, R.; Alaniz, S.; Barboza, R.


    The seismic nature of Central Mexico is poorly understood due to insufficient sampling. This region is characterized by a very low deformation rate. The seismic activity is variable and ranges from microseismicity to large earthquakes. Some large earthquakes have occurred with an unknown returning period; structural studies show this recurrence could range from hundreds to thousands of years. Some authors argue that there is not connection between ancient and recent activity. We carried out several seismic surveys in part of the TransMexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the Altiplano Central. We installed a temporal network, in order to record spatial seismic distribution. This network consists of 3-5 short period instruments, consisting of triaxial digital velocity recorders (0.01-4.5 Hz). We registered several swarms; one took place in Guanajuato and lasted for 2 weeks. Another crisis occurred at the northern limit of the TMVB at Sierra Gorda. Over five weeks several micro-earthquakes M < 2 were felt with anomaously high intensity. Relocated seismicity shows very shallow (< 10km) activity. The regional crust conditions appear to be roughly uniform even though the seismicity varies significantly. In some cases like seismic swarms, several microearthquakes are aligned, and seem to be quasi-parallel to the direction of the fault strike, some other times they are perpendicular. However, surface ruptures associated to earthquakes are not observed to confirm this. Then, a challenge is to locate the seismogenic structures, basically because of the surface structures are too old to be still active. Increased seismotectonic knowledge of this region may give further insight into the details of the interaction between surface structures driven by the regional stress field.

  10. Shallow Crustal Thermal Structures of Central Taiwan Foothills Region

    Shao-Kai Wu


    Full Text Available Crustal thermal structures are closely related to metamorphism, rock rheology, exhumation processes, hydrocarbon maturation levels, frictional faulting and other processes. Drilling is the most direct way to access the temperature fields in the shallow crust. However, a regional drilling program for geological investigation is usually very expensive. Recently, a large-scale in-situ investigation program in the Western Foothills of Central Taiwan was carried out, providing a rare opportunity to conduct heat flow measurements in this region where there are debates as to whether previous measured heat flows are representative of the thermal state in this region. We successfully collected 28 geothermal gradients from these wells and converted them into heat flows. The new heat flow dataset is consistent with previous heat flows, which shows that the thermal structures of Central Taiwan are different from that of other subduction accretionary prisms. We then combine all the available heat flow information to analyze the frictional parameters of the Chelungpu fault zone that ruptured during the 1999, Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake. The heat flow dataset gave consistent results compared with the frictional parameters derived from another independent study that used cores recovered from the Chelungpu fault zone at depth. This study also shows that it is suitable for using heat-flow data obtained from shallow subsurface to constrain thrusting faulting parameters, similar to what had been done for the strike-slip San Andreas Fault in California. Additional fieldworks are planned to study heat flows in other mountainous regions of Taiwan for more advanced geodynamic modeling efforts.

  11. Biopolitics rudiments in Roman Law

    Miguel Régio de Almeida


    Full Text Available This article proposes a jurisprudential and philosophical reflection on Biopolitics in Roman Law, based on juridical figures such as sacred men, aliens, slaves and iustitium. Working at the edge of roman society, they represent a relation of inclusion or tolerance in a World centred on its citizens, which led to a state of exception or to integration modes of this marginality. Lessons for the present time can still be learned from this dynamic, when a new ius commune is proposed.

  12. Celtiberian metrology and its romanization

    Leonard A. CURCHIN


    Full Text Available Celtiberian metrology has scarcely been investigated until now, with the exception of coin weights. On the basis of measurements of pre-Roman mud bricks, a Celtiberian foot of 24 cm is proposed. With regard to weights, we can accept a module of 9 g for silver jewelry and some bronze coins; however, loom weights do not conform to any metrological system. Over time, Roman measures of length (as indicated by the dimensions of bricks, tiles and architectural monuments and weight were adopted.

  13. Centralization of a Regional Clinical Microbiology Service: The Calgary Experience

    Deirdre L Church


    Full Text Available Diagnostic laboratory services in Alberta have been dramatically restructured over the past five years. In 1994, Alberta Health embarked on an aggressive laboratory restructuring that cut back approximately 30% of the overall monies previously paid to the laboratory service sector in Calgary. A unique service delivery model consolidated all institutional and community-based diagnostic testing in a company called Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS in late 1996. CLS was formed by a public/private partnership between the Calgary Regional Health Care Authority (CRHA and MDS-Kasper Laboratories. By virtue of its customer service base and scope of testing, CLS provides comprehensive regional laboratory services to the entire populace. Regional microbiology services within CLS have been successfully consolidated over the past three years into a centralized high volume laboratory (HVL. Because the HVL is not located in a hospital, rapid response laboratories (RRLs are operated at each acute care site. Although the initial principle behind the proposed test menus for the RRLs was that only procedures requiring a clinical turnaround time of more than 2 h stay on-site, many other principles had to be used to develop and implement an efficient and clinically relevant RRL model for microbiology. From these guiding principles, a detailed assessment of the needs of each institution and extensive networking with user groups, the functions of the microbiology RRLs were established and a detailed implementation plan drawn up. The experience at CLS with regards to restructuring a regional microbiology service is described herein. A post-hoc analysis provides the pros and cons of directing and operating a regionalized microbiology service.

  14. Centralization of a regional clinical microbiology service: The Calgary experience.

    Church, D L; Hall, P


    Diagnostic laboratory services in Alberta have been dramatically restructured over the past five years. In 1994, Alberta Health embarked on an aggressive laboratory restructuring that cut back approximately 30% of the overall monies previously paid to the laboratory service sector in Calgary. A unique service delivery model consolidated all institutional and community-based diagnostic testing in a company called Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS) in late 1996. CLS was formed by a public/private partnership between the Calgary Regional Health Care Authority (CRHA) and MDS-Kasper Laboratories. By virtue of its customer service base and scope of testing, CLS provides comprehensive regional laboratory services to the entire populace. Regional microbiology services within CLS have been successfully consolidated over the past three years into a centralized high volume laboratory (HVL). Because the HVL is not located in a hospital, rapid response laboratories (RRLs) are operated at each acute care site. Although the initial principle behind the proposed test menus for the RRLs was that only procedures requiring a clinical turnaround time of more than 2 h stay on-site, many other principles had to be used to develop and implement an efficient and clinically relevant RRL model for microbiology. From these guiding principles, a detailed assessment of the needs of each institution and extensive networking with user groups, the functions of the microbiology RRLs were established and a detailed implementation plan drawn up. The experience at CLS with regards to restructuring a regional microbiology service is described herein. A post-hoc analysis provides the pros and cons of directing and operating a regionalized microbiology service.

  15. The impact of landslides in the Umbria region, central Italy

    F. Guzzetti


    Full Text Available The Umbria Region of Central Italy has a long history of mass movements. Landslides range from fast moving rock falls and debris flows, most abundant in mountain areas, to slow moving complex failures extending up to several hectares in the hilly part of the Region. Despite landslides occurring every year in Umbria, their impact remains largely unknown. We present an estimate of the impact of slope failures in the Umbria region based on the analysis of a catalogue of historical information on landslide events, a recent and detailed regional landslide inventory map, and three event inventories prepared after major landslide triggering events. Emphasis is given to the impact of landslides on the population, the transportation network, and the built-up areas. Analysis of the available historical information reveals that 1488 landslide events occurred at 1292 sites in Umbria between 1917 and 2001. In the same period 16 people died or were missing and 31 people were injured by slope movements. Roads and railways were damaged by slope failures at 661 sites, and 281 built-up areas suffered landslide damage. Three event inventories showing landslides triggered by high intensity rainfall events in the period 1937–1941, rapid snow melting in January 1997, and earthquakes in September–October 1997, indicate the type, abundance and distribution of damage to the population, the built-up areas and the transportation network caused by typical landslide-triggering events. Analysis of a geomorphological landslide inventory map reveals that in some of the municipalities in the region total landslide area exceeds 25%. Of the more than 45 700 landslide areas shown in the geomorphological inventory map, 4115 intersect a road or railway, and 6119 intersect a built-up area. In these areas slope failures can be expected during future landslide triggering events.

  16. Fire effects on wildlife in Central Hardwoods and Appalachian regions

    Harper, Craig A.; Ford, William; Lashley, Marcus A.; Moorman, Christopher; Stambaugh, Michael C.


    Fire is being prescribed and used increasingly to promote ecosystem restoration (e.g., oak woodlands and savannas) and to manage wildlife habitat in the Central Hardwoods and Appalachian regions, USA. However, questions persist as to how fire affects hardwood forest communities and associated wildlife, and how fire should be used to achieve management goals. We provide an up-to-date review of fire effects on various wildlife species and their habitat in the Central Hardwoods and Appalachians. Documented direct effects (i.e., mortality) on wildlife are rare. Indirect effects (i.e., changes in habitat quality) are influenced greatly by light availability, fire frequency, and fire intensity. Unless fire intensity is great enough to kill a portion of the overstory, burning in closed-canopy forests has provided little benefit for most wildlife species in the region because it doesn’t result in enough sunlight penetration to elicit understory response. Canopy reduction through silvicultural treatment has enabled managers to use fire more effectively. Fire intensity must be kept low in hardwoods to limit damage to many species of overstory trees. However, wounding or killing trees with fire benefits many wildlife species by allowing increased sunlight to stimulate understory response, snag and subsequent cavity creation, and additions of large coarse woody debris. In general, a fire-return interval of 2 yr to 7 yr benefits a wide variety of wildlife species by providing a diverse structure in the understory; increasing browse, forage, and soft mast; and creating snags and cavities. Historically, dormant-season fire was most prevalent in these regions, and it still is when most prescribed fire is implemented in hardwood systems as burn-days are relatively few in the growing season of May through August because of shading from leaf cover and high fuel moisture. Late growing-season burning increases the window for burning, and better control on woody composition is

  17. Placing Central European climate archives into a regional tephrochronological framework

    Lane, C. S.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Lotter, A. F.; Filippi, M. L.; Pollard, A. M.


    A number of Lateglacial and Early Holocene lacustrine records from Central and Southern Europe have been shown to contain both visible and micro-tephra deposits, which can be correlated to volcanic eruptions from multiple volcanic sources. Detailed environmental proxy records, which outline local and regional responses to the abrupt climatic changes of the Last Glacial to Interglacial transition (LGIT), are thus constrained within a regional tephrochronological framework. Amongst other volcanic markers, the Laacher See Tephra, erupted from the Eifel region of Germany at 12,880 ±120 varve yrs BP (Brauer et al., 1999), and the Vedde Ash, erupted from Iceland between 12,225 and 11,832 cal. yrs BP (Blockley et al., 2007), are found within some of the same lake cores (e.g., Blockley et al., 2008). These key horizons, which bracket the onset of the Younger Dryas Interstadial, provide precise and absolutely dated tie points around which a detailed picture of the timing of local and regional environmental transitions can be constructed. The presence of the Vedde Ash in the Swiss lake sites allows a direct linkage to the Greenland Ice Core chronology (Mortensen et al., 2005) and highlights the potential for key tephra deposits to be found and correlated across wide geographical areas. This paper summarises the results of tephrochronological investigations into a suite of Central European records, which includes: Soppensee and Rotsee, in Central Switzerland; Rotmeer, in Southern Germany; and Lavarone, in Northern Italy. Chemical analysis of each tephra deposit has been carried out and the sources of the eruption events have been identified. Where appropriate, tephra ages have been transferred from high-precision annually-resolved chronologies and integrated with Bayesian-based radiocarbon age models for the sites. The environmental archives of the LGIT at each site are then compared on a common timescale, and further comparisons are made with other published European tephra

  18. Probing the Central Regions of Nearby Compact Elliptical Galaxies

    Davidge, T J; McGregor, P J


    K-band spectroscopic observations recorded with NIFS+ALTAIR on Gemini North are used to probe the central arcsec of the compact elliptical galaxies NGC 4486B, NGC 5846A, and M32. The angular resolution of these data is ~0.1 arcsec FWHM. The central stellar contents of NGC 4486B and NGC 5846A are similar, in the sense that they occupy the same regions of the (Ca I, 12CO), (Na I, 12CO) and (13CO, 12CO) diagrams. The NGC 4486B and NGC 5846A observations depart from the sequence defined by solar neighborhood giants in the (Na I, 12CO) diagram, in a sense that is consistent with both galaxies having non-solar chemical mixtures. For comparison, the M32 data is consistent with a chemical enrichment history like that in the Galactic disk; M32 could not have formed from the stripping of a larger elliptical galaxy. The behaviour of the near-infrared line indices as a function of radius is also investigated. The radial gradients that are present in NGC 4486B and NGC 5846A at large radii break down or reverse within the ...

  19. Cuban Migration Trends and Their Impact on Central America Region

    Charleene Cortez Sosa


    Full Text Available In recent years, the migration of Cuban population has taken new directions; this is mainly due to the migration policy flexibility adopted by the Cuban government and other Latin America governments, such as Ecuador, Grenada, Trinidad and Tobago, Dominican Republic, and Haiti, among others, by issuing visas in favorable conditions for the population. Although there are varied reasons to migrate, this population has traditionally migrated motivated by the United States Cuban Adjustment Act which grants administrative advantages for regularization; no other country of the continent offers this privilege. Due to their political exile condition, whoever arrives to the United States will easily have access to legal mechanisms for migrant regularization. Although there has been great work on migration in general terms, little has been addressed on the Cuban migration in the Central American region; possibly this is due to the difficulty to find quantitative information in this regard. The article aims to facilitate the understanding of migration in a context of flexibility and establishment of new relations between the Caribbean and Central America.

  20. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    Icerman, L. (ed.)


    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  1. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.


    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate...

  2. 40 CFR 81.138 - Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.


    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.138 Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Arkansas Intrastate...

  3. 40 CFR 81.143 - Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.


    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.143 Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Virginia Intrastate...

  4. 40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.


    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.142 Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate...

  5. 40 CFR 81.95 - Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.


    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.95 Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Florida Intrastate Air...

  6. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Central Florida Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.96 West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...


    Ľubomír Rybárik


    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  8. Large cutting tools in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region, central China.

    Kuman, Kathleen; Li, Chaorong; Li, Hao


    Handaxe-bearing sites in China are currently known to occur in a number of alluvial basins, the best known being Dingcun, Bose and Luonan. Bose in the south and Luonan in central China on the northern margin of the Qinling Mountains are most familiar to English-speaking researchers. Here we document the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region (DRR) as another major area for large cutting tools (LCTs), located in central China on the southeastern edge of the Qinling Mountains. Large cutting tools are preserved in three terraces of the Han and Dan Rivers in Hubei and Henan Provinces, with dates from ca. 0.8 Ma (millions of years ago) (Terrace 4) to the first half of the Middle Pleistocene (Terrace 3), and possibly to the Late Pleistocene (Terrace 2). This paper reports on LCTs discovered in Terraces 3 and 2, with a majority from the older terrace (and one specimen from Terrace 4). Regional environments during the Middle Pleistocene were relatively warm, humid and stable. Despite the poor quality of raw materials (predominantly quartz phyllite and trachyte for the LCTs), good examples of both handaxes and cleavers are present, plus two types of picks. The LCT technology is compared and contrasted with other Asian industries and with the Acheulean. Overall the DRR LCTs show both technological and morphological similarities with Acheulean LCTs, with some differences that are mainly attributed to raw material properties, subsistence ecology, and 'cultural drift.' The DRR LCTs expand the range of morphological variability of the East Asian material and highlight the need for greater reliance on technological analysis and raw material evaluation for best comparison of Chinese assemblages with the Acheulean tradition.

  9. Shrub Encroachment and Regional Climate Change in Central New Mexico

    He, Y.; De Wekker, S.; D'Odorico, P.


    Shrub encroachment is a global ecological phenomenon that involves a decrease in grass cover and an increase in density and coverage of woody species in semi-desert area and is associated with a number of environmental change drivers. In Southwestern U.S., such a dramatic vegetation transition has been occurring since mid 19th century and has resulted in loss of ecosystem services. The change in vegetation cover affects the mass and energy exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere and can therefore impact local climate and contribute to regional climate change. In particular, nighttime warming has been observed in the shrub dominated landscapes near the encroaching front in winter months. This nighttime warming favors the successful establishment and survival of a certain shrub species, Larrea tridentata, because of its sensitivity to freezing induced mortality. As a result, further shrub encroachment may be facilitated by the nighttime warming, resulting in a positive vegetation-microclimate feedback. To assess the relative importance of the observed nighttime warming due to changes in vegetation cover compared to the background climate warming, we use historical climate records and output from regional climate models. Results show that the nighttime warming induced by shrub encroachment is equivalent to a change in regional climate warming over the last 40-70 years in central New Mexico. Moreover, we show results from atmospheric mesoscale model simulations with the goal to assess if the nighttime warming caused by differences in vegetation cover can be simulated. We need to ensure that the nighttime warming is simulated well, so that realistic regional climate simulations can be performed to predict the rate of shrub encroachment if facilitated only by the vegetation-microclimate feedback.

  10. East and central farming and forest region and Atlantic basin diversified farming region: LRRs N and S

    Brad D. Lee; John M. Kabrick


    The central, unglaciated US east of the Great Plains to the Atlantic coast corresponds to the area covered by LRR N (East and Central Farming and Forest Region) and S (Atlantic Basin Diversified Farming Region). These regions roughly correspond to the Interior Highlands, Interior Plains, Appalachian Highlands, and the Northern Coastal Plains.

  11. Astronomy in towns? An archaeoastronomical approach to the Roman urbanism

    Rodríguez-Antón, A.; Belmonte, J. A.; González-García, A. C.


    Although the final definition of Archaeoastronomy is still under debate, what is clear is that this discipline offers a different approach to the knowledge of ancient cultures than traditional archaeology has done so far. Archaeoastronomy considers the sky as an inseparabe part of the environment and thus an element of the transformed landscape with highly symbolic content. In the case of the Roman culture, the great colonizing activity involved continuous spatial transformations and the skyscape should be considered as a piece of the created urbanized spaces. For this reason, a number of fieldwork campaigns were conducted in several Roman cities across different regions of the ancient Roman Empire in order to study the configuration of those landscapes and the possible integration of the sky during the buiding processes. At the present, our group has the largest sample of orientations of Roman settlements so far, and here it is shown the preliminary results of an statistical analysis which may offer new answers to the various still open questions in Roman urbanism, often faced from conservative views.

  12. Central San Juan caldera cluster: regional volcanic framework

    Lipman, Peter W.


    symmetrically resurgent Creede caldera, the volcanic framework for Lake Creede, has been exceptionally preserved because of rapid infilling by moat sediments of the Creede Formation, which were preferentially eroded during the past few million years. The ash-flow tuffs and caldera of the central San Juan region have been widely recognized as exceptional sites for study of explosive volcanic processes, and the results reported here provide new insights into processes of pyroclastic eruption and emplacement, geometric interrelations between caldera subsidence and resurgence, the petrologic diversity of sequential ash-flow eruptions, recurrent eruption of intermediate-composition lavas after each caldera-forming event, associated regional fault development, volume relations between ash-flow eruptions and associated calderas, the emplacement of subvolcanic batholiths, and involvement of mantle-derived mafic phases in magma-generation processes.

  13. Axisymmetrical Gas Inflow in the Central Region of NGC 7331

    Battaner, E; Guijarro, A; Arribas, S; Florido, E


    New Integral Field Spectroscopy of the central region of NGC 7331 reveals strong H$\\alpha$ emission in the well-known CO and HI ring of NGC 7331. The [NII]/H$\\alpha$ ratio indicates that a large scale stellar formation process is taken place at the ring in agreement with previous hypothesis about the exhaustion of gas in the inner to the ring region. The dynamics of stars and gas are not coupled. There is a ring of peculiar velocities in the ionized gas velocity map. These peculiar velocities can be well interpreted by the presence of an axisymmetric inflow of 40 km/s at the inner boundary of the large-scale gaseous ring. We infer an inwards total flux of 1.6 M$_{\\odot}$yr$^{-1}$. This value is typical of the accretion rates in hypothetical {\\bf large} nuclear black holes. Despite the large differences in the scales of the nucleus and the gas ring of NGC 7331, we suggest that this inwards flux is feeding the nucleus.

  14. Roman Bondage Numbers of Some Graphs

    Hu, Fu-Tao


    A Roman dominating function on a graph $G=(V,E)$ is a function $f: V\\to \\{0,1,2\\}$ satisfying the condition that every vertex $u$ with $f(u)=0$ is adjacent to at least one vertex $v$ with $f(v)=2$. The weight of a Roman dominating function is the value $f(G)=\\sum_{u\\in V} f(u)$. The Roman domination number of $G$ is the minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on $G$. The Roman bondage number of a nonempty graph $G$ is the minimum number of edges whose removal results in a graph with the Roman domination number larger than that of $G$. This paper determines the exact value of the Roman bondage numbers of two classes of graphs, complete $t$-partite graphs and $(n-3)$-regular graphs with order $n$ for any $n\\ge 5$.

  15. A regional dynamic vegetation-climate model for Central America

    Snell, R. S.; Cowling, S. A.; Smith, B.


    Global vegetation models simulate the distribution of vegetation as a function of climate. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are also able to simulate the vegetation shifts in response to climate change, which makes them particularly useful for addressing questions about past and future climate scenarios. However, DGVMs have been criticized for using generic plant functional types (PFTs) and running the models at a coarse grid cell resolution. Regional dynamic vegetation models are able to simulate important landscape variation, since they use a finer resolution and specific PFTs for their region. Regional studies have typically focused on boreal or temperate ecosystems in North America and Europe. We will be presenting the results of applying a dynamic regional vegetation-climate model (LPJ-GUESS) for Central America. Initially, the model was run with the described global PFTs. However, several biomes were very poorly represented. Two PFTs were added: a Tropical Needleleaf Evergreen Tree to improve the simulation of the Mixed Pine-Oak biome, and a Desert Shrub to capture the Xeric Shrublands. The overall distribution of biomes was visually similar, however the Kappa statistic indicated a poor agreement with the potential biome map (overall Kappa = 0.301). The Kappa statistic did improve as we aggregated cell sizes and simplified the biomes (overall Kappa = 0.728). Compared to remote sensing data, the model showed a strong correlation with total LAI (r = 0.75). The poor Kappa statistic is likely due to a combination of factors. The way in which biomes are defined by the author can have a large influence on the level of agreement between simulated and potential vegetation. The Kappa statistic is also limited to comparing individual grid cells and thus, cannot detect overall patterns. Examining those areas which are poorly represented will help to identify future work and improve the representation of vegetation in these ecological models. In particular, the

  16. The TOTEM Roman Pot Motherboard

    Antchev, G; Snoeys, W


    The TOTEM Roman Pot Motherboard (RPMB) is the interface between the hybrids with silicon detectors and front end chips in the Roman Pots, and the outside world. The RPMB is glued in the vacuum flange which separates the vacuum chamber containing the detector hybrids, and forms the feed through between vacuum and atmosphere. The hybrids have a flexible part with on-board connector for connection to the motherboard. The motherboard is equipped with connectors to the detector hybrids from one side and front panel with connectors to the patch panel form the other side. The RPMB needs to provide power and control, clock and trigger information to the 10 hybrids. It acquires tracking and triggers data from the hybrids, performs data conversion from electrical to optical format and transfers the data to the next level of the system [1]. It also collects information like temperature, pressure and radiation dose inside the pot. This paper presents the TOTEM RPMB in detail.


    Dr. Stefan DUMITRU


    Full Text Available In this study we set forth to present several of the most important aspects regarding the contrastive analysis of a well-defined number of Latin idioms in parallel with their Romanic counterparts (in French, Italian, Spanish and Romanian. Our intent was not to discover, in the Romanic space, all the equivalents of the phrases that form the corpus we work with, for reasons pertaining to material restrictions, but to discuss, based on a certain number of units, the different types of issues they may point to. The most important is to establish the relation between the idiomatic expressions in Latin and their correspondents in the above mentioned languages, regarding their inner form, their meaning and their structure.

  18. "Roman Pot" at the ISR


    "Roman pots" are stainless steel containers, which can be moved from outside the vacuum chamber towards the beam. They house detectors which are conveniently at atmospheric pressure and can still be brought close to the limit of the circulating beam, to detect particles emanating at very small angles from the intersection of two colliding beams. Eifionydd Jones was the inventor of this device, highly successful at the ISR and now used again at the TOTEM experiment at the LHC. This particular Roman Pot, with a thickness of 0.2 mm, was built in 1980 for experiment R210 in intersection I-2, in preparation for proton-antiproton collisions in 1981. See also 7501065.

  19. 40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.


    ... Quality Control Region. 81.104 Section 81.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  20. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.


    ... Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  1. Analytical Plan for Roman Glasses

    Strachan, Denis M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mueller, Karl T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Heeren, Ronald M.


    Roman glasses that have been in the sea or underground for about 1800 years can serve as the independent “experiment” that is needed for validation of codes and models that are used in performance assessment. Two sets of Roman-era glasses have been obtained for this purpose. One set comes from the sunken vessel the Iulia Felix; the second from recently excavated glasses from a Roman villa in Aquileia, Italy. The specimens contain glass artifacts and attached sediment or soil. In the case of the Iulia Felix glasses quite a lot of analytical work has been completed at the University of Padova, but from an archaeological perspective. The glasses from Aquileia have not been so carefully analyzed, but they are similar to other Roman glasses. Both glass and sediment or soil need to be analyzed and are the subject of this analytical plan. The glasses need to be analyzed with the goal of validating the model used to describe glass dissolution. The sediment and soil need to be analyzed to determine the profile of elements released from the glass. This latter need represents a significant analytical challenge because of the trace quantities that need to be analyzed. Both pieces of information will yield important information useful in the validation of the glass dissolution model and the chemical transport code(s) used to determine the migration of elements once released from the glass. In this plan, we outline the analytical techniques that should be useful in obtaining the needed information and suggest a useful starting point for this analytical effort.

  2. Flaubert lecteur de romans historiques

    Bernard Gendrel


    Full Text Available Les notes de lectures de Flaubert dans sa correspondance permettent de dégager deux types de romans historiques : le roman à sujet ancien, qui se doit, pour être vraisemblable, d'éloigner les personnages en réduisant la part d'explications psychologiques, et le roman à sujet contemporain, qui au contraire allie prise de distance (historique ou sociale et rapprochement (psychologique. Victor Hugo excellerait dans le premier mais pas dans le second. Quant à Flaubert, son obsession sera de réussir dans les deux.Flaubert’s reading notes in his correspondence allow us to identify two types of historical novels: the novel with an ancient subject, which, to be plausible, must keep characters at a distance and limit psychological explanations, and the novel with a contemporary subject which, on the contrary, both keeps aloof from historical or social questions and draws nearer to psychological questions. Victor Hugo excelled in the first but not in the second posture.  As for Flaubert, his obsession was be to be successful in both.

  3. [Roman medical instruments from Lower Moesia].

    Aparaschivei, D; Matei, I


    To elucidate the evolution of society over time, ancient medicine is a very interesting and important researching field. Archaeological discoveries, such as the objects described by this article, but other ancient sources, also, are able to provide a complex framework of medical practice in Roman times. The geographic area that we have like target in this material is the province of Lower Moesia, which includes the territory between Danube and Black Sea (Romanian Dobrodja) and northern Bulgaria. In the present study we present nine ancient medical instruments, from a private collection: two tweezers, two ear probes, a probe-spatula, a probe-spoon, a spoon for pharmacy and two fragments of some kind of hooks used in surgical operations. Most likely, we have a mixed medical kit with tools used in general medicine, surgery, in preparation of the pharmaceutical treatments, but very possible, also, in cosmetic practices. Publication of these archaeological materials is, in addition to an extra page in the history of ancient medicine, a pretext for stepping up in a research field that, in other regions of the former Roman Empire, it is a great interest for researchers.

  4. Inference of biogeographical ancestry across central regions of Eurasia.

    Bulbul, O; Filoglu, G; Zorlu, T; Altuncul, H; Freire-Aradas, A; Söchtig, J; Ruiz, Y; Klintschar, M; Triki-Fendri, S; Rebai, A; Phillips, C; Lareu, M V; Carracedo, Á; Schneider, P M


    The inference of biogeographical ancestry (BGA) can provide useful information for forensic investigators when there are no suspects to be compared with DNA collected at the crime scene or when no DNA database matches exist. Although public databases are increasing in size and population scope, there is a lack of information regarding genetic variation in Eurasian populations, especially in central regions such as the Middle East. Inhabitants of these regions show a high degree of genetic admixture, characterized by an allele frequency cline running from NW Europe to East Asia. Although a proper differentiation has been established between the cline extremes of western Europe and South Asia, populations geographically located in between, i.e, Middle East and Mediterranean populations, require more detailed study in order to characterize their genetic background as well as to further understand their demographic histories. To initiate these studies, three ancestry informative SNP (AI-SNP) multiplex panels: the SNPforID 34-plex, Eurasiaplex and a novel 33-plex assay were used to describe the ancestry patterns of a total of 24 populations ranging across the longitudinal axis from NW Europe to East Asia. Different ancestry inference approaches, including STRUCTURE, PCA, DAPC and Snipper Bayes analysis, were applied to determine relationships among populations. The structure results show differentiation between continental groups and a NW to SE allele frequency cline running across Eurasian populations. This study adds useful population data that could be used as reference genotypes for future ancestry investigations in forensic cases. The 33-plex assay also includes pigmentation predictive SNPs, but this study primarily focused on Eurasian population differentiation using 33-plex and its combination with the other two AI-SNP sets.

  5. Mechanisms of fluoride release in sediments of Argentina's central region.

    Borgnino, L; Garcia, M G; Bia, G; Stupar, Y V; Le Coustumer, Ph; Depetris, P J


    We analyze the sources and mechanisms that control the release of fluoride from sediments collected from two types of aquatic reservoirs in the central region of Argentina: 1) mountainous rivers draining crystalline rocks from the Sierras Pampeanas ranges, and 2) shallow aquifers in loessic sediments. The assessment was performed on the basis of experimental work and the study of chemical and mineralogical characteristics of sediments in contact with F-rich waters of the studied region. The chemical and mineralogical compositions of sediments were analyzed by ICP/OES, DRX, and SEM-EDS. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the kinetics of fluoride release under variable pH and ionic composition of the solution. The enhanced release of fluoride at more acidic pH, the inhibition of release in Ca-rich solutions and the positive significant linear trends between Ca(2+) and fluoride concentrations suggest that the dissolution of a Ca/F-bearing phase (like fluorapatite) strongly controls the dynamics of fluoride in the early stages of water-sediment interaction, particularly under acidic conditions. Calculations revealed that the dissolution of an amount of FAp equivalent to that estimated in the studied sediments may widely account for the values measured in the leaching experiments at pH6, whatever the dominant cation in the solution. Under such conditions, dissolution of FAp (present as coatings onto glass surfaces or as detritic grains) is likely the major primary source of fluorine in the studied sediments. Contribution from biotite may be also considered as a source in fluvial sediments. When adequate surfaces are present the released anions may partially be scavenged from the solution by adsorption at acidic pH. Increasing alkalinity in the aquatic reservoirs may then release the adsorbed fluoride through desorption or through competition with other anionic species. Comparing both mechanisms, dissolution predominates at lower pH while desorption is the main

  6. Inspecting the transformation of Roman settlements in the Upper Potenza Valley (Marche region across Late Antiquity and into the Early Medieval era

    Francesca Carboni


    Full Text Available The following analysis shows the changes occurred in the settlement patterns in the upper Potenza river valley (MC, Marche region during the transition period between Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages. This analysis is mainly based on the results of a geoarchaeological project, which has been carried out by a team from Ghent University since 2000. The review of the pottery collected during the fi eld survey has allowed for a better defined chronology of the last phase of occupation of the rural sites identifi ed in the sample zone, located within an intermediate basin between the Umbria-Marche Apennines and a lateral dorsal ridge, in areas dominated by the hilltops of Monte Primo and Monte Castel Santa Maria. For some of these sites, it is now possible to ascertain a continuity of life up to the end of the seventh century and further into the Middle Ages. La presente analisi illustra le trasformazioni delle modalità insediative avvenute nel periodo di transizione fra la tarda antichità e il medioevo nell’alta valle del fi ume Potenza (MC, Marche. Essa si basa sui risultati del progetto condotto con metodo geo-archeologico da un gruppo di ricerca dell’Università di Ghent, dal 2000. La revisione del materiale ceramico raccolto nel corso delle ricognizioni ha consentito di defi nire meglio le ultime fasi di occupazione dei siti rurali identifi cati nella zona campione in questione, posizionata all’interno del bacino intramontano posto fra l’Appennino umbro-marchigiano e una dorsale montuosa laterale, dominata dalle cime del Monte Primo e del Monte Santa Maria. Per alcuni di questi siti è stato, infatti, possibile accertare una continuità di occupazione estesa fi no al VII secolo e oltre, in età medievale.

  7. Formation of Galactic Prominence in the Galactic Central Region

    Peng, Chih-Han; Matsumoto, Ryoji


    We carried out 2.5-dimensional resistive MHD simulations to study the formation mechanism of molecular loops observed by Fukui et al. in the Galactic central region. Since it is hard to form molecular loops by lifting up dense molecular gas, we study the formation mechanism of molecular gas in rising magnetic arcades. This model is based on the in situ formation model of solar prominences, in which prominences are formed by cooling instability in helical magnetic flux ropes formed by imposing converging and shearing motion at footpoints of the magnetic arch anchored to the solar surface. We extended this model to Galactic center scale (a few hundreds of parsecs). Numerical results indicate that magnetic reconnection taking place in the current sheet that formed inside the rising magnetic arcade creates dense blobs confined by the rising helical magnetic flux ropes. Thermal instability taking place in the flux ropes forms dense molecular filaments floating at high Galactic latitude. The mass of the filament increases with time and can exceed {10}5 {M}ȯ .

  8. Sedimentary geochemistry depicts 2700 years of regional climate and land use change in the Rieti Basin, Central Italy

    Archer, C.; Noble, P. J.; Mensing, S. A.; Tunno, I.; Sagnotti, L.; Florindo, F.; Cifnani, G.; Zimmerman, S. R. H.; Piovesan, G.


    A 14.4 m thick sedimentary sequence was recovered in multiple cores from Lago Lungo in the Rieti Basin, an intrapenninic extensional basin ~80 km north of Rome, Italy. This sequence provides a high-resolution record of environmental change related to climatic influence and anthropogenic landscape alteration. Pollen analyses, corroborated with historical records of land-use change, define the major shifts in forest composition and their historical context. An age model of the sequence was built using ties to regional cultigen datums and archaeomagnetic reference curves. Here we focus on sedimentologic and geochemical data (scanning XRF) from the Roman Period through the Little Ice Age (LIA). The base of the sequence (ca. 680 BCE- 1 CE) is marked by a steady increase in fine-grained detrital elements Ti, Rb, and K, and corresponding decrease in Ca, representing a transition from the unaltered system after the Romans constructed a channel that the basin. The Medieval Period (MP; 900-1350 CE) is lithologically distinct, composed of varicolored bands of alternating silt, clay, and calcareous concretions. Low counts of Ca, high detrital elements and frequent abrupt peaks in levels of the redox elements Fe and Mn indicate episodic clastic influx. Pollen data indicate that the greatest degree of deforestation and erosion occurred during the MP, supported by mean sedimentation rates of ca. 1cm/year, over twice the rate of the underlying interval. The Medieval climate was warmer and more stable, population increased, and elevations >1000 m were exploited for agriculture. The influence of the Velino River on the lake appears to increase during the MP through channel migration, increased flooding, or increased overland flow. The next transition (1350 CE) marks the start of the LIA and is coincident with the Black Plague. Historical records document a large earthquake in 1349 that severely struck Central Italy, with possible effects on the lake's depositional and hydrochemical

  9. Parallelisms and revelatory concepts of the Johannine Prologue in Greco-Roman context

    Benno Zuiddam


    Full Text Available This article builds on the increasing recognition of divine communication and God’s plan as a central concept in the prologue to the Fourth gospel. A philological analysis reveals parallel structures with an emphasis on divine communication in which the Logos takes a central part. These should be understood within the context of this gospel, but have their roots in the Old Testament. The Septuagint offers parallel concepts, particularly in its wisdom literature. Apart from these derivative parallels, the revelatory concepts and terminology involved in John 1:1–18, also find functional parallels in the historical environment of the fourth gospel. They share similarities with the role of Apollo Phoebus in the traditionally assigned geographical context of the region of Ephesus in Asia Minor. This functional parallelism served the reception of John’s biblical message in a Greco-Roman cultural setting.Keywords: John's Gospel; Apollo Phoebus; Logos; Revelation; Ephesus

  10. Long regional magnetotelluric profile crossing geotectonic structures of central Poland

    Stefaniuk, M.; Pokorski, J.; Wojdyla, M.


    Introduction The magnetotelluric survey was made along a regional profile, which runs across Poland from south-west to north-east during 2005-2006 years. The profile crosses major geological structures of Central Poland, including the Variscan Externides and Variscan foredeep, the Transeuropean Suture Zone and the marginal zone of East European Craton. The main objectives of the project include identification of sub-Zechstein sedimentary structures and evaluation of resistivity distribution within the deep crust, especially at the contact of East European Precambrian Craton and Central Europe Paleozoic structures. The length of the profile is about 700 km; 161 deep magnetotelluric sounding sites were made with a medium spacing of about 4 km. Data acquisition and processing The recording of the components of natural electromagnetic field was made with a broad range of frequencies, varying from 0.0003 Hz up to 575 Hz with use of MT-1 system of Electromagnetic Instruments Incorporation. This frequency band allowed obtaining the information about geology ranging from a few dozen meters to approximately 100 km, depending on the vertical distribution of the resistivity inside geological medium. To reduce the electromagnetic noise, magnetic and electric remote reference was applied. A remote reference site was located at a distance of over 100 km of field sites. Processing of the recorded data included the estimation of the components of impedance tensor (Zxx, Zxy, Zyx and Zyy ), with use of robust type procedures. The components of the impedance tensor allowed in a subsequent step for calculation of field curves for two orientations of the measurement system (XY - described further as the TM mode and YX - TE mode) and additional parameters of the medium like skew, strike, pole diagrams etc. Recording of the vertical component of electromagnetic field (Hz) allowed calculation of tipper parameter T. Magnetotelluric soundings interpretation Geophysical interpretation of MT

  11. Regional mid-Pleistocene glaciation in central Patagonia

    Hein, Andrew S.; Cogez, Antoine; Darvill, Christopher M.; Mendelova, Monika; Kaplan, Michael R.; Herman, Frédéric; Dunai, Tibor J.; Norton, Kevin; Xu, Sheng; Christl, Marcus; Rodés, Ángel


    Southern South America contains a glacial geomorphological record that spans the past million years and has the potential to provide palaeoclimate information for several glacial periods in Earth's history. In central Patagonia, two major outlet glaciers of the former Patagonian Ice Sheet carved deep basins ∼50 km wide and extending over 100 km into the Andean plain east of the mountain front. A succession of nested glacial moraines offers the possibility of determining when the ice lobes advanced and whether such advances occurred synchronously. The existing chronology, which was obtained using different methods in each valley, indicates the penultimate moraines differ in age by a full glacial cycle. Here, we test this hypothesis further using a uniform methodology that combines cosmogenic nuclide ages from moraine boulders, moraine cobbles and outwash cobbles. 10Be concentrations in eighteen outwash cobbles from the Moreno outwash terrace in the Lago Buenos Aires valley yield surface exposure ages of 169-269 ka. We find 10Be inheritance is low and therefore use the oldest surface cobbles to date the deposit at 260-270 ka, which is indistinguishable from the age obtained in the neighbouring Lago Pueyrredón valley. This suggests a regionally significant glaciation during Marine Isotope Stage 8, and broad interhemispheric synchrony of glacial maxima during the mid to late Pleistocene. Finally, we find the dated outwash terrace is 70-100 ka older than the associated moraines. On the basis of geomorphological observations, we suggest this difference can be explained by exhumation of moraine boulders.

  12. Putting Roman Dams in Context: a Virtual Approach

    Decker, M. J.; Du Vernay, J. P.; Mcleod, J. B.


    innovative perspective on a long time studied monument. In this paper it will be explored how deploying recent computer technologies to the Roman dam at Consuegra can advance our understanding of the history of local and regional landscape change and the technology of water management. In summer 2016, the dam has been documented with terrestrial laser scanning with two FARO Focus 3D x330 and aerial photogrammetry image capturing with a DJI Phantom 4 drone. Data was processed in various 3D software applications to generate 3D representations of the dam including 3D point clouds, animations, and meshed models.

  13. Centrality and economic development in the Rijnland region: social and spatial concepts of centrality

    Van Nes, A.


    In urban research, spatial and social concepts of centrality are being distinguished. From a spatial point of view, metrical centrality implies that something is located in the middle of an area. However, metrical and topological centrality are not equivalent. In research where space syntax methods

  14. Aventures radiophoniques du Nouveau Roman

    Beatrice Nickel


    Full Text Available  Aventures radiophoniques du Nouveau Roman Colloque international organisé par l’Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier, en partenariat avec l’Université de Stuttgart 19-20 novembre 2015   Organisateurs :  Pierre-Marie Héron, Annie Pibarot, Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier, centre de recherche Rirra21. Françoise Joly, Beatrice Nickel, Universität Stuttgart 

  15. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.


    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  16. Laser cleaning on Roman coins

    Drakaki, E.; Karydas, A. G.; Klinkenberg, B.; Kokkoris, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Stavrou, E.; Vlastou, R.; Zarkadas, C.

    Ancient metal objects react with moisture and environmental chemicals to form various corrosion products. Because of the unique character and high value of such objects, any cleaning procedure should guarantee minimum destructiveness. The most common treatment used is mechanical stripping, in which it is difficult to avoid surface damage when employed. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. The basic criterion that motivated us to use lasers to clean Roman coins was the requirement of pulsed emission, in order to minimize heat-induced damages. In fact, the laser interaction with the coins has to be short enough, to produce a fast removal of the encrustation, avoiding heat conduction into the substrate. The cleaning effects of three lasers operating at different wavelengths, namely a TEA CO2 laser emitting at 10.6 μm, an Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm, and a 2ω-Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm have been compared on corroded Romans coins and various atomic and nuclear techniques have also been applied to evaluate the efficiency of the applied procedure.

  17. Single Finds. The case of Roman Egypt

    Christiansen, Erik


    Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins......Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins...

  18. Modern Perceptions of Roman-Scandinavian Relations

    Grane, Thomas


    This article describes the modern research history of connections between Scandinavian Iron Age societies and the Roman Empire focusing more or less on the last half century. In this time, there has been a significant increase in Danish excavations of Roman Iron Age sites, of which several have p...

  19. Maestro Roman Toi kodumaal / Tiiu Pikkur

    Pikkur, Tiiu, 1947-


    Helilooja ja koorijuht Roman Toi osalemisest muuseumiõhtul "Kaunimad laulud pühendan Sul!" 21. mail Eesti Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumis, helilooja 90. sünnipäevale pühendatud kontserdist 23. mail Tallinna Toomkirikus ja Roman Toi nimelisest kirikulaulude konkursist

  20. Maestro Roman Toi kodumaal / Tiiu Pikkur

    Pikkur, Tiiu, 1947-


    Helilooja ja koorijuht Roman Toi osalemisest muuseumiõhtul "Kaunimad laulud pühendan Sul!" 21. mail Eesti Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumis, helilooja 90. sünnipäevale pühendatud kontserdist 23. mail Tallinna Toomkirikus ja Roman Toi nimelisest kirikulaulude konkursist

  1. A Roman Dodecahedron for measuring distance

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina


    Here I am discussing a possible use of a Roman Dodecahedron, a bronze artifact of gallo-roman origin, for measuring distance. A dodecahedron, found at Jublains, the ancient Nouiodunum, dating from the 2nd or 3rd century AD, is used to create a model. Looking through the model, it is possible to test it for measurements of distance based on similar triangles.

  2. Analysis on natural gas geo-politics in Central Asia-Russia region

    Feng, Dan


    In the year of 2009, some events happened in Central Asia-Russia Region. The transit countries of Nabucco pipeline signed the agreement and the project received considerable progress. The China-Turkmenistan pipeline achieved the completion of ventilation. All these could be landmarks in Central Asia-Russia's geo-political situation. Diversification strategy of gas imports in Europe and diversification strategy of export in Central Asia have been effectively promoted, and the relationship between China and Central Asia becomes closer. Now, the new supply pattern of the region is coming into being and the nature gas geo-political situation in the region is undergoing profound changes.

  3. Modified Designs of the Spiral Inflector and Central Region for CRM


    <正>The Dee voltage required by the design of the central region for the CRM (Central Region Model) cyclotron is 50 kV, but during the operation of the RF system, we find that the practical Dee voltage calculated based on the

  4. Regional Integration Through Law: the Central American and Caribbean Cases

    Caserta, Salvatore


    . The two Court have also borrowed key jurisprudential principles from the CJEU with the goal of expanding the reach of Central American and Caribbean Community laws. Despite this, both Courts have thus far failed to foster supranationality in their respective systems. This is because the conditions...

  5. Production Within and Beyond Imperial Boundaries: Goods, Exchange, and Power in Roman Europe

    Peter S. Wells


    Full Text Available After Rome had conquered much of temperate Europe, the administration directed the establishment of industries important to the maintenance of military and economic control of the new provinces. These included stone quarries, pottery manufactures, and metal industries. Recent research shows that much production was not as centralized as has been believed; diverse industrial sites throughout the provincial landscapes indicate a variety of arrangements for supplying the needs of the empire. In many instances, Roman production systems relied upon indigenous traditions of manufacturing. The provincial economies depended also upon materials collected and processed beyond the imperial frontiers. Analysis of Roman imports in Germany, Scandinavia, and eastern Europe, and of the contexts in which they occur, suggesta that goods produced outside of the empire played a major role in the imperial economy. These commercial links, over which Roman authorities had no effective control, contributed to substantial changes in economics and in social and political configurations in societies beyond the Roman frontier.

  6. Central region design for a 10 MeV internal ion source cyclotron

    QIN Bin; LIU Kai-Feng; FENG Yi-Zhang; FAN Ming-Wu


    Internal ion sources are widely adopted in commercial cyclotrons used for short-life isotopes produc-tion. Without beam manipulation provided by the external beam injection line, the central region of this type of cyclotron is more sensitive and should be carefully designed. A design study and beam dynamics simulation for the central region of a 10 MeV compact cyclotron is presented. The OPERA3D/TOSCA code was used to calculate the electric field from a parameterized three dimensional (3D) central region model. With iterative structure optimizations of the central region, the beam centering and vertical focusing is well controlled, and the RF phase acceptance is around 25° A c++ code for beam simulation in the central region was developed and tested.

  7. Traversable wormholes the Roman ring

    Visser, M


    In this brief report I introduce a yet another class of geometries for which semi-classical chronology protection theorems are of dubious physical reliability. I consider a ``Roman ring'' of traversable wormholes, wherein a number of wormholes are arranged in a ring in such a manner that no subset of wormholes is near to chronology violation, though the combined system can be arbitrarily close to chronology violation. I show that (with enough wormholes in the ring) the gravitational vacuum polarization (the expectation value of the quantum stress-energy tensor) can be made arbitrarily small. In particular the back-reaction can be kept arbitrarily small all the way to the ``reliability horizon''---so that semi-classical quantum gravity becomes unreliable before the gravitational back reaction becomes large.

  8. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region

    Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.


    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

  9. "Roman Baths" in Contemporary Spa Tourism

    Vesna Merc


    Full Text Available The commercialisation of images and symbols from antiquity, so characteristic of Slovenia since its independence, has been reflected over the last decade in spa tourism as well. Since the great crises in the sixties, and especially since the eighties, fifteen Slovene natural health resorts have concentrated on developing wellness and activities programs. This change in orientation has been accompanied by renovations, an expansion of the water surfaces and capacities, and new wellbeing, wellness, spirituality and beauty programs. An analysis of Slovene spas, wellness centres and hotel web pages shows that they frequently offer rooms, usually saunas, which are imitations of the Roman baths. These rooms are usually called "Roman saunas", "Tepidarium", "Caldarium", and "Roman-Irish baths". At Terme Ptuj, Zdravilišče Laško, Šmarješke Toplice, Grand Hotel Palace in Portorož, and Terme Čatež, saunas have been built or renovated in the Roman style. This trend of Roman rooms is a novelty, less than a decade old in Slovenia. The first sauna with a Roman theme, a Roman-Irish bath, was opened in 1997 in the Health and Beauty Centre at Terme Čatež. Modern Roman saunas are very popular, found not only in Slovenia but also in other parts of Europe, especially Germany and Austria. Their popularity has spread from the areas formerly occupied by the Romans to other parts of world, for example the USA and the Republic of South Africa. An analysis of Slovene saunas and wellness centres reveals a well-established trend to recreate certain parts of the Roman baths. This is attempted not only through Roman-style decorations, but also through certain structures particular to the Roman baths, such as the caldarium, tepidarium, and in one case even a laconicum. The approach, however, is highly eclectic, blending Roman, Greek and, above all, modern elements. The purpose of such rooms is to increase the appeal of the spas, while their design is mostly based on

  10. Drug Trafficking as a Lethal Regional Threat in Central America


    and Central America are only found in some magazines like TIME, and “Nueva Sociedad ” [New Society]. Another good source for analysis of current...relacion compleja” [Drugs and Insecurity in Latin America: a complex relation] published by the Colombian magazine Nueva Sociedad in July-August 2000...Inseguridad en America Latina: una relacion compleja [Drugs and insecurity in Latin America: A complex relation]. Nueva Sociedad Magazine (July-August

  11. Regional Cooperation in Central Asia & Shanghai Cooperation Organization


    @@ Of all the post-Soviet states, the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan experienced at the dawn of independence the most acute crisis in regime-building, economic self-support and security assurance. The risk of marginalization derived from inborn weakness of geo-political seclusion coupled with widening gap with the world mainstream has caused widespread concern.

  12. The Central Regions of M31 in the 3-5 μm Wavelength Region

    Davidge, T. J.; Jensen, Joseph B.; Olsen, K. A. G.


    Images obtained with NIRI on the Gemini North telescope are used to investigate the photometric properties of the central regions of M31 in the 3-5 μm wavelength range. The light distribution in the central arcsecond differs from what is seen in the near-infrared in the sense that the difference in peak brightness between P1 and P2 is larger in M' than in K' no obvious signature of P3 is detected in M'. These results can be explained if there is a source of emission that contributes ~20% of the peak M' light of P1, has an effective temperature of no more than a few hundred K, and is located between P1 and P2. Based on the red K-M' color of this source, it is suggested that the emission originates in a circumstellar dust shell surrounding a single bright asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star. Tests of this hypothesis are described. A bright source that is ~8" from the center of the galaxy is also detected in M'. This object has red colors and an absolute brightness in M' that is similar to the most highly evolved AGB stars in the solar neighborhood; hence, it is likely to be a very evolved AGB star embedded in a circumstellar envelope. The K-band brightness of this star is close to the peak expected for AGB evolution, and an age of only a few hundred million years is estimated, which is comparable to that of the P3 star cluster. Finally, using high angular resolution near-infrared adaptive optics images as a guide, a sample of unblended AGB stars outside of the central few arcseconds is defined in L'. The (L', K-L') color-magnitude diagram of these sources shows a dominant AGB population with a peak L' brightness and a range of K-L' colors that are similar to those of the most luminous M giants in the Galactic bulge. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF) on behalf of the Gemini partnership

  13. Research on Interactive Relationship between Agricultural Insurance and Rural Financial Development in Central and Western Regions


    By selecting the panel data from 2001 to 2008 in central and western regions,I adopt the methods of covariance analysis test,Hausman test,panel unit root test and co-integration test to conduct empirical research on the interactive relationship between agricultural insurance and rural financial development in central and western regions.The results show that there is a long-term balanced and interactive causal relationship between agricultural insurance and rural financial development in central and western regions.The agricultural insurance in western regions is the cause of rural financial development,while such relationship in central regions is not tenable.There is an interactive promotion relationship between agricultural insurance and rural financial development efficiency in central regions,while the relationship between agricultural insurance and rural financial development efficiency in western regions is mutually inhibitive,but the rural financial efficiency in western regions promotes the development of agricultural insurance.Then corresponding suggestions are put forward in order to give full play to the role of mutual promotion between agricultural insurance and rural financial development as follows:reinforce the support degree for policy finance in central and western regions;increase the inputs of rural financial institutions in serving agriculture,countryside and farmers;expand the types and coverage of policy agricultural insurance.

  14. Geospatial database for regional environmental assessment of central Colorado.

    Church, Stanley E.; San Juan, Carma A.; Fey, David L.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Klein, Terry L.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mitchell, Katharine A.; Adams, Monique G.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Todorov, Todor I.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; McEachron, Luke; Anthony, Michael W.


    In conjunction with the future planning needs of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed environmental assessment of the effects of historical mining on Forest Service lands in central Colorado. Stream sediment, macroinvertebrate, and various filtered and unfiltered water quality samples were collected during low-flow over a four-year period from 2004–2007. This report summarizes the sampling strategy, data collection, and analyses performed on these samples. The data are presented in Geographic Information System, Microsoft Excel, and comma-delimited formats. Reports on data interpretation are being prepared separately.

  15. The ALFA Roman Pot Detectors of ATLAS

    Abdel Khalek, S.


    The ATLAS Roman Pot system is designed to determine the total proton-proton cross-section as well as the luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) by measuring elastic proton scattering at very small angles. The system is made of four Roman Pot stations, located in the LHC tunnel in a distance of about 240~m at both sides of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station is equipped with tracking detectors, inserted in Roman Pots which approach the LHC beams vertically. The tracking detectors consist of multi-layer scintillating fibre structures readout by Multi-Anode-Photo-Multipliers.

  16. Centralization versus Decentralization in Educational Administration: Regional Issues.

    Bray, Mark


    Outlines strategies to reduce inequities in numerous counties, focusing on the distribution of financial and human resources. Also addresses issues of diversity and conformity in education systems. Reduction of regional imbalances does not necessarily require imposition of uniformity, but the diversity caused by decentralization is not always…

  17. A new plate motions model for the central Atlantic region

    Tassi, L.; Schettino, A.


    Although the plate kinematics associated with the opening of the central Atlantic ocean after the break-up of Pangaea has been the subject of several studies since the late 1960s, there are still open problems and debated solutions to the tectonic evolution of this area. In particular, the initial fit of Pangaea, the spreading directions during the early stages of opening, the existence of ridge jumps, and the entity of deformation processes in northwest Africa are still subject to different interpretations by distinct research groups. We performed a reassessment of the central Atlantic plate kinematics since the early Jurassic through a re-examination of marine magnetic anomalies and fracture zone trends. A total of 432 ship tracks from the NGDC GEODAS database for the time interval from 1964 through 1994 in the area comprised between the Fifteen-Twenty FZ and the Azores triple junction were analyzed. The data quality was assessed through the examination of Kp indices, and 191 magnetic profiles were extracted having an azimuth that differed from the fracture zones trend by less than 30° and did not cross any fracture zone. Magnetic data collected during moderately disturbed days (Kp > 5) were also filtered away. The 191 ship track segments were projected onto flow lines that parallel existing fracture zones in order to avoid shape distortion of the magnetic anomalies. Finally, the magnetic data were high-pass filtered to remove trends. A new advanced software tool for the analysis and interpretation of the anomalies was developed in order to improve the reliability of magnetic anomaly identifications. The main result of this work is a new map of the magnetic lineations in the central Atlantic, which overcomes the flaws of previous maps. The structural pattern that results from this study evidences that: 1) a unique spreading direction existed during the early and middle Jurassic, and until the M25 - M21 time interval in the late Jurassic. Such a spreading

  18. Early Roman military fortifications and the origin of Trieste, Italy

    Bernardini, Federico; Vinci, Giacomo; Horvat, Jana; De Min, Angelo; Forte, Emanuele; Furlani, Stefano; Lenaz, Davide; Pipan, Michele; Zhao, Wenke; Sgambati, Alessandro; Potleca, Michele; Micheli, Roberto; Fragiacomo, Andrea; Tuniz, Claudio


    An interdisciplinary study of the archaeological landscape of the Trieste area (northeastern Italy), mainly based on airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and archaeological surveys, has led to the discovery of an early Roman fortification system, composed of a big central camp (San Rocco) flanked by two minor forts. The most ancient archaeological findings, including a Greco–Italic amphora rim produced in Latium or Campania, provide a relative chronology for the first installation of the structures between the end of the third century B.C. and the first decades of the second century B.C. whereas other materials, such as Lamboglia 2 amphorae and a military footwear hobnail (type D of Alesia), indicate that they maintained a strategic role at least up to the mid first century B.C. According to archaeological data and literary sources, the sites were probably established in connection with the Roman conquest of the Istria peninsula in 178–177 B.C. They were in use, perhaps not continuously, at least until the foundation of Tergeste, the ancestor of Trieste, in the mid first century B.C. The San Rocco site, with its exceptional size and imposing fortifications, is the main known Roman evidence of the Trieste area during this phase and could correspond to the location of the first settlement of Tergeste preceding the colony foundation. This hypothesis would also be supported by literary sources that describe it as a phrourion (Strabo, V, 1, 9, C 215), a term used by ancient writers to designate the fortifications of the Roman army. PMID:25775558

  19. How did the ancient Roman Theatres sound?

    Nielsen, Martin Lisa; Rindel, Jens Holger; Gade, Anders Christian;


    state and as they presumably were built in the Roman era; the reconstructed parts of acoustical interest are the stage wall and top colonnade in the open-air theatres and the roof and windows in the Odea. The irregular absorption distribution in these rooms makes them challenging for acoustical......The Roman theatre follows a natural evolution from the Greek theatre combining the acting area and the seating area into a single structure. Modifications of stage, orchestra and seating area have resulted in a considerable improvement in the quality of the acoustics. As a part of the ERATO project......, the acoustics in Roman theatres and Odea (roofed theatres) have been recreated through computer simulations using the Odeon software. Computer models of five Roman theatres have been created based on data from archaeologists, architects and measurements in situ. The theatres have been modelled in their present...

  20. LHC Report: a Roman potpourri

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team


    The last couple of weeks of operation have been a mixed bag, with time dedicated to TOTEM and ALFA, a floating machine development period and luminosity calibration runs. These special running periods were interleaved with some standard proton running where we’ve struggled a little to recover previous highs. The LHC has now returned to more routine operation.   The TOTEM and ALFA run required the development of special optics to produce large beam sizes and smaller angular spread at the interaction points in ATLAS and CMS. These special optics produce shallower angled proton-proton collisions than normal and thus allow experiments to probe the very small angle scattering regime. (For more information visit the TOTEM and ALFA websites.) The qualification of the new set-up at 4 TeV went well, paving the way for a 13-hour physics run for both TOTEM and ALFA with their Roman pots in position. Highlights from the 48-hour machine development period included the injection of high intensity bun...

  1. Translating Romans: some persistent headaches

    A.B. du Toit


    Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.

  2. Diagnostic Analysis on a Regional Rainstorm Weather in North-central Henan Province


    [Objective] The research aimed to analyze a regional rainstorm weather process in north-central Henan Province. [Method] Based on the conventional meteorological observation data and the rainfall data of Henan Meteorological Station, the diagnostic analysis of atmospheric thermodynamics and dynamics on a rainstorm weather process in north-central Henan Province on July 19, 2010 was carried out. The characteristics of physical quantity field and the evolution of weather situation in north-central Henan Provi...

  3. Marius and Trajan: Two Great Roman Strategists


    Encyclopedia of World Biography, Vol VII. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1973. 8. McGraw-Hill. The Encyclopedia of World ...Roman Soldier. Ithaca, New York: Cornell Uni- versity Press, 1969. 15. Webster, Graham. The Roman Imperial Army. New York, New York: Funk and Wagnalls ...Illinois: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 1952. 11. Robinson, Charles Alexander, Jr. Ancient History. New York, New York: The Macmillan

  4. Ecology of Tularemia in Central US Endemic Region.

    Mani, Rinosh J; Morton, Rebecca J; Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D

    Tularemia is a zoonotic disease that occurs in the Northern Hemisphere caused by the gammabacterium Francisella tularensis. The most severe form of human tularemia occurs in the central USA and involves a rabbit enzootic cycle, ixodid tick vectors, and F. tularensis subspecies tularensis genotype A1. Enzootic tularemia is thought to have a spring-summer seasonality corresponding to the questing activity of its primary tick vectors. Domestic cats, another common incidental host, acquire the infection by preying on infected rabbits. The seasonality of tularemia in cats, which demonstrate a bimodal seasonal incidence curve with peaks in the spring and late summer-fall, may serve as a surrogate for the seasonality of the disease in its enzootic host. Human tularemia shows a unimodal late spring, early summer peak, which correlates to the seasonal questing activity of tick vectors of human tularemia. This difference in seasonality suggests that different tick species or tick life stages are involved in maintenance of the enzootic rabbit-tick cycle.

  5. Survey of Echinococcosis and Hydatidosis in Kashan Region, Central Iran

    M Arbabi


    Full Text Available Hydatidosis is one of the major zoonotic diseases that cause considerable economic losses and public health problems worldwide. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of E. granulosus in domestic and wild carnivores and the infection rate of hydatid cyst in slaughtered animals and people in Kashan area, central Iran. A total of 142 carnivores including 70 stray dogs, 40 jackals, 22 red foxes, and 10 wolves were examined for the presence of E. granulosus, as well as, 170510 slaughtered sheep, 162665 goats and 13059 cattle for hydatid cyst infection. In addition, 500 inhabitants in rural areas were examined for antibodies to hydatid cyst. Results indicated that 43.7% of carnivores were infected with E. granulosus. Infection rate in slaughtered animals was 2.7%. Overall, the seroprevalence rate in human cases was 2.4%. Eighty-five patients including 47 females and 38 males were hospitalized. The mean annual incidence rate of hydatidosis in human was three cases per 100 000 populations. In general, the situation of the hydatidosis in the livestock and human and echinococcosis in the carnivores of the Kashan is similar to the other zones in Iran.

  6. Estudio macrosismico del terremoto del 18 de octubre de 1743 en la region central de Colombia

    Elkin de Jesus, Salcedo-Hurtado; Augusto Antonio, Gomez-Capera


    El 18 de octubre de 1743 ocurrio en el territorio colombiano uno de los terremotos historicos mas devastadores de la region central del pais, dejando graves danos en Santa Fe que desde 1740 acababa...

  7. Design of Spiral Inflector and Central Region for a Medical Cyclotron


    CYCIAE-14 is a medical cyclotron designed to accelerate H- ions and extract protons, and it adopts the external ion source and axial injection line. The spiral inflector and the central region are the important

  8. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America

    Darold P. Batzer; Susan E. Dietz-Brantley; Barbara E. Taylor; Adrienne E. DeBiase


    Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5...


    CIRLEA Filip; Iancu, Iulian


    Renewable energy sources (solar power, wind power, hydroenergy, biomass, biofuels) with energy efficiency contribute to increasing security of electricity supply, competitiveness and sustainable development. The countries of the Central and South-East Europe region must to develop a focus on alternative energy sources and on energy efficiency and energy saving. Developing the renewable energy sector in a sustainable manner in the Central and South-East Europe region would enhance security of ...

  10. Implementation of a Regional Healthcare Information Organization in South Central Texas


    initiative of GSAHC. The purpose of this paper is to provide a strategic plan to implement a R HIO for this region. The plan will utilize the thinking...the South Central Texas RHIO. The growing influence of F HiOs within the global Regional Healthcare Information Organization 26 healthcare industry...These approaches cannot be counted on for the establishment of the South Central Texas R HIO or for its subsequent sustainability. While seed money

  11. Opportunistic Ports and Spaces of Exchange in Late Roman Cyprus

    Leidwanger, Justin


    Ports served not only as interfaces between land and sea, but as central gathering spaces for economic and cultural exchange. Drawing on case studies from the eastern Mediterranean island of Cyprus, this paper situates opportunistic ports lacking built facilities within a broader socioeconomic context of diverse maritime communications, expanding rural settlement, and increased agricultural productivity during late antiquity. Though simple, these sites served as active agents in the development of new maritime networks as well as local markets throughout their hinterlands, adding flexibility and dynamism to the economic ties between city, countryside, and the wider late Roman world.

  12. Domino et fraturi: An unpublished graffito from roman Sirmium

    Nedeljković Vojin


    Full Text Available In the Regional Museum of Srem in Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia, a Roman brick is preserved, containing an inscription (Inv. A/5342. Originating from any of the numerous Roman structures in the capital city of Sirmium - most probably from Site 4 (Villa or Site 1a (Palace - the brick exhibits a graffito in Latin which reads as follows: Domino et fraturi Maxime salutem Valerus Januarius Written before the brick was baked, this greeting obviously went from somebody present at the brick plant to another person engaged locally in the business of construction. To address the recipient of a message as dominus frater is a well-attested style in Roman military circles, especially between equals, from the early 2nd century on. Phonologically, the spelling fraturi (for fratri is a remarkable instance of anaptyxis, vulgar, but only rarely occurring in the sources. The pendent vocative Maxime is probably due to the actual formula being a contamination of two known types, Maximo salutem and Maxime vale. Judging by their cognomenta, both men, Januarius and Maximus, may very well have been of indigenous origin, whereas the nomen Valerius may have been acquired through service in the imperial army or administration under the Tetrarchs.


    The Central West Region in Brazil has been the focus of intense agricultural expansion since the 1970s and, nowadays, a large area of native cerrado has been converted to agricultural use. The expansion was accompanied by intensive use of fertilizer, irrigation and management pra...


    The Central West Region in Brazil has been the focus of intense agricultural expansion since the 1970s and, nowadays, a large area of native cerrado has been converted to agricultural use. The expansion was accompanied by intensive use of fertilizer, irrigation and management pra...

  15. U.S. Higher Education Regional Accreditation Commission Standards and the Centrality of Engagement

    Paton, Valerie O.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Green, Birgit L.; Raymond, Megan; Borchardt, Melody P.


    This study addressed the research question "How do regional accrediting standards apply to the central role of community engagement in U.S. institutions of higher education?" Using descriptive and qualitative methods, two sources were analyzed: published standards of the 6 regional accrediting commissions in the United States and the…

  16. A Year of Transition: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development Annual Report 2009

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2009


    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four centers in the United States that work to improve opportunities and quality of life in rural communities. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in its 12-state region, the NCRCRD engages Extension…

  17. Risk analysis of first and last frost occurrences in central Alborz region, Iran

    Rahimi, M.; Khalili, A.; Hajjam, S.; Kamali, G.A.; Stigter, C.J.


    Central Alborz is one of the important agricultural regions of Iran. Occurrence of the first frost in fall and the last frost in spring causes damage to the crops in this region every year. Information about the probable dates of frost occurrence helps farmers in preventing or reducing the damages c

  18. L’internationalisation du roman arabe

    Dr Dalia Khraibani


    Full Text Available La littérature arabe est presque invisible dans l’espace littéraire mondiale pour des raisons diverses. Pourtant, des écrivains réussissent à s’imposer sur la scène littéraire internationale et leurs œuvres deviennent des chefs d’œuvre de la littérature mondiale. Parmi ces écrivains, nous citons Tayeb Saleh qui connaît un succès international surtout avec la parution de son second roman "Saison de migration vers le Nord". Notre étude vise à montrer comment ce roman par son contenu et sa forme, occupe une place de choix dans la littérature mondiale. En effet, nous allons examiner le contexte historique de l’émergence du roman qui joue un rôle dans sa diffusion au niveau mondial. L’une des clés de réussite du roman est la technique narrative qui retient l’haleine du lecteur dès la première page. De plus, le roman répond à l’horizon d’attente du lectorat occidental en représentant des images particulières de la société arabo-africaine qui correspondent aux stéréotypes et clichés du public occidental vis-à-vis des Arabes.

  19. Regional gravity and magnetic studies over the continental margin of the Central West Coast of India

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Rao, D.G.

    ) have deciphered the nature and structure of the magnetic crystalline base ment in the region. The present gravity (890 km) and magnetic (510 Ion) data, together with bathymetry (890 km) col lected on board RV Sagar Kanya along five regional profiles... covering the Bombay offshore basin are stud ied to decipher the model crustal structure and to un- derstand the regional tectonic framework of central western continental margin of India. Previous Studies The continental margin of western India...

  20. Neogene-Quaternary magmatic activity and its geodynamic implications in the Central Mediterranean region

    G. Serri


    Full Text Available The petrogenesis and time/space distribution of the magmatism associated with the formation of the Northern and Southern Tyrrhenian basins, together with the directions and ages of lithospheric extension and/or spreading north and south of the 410N discontinuity, show that the two arc/back-arc systems have undergone a different structural evolution at least since the middle Miocene (Langhian. The geochemical components involved in the genesis of the heterogeneities of the mantle sources of this magmatism require two separate, compositionally different slabs: 1 an old oceanic (Ionian lithosphere still seismically active below the Calabrian arc and the Southern Tyrrhenian region; 2 an almost seismically inactive continental (Adriatic lithosphere which carried large amounts of upper crustal materials within the upper mantle under the NW Roman Province/Tuscan/Northern Tyrrhenian region. The proposed geodynamic models require: 1 for the Northern Tyrrhenian/Northern Apenninic arc/back-arc system, the delamination and foundering of the Adriatic continental lithosphere as a consequence of the continental collision between the Corsica block and the Adriatic continental margin. This delamination process, which is still ongoing, probably started in the early-middle Miocene, but earlier than 15-14 Ma, as indicated by the age and petrogenesis of the first documented magmatic episode (the Sisco lamproite of the Northern Apennine orogenesis; 2 for the Southern Tyrrhenian/Southern Apenninic-Calabrian arc/back-arc system, the roll-back subduction and back-arc extension driven by gravitational sinking of the Ionian oceanic subducted lithosphere. This process started after the end of the arc volcanism of Sardinia (about 13 Ma but earlier than the first recorded episode of major rifting (about 9 Ma in the Southern Tyrrhenian back-arc basin.

  1. The contribution of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia to seismic hazard and risk assessment in the Central Asian region

    Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Haberland, C. A.; Pittore, M.; Pilz, M.; Rosenau, M.; Schurr, B.; Wieland, M.; Yuan, X.


    Central Asia has one of the world's highest levels of earthquake hazard, owing to its exceptionally high deformation rates. Moreover, vulnerability to natural disasters in general is increasing, due to rising populations and a growing dependence on complex lifelines and technology. Therefore, there is an urgent need to undertake seismic hazard and risk assessment in this region, while at the same time improving upon existing methodologies, including the consideration of temporal variability in the seismic hazard, and in structural and social vulnerability. Over the last few years, the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ), in collaboration with local partners, has initiated a number of scientific activities within the framework of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia (GCO-CA). The work is divided into projects with specific concerns: - The installation and maintenance of the Central-Asian Real-time Earthquake MOnitoring Network (CAREMON) and the setup of a permanent wireless mesh network for structural health monitoring in Bishkek. - The TIPAGE and TIPTIMON projects focus on the geodynamics of the Tien-Shan, Pamir and Hindu Kush region, the deepest and most active intra-continental subduction zone in the world. The work covers time scales from millions of years to short-term snapshots based on geophysical measurements of seismotectonic activity and of the physical properties of the crust and upper mantle, as well as their coupling with other surface processes (e.g., landslides). - Existing risk analysis methods assume time-independent earthquake hazard and risk, although temporal changes are likely to occur due to, for example, co- and post-seismic changes in the regional stress field. We therefore aim to develop systematic time-dependent hazard and risk analysis methods in order to undertake the temporal quantification of earthquake activity (PROGRESS). - To improve seismic hazard assessment for better loss estimation, detailed site effects studies

  2. Panorama du roman policier au Mexique

    Lara-Alengrin, Alba


    Malgré sa diffusion depuis les années quarante par des collections de poche autochtones, le roman policier fut longtemps, au Mexique, un genre méprisé par la critique et les écrivains. Paco Ignacio Taibo II est le premier écrivain mexicain a légitimer et valoriser le genre policier, en particulier le roman noir, qui connaît simultanément un regain d’intérêt critique et commercial. Ce changement de perception vis-à-vis du roman noir s’accompagne de la création d’un nouveau terme pour le qualif...

  3. The lost Roman calendars of ancient Macedonia

    Theodossiou, E.; Mantarakis, P.


    As a result of the conquests of Alexander the Great, the lunisolar Macedonian calendar became the most widely circulated among all the lunisolar Greek calendars. However, despite its spread, two Roman calendars, generally unknown in the scientific community, were developed and used inside Macedonia itself during the Roman occupation of Greece. The older calendar used the so-called ‘Macedonian year’. This system started in 148 BC to emphasize the importance of the victory of the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus against Pseudo-Philippus Andriscus, King of Macedonia. The newer calendrical system, which absorbed the older system, used the ‘Augustian or respectable year’ bearing its name from Octavius Augustus; its starting point was the date of the catalytic victory of Octavius over Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra at Actium (31 BC). The solar Octavian calendar survived until the sixth or seventh century in the Macedonian Territory.

  4. Panorama du roman policier au Mexique

    Lara-Alengrin, Alba


    Malgré sa diffusion depuis les années quarante par des collections de poche autochtones, le roman policier fut longtemps, au Mexique, un genre méprisé par la critique et les écrivains. Paco Ignacio Taibo II est le premier écrivain mexicain a légitimer et valoriser le genre policier, en particulier le roman noir, qui connaît simultanément un regain d’intérêt critique et commercial. Ce changement de perception vis-à-vis du roman noir s’accompagne de la création d’un nouveau terme pour le qualif...

  5. Effects of physical exercise on central nervous system functions: a review of brain region specific adaptations.

    Morgan, Julie A; Corrigan, Frances; Baune, Bernhard T


    Pathologies of central nervous system (CNS) functions are involved in prevalent conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and Parkinson's disease. Notable pathologies include dysfunctions of circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, central stress responses, and movement mediated by the basal ganglia. Although evidence suggests exercise may benefit these conditions, the neurobiological mechanisms of exercise in specific brain regions involved in these important CNS functions have yet to be clarified. Here we review murine evidence about the effects of exercise on discrete brain regions involved in important CNS functions. Exercise effects on circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, stress responses in the brain stem and hypothalamic pituitary axis, and movement are examined. The databases Pubmed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for articles investigating regional brain adaptations to exercise. Brain regions examined included the brain stem, hypothalamus, and basal ganglia. We found evidence of multiple regional adaptations to both forced and voluntary exercise. Exercise can induce molecular adaptations in neuronal function in many instances. Taken together, these findings suggest that the regional physiological adaptations that occur with exercise could constitute a promising field for elucidating molecular and cellular mechanisms of recovery in psychiatric and neurological health conditions.

  6. Deux sociologues et deux cents romans.

    Gaspard Turin


    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage interdisciplinaire, utilisant le roman français des trente dernières années dans une perspective de compréhension sociologique du contemporain, s’adresse à la fois aux littéraires et aux sociologues. Il fournira aux premiers de nombreuses pistes de lecture d’un roman contemporain qui, du fait de sa jeunesse, peine encore à trouver sa place au sein de l’institution universitaire. Aux seconds, il ouvrira un champ entier de recherches potentielles, grâce à une approche ...

  7. Vertical focusing study in the central region of the CYCIAE-100 cyclotron

    YAO Hong-Juan; ZHANG Tian-Jue; GUAN Feng-Ping; ZHONG Jun-Qing


    The vertical focusing is one of the primary problems in the central region of cyclotrons.This focusing effect brought about by the magnetic field is inclined to be weak near the center of the machine due to the fact that the flutter is small,while the electric focusing forces incurred from the dee gaps become very strong.Since the electric focusing effect is dependent on the RF phase,we have proceeded to carry out analytical calculations and numerical simulation about the vertical focusing in the central region of CYCIAE100,including magnetic focusing,electric focusing and the defocusing effect from the space charge effect.All the results have been used for the design of the central region for CYCIAE-100 and a good vertical focusing has been obtained.

  8. Co-integration Model of Logistics Infrastructure Investment and Regional Economic Growth in Central China

    Hu, Kai; Gan, Xiao-qing; Gao, Kuo

    The speed of logistics infrastructures investment in Central China is still lower than other regions since the rise of the central region strategy was put forward. And the ration of freight turnover was also being down. The analysis with the relations among the central region of the logistics investment, logistics value-added and GDP, found that three variables exists co-integration relation. And found that the investment in logistics infrastructure was the Granger reason of the GDP, the investment in logistics infrastructure and logistics value-added was the Granger reason for each other. According to the analysis, some countermeasures be put forward as following: accelerate the speed of logistics investment, optimize logistics environment, promote the logistics capability, reduce logistics cost, and so on.


    S. A. Volkovа


    Full Text Available Summary. In the real research economic prerequisites of ensuring growth of quality of life of the population of the Central Chernozem region are considered. In our opinion, economic base determines the potential of development of the concrete territorial subject of the Russian Federation and ensuring growth of quality of life. It is established that economic prerequisites are characterized by complexity and versatility of influence. Treat priority indicators of economic development of the region: VRP per capita, structure of economy, investment activity and economic efficiency. The majority of the presented economic indicators had positive dynamics in the studied region, but, at the same time it is established that the steadiest trend of economic development is characteristic for the Belgorod and Lipetsk areas. A difficult situation with economic ensuring growth of quality of life of the population in the Oryol and Tambov areas. Low level of the majority of indicators of economic efficiency of development in these regions is considered the disturbing fact: the labor productivity index, a share of high-tech and knowledge-intensive industries of economy, number of high-performance workplaces decreases. The carried-out analysis allowed to reveal not only a number of problems in areas of the Central Chernozem region, but also to define possibilities of ensuring growth of economic indicators for ensuring improvement of quality of life of the population. Treat their number: the available consumer potential of areas, high level of expenses of budgets of subjects of TsChR on welfare actions, in particular, actively grow expenses of regional budgets on realization of social policy. Also it should be noted growth of investments into fixed capital. In the region it is important to develop for improvement of an economic situation at the level of regional administration actions and the social programs aimed at ensuring quality of life of the population of TsChR.

  10. Nogle britiske romaner i 2007 - og en nobelpris

    Klitgård, Ebbe


    Genanmeldelse af Dorris Lessing, The Golden Notebook, nyanmeldelse af romaner af Anne Enright, Graham Swift, Ian McEwan og Jonathan Coe. Vurdering af den britiske romans "state of the arts" 2007. Udgivelsesdato: februar......Genanmeldelse af Dorris Lessing, The Golden Notebook, nyanmeldelse af romaner af Anne Enright, Graham Swift, Ian McEwan og Jonathan Coe. Vurdering af den britiske romans "state of the arts" 2007. Udgivelsesdato: februar...

  11. Roman Bondage Number of a Graph

    Hu, Fu-Tao


    The Roman dominating function on a graph $G=(V,E)$ is a function $f: V\\rightarrow\\{0,1,2\\}$ such that each vertex $x$ with $f(x)=0$ is adjacent to at least one vertex $y$ with $f(y)=2$. The value $f(G)=\\sum\\limits_{u\\in V(G)} f(u)$ is called the weight of $f$. The Roman domination number $\\gamma_{\\rm R}(G)$ is defined as the minimum weight of all Roman dominating functions. This paper defines the Roman bondage number $b_{\\rm R}(G)$ of a nonempty graph $G=(V,E)$ to be the cardinality among all sets of edges $B\\subseteq E$ for which $\\gamma_{\\rm R}(G-B)>\\gamma_{\\rm R}(G)$. Some bounds are obtained for $b_{\\rm R}(G)$, and the exact values are determined for several classes of graphs. Moreover, the decision problem for $b_{\\rm R}(G)$ is proved to be NP-hard even for bipartite graphs.

  12. Greek and Roman Mythology: English, Mythology.

    Hargraves, Richard; Kenzel, Elaine

    The aim of the Quinmester course "Greek and Roman Mythology" is to help students understand mythological references in literature, art, music, science and technology. The subject matter includes: creation myths; myths of gods and heroes; mythological allusions in astrology, astronomy, literature, science, business, puzzles, and everyday…

  13. Roman Polanski Ameerika unelm / Ian Buruma

    Buruma, Ian


    Mõtteid demokraatiast ja õigusemõistmisest Prantsusmaal ja Ameerika Ühendriikides seoses filmirežissöör Roman Polanski vahistamisega Zürichis 30 aastat vana USA võimude poolt väljaantud arreteerimisorderi põhjal

  14. Kuulus Roman Viktjuki Teater Tallinnas / Meelis Kapstas

    Kapstas, Meelis, 1963-


    26. ja 27. mail Vene Kultuurikeskuses Roman Viktjuki Teatri külalisetendused. Mängitakse R. Viktjuki lavastust "Kellavärgiga apelsin" Anthony Burgessi romaani järgi ja Viktjuki versiooni Oscar Wilde'i kurbmängust "Salomé"

  15. Roman Jakobson's Semiotic Theory of Communication. [Revised.

    Lanigan, Richard L.

    For most of the 20th century, Roman Jakobson's name will have been synonymous with the definition of communication as a human science, i.e., communicology. Jakobson is the modern source of most of what communication scholars theorize about and practice as human communication, and he will be the source of how communication scholars shall come to…

  16. Co-Roman domination in graphs

    S Arumugam; Karam Ebadi; Martín Manrique


    Let $G = (V,E)$ be a graph and let $f:V→ \\{0, 1, 2\\}$ be a function. A vertex is said to be protected with respect to if $f(u)> 0$ or $f(u)=0$ and is adjacent to a vertex with positive weight. The function is a co-Roman dominating function (CRDF) if: (i) every vertex in is protected, and (ii) each $v \\in V$ with $f(v) > 0$ has a neighbor $u\\in V$ with $f(u)=0$ such that the function $f_{vu}: V→ \\{0,1,2\\}$, defined by $f_{vu}(u)=1$, $f_{vu}(v)=f(v)-1$ and $f_{vu}(x)=f(x)$ for $x\\in V\\backslash \\{u,v\\}$ has no unprotected vertex. The weight of is $w(f)=_{v\\in V} f(v)$. The co-Roman domination number of a graph , denoted by $_{cr}(G)$, is the minimum weight of a co-Roman dominating function on . In this paper we initiate a study of this parameter, present several basic results, as well as some applications and directions for further research. We also show that the decision problem for the co-Roman domination number is NP-complete, even when restricted to bipartite, chordal and planar graphs.

  17. Perspectives on Greek and Roman catapults

    Mark Hassall


    Full Text Available Both the Greeks and the Romans showed great ingenuity in developing catapults as artillery weapons. Evidence of how these complicated machines worked comes from surviving descriptions, experimental reconstructions and archaeological remains. Ancient technical drawings are a valuable but relatively neglected source of information about catapult design, and one that poses challenging problems of interpretation.

  18. Kuulus Roman Viktjuki Teater Tallinnas / Meelis Kapstas

    Kapstas, Meelis, 1963-


    26. ja 27. mail Vene Kultuurikeskuses Roman Viktjuki Teatri külalisetendused. Mängitakse R. Viktjuki lavastust "Kellavärgiga apelsin" Anthony Burgessi romaani järgi ja Viktjuki versiooni Oscar Wilde'i kurbmängust "Salomé"

  19. Characterization of the Roman curse tablet

    Liu, Wen; Zhang, Boyang; Fu, Lin


    The Roman curse tablet, produced in ancient Rome period, is a metal plate that inscribed with curses. In this research, several techniques were used to find out the physical structure and chemical composition of the Roman curse tablet, and testified the hypothesis that whether the tablet is made of pure lead or lead alloy. A sample of Roman Curse Tablet from the Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum was analyzed using several different characterization techniques to determine the physical structure and chemical composition. The characterization techniques used were including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Because of the small sample size, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) cannot test the sample. Results from optical microscopy and SEM, enlarged images of the sample surface were studied. The result revealed that the sample surface has a rough, non-uniform, and grainy surface. AFM provides three-dimensional topography of the sample surface, studying the sample surface in atomic level. DSC studies the thermal property, which is most likely a lead-alloy, not a pure lead. However, none of these tests indicated anything about the chemical composition. Future work will be required due to the lack of measures finding out its chemical composition. Therefore, from these characterization techniques above, the Roman curse tablet sample is consisted of lead alloy, not pure lead.

  20. How did the ancient Roman Theatres sound?

    Nielsen, Martin Lisa; Rindel, Jens Holger; Gade, Anders Christian


    The Roman theatre follows a natural evolution from the Greek theatre combining the acting area and the seating area into a single structure. Modifications of stage, orchestra and seating area have resulted in a considerable improvement in the quality of the acoustics. As a part of the ERATO project...

  1. Contributions to the deployment of furniture in pole central region Tocantins

    Jorge D’ Ambros; Joaquim Carlos Gonçalez; Humberto Angelo


    This study was developed in the central region of Tocantins, for the identification and analysis of positive factors, weaknesses, opportunities and threats associated with the furniture supply chain in order to continue the formation of the regional furniture pole. To achieve this objective the methodology used was to listen to local actors and experts in the furniture segment. Seventy-five local actors among industry officials, academic institutions and university representatives were interv...

  2. Decreased centrality of subcortical regions during the transition to adolescence: a functional connectivity study.

    Sato, João Ricardo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Vieira, Gilson; Zugman, André; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Anés, Mauricio; Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Del'Aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Crossley, Nicolas; Amaro Junior, Edson; Mcguire, Philip; Lacerda, Acioly L T; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca


    Investigations of brain maturation processes are a key step to understand the cognitive and emotional changes of adolescence. Although structural imaging findings have delineated clear brain developmental trajectories for typically developing individuals, less is known about the functional changes of this sensitive development period. Developmental changes, such as abstract thought, complex reasoning, and emotional and inhibitory control, have been associated with more prominent cortical control. The aim of this study is to assess brain networks connectivity changes in a large sample of 7- to 15-year-old subjects, testing the hypothesis that cortical regions will present an increasing relevance in commanding the global network. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected in a sample of 447 typically developing children from a Brazilian community sample who were submitted to a resting state acquisition protocol. The fMRI data were used to build a functional weighted graph from which eigenvector centrality (EVC) was extracted. For each brain region (a node of the graph), the age-dependent effect on EVC was statistically tested and the developmental trajectories were estimated using polynomial functions. Our findings show that angular gyrus become more central during this maturation period, while the caudate; cerebellar tonsils, pyramis, thalamus; fusiform, parahippocampal and inferior semilunar lobe become less central. In conclusion, we report a novel finding of an increasing centrality of the angular gyrus during the transition to adolescence, with a decreasing centrality of many subcortical and cerebellar regions.

  3. High Resolution HC3N Observations toward the Central Region of Sagittarius B2

    Chung, Hyun Soo; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Morimoto, Masaki


    We have observed the emission of HC3N J=4-3, 5-4, 10-9 and 12-11 transitions toward the Sgr B2 central region in an area of 150"*150" with resolution of 16"-48". The intensities and central velocities of line profiles show significant variations with positions. In contrast to the intensities of the low J-level transitions which gradually increase from the central source toward the outside region, the HC3N emission of the high J-level transition become stronger toward the central radio continuum source MD5. Systematic change in the radial velocity of each line profile occurs along north-south direction. There are a few peaks in most line profiles, and these indicate that there are multiple velocity components along the line of sight. Distributions of excitation temperature and column density which were estimated from the excitation calculations show the existence of a small(1*2pc), hot(Tex > 50K) core which contains two temperature peaks at about 15" east and north of MD5. The column density of HC3N is (1-3)*10E14 /cm2. Column density at distant position from MD5 is larger than that in the central region. We have deduced that this 'hot-core' has a mass of 10E5 Mo, which is about an order of magnitude larger than those obtained by previous studies.

  4. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 4. Lake Central region



    The estimates of existing, incremental and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Lake Central region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 26,000 MW with an estimated average annual energy of more than 75,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 5% of both the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 2600 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,600 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (15,800 MW), and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (7800 MW). Small-scale facilities account for some 24% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 900 MW could be added to these and other small water-resource projects. In addition, 900 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of Michigan and Wisconsin having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Lake Central region. This Lake Central region is composed of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, and Iowa.

  5. Penalties for official and military crimes in Roman criminal law

    Uliya Pershina


    Full Text Available The author considers the system of penalties for official and military crimes in the Roman criminal law. Most of the official crimes against public order in Ancient Rome was punished by exile outside the Roman state and penalties. Military discipline in the Roman army was supported by severe sanctions. They ranged from the death penalty to the imposition of special duties.

  6. "Cost in Transliteration": The Neurocognitive Processing of Romanized Writing

    Rao, Chaitra; Mathur, Avantika; Singh, Nandini C.


    Romanized transliteration is widely used in internet communication and global commerce, yet we know little about its behavioural and neural processing. Here, we show that Romanized text imposes a significant neurocognitive load. Readers faced greater difficulty in identifying concrete words written in Romanized transliteration (Romanagari)…

  7. Shifts and future trends in the forest resources of the Central Hardwood region

    Thomas L. Schmidt; William H. McWilliams


    Forests in the Central Hardwood region are undergoing change in terms of area, volume, species composition, and forest structure. These forests are dominated by deciduous species; are increasing their average stand size, volume, and age; and, are experiencing woody plant species replacement as shade intolerant species are being replaced by more shade tolerant species....

  8. A framework for assessing climate change vulnerability and identifying adaptation responses in the central hardwoods region

    Patricia R. Butler; Leslie A. Brandt; Stephen D. Handler; Maria K. Janowiak; Patricia D. Shannon; Chris W. Swanston


    The Central Hardwood region contains a mosaic of forests, woodlands, savannas, and other ecosystems that will increasingly be affected by a changing climate over the next century. Understanding potential impacts is important to sustaining healthy forests under changing conditions. The objectives of the Climate Change Response Framework ( are to...

  9. Inter-rater agreement of the PEWS tools used in Central Denmark Region

    Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Aagaard, Hanne; Olesen, Hanne Vebert;


    Background Paediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) tools can assist healthcare providers in the rapid detection and recognition of changes in patient condition. In the Central Denmark Region two different PEWS tool tested in large scale RCT study. However, data from PEWS instruments are only...

  10. Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…


    Ramakant Trivedi


    Full Text Available Abstract: The article explores the roots and current state of religious extremism in Central Asia, as well as investigates its connections with the global salafi movement. It evaluates attempts of the regional players and external stakeholders to address the existing threats, and provides recommendations for their advancement.

  12. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J.P.; Shafer, M.M.; Schauer, J.J.; Solomon, P.A.; Saide, P.E.; Spak, S.N.; Cheng, Y.F.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D.G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J.T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G.R.


    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather

  13. Miners, peasants and entrepreneurs : Regional development in the Central Highlands of Peru

    Long, N.; Roberts, B.


    This volume traces the development of the central highlands, one of Peru's major mining regions. It draws on extensive fieldwork carried out in Peru between 1970 and 1982, spanning a reforming military government, reaction and a return to civilian politics under Belaunde. Through historical material

  14. Regional variability in occurrence and distribution of polymetallic nodules in the central Indian Basin

    Valsangkar, A; Rebello, J.M.S.

    Regional scale morphological studies on different-sized polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Basin show that only 2–5 cm sized nodules have highest occurrence per station (92–94% along latitudes; 88–94% along longitudes). A nodule size shows...

  15. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug


    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  16. Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

  17. SEM in Central Asia: A Look at Professional Needs in the Region

    Chekmareva, Larissa M.


    Private tuition-dependent universities in Central Asia compete for fee-paying students not only within the country and the region, but also internationally--in the CIS, East Asia, Europe, and the United States. In the universities where state financial support is limited or unavailable, steady student enrollment is the key to budget, development,…

  18. Source Sector and Region Contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the STEM chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the WRF model. Predicted AOD valu...

  19. Globalisation, Geopolitics and Energy Security in Central Eurasia and the Caspian Region

    Amineh, Parvizi Mehdi


    The demise of the Soviet Union and its subsequent break-up into 15 independent states gave rise to totally new political and strategic circumstances, which also extended into Central Eurasia and the Caspian Region. The eight newly independent states of this region have become one of the most important geopolitical areas in the post-Cold War era, due to a combination of its geographical position and significant oil and gas reserves. The region's resources are vital for advanced industrialised countries and figure prominently in Western geostrategic and economic interests in the twenty-first century. Intense competition, as well as co-operation, among various state and non-state actors for the control of these resources is emerging, also known as the New Great Game. The main actors involved in Central Eurasia and the Caspian region are identified as follows: inner circle actors (Russia, Iran, and Turkey), outer circle actors (China, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan), external actors (the United States, the European Union and its particular member states), and non-state actors (ethno-religious groups, Transnational Corporations, crime groups, etc.). The author analyses the New Great Game by using a neo-geopolitical perspective. An important element towards control of the region's energy resources is the construction of transport routes. The question of where to construct pipelines engenders considerable conflicts between the interested players that could create obstacles to building the most economically viable and secure pipelines. Transportation of energy resources to the global market is also subject to conflicts between different forces within the Central Eurasian region, including ethno-religious conflicts. Problems such as lack of infrastructure and technology, and finding a solution for the Caspian legal regime dispute could pose further obstacles to prospective pipeline construction. The book analyses these and other important local and geopolitical

  20. Current Situation, Problems and Solutions of Oil Crops in the Central Anatolian Region

    Sevgi Çalışkan


    Full Text Available Although there is no a significant increase in the cultivation areas of oil crops in last two decades, production amount of them shows 52.2% increase. Sunflower which has the first rank in terms of cultivation area and as well as production in cultivation of oilseed crops in our country, comes to fore as basic oil plant in Central Anatolia Region and it is followed by safflower in rank. Becoming widespread of safflower cultivation in fallow fields will make great profits to as well as farmers in the region and as well as country's economy in central Anatolia Region of Turkey which is 59% of total Turkey in term of fallow fields.

  1. Composition and microstructure of Roman metallic artefacts of Southwestern Iberian Peninsula

    Valério, P.; Voráčová, E.; Silva, R. J. C.; Araújo, M. F.; Soares, A. M. M.; Arruda, A. M.; Pereira, C.


    The Roman invasion introduces new alloys and metallurgical practices in Iberian Peninsula. The southwestern end of this region has many evidences of connections with the Roman World, but there are no studies about the manufacture and use of copper-based artefacts during this period. Therefore, a set of about 20 ornaments, tools and small attachments recovered at the Roman sites of Monte Molião and Cidade das Rosas was studied by an analytical approach combining micro-EDXRF, optical microscopy, SEM-EDS and Vickers microhardness testing. The artefact composition shows a good correlation with function, namely pure copper for nails and rivets, low-tin bronze (2-6 wt% Sn) for basic tools, high-tin bronze (14 wt% Sn) for fibulae and high-lead bronze (19 wt% Pb) for a decorated jug handle. The manufacture also depends on function because most artefacts were subjected to thermomechanical processing, except the ornaments that would not benefit from post-casting work. Brass and gunmetal were only present in the site with a later chronology. A metallurgy visibly ruled by economical, aesthetical and technological concerns reinforces the evidences about the total integration of Southwestern Iberian Peninsula in the Roman World, but further studies will be essential to determine the evolution of copper-based alloys in Lusitania under Roman influence.

  2. 2D kinematic study of the central region of NGC 4501.

    Repetto, P.; Faúndez-Abans, M.; Freitas-Lemes, P.; Rodrigues, I.; de Oliveira-Abans, M.


    GMOS-IFU observational data were used to study the detailed two dimensional gas kinematics and morphological structures within the ˜ 500 × 421 pc2 of the active Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4501. We provide empirical evidences of possible outflowing material from the central zones of NGC 4501 to the observer. In addition, we performed a spectral synthesis and diagnostic diagram analysis to determine respectively the dominant stellar population in the inner disc of this galaxy and to unveil the actual nature of the central engine of NGC 4501. The principal finding of this work is that the central regions of NGC 4501 are dominated by non circular motions connected to probable outflows of matter from the nuclear regions of this galaxy. A predominant old stellar population inhabits the internal zones of NGC 4501 excluding the possibility of ongoing starburst activity in the central parsecs of this galaxy. The latter result is confirmed by the diagnostic diagram analysis that establishes a preponderant active galactic nucleus character for NGC 4501. These outcomes together provide a general description of the gas motion and the corresponding nuclear activity in the internal disc of NGC 4501 in an attempt to elucidate the possible relation among the central activity and the induced kinematic properties of this nearby galaxy.

  3. Multidisciplinary investigations on the Roman aqueduct of Grumentum (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    M. Mucciarelli; S. I. Giano; D. Chianese; M. Bavusi


    The Romans built the ancient town of Grumentum during the 3rd century B.C. in the southern part of the Agri high Valley (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy) near the confluence of the Sciaura stream in the Agri River. Now it is one of the most important archaeological sites of Southern Italy. In fact, after a period of wars in this area between Romans and Carthaginians, a great deal of restoration was started in 57 B.C. These works affected the city walls, public buildings ...

  4. Une balle blanche dans un roman noir

    Sophie Vallas


    Full Text Available En 1982, Paul Auster fit paraître, sous le pseudonyme de Paul Benjamin, un roman noir intitulé Squeeze Play. Ce roman présente la particularité d’appartenir également au genre du baseball novel, l’intrigue se déroulant en partie dans le monde du base-ball et sa résolution intervenant grâce à une manœuvre rare et spectaculaire (un double suicide squeeze qui éclaire l’enquête sous un jour nouveau. Cet article se propose d’analyser la place du base-ball dans Squeeze Play : élément essentiel de la structuration du roman, le base-ball permet également à Auster d’étudier le mythe du héros américain déchu dans une société dont toutes les dimensions (sportive, politique, privée sont gangrenées par la corruption et la perversion. La relation particulière qu’Auster tisse entre roman noir et baseball novel est également étudiée.In 1982 Paul Auster published a roman noir entitled Squeeze Play under the pseudonym of Paul Benjamin. The novel is also a “baseball novel”: its plot essentially deals with a baseball New York team and its former, fallen star, and the final resolution of the mystery intervenes thanks to a revelation brought by a baseball game in which a rather rare and spectacular maneuver (the double suicide squeeze is used by one of the teams to turn the tables and win the game. This paper analyzes the place of baseball in Squeeze Play: it first appears as an essential element in the very structure of the plot, but it is also, for Auster, a way of questioning the myth of the hero in an American society whose main aspects (sports, politics, private life are eaten up by corruption and perversion. The links Auster establishes between roman noir and baseball novel are also dealt with.

  5. Thermal conductivity of major rock types in western and central Anatolia regions, Turkey

    Balkan, Elif; Erkan, Kamil; Şalk, Müjgan


    Thermal conductivity is a key parameter in heat flow and geothermal investigations as it controls the temperature distribution within the Earth. Turkey has a significant geothermal potential yet rock thermal conductivity studies have been very limited. Here, we report new thermal conductivity values collected from 240 rock samples in western and central Anatolia regions. The data were initially classified according to lithologic descriptions; then mean thermal conductivities were determined after applying corrections from dry to saturated conditions, if necessary. The major rock types encountered in these regions are igneous metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. Limestone is the most common lithological unit encountered both in western and central Anatolia regions. The limestones in western Anatolia show a higher mean thermal conductivity than the limestones in central Anatolia. Dolomitization has a significant effect on the thermal conductivity of limestones. Neritic limestones show a higher mean thermal conductivity compared to lacustrine limestones. The results of this study reveal large contrasts in thermal conductivity values among different rock types that can have major implications for future heat flow and geothermal modeling studies in these regions.

  6. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Diaz, Henry F.


    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Niño events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region.

  7. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V. [University of Oxford, School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bradley, Raymond S. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Geosciences, Amherst, MA (United States); Diaz, Henry F. [NOAA/ESRL/CIRES, Boulder, CO (United States)


    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Nino events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region. (orig.)

  8. Societal resilience to hydroclimatic change in the Roman World

    Dermody, Brian; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc; Dekker, Stefan


    The Romans were masters of water resource management. They employed sophisticated irrigation techniques alongside a highly integrated food redistribution system that provided stable food supplies under the variable hydroclimatic regime within the Roman World. However, a number of paleoclimate studies have demonstrated hydroclimatic changes during the Roman Period that exceeded the amplitude and persistence of normal climate variability. In particular, there was a shift from warmer and more stable hydroclimatic conditions in the Roman Warm Period (c.250 BC - 250 AD) to cooler and more variable conditions in Late Roman Period (after c.250 AD). In this study we use a socio-hydrological model of the Roman world to explore the impact of hydroclimatic changes between the Roman Warm Period and Late Roman Period on the Roman food production and redistribution system. We calculate crop yields based on temperature and water resource availability using PC Raster Global Water Balance model (PCR-GLOBWB). PCR-GLOBWB is forced with reanalysis climate fields reflecting reconstructions of Roman Warm Period to the Late Roman climate patterns. Cropland areas and settlement patterns are derived from a database of 14,700 Roman settlement sites and crop suitability maps. We simulate food redistribution using a multi-agent food redistribution network with link weights based on Orbis: The Stanford Geospatial Network of the Roman World. Our analysis indicates a reduction in crop yields during the Late Roman Period compared with the Roman Warm Period owing to cooler temperatures. In addition, our simulations indicate that increased hydroclimatic variability decreased the stability of yields in the Late Roman period. Crop yields in the Western Empire are simulated to have been impacted most by the change in climate owing to cooler average temperatures and greater hydroclimatic variability compared with the Eastern part of the Empire. The food redistribution network was essential to buffer

  9. Wanted and desired: looks about Roman Polanski

    Jonathan Raphael Bertassi da Silva


    Full Text Available With this paper, we interpret, in the light of theoretical framework from French Discourse Analysis, discursive ruptures and regularities present in the controversial episode involving the sentencing, imprisonment and escape of the film director Roman Polanski and the effects of meaning inscribed in one of his films, Repulsion (1965. We are interested in understanding the meanings of patriarchy, violence against women, female sexual freedom and the memory that holds the words of/about the controversy about the filmmaker and his work. To enrich the analysis, we also mobilize blogs clippings and excerpts from the documentary Roman Polanski: Wanted and Desired (2008, thus paving the range of possible interpretations of our corpus.

  10. Were the ancient Romans art forgers?

    William Casemen


    Full Text Available A popularly held tenet in the historical record on art is that the practice of forgery began in ancient Rome, where sculptures made by craftsmen of the day were passed off as classical Greek antiquities. However, revisionist scholars in recent decades have challenged this perspective. One line of criticism denies that forgery was present in Rome, asserting that the evidence for it has been misunderstood. A softer line suggests that while the traditional view overstates the case, there is still reason to accept that the culture of Rome harbored art forgery. This article assesses the competing claims in light of literary references by Roman authors, physical evidence including inscriptions on sculptures, the phenomenon of Corinthian bronze, the nature of Roman copying, social and economic conditions necessary for art forgery to arise, and what art forgery consists of by definition.


    Stefan Zehetner


    Full Text Available A view on the Roman cavalry forces, especially the equites legionis. The article describes a possible organizational chart of the legionary cavalry formation in imperial times. By analyzing primary sources the organization, command and manpower of the equiges legionis will be described in a new manner.There is also given a view on auxiliary cavalry organization and command to demonstrate differences between auxiliary cavalry, legionary horsemen and equites singulares Augusti.As primary sources often times contradict each other and epigraphy or papyrology only can give snapshots of situations, it is not an easy work to take a look on the legionary cavalry in Roman imperial times. But combining all sources gives a proper view on the subject and so this article will give a new examination. Because of the discrepancies, which already are given by primary sources the article only can be a try to open more discussions in this special subject.

  12. Marine geoscientific surveys in ports and nearshore regions of the Arabian Sea off central west coast of India

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; Naidu, P.D.; Almeida, F.

    Bathymetric, side scan sonar and shallow seismic surveys were carried out in ports and adjacent nearshore regions of the Arabian Sea off the central west coast of India. It is observed that in the regions of rivers confluencing the sea...

  13. Magna Carta And The Roman Law Tradition

    Mehmeti Sami


    Magna Carta is one of the most important illustrations of the exceptionalism of English common law. Within a completely feudal framework it gave the clearest possible articulation to the concept of the rule of law and at the same time it also showed that there were certain basic rights which every freeman enjoyed without any specific conferment by the king. From English perspective, continental European law after the process of the reception of Roman law was commonly regarded to be apart and ...

  14. Central New York Library Resources Council CLRC Regional Digitization Plan. Final Report for the Preparing Central New York History for the Future LSTA Project.

    Sywetz, Betsy

    The primary goal for digitization projects sponsored by the Central New York Library Resources Council (CLRC) is enhanced access for the people of the region to digital resources created from collections in Central New York's libraries, archives and museums. The CLRC Digitization Plan provides a framework for the support of digitization activities…

  15. First roman pot tested by TOTEM


    TOTEM, one of the smaller experiments of the LHC, successfully tested its first 'roman pot' detectors on 3 November. A total of eight will be installed in the LHC near the CMS cavern. Marco Oriunno, project engineer of TOTEM (right), with Jean-Michel Lacroix from TS/MME (Mechanical and Materials Engineering) (left), standing behind one of the roman pot detectors. There is a small tribe in the land of CERN. Among its artefacts you may find colourfully painted rocks, a totem made of cardboard boxes, and a few roman pots. Known by the name of TOTEM, or 'TOTal, Elastic and diffractive cross-section Measurement' (not a tribe motto), they are a relatively small collaborative group in comparison to the main LHC experiments, with approximately 50 'tribe members'. Unlike the four larger experiments that will analyse new particles produced as a result of the collisions, TOTEM will investigate the ones that almost missed each other. When two beams of protons travelling in opposite di...

  16. The Roman State and Genetic Pacification

    Peter Frost


    Full Text Available Over the last 10,000 years, the human genome has changed at an accelerating rate. The change seems to reflect adaptations to new social environments, including the rise of the State and its monopoly on violence. State societies punish young men who act violently on their own initiative. In contrast, non-State societies usually reward such behavior with success, including reproductive success. Thus, given the moderate to high heritability of male aggressiveness, the State tends to remove violent predispositions from the gene pool while favoring tendencies toward peacefulness and submission. This perspective is applied here to the Roman state, specifically its long-term effort to pacify the general population. By imperial times, this effort had succeeded so well that the Romans saw themselves as being inherently less violent than the “barbarians” beyond their borders. By creating a pacified and submissive population, the empire also became conducive to the spread of Christianity—a religion of peace and submission. In sum, the Roman state imposed a behavioral change that would over time alter the mix of genotypes, thus facilitating a subsequent ideological change.

  17. Acoustical measurements in ancient Roman theatres

    Farnetani, Andrea; Fausti, Patrizio; Pompoli, Roberto; Prodi, Nicola


    The Greek and Roman theatres are among the most precious and spectacular items of cultural heritage in the Mediterranean countries. The theatres are famous not only for their impressive architecture, but also for the acoustic qualities. For this reason it is important to consider these theatres as an acoustical heritage and to study their sound field. Within the activities of the ERATO (identification Evaluation and Revival of the Acoustical heritage of ancient Theatres and Odea) project, acoustical measurements were taken in well-preserved ancient Roman theatres at Aspendos (Turkey) and Jerash (Jordan). Roman theatres have an impressive stage building that forms a back wall in the orchestra area, and it was found that, from the analysis of the acoustical parameters, the reverberation time (e.g., 1.7 s at middle frequencies in the theatre of Aspendos) is quite long compared not only with other open-space theatres but also with closed spaces. Contrary to modern halls the clarity is high and this fact, together with a low sound level in most of the seats, gives the sound field a unique character.

  18. Roman Inns and Roman Culture%旅馆与古罗马文化



    Inns were the crucial components of Roman society. Roman inns dispersed in all parts of Rome, but most of them were bad conditioned and terrible for life. Inns' social position was very low because they always were censured by Roman government, law and moralists. Though their position was very bad, it was the favorite place for Roman elite. It was the upper-class' haunt that worsened the Roman inns'reputation.%旅馆是罗马社会的重要组成部分。罗马的旅馆遍布罗马全境,大多数的条件都很简陋,旅馆生活也很糟糕。旅馆在罗马社会中的地位极其低下,国家政策、法律规定、社会评价都竭力限制它的发展。尽管罗马旅馆地位的低下,但它却也是自视高贵的罗马上层社会精英们乐此不疲光顾的地方,而正是这些精英们在旅馆中的龌龊表现,更加剧了旅馆的恶劣名声。

  19. Body wave attenuation characteristics in the crust of Alborz region and North Central Iran

    Farrokhi, M.; Hamzehloo, H.


    Attenuation of P and S waves has been investigated in Alborz and north central part of Iran using the data recorded by two permanent and one temporary networks during October 20, 2009, to December 22, 2010. The dataset consists of 14,000 waveforms from 380 local earthquakes (2 Iran, respectively. These relations for Q S for Alborz region and North Central Iran have estimated as (83 ± 8)f (0.99 ± 0.07) and (68 ± 5)f (0.96 ± 0.05), respectively. The observed low Q values could be the results of thermoelastic effects and/or existing fracture. The estimated frequency-dependent relationships are comparable with tectonically active regions.

  20. Radon Concentration in Groundwater in the Central Region of Gyeongju, Korea - 13130

    Lee, Jung Min; Lee, A. Rim; Park, Chan Hee; Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk University, Seokjangdong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)


    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is a well known cause of lung cancer through inhalation. Nevertheless, stomach cancer can also occur if radon-containing water is ingested. This study measured the radon concentration in groundwater for drinking or other domestic uses in the central region of Gyeongju, Korea. The groundwater samples were taken from 11 points chosen from the 11 administrative districts in the central region of Gyeongju by selecting a point per district considering the demographic distribution including the number of tourists who visit the ancient ruins and archaeological sites. The mean radon concentrations in the groundwater samples ranged from 14.38 to 9050.73 Bq.m{sup -3}, which were below the recommendations by the U.S. EPA and WHO. (authors)

  1. A study of dirigibles for use in the Peruvian Selva Central region

    Mayer, N. J.


    A study to evaluate dirigibles as transport vehicles in the mainly undeveloped and heavily forested Selva Central region of Peru is discussed. The basic requirements for dirigible service in the region are described, including those pertaining to cargoes and routes, airports, weather conditions, ground facilities, operations and maintenance base, hangars, ballast, and helium supply. Dirigible types, sizes, and economics were analyzed, and the analytical methods and results are reported. Total costs are determined and compared with those for other aircraft. It is concluded that dirigibles can be used as transport in the Selva Central and that conventional dirigibles in normal operation will require expansion of exisiting airfields. Conventional dirigibles are more economical as their size increases and are cost effective compared to selected aircraft.

  2. Radiation loads of the detectors for the central region of the LHCb experiment at LHC

    Talanov, V V


    The formation of the secondary-radiation field in the central region of the future LHCb experiment at LHC (CERN) was numerically simulated. The specific features of the field characteristics were revealed for different configurations of detectors in the experiment. The radiation loads governing the detector operation in a given radiation environment were evaluated. Methods for optimizing the design of the detectors and the accelerator vacuum chamber were proposed. (15 refs).




    It stands to reason that at the early stage of independence the five republics in the Central Asian region-Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan-previously closely linked to the Soviet economic and political systems, faced a number of challenges, most of which were inherited from the Czarist-Soviet regimes. Coping with the challenges posed by the transition period required foreign support, and all the republics, except Turkmenistan, have been engaged in active coope...

  4. Current Status of the Equine Sector in the Central Baltic Region (Finland, Latvia and Sweden)

    Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Pinzke, Stefan; Löfqvist, Lotta; Järvinen, Maija; Korpa, Viola; Paula, Līga; Kursitis, Andis


    This report covers basic descriptions and characteristics of the equine sector, including statistics on number of horses, horse farms, employment, current structure and recent dynamics in the horse sector in Finland, Latvia and Sweden and also the mobility (e.g. trade, import, export and tourism) within the Central Baltic Region. The information was gathered through literature reviews, round table discussions and interviews with equine organisations and stakeholders, and through visits to far...

  5. The synanthropic flora of the central part of the dnistrovskyi regional landscape park

    Юлія Сергіївна Семенюк


    Full Text Available The structure of alien species and apophytes in the central part of Dnistrovskyi Regional Landscape Park are analyzed. There are 118 synanthropic species on the studied area. The synanthropic flora includes 39 species of alien plants and 79 species of apophytes. The values of synanthropization index, modernization index and index of fluctuation are identified. The level of studied flora’s transformation is high. All studied plants are divided into 23 recourses groups. The largest group is medicinal plants

  6. The role of micro finance Institutions in poverty reduction in the central region of Ghana

    Cudjoe, Bismark


    The overall objective of this study is to examine the contribution of micro-finance institutions to poverty reduction in the Kasoa district of the Central Region of Ghana. In an attempt to achieve the objective of the study, data and hypotheses were drawn from First Capital Plus Microfinance Limited which has been operating in the Kasoa Municipality since 2009. The practical part contains primary statistical data through survey research, which consists of a combination of structured questionn...

  7. Mycolic Acids as Markers of Osseous Tuberculosis in the Neolithic Skeleton from Kujawy Region (Central Poland

    Borowska-Strugiń Beata


    Full Text Available The subject of analysis is the male skeleton from a double burial of the Globular Amphora Culture, derived from the Neolithic site at Brześć Kujawski in Kujawy region (central Poland. Within the spine of the individual advanced lesions are observed (destruction of the vertebral bodies, symptoms of the periostitis in the thoracic region which are characteristic of skeletal tuberculosis. To check whether the observed morphological changes resulted from infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb, the bone material was tested positively for the presence of mycolic acids, the specific components of the cell wall of pathogenic M.tb bacilli, by mass spectrometry.

  8. Body wave attenuation characteristics in the crust of Alborz region and North Central Iran

    Farrokhi, M.; Hamzehloo, H.


    Attenuation of P and S waves has been investigated in Alborz and north central part of Iran using the data recorded by two permanent and one temporary networks during October 20, 2009, to December 22, 2010. The dataset consists of 14,000 waveforms from 380 local earthquakes (2 mean values of Q P and Q S at different lapse times have been considered. The frequency dependence of quality factor was determined by using a power-law relationship. The frequency-dependent relationship for Q P was estimated in the form of (62 ± 7) f (1.03 ± 0.07) and (48 ± 5) f (0.95 ± 0.07) in Alborz region and North Central Iran, respectively. These relations for Q S for Alborz region and North Central Iran have estimated as (83 ± 8) f (0.99 ± 0.07) and (68 ± 5) f (0.96 ± 0.05), respectively. The observed low Q values could be the results of thermoelastic effects and/or existing fracture. The estimated frequency-dependent relationships are comparable with tectonically active regions.

  9. The Roman k-domatic Number of a Graph



    Let k be a positive integer.A Roman k-dominating function on a graph G is a labeling f:V(G) → {0,1,2} such that every vertex with label 0 has at least k neighbors with label 2.A set {f1,f2,...,fd} of distinct Roman k-dominating functions on G with the property that ∑di=1 fi(v) ≤ 2for each v ∈ V(G),is called a Roman k-dominating family (of functions) on G.The maximum number of functions in a Roman k-dominating family on G is the Roman k-domatic number of G,denoted by dkR(G).Note that the Roman 1-domatic number d1R(G) is the usual Roman domatic number dR(G).In this paper we initiate the study of the Roman k-domatic number in graphs and we present sharp bounds for dkR(G).In addition,we determine the Roman k-domatic number of some graphs.Some of our results extend those given by Sheikholeslami and Volkmann in 2010 for the Roman domatic number.

  10. Functional Neuronavigation: Comparison of spatial congruence between fMRI and electrocortical stimulation in central region tumor surgery

    Wachter, Dorothee


    Background: The surgical treatment of lesions in or around the central region confronts the neurosurgeon with a great challenge. Radical tumor resection leads to a better outcome but it also bears the risk of postoperative neurological deficit due to the functional importance of the central region. Throughout the last couple of years different techniques made it possible to identify the patient’s specific functional and anatomical topography. The central sulcus and the adjacent gyri...

  11. Design and Implementation of Digitisation Projects in the Central Slovenian Region

    Anja Frković


    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT: The Ljubljana City Library has been cooperating in the KAMRA project since its very beginning. KAMRA is a Slovenian cross regional portal joining central regional public libraries as defined in the Regulations on Central Regional Libraries. It was established in order to digitise local studies collections, to promote the collections and the cooperation among different local institutions. The paper outlines the problems related to the collection and selection of relevant library materials to be incorporated in the KAMRA portal. It deals with copyright regulations for web publications and outlines the importance of obtaining the copyright permission for the use of library materials which were digitised after they were exhibited in the physical form. The Ljubljana City Library often decides to digitise hard copies of important items of local studies collection exhibited in the Slovanska Library – a branch library of the Ljubljana City Library. For the needs of the KAMRA portal the Ljubljana City Library created the project My Street (Moja ulica joining public libraries in the central Slovenian region. They research the history, development, culture and life of people living in particular streets and areas and publish their stories on the KAMRA portal. The City Library of Ljubljana tries to cooperate with other regional cultural institutions, associations and individuals thus enabling access to local information sources which would otherwise be hard to access. The paper also deals with the mission and concepts of the Digital Library of Slovenia ( and the KAMRA portal as well as with the digitisation of local studies. At the end it points to the problem of lack of financial means for digitisation projects.


    Pan, Hsi-An; Sorai, Kazuo [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University, Kita 10, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Kuno, Nario [Division of Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Koda, Jin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Hirota, Akihiko [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Kaneko, Hiroyuki, E-mail: [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, NAOJ, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)


    In this work, we investigate the molecular gas and star-formation properties in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6946 using multiple molecular lines and star-formation tracers. A high-resolution image (100 pc) of {sup 13}CO (1–0) is created for the inner 2 kpc disk by the single-dish Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope and interferometer Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, including the central region (nuclear ring and bar) and the offset ridges of the primary bar. Single-dish HCN (1–0) observations were also made to constrain the amount of dense gas. The physical properties of molecular gas are inferred from (1) the large velocity gradient calculations using our observations and archival {sup 12}CO (1–0), {sup 12}CO(2–1) data, (2) the dense gas fraction suggested by the luminosity ratio of HCN to {sup 12}CO (1–0), and (3) the infrared color. The results show that the molecular gas in the central region is warmer and denser than that of the offset ridges. The dense gas fraction of the central region is similar to that of luminous infrared galaxies/ultraluminous infrared galaxies, whereas the offset ridges are close to the global average of normal galaxies. The coolest and least-dense region is found in a spiral-like structure, which was misunderstood to be part of the southern primary bar in previous low-resolution observations. The star-formation efficiency (SFE) changes by about five times in the inner disk. The variation of SFE agrees with the prediction in terms of star formation regulated by the galactic bar. We find a consistency between the star-forming region and the temperature inferred by the infrared color, suggesting that the distribution of subkiloparsec-scale temperature is driven by star formation.


    Nori Paulo Griebeler


    (TR, for the Central and Southeast regions of the Goiás State, Brazil. Daily precipitation data of 36 rain gages were used, obtained from the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA database, organized in an electronic worksheet and treated by the Kimball methodology for TR determination. The results indicated that differences between extreme values of maxima precipitations, for the same TR, exceeded 50% the lower precipitation values. This study also showed that the Northwest and Southeast regions of the studied area present large precipitation values, and the Central and East regions present lower values. These results emphasize the need for adoption of local values for planning hydraulic projects.


    KEY-WORDS: Rain; hidrology; return period.

  1. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.


    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region

  2. Early regional LGM (MIS 3) reflected in Central European Loess-Paleosol Sequences?

    Zoeller, Ludwig; Fuchs, Markus


    The age of the "Brandenburg Phase", representing the regional LGM in Northern Germany and Poland, has been under debate. Evidence was found recently by OSL dating that it occurred during late MIS 3. In a new loess profile in the famous quarry of Nußloch south of Heidelberg (Germany) an exceptionally thick (6 m) loess-paleosol sequence (LPS) starts with a boreal brown soil regionally known as "Lohne soil", which terminates the Middle Pleniglacial LPS, according to classical stratigraphies. This paleosol is overlain by loess beds interbedding with weakly developed tundra-gley soils of typically Upper Pleniglacial habitus. Mean OSL ages from quartz fine and middle grains range between ca. 29 ka and ca. 35 ka in this part of the section which is much thicker than in previously studied corresponding parts of the loess stratigraphy at the Nußloch site. Our surprising dating results are, however, supported by recently dated loess beds in the Central European corridor between the ice margin of the Brandenburg Phase and the Northern Alpine LGM terminal moraines. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions point to cold but rather humid climatic conditions favouring rapid ice advance. We, thus, hypothesize that the rapid advance of Scandinavian ice into northern Central Europe which may have occurred ca. 10 ka prior to the global LGM, is reflected in some well-preserved Central European loess sections covering the last glacial cycle.

  3. Drought Vulnerability Mapping with Geomorphological Approach in Yogyakarta Special Region (DIY) and Central Java



    This study aims to determine the level of vulnerability of the geomorphologic drought that occurred in Central Java and Yogyakarta Special Region. This study examines geomorphologic drought. Parameters used were slope, drainage, Available Water Capacity (AWC), permeability, landform, and land use. Landsat 8 and SRTM data were used for the extraction of physical parameters, such as slope, drainage, landform, and land use. The method used in this study is scoring and weighting. Query results were used for data classification by overlaying drought geomorphologic parameters. The expected outcome of this research is to map the geomorphologic drought vulnerability on Central Java and Yogyakarta Special Region. Drought vulnerability was divided into wet, normal and dry classes. Distribution of the dry class is frequent. Some of the dry classes are distributed on the steep till extremely steep slope region and on the structural and karsts landform. This was related to AWC value where region with high AWC contributed to the poor drainage of the soil, such as at Kulonprogo, Purworejo, Kebumen, Blora, Wonogiri, Purbalingga, Pekalongan, Jepara and Kudus regency. Normal classes are distributed on the sloping till steep slope, have moderate till well-drained soil and low AWC, such as at Gunung Kidul, Pati, Temanggung regency, and Magelang city. Wet classes are distributed on the flat or almost flat and sloping region. Most of the wet classes are distributed on volcanic hills and coastal area. Those regions are well-drained and the land uses are mostly for settlement and farming, such as at Sleman, Yogyakarta city, Klaten, Bantul, and Wonosobo regency.

  4. Inherited weaknesses control deformation in the flat slab region of Central Argentina

    Stevens, A.; Carrapa, B.; Larrovere, M.; Aciar, R. H.


    The Sierras Pampeanas region of west-central Argentina has long been considered a geologic type-area for flat-slab induced thick-skinned deformation. Frictional coupling between the horizontal subducting plate and South American lithosphere from ~12 Ma to the present provides an obvious causal mechanism for the basement block uplifts that characterize this region. New low temperature thermochronometry data show basement rocks from the central Sierras Pampeanas (~ longitude 66 ̊ W) including Sierras Cadena de Paiman, Velasco and Mazan retain a cooling history of Paleozoic - Mesozoic tectonics events. Results from this study indicate that less than 2 km of basement has been exhumed since at least the Mesozoic. These trends recorded by both apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite helium (AHe) thermochronometry suggest that recent Mio-Pliocene thick-skinned deformation associated with flat-slab subduction follow inherited zones of weakness from Paleozoic terrane sutures and shear zones and Mesozoic rifting. If a Cenozoic foreland basin exisited in this region, its thickness was minimal and was controlled by paleotopography. Pre-Cenozoic cooling ages in these ranges that now reach as high as 4 km imply significant exhumation of basement rocks before the advent of flat slab subduction in the mid-late Miocene. It also suggests that thick-skinned deformation associated with flat slab subduction may at least be facilitated by inherited crustal-scale weaknesses. At the most, pre-existing zones of weakness may be required in regions of thick-skinned deformation. Although flat-slab subduction plays an important role in the exhumation of the Sierras Pampeanas, it is likely not the sole mechanism responsible for thick-skinned deformation in this region. This insight sheds light on the interpretation of modern and ancient regions of thick-skinned deformation in Cordilleran systems.

  5. On the orientation of Roman towns in Italy

    Magli, G


    As is well known, several Roman sources report on the existence of a town foundation ritual, inherited from the Etruscans, which allegedly included astronomical references. However, the possible existence of astronomical orientations in the layout of Roman towns has never been tackled in a systematic way. As a first step in this direction, the orientation of virtually all Roman towns in Italy (38 cities) is studied here. Non-random orientation patterns emerge from these data, aiming at further research in this field.

  6. Remo cum fratre Quirinus: Metamorphoses of the Roman Foundation Myth from its Beginnings to Horace

    Špela Tomažinčič


    Full Text Available From the first reference to Romulus by Alcimus, a historian from the mid-fourth century BC, where the hero appears alone, down to the age of Augustus, the story of the foundation of Rome underwent considerable plot changes. The two most important are, firstly, Romulus' later role not merely as a conditor urbis, but – in keeping with the Hellenistic tradition of ktiseis poleon – mainly as a creator gentis and a model of the new Roman, who can subsequently embody a new ethnic identity; and, secondly, the later dichotomy of the founders. The interpretation of the Roman foundation myth must be therefore closely associated with the symbolism of numbers – one founder as opposed to twin founders – as it is reflected in different socio-political and historical contexts. In addition to shaping society, myth also documents all its changes. In the context of replacing a single founder with twin founders, Romulus and Remus, the first critical change is the introduction of Remus. The twin founders imply a double community, a notion which becomes meaningful in Rome only after the plebeian achievement of political equality between 367 and 342 BC. The second significant change is the death of Remus, involving the notion of a foundation sacrifice, for which the evidence points to the crisis of 296 BC. The foundation story also serves as an explanation model for the events in the Late Roman Republic. Horace's pessimistic Seventh Epode evokes the foundation crime of fratricide to explain the tragic pattern of civil wars. As Romulus' successors, the Romans are also heirs to his crime, to the scelus fraternae necis, from which they cannot escape. Moreover, Romulus as a creator gentis represents a potential source for the Roman change of identity, which was regarded as coincidental with the foundation act. This recurring theme is elaborated first in Ennius' Annals and later in Vergil's Aeneid and Horace's Third ‘Roman Ode’. The central motif is Ennius

  7. XRF analysis of Roman Imperial coins

    Gorghinian, Astrik, E-mail: [INFN-LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Esposito, Adolfo [INFN-LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Ferretti, Marco [CNR-ITABC, via Salaria Km 29.300, c.p. 10, Monterotondo (Rome) (Italy); Catalli, Fiorenzo [National Archeological Museum, 9B Santissima Annunziata Square, 50121 Florence (Italy)


    X-ray Fluorescence analysis has been applied on 477 ancient coins, issued in different mints active during the First Roman Emperor’s reign Augustus. The study of the different denominations has been related to their composition and place/date of struck. The alloys studied were based on gold, silver and copper. The X-ray micro-beam supplied by a polycapillary optics has been often extremely precious in the analysis of very small coin’s spot with no patina due to usage.

  8. Flavius Vegetius Renatus: Great Roman Thinker


    Graham The Roman Imperial Army. New York, N.Y.i Funk & Wagnalls , 1969. 22 0𔃻"o - *" . s C * ’~ a ’ *’ **~* j q . 77 71 v V7 ’ J. ___ __CONTINUED 13. Zook...A World Atlas of Military History, Vol I. New York, N.Y.: Hippocrene Book, Inc., 1973. 3. Claxton, Bernard D. Military History and Theory Maxwell Air...Methods From the Earliest Times. Washington# D.C.: Infantry Journal Press, 1937. 9. Steinberg, S. H. Cassell’s Encyclopedia of World Literature, Vol

  9. Historisk roman fra det gamle Rom

    Kaarsted, Thomas


    Er historikere de bedst egnede til at skrive historiske romaner? Spørgsmålet er relevant i forbindelse med den på Fyn bosiddende Jo Hermann. Hun er fagperson per excellence, latin-og klassiskkyndig over en kam, og hendes " Kejserens klarsyn" om kejser Domitian, der i et længe opsparet anfald af r...... realpolitisk paranoia vil sin familie til livs, udspiller sig år 95-96 i det antikke Rom med alle de politiske og personlige intriger, man kan forestille sig....

  10. SALTRA: a regional program for workers' health and sustainable development in Central America.

    Wesseling, Catharina; Aragón, Aurora; Elgstrand, Kaj; Flores, Reinaldo; Hogstedt, Christer; Partanen, Timo


    In 2003, the university-based Program on Work and Health in Central America, SALTRA, was launched to build national and regional capacities in occupational safety and health with the goal of preventing and reducing poverty in Central America. SALTRA has implemented 20 projects including action projects in priority sectors (e.g., construction, sugarcane, hospitals, migrant coffee workers); strengthening of surveillance (occupational health profiles, carcinogenic exposures, fatal injuries and pesticides); a participatory model for training and risk monitoring by workers; building occupational health capacity for professionals, employers, and workers, with collaborating networks between the countries; strengthening of universities in work, environment, and health; studies of serious occupational and environmental situations; communication channels; and continued efforts to raise political awareness. SALTRA has placed issues of workers' health on political, business, and academic agendas throughout the region and has laid the foundations for achieving substantial future improvements in health conditions of all workers in the region. External evaluators envisioned SALTRA as an innovative development model.

  11. The spinal cord ependymal region: a stem cell niche in the caudal central nervous system.

    Hugnot, Jean Philippe; Franzen, Rachelle


    In the brain, specific signalling pathways localized in highly organized regions called niches, allow the persistence of a pool of stem and progenitor cells that generate new neurons and glial cells in adulthood. Much less is known on the spinal cord central canal niche where a sustained adult neurogenesis is not observed. Here we review our current knowledge of this caudal niche in normal and pathological situations. Far from being a simple layer of homogenous cells, this region is composed of several cell types localized at specific locations, expressing characteristic markers and with different morphologies and functions. We further report on a screen of online gene-expression databases to better define this spinal cord niche. Several genes were found to be preferentially expressed within or around the central canal region (Bmp6, CXCR4, Gdf10, Fzd3, Mdk, Nrtn, Rbp1, Shh, Sox4, Wnt7a) some of which by specific cellular subtypes. In depth characterization of the spinal cord niche constitutes a framework to make the most out of this endogenous cell pool in spinal cord disorders.

  12. Amino Acids That Centrally Influence Blood Pressure and Regional Blood Flow in Conscious Rats

    Yumi Takemoto


    Full Text Available Functional roles of amino acids have increasingly become the focus of research. This paper summarizes amino acids that influence cardiovascular system via the brain of conscious rats. This paper firstly describes why amino acids are selected and outlines how the brain regulates blood pressure and regional blood flow. This section includes a concise history of amino acid neurotransmitters in cardiovascular research and summarizes brain areas where chemical stimulations produce blood pressure changes mainly in anesthetized animals. This is followed by comments about findings regarding several newly examined amino acids with intracisternal stimulation in conscious rats that produce changes in blood pressure. The same pressor or depressor response to central amino acid stimulations can be produced by distinct mechanisms at central and peripheral levels, which will be briefly explained. Thereafter, cardiovascular actions of some of amino acids at the mechanism level will be discussed based upon findings of pharmacological and regional blood flow measurements. Several examined amino acids in addition to the established neurotransmitter amino acids appear to differentially activate brain structures to produce changes in blood pressure and regional blood flows. They may have physiological roles in the healthy brain, but pathological roles in the brain with cerebral vascular diseases such as stroke where the blood-brain barrier is broken.

  13. Roman Engineering, Public Works and Importance of Public Objects in Roman Law

    Vanessa Ponte-Arrebola


    Full Text Available The skill and ability of the Romans in civil engineering and public works largely contributed to the establishment and success of their civilization. Many of the constructed works were built for the possibility of public use and enjoyment by its citizens, known as res publicae in usu publico.

  14. Chromosomal instability in Streptomyces avermitilis: major deletion in the central region and stable circularized chromosome

    Wen Ying


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chromosome of Streptomyces has been shown to be unstable, frequently undergoing gross chromosomal rearrangements. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear, with previous studies focused on two chromosomal ends as targets for rearrangements. Here we investigated chromosomal instability of Streptomyces avermitilis, an important producer of avermectins, and characterized four gross chromosomal rearrangement events, including a major deletion in the central region. The present findings provide a valuable contribution to the mechanistic study of genetic instability in Streptomyces. Results Thirty randomly-selected "bald" mutants derived from the wild-type strain all contained gross chromosomal rearrangements of various types. One of the bald mutants, SA1-8, had the same linear chromosomal structure as the high avermectin-producing mutant 76-9. Chromosomes of both strains displayed at least three independent chromosomal rearrangements, including chromosomal arm replacement to form new 88-kb terminal inverted repeats (TIRs, and two major deletions. One of the deletions eliminated the 36-kb central region of the chromosome, but surprisingly did not affect viability of the cells. The other deletion (74-kb was internal to the right chromosomal arm. The chromosome of another bald mutant, SA1-6, was circularized with deletions at both ends. No obvious homology was found in all fusion sequences. Generational stability analysis showed that the chromosomal structure of SA1-8 and SA1-6 was stable. Conclusions Various chromosomal rearrangements, including chromosomal arm replacement, interstitial deletions and chromosomal circularization, occurred in S. avermitilis by non-homologous recombination. The finding of an inner deletion involving in the central region of S. avermitilis chromosome suggests that the entire Streptomyces chromosome may be the target for rearrangements, which are not limited, as previously

  15. Mapping the Central Region of the PPN CRL 618 at Subarcsecond Resolution at 350 GHz

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Yang, Chun-Hui; Sahai, Raghvendra; Sánchez Contreras, Carmen


    CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. We have mapped its central region in continuum and molecular lines with the Submillimeter Array at 350 GHz at ~0.''3-0.''5 resolutions. Two components are seen in the 350 GHz continuum: (1) a compact emission at the center tracing the dense inner part of the H II region previously detected in a 23 GHz continuum and it may trace a fast ionized wind at the base; and (2) an extended thermal dust emission surrounding the H II region, tracing the dense core previously detected in HC3N at the center of the circumstellar envelope. The dense core is dusty and may contain millimeter-sized dust grains. It may have a density enhancement in the equatorial plane. It is also detected in carbon chain molecules HC3N and HCN and their isotopologues, with higher excitation lines tracing closer to the central star. It is also detected in CH2CHCN toward the innermost part. Most of the emission detected here arises within ~630 AU (0.''7) of the central star. A simple radiative transfer model is used to derive the kinematics, physical conditions, and the chemical abundances in the dense core. The dense core is expanding and accelerating, with the velocity increasing roughly linearly from ~3 km s-1 in the innermost part to ~16 km s-1 at 630 AU. The mass-loss rate in the dense core is extremely high with a value of ~1.15 × 10-3 M ⊙ yr-1. The dense core has a mass of ~0.47 M ⊙ and a dynamical age of ~400 yr. It could result from a recent enhanced heavy mass-loss episode that ends the asymptotic giant branch phase. The isotopic ratios of 12C/13C and 14N/15N are 9 ± 4 and 150 ± 50, respectively, both lower than the solar values.

  16. Convective transport over the central United States and its role in regional CO and ozone budgets

    Thompson, Anne M.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ellis, William G., Jr.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Scala, John R.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Mcnamara, Donna P.; Simpson, Joanne


    We have constructed a regional budget for boundary layer carbon monoxide over the central United States (32.5 deg - 50 deg N, 90 deg - 105 deg W), emphasizing a detailed evaluation of deep convective vertical fluxes appropriate for the month of June. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer (upward) dominates other components of the CO budget, e.g., downward convective transport, loss of CO by oxidation, anthropogenic emissions, and CO produced from oxidation of methane, isoprene, and anthropogenic nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Calculations of deep convective venting are based on the method pf Pickering et al.(1992a) which uses a satellite-derived deep convective cloud climatology along with transport statistics from convective cloud model simulations of observed prototype squall line events. This study uses analyses of convective episodes in 1985 and 1989 and CO measurements taken during several midwestern field campaigns. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer over this moderately polluted region provides a net (upward minus downward) flux of 18.1 x 10(exp 8) kg CO/month to the free troposphere during early summer. Shallow cumulus and synoptic-scale weather systems together make a comparable contribution (total net flux 16.2 x 10(exp 8) kg CO/month). Boundary layer venting of CO with other O3 precursors leads to efficient free troposheric O3 formation. We estimate that deep convective transport of CO and other precursors over the central United States in early summer leads to a gross production of 0.66 - 1.1 Gmol O3/d in good agreement with estimates of O3 production from boundary layer venting in a continental-scale model (Jacob et al., 1993a, b). On this respect the central U.S. region acts as s `chimney' for the country, and presumably this O3 contributes to high background levels of O3 in the eastern United States and O3 export to the North Atlantic.

  17. Seismicity characterization of the Maravatío-Acambay and Actopan regions, central Mexico

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Quetzalcoatl; Zúñiga, F. Ramón


    We studied the seismic activity in the Maravatío-Acambay and Actopan regions in Central Mexico. These regions are of great importance due to the occurrence of shallow crustal normal-faulting earthquakes that caused widespread destruction near their epicenter and as far away as Mexico City. That was the case of the 19 November 1912 Acambay (Mw 6.9). We determined statistical seismicity characteristics such as the Båth's law (the size of largest aftershock with respect to that of the mainshock), the b-value and p-value. For the Maravatío aftershock sequence, we obtained a b-value of 0.88 and p-value of 0.68. Based on reported seismicity, we obtained a b-value of 1.12 for the Actopan region. We estimated the size of the largest aftershock of the Acambay event in the range of 4.7 size of fragments showed that more energy is released for the Maravatío aftershock sequence than for the regular seismicity rate in the Acambay region. Finally, we analyzed the relation of the seismicity and the tectonic environment by quantifying the seismic coupling and the thickness of the seismogenic layer. The estimated seismogenic layer for the Maravatío-Acambay and Actopan regions are 14.6 km and 20.8 km, respectively. The seismic coupling coefficient at the Venta the Bravo fault in the Maravatío-Acambay region and Actopan region are 0.21 and 0.46, respectively. Our estimation of the seismic coupling coefficients shows that the regions can be classified as low-to-intermediate-coupling zones.

  18. Is the omega sign a reliable landmark for the neurosurgical team? An anatomical study about the central sulcus region.

    Rodrigues, Thiago; Rodrigues, Mariana; Paz, Daniel; Costa, Marcos Devanir; Santos, Bruno; Braga, Vinicius; Paiva Neto, Manoel de; Centeno, Ricardo; Cavalheiro, Sergio; Chaddad-Neto, Feres


    The central sulcus region is an eloquent area situated between the frontal and parietal lobes. During neurosurgical procedures, it is sometimes difficult to understand the cortical anatomy of this region.Objective Find alternative ways to anatomically navigate in this region during neurosurgical procedures.Method We analyzed eighty two human hemispheres using a surgical microscope and completed a review of the literature about central sulcus region.Results In 68/82 hemispheres, the central sulcus did not reach the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus. A knob on the second curve of the precentral gyrus was reliably identified in only 64/82 hemispheres.Conclusion The morphometric data presented in this article can be useful as supplementary method to identify the central sulcus region landmarks.

  19. Is the omega sign a reliable landmark for the neurosurgical team? An anatomical study about the central sulcus region

    Thiago Rodrigues


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe central sulcus region is an eloquent area situated between the frontal and parietal lobes. During neurosurgical procedures, it is sometimes difficult to understand the cortical anatomy of this region.Objective Find alternative ways to anatomically navigate in this region during neurosurgical procedures.Method We analyzed eighty two human hemispheres using a surgical microscope and completed a review of the literature about central sulcus region.Results In 68/82 hemispheres, the central sulcus did not reach the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus. A knob on the second curve of the precentral gyrus was reliably identified in only 64/82 hemispheres.Conclusion The morphometric data presented in this article can be useful as supplementary method to identify the central sulcus region landmarks.

  20. Main Causes Of Mortality Of Companies In Central Region Of Ecuador

    Jorge Vladimir Núñez Grijalva


    Full Text Available Most of the studies concerning trading companies, addressing aspects of the initial stage in the life of these, such as its formation stage. However, few studies have examined the final stage of a company and especially the causes of mortality and closing. This article analyzes the main causes of mortality trading companies from three different and complementary disciplines at once: legal, administrative and financial accounting in commercial companies of the Central Region of Ecuador. This research provides a summary of the major causes of mortality, which should be considered by the current and future employers, in order to strengthen their decisions regarding the survival of companies.

  1. Magnetic and bathymetric investigations over the Vema Region of the Central Indian Ridge: Tectonic implications

    Drolia, R.K.; Ghose, I.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Rao, M.M.M.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    investigations over the Vema Region of the Central Indian Ridge: tectonic implications R.K. Drolia a, * , I. Ghose b , A.S. Subramanyam c , M.M. Malleswara Rao c , P. Kessarkar b , K.S.R. Murthy c a National Geophysical Research Institute, Uppal Road, Hyderabad... of the time variation of the spreading R.K. Drolia et al. / Marine Geology 167 (2000) 413–423420 Fig. 4. (continued) rate and asymmetry, nor constrain the asymmetry by evaluating its transient or steady character. It has to await further data. We have...

  2. Two-component colour dipole emission in the central region of onium-onium scattering

    Peschanski, R


    The initial-state radiation of soft colour dipoles produced in the central region of onium-onium scattering via single QCD Pomeron exchange (BFKL) is calculated in the framework of Mueller's dipole approach. The resulting dipole production has a two-component structure. One is constant with energy while the other grows and possesses a power-law tail at appreciably large transverse distances from the collision axis. It may be related to the growth of the gluon distribution at small Bjorken-x.

  3. Decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials over Central Europe

    Moemken, Julia; Reyers, Mark; Buldmann, Benjamin; Pinto, Joaquim G.


    Regional climate predictions on timescales from one year to one decade are gaining importance since this time frame falls within the planning horizon of politics, economy, and society. In this context, decadal predictions are of particular interest for the development of renewable energies such as wind energy. The present study examines the decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials in the framework of the MiKlip consortium ("Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen"; This consortium aims to develop a model system based on the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) that can provide skilful decadal predictions on regional and global scales. Three generations of the decadal prediction system, which differ primarily in their ocean initialisation, are analysed here. Ensembles of uninitialised historical and yearly initialised hindcast experiments are used to assess different skill scores for 10m wind speeds and wind energy output (Eout) over Central Europe, with special focus given to Germany. With this aim, a statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) approach is used for the regionalisation of the global datasets. Its added value is evaluated by comparison of skill scores for MPI-ESM large-scale wind speeds and SDD simulated regional wind speeds. All three MPI-ESM ensemble generations show some forecast skill for annual mean wind speed and Eout over Central Europe on yearly and multi-yearly time scales. The forecast skill is mostly limited to the first years after initialisation. Differences between the three ensemble generations are generally small. The regionalisation preserves and sometimes increases the forecast skill of the global runs but results depend on lead time and ensemble generation. Moreover, regionalisation often improves the ensemble spread. Seasonal Eout skills are generally lower than for annual means. Skill scores are lowest during summer, and persist longest in autumn. A large-scale westerly

  4. Contributions to the deployment of furniture in pole central region Tocantins

    Jorge D’ Ambros


    Full Text Available This study was developed in the central region of Tocantins, for the identification and analysis of positive factors, weaknesses, opportunities and threats associated with the furniture supply chain in order to continue the formation of the regional furniture pole. To achieve this objective the methodology used was to listen to local actors and experts in the furniture segment. Seventy-five local actors among industry officials, academic institutions and university representatives were interviewed. They pointed out and analyzed the main points related to the economic, social, political and environmental contributions stemming from the creation of a pole in the region. The tool used was the SWOT Analysis associated with the Method of Judges, and then the variables were subjected to Principal Component Analysis - PCA. The SWOT Matrix proved to be adequate and effective to be used as diagnostic tool along with local actors. The examination of all the factors associated with local furniture production chain helped to understand the activity and indicate actions that affect this arrangement and that will bring economic, social and environmental benefits. According to the experts, the establishment of a furniture industry in the region will favor the employment and income creation, local and regional sustainable development, improvements in business management, raise the standard of quality and productivity of the local furniture industry and improve the quality of population standard of living.

  5. Working Together to Make a Difference in Rural America: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2010 Annual Report

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011


    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD…

  6. The Core Competencies: a Roman Catholic critique.

    Bedford, Elliott Louis


    This article critically examines, from the perspective of a Roman Catholic Healthcare ethicist, the second edition of the Core Competencies for Healthcare Ethics Consultation report recently published by the American Society for Humanities and Bioethics. The question is posed: can the competencies identified in the report serve as the core competencies for Roman Catholic ethical consultants and consultation services? I answer in the negative. This incongruence stems from divergent concepts of what it means to do ethics consultation, a divergence that is rooted in each perspective's very different visions of autonomy. Furthermore, because of the constitutive elements of Catholic ethics consultation, such as the Ethical and Religious Directives for Health Care Services, the tradition needed to apply those directives, and the Catholic facility's membership in the institutional Church, the competencies needed for its practice differ in kind from those identified by the report. While there are many practical points of convergence, the competencies identified by the report should not be adopted uncritically by Catholic healthcare institutions as core competencies for ethical consultation services.

  7. Becoming a bwana and burley tobacco in the Central Region of Malawi

    Prowse, Martin


    Smallholders now grow most of Malawi’s main export crop – burley tobacco. Based on nineteen months’ fieldwork in the Central Region, this article offers a sociological interpretation of why some smallholder growers spend a proportion of burley income on conspicuous consumption in rural towns...... the contrasting fortunes of two non-farm rural enterprises, examining data on how tobacco production and ‘cooling off’ is viewed by wives, and comparing the crop preferences of husbands and wives. It concludes by suggesting that the concept of conspicuous consumption may provide an alternative prism...... and trading centres. This practice can be seen as a form of inculcated behaviour whereby smallholders reproduce elements of one model of success in this region: that of the Malawian tobacco bwana (boss/master). The article discusses implications from this form of potlatch behaviour by describing...

  8. Becoming a bwana and burley tobacco in the Central Region of Malawi

    Prowse, Martin


    Smallholders now grow most of Malawi’s main export crop – burley tobacco. Based on nineteen months’ fieldwork in the Central Region, this article offers a sociological interpretation of why some smallholder growers spend a proportion of burley income on conspicuous consumption in rural towns...... the contrasting fortunes of two non-farm rural enterprises, examining data on how tobacco production and ‘cooling off’ is viewed by wives, and comparing the crop preferences of husbands and wives. It concludes by suggesting that the concept of conspicuous consumption may provide an alternative prism through which...... and trading centres. This practice can be seen as a form of inculcated behaviour whereby smallholders reproduce elements of one model of success in this region: that of the Malawian tobacco bwana (boss/master). The article discusses implications from this form of potlatch behaviour by describing...

  9. Becoming a bwana and burley tobacco in the Central Region of Malawi

    Prowse, Martin


    Smallholders now grow most of Malawi’s main export crop – burley tobacco. Based on nineteen months’ fieldwork in the Central Region, this article offers a sociological interpretation of why some smallholder growers spend a proportion of burley income on conspicuous consumption in rural towns...... and trading centres. This practice can be seen as a form of inculcated behaviour whereby smallholders reproduce elements of one model of success in this region: that of the Malawian tobacco bwana (boss/master). The article discusses implications from this form of potlatch behaviour by describing...... the contrasting fortunes of two non-farm rural enterprises, examining data on how tobacco production and ‘cooling off’ is viewed by wives, and comparing the crop preferences of husbands and wives. It concludes by suggesting that the concept of conspicuous consumption may provide an alternative prism...

  10. Becoming a bwana and burley tobacco in the Central Region of Malawi

    Prowse, Martin


    Smallholders now grow most of Malawi’s main export crop – burley tobacco. Based on nineteen months’ fieldwork in the Central Region, this article offers a sociological interpretation of why some smallholder growers spend a proportion of burley income on conspicuous consumption in rural towns...... and trading centres. This practice can be seen as a form of inculcated behaviour whereby smallholders reproduce elements of one model of success in this region: that of the Malawian tobacco bwana (boss/master). The article discusses implications from this form of potlatch behaviour by describing...... the contrasting fortunes of two non-farm rural enterprises, examining data on how tobacco production and ‘cooling off’ is viewed by wives, and comparing the crop preferences of husbands and wives. It concludes by suggesting that the concept of conspicuous consumption may provide an alternative prism through which...

  11. [Biological properties of Trichinella spp. isolated from the Central Region of the Russian Federation].

    Odoevskaia, I M; Kurnosova, O P; Klinkov, A V


    The biological properties of Trichinella isolated from the muscles of a common fox inhabiting in the Central Region of the Russian Federation have been studied. The paper presents the results of passaging this isolate of Trichinella on laboratory rats and mice, shows morphometric variability in relation to the change of Trichinella habitat. Evidence is provided that the shape and size of Trichinella capsules depend on the strain of the parasite and the species of an animal host the muscles of which contain these tissue helminths. The morphological data, biological properties, and high negative temperature resistance of the Trichinella that are present in the muscles of a fox shot in the Ryazan Region allow the above isolate to be classified as Trichinella nativa.

  12. Geophysical investigations of the Olonium Roman site (Northern Como Lake)

    Arlsan, Ermanno; Biella, Giancarlo; Boniolo, Graziano; Caporusso, Donatella; de Franco, Roberto; Lozej, Alfredo; Veronese, Luigi


    The study area is located at S. Agata (Gera Lario), a small center at the northern end of Como Lake, near the junction of Valchiavenna and Valtellina Valleys. This site played a strategic role since ancient times, providing the control on the communications routes to both the Como Lake and the Spluga and Septimer alpine passes. Since the end of the last century archaeological findings are reported in literature, also supported, from the early XI century, by archival documents confirming the existence of the `Olonium' settlement, an administrative and fiscal center of primary importance, as well as a parish amongst the most influential in the Como Lake area. Within an area of 45,000 m 2 an electrical survey has been carried out in conjunction with magnetic and GPR investigations. These studies have indicated the presence of a number of sub-areas characterized by significant anomalies defined by the overlapping of the results obtained from two or more geophysical methods. In two of such sub-areas, excavation tests have been conducted, which have brought to light a number of archaeological findings of interest. In one of the two sub-areas, which is characterized by the superimposition of electrical and radar anomalies, a deposit of large pebbles has been found. The origin of this deposit has not been ascertained, whether it is of fluvial origin, related to the deviation of the Adda river in the Pian di Spagna region in Roman times, or it is part of reclamation works, still of Roman times, of paleolacustrine marshes. The overlapping stratigraphy, however, suggests the development of fluvial channels between Roman and Low-Medieval times. In the other sub-area, excavations were carried out on sites defined by electrical and radar anomalies, and confirmed by the results from magnetic survey. The excavations brought to light, below the fluvial deposits, a large medieval edifice, which could be identified as the S. Stefano church abandoned in 1444. The church is built on

  13. ICT Competency Level of Teacher Education Professionals in the Central Visayas Region, Philippines

    Dave E. Marcial


    Full Text Available Information and communication technology (ICT plays a vital role in teaching and learning. This paper presents the landscape of ICT competency of faculty in the teacher education institutions in the central region of the Philippines. Specifically, the study investigates the ICT competency level in institutions of higher learning offering teacher education programs in the four provinces in Central Visayas, Philippines. A total of 383 survey responses was analyzed in the study. Respondents are all faculty handling any professional and/or specialization courses in the teacher education. The ICT competency level is measured empirically in terms of work aspects described in the UNESCO’s ICT Competency Standards for Teachers. The instrument used in data gathering was a survey questionnaire.This study reveals that the ICT competency level of the respondents is in the knowledge deepening level. The result implies that the teacher educators are integrative, student-centered and collaborative using the necessary tools. It is concluded that there is a slight technology infusion into the teaching instruction among teacher educators in Region 7. There is a need to improve the level of competency among the teacher educators, particularly skills in using complex and pervasive ICT tools to achieve innovative teaching and learning.

  14. A central region of Gli2 regulates its localization to the primary cilium and transcriptional activity.

    Santos, Nicole; Reiter, Jeremy F


    Signaling through vertebrate Hedgehog (Hh) proteins depends on the primary cilium. In response to Hh signals, the transcriptional activator of the pathway, Gli2, accumulates at the ciliary tip, raising the possibility that ciliary localization is important for Gli2 activation. To test this hypothesis, we used the Floxin system to create knock-in Gli2 alleles in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to allow methodical testing of which domains and residues are essential for the ciliary localization of Gli2. The Gli2 zinc fingers, transcriptional activation domain, repressor domain, phosphorylation cluster and a Sufu binding motif were each dispensable for ciliary localization. Mutating residues that are required for Gli2 sumoylation and nuclear trafficking also did not abrogate ciliary localization. By contrast, several other domains restricted Gli2 nuclear localization, and a central region, distinct from previously characterized domains, was required for ciliary localization. In addition to an inability to localize to cilia, Gli2 lacking this central domain was unable to activate target genes. Thus, our systematic analysis in ESCs reveals that distinct regions of Gli2 regulate its nuclear and ciliary localization. The identification of a domain essential for both ciliary localization and transcriptional activity suggests that ciliary localization of Gli2 is required for its activation.

  15. Influence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas

    H. Pang


    Full Text Available Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the ER and the Dasuopu ice core drilling sites is only ∼125 km, the stable isotopic record (δ18O or δD of the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy while the Dasuopu core as a temperature proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cores remains a subject of debate. Based on analysis of regional precipitation patterns over the region, we find that the different interpretations of the Dasuopu and Everest isotopic records may not be contradictive. The north–south and west–east seesaws of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM precipitation are primarily responsible for precipitation falling at the ER site, which results in a negative correlation between the ER δ18O or δD record and precipitation amount along the southern slope of the central Himalayas, corresponding to the "amount effect". In addition to the ISM precipitation, non-summer monsoonal precipitation associated with winter westerlies also significantly contributes to precipitation falling at the Dasuopu site, which may cause a positive correlation between the Dasuopu stable isotopic record and temperature, in response to the "temperature effect". Our results have important implications for interpreting the stable isotopic ice core records recovered from different climatological regimes of the Himalayas.

  16. [Supporting system for regional medical liaison and role of a central hospital].

    Kitano, Seigo


    The current status and future development of the supporting system for regional medical liaison and a role of the central hospital in the network were outlined. One of such supportive systems for regional medical network would be tele-medicine or tele-mentoring that include radiological and pathological diagnoses in distance, tele-surgery, and tele-education. Most of these systems are facilitated in the universities and affiliated hospitals and generally need high-cost communication equipment. Another approach is the information sharing system through the modern telecommunication network. Electronic patient record (EPR) systems are the key to achieving this and currently active in several areas. Since the recent progress in information technology (IT) is astonishing, community-based EPR systems are practical with the capability of clinical information exchange between different institutions and even with patients. The role of a central hospital in these systems must be capacious. Management and continuous operation of the system would be the most important affairs. For extending these supporting systems to the ones working in a broader area, the establishment of a "one ID for one patient" system is crucial. Strict security management of the data base and legal institution for distant medical practice still remain as the future tasks.

  17. Inorganic constituents of urban air pollution in the Lazio region (Central Italy).

    Perrino, C; Canepari, S; Cardarelli, E; Catrambone, M; Sargolini, T


    A field study was carried out at six locations in the Lazio region (Central Italy) aimed at characterising atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from the point of view of the chemical composition and grain size distribution of the particles, the mixing properties of the atmosphere, the frequency and relevance of natural events. The combination of four different analytical techniques (ion chromatography, X-ray fluorescence and ICP for inorganic components, thermo-optical analysis for carbon compounds) yielded sound results in terms of characterisation of the air masses. During the first three months of the study (October-December 2004), many pollution events of natural (sea-salt or desert dust episodes) or anthropogenic nature were identified and characterised. More than 90% of the collected mass was identified by chemical analysis. The central role played by the mixing properties of the lower atmosphere when pollution events occurred was highlighted. The results show a major impact of primary anthropogenic pollutants on traffic stations and a homogeneous distribution of secondary pollutants over the regional area. An evaluation of the sources of PM and an identification of possible reliable tracers were obtained using a chemical fractionation procedure.

  18. Visual function among commercial vehicle drivers in the central region of Ghana.

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Kyei, Samuel; Asare, Frederick Afum; Owusu-Ansah, Andrew; Awuah, Agnes; Darko-Takyi, Charles


    To determine the relationship between some visual functions: colour vision defects, abnormal stereopsis, visual acuity and the occurrence of road traffic accident (RTAs) among commercial vehicle drivers in the central region of Ghana, and to assess their knowledge of these anomalies. A descriptive cross-sectional study employing a multi-stage random sampling approach was conducted in the major commercial towns within the central region of Ghana. Participants were taken through a comprehensive eye examination after the administration of a structured questionnaire. 520 male commercial vehicle drivers were enrolled for this study with a mean age of 39.23 years ±10.96 years and mean visual acuity of 0.02±0.08 logMAR. Protans were more likely to be involved in RTAs (χ(2)=6.194, p=0.034). However, there was no statistically significant association between abnormal stereopsis (OR=0.89 95% CI: 0.44-1.80, p=0.56), poor vision due to refractive error (χ(2)=3.090, p=0.388) and the occurrence of RTAs. While 86.9% were aware of abnormal stereopsis, only 45% were aware of colour vision defects. There was a statistically significant association between stereopsis anomaly and colour vision defect (r=0.371, pstereopsis anomalies, refractive errors and the occurrence of RTAs. Drivers were less knowledgeable on colour vision defects as compared to stereopsis anomalies. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of the Seismic Cycle of large Earthquakes in central Peru: Lima Region

    Norabuena, E. O.; Quiroz, W.; Dixon, T. H.


    Since historical times, the Peruvian subduction zone has been source of large and destructive earthquakes. The more damaging one occurred on May 30 1970 offshore Peru’s northern city of Chimbote with a death toll of 70,000 people and several hundred US million dollars in property damage. More recently, three contiguous plate interface segments in southern Peru completed their seismic cycle generating the 1996 Nazca (Mw 7.1), the 2001 Atico-Arequipa (Mw 8.4) and the 2007 Pisco (Mw 7.9) earthquakes. GPS measurements obtained between 1994-2001 by IGP-CIW an University of Miami-RSMAS on the central Andes of Peru and Bolivia were used to estimate their coseismic displacements and late stage of interseismic strain accumulation. However, we focus our interest in central Peru-Lima region, which with its about 9’000,000 inhabitants is located over a locked plate interface that has not broken with magnitude Mw 8 earthquakes since May 1940, September 1966 and October 1974. We use a network of 11 GPS monuments to estimate the interseismic velocity field, infer spatial variations of interplate coupling and its relation with the background seismicity of the region.

  20. Industrial Countermeasures for Economic Development in the Central Region in Post-financial-crisis Era


    From adjusting industrial structure,strengthening industrial guidance and promoting industrial cluster,this paper puts forward the industrial countermeasures for regional economic development in Central China in post-financial-crisis era as follows.In terms of industrial structure adjustment,we should optimize the structure of agricultural production,and form agricultural industrialization operation;propel upgrading of industrial structure,and promote the concentration of industry;improve the development of service industry,and meet the diversified needs of consumers.In terms of industrial guidance,we should give priority to the development of leading industries,and foster leading enterprises;develop hi-tech industry rapidly,and cultivate new industrialization technology base in the central region.In terms of industrial cluster,we should strengthen government guidance,and create good policy environment for the development of industrial cluster;foster core enterprises,and promote spontaneous establishment of trade association or chamber of commerce;establish hi-tech industrial cluster,and further improve the cooperative mechanism of "production,teaching and research".

  1. Beam tracking simulation in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron

    Anggraita, Pramudita; Santosa, Budi; Taufik, Mulyani, Emy; Diah, Frida Iswinning


    This paper reports the trajectories simulation of proton beam in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron, operating with negative proton beam (for easier beam extraction using a stripper foil), 40 kV peak accelerating dee voltage at fourth harmonic frequency of 77.88 MHz, and average magnetic field of 1.275 T. The central region covers fields of 240mm × 240mm × 30mm size at 1mm resolution. The calculation was also done at finer 0.25mm resolution covering fields of 30mm × 30mm × 4mm size to see the effects of 0.55mm horizontal width of the ion source window and the halted trajectories of positive proton beam. The simulations show up to 7 turns of orbital trajectories, reaching about 1 MeV of beam energy. The distribution of accelerating electric fields and magnetic fields inside the cyclotron were calculated in 3 dimension using Opera3D code and Tosca modules for static magnetic and electric fields. The trajectory simulation was carried out using Scilab 5.3.3 code.

  2. The magnetic field structure of the central region in M31

    Gießübel, René


    The Andromeda Galaxy (M31) is the nearest grand-design spiral galaxy. Thus far most studies in the radio regime concentrated on the 10 kpc ring. The central region of M31 has significantly different properties than the outer parts: The star formation rate is low, and inclination and position angle are largely different from the outer disk. The existing model of the magnetic field in the radial range 6<=r<=14 kpc is extended to the innermost part r<=0.5 kpc to ultimately achieve a picture of the entire magnetic field in M31. We combined observations taken with the VLA at 3.6 cm and 6.2 cm with data from the Effelsberg 100-m telescope to fill the missing spacings of the synthesis data. The resulting polarization maps were averaged in sectors to analyse the azimuthal behaviour of the polarized intensity (PI), rotation measure (RM), and apparent pitch angle (\\phi_obs). We developed a simplified 3-D model for the magnetic field in the central region to explain the azimuthal behaviour of the three observab...

  3. Sixteen additional enhancers associated with the chicken Sox2 locus outside the central 50-kb region.

    Okamoto, Ryuji; Uchikawa, Masanori; Kondoh, Hisato


    The transcription factor Sox2 plays a central role in the regulation of neuro-sensory development, and many other developmental processes. To gain an in depth understanding of the Sox2 gene regulation, we previously investigated the Sox2-proximal 50-kb region of the chicken genome to determine enhancers based on functional assays using chicken embryo electroporation. We identified 11 enhancers with specificity for neuro-sensory tissues. In this study, we extended the analysis of Sox2 locus-associated enhancers to a 200-kb region and identified 16 additional enhancers with functions in neuro-sensory development. These enhancers roughly correspond to a fraction of the sequence blocks that are highly conserved between chicken and mammalian genomes. The neural enhancers were activated in sequence, thereby creating a complex pattern of functional overlaps in the developing central nervous system (CNS). The variations in the specificities of the sensory enhancers also reflected the intermediate steps of sensory tissue development. This study provides an example where a single transcription factor gene has numerous regulatory elements that allow it to fulfill many functional roles in different biological contexts.

  4. Wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth and associated radiative impacts over the central Himalayan region

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Kumar, K.  Niranjan; Reddy, Kishore; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Newsom, Rob K.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.


    In this study, we present a case study on 16 October 2011 to show the first observational evidence of the influence of short period gravity waves in aerosol transport during daytime over the central Himalayan region. The Doppler lidar data has been utilized to address the daytime boundary layer evolution and related aerosol dynamics over the site. Mixing layer height is estimated by wavelet covariance transform method and found to be ~ 0.7 km, AGL. Aerosol optical depth observations during daytime revealed an asymmetry showing clear enhancement during afternoon hours as compared to forenoon. Interestingly, Fourier and wavelet analysis of vertical velocity and attenuated backscatter showed similar 50-90 min short period gravity wave signatures during afternoon hours. Moreover, our observations showed that gravity waves are dominant within the boundary layer implying that the daytime boundary layer dynamics is playing a vital role in transporting the aerosols from surface to the top of the boundary layer. Similar modulations are also evident in surface parameters like temperature, relative humidity and wind speed indicating these waves are associated with the dynamical aspects over Himalayan region. Finally, time evolution of range-23 height indicator snapshots during daytime showed strong upward velocities especially during afternoon hours implying that convective processes through short period gravity waves plays a significant role in transporting aerosols from the nearby valley region to boundary layer top over the site. These observations also establish the importance of wave induced daytime convective boundary layer dynamics in the lower Himalayan region.

  5. Kennicutt-Schmidt Law in the Central Region of NGC 4321 as Seen by ALMA.

    Azeez, Jazeel H; Hwang, C-Y; Abidin, Zamri Z; Ibrahim, Zainol A


    We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-0 science verification data of the CO(1-0) line emission in the central region of NGC 4321 (also known as M100) at the distance of 17.1 Mpc and VLA, L-band data of HI of the same galaxy. We have drawn the center area of M100 in the (12)CO(J = 1-0) line with the resolution of (3.87″ × 2.53″) as viewed by ALMA, along with HI and Spitzer 8 and 3.6 μm data. The relationship between the surface density of molecular gas mass ∑H2 and that of star formation rate ∑SFR has been investigated, in addition to the relationship between the surface density of the neutral atomic hydrogen mass and that of ∑SFR (Kennicutt-Schmidt law) in this galaxy with a high spatial resolution. The results indicate that a significant correlation exists between the SFR surface density and the molecular gas mass density in the ~2 kpc region. The power-law index has been determined for three regions: center, upper and lower arms. The value of this index in the center region is 1.13, which follows the traditional (K-S) law and indicates that the molecular gas is affected by star formation.

  6. Chinese-Mandarin: Wade-Giles Romanization Drills.

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    Lessons are presented on Mandarin Chinese concerning how to convert from the Yale romanization system to the Wade-Giles romanization system. The Yale system is the one most widely studied in the United States. Since biographical and geographical names in newspapers, magazines, books, and maps are still spelled out in the Wade-Giles romanization…

  7. How to romanize Korean characters in international journals

    Sun Huh


    Full Text Available For editors and manuscript editors, the romanization of Korean characters is a topic that should be understood thoroughly, because Korean proper nouns have become more widely used worldwide due to phenomena such as Hallyu (the Korean wave. In this report, I describe the 2 major romanization systems used in Korea: the Korean government’s romanization system and the McCune-Reischauer system. I also describe the transliteration guidelines presented in a variety of reference styles, such as the CSE (Council of Science Editors, ACS (American Chemical Society, AMA (American Medical Association, APA (American Psychological Association, IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers styles and the NLM (National Library of Medicine style guide. I found that 2 journals have adopted the Korean government’s romanization system, while 10 use the McCune-Reischauer system. Other journals do not specifically mention a romanization system. Editors should select a romanization system and use it consistently. When presenting a reference that includes romanized text, the journal’s house style should be followed, based on international reference citation styles. Chinese characters in documents published in Korea should be romanized according to the Korean pronunciation.

  8. English Vocabularies Derived from Greek and Roman Mythology

    陈雪桥; 赵孔银


    1. introduction 1.1 the current situation of greek and roman mythology in english study The backgrounds knowledge of Greek and Roman mythology are so familiar to native English speakers, but so unfamiliar to us Non-English-speaking country English learners. Until now, we are not concentrated on those backgrounds knowledge but on listening,

  9. Doctors in ancient Greek and Roman rhetorical education.

    Gibson, Craig A


    This article collects and examines all references to doctors in rhetorical exercises used in ancient Greek and Roman schools in the Roman Empire. While doctors are sometimes portrayed positively as philanthropic, expert practitioners of their divinely sanctioned art, they are more often depicted as facing charges for poisoning their patients.

  10. Griezelig gewoon : Gotieke verschijningen in Nederlandse romans, 1980-1995

    Andeweg, Agnes


    Hedendaagse Nederlandse auteurs putten naar hartenlust uit het repertoire van de gothic novel. In dit boek analyseert Agnes Andeweg zes van zulke gotieke romans van auteurs als Frans Kellendonk, Gerard Reve, Thomas Rosenboom en Renate Dorrestein. Deze romans laten zich lezen als een commentaar op de

  11. Wave climate and trends in the Pacific region off Mexico and Central America

    García-Nava, Héctor; Esquivel-Trava, Bernardo; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.


    Proper planning of maritime activities strongly depends on the prior knowledge of wave characteristics. In particular, knowledge of wave climate and its variability is essential for offshore and coastal operations and engineering projects. This work describes the wave climate and its variability in the Pacific region off Mexico and Central America (PMCA) based on a 19 years wave hindcast. It is found that the variability of the wave height is dominated by changes of the swell arriving from the North Pacific and of the waves generated in the Gulfs of Tehuantepec and Papagayo. The highest waves in PMCA region are associated with the occurrence of tropical storms however; tropical storms are so sparse in time and space that have little influence in the long-term mean. An analysis of the correlation of the monthly anomaly of wave height with several climate indices suggests that the major source of variability in PMCA region is El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). It is also suggested that, through the Pacific-North America teleconnection, ENSO modifies the storms characteristics over the North Pacific and causes changes in the waves arriving into PMCA region. In PMCA region wave height exhibits a negative trend almost everywhere. Notwithstanding, trends are only statistically significant in regions dominated by swell from the North Pacific, with decreasing rates between -1 to -3 cm.yr-1. This study suggests that the variability of the waves conditions over the North Pacific are related to changes of the strength and position of the Aleutian Low which are evidenced by the behaviour of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. If this is the case, the observed negative trends are expected to be part of a multi-decadal oscillation rather than a long-term behaviour.

  12. Matching from H(-) multicusp source to central region of a 100 MeV compact cyclotron for high current injection.

    Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, Tianjue; Lu, Yinlong; Jia, Xianlu; Guan, Fengping; Lin, Yuzheng


    The way of matching the beam from an external ion source to the central region of the cyclotron CYCIAE-100 is presented in this article. The transverse acceptances of the central region were calculated, which provided the matching ellipse parameter requirements to the injection transport optics design. The optics of the injection line was simulated using TRANSOPTR, which allowed space charge effect calculation, and neutralization was taken into account.

  13. Matching from H- multicusp source to central region of a 100MeV compact cyclotron for high current injectiona)

    Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, Tianjue; Lu, Yinlong; Jia, Xianlu; Guan, Fengping; Lin, Yuzheng


    The way of matching the beam from an external ion source to the central region of the cyclotron CYCIAE-100 is presented in this article. The transverse acceptances of the central region were calculated, which provided the matching ellipse parameter requirements to the injection transport optics design. The optics of the injection line was simulated using TRANSOPTR, which allowed space charge effect calculation, and neutralization was taken into account.

  14. Study on using high injection voltage and spiral inflector in the central region of VEC

    V S Pandit


    A feasibility study of using high injection voltage and spiral inflector in the present heavy ion central region of VEC is described. Conditions necessary for waist-to-waist transfer of the ion beam in the hole lens of main magnet have been obtained. The results of orbit studies of a variety of heavy ions indicate that a spiral inflector can be used in the central region.

  15. An Overview of Urban Vulnerability to Natural Disasters and Climate Change in Central America & the Caribbean Region

    Gencer, Ebru A.


    Central America and the Caribbean is one of the most hazard-prone regions in the world. In addition, the region is heavily affected by poverty, unemployment, critical management of natural resources, and urban conglomeration in capital cities, especially in the Small Island Developing States, increasing vulnerability and risk to natural disasters and climate change. This paper examines characteristics of urban vulnerability to natural disasters and climate change in the Central America and th...

  16. Solution and crystallographic structures of the central region of the phosphoprotein from human metapneumovirus.

    Cedric Leyrat

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (HMPV of the family Paramyxoviridae is a major cause of respiratory illness worldwide. Phosphoproteins (P from Paramyxoviridae are essential co-factors of the viral RNA polymerase that form tetramers and possess long intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs. We located the central region of HMPV P (P(ced which is involved in tetramerization using disorder analysis and modeled its 3D structure ab initio using Rosetta fold-and-dock. We characterized the solution-structure of P(ced using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and carried out direct fitting to the scattering data to filter out incorrect models. Molecular dynamics simulations (MDS and ensemble optimization were employed to select correct models and capture the dynamic character of P(ced. Our analysis revealed that oligomerization involves a compact central core located between residues 169-194 (P(core, that is surrounded by flexible regions with α-helical propensity. We crystallized this fragment and solved its structure at 3.1 Å resolution by molecular replacement, using the folded core from our SAXS-validated ab initio model. The RMSD between modeled and experimental tetramers is as low as 0.9 Å, demonstrating the accuracy of the approach. A comparison of the structure of HMPV P to existing mononegavirales P(ced structures suggests that P(ced evolved under weak selective pressure. Finally, we discuss the advantages of using SAXS in combination with ab initio modeling and MDS to solve the structure of small, homo-oligomeric protein complexes.

  17. Regionalization and classification of bioclimatic zones in the central-northeastern region of Mexico using principal component analysis (PCA)

    Pineda-Martinez, L.F.; Carbajal, N.; Medina-Roldan, E. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, A. C., San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    Applying principal component analysis (PCA), we determined climate zones in a topographic gradient in the central-northeastern part of Mexico. We employed nearly 30 years of monthly temperature and precipitation data at 173 meteorological stations. The climate classification was carried out applying the Koeppen system modified for the conditions of Mexico. PCA indicates a regionalization in agreement with topographic characteristics and vegetation. We describe the different bioclimatic zones, associated with typical vegetation, for each climate using geographical information systems (GIS). [Spanish] Utilizando un analisis de componentes principales, determinamos zonas climaticas en un gradiente topografico en la zona centro-noreste de Mexico. Se emplearon datos de precipitacion y temperatura medias mensuales por un periodo de 30 anos de 173 estaciones meteorologicas. La clasificacion del clima fue llevada a cabo de acuerdo con el sistema de Koeppen modificado para las condiciones de Mexico. El analisis de componentes principales indico una regionalizacion que concuerda con caracteristicas de topografia y vegetacion. Se describen zonas bioclimaticas, asociadas a vegetacion tipica para cada clima, usando sistemas de informacion geografica (SIG).

  18. Healing Gods, Heroes and Rituals in the Graeco-Roman World

    Panayotis Pachis


    Full Text Available This editorial introduces the articles published within the OLH Special Collection, ‘Healing Gods, Heroes and Rituals in the Graeco-Roman World’. The first two articles in this collection interrogate the figures of specific healing gods. Olympia Panagiotidou’s article ‘Asclepius’ Myths and Healing Narratives: Counter-Intuitive Concepts and Cultural Expectations’ focuses on the curative features that defined the image of Asclepius, the most famous of the healing gods. The next article in the collection, ‘The Fate of a Healing Goddess: Ocular Pathologies, the Antonine Plague, and the Ancient Roman Cult of Bona Dea’ by Leonardo Ambasciano, interrogates the religious figure of another healing agent: the Italian goddess Bona Dea who was particularly venerated in Rome and in the region of Latium and whose cult reveals the way in which ancient Roman androcentric control over women was institutionalised through religious figures.  The third article in the collection, Audrey Ferlut’s ‘Goddesses as Consorts of the Healing Gods in 'Gallia Belgica' and the 'Germaniae': Forms of Cult and Ritual Practices’ considers the impact that cults dedicated to gods and goddesses had on populations in the wider area of the Roman Empire, focusing on the Northern provinces of the Western Roman Empire ('Gallia Belgica' and the 'Germaniae'. The collection’s final article, ‘From Textual Reception to Textual Codification: Thessalos and the Quest for Authenticity’ by Spyros Piperakis, moves the discussion from the question of cult practices to ‘alternative’ healing therapies in antiquity. Piperakis deals with astrological medicine, one of many alternative therapeutic methods that became popular during the Hellenistic and Roman period.  Taken together, the articles in ‘Healing Gods, Heroes and Rituals in the Graeco-Roman World’ demonstrate that we need to approach the study of ancient myths and cults within their socio-cultural context

  19. Roman contre roman dans l’organisation du manuscrit du Vatican, Regina Latina 1725

    Francis Gingras


    Full Text Available Alors que les développements structuralistes et post-structuralistes ont favorisé la “textualisation” de la littérature médiévale, l’auteur suggère que la recontextualisation de la réception du roman médiéval passe par un retour aux manuscrits. Appliquée au manuscrit du Vatican, Regina Latina 1725, cette hypothèse de recherche révèle une technique de contrepoint que permet la juxtaposition de différents romans et dont, en dernier recours, le lecteur est toujours un peu juge.

  20. Seismotectonic pattern and the source region of volcanism in the central part of Sunda Arc

    Špičák, Aleš; Hanuš, Václav; Vaněk, Jiří


    The seismotectonic pattern in the central part of the Sunda Arc (Java, Nusa Tenggara) was studied in relation to the distribution of active calc-alkaline volcanoes, using global seismological data. Hypocentral determinations of the International Seismological Centre from the period 1964-1999, as relocated by Engdahl, and Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor Solutions from the period 1976-2003 were used. The following phenomena, which could assist the location of the source region of primary magma for island arc calc-alkaline volcanism, were observed: (1) An aseismic gap without any strong teleseismically recorded earthquakes was found in the Wadati-Benioff zone of the subducting slab along the whole investigated region of the Sunda Arc, forming a continuous strip of laterally variable depth and shape, at depths between 100 and 200 km. The absence of strong earthquakes (with mb>4.0) indicates a significant change in the mechanical properties of the subducting slab at intermediate depths. All active calc-alkaline volcanoes in the Sunda Arc are located above this gap. (2) The majority of earthquakes occurring in the lithospheric wedge of the Eurasian Plate above the subducted slab could be attributed to several deep-rooted seismically active fracture zones of regional extent. All delineated active fracture zones display a thrust tectonic regime as shown by the available fault plane solutions. (3) Clusters of earthquakes were found beneath active volcanoes of western Java, Bali and Nusa Tenggara in the lithospheric wedge above the slab and identified as seismically active columns. These clusters occur only beneath the volcanoes that are located at the outcrops of seismically active fracture zones. We interpret the earthquakes in these clusters beneath volcanoes as events induced by magma transport through the medium of the lithospheric wedge that has been subcritically pre-stressed by the process of plate convergence. (4) Beneath the volcanoes of central Java no seismically

  1. Hydrological and vegetation shifts in the Wallacean region of central Indonesia since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Wicaksono, Satrio A.; Russell, James M.; Holbourn, Ann; Kuhnt, Wolfgang


    Precipitation is the most important variable of Indonesian climate, yet there are substantial uncertainties about past and future hydroclimate dynamics over the region. This study explores vegetation and rainfall and associated changes in atmospheric circulation during the past 26,000 years in Wallacea, a biogeographical area in central Indonesia, wedged between the Sunda and Sahul shelves and known for its exceptionally high rainforest biodiversity. We use terrestrial plant biomarkers from sediment cores retrieved from Mandar Bay, off west Sulawesi, to reconstruct changes in Wallacean vegetation and climate since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Enriched leaf wax carbon isotope (δ13Cwax) values recorded in Mandar Bay during the LGM, together with other regional vegetation records, document grassland expansion, implying a regionally dry, and possibly more seasonal, glacial climate. Depleted leaf wax deuterium isotope (δDwax) values in Mandar Bay during the LGM, and low reconstructed precipitation isotope compositions from nearby sites, reveal an intensified Austral-Asian summer monsoon circulation and a southward shift of the mean position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, likely due to strong southern hemisphere summer insolation and the presence of large northern hemisphere ice sheets. Mandar Bay δ13Cwax was anti-correlated with δDwax during the LGM and the last deglaciation, but was positively correlated during most of the Holocene, indicating time-varying controls on the isotopic composition of rainfall in this region. The inundation event of the Sunda Shelf and in particular the opening of the Java Sea and Karimata Strait between 9.4 and 11.1 thousand years ago might have provided new moisture sources for regional convection and/or influenced moisture source trajectories, providing the trigger for shifts in atmospheric circulation and the controls on precipitation isotope compositions from the LGM to the Holocene.

  2. Molecular analysis of HBV genotypes and subgenotypes in the Central-East region of Tunisia

    Gharbi Jawhar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tunisia, country of intermediate endemicity for Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, most molecular studies on the virus have been carried out in the North of the country and little is known about other regions. The aim of this study was to determine HBV genotype and subgenotypes in Central-East Tunisia. A total of 217 HBs antigen positive patients were enrolled and determination of genotype was investigated in 130 patients with detectable HBV DNA. HBV genotyping methods were: PCR-RFLP on the pre-S region, a PCR using type-specific primers in the S region (TSP-PCR and partial sequencing in the pre-S region. Results Three genotypes (D, B and A were detected by the PCR-RFLP method and two (D and A with the TSP-PCR method, the concordance between the two methods was 93%. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 strains, retrieved the same genotype (D and A for samples with concordant results and genotype D for samples with discordant results. The sequences of discordant genotypes had a restriction site in the pre-S gene which led to erroneous result by the PCR-RFLP method. Thus, prevalence of genotype D and A was 96% and 4%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed the predominance of two subgenotypes D1 (55% and D7 (41%. Only one strain clustered with D3 subgenotype (3%. Conclusions Predominance of subgenotype D7 appears to occur in northern regions of Africa with transition to subgenotype D1 in the East of the continent. HBV genetic variability may lead to wrong results in rapid genotyping methods and sequence analysis is needed to clarify atypical results.

  3. Stone mortars in Roman Cisalpine: new specimens

    Andrea Caffini


    Full Text Available The mortar, made of stone or marble, represents artifact in Cisalpine widespread elsewhere in the Roman world. the morphologies are substantially grouped into two basic shapes: type 1 presents a hemispherical bowl more or less flattened, Type 2 is characterized by a conical reverse body, more or less flared. In the mortars were subjected to pounding and grinding, using a pestle driven by hand, raw materials of various origin. The fields of application were mainly three: alimentary, officinal and cosmetic. In some cases the generic definition of mortar is applied improperly to marble containers probably only be used for ornamental. It 'also demonstrated the use of artifacts attributable to type 2 as a function of urns. Therefore, in reference to decontextualized pieces, you should use a definition not unique, reflecting the different possible meanings of the artifact.

  4. Monitoring variations of inland lakes in the arid region of Central Asia

    Jie BAI; Xi CHEN; Liao YANG; Hui FANG


    Inland lakes are the major surface water resource in the arid regions of Central Asia.Therefore,the surface area changes in inland lakes have been a sensitive indicator of climate changes and human activities,and have often been the focus of ecological and environmental research.This study aimed to monitor the changes in surface area of nine major lakes over a 32-year period.The water body was extracted from MSS images from the mid-1970s,TM images from the early 1990s,ETM + images in the late 1990s,and TM images in 2007.The results indicated that the total surface area of these nine lakes had decreased over time to 50.38% of the area,from 91402.06 km2 in 1975 to 46049.23 km2 in 2007.As the surface area of lakes in the western part of Central Asia was larger than that in the eastern part,the shrinking trend of lake area was more significant in the west than in the east.There was a varied reduction of closed lakes in flat regions.The most substantial decrease was in the surface area of closed lakes in flat regions.Most significantly,the area of the Aral Sea was reduced by 75.7% from its original area in 1975.The area of alpine lakes remained relatively stable; the change in surface area was less than 0.7% during the period 1975-2007.The area change in opened lakes with outlets was notably different from the other two types.The area of Zaysan had increased sharply by 5.85%,and that of Bosten had decreased by 9.1%.Sasykkol had hardly any changes in this period.Due to global climate warming,vapor transfer to the south via westerly winds had been blocked,resulting in a decrease of much-needed precipitation in the western parts of Turkmenistan,Uzbekistan,and Kazakhstan between 1970 and 2000.The decrease in precipitation and the increase in water consumption for agricultural irrigation resulted in the decrease of river runoff.Consequently,the area of inland lakes in Central Asia shrank over the past 32 years.


    Lee, Chin-Fei; Yang, Chun-Hui [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Sahai, Raghvendra [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Sanchez Contreras, Carmen [Astrobiology Center (CSIC-INTA), ESAC Campus, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain)


    CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. We have mapped its central region in continuum and molecular lines with the Submillimeter Array at 350 GHz at {approx}0.''3-0.''5 resolutions. Two components are seen in the 350 GHz continuum: (1) a compact emission at the center tracing the dense inner part of the H II region previously detected in a 23 GHz continuum and it may trace a fast ionized wind at the base; and (2) an extended thermal dust emission surrounding the H II region, tracing the dense core previously detected in HC{sub 3}N at the center of the circumstellar envelope. The dense core is dusty and may contain millimeter-sized dust grains. It may have a density enhancement in the equatorial plane. It is also detected in carbon chain molecules HC{sub 3}N and HCN and their isotopologues, with higher excitation lines tracing closer to the central star. It is also detected in CH{sub 2}CHCN toward the innermost part. Most of the emission detected here arises within {approx}630 AU (0.''7) of the central star. A simple radiative transfer model is used to derive the kinematics, physical conditions, and the chemical abundances in the dense core. The dense core is expanding and accelerating, with the velocity increasing roughly linearly from {approx}3 km s{sup -1} in the innermost part to {approx}16 km s{sup -1} at 630 AU. The mass-loss rate in the dense core is extremely high with a value of {approx}1.15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The dense core has a mass of {approx}0.47 M{sub Sun} and a dynamical age of {approx}400 yr. It could result from a recent enhanced heavy mass-loss episode that ends the asymptotic giant branch phase. The isotopic ratios of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N are 9 {+-} 4 and 150 {+-} 50, respectively, both lower than the solar values.

  6. Urban-Rural Relations in the Central Region of Mexico: A Viewpoint from Tlaxcala

    Rocío Rosales Ortega


    Full Text Available During the 90’s there was an important expansion of outsourcing industries all around the country and particularly on central region of Mexico, which enhanced an industrial diffusion that transformed the relation between rural an urban areas of the region. Labor and social practices around the textile industry on the region and particularly on the Tlaxcala state, enhanced the organization of a complex local-global network that was built on the context of the Nafta Agreement. Now a day, the local-global network around the textile industry has fall down due to the growing Chinese textile goods on the local and national market. The answer to this economic change has generated a wide range of changes among the different social actors that participated on the local-global network created by de textile industry during the golden years of the Nafta Agreement. Our research analyze the experience and strategies of a group of families from Tlaxcala, organized around the mixture of agricultural, manufacturing and service activities in order to reorganize the economic activities of their localities.

  7. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil

    Ísis Assis Braga


    Full Text Available Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5% cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4% cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned.

  8. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil.

    Braga, Ísis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; da Cruz Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura


    Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned.

  9. Multiscale regression model to infer historical temperatures in a central Mediterranean sub-regional area

    N. Diodato


    Full Text Available To reconstruct sub-regional European climate over the past centuries, several efforts have been made using historical datasets. However, only scattered information at low spatial and temporal resolution have been produced to date for the Mediterranean area. This paper has exploited, for Southern and Central Italy (Mediterranean Sub-Regional Area, an unprecedented historical dataset as an attempt to model seasonal (winter and summer air temperatures in pre-instrumental time (back to 1500. Combining information derived from proxy documentary data and large-scale simulation, a statistical methodology in the form of multiscale-temperature regression (MTR-model was developed to adapt larger-scale estimations to the sub-regional temperature pattern. The modelled response lacks essentially of autocorrelations among the residuals (marginal or any significance in the Durbin-Watson statistic, and agrees well with the independent data from the validation sample (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient >0.60. The advantage of the approach is not merely increased accuracy in estimation. Rather, it relies on the ability to extract (and exploit the right information to replicate coherent temperature series in historical times.

  10. Analysis of drought in the region of Abruzzo (Central Italy) by the Standardized Precipitation Index

    Di Lena, B.; Vergni, L.; Antenucci, F.; Todisco, F.; Mannocchi, F.


    The paper presents a comprehensive analysis of drought phenomena in the Region of Abruzzo (Central Italy) using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) computed at different time scales (3, 6, 12, 24 months). The study is based on monthly precipitation data collected from 1951 to 2009 at 69 climatic stations uniformly distributed over the region. According to the trend analysis, most stations are characterized by increments in both drought severity and variability, particularly at the longer time scales. A principal component analysis applied to SPI time series enabled to identify two main patterns: the first more correlated to the coastal areas, the second more correlated to the inland, mountainous areas. However, the spatial patterns become less defined as the time scale increases, making more uncertain the definition of homogenous areas to be used in drought management plans. In most cases, the identified drought patterns have similar negative overall tendencies, but different trend directions in some sub-periods. In particular, the first drought pattern is clearly characterized by a trend reversal (from decreasing to increasing) during the last decade. This temporal evolution, consistent with that observed by large-scale analyses in the corresponding (or near) grid points, was not detected for the second pattern, which is probably influenced by local topographic and/or orographic factors. The results confirm the complexity of drought phenomenon in a typical Mediterranean region and the necessity of high-resolution datasets to capture its temporal and spatial variability.

  11. Hydrological extremes in hyperarid regions: A diagnostic characterization of intense precipitation over the Central Arabian Peninsula

    Kumar, Kondapalli Niranjan; Entekhabi, Dara; Molini, Annalisa


    Aridity is typically associated with deep and dry daytime boundary layers, stable nighttime stratification, divergent flows, and limited large-scale moisture advection. All these factors are paramount in regulating the hydroclimatology of hyperarid regions, resulting in extremely intermittent—and often intense—local precipitation patterns. However, the link between synoptic-scale forcing and intense precipitation over arid regions has been scarcely investigated in the literature and still remains exceedingly unexplored. We present here a diagnostic study of intense precipitation in the Central Arabian Peninsula, based on the analysis of local extreme signatures embedded in synoptic patterns. Special emphasis is given to the genesis of winter extremes over the Peninsula, and to possible effects of synchronization between the atmospheric circulation over the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. Based on composites of the tropospheric circulation for a large ensemble of intense events, we show that moisture necessary to trigger winter extremes over the Peninsula starts to build up in average 8 days before heavy rainfall occurrence, mainly as a consequence of the interplay between the Mediterranean and the Monsoonal circulation. Moisture advection is in turn associated with an upper troposphere cyclonic circulation and pronounced potential vorticity intrusions. Overall, our results demonstrate how large-scale precursors can be effectively used to improve the predictability of rainfall extremes in hyperarid regions.

  12. [MDCT features and anatomic-pathological basis of the diseases in central thoracic-abdominal junctional region].

    Ye, Yilan; Yang, Zhigang; Li, Hua; Deng, Wen; Li, Yuan; Guo, Yingkun


    This paper is to determine relationship between MDCT features and anatomic-pathology of the diseases in central thoracic-abdominal junctional region. 3 cadavers were cut transversely and another 3 vertically to observe the anatomy of thoracic-abdominal junctional zone. 93 patients with diseases in central thoracic-abdominal junctional zone were scanned with MDCT. The correlation between MDCT features of the diseases in central thoracic-abdominal junctional region and the anatomic-pathology of the diseases in this region was evaluated. On cadaver sections, central thoracic-abdominal junctional region was an area between anterior chest wall and dorsal spine in vertical direction. The region was separated into upper and lower sections by diaphragm. The upper section mainly contains heart and pericardium, while the lower contains broad ligament and left lobe of liver. The hiatus of diaphragm are vena caval foramen, esophageal foramen and aortic foramen in anterior-posterior turn. In the present study, 23 patients had portal hypertension, 18 had dissection of aorta, 8 got diseases in inferior vena cava, 9 had lymphoma, 12 got diseases in multiple vertebrae, 7 had lower thoracic esophageal carcinoma accompanied with metastasis in upper abdominal lymph nodes, 9 had carcinoma of abdominal esophagus and/or gastric cardia, 4 had esophageal hiatal hernia and 3 patients had neurogenic tumor in posterior mediastinum and/or superior spatium retroperitoneale. The MDCT features and distribution of the diseases in central thoracic-abdominal junctional region influence the anatomic-pathology characteristics in this region.

  13. Ozone Variations over Central Tien-Shan in Central Asia and Implications for Regional Emissions Reduction Strategies

    The variability of total column ozone (TCO) and tropospheric column ozone (TrCO) was examined in Central Asia. Measurements were conducted at the Lidar Station Teplokluchenka in eastern Kyrgyzstan for one year, July 2008–July 2009. TCO was obtained using a handheld Microtops II ...

  14. On Willingness of Rural Land Circulation and Securitization in Central Regions of China

    Jianxin; LU; Yuwei; SU


    On the basis of questionnaire survey in 54 natural villages of 22 cities( counties) in 6 central region provinces,this paper analyzed the willingness of rural land circulation and securitization and influencing factors with the aid of Logistic model and Multinomial Logit model.The study indicates that factors influencing willingness of rural land circulation and securitization mainly include land contract method,land circulation information and approaches,rights and interests of farmers infringed or not,policies of benefiting farmers,and non-agricultural skills. Finally,it came up with following pertinent policy recommendations:( 1) reforming and improving land contract methods;( 2)strengthening disclosure of land circulation information;( 3) reforming and improving land circulation approaches;( 4) strengthening protection of farmers’ rights and interests in the process of land circulation;( 5) reinforcing and implementing policies benefiting farmers;( 6) cultivating and developing farmers’ non-agricultural skills.

  15. Model selection for global and diffuse radiation over the Central Black Sea (CBS) region of Turkey

    Tarhan, Sefa [Gaziosmanpasa Univ., Dept. of Farm Machinery, Tokat (Turkey); Sari, Ahmet [Gaziosmanpasa Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Tokat (Turkey)


    Solar radiation over the Central Black Sea Region of Turkey, covering the five provinces (Amasya, Corum, Ordu, Samsun and Tokat), was analyzed to guide future projects. The maximum monthly average global solar radiation ranged from 20.05 (for Ordu) to 23.71 MJ m{sup -2} (for Tokat). The maximum monthly average daily measured sunshine duration ranged from 6.89 (for Ordu) to 11 h (for Corum). A quadratic polynomial equation was empirically developed to predict the monthly average daily global radiation. A hybrid model was also developed based on the predictions of six existing models to predict the monthly average daily diffuse and beam radiation. Various statistical tests (analysis of variance for model adequacy and t-test for significance of model parameter etc.) have shown that the models developed in this study are adequate for solar radiation prediction. (Author)

  16. Evaluating regional water scarcity: Irrigated crop water budgets for groundwater management in the Wisconsin Central Sands

    Nocco, M. A.; Kucharik, C. J.; Kraft, G.


    Regional water scarcity dilemmas between agricultural and aquatic land users pervade the humid northern lake states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan, where agricultural irrigation relies on groundwater drawn from shallow aquifers. As these aquifers have strong connectivity to surface waters, irrigation lowers water levels in lakes and wetlands and reduces stream discharges. Irrigation expansion has cultivated a 60-year water scarcity dilemma in The Wisconsin Central Sands, the largest irrigated region in the humid northern lake states, dedicated to potato, maize, and processing vegetable production. Irrigation has depleted Wisconsin Central Sands surface waters, lowering levels in some lakes by over 2 m and drying some coldwater trout streams. Aquatic ecosystems, property values, and recreational uses in some surface waters have been devastated. While the causal link between pumping and surface water stress is established, understanding crop-mediated processes, such as the timing and magnitude of groundwater consumption by evapotranspiration (ET) and groundwater recharge, will be useful in management of groundwater, irrigated cropping systems, and surface water health. Previous modeling and field efforts have compared irrigated crop water use to a natural reference condition on a net annual basis. As a result, we presently understand that for irrigated potatoes and maize, the average annual ET is greater and therefore, the average annual recharge is less than rainfed row crops, grasslands, and both coniferous and deciduous forests. However, we have a limited understanding of the magnitude and timing of ET and recharge from irrigated cropping systems on shorter time scales that proceed with the annual cropping cycle (i.e. planting, full canopy, harvest, residue cover). We seek to understand the spatiotemporal variability of crop water budgets and associated water scarcity in the Wisconsin Central Sands through detailed measurements of drainage (potential

  17. Potentialities at central region Cuba to flowering use in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. genetic improvement.

    Víctor Caraballoso


    Full Text Available The flowering of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is necessary to the cultivation genetic improvement; it is executed after 2005 by the National Center of Hybridization located in Guayos, Sancti Spíritus province and require contiguous areas. Was objective this work classifying the environment of central region of Cuba in function of sugarcane flowering. 26 localities were evaluated to soil and climatic variables and use the “C86-12” variety to the flowering recognized in other study and evaluated the flowering intensity. The principal component was used to identification principal variables, the automatic classification analyses to clustering and discriminant analysis to corroborate them. The result show a high association flowering and altitude and the climatic variables associate them. The localities were clustering in three groups with 100 % of good classification. One locality was selecting by each group. The handle combine to localities increased the parental flowering and increased exploitation of genetic variability in the sugarcane.

  18. Socio-economic vulnerability to climate change in the central mountainous region of eastern Mexico.

    Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Bonifacio-Bautista, Martín; Barradas, Víctor L


    Climate change effects are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others. In Mexico, climate variability associated with climate change has important socio-economic and environmental impacts. From the central mountainous region of eastern Veracruz, Mexico, we analyzed data of total annual precipitation and mean annual temperature from 26 meteorological stations (1922-2008) and from General Circulation Models. We developed climate change scenarios based on the observed trends with projections to 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100, finding considerable local climate changes with reductions in precipitation of over 700 mm and increases in temperature of ~9°C for the year 2100. Deforested areas located at windward were considered more vulnerable, representing potential risk for natural environments, local communities, and the main crops cultivated (sugarcane, coffee, and corn). Socio-economic vulnerability is exacerbated in areas where temperature increases and precipitation decreases.

  19. Environmental radioactivity in four national parks of the Abruzzo region (central Italy

    S. Barbizzi


    Full Text Available Since 1998, the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e Molise ‘G. Caporale’ in Teramo is conducting radioecological surveys in the Abruzzo region (Central Italy, to acquire knowledge on the geochemical and biological mobility of radionuclides derived from the Chernobyl accident. To this end, samples of grasses, fungi, mosses and soils were collected in four national parks (Sirente-Velino, Abruzzo Lazio and Molise, the Gran Sasso and the park of Monti della Laga and Maiella. The results show that the Chernobyl fallout is still detectable in the samples collected in the four parks but the 137Cs concentrations are present in the semi-natural environments in quantities that do not create concerns from a radiological point of view.

  20. Quinoa for Marginal Environments: Toward Future Food and Nutritional Security in MENA and Central Asia Regions

    Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Rao, Nanduri K.; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Shahid, Mohammad; Alshankiti, Abdullah; Toderich, Kristina; Gill, Shagufta; Butt, Khalil Ur Rahman


    Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a mean to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries. PMID:27066019

  1. Quinoa for marginal environments: Towards future food and nutritional security in MENA and Central Asia regions

    Redouane eChoukr-allah


    Full Text Available Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a means to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries.

  2. Development Plan for Under- forest Economy of Henan Province Based on Central Plains Economic Region

    Xiaodong ZHAO; Yimin ZHAO


    Firstly,this paper analyzed current situations,major practice and existing problems of under-forest economy in Henan Province.Then,it made an in-depth discussion of guiding thought,principle and objectives,construction task and safeguarding measures of the underforest economic development plan. Besides,it analyzed benefits of the under-forest economic development plan. By 2017,the area of underforest economic land will reach 1. 60 million hm2,create output value of 155. 2 billion yuan( accounting for more than 20% of forest output value),provide 3. 27 million jobs,and will greatly increase ecological carrying capacity of construction and development of the Central Plains Economic Region( CPER).

  3. Evaluation of commercial grated cheese in the central region of Brazil for microbiological quality and safety.

    de Lima, Thaís Cristina Dias; da Silva, Patrícia Helena Caldeira; de Souza, Stefânia Márcia; Nero, Luís Augusto; Ferreira, Márcia de Aguiar


    This study aims to further the scientific understanding of the microbial quality and safety of grated cheese. Samples of grated cheese product (n = 20) were obtained from markets in the central region of Brazil and submitted to microbiological analysis using conventional and alternative (Petrifilm™ and RIDA(®) plates) methodologies. Based only on the criteria from the Brazilian Health Ministry, all samples were considered adequate for consumption. However, most samples presented foreign substances and high levels of contamination by other hygiene indicator microorganisms, indicating failures in processing and possible risks to consumers. Despite the hygienic quality of the samples, the obtained results showed good correlation indexes and similarities between the conventional and the alternative methodologies, indicating their viability for the quality control of grated cheese.

  4. [Results of the treatment of open heart injuries at a central regional hospital].

    Segida, V F; Efremov, N I; Chernov, A I


    In a period of 10 years seven patients with open injury to the heart were treated. Their ages ranged from 17 to 39 years. One patient had a gunshot injury, in six the injury was inflicted with a knife. In three patients the injuries were combined (concurrent injury to the lung in 2 and to the diaphragm in one) and in four isolated. Perforating injury of both ventricles and damage of the interventricular septum were found in one case. All patients underwent emergency closure of the heart wounds with an atraumatic synthetic thread and drainage of the pleural cavity. Complications developed in the postoperative period in six patients: suppuration of the operative wound in one and pericarditis in five. One patient died. Analysis of the obtained data testifies to the expediency of two-stage treatment with rehabilitation in cardiological departments. This shortens the period of rehabilitation of patients with open injuries to the heart treated in a central regional hospital.

  5. Demographic Factors Influencing Consumer Preferences of Seafood Consumption: Central Anatolia Region

    Osman Orkan Özer


    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to analyze seafood consumption level of consumers in Central Anatolia Region (Province Ankara and their consumption behavior. Proportional sampling method was used in determining sample size and sample size was determined as 167. Data were collected from randomly chosen individuals with face-to-face interviews. As a result of study, in order to determine possible effects of socio-economic properties of consumers on seafood consumption, CHAID analysis which is one of the decision tree analyses was used. According to the results of analysis; it can be said that dependent variables of income, education and age have effect on attitude and behavior of consumers while gender have no effect on consumption behaviors.

  6. Characterization of Baker Fjord region through its heavy metal content on sediments (Central Chilean Patagonia

    Ramón Ahumada


    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of heavy metals content (Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sr and Zn in sediments of the Baker Fjord and surrounding channels in the central region of the Chilean fjords (47°45'S, 48°15'S is analyzed. The aim of the study was characterized the patterns of abundance and distribution of these metals in surface sediments. The area corresponds to a poorly studied zone with low human activity. Distribution patterns would be influenced by rainfall conditions (local erosion, fluvial (continental sediments carried by rivers, glacier (glacier flour and estuarine circulation. Cluster analysis allows differentiation among the sampled sites and group with similar characteristics. Finally, the concentrations found were contrasted with average values of metamorphic rocks and show with some certainty that the values found for calendar for this area and the greatest concentrations are the result of natural enrichment.

  7. A study of air flow patterns affecting pollutant concentrations in the Central Region of Mexico

    Jazcilevich, Aron D.; García, Agustín. R.; Ruíz-Suárez, L. Gerardo

    Using a prognostic air quality model that includes actual emissions, air pollution regimes over the central region of Mexico are simulated. It is shown that due to the complex orography, vertical circular patterns develop over the metropolitan area of Mexico City. In this way reactive and non-reactive pollutants can travel near the surface, be transported vertically and land in an area opposite to its initial route due to convective downward currents. This changes the surface pollutant concentrations on the landing area. Also, it is shown that air pollution is transported near the surface from the metropolitan area of Mexico City through Chalco in the South-east corner of the Mexico Valley, to the Valley of Cuautla affecting this area.

  8. Central regions of LIRGs: rings, hidden starbursts, Supernovae and star clusters

    Vaisanen, Petri; Kankare, Erkki; Kotilainen, Jari; Mattila, Seppo; Rajpaul, Vinesh; Randriamanakoto, Zara; Reunanen, Juha; Ryder, Stuart; Zijlstra, Albert


    We study star formation (SF) in very active environments, in luminous IR galaxies, which are often interacting. A variety of phenomena are detected, such as central starbursts, circumnuclear SF, obscured SNe tracing the history of recent SF, massive super star clusters, and sites of strong off-nuclear SF. All of these can be ultimately used to define the sequence of triggering and propagation of star-formation and interplay with nuclear activity in the lives of gas rich galaxy interactions and mergers. In this paper we present analysis of high-spatial resolution integral field spectroscopy of central regions of two interacting LIRGs. We detect a nuclear 3.3 um PAH ring around the core of NGC 1614 with thermal-IR IFU observations. The ring's characteristics and relation to the strong star-forming ring detected in recombination lines are presented, as well as a scenario of an outward expanding starburst likely initiated with a (minor) companion detected within a tidal feature. We then present NIR IFU observatio...

  9. Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    Quade, Jay; Rech, Jason A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Latorre, Claudio; Quade, Barbra; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Fisher, Timothy


    Widespread, organic-rich diatomaceous deposits are evidence for formerly wetter times along the margins of the central Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth today. We mapped and dated these paleowetland deposits at three presently waterless locations near Salar de Punta Negra (24.5°S) on the western slope of the Andes. Elevated groundwater levels supported phreatic discharge into wetlands during two periods: 15,900 to ~ 13,800 and 12,700 to ~ 9700 cal yr BP. Dense concentrations of lithic artifacts testify to the presence of paleoindians around the wetlands late in the second wet phase (11,000?–9700 cal yr BP). Water tables dropped below the surface before 15,900 and since 8100 cal yr BP, and briefly between ~ 13,800 and 12,700 cal yr BP. This temporal pattern is repeated, with some slight differences, in rodent middens from the study area, in both paleowetland and rodent midden deposits north and south of the study area, and in lake level fluctuations on the adjacent Bolivian Altiplano. The regional synchroneity of these changes points to a strengthening of the South American Monsoon — which we term the "Central Andean Pluvial Event" — in two distinct intervals (15,900–13,800 and 12,700–9700 cal yr BP), probably induced by steepened SST gradients across the tropical Pacific (i.e., La Niña-like conditions).

  10. Investment in higher order central processing regions is not constrained by brain size in social insects.

    Muscedere, Mario L; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Moreau, Corrie S; Traniello, James F A


    The extent to which size constrains the evolution of brain organization and the genesis of complex behaviour is a central, unanswered question in evolutionary neuroscience. Advanced cognition has long been linked to the expansion of specific brain compartments, such as the neocortex in vertebrates and the mushroom bodies in insects. Scaling constraints that limit the size of these brain regions in small animals may therefore be particularly significant to behavioural evolution. Recent findings from studies of paper wasps suggest miniaturization constrains the size of central sensory processing brain centres (mushroom body calyces) in favour of peripheral, sensory input centres (antennal and optic lobes). We tested the generality of this hypothesis in diverse eusocial hymenopteran species (ants, bees and wasps) exhibiting striking variation in body size and thus brain size. Combining multiple neuroanatomical datasets from these three taxa, we found no universal size constraint on brain organization within or among species. In fact, small-bodied ants with miniscule brains had mushroom body calyces proportionally as large as or larger than those of wasps and bees with brains orders of magnitude larger. Our comparative analyses suggest that brain organization in ants is shaped more by natural selection imposed by visual demands than intrinsic design limitations.

  11. Monitoring lake level changes by altimetry in the arid region of Central Asia

    Zhao, Y.; Liao, J. J.; Shen, G. Z.; Zhang, X. L.


    The study of lake level changes in arid region of Central Asia not only has important significance for the management and sustainable development of inland water resources, but also provides the basis for further study on the response of lakes to climate change and human activities. Therefore, in this paper, eleven typical lakes in Central Asia were observed. The lake edges were obtained through image interpretation using the quasi-synchronous MODIS image, and then water level information with long period (2002-2015) was acquired using ENVISAT/RA-2 and Cryosat-2 satellite borne radar altimeter data. The results show that these 11 lakes all have obvious seasonal changes of water level in a year with a high peak at different month. During 2002 - 2015, their water levels present decreased trend generally except Sarygamysh Lake, Alakol Lake and North Aral Sea. The alpine lakes are most stables, while open lakes’ levels change the most violently and closed lakes change diversely among different lakes.

  12. Mitochondrial Control Region Variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis Populations from the Central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Ioannis A. Giantsis


    Full Text Available The variable domain 1 (VD1 domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey. A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece, relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ΦST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species’ inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels.


    Soňa Felšöciová


    Full Text Available A total of 10 wine producing grapes were collected from the Central Slovak region in 2011 and 2012, which involved 7 vineyards. Mycological analysis was carried out for the detection of fungi using standard media with focus on genera Penicillium. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method of direct placing of berry samples on agar plates and the endogenous mycobiota by the same method but the berry samples were first superficially sterilized. The resulting Penicillia were identified morphologically. The potentially toxigenic isolates were analysed for mycotoxin production by TLC method. In general representatives of Penicillium genus were isolated with higher frequency from the surface of the berries than from their interior. In regard to species Penicillium chrysogenum seems to be the most wide-spread in wine grape berries from the Central Slovak wine growing area because was detected more frequently than other species. In total, 546 fungal isolates belonging to 12 Penicillium species. Overall, two species were dominant: P. chrysogenum and P. expansum. Four potentially toxigenic species isolated from endogenous mycobiota were tested for their toxigenic ability. Out of 10 strains, all of them produced at least one mycotoxin. Of all 16 potentially toxigenic strains from exogenous mycobiota, 88% produced at least one mycotoxin. Therefore study concluded, that wine producing grapes seems to be risk products.

  14. Limnological characteristics of 56 lakes in the Central Canadian Arctic Treeline Region

    John P. SMOL


    Full Text Available Measured environmental variables from 56 lakes across the Central Canadian Treeline Region exhibited clear limnological differences among subpolar ecozones, reflecting strong latitudinal changes in biome characteristics (e.g. vegetation, permafrost, climate. Principal Components Analysis (PCA clearly separated forested sites from tundra sites based on distinct differences in limnological characteristics. Increases in major ions and related variables (e.g. dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC were higher in boreal forest sites in comparison to arctic tundra sites. The higher values recorded in the boreal forest lakes may be indirectly related to differences in climatic factors in these zones, such as the degree of permafrost development, higher precipitation and runoff, duration of ice-cover on the lakes, and thicker and better soil development. Similar to trends observed in DIC, substantially higher values for dissolved organic carbon (DOC were measured in boreal forest lakes than in arctic tundra lakes. This was likely due to higher amounts of catchment-derived DOC entering the lakes from coniferous leaf litter sources. Relative to arctic tundra lakes, boreal forest lakes had higher nutrient concentrations, particularly total nitrogen (TN, likely due to warmer conditions, a longer growing season, and higher precipitation, which would enhance nutrient cycling and primary productivity. Results suggest that modern aquatic environments at opposite sides of the central Canadian arctic treeline (i.e. boreal forest and arctic tundra exhibit distinct differences in water chemistry and physical conditions. These limnological trends may provide important information on possible future changes with additional warming.

  15. Analysis of Droughts in the Central Region of South Africa and Their Association with SST Anomalies

    Desalegn C. Edossa


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterise meteorological droughts in the Central Region of South Africa using Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI and to examine if there is a relationship between drought and El Niño events. The SPEI was used to quantify the precipitation deficit over time and space across the catchment for the time-scales that are important for planning and management of water resources. Based on 12-month time-scale, the total number of drought events identified in the area using SPEI ranged between 13 and 20 during the period of analysis (1952–1999. Considering the effects of event magnitude and duration as severity parameters, the most severe drought event was identified during 1973 followed by 1995 based on 12-month time-scale. Moreover, it was also found that the number of moderate, severe, and extreme drought events identified by SPEI follows increasing trend with decade during the period of analysis. Results of Spearman’s rank correlation test revealed that the trends exhibited by mild (SPEI-3 and SPEI-6, moderate (SPEI-12, severe (SPEI-12, and extreme (SPEI-3 drought categories are statistically significant at 5% significance level. The study also revealed that drought events in the central region of South Africa are preceded by El Niño events in the tropical Pacific (Nino 3.4 with an average lag time of 8 months between the onsets of the two events. It was found that hydrological drought events in the study area lag behind meteorological drought events with an average lag time of 7.4 months. Findings of this study can be used to forecast drought events in the area for the proper planning and management of water resources.

  16. A survey of flood disaster preparedness among hospitals in the central region of Thailand.

    Rattanakanlaya, Kanittha; Sukonthasarn, Achara; Wangsrikhun, Suparat; Chanprasit, Chawapornpan


    In 2011, Thailand was affected by the one of the worst flood disasters in recent times. Hospitals in Thailand were faced with the challenge of managing the health impacts from this natural disaster. The purpose of this study was to assess flood disaster preparedness among hospitals in the central region of Thailand. A survey questionnaire was given to twenty-seven key people responsible for hospital disaster preparedness that experienced disruptions to health services (severely, moderately and slightly) during the flood disaster in 2011 in the central region of Thailand. Of the twenty-four participating hospitals, not one had satisfied the standards in all the dimensions of flood disaster preparedness. All respondent hospitals were deficiently prepared with regard to surge capacity, the management of healthcare services and the management of the supporting systems. The availability of supplies and equipment were found to be in place but preparations were found to be inadequate in organizing staff at all participating hospitals. Trained staff members regarding disaster response were reported to be present in all respondent hospitals. Hospitals that experienced slightly disruptions to their health services did not elect to do any exercises to meet the set standards. None of the hospitals that experienced slightly disruptions to their health services performed any evaluation and improvement in terms of disaster preparedness. Many hospitals were not up to standard in terms of disaster preparedness. Hospitals should prioritize disaster preparedness to fulfill their responsibility during crisis situations and improve their flood disaster preparedness. Copyright © 2016 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia.

    Mercedes González-Ruiz

    Full Text Available A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1 whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly, or 2 whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan. Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk, but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  18. A regional inventory of rock glaciers and protalus ramparts in the central Italian Alps

    Scotti, Riccardo; Brardinoni, Francesco; Alberti, Stefano; Frattini, Paolo; Crosta, Giovanni B.


    We present a regional inventory of rock glaciers (n = 1514) and protalus ramparts (228) for the Lombardy region, central Italian Alps. To identify and classify the landforms we inspect three sequential air-orthophoto mosaics and a 2 m-DSM, and conduct confirmatory field work. The inventory forms an empirical basis to analyze: (i) the relative contribution of hillslope (i.e., talus slopes) and glacial (i.e., moraines) sediment stores to rock glacier sediment supply; (ii) linkages between the landforms inventoried and local topographic attributes; (iii) the spatial variability of periglacial activity in relation to a parsimonious set of environmental variables (i.e., elevation, precipitation, and lithology); and (iv) the effects of the Pleistocene-Holocene climatic transition on the distribution of intact and relict landforms. This analysis reveals that the elevation of rock glacier termini can vary over 200 m as a function of slope aspect. In turn, the distribution of rock glaciers among aspect categories is controlled by the structure of the valley network that promotes NW and SE exposures. Talus rock glaciers prevail numerically over the glacier-related typology, even though the latter population appears to have increased during the Holocene. Relict and intact rock glaciers have distinct spatial patterns in that the former display, on average, a 400-m elevation drop and a less clustered distribution towards northern aspects, suggesting that they have developed in more "permafrost-prone" climatic conditions. Analyzing the study region through a 27.5 km-grid has been instrumental for showing that the rock glacier specific area and terminus elevation are: (i) positively correlated with terrain elevation; and (ii) negatively correlated with mean annual precipitation. As a consequence, in relation to Holocene generalized atmospheric temperature rise, intact rock glaciers have progressively disappeared from the wetter and milder portions of the central Italian Alps

  19. Extensional Seismogenic Stress and Tectonic Movement on the Central Region of the Tibetan Plateau

    Jiren Xu


    Full Text Available Various earthquake fault types, mechanism solutions and stress fields, as well as GPS and geothermal data are analyzed for the study of the crustal movements on the Tibetan plateau and their tectonic implications. The results show that a lot of the normal faulting type-event concentrated at altitudes greater than 4000 m on the central Tibetan plateau. The altitudes concentrating normal faulting type-events can be zoned two parts: the western part, the Lhasa block, and the eastern part, the Qiangtang-Changdu region. The azimuths of T-axes are in a general E-W direction in the Lhasa block and NW-SE or NNW-SSE in the Qiangtang-Changdu region at the altitudes of the Tibetan plateau. The tensional stresses in E-W direction and NW-SE direction predominate normal faulting earthquake occurrence in the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang-Changdu region, respectively. The slipping displacements of the normal-faulting-type events have great components in near E-W direction and NW-SE direction in the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang-Changdu region, respectively. The extensions are probably an eastward or southeastward extensional motion, being mainly tectonic activity phenomena in the plateau altitudes. The extensional motions due to normal-fault earthquakes are important tectonic activity regimes on the high altitudes of the plateau. The easterly crustal extensions on the plateau are attributable to the gravitational collapse of the high plateau and eastward extrusion of hotter mantle materials beneath the eastern boundary of the plateau. Numbers of thrust-fault and strike-slip-fault earthquakes with strong compressive stress in a general NNE-SSW direction occur on the edges of the plateau.

  20. Effects of forest fires in southern and central of Zabaykal region

    L. V. Buryak


    Full Text Available The fire frequency situation in Zabaykal region from 1964 to 2015 is evaluated and discussed in the paper. The main reasons of decadal increase of fire numbers and the area burned are revealed. The main reasons of high fire frequency and the increase of fire activity in the last decades are shown. The characteristics of the weather conditions in the years of high fire frequency are presented. Fire activity was found to increase not only because of the droughts in the last decades but also due to forest disturbances in Zabaykalsky Krai by illegal logging. Based on the data from 170 sample sites laid out with the use of satellite images, forest inventory data and results of ground sample transects, the impact of the wildfires of different type, form and severity on tree mortality in the light-coniferous forests was estimated, as well as the amount of tree regeneration in the forest areas disturbed by fires, logged sites (both burned and unburned, and sites burned repeatedly was evaluated. Wildfires in the Zabaykal region were found to be strong ecological factor influencing on the probability of existence of many forest ecosystems. In case of further climate warming and repeated fires, the part of the forests may transform to the non forest areas. The steppification of the burned sites in the southern forest-steppe regions and in the low parts of the southern slopes at the border with steppe landscapes as well as desertification in the central parts of the region and swamping of burned sites located in the wet soils are observed. Wind and water soil erosion happens at the large burned sites.

  1. Gender Role Attitudes among Higher Education Students in a Borderland Central-Eastern European Region Called "Partium"

    Fényes, Hajnalka


    In this paper, we examine the attitudes towards gender roles among higher education students in a borderland Central-Eastern European region. We used the database of "The Impact of Tertiary Education on Regional Development" project (N = 602, 2010). We intend to determine what kind of attitudes towards gender roles the students identify…

  2. Analysis of Externality of Rural Labor Force Flow in Central and Western Regions of China and Benefit Compensation

    Xin; LI; Haijing; HU


    According to the theories of institutional economics and development economics,the positive and negative externality of rural labor force flowing from central and western regions and into eastern regions of China were analyzed,and then it was proposed that it is necessary to positive externality,rather than take"household register"measures to solve the problem simply.

  3. The signed Roman domatic number of a digraph

    Seyed Mahmoud Sheikholeslami


    Full Text Available Let $D$ be a finite and simple digraph with vertex set $V(D$.A {\\em signed Roman dominating function} on the digraph $D$ isa function  $f:V (D\\longrightarrow \\{-1, 1, 2\\}$ such that$\\sum_{u\\in N^-[v]}f(u\\ge 1$ for every $v\\in V(D$, where $N^-[v]$ consists of $v$ andall inner neighbors of $v$, and every vertex $u\\in V(D$ for which $f(u=-1$ has an innerneighbor $v$ for which $f(v=2$. A set $\\{f_1,f_2,\\ldots,f_d\\}$ of distinct signedRoman dominating functions on $D$ with the property that $\\sum_{i=1}^df_i(v\\le 1$ for each$v\\in V(D$, is called a {\\em signed Roman dominating family} (of functions on $D$. The maximumnumber of functions in a signed Roman dominating family on $D$ is the {\\em signed Roman domaticnumber} of $D$, denoted by $d_{sR}(D$. In this paper we initiate the study of signed Romandomatic number in digraphs and we present some sharp bounds for $d_{sR}(D$. In addition, wedetermine the signed Roman domatic number of some digraphs.  Some of our results are extensionsof well-known properties of the signed Roman domatic number of graphs.

  4. Roman domination in Cartesian product graphs and strong product graphs

    Yero, Ismael G


    A set $S$ of vertices of a graph $G$ is a dominating set for $G$ if every vertex outside of $S$ is adjacent to at least one vertex belonging to $S$. The minimum cardinality of a dominating set for $G$ is called the domination number of $G$. A map $f : V \\rightarrow \\{0, 1, 2\\}$ is a Roman dominating function on a graph $G$ if for every vertex $v$ with $f(v) = 0$, there exists a vertex $u$, adjacent to $v$, such that $f(u) = 2$. The weight of a Roman dominating function is given by $f(V) =\\sum_{u\\in V}f(u)$. The minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on $G$ is called the Roman domination number of $G$. In this article we study the Roman domination number of Cartesian product graphs and strong product graphs. More precisely, we study the relationships between the Roman domination number of product graphs and the (Roman) domination number of the factors.

  5. The spectral energy distribution of the central parsec-scaled region of AGN

    Prieto, M A; Beckert, T; Tristram, K R W; Neumayer, N; Fernández, J A; Acosta, J; Beckert, Th.


    Genuine spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the central few parsec of the nearest and brightest active galaxies in the Southern Hemisphere are presented. They are compiled from very high spatial resolution observations in the radio (VLBA), the infrared (using adaptive optics and interferometry) and the optical (HST). The SEDs are characterized by two main emission bumps peaking in the X-rays and in the infrared respectively, as it is known from optically obscured galactic nuclei. Yet, the SED shape of the IR largely departs from the one derived from large aperture data. It reveals two new features: (1) a very sharp decay at wavelengths shortward of 2 $\\mu$m, plausibly a consequence of the heavy extinction towards the core region and (2) a flattening in the 10-20 $\\mu$m range as well as a downturn toward longer wavelengths. Accordingly, the true bolometric luminosity of these core regions turns out to be about an order of magnitude lower than previously estimated on the basis of IRAS/ISO data. These findin...

  6. eHealth for Remote Regions: Findings from Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening Project.

    Sajwani, Afroz; Qureshi, Kiran; Shaikh, Tehniat; Sayani, Saleem


    Isolated communities in remote regions of Afghanistan, Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan and Tajikistan lack access to high-quality, low-cost health care services, forcing them to travel to distant parts of the country, bearing an unnecessary financial burden. The eHealth Programme under Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening (CAHSS) Project, a joint initiative between the Aga Khan Foundation, Canada and the Government of Canada, was initiated in 2013 with the aim to utilize Information and Communication Technologies to link health care institutions and providers with rural communities to provide comprehensive and coordinated care, helping minimize the barriers of distance and time. Under the CAHSS Project, access to low-cost, quality health care is provided through a regional hub and spoke teleconsultation network of government and non-government health facilities. In addition, capacity building initiatives are offered to health professionals. By 2017, the network is expected to connect seven Tier 1 tertiary care facilities with 14 Tier 2 secondary care facilities for teleconsultation and eLearning. From April 2013 to September 2014, 6140 teleconsultations have been provided across the project sites. Additionally, 52 new eLearning sessions have been developed and 2020 staff members have benefitted from eLearning sessions. Ethics and patient rights are respected during project implementation.

  7. A survey and a molecular dynamics study on the (central) hydrophobic region of prion proteins

    Zhang, Jiapu


    Prion diseases are invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and animals. Unlike most other amyloid forming neurodegenerative diseases, these can be highly infectious. Prion diseases occur in a variety of species. They include the fatal human neurodegenerative diseases Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI), Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), Kuru, the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or 'mad-cow' disease) in cattle, the chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk, and scrapie in sheep and goats, etc. Transmission across the species barrier to humans, especially in the case of BSE in Europe, CWD in North America, and variant CJDs (vCJDs) in young people of UK, is a major public health concern. Fortunately, scientists reported that the (central) hydrophobic region of prion proteins (PrP) controls the formation of diseased prions. This article gives a detailed survey on PrP hydrophobic region and does molecular dynamics studies of human PrP(110-136...


    Constantin MARDARI


    Full Text Available Arnica montana is a species of European Union interest, whose harvest from the wild and exploitation should be made under certain management measures. In Romania it is a vulnerable species due to excessive collection. It is a species with European areal occuring in pastures, meadows, forest glades, shrubs communities of mountain to the subalpine regions and, isolated, up to the alpine belt. Most of the plant communities with Arnica montana are semi-natural, with a floristic composition in which there are numerous rare or threatened species also supporting the need of their conservation. Our study was focused on a numerical classification (hierarchical, using Flexible ß algorithm and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity based on 48 plots, of the plant communities with Arnica montana from the central region of Romanian Eastern Carpathians and on the investigation of the effect of some environmental variables (Ellenberg indicator values, altitude, heat load index on their floristic composition (100 m2 scale. Vegetation – environment relationship was assessed via detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis with Monte Carlo test. Six plant communities with Arnica montana were identified (communities of Festuca rubra with Agrostis capillaris, Festuca nigrescens, Vaccinium myrtillus, Nardus stricta, Vaccinium gaultherioides and Juniperus sibirica with a floristic composition mainly shaped by altitude, temperature and soil nitrogen content. Details related to location and sites characteristics, diagnostic species, floristic composition, presence of other rare or threatened species and Arnica montana abundance were presented for all these plant communities.

  9. Investigation of regional geokinematics of central Europe using permanent GPS observations

    Bogusz, J.; Figurski, M.; Kontny, B.; Jarosinski, M.; Klos, A.; Grzempowski, P.


    Since 2009 the Centre of Applied Geomatics of the Military University of Technology acts as one of the 18 Local Analysis Centers within EPN (EUREF Permanent Network). The duty of the LAC is to process a subnetwork of EPN stations and deliver weekly free network solutions to the Combination Centre as well as make research aimed at interpretation of obtained sites' coordinates. We have used satellite data from more than 300 permanent sites located in Europe, incorporated to EPN and supplemented by the sites operated within Polish GBAS (Ground-Based Augmentation System) called ASG-EUPOS for investigation of the regional geokinematic effects. These observations were processed by means of combining the normal equations using BERNESE 5.0 software. The velocities of permanent sites were determined from time series (geocentric coordinates) in two ways: using robust estimation using M-estimators and with CATREF software with no significant differences obtained. The several methods of interpolation of velocities into regular grid were tested. The research on regional kinematics was done by scientific description of continuous velocity model in comparison with different discontinuous models with geological structure taken into consideration. Finally the strain rates of Central Europe were elaborated using GRID_STRAIN software and compared to the previously determined empirical models.

  10. The regional impact of urban emissions on climate over central Europe: present and future emission perspectives

    Huszár, Peter; Belda, Michal; Karlický, Jan; Pišoft, Petr; Halenka, Tomáš


    The regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled to the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions, to evaluate the regional impact of urban emission from central European cities on climate for present-day (2001-2010) and future (2046-2055) periods, and for the future one only emission changes are considered. Short-lived non-CO2 emissions are considered and, for the future impact, only the emission changes are accounted for (the climate is kept "fixed"). The urban impact on climate is calculated with the annihilation approach in which two experiments are performed: one with all emissions included and one without urban emissions. The radiative impacts of non-CO2 primary and secondary formed pollutants are considered, namely ozone (O3), sulfates (PSO4), nitrates (PNO3), primary organic aerosol and primary elementary carbon (POA and PEC).The validation of the modelling system is limited to key climate parameters, near-surface temperature and precipitation. It shows that the model, in general, underestimates temperature and overestimates precipitation. We attribute this behaviour to an excess of cloudiness/water vapour present in the model atmosphere as a consequence of overpredicted evaporation from the surface.The impact on climate is characterised by statistically significant cooling of up to -0.02 and -0.04 K in winter (DJF) and summer (JJA), mainly over cities. We found that the main contributors to the cooling are the direct and indirect effects of the aerosols, while the ozone titration, calculated especially for DJF, plays rather a minor role. In accordance with the vertical extent of the urban-emission-induced aerosol perturbation, cooling dominates the first few model layers up to about 150 m in DJF and 1000 m in JJA. We found a clear diurnal cycle of the radiative impacts with maximum cooling just after noon (JJA) or later in afternoon (DJF). Furthermore, statistically significant decreases of surface radiation are modelled in accordance

  11. Principal factors of soil spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem services at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo


    The essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia which is not only one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF but very important regulator of ecosystem principal services at the European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of dominated here forest-steppe and steppe Chernozems and the other soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and more than 1000-year history of human impacts. The carried out long-term researches of representative natural, rural and urban landscapes in Kursk, Orel, Tambov and Voronezh oblasts give us the regional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and development, ecosystem principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models. The outcomes of statistical modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification and CO2 emission, acidification and alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of agroecologically sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the famous Russian Chernozems begin to lose not only their unique natural features of (around 1 m of humus horizon, 4-6% of Corg and favorable agrophysical features), but traditional soil cover patterns, ecosystem services and agroecological functions. Key-site monitoring

  12. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas.

    Musgrove, M; Opsahl, S P; Mahler, B J; Herrington, C; Sample, T L; Banta, J R


    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO3(-)) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO3(-) in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008-12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO3(-) stable isotopes (δ(15)N and δ(18)O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO3(-) concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO3(-) concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO3(-) concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO3(-). These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO3(-) contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008-10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO3(-) than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a previously unrecognized

  13. Comprehensive evaluation of the changing drought characteristics in Bundelkhand region of Central India

    Thomas, T.; Jaiswal, R. K.; Nayak, P. C.; Ghosh, N. C.


    The evaluation of meteorological and hydrological drought characteristics including the dry spell analysis for planning of supplemental irrigation has been carried out for Bearma basin in Bundelkhand region of Central India. The Bundelkhand region has been under a spell of recurrent droughts. In the last decade, widespread droughts were felt during 2002-2003 and 2007-2008. The drought frequency varies between 1 in 3 years in Rehli and Deori and 1 in 5 years in Hatta. Rehli and Deori blocks falling in Sagar district have been identified to be drought prone. The meteorological drought characteristics evaluated by standardized precipitation index (SPI) indicated that drought severity has increased greatly with the drought intensity varying between -1.22 in Deori and -0.97 in Rehli. The streamflow drought characteristics have been evaluated using streamflow drought index (SDI), whereas the groundwater drought characteristics evaluated by groundwater drought index (GDI). The maximum groundwater drought intensity is observed in Rehli (-0.44). Two critical dry spells (CDS) of 14-18 days invariably occur during the principal rainy months of July and August, for which provision of life-saving supplementary irrigation is essential for the rain-fed agriculture. A drought management plan (DMP) has been developed, based on basin relevant drought indicators and drought triggers, designed and fined tuned to actual drought conditions in the basin. Based on the supply and demand scenario during droughts, an appropriate drought response plan linked to prevailing drought levels has been developed, to effectively manage the scarce water resources during persistent drought scenario. Results of the study are quite promising and the concept of DMP can be replicated to other basins in the region taking into account the basin relevant indicators as necessary.

  14. Gastrointestinal nematodes in rotationally grazing ewes in the mountainous region of central Mexico.

    Acevedo-Ramírez, P M C; Quiroz-Romero, H; Cruz-Mendoza, I; Ulloa-Arvizu, R; Ibarra-Velarde, F


    The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of egg shedding (percentage of egg-positive faecal samples) and faecal egg counts (FEC) over 13 months in two different breeds of ewes, both pregnant and non-pregnant, in a mountainous region of central Mexico. Additionally, the effect of ivermectin and albendazole treatments on FEC reduction was recorded. The study also aimed to relate temperature and rainfall to FEC. The gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) third-stage larvae genera recovered from both faeces and grassland pastures in a temperate region were also assessed. Faecal samples were collected from ewes at monthly intervals for 13 months to investigate the FEC population of GIN larvae, their concentration and genera in grass samples collected from grazed and rested pastures. Egg-shedding frequency ranged from 0 to 92% and FEC from 0 to 12,000 eggs per g faeces (epg), with counts in Suffolk higher than in Dorset ewes. The identified genera were Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Teladorsagia, Cooperia, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, Nematodirus and Strongyloides. Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus were the most common genera. The number of L3 was higher in grazing lands than in those at rest. The highest FEC were recorded in the dry season due to peripartum, but the highest L3 counts were recorded in the rainy season. The coexistence of species of different geographical distributions at this site may be because there is a confluence of Nearctic and Neotropical geographic regions; thus, despite the temperate climate, tropical species can be found. Additionally, this study suggests that increasing temperatures could favour the presence of different tropical GIN species together with typical temperate-zone GIN species.

  15. Regional Air Quality in central México and emissions inventories

    Gerardo Ruiz-Suarez, Luis; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Agustín García-Reynoso, José; Santos García-Yee, José; Barrera-Huertas, Hugo; Alejandro Torres-Jaramillo, Jorge; Robles-Roldán, Miguel Angel; Gutierrez López, Wilfrido; García-Espinoza, Manuel; Castro-Romero, Telma


    Four air quality field campaigns, from 2009 to 2012, during March-April were carried out in several sites in urban, rural and semi-rural sites in Central México. One of the sites was in the Chalco Gap southeast of MCMA (2011), another in the state of Morelos (2011), other two in the state of Puebla (2009 and 2012). All these sites are South and East of the Mexico Basin. The main object of those campaigns was to document regional air quality, mainly in rural and periurban sites, including the photochemical age of regional polluted plumes as they were transported away from the main metropolitan areas within the region. In this paper, we focus on comparisons between observed CO/NOx, and CO/SO2 ratios with those from the National Emissions Inventory and form local inventories reported in state air quality management programs. Comparisons were made with data between 05:00 to 08:00 h to minimize effects photochemical activity and the fast evolution of MLH occurring between 08:00 and 09:00 due to high insolation. Comparisons among observed ratios show a fairly consistent ratio, whereas ratios from emissions inventory are widely variable and only in few sites compare reasonable well with observed ones, indicating the need for homologation of emissions inventories in the country. Also Ozone, CO, NOx and NOy observed time series are compared with WRF-Chem model results for the same campaign periods to evaluate its performance outside MCMA. In addition, observed surface wind speeds and early morning MLH obtained with a tethered balloon are also compared with modeled values to help understanding discrepancies in the trace gases comparisons.

  16. Flat vs. Normal subduction, Central Chile: insights from regional seismic tomography and rock type modeling

    Marot, Marianne; Monfret, Tony; Gerbault, Muriel; Nolet, Guust; Ranalli, Giorgio; Pardo, Mario


    The Central Chilean subduction zone (27-35°S) is host to a multitude of unexplained phenomena, all likely linked to one another. Here, the 35 Ma oceanic Nazca plate is subducting beneath South America with a well developed, highly seismic flat slab, very well correlated with the subducting Juan Fernandez seamount Ridge (JFR) track, and also with the absence of volcanism at the surface. The upper plate, currently under compression, is composed of a series of accreted terranes of various origins and ages. Although no general consensus on the formation of this flat slab has been yet achieved, there may have been influence of overthickened oceanic crust, delayed eclogitization and consequent fluid retain within the slab, and slab suction due to the high convergence rate with the thick Rio de Plata craton. Therefore, the main questions we address are: Does the slab dehydrate along the flat subducting segment? If so, how hydrated is the slab, at what depth does slab dehydration occur, where are the fluids transported to, and where are they stored? Is magmatism still active beneath the now inactive arc? Are accreted terranes and suture zones important attributes of this subduction zone? Do they possess their own mantle entities? To answer these questions, we analyzed recorded local seismicity and performed regional 3D seismic tomography for Vp and Vs. Combining seismic tomography with 2D instantaneous thermo-mechanical modeling for the regions of flat and normal subduction, we predict rock compositions for these two regions based on published mineral and rock elastic properties. Here, we present a comparison between the normal subduction zone to the south, reflecting typical and expected features, and the flat slab region to the north, exhibiting heterogeneities. Our results agree with other studies for a dry and cold continental mantle above the flat slab. We distinguish the Cuyania terrane with overthickened crust and/or abnormal mantle beneath it. We notice that the

  17. Molecular epidemiology of enterovirus 71 infection in the central region of Taiwan from 2002 to 2012.

    Wen-Hao Wu

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71, a causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease can be classified into three genotypes and many subtypes. The objectives of this study were to conduct a molecular epidemiological study of EV71 in the central region of Taiwan from 2002-2012 and to test the hypothesis that whether the alternative appearance of different EV71 subtypes in Taiwan is due to transmission from neighboring countries or from re-emergence of pre-existing local strains. We selected 174 EV71 isolates and used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to amplify their VP1 region for DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods. We found that the major subtypes of EV71 in Taiwan were B4 for 2002 epidemic, C4 for 2004-2005 epidemic, B5 for 2008-2009 epidemic, C4 for 2010 epidemic and B5 for 2011-2012 epidemic. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the 2002 and 2008 epidemics were associated with EV71 from Malaysia and Singapore; while both 2010 and 2011-2012 epidemics originated from different regions of mainland China including Shanghai, Henan, Xiamen and Gong-Dong. Furthermore, minor strains have been identified in each epidemic and some of them were correlated with the subsequent outbreaks. Therefore, the EV71 infection in Taiwan may originate from pre-existing minor strains or from other regions in Asia including mainland China. In addition, 101 EV71 isolates were selected for the detection of new recombinant strains using the nucleotide sequences spanning the VP1-2A-2B region. No new recombinant strain was found. Analysis of clinical manifestations showed that patients infected with C4 had significantly higher rates of pharyngeal vesicles or ulcers than patients infected with B5. This is the first study demonstrating that different EV 71 genotypes may have different clinical manifestations and the association of EV71 infections between Taiwan and mainland China.

  18. Best travel options : modelling Roman and early-medieval routes in the Netherlands using a multi-proxy approach.

    van Lanen, Rowin J.; Kosian, Menne C.; Groenewoudt, Bert .J.; Spek, Mattheus; Jansma, Esther


    During the Roman and early-medieval period in the Netherlands, an extensive network of routes connected settlements on the local, regional and supraregional scale. The orientation of these route networks in part was determined by settlement locations, and in part by environmental factors (e.g. soil

  19. A Seasonal Perspective on Regional Air Quality in CentralCalifornia - Phase 1

    Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.; Tonse, Shaheen R.; Jin, Ling


    Central California spans a wide variety of urban, agricultural, and natural terrain, including the San Francisco Bay area, the Central Valley, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Population within this region is growing rapidly, and there are persistent, serious air pollution problems including fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and ozone. Summertime photochemical air pollution is the focus of the present study, which represents a first phase in the development and application of a modeling capability to assess formation and transport of ozone and its precursors within Central California over an entire summer season. This contrasts with past studies that have examined pollutant dynamics for a few selected high-ozone episodes each lasting 3-5 days. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) has been applied to predict air pollutant formation and transport in Central California for a 15-day period beginning on July 24, 2000. This period includes a 5-day intensive operating period (July 29 to August 2) from the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS). Day-specific meteorological conditions were modeled by research collaborators at NOAA using a mesoscale meteorological model (MM5). Pollutant emissions within the study domain were based on CARB emission inventory estimates, with additional efforts conducted as part of this research to capture relevant emissions variability including (1) temperature and sunlight-driven changes in biogenic VOC, (2) weekday/weekend and diurnal differences in light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) motor vehicle emissions, (3) effects of day-specific meteorological conditions on plume rise from point sources such as power plants. We also studied the effects of using cleaner pollutant inflow boundary conditions, lower than indicated during CCOS aircraft flights over the Pacific Ocean, but supported by other surface, ship-based, balloon and aircraft sampling studies along the west coast. Model predictions were compared with measured

  20. 吉林省中部地区中心地空间关系分析%Spatial Relationships Between Central Places in the Central Region of Jilin

    王士君; 王永超; 冯章献


    As the most dynamic and potentially the core region,central Jilin plays a vital role in the distribution of productive forces for future economic development of Jilin province.It is important to organize the central urban agglomerations in a more rational way.This paper presents a futuristic view of the central urban agglomerations and control structures by using Central Place Theory as a work hypothesis and Fractal Theory as a quantification tool.Fractal theory is an excellent tool to study the mathematical rules of random aggregation and physical mechanism of urban spatial expansion in the systems of cities and townships.In this study,swing radius method is used to measure the fractal dimensions of the central places at four levels in the central region of Jilin province,with Changchun city as the first level city at the center.The fractal dimensions are calculated as follows: D=2.342 as the second level,1.842 as the third level,1.026(for Changling system) and 1.212(for Jiaohe system) as the fourth level.Analysis of the fractal dimensions suggests that the three levels of central places have different structural characteristics.The second level central places don’t have clear functions and are nearly nonexistent,because they are either shadowed and inhibited by Changchun city,or functionally substituted by the third level central places.By contrast,the third level central places show well-defined identities with clear boundaries.The fourth level central places are spatially scattered and their development is directly impacted by the natural environment.Based on the Vector data of settlements in the central region of Jilin,the original view of the places’hierarchy in the central region of Jilin is reconstituted by using the rules of space and composition,and a hexagonal network is completed through patching and abstracting.Based on the space compositions,the central region of Jilin appears to belong to K=3 system(the marketing principle in Christ ller

  1. Has the architectural process of public buildings changed since the romans?

    Brink Rasmussen, Mai; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Fisker, Anna Marie


    Have the architectural process of public buildings changed as much as the society since the Romans? This paper compares the Roman approach of public buildings with the Danish approach today.......Have the architectural process of public buildings changed as much as the society since the Romans? This paper compares the Roman approach of public buildings with the Danish approach today....

  2. Nets, Boats and Fishing in the Roman World

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes


    Ithas been claimed that in Roman times, net fishing was a shore-based technology, but a study of literary sources and pictorial evidence, mainly mosaics, show that net fishing from boats was widespread throughout the first four centuries AD....

  3. Kerttu Wagner. Die historischen romane von Jaan Kross / Wolfgang Drechsler

    Drechsler, Wolfgang, 1963-


    Arvustus: Wagner, Kerttu. Die historischen Romane von Jaan Kross : am Beispiel einer Untersuchung der deutschen und englischen Übersetzungen von "Professor Martensi ärasõit" (1984). Frankfurt am Main [etc.] : P. Lang, 2001.

  4. Roman digit naming: evidence for a semantic route.

    Duyck, Wouter; Lagrou, Evelyne; Gevers, Wim; Fias, Wim


    Earlier research with monolinguals and bilinguals showed that numbers may be named through both a semantic and a phonological route, depending on the number's language and format (Arabic or verbal), task demands, and naming language. The present study investigated the importance of the semantic route for the processing of a third representation of magnitude, namely Roman digits. Using an interference paradigm, we showed that the processing of Roman target digits is influenced by Arabic digit distractors, both in a naming task and a parity judgment task. Roman digits were processed faster if the target and distractor were of the same magnitude. If this was not the case, processing speed slowed down as the numerical distance between target and distractor increased. This strongly suggests that semantic access is mandatory when naming Roman digits. Implications are discussed for the number processing domain and for models of translation in bilinguals.

  5. Kerttu Wagner. Die historischen romane von Jaan Kross / Wolfgang Drechsler

    Drechsler, Wolfgang, 1963-


    Arvustus: Wagner, Kerttu. Die historischen Romane von Jaan Kross : am Beispiel einer Untersuchung der deutschen und englischen Übersetzungen von "Professor Martensi ärasõit" (1984). Frankfurt am Main [etc.] : P. Lang, 2001.

  6. Poetics of Resistance in Roman Antiquity: A Reading in Neronian ...

    ANDCORPgh changing the world

    symptomatic of governments characterized by oppressive policies and brutal ..... However, in spite of this disgust felt by the Roman nobility for actors, accounts ..... verse passages, which appear critical of contemporary versifiers: his didactic ...

  7. tumours and cancers in graeco-roman times 1. introduction

    In Graeco-Roman times all tumours (Greek: onkoi, abnormal swellings) were consi- dered to be of ... of tumours is a more recent concept, barely two centuries old. In Hippocratic litera- ..... Ancient and medieval chemotherapy for cancer.

  8. El pensamiento cinematográfico de Roman Jakobson

    Puyal, Alfonso


    .... The hypothesis that raises Roman Jakobson is the transposition of the literary features to the cinematographic mean, until rising what the Russian formalists came in calling “Poetics of Cinema” ( Poetika Kino...

  9. Trade and Transport in Late Roman Syria

    Fletcher, Christopher

    Despite the relative notoriety and miraculous level of preservation of the Dead Cities of Syria, fundamental questions of economic and subsistence viability remain unanswered. In the 1950s Georges Tchalenko theorized that these sites relied on intensive olive monoculture to mass export olive oil to urban centers. Later excavations discovered widespread cultivation of grains, fruit, and beans which directly contradicted Tchalenko's assertion of sole reliance on oleoculture. However, innumerable olive presses in and around the Dead Cities still speak to a strong tradition of olive production. This thesis tests the logistical viability of olive oil transportation from the Dead Cities to the distant urban centers of Antioch and Apamea. Utilization of Raster GIS and remote sensing data allows for the reconstruction of the physical and social landscapes of Late Roman Syria. Least Cost Analysis techniques produce a quantitative and testable model with which to simulate and evaluate the viability of long distance olive oil trade. This model not only provides a clearer understanding of the nature of long distance trade relationships in Syria, but also provides a model for investigating ancient economic systems elsewhere in the world. Furthermore, this project allows for the generation of new information regarding sites that are currently inaccessible to researchers.

  10. Roman Jakobson论文学文本



    Roman Jakobson是20世纪最杰出的学者之一,他把文学文本设想为一个存在于三维空间之中,有着明确的外部边界和内部结构的“有形之物”,提出了一些迥异于前人的见解,包括:1)强调文学文本的非个性化;2)确定文学文本的边界;3)确立文学文本价值的内在取向;4)确立文学文本的立体模式;5)确立文学文本的功能观和关系论;6)确立文学文本的整体观和系统论;7)肯定文学文本中符号的非线性分布;8)追寻文学文本中的关系性常量。同他的诗学一样,雅各布森所建立的文学文本理论是对20世纪文学理论的重要贡献。

  11. Variations in Regional Mean Daily Precipitation Extremes and Related Circulation Anomalies over Central China During Boreal Summer

    柯丹; 管兆勇


    The variations of regional mean daily precipitation extreme (RMDPE) events in central China and associated circulation anomalies during June, July, and August (JJA) of 1961-2010 are investigated by using daily in-situ precipitation observations and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The precipitation data were collected at 239 state-level stations distributed throughout the provinces of Henan, Hubei, and Hunan. During 1961-2010, the 99th percentile threshold for RMDPE is 23.585 mm day-1. The number of RMDPE events varies on both interannual and interdecadal timescales, and increases significantly after the mid 1980s. The RMDPE events happen most frequently between late June and mid July, and are generally associated with anomalous baroclinic tropospheric circulations. The supply of moisture to the southern part of central China comes in a stepping way from the outer-region of an abnormal anticyclone over the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea. Fluxes of wave activity generated over the northeastern Tibetan Plateau converge over central China, which favors the genesis and maintenance of wave disturbances over the region. RMDPE events typically occur in tandem with a strong heating gradient formed by net heating in central China and the large-scale net cooling in the surrounding area. The occurrence of RMDPE events over central China is tied to anomalous local cyclonic circulations, topographic forcing over the northeast Tibetan Plateau, and anomalous gradients of diabatic heating between central China and the surrounding areas.

  12. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    S. Kulkarni


    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA are analyzed for the period April 2008–July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. Predicted Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD values (annual mean value ∼0.2 in CA vary seasonally with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ∼10 μg m−3 also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2–90 μg m−3. Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC (mean value ∼0.1 μg m−3 show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD, and PM2.5, PM10, BC, organic carbon (OC mass concentrations at two regional sites in the Kyrgyz Republic (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST and Bishkek. The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrate that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of

  13. Wall painting in the Roman empire: colour, design and technology

    Elizabeth Pye


    Full Text Available Roman wall paintings are frequently admired by visitors to such famous sites as Pompeii and Herculaneum, and traces of them also survive in the remains of many towns and villas throughout the lands of the former empire, but the technological skill of the Roman painters is less widely appreciated. Here the sources of the pigments used and the methods the painters employed to plaster and paint the walls are described.

  14. Quality and safety of beef produced in Central African Sub-region

    Bawe M. Nfor


    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to provide a general situation of cattle slaughtered in Cameroon, as a representative example for the Central African Sub-region. The quality and safety of beef from the abattoir of Yaoundé, the largest in Cameroon, were considered. From January 2009 to March 2012, the pre-slaughter conditions and characteristics of 1953 cattle carcasses were recorded, as well as the pH of m. longissimus thoracis 24 h after slaughter. From these carcasses, 60 were selected to represent the bulls slaughtered. The quality parameters and composition of m. longissimus thoracis were carried out. The origin of most of the cattle was the Guinea High Savannah (74.6%, and transhumance was the common production system (75.5%. Gudali (45.6%, White Fulani (33.3% and Red Mbororo (20.3% breeds were predominant. Carcass weight was affected by rearing system and cattle category, and it markedly varied during year. Considering meat quality, the fat content was low (1.2% and similar between breeds, moreover Gudali showed the toughest meat. Of the cows slaughtered, 27% were pregnant and the most common abnormal conditions encountered were ectoparasites, fatigue, lameness, fungal-like skin lesions, enlarged lymph nodes, respiratory distress, nodular lesions. More than 20% of the carcasses had some organs condemned, mainly for liver flukes (5.17%, and 1.0% of them were completely condemned due to tuberculosis, that also affected 3.28% of lungs. These data could aid authorities draw up programmes with the aim to strengthen cattle production, improve beef supply, control and prevent the observed diseases, and promote the regional trade.

  15. Seafloor geomorphology and geology of the Kingman Reef-Palmyra Atoll region, Central Pacific Ocean

    Eakins, Barry; Barth, Ginger; Scheirer, Dan; Mosher, Dave; Armstrong, Andy


    Kingman Reef and Palmyra Atoll are the exposed summits of two seamounts within the Line Islands Volcanic Chain in the Central Pacific Ocean. Both are U.S. Territories, and the Exclusive Economic Zone around the islands was partially surveyed in 1991 with GLORIA sidescan sonar and seismic reflection profiling. New multibeam swath sonar surveys were conducted in 2010, 2015, and 2016 around the islands, in support of U.S. Extended Continental Shelf investigations. Numerous transits through the region by research vessels have collected additional multibeam swath sonar data. We present new, detailed maps of bathymetry, sidescan sonar imagery, geology, and sediment isopachs of the seafloor surrounding the islands, and how these have informed our understanding of the islands' margins. The islands are the last subaerial remnants of a complex, horse-shoe-shaped volcanic platform spanning roughly 200 km in diameter. The elevated platform from which the seamounts arise comprises at least 10 individual volcanic centers that have heights exceeding 3000m above the nearby abyssal plains. Gravity modeling suggests that the elevated platform is compensated by thickened crust. Strong carbonate caps and voluminous sediment accumulations flanking the platform indicate that the volcanoes were once shallow-water or emergent systems. These systems produced vast quantities of carbonate sediment that were shed to a deep interior basin to the east of Palmyra Atoll, and to nearby abyssal plains. The identification of mass failures, sediment reworking and bedforms, and channel networks provide evidence for extensive sedimentary processes around these volcanic centers. Analysis of the seamounts atop the elevated platform and in the seamount province to the northwest shows that flat-topped seamounts ("guyots") are principally found at depths shallower than 1300 meters, while peaked seamounts are almost exclusively found at greater depths. This constrains the amount of regional subsidence that

  16. Regional subsidence history and 3D visualization with MATLAB of the Vienna Basin, central Europe

    Lee, E.; Novotny, J.; Wagreich, M.


    This study reconstructed the subsidence history by the backstripping and 3D visualization techniques, to understand tectonic evolution of the Neogene Vienna Basin. The backstripping removes the compaction effect of sediment loading and quantifies the tectonic subsidence. The amount of decompaction was calculated by porosity-depth relationships evaluated from seismic velocity data acquired from two boreholes. About 100 wells have been investigated to quantify the subsidence history of the Vienna Basin. The wells have been sorted into 10 groups; N1-4 in the northern part, C1-4 in the central part and L1-2 in the northernmost and easternmost parts, based on their position within the same block bordered by major faults. To visualize 3D subsidence maps, the wells were arranged to a set of 3D points based on their map location (x, y) and depths (z1, z2, z3 ...). The division of the stratigraphic column and age range was arranged based on the Central Paratethys regional Stages. In this study, MATLAB, a numerical computing environment, was used to calculate the TPS interpolation function. The Thin-Plate Spline (TPS) can be employed to reconstruct a smooth surface from a set of 3D points. The basic physical model of the TPS is based on the bending behavior of a thin metal sheet that is constrained only by a sparse set of fixed points. In the Lower Miocene, 3D subsidence maps show strong evidence that the pre-Neogene basement of the Vienna Basin was subsiding along borders of the Alpine-Carpathian nappes. This subsidence event is represented by a piggy-back basin developed on top of the NW-ward moving thrust sheets. In the late Lower Miocene, Group C and N display a typical subsidence pattern for the pull-apart basin with a very high subsidence event (0.2 - 1.0 km/Ma). After the event, Group N shows remarkably decreasing subsidence, following the thin-skinned extension which was regarded as the extension model of the Vienna Basin in the literature. But the subsidence in

  17. The detection of stellar velocity dispersion drops in the central regions of five isolated Seyfert spirals

    Márquez, I; Durret, F; González-Delgado, R M; Moles, M; Maza, J; Pérez, E; Roth, M


    We analyze the kinematics of the central regions of five isolated Seyfert spiral galaxies from the DEGAS sample (four with new data presented in this paper, IC184, UGC3223, NGC2639, NGC6814, and NGC6951 from our previous data), by using long slit spectroscopy in the CaII triplet range (at ~ 8600 A) obtained with a 4m-class telescope. A drop of the velocity dispersions in the innermost 1-3 arcsec is observed in four of them, and hinted in the remaining galaxy (NGC6814). The available HST images for our sample together with another nine galaxies with reported velocity dispersion drops, are also used to investigate the presence of morphological inner structures at the scales of the kinematical drops. Evidence for disk-like shapes is found in 12 out of the 14 cases. The only exceptions are NGC6814 and NGC6951. Existing N-body simulations including stars, gas and star formation predict that such a drop is most probably due to a young stellar population born from dynamically cold gas accreted in a circumnuclear dis...

  18. Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey

    Aysen Koc


    Full Text Available The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66, while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84 in terms of morphology.

  19. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    Xiao-Yan Song

    Full Text Available Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples, Laminaceae (10, Brassicaceae (12, Rosaceae (12, Moraceae (13, Rhamnaceae (15, Asteraceae (17, and Fabaceae (19. In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples, Robinia pseudoacacia (3, Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2, Sophora japonica (1, Ailanthus altissima (1, Asteraceae type (1, and Fabaceae type (1. The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains, 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000, and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000. The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption.

  20. Surface Mining and Reclamation Effects on Flood Response of Watersheds in the Central Appalachian Plateau Region

    Ferrari, J. R.; Lookingbill, T. R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P. A.; Eshleman, K. N.


    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km2 watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  1. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tula Region) Using Moss Biomonitoring Technique, NAA and AAS

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E


    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution monitoring in Central Russia (Tula Region). Moss samples were collected from 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy of European projects on biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the concentration of 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) over a large concentration range (from 10000 mg/kg for K to 0.001 mg/kg for Tb and Ta). In addition to NAA, flame AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) was applied to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu and Pb. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of elements detected in the investigated mosses. Eight factors were identified. The geographical distribution of factor scores is presented. The interpretation of the factor analysis findings points to natural as well as anthr...

  2. High resolution ALMA observations of dense molecular medium in the central regions of active galaxies

    Kohno, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Akio; Izumi, Takuma; Tosaki, Tomoka


    In the central regions of active galaxies, dense molecular medium are exposed to various types of radiation and energy injections, such as UV, X-ray, cosmic ray, and shock dissipation. With the rapid progress of chemical models and implementation of new-generation mm/submm interferometry, we are now able to use molecules as powerful diagnostics of the physical and chemical processes in galaxies. Here we give a brief overview on the recent ALMA results to demonstrate how molecules can reveal underlying physical and chemical processes in galaxies. First, new detections of Galactic molecular absorption systems with elevated HCO/H$^{13}$CO$^+$ column density ratios are reported, indicating that these molecular media are irradiated by intense UV fields. Second, we discuss the spatial distributions of various types of shock tracers including HNCO, CH$_3$OH and SiO in NGC 253 and NGC 1068. Lastly, we provide an overview of proposed diagnostic methods of nuclear energy sources using ALMA, with an emphasis on the syne...

  3. Larval trematode infections in Lymnaea glabra populations living in the Brenne Regional Natural Park, central France.

    Rondelaud, Daniel; Vignoles, Philippe; Dreyfuss, Gilles


    Lymnaea glabra is known to be a natural intermediate host of two flukes, Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica, in central France. But it can also sustain larval development of other digeneans. Adult snails were thus collected from 206 habitats in 2014 and 2015 to identify parasite species and determine the prevalence of each digenean infection in relation to the five types of snail habitats. Seven digenean species were noted in 321 infected snails (out of 17,647 L. glabra). Snails with F. hepatica or C. daubneyi were found in 14.5% and 12.6% of habitats, respectively. Percentages were lower for snails with Opisthoglyphe ranae (5.8%), Haplometra cylindracea (5.3%) and were less than 5% for those infected with Echinostoma revolutum, Notocotylus sp. or Plagiorchis sp. Prevalence noted for each parasite species varied with the type of habitat. The number of species in L. glabra was lower than that found in G. truncatula from the same region (7 instead of 10). The distribution and prevalence of each digenean species were thus dependent on the type and location of each snail habitat. © D. Rondelaud et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  4. The dust distribution in the central region of AGNs: New results from the MAGNUM telescope

    Yoshii, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.; Minezaki, T.


    The Multicolor Active Galactic Nuclei Monitoring (MAGNUM) 2-meter dedicated telescope was commissioned in early 2001 in the University of Hawaii's Lure Observatory in the Haleakala Observatories, and several tens of AGNs have been monitored since then in the optical and near-infrared wave-bands simultaneously. As the initial results from the MAGNUM telescope, the most intense monitoring observations yet made for two Seyfert 1 galaxies such as NGC 4151 and 5548 are presented. A delayed response of light variations in the V (0.55μm) band to those in the K (2.2μm) band was detected for each galaxy, and the lag time was measured by a cross-correlation analysis. The measured lag time is interpreted as the light-travel time from the central energy source to the surrounding dust torus. Compared with lag measurements of the broad emission lines in the literature, our results for such dust reverberation indicate that the broad emission-line region is well within the inner hole of the dust torus.

  5. Astrovirus infection in children living in the Central West region of Brazil

    Rodrigo Alessandro Tôgo Santos


    Full Text Available This study presents data regarding the circulation of astrovirus in Goiânia-GO and Brasília-DF. These viruses were detected in fecal samples from hospitalized children up to five years old with and without acute gastroenteritis. A total of 1244 fecal samples were collected in two periods, 1994 to 1996 (Brasília and 1998 to 2002 (Goiânia and Brasília, and were analyzed for viral RNA using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Positivity rates of 4.3 and 0.5% for astrovirus were observed in children with acute gastroenteritis and those without gastroenteritis, respectively. Among children with gastroenteritis no statistically significant difference was seen with regards to viral positivity rates in relation to gender and age. However, a higher incidence rate was observed for children from Brasília aged 36 months or more. Overall, astroviruses occurred predominantly from September to March in the two cities, suggesting a seasonal pattern for these viruses which coincides with the highest relative air humidity period. The results of this study highlight the importance of astrovirus as an etiologic agent of acute gastroenteritis in children of the Central West region of Brazil.

  6. The circulation of human astrovirus genotypes in the Central West Region of Brazil

    Paula Andreia Silva


    Full Text Available Out of 1,588 faecal samples of children taken from three locations of the Central West Region of Brazil, 57 were positive for astroviruses (HAstVs using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. They were genotyped by nested RT-PCR and/or genomic sequencing. HAstV-1 (42.8%, HAstV-2 (23.2%, HAstV-3 (3.6%, HAstV-4 (14.3% and HAstVs -5, -6, -7 and -8 (1.8% each were detected. In Goiânia and Campo Grande, HAstV-1 was the most frequently detected genotype while in Brasília (DF it was HAstV-2. Shifts in the circulation of astrovirus genotypes were observed in DF and Campo Grande. All samples collected by rectal swabs were viral negative. The astrovirus genotypes were detected in all age groups and there was no correlation between genotype and age group.

  7. Origin of Hydrogen Ionization in the 1 pc Galactic Central Region

    Chernyshov, D O; Cheng, K S; Dogiel, V A; Tatischeff, V


    We study a possible connection between processes of gamma-ray emission and hydrogen ionization in a few pc of central region around Sgr A*. Previous investigations showed there is a discrepancy between interpretation of gamma-ray and ionization data if gamma-rays are generated by proton-proton collisions. Here we provided analysis of processes of ionization and emission basing on analytical and numerical calculations of kinetic equations which describe processes of particle propagation and their energy losses. The origin of gamma rays could be either due to collisions of relativistic protons with the dense gas of the surrounding circumnuclear disk (CND) or bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton scattering of relativistic electrons. The hydrogen ionization in this case is produced by a low energy component of the CR spectrum. We found that if ionization is produced by protons the expected ionization rate of hydrogen in the CND is of the same order as derived from IR observations. So we do not see any discrepancy b...

  8. Ubiquity of density slope oscillations in the central regions of galaxy and cluster-sized systems

    Young, Anthony M; Hjorth, Jens


    One usually thinks of a radial density profile as having a monotonically changing logarithmic slope, such as in NFW or Einasto profiles. However, in two different classes of commonly used systems, this is often not the case. These classes exhibit non-monotonic changes in their density profile slopes which we call oscillations for short. We analyze these two unrelated classes separately. Class 1 consists of systems that have density oscillations and that are defined through their distribution function $f(E)$, or differential energy distribution $N(E)$, such as isothermal spheres, King profiles, or DARKexp, a theoretically derived model for relaxed collisionless systems. Systems defined through $f(E)$ or $N(E)$ generally have density slope oscillations. Class 1 system oscillations can be found at small, intermediate, or large radii but we focus on a limited set of Class 1 systems that have oscillations in the central regions, usually at $\\log(r/r_{-2})\\lesssim -2$, where $r_{-2}$ is the largest radius where $d\\...

  9. Population Structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley Region of Central Mexico.

    Grünwald, N J; Flier, W G; Sturbaum, A K; Garay-Serrano, E; van den Bosch, T B; Smart, C D; Matuszak, J M; Lozoya-Saldaña, H; Turkensteen, L J; Fry, W E


    ABSTRACT We tested the hypothesis that the population of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca valley region is genetically differentiated according to habitat. Isolates were sampled in three habitats from (i) wild Solanum spp. (WILD), (ii) land-race varieties in low-input production systems (RURAL), and (iii) modern cultivars in high-input agriculture (VALLEY). Isolates were sampled in 1988-89 (n= 179) and in 1997-98 (n= 389). In both sampling periods, the greatest genetic diversity was observed in RURAL and VALLEY habitats. Based on the Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and Peptidase allozymes, the subpopulations from the three habitats were significantly differentiated in both sampling periods. In contrast to allozyme data for 1997-98, no differences were found among the three subpopulations for sensitivity to metalaxyl. Two groups of isolates identical for allozyme and mating type were further investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting; 65% of one group and 85% of another group were demonstrated to be unique. The genetic diversity data and the chronology of disease occurrence during the season are consistent with the hypothesis that populations of P. infestans on wild Solanum populations are derived from populations on cultivated potatoes in the central highlands of Mexico near Toluca.

  10. Pityriasis rosea: a natural history of pediatric cases in theCentral Anatolia Region of Turkey.

    Çölgeçen, Emine; Kader, Çiğdem; Ulaş, Yılmaz; Öztürk, Pınar; Küçük, Öznur; Balcı, Mehmet


    This study aimed to evaluate the demographic, clinical, and epidemiological features of pityriasis rosea (PR) in a cohort of 46 children in Yozgat, a city in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. Forty-six children with PR were monitored at regular intervals (1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks) for 3 months from the time of diagnosis. A complete evaluation of the patient was performed at each visit. The average age of patients at time of diagnosis was 12 ± 3.9 years. Cases were most common in the winter (rainy, snowy months; n = 14, 31%). Fifteen patients had a medical history significant for the presence of upper respiratory tract infection, while skin PR manifestations were preceded by drug intake in a second group of 15 patients. The presence of a herald patch was observed in 78.3% of patients, most frequently on the trunk (n = 23). Pruritus occurred in 75% of patients. Median PR duration was 3 weeks (range: 1-20 weeks). The course of PR is similar in Turkish children and adults. The high prevalence of pruritus in children with PR in Turkey was also significant. Further evaluation of this finding comparing adults and children is now required.

  11. Larval trematode infections in Lymnaea glabra populations living in the Brenne Regional Natural Park, central France

    Rondelaud Daniel


    Full Text Available Lymnaea glabra is known to be a natural intermediate host of two flukes, Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica, in central France. But it can also sustain larval development of other digeneans. Adult snails were thus collected from 206 habitats in 2014 and 2015 to identify parasite species and determine the prevalence of each digenean infection in relation to the five types of snail habitats. Seven digenean species were noted in 321 infected snails (out of 17,647 L. glabra. Snails with F. hepatica or C. daubneyi were found in 14.5% and 12.6% of habitats, respectively. Percentages were lower for snails with Opisthoglyphe ranae (5.8%, Haplometra cylindracea (5.3% and were less than 5% for those infected with Echinostoma revolutum, Notocotylus sp. or Plagiorchis sp. Prevalence noted for each parasite species varied with the type of habitat. The number of species in L. glabra was lower than that found in G. truncatula from the same region (7 instead of 10. The distribution and prevalence of each digenean species were thus dependent on the type and location of each snail habitat.

  12. Geometric analysis of phase bunching in the central region of cyclotron

    Miyawaki, Nobumasa, E-mail: [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Fukuda, Mitsuhiro [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kurashima, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Arakawa, Kazuo [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Gunma University, 3-39-22 Showa-Machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Kamiya, Tomihiro [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)


    An optimum condition for realizing phase bunching in the central region of a cyclotron was quantitatively clarified by a simplified geometric trajectory analysis of charged particles from the first to the second acceleration gap. The phase bunching performance was evaluated for a general case of a cyclotron. The phase difference of incident particles at the second acceleration gap depends on the combination of four parameters: the acceleration harmonic number h, the span angle θ{sub D} of the dee electrode, the span angle θ{sub F} from the first to the second acceleration gap, the ratio R{sub V} of the peak acceleration voltage between the cyclotron and ion source. Optimum values of θ{sub F} for phase bunching were limited by the relationship between h and θ{sub D}, which is 90°/h+θ{sub D}/2≤θ{sub F}≤180°/h+θ{sub D}/2, and sin θ{sub F}>0. The phase difference with respect to the reference particle at the second acceleration gap is minimized for voltage-ratios between two and four for an initial phase difference within 40 RF degrees. Although the slope of the first acceleration gap contributes to the RF phase at which the particles reach the second acceleration gap, phase bunching was not affected. An orbit simulation of the AVF cyclotron at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency verifies the evaluation based on geometric analysis.

  13. Petrogenesis of polygenic marbles, Baqi-Abad region, Yazd, central Iran

    Ayati, Farimah; Mackizadeh, Mohammad Ali


    Mineralogy, minerals paragenesis and evolution of polygenic marbles were investigated in the Baqi-Abad region (Yazd province). The area is located in the central Iran. Studied marbles are classified as calcitic marbles, brucite-bearing marbles and forsterite- serpentine bearing marbles. The following mineral assemblages have been determined: calcite + dolomite + forsterite + serpentine + talc + brucite + hydromagnesite. Based on calcite twin's geometry, marbles underwent the temperature formation between 200 and 300°C. Two mineral assemblages which have been defined in marbles are related to two stages of contact- metamorphism and metasomatism. In the first stage, de-carbonation reactions have been taken place in high fCO2 so anhydrous minerals are formed. The Second stage is characterized by invading H2O bearing fluids, leading to the formation of hydrous paragenesis. Brucite is probably formed by the de-silicification of serpentines at the first stage. On the other hand, due to the influence of hydrothermal fluids, olivines can be directly altered to brucite. It is obvious that hydromagnesite was formed at the expense of dolomite, brucite and serpentine. Its formation is associated with final carbonation reactions. As a whole, it can be concluded that based on the paragenetic relationships of minerals, there are four stages in mineral evolution system including carbonation, dehydration, de-carbonation and final dehydration processes.

  14. Roman Travertine: proposed as a candidate for "Global Heritage Stone Resource" designation

    Primavori, Piero


    Roman Travertine is one of the most long-standing and famous stones, used since the times of the Roman Empire. Together with Carrara and Botticino marbles, it is probably the most worldwide well-known and diffused Italian dimension stone. Travertine derives its name from the former town, known as Tibur in ancient Roman times; the ancient name for the stone was Lapis Tiburtinus, meaning Tibur Stone, which was gradually corrupted to Travertino (travertine). The Roman Travertine is geographically located circa 25 km to the east of Rome, Central Italy, in the hilly area of Guidonia-Montecelio and Tivoli. Its deposit, formed during late Pleistocene time over an active strike-slip fault nearby the Colli Albani quiescent volcano, is about 20 km2 wide and 60 m thick on average; the thickness is over 85 m toward its western N-S-elongated side, where thermal springs and large sinkholes occur in an aligned pattern. The first quarries date back to pre-Roman times; nowadays three main productive sub-zones can be recognized within the extractive basin: "Valle Pilella", "Barco" and "Le Fosse", where more than fifty quarries are in operation, together with a relevant number of processing plants and artisanal laboratories. Lithological and stratigraphical features allow the distinction of an extensive number of commercial varieties, being the most renowned the Classic, the Bianco, the Noce, the Paglierino, the Navona. Used since more than 2.500 years, the Roman Travertine has deeply characterized the architecture of Rome and its history, with the realization of villas, palaces, artistic and monumental buildings, and masterpieces with unmistakable features, such as the Anfiteatro Flavio (the Colosseum), the Theatre of Marcellus, the St. Peter's Basilica and Colonnade, the Tritone Fountain, the Adriana Villa, the Trevi Fountain, and many others. From Renaissance times on, the travertine has been extensively used to build an innumerable amount of churches, common buildings and houses

  15. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy

    Lucchese Fernando


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy, a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.. In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L. Hoffm. (wounds and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation, Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains, Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises, while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules. Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread

  16. Broadband regional waveform modeling to investigate crustal structure and tectonics of the central Andes

    Swenson, Jennifer Lyn

    We use broadband regional waveform modeling of earthquakes in the central Andes to determine seismic properties of the Altiplano crust. Properties of the shear-coupled P-wavetrain (SPL ) from intermediate-depth events provide particularly important information about the structure of the crust. We utilize broadband seismic data recorded at the BANJO and SEDA stations, and synthetic seismograms computed with a reflectivity technique to study the sensitivity of SPL to crustal and upper mantle parameters at regional distances. We find that the long-period SPL-wavetrain is most sensitive to crustal and mantle Poisson's ratios, average crustal velocity, and crustal thickness. A comprehensive grid search method developed to investigate these four parameters suggests that although trade-offs exist between model parameters, models of the Altiplano which provide the best fit between the data and synthetic seismograms are characterized by low Poisson's ratios, low average crustal velocity and thick crust. We apply our grid search technique and sensitivity analysis results to model the full waveforms from 6 intermediate-depth and 2 shallow-focus earthquakes recorded at regional distances by BANJO and SEDA stations. Results suggest that the Altiplano crust is much thicker (55--65 km) and slower (5.75--6.25 km/s) than global average values. Low crustal and mantle Poisson's ratios together with the lack of evidence for a high-velocity lower crust suggests a bulk felsic crustal composition, resulting in an overall weak crust. Our results favor a model of crustal thickening involving large-scale tectonic shortening of a predominantly felsic crust. To better understand the mechanics of earthquake rupture along the South American subduction zone, we have analyzed broadband teleseismic P-waves and utilize single- and multi-station inversion techniques to constrain source characteristics for the 12 November 1996 Peru subduction zone earthquake. Aftershock locations, intensity reports

  17. Measurement of radium isotope activities in reservoir and spring water in the Cameroon Central Region

    Rose Lydie Marie


    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the activities of 226Ra and 228Ra in the reservoir and spring water samples respectively during the dry and the rainy seasons; and to calculate the annual intake Ii (Bq/y for each type of water samples. Methods: Using both well calibrated Canberra NaI(Tl and HPGe detector systems, it was possible to determine the average specific activity of those radium’s isotopes in water samples which were collected in 2010, from Reservoirs and springs in Cameroon central region including Ngoaekelle, Minboman, Etoudi and Njoungolo. Results: The average specific activity values obtained for 226Ra and 228Ra in reservoir water samples were 8.76 ± 3.50 BqL-1 and 0.64 ± 0.28 BqL-1 during the dry season and, 8.24 ±3.48 BqL-1 and 0.58 ± 0.24 BqL-1 during the rainy season respectively. For spring water, the average values were 3.50 ± 0.63 BqL-1 and below 0.0002 BqL-1 (detection limit of 228Ra in water during the dry season; 3.20 ± 0.60 BqL-1 and below 0.0002 BqL-1 (detection limit of 228Ra in water during the rainy season respectively. Assuming that the volume of drinking water for adult is 2.5 litres per day, the average annual intakes of 226Ra and 228Ra through ingestion in these water samples were 7702 Bq/y and 575 Bq/y for reservoir water; 2993 Bq/y and < 0.25 for spring water respectively. Conclusion: The results have indicated that the annual intake by the population of sampling region as a result of 226Ra in these drinking waters is 7.7 × 103Bq/y more than the maximum limit fixed by ICRP which is 7 × 103 Bq/y. There is a need for regular monitoring the radiological water quality aspect in this region.

  18. Echinococcus granulosus infection in humans and livestock in the Coquimbo region, north-central Chile.

    Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Cleaveland, Sarah; Cunningham, Andrew A; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Craig, Philip S


    Cyst echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most important zoonosis in Chile, where studies have focussed mainly in moist southern regions. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in livestock and humans in the semiarid Coquimbo region in north-central Chile. A review of all surgical cases of CE in humans reported in the Elqui, Limarí and Choapa provinces in Coquimbo region for the period comprising 1995-2006 was obtained. In addition, a retrospective study of CE covering condemnation records from slaughterhouses of these provinces from the same period was carried out. The surgical incidence of CE in humans ranged between 2.3 and 8.5 cases per 10(5) people, with more cases reported in provinces with a higher percentage of rural inhabitants (Limarí and Choapa). A total of 174,034 cattle, 22,208 goats, 35,404 sheep, 25,355 swine and 9391 equines were examined during the period. Higher prevalence of CE was detected in cattle (24%), followed by swine (14%), sheep (11%), goats (6%), and equines (9%). More cases of CE in livestock were also found in provinces with higher rural population. The overall trend of the prevalence of CE for each livestock species across years was a significant downward one, except for swine in Elqui and sheep and swine in Choapa. Cattle showed higher prevalence of CE in liver in Elqui, in kidney in Limarí and in lungs in Choapa. Swine showed similar prevalence by organs in all provinces. Sheep showed higher prevalence of CE in liver in Elqui and Limarí and lower prevalence in Choapa. Goats presented higher prevalence of CE in kidney in all provinces, and equines had higher prevalence of CE in liver in the provinces where animals were slaughtered. Further studied are needed to assess whether these differences are due to different strains affecting these species or due to ecological factors. When analyzing the CE prevalence of each species within each province, a negative correlation between

  19. The continuity of Roman water supply systems in post-Roman Spain: the case of Valentia, a reliable example?

    Martínez Jiménez, Javier (Archaeologist)


    Even if the general assumption is that Roman water supply systems (aqueducts in particular) ceased to function during the late Roman period, and that these were not present in medieval cities, recent archaeological research is proving that this was not always the case. Several cities in Spain show archaeological continuity in their water supply systems into the Visigothic period, and one of these seems to be Valencia. There is archaeological evidence to suggest a functioning aqueduct until th...

  20. Regional climate model assessment of the urban land-surface forcing over central Europe

    P. Huszar


    Full Text Available For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the climate impact of cities and urban surfaces in general on climate of central Europe, the surface parameterization in regional climate model RegCM4 has been extended with the Single-layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM. A set of experiments was performed over the period of 2005–2009 for central Europe, either without considering urban surfaces or with the SLUCM treatment. Results show a statistically significant impact of urbanized surfaces on temperature (up to 1.5 K increase in summer as well as on the boundary layer height (increases up to 50 m. Urbanization further influences surface wind with a winter decrease up to −0.6 m s−1, though both increases and decreases were detected in summer depending on the location relative to the cities and daytime (changes up to 0.3 m s−1. Urban surfaces significantly reduce the humidity over the surface. This impacts the simulated summer precipitation rate, showing a decrease over cities of up to −2 mm day−1. Significant temperature increases are simulated over higher altitudes as well, not only within the urban canopy layer. With the urban parameterization, the climate model better describes the diurnal temperature variation, reducing the cold afternoon and evening bias of RegCM4. Sensitivity experiments were carried out to quantify the response of the meteorological conditions to changes in the parameters specific to the urban environment, such as street width, building height, albedo of the roofs and anthropogenic heat release. The results proved to be rather robust and the choice of the key SLUCM parameters impacts them only slightly (mainly temperature, boundary layer height and wind velocity. Statistically significant impacts are modelled not only over large urbanized areas, but the influence of the cities is also evident over rural areas without major urban surfaces. It is shown that this is the result of the combined effect of the distant

  1. Regional climate model assessment of the urban land-surface forcing over central Europe

    P. Huszar


    Full Text Available For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the climate impact of cities and urban surfaces in general on climate of central Europe, the surface parameterization in regional climate model RegCM4 has been extended with the Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM. A set of experiments was performed over the period of 2005–2009 for central Europe, either without considering urban surfaces or with the SLUCM treatment. Results show a statistically significant impact of urbanized surfaces on temperature (up to 1.5 K increase in summer as well as on the boundary layer height (increases up to 50 m. Urbanization further influences surface wind with a winter decrease up to −0.6 m s−1, though both increases and decreases were detected in summer depending on the location relative to the cities and daytime (changes up to 0.3 m s−1. Urban surfaces significantly reduce evaporation and thus the humidity over the surface. This impacts the simulated summer precipitation rate, showing decrease over cities up to −2 mm day−1. Significant temperature increases are simulated over higher elevations as well, not only within the urban canopy layer. With the urban parameterization, the climate model better describes the diurnal temperature variation, reducing the cold afternoon and evening bias of RegCM4. Sensitivity experiments were carried out to quantify the response of the meteorological conditions to changes in the parameters specific to the urban environment such as street width, building height, albedo of the roofs and anthropogenic heat release. The results proved to be rather robust and the choice of the key SLUCM parameters impacts them only slightly (mainly temperature, boundary layer height and wind velocity. Statistically significant impacts are modeled not only over large urbanized areas, but the influence of the cities is also evident over rural areas without major urban surfaces. It is shown that this is the result of the combined effect of

  2. Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Witter, Robert C.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Koehler, Richard D.; Randolph, Carolyn E.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Gans, Kathleen D.


    This report presents a map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the urban core of the San Francisco Bay region. It supercedes the equivalent area of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-444 (Knudsen and others, 2000), which covers the larger 9-county San Francisco Bay region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database, (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map and liquefaction interpretation (part 3), and (4) a text introducing the report and describing the database (part 1). All parts of the report are digital; part 1 describes the database and digital files and how to obtain them by downloading across the internet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a consistent detailed treatment of the central part of the 9-county region in which much of the mapping of Open-File Report 00-444 was either at smaller (less detailed) scale or represented only preliminary revision of earlier work. Like Open-File Report 00-444, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, inferred depositional environments, and geologic age to define and distinguish the map units. Further scrutiny of the factors controlling liquefaction susceptibility has led to some changes relative to Open-File Report 00-444: particularly the reclassification of San Francisco Bay mud (Qhbm) to have only MODERATE susceptibility and the rating of artificial fills according to the Quaternary map units inferred to underlie them (other than dams - adf). The two colored

  3. Regional fire monitoring and characterization using global NASA MODIS fire products in dry lands of Central Asia

    Tatiana V.LOBODA; Louis GIGLIO; Luigi BOSCHETTI; Christopher O.JUSTICE


    Central Asian dry lands are grass-and desert shrub-dominated ecosystems stretching across Northern Eurasia.This region supports a population of more than 100 million which continues to grow at an average rate of 1.5% annually.Dry steppes are the primary grain and cattle growing zone within Central Asia.Degradation of this ecosystem through burning and overgrazing directly impacts economic growth and food supply in the region.Fire is a recurrent disturbance agent in dry lands contributing to soil erosion and air pollution.Here we provide an overview of inter-annual and seasonal fire dynamics in Central Asia obtained from remotely sensed data.We evaluate the accuracy of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global fire products within Central Asian dry lands and use these products to characterize fire occurrence between 2001and 2009.The results show that on average ~15 million ha of land burns annually across Central Asia with the majority of the area bumed in August and September in grasslands.Fire is used as a comrnon crop residue management practice across the region.Nearly 89% of all burning occurs in Kazakhstan,where 5% and 3% of croplands and grasslands,respectively,are burned annually.

  4. Where American Indian Students Go to School: Enrollment in Seven Central Region States. REL 2016-113

    Apthorp, Helen S.


    This report provides descriptive information about the location and native language use of schools in the REL Central Region with high enrollment of American Indian students, whether Bureau of Indian Education schools or non-Bureau of Indian Education high-density American Indian schools (schools with 25 percent or more American Indian student…

  5. Forecasting Forest Type and Age Classes in the Appalachian-Cumberland Subregion of the Central Hardwood Region

    David N. Wear; Robert Huggett


    This chapter describes how forest type and age distributions might be expected to change in the Appalachian-Cumberland portions of the Central Hardwood Region over the next 50 years. Forecasting forest conditions requires accounting for a number of biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics within an internally consistent modeling framework. We used the US Forest...

  6. Teaching English Language Learner Students: Professional Standards in Elementary Education in Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 122

    Apthorp, Helen; Wang, Xin; Ryan, Susan; Cicchinelli, Louis F.


    This report on professional teaching standards in the Central Region examines what K-8 general education teachers are expected to know and be able to do in order to teach English language learner students. It reviews the standards for coverage of six topics that the research literature suggests are important for improving student achievement. Key…

  7. Student Mobility in Rural and Nonrural Districts in Five Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 089

    Beesley, Andrea; Moore, Laurie; Gopalani, Sarah


    This report describes the extent and distribution of student mobility in five Central Region states. The study, which calculated student mobility percentages in each state and compared percentages by locale (city, suburb, town, and rural locale, and degree of rurality) within each state, found no consistent patterns across locales. Research…

  8. Sustaining Oak Ecosystems in the Central Hardwood Region: Lessons from the Past--Continuing the History of Disturbance

    Daniel C. Dey; Richard P. Guyette


    Oak savannas, woodlands and forests were dominant ecosystems throughout the central hardwood Region (CHR) before European settlement. Today, only 0.02 percent of the original oak savannas present at the time of European settlement remain, and bottomland hardwood forests have been reduced by 70 to 95 percent depending on the watershed (Nuzzo 1986, Sharitz and Mitsch...

  9. Analysis of the State of Discipline in Kwanyarko Senior High School in the Central Region of Ghana

    Sackey, Elizabeth; Amaniampong, Kwarteng; Abrokwa, Juliana Efua


    The general purpose of this paper was to find out the perceptions of students and teachers on the state of discipline in Senior High Schools (SHS) in Ghana using Kwanyarko SHS in the Central Region as a case study. Questionnaire was formulated to direct the research. The question focused on the perceptions, causes and remedies to discipline in the…

  10. Popular Participation and Farming Systems Research and Extension: Examining the Central Visayas Regional Project 1 in Bohol, Philippines.

    Hubchen, Jonathan M.

    The Central Visayas Regional Project (CVRP) 1 aims to use community based participation to address environmental dilemmas, particularly watershed management, which are exacerbated by harmful local production practices. The CVRP employs many characteristics of Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR&E) which provides technical training in…

  11. A prospective study on Aeromonas in outpatients with diarrhea in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State

    Karoline de Campos Prediger


    Full Text Available Aeromonas spp. were identified in five (2,7% of 182 diarrheal stool cultures, A. caviae was predominant, resistant mainly to ampicillin and cephalotin. This is the first study showing the presence of Aeromonas spp. in diarrheal stools of outpatients in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  12. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil

    Martins, M.; Oliveira, M.E.


    Taxonomic and natural history data are presented on eight species of Atractus from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil, namely: A. alphonsehogei, A. latifrons, A, major, A. poeppigi, A. schach, A. snethlageae, A. torquatus, and A. trilineatus. Four of these species are recorded for the first

  13. Dynamics of Glueball and $q\\overline{q}$ production in the central region of p p collisions

    Close, Francis Edwin; Schuler, G A


    We explain the phi and t dependences of mesons with JPC = 0pm +,1^++,2pm +$ produced in the central region of pp collisions. For the 0++ and 2++ sector this reveals a systematic behaviour in the data that appears to distinguish between qqbar and non-qqbar or glueball candidates.

  14. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil

    Martins, M.; Oliveira, M.E.


    Taxonomic and natural history data are presented on eight species of Atractus from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil, namely: A. alphonsehogei, A. latifrons, A, major, A. poeppigi, A. schach, A. snethlageae, A. torquatus, and A. trilineatus. Four of these species are recorded for the first

  15. Giant magmatic water reservoir beneath Uturuncu volcano and Altiplano-Puna region (Central Andes)

    Laumonier, Mickael; Gaillard, Fabrice; Muir, Duncan; Blundy, Jon; Unsworth, Martyn


    Volcanism at continental arcs is the surface manifestation of long-lived crustal magmatic processes whereby mantle-derived hydrous basalt magma differentiates to more silica-rich magmas by a combination of crystallization and crustal melting. What erupts is just a fraction of the total volume of magma produced by these processes; the unerupted, plutonic residues solidify and are inaccessible to direct study until millions of years of uplift and erosion bring them to the surface. In contrast, geophysical surveys, using electromagnetic and seismic waves, can provide real-time images of subduction zone magmatic systems. Several such studies have revealed that arc volcanoes are underlain by large partially molten regions at depths of >10 km, the largest known example being the Altiplano-Puna magma body (APMB) in central Andes. Interpreting such geophysical images in terms of amount, composition and distribution of partial melts is limited by our lack of knowledge of the physical properties of silicate melts at elevated pressures and temperatures. Here we present high-pressure, in situ experimental data showing that the electrical conductivity of andesitic melts is primarily controlled by their dissolved water contents. Linking our new measurements to petrological constraints from andesites erupted on the Altiplano, we show that the APMB is composed of 10-20% of an andesitic melt containing 8-10 wt% dissolved water. This implies that the APMB is a giant water anomaly in the global subduction system, with a total mass of dissolved magmatic water about half of the water contained within the Adriatic Sea. In addition to the controls on the physical properties of the melts, the abundance of dissolved water governs the structural levels of magma ponding, equivalent to the depth of water saturation, where degassing and crystallisation promote partial melting and weakening of the upper crust. Unexpectedly, very high concentrations of water in andesite magmas shall impede their

  16. Variability of Aquatic Chemistry in Central Guizhou Karst Region,China

    白占国; 万国江


    It is necessary to understand the aquatic chemical characterstics of natural surface fresh water for water quality assessment.The chemical data from different kinds of water in the central Guizhou karst area showd that spring water from carbonate rock cracks(crack-water)is of neutrality or meta-alkalinity and [C] Ca II type.The amounts of all ions and the concentrations of HCO3- and Ca2+ were higher in the autumn than in the spring,The crack-water was influenced by the infiltration of surface water in the process of erosion and /or trans-portation with decreasing HCO3 and increasing pH,SO42-,Cl-,K+ and Na+ during running in a certain distance on the land surface .In particular,the chemical compositions of the waters at Tianxingqiao(upper-stream),Shuiliandong(mid-waterfall)and Luoshuitan(down-pool)near the Huangguoshu Waterfall were much different from those of the crack-water.The concentration of SO42-,Na+,Fe3+ and NO3- varied closely with seasons.The CaCO3 deposited violently with CO2 release in the spring ,In Lake Hongfeng the HCO3-/SO42- equivalent ratios were only 2.1-2.4 ,but Ca2+/Mg2+ up to 2.4-4.2.The Cl- concentration increased by a factor of 1 and Na+ by order of magnitude relative to the spring water.These indicated the increase in artificial pollutant discharge in the Lake Hongfeng watershed.In addition,Proewater in the soils covering carbonate rocks belongs to strongly mineralized water,The obvious differences in water quality were controlled by carbonate deposition,sulphate mineralization and nitrogen fixation as well as ammonification.It is indicated thaty the chemical compositions in the waters from the karst region were unstable and changeable.

  17. Seed Dispersal by Domestic Herbivores in Rangeland Ecosystems of the Central Zagros Region

    A. Eghbali


    Full Text Available To assess seed dispersal by domestic herbivores (sheep and goat in Central Zagros region, 12 different rangeland sites, located 200 km west of Isfahan city, were studied. For each site, a pooled dung sample of 10 freshly pellet groups from domestic herbivores was collected in four different periods (mid June, July, August and September during grazing season (in total, 48 pooled dung samples. Dung samples were dried in a dark room by exposing to open air, and then from each a 150 gram sample was kept for two months in the refrigerator at 3ْc as cold treatment. Seed content of dung samples was assessed in a greenhouse germination experiment over a period of 8 months. In total, 2039 seedlings from 50 different plant species (16 families and 48 genera were germinated from dung samples. Seed content of dung samples was mostly composed of palatable herbaceous species with no dispersal mechanism or adaptation except for the production of many small-sized seeds. The highest and the least number of germinated seeds was observed in July and June samples, respectively. Also, the highest and the least number of seed species was recorded in September and June samples, respectively. However, only a significant difference in seed species composition was observed between dung samples of September and June. Given that most of the plant species recorded in the region’s vegetation were regenerate by seed, seed dispersal via domestic herbivore dungs may have significant role in natural regeneration of the vegetation, if other environmental and management conditions are met. The results of the present research can be especially applied to reclamation of the country’s rangeland ecosystems.

  18. Offspring production in three freshwater crab species (Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae from the Amazon region and Central America

    Ingo S. Wehrtmann


    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are an important component of the fauna of limnic environments, and out of the two true freshwater crab families present in the Neotropics, Pseudothelphusidae is the most diverse. Considering the lack of information regarding reproductive features of neotropical freshwater crabs, we studied, for the first time, the fecundity and the presence of juveniles carried by females of two pseudothelphusids from the Amazon region - Kingsleya latifrons (Randall, 1840 and Kingsleya ytupora Magalhães, 1986 - and one from Central America - Potamocarcinus magnus (Rathbun, 1896. The two Kingsleya species produced relatively few (56-114 and large eggs (1.9-3.7 mm, typical for species with an abbreviated or direct development. Recently produced eggs were substantially larger in K. latifrons (mean 2.83 mm when compared to those of K. ytupora (mean 1.87 mm; however, at the end of the embryogenesis, mean egg diameter was similar in both species. Therefore, it is assumed that hatchlings in both species should have a similar size. A brief description of attached juveniles of K. ytupora is provided. The number of juveniles varied between 30 (K. ytupora and 179 (P. magnus; two size groups of juveniles were found, which indicates that the offspring cling to their mother for a prolonged period of time. There was no significant loss of eggs and juveniles; it is assumed that parental care diminishes the loss of their offspring. We compiled the available information of reproductive aspects from freshwater crabs: egg diameter was in the range of 2-3 mm, independent of female size and fecundity, and reported egg number varied between 9 and 417 eggs.

  19. Patterns of mercury dispersion from local and regional emission sources, rural Central Wisconsin, USA

    A. Kolker


    Full Text Available Simultaneous real-time changes in mercury (Hg speciation – reactive gaseous Hg (RGM, elemental Hg (Hg°, and fine particulate Hg (Hg-PM2.5, were determined from June to November 2007, in ambient air at three locations in rural Central Wisconsin. Known Hg emission sources within the airshed of the monitoring sites include: 1 a 1114 megawatt (MW coal-fired electric utility generating station; 2 a Hg-bed chlor-alkali plant; and 3 a smaller (465 MW coal-burning electric utility. Monitoring sites, showing sporadic elevation of RGM, Hg° and Hg-PM2.5, were positioned at distances of 25, 50 and 100 km northward of the larger electric utility. A series of RGM events were recorded at each site. The largest, on 23 September, occurred under prevailing southerly winds, with a maximum RGM value (56.8 pg m−3 measured at the 100 km site, and corresponding elevated SO2 (10.41 ppbv; measured at 50 km site. The finding that RGM, Hg°, and Hg-PM2.5 are not always highest at the 25 km site, closest to the large generating station, contradicts the idea that RGM decreases with distance from a large point source. This may be explained if: 1 the 100 km site was influenced by emissions from the chlor-alkali facility or by RGM from regional urban sources; 2 the emission stack height of the larger power plant promoted plume transport at an elevation where the Hg is carried over the closest site; or 3 RGM was being generated in the plume through oxidation of Hg°. Operational changes at each emitter since 2007 should reduce their Hg output, potentially allowing quantification of the environmental benefit in future studies.

  20. Urban Health Extension Services Utilization in Bishoftu Town, Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia.

    Gebreegziabher, Ewunetu Aberra; Astawesegn, Feleke Hailemichael; Anjulo, Antehun Alemayehu; Kerie, Mirkuzie Woldie


    Ethiopia has been deploying specially trained new cadres of community based health workers in urban areas of the country known as urban health extension professionals since 2009. At present, relatively little work has focused on understanding to what extent this new program is accepted and used by the community. Both qualitative and quantitative surveys were performed from March 10, 2012 to March 25, 2012 to explore the utilization of urban health extension services in Bishoftu Town, Oromia regional state, Central Ethiopia using a cross sectional study design. Qualitative data were collected using a total of 4 focus group discussions and 26 in-depth interviews. Quantitative data were collected from 418 randomly selected households using pre-tested, structured, interviewer-administered questionnaires. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 16.0. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Of the 418 interviewed households, 72.8% of them had at least one service related contact with urban health extension professionals in the previous 6 month. The mean frequency of service related contact with Urban Health Extension Professionals was found to be 2.24 (±1) contacts per 6 months. The total number of households graduated as a model family in the study area was 3974 (14.3%). Though participants felt that urban health extension professionals faced community resistance at program implementation, its acceptability greatly improved in this study. Despite this, individual competencies of urban health extension professionals, availability of supply and logistic system, and the level of support from kebele officials were reported to influence the program acceptability and utilization. The introduction of urban health extension professionals positively changed the attitude of the majority of the households involved and improved the acceptability of the program. All stake holders, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, should have supportive systems to

  1. Utility of regional Chinese seismograms for source and path studies in central Asia

    Patton, H.J.; Taylor, S.R.; Harris, D.B.; Mills, J.M. Jr.


    Regional surface waves recorded at the Urumchi station located about 700 km north of the Tibetan Plateau in the Sinkiang Province are used to study East Kazakh explosions and wave propagation in central Asia. The data consist of broadband (flat to displacement between 0.1 and 10 Hz), photographic records from an SK Kirnos galvanometric system. Simultaneous inversion of Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities for the path from East Kazakh through the Dzhungarian Basin yields a crustal model dominated by the presence of very low velocities and a strong positive velocity gradient above 15 km depth. Velocities below 15 km depth are not significantly different from other continental structures underlain by Paleozoic or Precambrian basement. This model is consistent with geologic evidence indicating that most of the path is characterized by the presence of up to 10 km of sediments overlying a Paleozoic basement. Source studies were made on seven East Kazakh explosions detonated in the time period between June 1980 and April 1981. These studies involved estimation of seismic moments using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. The largest explosion studied occurred on 9/14/80 and had an m/sub b/ of 6.2 and a seismic moment of 2.7 x 10/sup 23/ dyn-cm. The observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves are richer in high frequencies than predicted by explosion source models with tectonic release. This could be caused by a path effect involving seismic wave focusing by the large sedimentary basin between East Kazakh and the Urumchi station, although source medium effects cannot be ruled out. 30 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Inflammatory bowel diseases and the general practitioner’s role in a region of Central Italy

    Paolo Sossai


    Full Text Available Paolo Sossai1,2, Fabio Filippetti3, Ali Ahmad Muselmani4, Giambattista Catalini41Department of Medicine, “Enrico Mattei” Hospital, Viale Europa, I-62024 Matelica, Italy; 2Center of Clinical Research, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Camerino, Via M Scalzino, 3, I-62032 Camerino, Italy; 3Epidemiological Unit, Marche Region, Via Gentile da Fabriano, 3, I-60125 Ancona, Italy; 4Department of Surgery, General Hospital, Via Caselle, I-62032 Camerino, ItalyBackground: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are a serious burden for both patients and health care providers because of the young age at which they occur and their chronic course.Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess how general practitioners (GPs in the area of Camerino-Matelica, Marche (Central Italy manage their patients with IBD.Materials and methods: Before providing an educational course about IBD to GPs, we administered a simple questionnaire containing 10 multiple-choice questions, allowing for only one possible answer, to GPs in the target area. After the educational course we administered a satisfaction questionnaire and evaluated the hospitalization rates for IBD in the catchment area in the year following the course.Results: In our GP sample, 71.8% indicated that they needed better instruction regarding IBD to enable them to diagnose the conditions given the difficulties posed by nonspecific symptoms and the need to use invasive diagnostic methods such as colonoscopy. Early results after the educational course for GPs indicate a reduced rate of hospitalization for IBD but these data must be confirmed by future research.Conclusions: If specialists and GPs managed IBD patients more carefully, their patients would probably suffer from fewer relapses and would have a better quality of life, which would be likely to mean considerable cost savings for the public health care system and society in general.Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease

  3. Human papillomavirus in oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas in the central region of Brazil

    Guilherme Petito

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Molecular studies about carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx demonstrate the presence of human papilomavirus genome in these tumors, reinforcing the participation of human papilomavirus in oral carcinogenesis. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of human papilomavirus and genotype distribution of HPV16 and HPV18 in oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas, as well as their association with clinical characteristics of the tumors. Methods This is a retrospective study, with clinical data collected from 82 patients. Human papilomavirus detection was conducted on specimens of oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas included in paraffin blocks. Patients were assisted in a cancer reference center, in the central region of Brazil, between 2005 and 2007. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection and genotyping of human papilomavirus. Results Among the patients evaluated, 78% were male. The average age of the group was about 58 years. Risk factors, such as smoking (78% and alcohol consumption (70.8% were recorded for the group. HPV DNA was detected in 21 cases (25.6%; 95% confidence interval 16.9–36.6 of which 33.3% were HPV16 and 14.3% were HPV18. The presence of lymph node metastases and registered deaths were less frequent in human papilomavirus positive tumors, suggesting a better prognosis for these cases; however, the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion The results obtained in the present study, with respect to the presence of the high-risk HPV16 and HPV18 genotypes, highlight the importance of human papilomavirus vaccination in the control of oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas.

  4. Geodiversity of the Umbria region (central Italy): a GIS-based quantitative index

    Melelli, Laura; Pica, Alessia; Del Monte, Maurizio


    The measure of natural range related to geological bedrock, landforms and geomorphological processes is the necessary starting point to geodiversity evaluation. Geodiversity plays a strategic role in landscape management. Whereas geotourism and geosites are identified as a driving power for the scientific and economic promotion of an area, the geodiversity knowledge is required for a complete and accurate research. For example, high values of this abiotic parameter identify and support the foundation of geoparks. According to this perspective, the geodiversity is the unifying factor for these areas of interest. While a subjective and qualitative approach may be adequate for geosites definition, identification and cultural promotion, the geodiversity concept needs a different evaluation method. A quantitative procedure allows achieving an objective and repeatable process exportable in different geographic units. Geographical Information Systems and spatial analysis techniques are the base to quantitative evaluation involving topographic, geological and geomorphological data. Therefore, the assessment of a numerical index derived from the overlay of spatial parameters can be conveniently computed in GIS environment. In this study, a geodiversity index is proposed where geological, geomorphological and landcover factors deriving mainly from maps and field survey; topographic ones are employed from DEM and remote sensed data. Each abiotic parameter is modelled in a grid format; focal functions do provide neighbourhood analysis and computing variety statistics. A particular extent is dedicated to topographic information and terrain roughness, that are strictly related to efficiency of geomorphological processes and generally corresponding to the abiotic components variability. The study area is located in central Italy and is characterized by a well known natural heritage. Thirty-seven geosites are detected in the Umbria region, where seven regional and one natural

  5. On the representation of regional characteristics by hydrographic measurements at central stations in four deep basins of the Baltic Sea

    J. H. Reissmann


    Full Text Available In this work the eddy resolving data sets of salinity, temperature, and oxygen content aquired in the framework of the German-Russian project MESODYN (MESOscale DYNamics in the Arkona Basin, the Bornholm Basin, the Stolpe Furrow, and the Eastern Gotland Basin during summer and winter stratification situations are utilized to examine to which extent the observations at the central monitoring stations within these basins are representative for the spatial mean state of the corresponding region with respect to comparative monitoring purposes of the whole Baltic Sea. The investigation covers profiles of salinity, potential temperature, oxygen content, potential density, and squared buoyancy or Brunt-Väisälä frequency. Moreover, some parameters of the halocline, namely its depth, thickness, and upper and lower boundaries, and the first baroclinic Rossby radii are subject to the investigation. The profiles match best for the squared buoyancy or Brunt-Väisälä frequency. The profiles of salinity match best in the Eastern Gotland Basin and worst in the Arkona Basin both for summer and winter stratification situations. The overall agreement for the halocline parameters is good. The baroclinic Rossby radii match their spatial mean values well, if the depth range considered for their calculation is restricted to the mean depth in each region at the bottom side. In doing so they also match the spatial mean values of the first baroclinic Rossby radii calculated considering the whole depth range at each station. Overall, the regional characteristics of the investigated quantities and parameters are represented well by the hydrographic measurements at the central stations in the four regions in spite of some significant differences between the spatial mean states and the observations at the central stations. In particular, the observations at the central stations seem to be usefull for comparisons between these regions. However, the observed differences

  6. Convergence Analysis of Regional Economic Growth on Central Region in China%我国中部地区经济增长收敛性分析

    张可; 栾贵勘; 刘超


    Using the population-weighting of the Theil index of regional economic analysis of the central σ-convergence,found that the central regions were obvious existence of σ-convergence in 1977-2007,and provincial economic disparities were the central σ-convergence of regional economic obstacles factors.At the same time,using the Barro and Sala-I-Martin classic model of the central β-convergence of the regional economy though the impact on economic growth add the dynamic variables--urbanization,industrialization and other conditions were as follows:the central region of the conditions,there was a significant β-convergence,one of industrialization and innovation ability to affect the central region were the conditions of β-convergence of the primary factors,excessive government intervention in the economy that have hindered the conduct of the conditions of β-convergence of the important factors.%运用以人口为权数的Theil指数分析我国中部地区经济σ-收敛发现:1997-2007年中部地区存在较明显的σ-收敛,且省际间的经济差异是中部地区经济σ-收敛的阻碍因素;同时运用Barro和Sala-i-Martin经典模型分析中部地区经济β-收敛,通过加入影响经济增长的动态变量--城市化、工业化等条件发现:中部地区存在显著的条件β-收敛,其中工业化和创新能力是影响中部地区条件β-收敛的首要因素,政府过度干预经济的行为是阻碍其条件β-收敛的重要因素.

  7. Regional Economic Development in the Soviet Union, Two Case Studies: The Baltic and Central Asia.


    this false "jump" in the value of at, D70t is introduced into the model. The graph of Soviet inter- regional connectivity is different for 1965 and...calculation of ucwi, j follows along similar lines. First, the interiogional regional connectivity matrix CC is constructed in a manner analogous to the...or regions, if no city in the intervening region(s) above the threshold size lies on the connecting route. A rule used to determine trans- regional

  8. Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests


    deployed some two dozen troops to Iraq who served under Polish command and carried out water- purification , demining, and medical activities. of opium and heroin produced in Afghanistan are transited through Central Asia to markets in Russia and Central Europe. Most of these

  9. Tendencies of mortality by prostate cancer in the states of the Central-West Region of Brazil, 1980-2011.

    da Silva, João Francisco Santos; Mattos, Inês Echenique; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra


    This study aimed at analyzing the pattern of prostate cancer mortality in the Central-West Region, in the period 1980 - 2011. The quadrennial and annual mortality rates, age-standardized by the world population, were calculated. Polynomial regression models were estimated to analyze trends of mortality in Brazilian regions and in the states of the Central-West Region. Throughout Brazil there was an increase in the magnitude of mortality rates during the study's period. In the Central-West Region, mortality rates from prostate cancer increased from 7.65/100,000 in the period 1980 - 1983, to 14.36/100,000 in the last four years, exceeding the national average. For Mato Grosso do Sul, an increased trend, although not constant, was observed for prostate mortality rates, while those rates showed stability for Mato Grosso and presented a constant trend of increment for Goiás along the studied period. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between mortality rates from prostate cancer and the proportional mortality from ill-defined causes of death in the three states, but no correlations were observed between these rates and the ratios of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) tests realized. Difficulties in the access to the health services network, better quality of death records with reduction of ill-defined causes and increased use of PSA may have contributed to the mortality pattern observed in the Central-West Region. Further studies are needed to investigate these relationships in order, to better understand the patterns of mortality from this cancer in the Central-West population.


    Dobrislav Vujović


    Full Text Available Anthropologists recognized the tallness of nations in the Dinaric Alps long time ago (Popovic et al, 2013. As the modern Montenegrins fall partly into the Dinaric racial classification (Bjelica et al., 2012, the purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Montenegrin male adolescents from central region as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height, which would vary from region to region in Montenegro. Method: Our investigation analyses 548 male adolescents from the central region in Montenegro. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Means and standard deviations regarding the anthropometric measurements were obtained. A comparison of means of body heights and arm spans within this gender group were carried out using a t-test. The relationships between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence interval. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which the arm span can reliably predict body height. Results: The results displayed that male Central-Montenegrins are 183.66±6.93 cm tall and have an arm span of 184.99±8.30cm. Discussion: Compared to other studies, the results of this study have shown that this gender made Central-Macedonians the tall population, taller than general male population in Montenegro (Bjelica et al., 2012. On the other hand, expectably, the arm span reliably predicts body height in this gender. However, the estimation equations which have been obtained in Central-Montenegrins are, different alike in general population, since arm span was closer to body heights (1.33±1.37 centimetres, more than in general population (Bjelica et al., 2012. This confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Montenegro.

  11. Multidisciplinary investigations on the Roman aqueduct of Grumentum (Basilicata, Southern Italy

    M. Mucciarelli


    Full Text Available The Romans built the ancient town of Grumentum during the 3rd century B.C. in the southern part of the Agri high Valley (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy near the confluence of the Sciaura stream in the Agri River. Now it is one of the most important archaeological sites of Southern Italy. In fact, after a period of wars in this area between Romans and Carthaginians, a great deal of restoration was started in 57 B.C. These works affected the city walls, public buildings and finally endowed the Roman colony with important infrastructures, such as the new aqueduct. In this work, we attempt to reconstruct the ancient layout of the Roman aqueduct of Grumentum. As a starting point, we followed some descriptions from the 19th century, when the structure was still well preserved. Then, we performed a multidisciplinary geophysical approach to the best preserved remains of the aqueduct. In particular, the geophysical investigation started with the use of a portable GPS allowing us to acquire the co-ordinates of the outcropping rests of the ancient structure. Then, we used an optical pumping magnetometer to perform seven gradiometric maps over a broad area of about 8000 m2. From the literature descriptions, dating to the first part of the 19th century, we can deduce that the state of preservation of the Roman aqueduct was much better than the present one. Thus we can hypothesise as the cause of its fast involution the fact that it was located in the epicentral area of the large destructive earthquake which occurred in the Basilicata Region in 1857 (Mallet, 1862. To this aim, we performed a first attempt to correlate the state of preservation of the aqueduct remains with the local seismic amplification by means of the HVSR (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio technique. This survey allowed us to obtain the site amplification spectra along the aqueduct layout and assess the fundamental vibration frequency of the investigated structure

  12. Differences in 5-HT2A and mGlu2 Receptor Expression Levels and Repressive Epigenetic Modifications at the 5-HT2A Promoter Region in the Roman Low- (RLA-I) and High- (RHA-I) Avoidance Rat Strains

    Fomsgaard, Luna; Moreno, Jose L; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario


    The serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptors regulate each other and are associated with schizophrenia. The Roman high- (RHA-I) and the Roman low- (RLA-I) avoidance rat strains present well-differentiated behavioral profiles, with the RHA-I strain emerging as a putative...... genetic rat model of schizophrenia-related features. The RHA-I strain shows increased 5-HT2A and decreased mGlu2 receptor binding levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here, we looked for differences in gene expression and transcriptional regulation of these receptors. The striatum (STR) was included......-specific regulation of the 5-HT2A receptor in the RHA-I rats probably due to absence of mGlu2 receptor that may result in differential regulation of downstream pathways....

  13. Jet Production in the Central Rapidity Region in 1.8 TeV Proton and Antiproton Collisions

    Tsai, Yeong-Dong; /Chicago U.


    In this thesis we study the jet production cross section in the central rapidity region in {bar p}p collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.8 TeV. The pseudo-rapidity {eta} is defined as {eta} {triple_bond} -ln(tan({theta}/2)), where {theta} is the angle between the directions of the jet momentum and the proton beam. We will call the region -0.7 < {eta} < 0.7 the 'central rapidity' region by definition. The goal of this thesis is to determine two kinds of differential cross sections for jet production: an inclusive jet Et distribution d{sigma}/dEt, and the distribution in invariant mass d{sigma}/dM{sub JJ} of two jet systems. These spectra serve to check the strong interaction theory, and thus to look for new phenomena, at the highest available energy. The strong interaction theory will be discussed.

  14. The growth of the central region by acquisition of counter-rotating gas in star-forming galaxies

    Chen, Yan-Mei; Tremonti, Christy A; Bershady, Matt; Merrifield, Michael; Emsellem, Eric; Jin, Yi-Fei; Huang, Song; Fu, Hai; Wake, David A; Bundy, Kevin; Stark, David; Lin, Lihwai; Argudo-Fernandez, Maria; Bergmann, Thaisa Storchi; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brownstein, Joel; Bureau, Martin; Chisholm, John; Drory, Niv; Guo, Qi; Hao, Lei; Hu, Jian; Li, Cheng; Li, Ran; Lopes, Alexandre Roman; Pan, Kai-Ke; Riffel, Rogemar A; Thomas, Daniel; Wang, Lan; Westfall, Kyle; Yan, Ren-Bin


    Galaxies grow through both internal and external processes. In about 10% of nearby red galaxies with little star formation, gas and stars are counter-rotating, demonstrating the importance of external gas acquisition in these galaxies. However, systematic studies of such phenomena in blue, star-forming galaxies are rare, leaving uncertain the role of external gas acquisition in driving evolution of blue galaxies. Based on new measurements with integral field spectroscopy of a large representative galaxy sample, we find an appreciable fraction of counter-rotators among blue galaxies (9 out of 489 galaxies). The central regions of blue counter-rotators show younger stellar populations and more intense, ongoing star formation than their outer parts, indicating ongoing growth of the central regions. The result offers observational evidence that the acquisition of external gas in blue galaxies is possible; the interaction with pre-existing gas funnels the gas into nuclear regions (< 1 kpc) to form new stars.

  15. Bases para el estudio de la competitividad de la produccion de papa de las agroempresas campesinas de la region central de Boyaca

    Rodriguez Luis Felipe


    Full Text Available

    Roman";,";serif";;">Para el Departamento de Boyacá, la problemática más relevante en los aspectos tecnologico y socioeconómico en el contexto del Sector Agropecuario, se centra en el gremio de los productores de papa, especialmente en los pequeños agroempresarios. En esta región, existe un marcado predominio de los pequeños cultivos de papa, atendidos básicamente por sus dueños, arrendatarios o aparceros. La demasiada parcelación del terreno ha sido un factor determinante para su bajo nivel de mecanizaci6n. En Boyacá, se resalta la existencia de varias zonas donde el cultivo de papa se constituye en el epicentro, en torno al cual gravita la actividad productiva de una gran cantidad de pequeñas agroempresas de carácter campesino, que operan en este departamento. Dentro de tales zonas, la zona central de Boyacá se constituye en un espacio geográfico representativo de la produccion agropecuaria campesina, donde la población dedicada a la producción de papa presenta un deficiente nivel de vida, como consecuencia de los bajos niveles de productividad y de la problemática comercial que tienen que enfrentar en la fase de posproduccion de tal especie agrícola.

    Roman";,";serif";;">Palabras claves:Roman', serif;"> Agroempresas campesinas, productor, productividad, cultivos múltiples, rentabilidad, comercialización.

  16. Feeding behaviour of artificially reared Romane lambs.

    David, I; Bouvier, F; Ricard, E; Ruesche, J; Weisbecker, J-L


    A consequence of increasing litter size in sheep is that a portion of the lambs have to be reared artificially. Detailed information about the pattern of milk consumption of artificially reared lambs would help improve their management. The purpose of this study is to describe the individual and group feeding behaviour of 94 Romane artificially reared lambs from 5 to 28 days of age using an electronic automatic lamb feeder. Animals were located in four pens of 8 to 15 lambs of similar age with one teat per pen. They were fed ad libitum. In our experimental situation (group rearing, continuous lightning) on average a lamb made 1.4±0.7 visits to the teat per meal and 9.5±3 meals per day. Mean meal duration was 247±158 s and the mean daily time spent feeding was 38±25 min. The mean quantity of milk intake was 176±132 ml per meal and 1.68±0.8 l per day. With age, the number of daily meals and their duration decreased while the quantity of milk consumed per meal and per day increased. Females tended to make more visits to the teat per meal and perform more meals per day but their milk consumption per meal was lower. The feed conversion ratio was 1.36±0.2. Synchrony in feeding (group meal) was estimated as the percentage of lambs that wanted to access the teat within the same short period (relative group meal size). On average 65% of lambs in the pen wanted to access the teat within the same period, but for 35% of group meals the relative group meal size was >90%. There was no consistency in the order in which lambs accessed the teat during a group meal. Our evaluation suggested that electronic automatic lamb feeders are tools that can provide, on a large scale, data describing the feeding behaviour of artificially reared lambs. It is then possible to study factors influencing these traits in order to improve the outcome of artificially reared lambs.

  17. Direct radiative effect modeled for regional aerosols in central Europe including the effect of relative humidity

    Iorga, G.; Hitzenberger, R.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Puxbaum, Hans


    In view of both the climatic relevance of aerosols and the fact that aerosol burdens in central Europe are heavily impacted by anthropogenic sources, this study is focused on estimating the regional-scale direct radiative effect of aerosols in Austria. The aerosol data (over 80 samples in total) were collected during measurement campaigns at five sampling sites: the urban areas of Vienna, Linz, and Graz and on Mt. Rax (1644 m, regional background aerosol) and Mt. Sonnblick (3106 m, background aerosol). Aerosol mass size distributions were obtained with eight-stage (size range: 0.06-16 μm diameter) and six-stage (size range 0.1-10 μm) low-pressure cascade impactors. The size-segregated samples were analyzed for total carbon (TC), black carbon (BC), and inorganic ions. The aerosol at these five locations is compared in terms of size distributions, optical properties, and direct forcing. Mie calculations are performed for the dry aerosol at 60 wavelengths in the range 0.3-40 μm. Using mass growth factors determined earlier, the optical properties are also estimated for higher relative humidities (60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%). A box model was used to estimate direct radiative forcing (DRF). The presence of absorbing species (BC) was found to reduce the cooling effect of the aerosols. The water-soluble substances dominate radiative forcing at the urban sites, while on Rax and Sonnblick BC plays the most important role. This result can be explained by the effect of the surface albedo, which is much lower in the urban regions (0.16) than at the ice and snow-covered mountain sites. Shortwave (below 4 μm) and longwave surface albedo values for ice were 0.35 and 0.5, while for snow surface albedo, values of 0.8 (shortwave) and 0.5 (longwave) were used. In the case of dry aerosol, especially for urban sites, the unidentified material may contribute a large part to the forcing. Depending on the sampling site the estimated forcing gets more negative with increasing humidity

  18. On the Roman bondage number of a graph

    Bahremandpour, A; Sheikholeslami, S M; Xu, Jun-Ming


    A Roman dominating function on a graph $G=(V,E)$ is a function $f:V\\rightarrow\\{0,1,2\\}$ such that every vertex $v\\in V$ with $f(v)=0$ has at least one neighbor $u\\in V$ with $f(u)=2$. The weight of a Roman dominating function is the value $f(V(G))=\\sum_{u\\in V(G)}f(u)$. The minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on a graph $G$ is called the Roman domination number, denoted by $\\gamma_{R}(G)$. The Roman bondage number $b_{R}(G)$ of a graph $G$ with maximum degree at least two is the minimum cardinality of all sets $E'\\subseteq E(G)$ for which $\\gamma_{R}(G-E')>\\gamma_R(G)$. In this paper, we first show that the decision problem for determining $b_{\\rm R}(G)$ is NP-hard even for bipartite graphs and then we establish some sharp bounds for $b_{\\rm R}(G)$ and characterizes all graphs attaining some of these bounds.

  19. RF Measurements of the New TOTEM Roman Pot

    Berrig, O; Caspers, F; Danisi, A; Eberhardt, J; Kuczerowski, J; Minafra, N; Salvant, B; Vollinger, C


    The TOTEM experiment has been designed to measure the total proton-proton cross section and to study the elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC energy. The measurement requires detecting protons at distances as small as 1 mm from the beam center: TOTEM uses Roman Pots, movable beam pipe insertions, hosting silicon detectors. In the first period of LHC operation no relevant problems were detected with Roman Pots retracted or inserted during special runs. However, when operating the LHC with high intensity beams, impedance induced heating has been observed during the Roman Pots insertion. In order to be compatible with the higher LHC beam current foreseen after the LS1, a new version of the Roman Pot has been proposed and optimized with respect to the beam coupling impedance. In this work we present the bench impedance measurements carried out on the new Roman Pot prototype. Single and double wire measurements, as well as probe measurements, were performed in order to detect possible harmful resonant mod...

  20. Welcome to Romans. FBFC and CERCA; Bienvenue a Romans. FBFC et CERCA



    The Franco-Belge de Fabrication de Combustibles (FBFC) and the Compagnie pour l'Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques (CERCA) are companies located in the site of Romans sur Isere (France) and involved in the manufacturing of nuclear fuels and fuel elements for PWR and research reactors. Framatome is the industrial operator of both companies which have the same shareholders. This booklet presents the activities of both companies: the role of FBFC in the fuel cycle (UF{sub 6}-UO{sub 2} conversion, recycling, pelletizing, loading of fuel rods, assembly, machining, manufacturing of mixing grids and rod cluster control assemblies), and the activities of CERCA (manufacturing of the Triga fuel for research reactors, manufacturing of superconducting cavities, neutronmultidetectors and radiation sources). (J.S.)

  1. Research on the Balanced Development of China’s Urbanization and Industrialization in Eastern,Central,Western and Northeastern Regions


    According to the relationship between urbanization development and industrialization development since the opening up and reform of China,the quantitative analysis of I/U and N/U is conducted.The results show that the overall level of China’s urbanization lags behind that of the industrialization,and this phenomenon of lag tends to dwindle.In 2003,the relationship between China’s urbanization and industrialization was most balanced,but after 2003,the phenomenon of urbanization lagging behind industrialization tends to distend gradually again;being that the development of urbanization is influenced by natural basis and policy,different regions have different cases.In the eastern and central region,the urbanization lags behind industrialization;in the northeastern region,the urbanization preponderate over industrialization;in the western region,the level of urbanization is not high,but it develops along with the industrialization in tandem.The regional difference of urbanization and industrialization requires that different should implement different policies.The eastern region still has great developmental space,and it should implement the strategy of urbanization as soon as possible;on the basis of expanding the current urban scale and improving quality,the central region should quicken the development of central cities;the western region should choose the path of concentrated-type urbanization;the three northeastern provinces should give priority to improving the quality of local industrialization vigorously and promoting the rapid upgrade of industrial structure,so as to propel the balanced development of urbanization and industrialization.

  2. Paleozoic-involving thrust array in the central Sierras Interiores (South Pyrenean Zone, Central Pyrenees): regional implications

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.


    This work deals with the structural evolution of the Sierras Interiores between the Tena and Aragon valleys. The Sierras Interiores is a WNW-trending mountain range that bounds the South Pyrenean Zone to the north and that is characterized by a thrust-fold system with a strong lithological control that places preferably decollements in Triassic evaporites. In the studied area of the Sierras Interiores Cenomanian limestones cover discordantly the Paleozoic rocks of the Axial Zone because there is a stratigraphic lacuna developed from Triassic to Late Cretaceous times. A simple lithostratigraphy of the study area is made up of Late Cenomanian to Early Campanian limestones with grey colour and massive aspect in landscape (170 m, Lower calcareous section), Campanian to Maastrichtian brown coloured sandstones (400-600 m, Marboré sandstones) and, finally, Paleocene light-coloured massive limestones (130-230 m), that often generate the higher topographic levels of the Sierras Interiores due to their greater resistance to erosion. Above the sedimentary sequence of the Sierras Interiores, the Jaca Basin flysch succession crops out discordantly. Based on a detailed mapping of the studied area of the Sierras Interiores, together with well and structural data of the Jaca Basin (Lanaja, 1987; Rodríguez and Cuevas, 2008) we have constructed a 12 km long NS cross section, approximately parallel to the movement direction deduced for this region (Rodríguez et al., 2011). The main structure is a thrust array made up of at least four Paleozoic-involving thrusts (the deeper thrust system) of similar thickness in a probably piggyback sequence, some of which are blind thrusts that generate fold-propagation-folds in upper levels. The higher thrust of the thrust array crops out duplicating the lower calcareous section all over the Sierras Interiores. The emplacement of the deeper thrust system generated the tightness of previous structures: south directed piggyback duplexes (the upper

  3. Structural and chemical variations in phlogopite from lamproitic rocks of the Central Mediterranean region

    Lepore, Giovanni O.; Bindi, Luca; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Conticelli, Sandro; Bonazzi, Paola


    Micas from mafic ultrapotassic rocks with lamproitic affinity from several localities of the Central Mediterranean region were studied through single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS); Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MöS), when feasible, was also applied to minimise the number of unknown variables and uncertainties. Analysed lamproitic samples cover the most important Central Mediterranean type localities, from Plan d'Albard (Western Alps) to Sisco (Corsica), Montecatini Val di Cecina and Orciatico (Tuscany, Italy) and Torre Alfina (Northern Latium, Italy). The studied crystals show distinctive chemical and structural features; all of them belong to the phlogopite-annite join and crystallise in the 1M polytype, except for micas from Torre Alfina, where both 1M and 2M1 polytypes were found. Studied micas have variable but generally high F and Ti contents, with Mg/(Mg + Fe) ranging from 0.5 to 0.9; 2M1 crystals from Torre Alfina radically differ in chemical composition, showing high contents of Ti and Fe as well as of Al in both tetrahedra and octahedra, leading to distinctive structural distortions, especially in tetrahedral sites. SIMS data indicate that studied micas are generally dehydrogenated with OH contents ranging from 0.2 apfu (atoms per formula unit) for Orciatico and Torre Alfina to 1.4 for Plan d'Albard crystals; this feature is also testified by the length of the c parameter, which decreases with the loss of hydrogen and/or the increase of the F → OH substitution. Chemical and structural data suggest that the entry of high charge octahedral cations is mainly balanced by an oxy mechanism and, to a lesser extent, by a M3 +,4 +-Tschermak substitution. Our data confirm that Ti preferentially partitions into the M2 site and that different Ti and F contents, as well as different K/Al values, are both dependant upon fH2O and the composition of magma rather than controlled by P and T

  4. The Competitiveness of Settlements with SPAS in Some Central European Regions

    Márta Bakucz


    Full Text Available The paper covers two topics which are, broadly, inseparable. The first has as its main target the competitiveness of Spa Tourism in two Regions of Hungary - in settlements with different characteristics; the second, recognising the need for a new way to measure competitiveness in the sector, deals with the creation of a new competitiveness index. The benefits of virtually all forms of Tourism - economic or social – are well enough known to need no repetition. This is especially true of such fields as Spa or Health Tourism, in which there is a natural trend towards longer stays and higher expenditure by visitors. For a relatively poor country such as Hungary – weak in natural resources apart from agricultural land – the basic presence of a generous supply of easily accessible thermal or medicinal water below a huge proportion of its surface area (70% is a remarkable gift. Nevertheless, many factors are to be studied if a rational, sustainable development policy is to be elaborated by public and private interests. There are many spas – settlements with thermal or medicinal waters (or both - spread across Hungary, and their variety is extraordinary. There are huge differences in terms of size, visitor numbers, accommodation facilities, overnights, leisure or treatment facilities and location – that is, their closeness to favourable population areas (domestic or foreign. The critical decisions on investment and development need comprehensive data on all factors of all locations. The essential issue is competitiveness: in Central Europe, where spas have a great tradition and history (e.g., Germany, Austria and today’s Czech Republic, does or can Hungary offer a product which will sell? There are numerous factors and as many bases on which to judge. In 2013 a team from the Faculty of Business and Economics at Pécs University - supported by Hungary’s National Scientific Research Foundation (OTKA – embarked on a study of the

  5. Strengthening the Regional Integration in Central and Eastern Europe through Cohesion Policy Instruments and Cooperation among Stock Exchanges



    Full Text Available The research paper is focused on the analysis of two ways of strengthening the regional integration in the Central and Eastern Europe – through the Cohesion policy instruments and cooperation among stock exchanges. Substantial benefits from the regional integration through cohesion policy include economic and social prosperity, political understanding. It should be further intensified, as it contributes to reduce regional disparities, exchange knowledge and best practices, ensure economic development. On the other hand, the deepening intra-regional cooperation among CEE stock exchanges leads to quantitative and qualitative changes in the course of their consolidation. Some assumptions are reached regarding expected changes on the Bulgarian capital market in the course of intensifying its intra-regional integrational links to CEE capital markets in conformity with set strategic priorities.

  6. Regional data refine local predictions: modeling the distribution of plant species abundance on a portion of the central plains.

    Young, Nicholas E; Stohlgren, Thomas J; Evangelista, Paul H; Kumar, Sunil; Graham, Jim; Newman, Greg


    Species distribution models are frequently used to predict species occurrences in novel conditions, yet few studies have examined the consequences of extrapolating locally collected data to regional landscapes. Similarly, the process of using regional data to inform local prediction for species distribution models has not been adequately evaluated. Using boosted regression trees, we examined errors associated with extrapolating models developed with locally collected abundance data to regional-scale spatial extents and associated with using regional data for predictions at a local extent for a native and non-native plant species across the northeastern central plains of Colorado. Our objectives were to compare model results and accuracy between those developed locally and extrapolated regionally, those developed regionally and extrapolated locally, and to evaluate extending species distribution modeling from predicting the probability of presence to predicting abundance. We developed models to predict the spatial distribution of plant species abundance using topographic, remotely sensed, land cover and soil taxonomic predictor variables. We compared model predicted mean and range abundance values to observed values between local and regional. We also evaluated model prediction performance based on Pearson's correlation coefficient. We show that: (1) extrapolating local models to regional extents may restrict predictions, (2) regional data can help refine and improve local predictions, and (3) boosted regression trees can be useful to model and predict plant species abundance. Regional sampling designed in concert with large sampling frameworks such as the National Ecological Observatory Network may improve our ability to monitor changes in local species abundance.

  7. Graphic pattern of foraminiferal dominance in nearshore region of central west coast of India

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Nigam, R.; Ambre, N.V.

    Within the inner neritic zone (0-55 m depth) along the central west coast of India, some foraminiferal groups such as @iAmmonia, Elphidium, Trochammina, Bulimina, Bolivina, Nonion, Nonionella@@ and Florilus@@ individually (total foraminiferal number...

  8. CCALBATC - bathymetric contours for the central California region between Point Arena and Point Sur.

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — CCALBATC consists of bathymetric contours at 10-m and 50-m intervals for the area offshore of central California between Point Arena to the north and Point Sur to...

  9. Naturally occurring clay nanoparticles in Latosols of Brazil central region: detection and characterization

    Dominika Dybowska, Agnieszka; Luciene Maltoni, Katia; Piella, Jordi; Najorka, Jens; Puntes, Victor; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia


    Stability and reactivity of minerals change as a particle size function, which makes mineral nanoparticles (defined here as nanoparticles contribute to many biogeochemical processes, however much remains to be learnt about these materials, their size dependent behavior and environmental significance. Advances in analytical, imaging and spectroscopic techniques made it now possible to study such particles; however we still have limited knowledge of their chemical, structural and morphological identity and reactivity, in particular in soils. The aim of this research was to characterize the naturally occurring nanoparticles in three soils from Brazil central region. The samples were collected in the A horizon, treated with H2O2 to remove organic material, dispersed in ultrasonic bath and wet sieved (53 µm) to remove the sand fraction. The clay fraction was collected by siphoning the supernatant, conditioned in 1000 ml cylinder, according to the Stock's law. This fraction was further processed by re-suspension in water, sonication and repeated centrifugation, to separate the fraction smaller than 100nm. This material, called here the soil "nanofraction", was analyzed using a range of techniques: 1) nanoparticle size/morphology and crystallinity with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM operateing in scanning (HAADF-STEM) and High Resolution (HRTEM) mode), 2) size distribution in water with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and surface charge estimated from electrophoretic mobility measurements 3) crystal phase and crystallite size with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 4) Chemical composition by quantitative analysis of elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Al, Ti) and their spatial distribution with HRTEM/EDS elemental mappings. The nanofraction had an average hydrodynamic particle diameter ranging from 83 to 92nm with a low polydispersity index of 0.13-0.17 and was found highly stable in aqueous suspension (no change in average particle size up to several months of storage). Particle surface

  10. Regional distance shear-coupled PL propagation within the northern Altiplano, central Andes

    Swenson, Jennifer L.; Beck, Susan L.; Zandt, George


    Properties of the shear-coupled P wavetrain (SPL) from regional earthquakes provide important information about the structure of the crust and upper mantle. We investigate broad-band seismic data from intermediate-depth earthquakes and develop a grid search technique using synthetic seismograms to study the sensitivity of SPL and to model the crustal structure of the northern Altiplano, central Andes. Waveforms from an earthquake that occurred on 1994 December 12 within the Nazca slab beneath the Altiplano display a clear SPL wavetrain at the temporary stations deployed during the BANJO and SEDA experiments. We relocate this event and determine the moment tensor by inverting the complete long-period waveforms. With these source parameters fixed, we perform sensitivity analyses using a reflectivity technique to compute synthetic seismograms at a distance of 313 km (BANJO station 2, SALI). We find that, at this distance, the long-period SPL wavetrain is sensitive to the following model parameters, in order of decreasing sensitivity: crustal VP/VS, mantle VP/VS, average crustal velocity, crustal thickness, focal depth, distance (location), crustal Qα and Qβ, and mantle velocity. We develop a grid search method to investigate the four parameters of the crust/upper mantle model to which the synthetic seismograms are most sensitive at SALI (crustal VP/VS, mantle VP/VS, average crustal velocity, crustal thickness). Trade-offs exist among all four of the model parameters, resulting in a range of acceptable crustal models that provide excellent fits between the data and synthetic seismograms in the passband of 15-100 s at a single station. However, by using data at a range of distances (150-450 km) we find that the model that provides the best overall fit between the data and synthetic seismograms, and thus best approximates the average characteristics of the crust and upper mantle structure of the northern Altiplano, is characterized by an average crustal velocity of 6

  11. Biofuel production and climate mitigation potential from marginal lands in US North Central region

    Gelfand, I.; Sahajpal, R.; Zhang, X.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Robertson, G. P.


    An ever-increasing demand for liquid fuels, amidst concerns of anthropogenic impacts on the environment and fossil fuels availability, has spurred a strong interest in the development of agriculturally-based renewable energy sources. However, increasing demand for food as well as direct and indirect effects on land use, have raised concerns about reliance on grain-based ethanol and shifted research towards the direction of cellulosic feedstocks. In order to understand the future possibility for using agricultural systems for bio-fuel production, we present here a full greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of six potential sources of cellulosic feedstocks production. From 1991 to 2008, we measured GHGs sinks and sources in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems in SW Michigan. The measurements included soil fluxes of GHGs (N2O and CH4), soil organic carbon concentration change, agronomic practices data, and biomass yields. We analyzed two types of intensively managed annual cropping systems under corn-soybean-wheat rotation (conventional tillage and no till), two perennial systems (alfalfa and poplar plantation), and one successional system. The use of agricultural residues for biofuel feedstock from conventionally-tilled crops had the lowest climate stabilization potential (-9 ±13 gCO2e m-2 y-1). In contrast, biomass collected from a successional system fertilized with N at123 kg ha-1y-1 showed the highest climate stabilization potential (-749 ±30 gCO2e m-2 y-1). We used our results to parameterize the EPIC model, which, together with GIS analysis was used to scale up the biomass productivity of the best environmentally performing systems to the marginal lands of the 10-state U.S. North Central region. Assuming 80 km as the maximum distance for road haulage to the biorefinery from the field, we identified 32 potential biorefinery placements each capable of supplying sufficient feedstock to produce at least 133 × 106 L y-1. In total, ethanol production from marginal

  12. Decadal Erosion Rates Derived From An Earthquake-Induced Landslide Region, Central Taiwan

    Chan, Y.; Lu, C.; Chang, K.; Chen, R.


    The island of Taiwan is resulted from the collision between the Philippine sea plate and the Eurasian plate. The subtropical climate and averaging four typhoons annually, combined with frequent earthquakes, influence much of the Taiwan region. Due to the factors above, not only the active orogeny of Taiwan causes the high uplift rate at about 4 mm/yr, but also drive amazing erosion rate of about 3-6 mm/yr. Previous study indicated approximately 1.9% of global suspended sediment is derived from the small island of Taiwan, which is only about 0.024% of Earth’s subaerial surface. Furthermore, modern erosion rates are strongly influenced by large earthquakes and typhoons, and the sediment fluxes after the Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake of Taiwan are much higher than those before the earthquake. Here we study the Chiufenerhshan landslide, which is one of the large landslides triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake in the central Taiwan. The avalanche transported a mass of sedimentary rock about 60 m thick and 1.5 km long. Based on the high-resolution topographic data sets from LiDAR or photogrammetry at various years and rain fall data, we have reached the following conclusions: In the period of 8.5 years after the Chi-Chi earthquake, almost 4.2% of the landslide deposits were transported out of the landslide system. Comparing with the mean annual erosion rate of 3-6 mm/yr in Taiwan, the sediment brought out of Chiufenerhshan landslide area is 89.4 mm/yr, a significant amount contributed by the landslide. The mean sediment discharge from this small system is as large as 0.064% of the sediment discharge from the whole Taiwan annually; while the area is only about 0.005% of Taiwan’s subaerial surface. Thus, the landslide process has contributed much more to the surface erosion of the Taiwan mountain than other erosion processes.

  13. Patterns of mercury dispersion from local and regional emission sources, rural Central Wisconsin, USA

    A. Kolker


    Full Text Available Simultaneous real-time changes in mercury (Hg speciation- reactive gaseous Hg (RGM, elemental Hg (Hg°, and fine particulate Hg (Hg-PM2.5, were determined from June to November, 2007, in ambient air at three locations in rural Central Wisconsin. Known Hg emission sources within the airshed of the monitoring sites include: 1 a 1114 megawatt (MW coal-fired electric utility generating station; 2 a Hg-bed chlor-alkali plant; and 3 a smaller (465 MW coal-burning electric utility. Monitoring sites, showing sporadic elevation of Hg°, Hg-PM2.5, and RGM were positioned at distances of 25, 50 and 100 km northward of the larger electric utility. Median concentrations of Hg°, Hg-PM2.5, and RGM were 1.3–1.4 ng m−3, 2.6–5.0 pg m−3, and 0.6–0.8 pg m−3, respectively. A series of RGM events were recorded at each site. The largest, on 23 September, occurred under prevailing southerly winds, with a maximum RGM value (56.8 pg m-3 measured at the 100 km site, and corresponding elevated SO2 (10.4 ppbv; measured at 50 km site. The finding that RGM, Hg°, and Hg-PM2.5 are not always highest at the 25 km site, closest to the large generating station, contradicts the idea that RGM decreases with distance from a large point source. This may be explained if: 1 the 100 km site was influenced by emissions from the chlor-alkali facility or by RGM from regional urban sources; 2 the emission stack height of the larger power plant promoted plume transport at an elevation where the Hg is carried over the closest site; or 3 RGM was being generated in the plume through oxidation of Hg°. Operational changes at each emitter since 2007 should reduce their Hg output, potentially allowing quantification of the environmental benefit in future studies.

  14. Timing Measurements in the Vertical Roman Pots of the TOTEM Experiment

    The TOTEM Collaboration


    The TOTEM upgrade programme focusses on improving the experiment's capability to explore and measure new physics in Central Diffractive processes in two complementary projects, both based on the installation of proton-time-of-flight detectors in Roman Pots to reconstruct the longitudinal vertex position and thus to assign the proton vertex to the correct central CMS tracker vertex in the presence of event pileup. The present TDR discusses the instrumentation developments, physics potential and performance for operation with a $\\beta^{*}$ = 90 m beam optics, for which the vertical Roman Pots will be equipped with timing detectors with ~50ps resolution. In this scenario, the leading proton acceptance covers all diffractive masses, provided that the protons' four-momentum transfer |t| > ~ 0.01 GeV$^{2}$. In contrast, the second project, the CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (CT-PPS) for standard LHC fills at low $\\beta^{*}$ targeting processes with high diffractive masses (> 300 GeV) and leading protons in...

  15. Transpupillary thermotherapy for central serous chorioretinopathy at central macular region%TTT治疗中心性浆液性脉络膜视网膜病变

    沈伟; 蔡琴华; 丁洁; 李龙标


    目的 观察经瞳孔温热疗法(traspupillary thermotherapy,TTT)治疗病变涉及黄斑中心区域的中心性浆液性脉络膜视网膜病变(central serous chorioretinopathy,CSC)疗效和预后.方法 对病变涉及黄斑中心区域的CSC患者18例18只眼进行TTT治疗,根据病灶大小选择光斑和能量.随访时复查视力、眼底,中心视野及FFA.结果 治疗后患者视力、视野均明显好转,治疗后2月94.44%患者视力提高,平均视力及平均光敏感度(MS)分别为1.07和27.38dB,较TTT前差异有显著性(t=8.43、10.01;P<0.01),FFA示所有病例渗漏均停止,但有2例复发.结论 TTT治疗CSC简单有效,尤其适合病变涉及黄斑中心区域的CSC,无明显并发症.%Objective To investigate the clinical results of transpupillary thermothcrapy for patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC)at central macular region.Methods 18 cases (18 eyes)of CSC at central macular region diagnosed by FFA were treated with a diode laser at 810 nm.Laser parameters were as follow:the diameters of beam spot varied from 800μ m to 2000μ m,the power from 100mW to 260mW,the duration 600s, beam spots from 1 to 2.The visual acuity,ophthalmoscopy,central visual field and FFA were followed up.Results The visual acuity and central visual field were improved after laser treatment.2 months after treatment the visual acuity increased in 17 eyes (94.44%).The average visual acuity and mean sensitivity of 18 eyes were 1.07 and 27.38 dB respectively.The difference was significant (t=8.43,10.01;P<0.01)com-pared with the average visual acuity and mean sensitivity before the treatment.FFA showed that fluorescein leakage stopped in all eyes.But there were 2 recurrent cases during the follow-up time.Conclusions Transpupiilary thermotherapy is one of the effective and secure therapies for CSC especially when the RPE le-sion referred to the central macular region.

  16. Transcriptomic profiling of central nervous system regions in three species of honey bee during dance communication behavior.

    Moushumi Sen Sarma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We conducted a large-scale transcriptomic profiling of selected regions of the central nervous system (CNS across three species of honey bees, in foragers that were performing dance behavior to communicate to their nestmates the location, direction and profitability of an attractive floral resource. We used microarrays to measure gene expression in bees from Apis mellifera, dorsata and florea, species that share major traits unique to the genus and also show striking differences in biology and dance communication. The goals of this study were to determine the extent of regional specialization in gene expression and to explore the molecular basis of dance communication. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This "snapshot" of the honey bee CNS during dance behavior provides strong evidence for both species-consistent and species-specific differences in gene expression. Gene expression profiles in the mushroom bodies consistently showed the biggest differences relative to the other CNS regions. There were strong similarities in gene expression between the central brain and the second thoracic ganglion across all three species; many of the genes were related to metabolism and energy production. We also obtained gene expression differences between CNS regions that varied by species: A. mellifera differed the most, while dorsata and florea tended to be more similar. SIGNIFICANCE: Species differences in gene expression perhaps mirror known differences in nesting habit, ecology and dance behavior between mellifera, florea and dorsata. Species-specific differences in gene expression in selected CNS regions that relate to synaptic activity and motor control provide particularly attractive candidate genes to explain the differences in dance behavior exhibited by these three honey bee species. Similarities between central brain and thoracic ganglion provide a unique perspective on the potential coupling of these two motor-related regions during dance behavior


    Ronaldo Veloso Naves


    Full Text Available

    Roman,serif;">The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS is a method based on the average relations among nutrients and the respective variation coefficients, in a high yield population, establishing the DRIS norms. The study aimed to generate DRIS norms for nutritional diagnosis of the orange tree [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] cv. Pêra, grafted on Clove lemon tree, on the cerrado area, in the central region of Goiás State, Brazil. Leaf samples on fruit-bearing branches and soil samples were collected and the yield was estimated in commercial orchards at Inhumas, Goiânia, and Goianápolis municipalities, during the 2004/2005 growing season. The databank was made up of 303 analysis, where the proportion of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and B was analyzed, in the leaves, and OM, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and B in the soil. The norms were generated from a reference population with fruit yield above 22 t ha-1, and were compared with those available in the specialized literature. It was concluded that the DRIS norms for the region are different from those obtained for other sites. The results also showed that it is important the development of regional norms, instead of their universalization, for DRIS application.

    Roman,serif;">KEY-WORDS: Orange tree; DRIS norms; nutritional balance.

    Roman,serif;">O Sistema Integrado de Diagnose e Recomendação (DRISé um método em que são utilizadas relações médias entre os nutrientes e seus

  18. Levels of lead in urban soils from selected cities in a central region of the Philippines.

    Ona, Louella F; Alberto, Annie Melinda P; Prudente, Jacqueline A; Sigua, Gilbert C


    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring element that poses environmental hazards when present at elevated concentration. It is being released into the environment because of industrial uses and from the combustion of fossil fuels. Hence, Pb is ubiquitous throughout global ecosystems. The existence of potentially harmful concentrations of Pb in the environment must be given full attention. Emissions from vehicles are major source of environmental contamination by Pb. Thus, it becomes imperative that concentrations of Pb and other hazardous materials in the environment not only in the Philippines, but elsewhere in the world be adequately examined in order that development of regulations and standards to minimize risk associated with these materials in urban areas is continued. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the levels of Pb in soil from selected urbanized cities in central region of the Philippines; (2) to identify areas with soil Pb concentration values that exceed estimated natural concentrations and allowable limits; and (3) to determine the possible sources that contribute to elevated soil Pb concentration (if any) in the study area. This study was limited to the determination of Pb levels in soils of selected urbanized cities located in central region in the Philippines, namely: Site 1--Tarlac City in Tarlac; Site 2--Cabanatuan City in Nueva Ecija; Site 3--Malolos City in Bulacan; Site 4--San Fernando City in Pampanga; Site 5--Balanga City in Bataan; and Site 6--Olongapo City in Zambales. Soil samples were collected from areas along major thoroughfares regularly traversed by tricycles, passenger jeepneys, cars, vans, trucks, buses, and other motor vehicles. Soil samples were collected from five sampling sites in each of the study areas. Samples from the selected sampling sites were obtained approximately 2 to 3 meters from the road. Analysis of the soil samples for Pb content was conducted using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. This study


    Paola Proserpi


    Full Text Available L'Unione Europea ha posto il multilinguismo come elemento centrale della propria politica linguistica e aspira al raggiungimento di una situazione in cui ciascun cittadino conosca almeno due lingue comunitarie oltre alla propria madrelingua. Per raggiungere questo obiettivo esiste una vasta gamma di modelli di educazione plurilingue. L'articolo prende in considerazione l'intercomprensione, ossia l'apprendimento  ricettivo di più lingue attraverso lo sviluppo di strategie che facilitino la trasferibilità di meccanismi cognitivi, conoscenze e abilità già acquisite da una lingua all'altra e analizza Itinéraires Romans un progetto realizzato dall'Unione latina, un'organizzazione fondata per valorizzare l'eredità culturale e le identità del mondo latino. Itinéraires Romans è un progetto didattico on line rivolto ai ragazzi della scuola primaria di secondo grado che riunisce una serie di sei moduli su tematiche diverse aventi come obiettivo la stimolazione dei giovani internauti a scoprire i legami che esistono tra le lingue neolatine. Le lingue coinvolte sono: il catalano, lo spagnolo, l'italiano, il francese, il portoghese e il rumeno.   The European Union has made multilingualism a central element of its linguistic policy and it aspires to create the conditions so that every citizen knows at least two EU languages besides their mother tongue.  To reach this goal, there is a vast range of models for plurilingual education. This paper focuses on intercomprehension, or the receptive learning of several languages through the development of strategies which facilitate the transferability of cognitive mechanisms, knowledge and skills already mastered from one language to another.  It analyzes Itinéraires Romans, a project implemented by the Latin Union.  This organization was founded to enhance the cultural inheritance and the identity of the Latin world. Itinéraires Romans is an on-line didactic project for 3rd,4th and 5th grade students

  20. Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests


    6 Obstacles to Peace and Independence: Regional Tensions and Conflicts...Joanna Lillis , “Kazakhstan: Nazarbayev Dodges President-For-Life Question Ahead of Astana’s OSCE Chairmanship,” Eurasia Insight, November 16, 2009...appeared to be stepping up its aid and trade activities in the region.18 Obstacles to Peace and Independence: Regional Tensions and Conflicts The

  1. Comparative investigation of mortars from Roman Colosseum and cistern

    Silva, D.A. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 725 Davis Hall 94720-1710, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)]. E-mail:; Wenk, H.R. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, 497 McCone 94720-4767, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Monteiro, P.J.M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 725 Davis Hall 94720-1710, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Mortar from the Roman Colosseum and a Roman cistern from Albano Laziale were characterized with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)). The different techniques provided consistent results that the mortar of the Colosseum is mainly calcareous lime, while the mortar of the cistern is pozzolanic siliceous material. The study highlights the capabilities of the different methods for the analysis of cement. For routine analysis XRD is adequate but for characterization of poorly crystalline phases FT-IR and TGA have definite advantages.

  2. Military Degeneration and Decline of the Roman Empire



    The cause of the decline of Roman Empire is a mystery to many historians of western civilization. Political and social weakness, or economic retroversion are conceived to be contributable factors. This issue, however, is approached here from the perspective of military degeneration, which closely relates to political anarchy, economic depression and barbarian invasions, and therefore, makes it for the most part convenient for the third-century Persian Sassanids and Germanic peoples to invade into the Empire, and wipes Romans out on the historical stage.

  3. A Directed Network of Greek and Roman Mythology

    Choi, Yeon-Mu; Kim, Hyun-Joo


    We study the Greek and Roman mythology using the network theory. We construct a directed network by using a dictionary of Greek and Roman mythology in which the nodes represent the entries listed in the dictionary and we make directional links from an entry to other entries that appear in its explanatory part. We find that this network is clearly not a random network but a directed scale-free network. Also measuring the various quantities which characterize the mythology network, we analyze t...

  4. Camels on the Northeastern Frontier of the Roman Empire

    Weronika Tomczyk


    Full Text Available Ample iconographic, written, and osteological evidence for the occurrence of both dromedary ('Camelus dromedarius' and Bactrian camels ('Camelus bactrianus' is known from many Roman provinces. In contrast to the western provinces, osteological material from the northeastern frontier of the Empire has not yet been discussed collectively. There is a lack of information in the literature concerning which species of camel was widely spread, for what purposes they were used, and whether the camel, as an animal introduced artificially by humans, was treated in a unique way. Camel bones have been found at Ajdovščina – Casta (Slovenia, Hrusica – Ad Pirum (Slovenia, Viminacium (Serbia, Vranj (Serbia, Novae (Bulgaria and Tanais (Russia. The earliest (1st century AD and the largest assemblages of bones derive from the easternmost sites of Tanais and Novae. Identification of species was possible at 4 out of the 6 sites. In all assemblages, the majority of the bones belonged to Bactrian camels. It is noteworthy that the dromedary species occurred only in the west of the study region; this indicates a gradual increase in the importance of Bactrian camels in the next eastern provinces. This is supported by the work of other researchers (Pigiére and Henrotay 2012. None of the bones in this study were isolated or intentionally buried. The incomplete dataset collected from these different sites did not confirm whether camels were bred there. It can be generally assumed that camels were used mainly as pack animals, probably in the army, and that they were rarely consumed.

  5. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among injecting drug users in the Central-West Region of Brazil

    Marcia Alves Dias de Matos


    Full Text Available The prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection was investigated in 149 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg negative injecting drug users (IDUs in the Central-West Region of Brazil. Of these individuals, 19 were positive for HBV DNA, resulting in an occult HBV infection prevalence of 12.7% (19/149; six of these 19 individuals had anti-HBV core and/or anti-HBV surface antibodies and 13 were negative for HBV markers. All IDUs with occult hepatitis B reported sexual and/or parenteral risk behaviours. All HBV DNA-positive samples were successfully genotyped. Genotype D was the most common (17/19, followed by genotype A (2/19. These findings reveal a high prevalence of occult HBV infection and the predominance of genotype D among IDUs in Brazil's Central-West Region.


    Mevlut AKCURA


    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to assess genotype environment interaction and determine stable oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars for grain yield in Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. Stability analysis [9] were to performed on results for grain yield of 5 oat cultivars (Chekota, Yesilkoy-1779, Yesilkoy-330, Faikbey-2004, Seydisehir-2004 from 24 trials (6 irrigated, 18 rain fed was conducted over 6 years in the Central Anatolian Region, Turkey. There was considerable variation in grain yield within and across environments. Year by location and location variability were dominant sources of interactions. The cultivar, “Seydisehir-2004” with respective regression coefficient value of 1.03, the smallest deviations from regressions (S2di value and the highest grain yield could be considered the most widely adapted cultivar. The other test cultivars were sensitive to production-limiting factors, their wider adaptability, stability and general performance to the fluctuating growing conditions within and across environments being lowered.

  7. Commissariat of Internal Affairs’ Bodies and Development of Guerilla Struggle on the Territory of Central Black Earth Region in 1941

    Vladimir Korovin


    Full Text Available . On the basis of archive documents circulated in RF Federal Security Service, the article reveals different aspects of NKVD’s participation in formation of guerrilla armed groups and networks of commando-type reconnaissance activities on the temporally occupied areas of Central Black Earth Region in 1941. The published material improves our knowledge of State Political Bodies of USSR during the Great Patriotic War.

  8. Mueller-Navelet jets at 13 TeV LHC: dependence on dynamic constraints in the central rapidity region

    Celiberto, F.G.; Papa, A. [Universita della Calabria, Dipartimento di Fisica, Cosenza (Italy); Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Cosenza (Italy); Ivanov, D.Yu. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Murdaca, B. [Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Cosenza (Italy)


    We study the production of Mueller-Navelet jets at 13 TeV LHC, within collinear factorization and including the BFKL resummation of energy logarithms in the next-to-leading approximation. We calculate several azimuthal correlations for different values of the rapidity separation Y between the two jets and evaluate the effect of excluding those events where, for a given Y, one of the two jets is produced in the central region. (orig.)

  9. Description of Larger Benthic Foraminifera Species from the Bartonian of Yakacık-Memlik Region (N Ankara, Central Turkey)



    A. callosa Hottinger, A. fragilis Hottinger, A. fusiformis Sowerby, A. kieli Sirel & Acar, A. nuttalli (Davies), A. stercusmuris Mayer-Eymar and nummulitid species Nummulites malatyensis Sirel are described and figured from the shallow-water marine limestone samples of Yakacık-Memlik region (N-Ankara, Central Turkey). Amongst all these species the presence of A. fragilis, A. fusiformis and N. malatyensis represents the Bartonian stage in the studied area. In addition, stratigraphic range of A...

  10. Natural radioactivity level in materials used for medieval vaulting in the territory of the central Balkan region

    Bjelić Igor S.; Todorović Dragana J.; Krneta-Nikolić Jelena D.; Lazarević Đorđe R.; Stanković Koviljka Đ.


    This work presents the results of an investigation undertaken to determine the level of natural radioactivity in the traditional building materials used for medieval indoor vaulted constructions in the territory of the central Balkan region. Indoor radiation exposure varies appreciably if it comes from the earth building materials, hence the presence of natural radioisotopes of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in masonry vaulted constructions was analyzed using gamma ...

  11. Feasibility assessment of a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in the North Central region of Bulgaria

    Ilieva Liliya Mihaylova


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the topical issue related to the prospects of widespread deployment of electric vehicles and their associated infrastructure in Bulgaria. The main problems hindering the development of electric vehicle transport are summarized and the current status of charging infrastructure in the country is discussed. An approach is proposed for analysis and evaluation of the financial feasibility of investment in a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in North Central region of Bulgaria.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cook Inlet region, south-central Alaska, 2011

    Stanley, Richard G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Nelson, Philip H.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Rouse, William A.; Saltus, Richard W.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Shah, Anjana K.; Valin, Zenon C.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a new assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Cook Inlet region of south-central Alaska. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimates that mean undiscovered volumes of nearly 600 million barrels of oil, about 19 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 46 million barrels of natural gas liquids remain to be found in this area.

  13. Modeling commuting patterns in a multi-regional input-output framework: impacts of an `urban re-centralization' scenario

    Ferreira, J.-P.; Ramos, P.; Cruz, L.; Barata, E.


    The paper suggests a modeling approach for assessing economic and social impacts of changes in urban forms and commuting patterns that extends a multi-regional input-output framework by incorporating a set of commuting-related consequences. The Lisbon Metropolitan Area case with an urban re-centralization scenario is used as an example to illustrate the relevance of this modeling approach for analyzing commuting-related changes in regional income distribution on the one side and in household consumption structures on the other.

  14. Environmental Geochemistry of Fluorine in the Rock—Soil—Water System in the Karst Region of Central Guizhou Province

    朱立军; 李景阳; 等


    Systematic determination of and adsorption experiment on fluorine in the carbonate rock-soil-water system in the karst region studied in Guzhou Province,in conjunction with the mineral surface and soil chemistry data,have revealed the geochemical characteristics of F and the mechanisms of its transport and entrichment in the rock-soil-water-system of the karst region central guizhou province,Deep-seated underground waters(-100m or lower)and soil layers in the karst region of central Guizhou are characterized by high-F anomalies whereas shallow-level underground and surface waters by low contents of F(mostly lower than 05mg/L).Fluorine in soil and water in the region studied comes largely from Triassic marine strata dominated by gypsum-bearing carbonate rocks.The special adsorption and desorption of F on the surface of geothite in soil layers are the important mechanisms of its transport and enrichment in the rock-soil-water system of the karst region studied.

  15. Physical characteristics of G331.5-0.1: The luminous central region of a Giant Molecular Cloud

    Merello, Manuel; Garay, Guido; Nyman, Lars-Ake; Evans, Neal J; Walmsley, C Malcolm


    We report molecular line and dust continuum observations toward the high-mass star forming region G331.5-0.1, one of the most luminous regions of massive star-formation in the Milky Way, located at the tangent region of the Norma spiral arm, at a distance of 7.5 kpc. Molecular emission was mapped toward the G331.5-0.1 GMC in the CO (J=1-0) and C18O (J=1-0) lines with NANTEN, while its central region was mapped in CS (J=2-1 and J=5-4) with SEST, and in CS (J=7-6) and 13CO (J=3-2) with ASTE. Continuum emission mapped at 1.2 mm with SIMBA and at 0.87 mm with LABOCA reveal the presence of six compact and luminous dust clumps, making this source one of the most densely populated central regions of a GMC in the Galaxy. The dust clumps are associated with molecular gas and they have the following average properties: size of 1.6 pc, mass of 3.2x10^3 Msun, molecular hydrogen density of 3.7x10^4 cm^{-3}, dust temperature of 32 K, and integrated luminosity of 5.7x10^5 Lsun, consistent with values found toward other mass...

  16. The Gordian Knot of Interpretation: Roman written sources, the idea of socio-cultural evolution and the concept of Romanization

    Vladimir D. Mihajlović


    Full Text Available In the Roman Empire, under the Greek influences, authors shared the idea of “the degree of humanity”, according to which the Romans formed value judgements about the “barbarian” societies. The framework of reference was constituted by the Roman society itself, taken as superior and predestined as the centre of the known world. The criteria for comparison were based upon the natural and climatic environment, socio-political organization, economy, religion, ways of life, warfare, marital practices, certain kinds of material culture and cultural practices in general. According to this view, the Mediterranean societies were “the most human”, and the level of humanity declined in direct relation to the geographical remoteness and other differences as compared to the centre. Although these speculations were not organized into a unified interpretive framework, like the modern social theories, they nevertheless were implicit assumptions of the Roman elite. This „naive“ or “common-sense anthropology” has had a strong impact on the formation of the premises of the modern anthropological theories, due to the general role of the ancient written sources in the processes of knowledge formation in modern Europe. It is therefore possible to assume that the ancient ideas, along with the later ones, played an important role in the shaping of the postulates of the early theory of socio-cultural evolution – the implicit base of interpretation of human societies during the 19th century. Consequently, the written sources have played a double role in the processes of formation of the concept of Romanization – directly, as well as through socio-cultural evolution, onto which the concept itself relied. In this way, the prejudices stemming from the discourse of Romanization gained the air of scientific interpretations, verified by two seemingly independent reference systems.

  17. Mapping the Central Region of the PPN CRL 618 at Sub-arcsecond Resolution at 350 GHz

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Sahai, Raghvendra; Contreras, Carmen Sanchez


    CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. We have mapped its central region in continuum and molecular lines with the Submillimeter Array at 350 GHz at ~ 0.3" to 0.5" resolutions. Two components are seen in 350 GHz continuum: (1) a compact emission at the center tracing the dense inner part of the H II region previously detected in 23 GHz continuum and it may trace a fast ionized wind at the base, and (2) an extended thermal dust emission surrounding the H II region, tracing the dense core previously detected in HC3N at the center of the circumstellar envelope. The dense core is dusty and may contain mm-sized dust grains. It may have a density enhancement in the equatorial plane. It is also detected in carbon chain molecules HC3N and HCN, and their isotopologues, with higher excitation lines tracing closer to the central star. It is also detected in C2H3CN toward the innermost part. Most of the emission detected here arises within ~ 630 AU (~0.7") from the central star. A simple radiative transfer model...

  18. An X-ray characterization of the central region of the SNR G332.5-5.6

    Suárez, Alejandra E; Albacete-Colombo, Juan F; Paron, Sergio; García, Federico; Miceli, Marco


    We present an X-ray analysis of the central region of supernova remnant (SNR) G332.5-5.6 through an exhaustive analysis of XMM-Netwon observations with complementary infrared observations. We characterize and discuss the origin of the observed X-ray morphology, which presents a peculiar plane edge over the west side of the central region. The morphology and spectral properties of the X-ray supernova remnant were studied using a single full frame XMM-Newton observation in the 0.3 to 10.0 keV energy band. Archival infrared WISE observations at 8, 12 and 24 \\mu m were also used to investigate the properties of the source and its surroundings at different wavelengths. The results show that the extended X-ray emission is predominantly soft (0.3-1.2 keV) and peaks around 0.5 keV, which shows that it is an extremely soft SNR. X-ray emission correlates very well with central regions of bright radio emission. On the west side the radio/X-ray emission displays a plane-like feature with a terminal wall where strong infr...

  19. Mapping regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas using TESEBS

    Amatya, Pukar Man; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Devkota, Lochan Prasad


    Recent scientific studies based on large-scale climate model have highlighted the importance of the heat release from the southern side of the Himalayas for the development of South Asian Summer Monsoon. However, studies related to land surface heat fluxes are nonexistent on the southern side. In this study, we test the feasibility of deriving land surface heat fluxes on the central Himalayan region using Topographically Enhanced Surface Energy Balance System (TESEBS), which is forced by MODIS land surface products and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) meteorological data. The model results were validated using the first eddy covariance measurement system established in the southern side of the central Himalayas. The derived land surface heat fluxes were close to the field measurements with mean bias of 15.97, -19.89, 8.79, and -20.39 W m-2 for net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux respectively. Land surface heat fluxes show strong contrast in pre monsoon, summer monsoon, post monsoon, and winter seasons and different land surface states among the different physiographic regions. In the central Himalayas, the latent heat flux is the dominant consumer of available energy for all physiographic regions except for the High Himalaya where the sensible heat flux is high.

  20. Transplantation of adult fibroblast nuclei into the central region of metaphase II eggs resulted in mid-blastula transition embryos.

    Pérez-Camps, Mireia; Cardona-Costa, Jose; García-Ximénez, Fernando


    Recently, a novel technical method to perform somatic nuclear transplantation (NT) in zebrafish using nonactivated eggs as recipients without the need to detect the micropyle was developed in our lab. However, the use of spermatozoa as an activating agent prevented to know whether the inserted nucleus compromised embryonic and early larval developmental ability. The aim of the present work was to test the developmental ability of the embryos reconstructed by transplanting adult fibroblast nuclei into the central region of the metaphase II egg but subsequently activated by only water. In addition, because an oocyte aging facilitates the activation in mammalian oocytes, this work also pursued to test whether the use of limited-aged eggs (2 h) as recipients improved the activation process in zebrafish NT. The adult somatic nucleus located in the central region of the nonactivated egg resulted in the 12% of mid-blastula transition embryos versus the 20% when the transplant is in the animal pole (p >or= 0.05). This suggests that the central region of the nonactivated metaphase II eggs can be a suitable place for nucleus deposition in NT in zebrafish. These results reinforce the possibility to use nonactivated metaphase II eggs in subsequent reprogramming studies by adult somatic NT in zebrafish. Unfortunately, in contrast to mammals, a limited egg aging (2 h) did not improve the activation process in zebrafish NT.

  1. Changes in the area of inland lakes in arid regions of central Asia during the past 30 years.

    Bai, Jie; Chen, Xi; Li, Junli; Yang, Liao; Fang, Hui


    Inland lakes are major surface water resource in arid regions of Central Asia. The area changes in these lakes have been proved to be the results of regional climate changes and recent human activities. This study aimed at investigating the area variations of the nine major lakes in Central Asia over the last 30 years. Firstly, multi-temporal Landsat imagery in 1975, 1990, 1999, and 2007 were used to delineate lake extents automatically based on Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) threshold segmentation, then lake area variations were detailed in three decades and the mechanism of these changes was analyzed with meteorological data and hydrological data. The results indicated that the total surface areas of these nine lakes had decreased from 91,402.06 km(2) to 46,049.23 km(2) during 1975-2007, accounting for 49.62% of their original area of 1975. Tail-end lakes in flat areas had shrunk dramatically as they were induced by both climate changes and human impacts, while alpine lakes remained relatively stable due to the small precipitation variations. With different water usage of river outlets, the variations of open lakes were more flexible than those of other two types. According to comprehensive analyses, different types of inland lakes presented different trends of area changes under the background of global warming effects in Central Asia, which showed that the increased human activities had broken the balance of water cycles in this region.

  2. Resting-state coupling between core regions within the central-executive and salience networks contributes to working memory performance

    Xiaojing eFang


    Full Text Available Previous studies investigated the distinct roles played by different cognitive regions and suggested that the patterns of connectivity of these regions are associated with working memory. However, the specific causal mechanism through which the neuronal circuits that involve these brain regions contribute to working memory is still unclear. Here, in a large sample of healthy young adults, we first identified the core working memory regions by linking working memory accuracy to resting-state functional connectivity with the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (a principal region in the central-executive network. Then a spectral dynamic causal modeling analysis was performed to quantify the effective connectivity between these regions. Finally, the effective connectivity was correlated with working memory accuracy to characterize the relationship between these connections and working memory performance. We found that the functional connections between the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and between the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the left orbital fronto-insular cortex were correlated with working memory accuracy. Furthermore, the effective connectivity from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex to the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and from the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to the left orbital fronto-insular cortex could predict individual differences in working memory. Because the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and orbital fronto-insular cortex are core regions of the salience network, we inferred that the inter- and causal-connectivity between core regions within the central-executive and salience networks is functionally relevant for working memory performance. In summary, the current study identified the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex-related resting-state effective connectivity underlying working memory and suggests that individual differences in cognitive

  3. Geological evolution, regional perspectives and hydrocarbon potential of the northwest Phu Khanh Basin, offshore Central Vietnam

    Fyhn, Michael Bryld Wessel; Nielsen, Lars H.; Boldreel, Lars Ole;


    and subsidence rates increased after the Middle Miocene times due to eastward tilting of Central Vietnam and the adjacent offshore area. Potential direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs) in the Phu Khanh Basin include common amplitude anomalies, gas chimney-like features and seafloor gas seeps. In addition, oil...

  4. Data bases for forest inventory in the North-Central Region.

    Jerold T. Hahn; Mark H. Hansen


    Describes the data collected by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Research Work Unit at the North Central Forest Experiment Station. Explains how interested parties may obtain information from the databases either through direct access or by special requests to the FIA database manager.

  5. Effects of irrigation on sorghum forage yield and quality in the central sands region of Wisconsin

    A study was conducted to assess effects of irrigation on yield and quality of photoperiod sensitive (PS) and non-PS forage sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass, and sudangrass in comparison to corn in central Wisconsin. The study was a strip-plot design with a 5 x 8 factorial arrangement of treatments. Five ...

  6. Future U.S. National Security Strategy with Respect to Honduras and the Central American Region


    34 Current History, Vol. 85, No. 515, December 1986. 38. Gonzales , Edward et al. United States Policy for Central America, R-3150-RC. Santa Monica, CA...CO: Westview Press, 1983. 85. Robbins, Carla Anne. "New look in Latin America." U.S.News and World Report, 2 January 1989. 86. Roca, Sergio . "Cuba

  7. the influence of christianity on graeco-roman medicine up to the ...

    Church and rational medicine (as represented by Graeco-Roman me- dical concepts) during ... At the time of Christ the ancient Egyptian Isis-religion was still .... victims of the epidemics (probably mostly smallpox) which ravaged the. Roman ...

  8. 76 FR 14115 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Assorted Greek and Roman...


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Assorted Greek and Roman Objects... Greek and Roman Objects'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are...

  9. Determining the best forecasting method to estimate unitary charges price indexes of PFI data in central region Peninsular Malaysia

    Ahmad Kamaruddin, Saadi Bin; Md Ghani, Nor Azura; Mohamed Ramli, Norazan


    The concept of Private Financial Initiative (PFI) has been implemented by many developed countries as an innovative way for the governments to improve future public service delivery and infrastructure procurement. However, the idea is just about to germinate in Malaysia and its success is still vague. The major phase that needs to be given main attention in this agenda is value for money whereby optimum efficiency and effectiveness of each expense is attained. Therefore, at the early stage of this study, estimating unitary charges or materials price indexes in each region in Malaysia was the key objective. This particular study aims to discover the best forecasting method to estimate unitary charges price indexes in construction industry by different regions in the central region of Peninsular Malaysia (Selangor, Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Negeri Sembilan, and Melaka). The unitary charges indexes data used were from year 2002 to 2011 monthly data of different states in the central region Peninsular Malaysia, comprising price indexes of aggregate, sand, steel reinforcement, ready mix concrete, bricks and partition, roof material, floor and wall finishes, ceiling, plumbing materials, sanitary fittings, paint, glass, steel and metal sections, timber and plywood. At the end of the study, it was found that Backpropagation Neural Network with linear transfer function produced the most accurate and reliable results for estimating unitary charges price indexes in every states in central region Peninsular Malaysia based on the Root Mean Squared Errors, where the values for both estimation and evaluation sets were approximately zero and highly significant at p value for money of PFI as well as towards Malaysian economical growth.

  10. Spatial patterning of fuels and fire hazard across a central U.S. deciduous forest region

    Michael C. Stambaugh; Daniel C. Dey; Richard P. Guyette; Hong S. He; Joseph M. Marschall


    Information describing spatial and temporal variability of forest fuel conditions is essential to assessing overall fire hazard and risk. Limited information exists describing spatial characteristics of fuels in the eastern deciduous forest region, particularly in dry oak-dominated regions that historically burned relatively frequently. From an extensive fuels survey...

  11. Neglected tropical diseases in Central America and Panama: review of their prevalence, populations at risk and impact on regional development.

    Hotez, Peter J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Bottazzi, Maria Elena


    A review of the literature since 2009 reveals a staggering health and economic burden resulting from neglected tropical diseases in Panama and the six countries of Central America (referred to collectively here as 'Central America'). Particularly at risk are the 10.2million people in the region who live on less than $2 per day, mostly in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Indigenous populations are especially vulnerable to neglected tropical diseases. Currently, more than 8million Central American children require mass drug treatments annually (or more frequently) for their intestinal helminth infections, while vector-borne diseases are widespread. Among the vector-borne parasitic infections, almost 40% of the population is at risk for malaria (mostly Plasmodium vivax infection), more than 800,000 people live with Chagas disease, and up to 39,000 people have cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, an important recent success story is the elimination of onchocerciasis from Central America. Dengue is the leading arbovirus infection with 4-5million people affected annually and hantavirus is an important rodent-borne viral neglected tropical disease. The leading bacterial neglected tropical diseases include leptospirosis and trachoma, for which there are no disease burden estimates. Overall there is an extreme dearth of epidemiological data on neglected tropical diseases based on active surveillance as well as estimates of their economic impact. Limited information to date, however, suggests that neglected tropical diseases are a major hindrance to the region's economic development, in both the most impoverished Central American countries listed above, as well as for Panama and Costa Rica where a substantial (but largely hidden) minority of people live in extreme poverty.

  12. Thrilleriklassik Roman Polanski võitis kulla / Jaak Lõhmus

    Lõhmus, Jaak


    Cannes'i 55. rahvusvahelise filmifestivali Kuldne Palmioks läks Roman Polanski filmile "Pianist", Aki Kaurismäki filmile "Minevikuta mees" anti grand prix' ja parima naisnäitleja auhind (Kati Outinen). Žürii preemia sai Palestiina režissööri Elia Suleimani komöödia "Jumalik interventsioon". Lisatud auhinnasaajate nimekiri

  13. Eratosthenes and Pliny, Greek geometry and Roman follies

    Boyadzhiev, Khristo N


    Supportive attitudes can bring to a blossoming science, while neglect can quickly make science absent from everyday life and provide a very primitive view of the world. We compare one important Greek achievement, the computation of the earth meridian by Eratosthenes, to its later interpretation by the Roman historian of science Pliny.

  14. The Roman Hannibal: Remembering the Enemy in Silius Italicus' Punica

    Stocks, C.A.


    This book offers a new reading of Hannibal in Silius Italicus' Punica and provides fresh insight into how the Romans remembered their past. Silius Italicus' Punica, the longest surviving epic in Latin literature, has seen a resurgence of interest among scholars in recent years. A celebration of Rom

  15. The ecclesiastical situation of the first generation Roman Christians

    A. B. du Toit


    Full Text Available Forming pan of a trilogy about the first generation Roman Christians, this anicle concentrates on the ecclesiastical aspect. From some scattered and relatively small groups, the numbers of Roman Christians increased markedly in the second half of the first century. According to Romans 16, Jewish Christians played a significant role in the initial period, although Gentile Christians were in the majority. Friction between these groups may have been a problem, but was not Paul's main concern. The Gentile Christians were mainly from a foreign background. Thus the first Christian community had a strongly cosmopolitan character. The plurality of house-churches was mainly due to practical factors, but social differentiation might have played a role. Meetings most probably took place in the ordinary rented apanments of insulae. Romans 16 renders a vivid picture of the leadership activities of Christian women and of Paul's enlightened position in this regard.

  16. Jan Mukaržovskij i Roman Jakobson

    Sládek, O. (Ondřej)


    In this study the author focuses mainly on three questions: What is the relationship between Jan Mukařovský and Roman Jakobson? Are there any similarities between their conceptions of poetics and aesthetics? What are the main principles of their poetics?

  17. Neural Correlates for Learning to Read Roman Numerals

    Masataka, Nobuo; Ohnishi, Takashi; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Hirakata, Makiko; Matsuda, Hiroshi


    This study examined the neuronal correlates of reading Roman numerals and the changes that occur with extensive practice. Subjects were scanned by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) three times the first day of the experiment and once following two to three months of practice. This allowed comparison of brain activations with varying…

  18. Correlated Behavioral Traits in Rats of the Roman Selection Lines

    Coppens, Caroline M.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Steimer, Thierry; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Maxson, Stephen


    The current theories of animal personality are based on the observation that individual variation in behavior and physiology appears to be consistent across contexts. Rats of the Roman selection lines have been originally selected for differences in shuttle-box behavior. Besides differences in activ


    Sergio Bermudo


    Full Text Available Let $G=(V,E$ be a graph of order $n$ and let $B(S$ be the set of vertices in $V \\setminus S$ that have a neighbor in the vertex set $S$. The differential of a vertex set $S$ is defined as $\\partial (S= |B(S|-|S|$ and the maximum value of $\\partial(S$ for any subset $S$ of $V$ is the differential of $G$. A Roman dominating function of $G$ is a function $f : V \\rightarrow \\{0, 1, 2\\}$ such that every vertex $u$ with $f(u = 0$ is adjacent to a vertex $v$ with $f(v = 2$. The weight of a Roman dominating function is the value $f(V =\\sum\\limits_{u\\in V} f(u$. The minimum weight of a Roman dominating function of a graph $G$ is the Roman domination number of $G$, written $\\gamma_R(G$. We prove that $\\gamma_R(G=n-\\partial(G$ and present several combinatorial, algorithmic and complexity-theoretic consequences thereof.

  20. Language Choice, Expectation, and the Roman Notion of Style.

    Smith, Craig R.; Prince, Paul


    Describe the Roman concepts of "decorum" and "ornatus." Analyzes a speech from Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet," showing how these concepts advance plot, deepen character, and create expectations. Demonstrates how these concepts are useful in the criticism of American public address by applying them to Ronald Reagan's eulogy for the Challenger…

  1. Edith Wharton's "Roman Fever": A Rune of History.

    Bauer, Dale M.


    Asserts that "Roman Fever" responds to a reactionary political climate, demonstrating an anti-reactionary thrust to Edith Wharton's fiction. Argues that Wharton deserves credit for articulating the destructive character of a cultural misogyny that led quickly to what she saw in 1933 as "a world whizzing ... crazily to the…

  2. Emperors and Ancestors. Roman Rulers and the Constraints of Tradition

    Hekster, O.J.


    Ancestry played a continuous role in the construction and portrayal of Roman emperorship in the first three centuries AD. Emperors and Ancestors is the first systematic analysis of the different ways in which imperial lineage was represented in the various 'media' through which images of emperors co

  3. The Rhetorical Case: Its Roman Precedent and the Current Debate.

    Mendelson, Michael


    Reviews a debate among Roman rhetoricians over declamation, an early case study method. Appraises contemporary concerns about the value of case study as a stimulant to problem-solving skills, its ability to imitate realistic circumstances of business and technical writing, and its emphasis on persona and audience along with its deemphasis of the…

  4. Emperors and Ancestors. Roman Rulers and the Constraints of Tradition

    Hekster, O.J.


    Ancestry played a continuous role in the construction and portrayal of Roman emperorship in the first three centuries AD. Emperors and Ancestors is the first systematic analysis of the different ways in which imperial lineage was represented in the various 'media' through which images of emperors co

  5. On the acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters.

    Farnetani, Andrea; Prodi, Nicola; Pompoli, Roberto


    The interplay of architecture and acoustics is remarkable in ancient Greek and Roman theaters. Frequently they are nowadays lively performance spaces and the knowledge of the sound field inside them is still an issue of relevant importance. Even if the transition from Greek to Roman theaters can be described with a great architectural detail, a comprehensive and objective approach to the two types of spaces from the acoustical point of view is available at present only as a computer model study [P. Chourmouziadou and J. Kang, "Acoustic evolution of ancient Greek and Roman theaters," Appl. Acoust. 69, re (2007)]. This work addresses the same topic from the experimental point of view, and its aim is to provide a basis to the acoustical evolution from Greek to Roman theater design. First, by means of in situ and scale model measurements, the most important features of the sound field in ancient theaters are clarified and discussed. Then it has been possible to match quantitatively the role of some remarkable architectural design variables with acoustics, and it is seen how this criterion can be used effectively to define different groups of ancient theaters. Finally some more specific wave phenomena are addressed and discussed.

  6. [Contribution to the history of pharmacology (the early Roman empire)].

    Tesařová, Drahomíra


    This article is a contribution to the history of pharmacology in the early Roman empire. It contains texts mainly written in Latin: the works of Aulus Cornelius Celsus, Scribonius Largus and Plinius Maior (Pliny the Elder). It describes their structure and contributions to the history of medicine and gives examples of some prescriptions and drugs in the original language and in Czech.

  7. Den historiske roman for børn

    Skyggebjerg, Anna Karlskov

    Bogen indeholder en redegørelse for den historiske roman som børnelitterær genre. Genren diskuteres i et teoretisk, historisk og analytisk perspektiv. Bogen afsluttes med en række principielle didaktiske overvejelser. Bogen er henvendt til alle, der beskæftiger sig professionelt med børnelitteratur...

  8. Acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters in use today

    Gade, Anders Christian; Angelakis, Konstantinos


    In the Mediteranan area a large number of open, ancient Greek and Roman theatres are still today facing a busy schedule of performances including both classical and contemporary works of dance, drama, concerts, and opera. During the EU funded ``Erato'' project and a subsequent master thesis project...

  9. Josephus' Antiquities 1-11 and Greco-Roman Historiography

    Friis, Martin

    The dissertation Josephus’ Antiquities 1-11 and Greco-Roman historiography provides an extensive study in five chapters of the various ways in which Josephus presents himself as an historian in the first eleven books of the Antiquities. From this analysis, it emerges that his manner of self...

  10. Roman impact on the landscape near castellum Fectio, The Netherlands

    van den Bos, V.; Brinkkemper, O.; Bull, I.D.; Engels, S.; Hakbijl, T.; Schepers, M.; Dinter, M.; van Reenen, G.; van Geel, B.


    Castellum Fectio was one of the largest fortifications along the Limes, the northern border of the Roman Empire. The castellum, situated 5 km southeast of Utrecht, the Netherlands, was occupied from around the start of our Era to ca. a.d. 260. It was situated along a river bend of the Rhine that was

  11. Slavonic Names in Greek and Roman Antiquities. Onomastica, Number 37.

    Sotiroff, G.

    Listed in this pamphlet are 22 place and personal names of Slavic origin which appear in Greek and Roman documents. Following a brief introduction in which the criteria for selection of these names is given, a section discusses the inconsistent systems of transliteration employed by classical authors. Then, the actual annotated listing of names…

  12. 'Cost in transliteration': the neurocognitive processing of Romanized writing.

    Rao, Chaitra; Mathur, Avantika; Singh, Nandini C


    Romanized transliteration is widely used in internet communication and global commerce, yet we know little about its behavioural and neural processing. Here, we show that Romanized text imposes a significant neurocognitive load. Readers faced greater difficulty in identifying concrete words written in Romanized transliteration (Romanagari) compared to L1 and L2. Functional neuroimaging revealed that the neural cost of processing transliterations arose from significantly greater recruitment of language (left precentral gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule) and attention networks (left mid-cingulum). Additionally, transliterated text uniquely activated attention and control areas compared to both L1 (cerebellar vermis) and L2 (pre-supplementary motor area/pre-SMA). We attribute the neural effort of reading Romanized transliteration to (i) effortful phonological retrieval from unfamiliar orthographic forms and (ii) conflicting attentional demands imposed by mapping orthographic forms of one language to phonological-semantic representations in another. Finally, significant brain-behaviour correlation suggests that the left mid-cingulum modulates cognitive-linguistic conflict.

  13. Benoit Mandelbrot (1924 - 2011 ) : A Greek among Romans

    Estrada, Fernando


    Posthumous tributes to Benoit Mandelbrot (1924-2010) have highlighted his remarkable influence on the natural sciences, from geometry to meteorology, to theories with non-Euclidean spaces and geospatial models approach. Mandelbrot culminates a series of major thinkers going back to classical Greece: a Greek among Romans

  14. The Gate of Heaven: Revisiting Roman Mithraic Cosmology

    Assasi, R.


    The definition and origins of Roman Mithraism remain highly problematic and controversial among modern scholars. The majority of research on Roman Mithraism focuses on interpreting the physical evidence because no considerable written narratives or theology from the religion survive. The most important Mithraic artifact is a repeated bull-slaying scene, which leaves no doubt that this figure conveys the core divine message of the cult. There is also another important Mithraic character that seems to be as important as the bull-slayer. This figure is a lion-headed man entwined by a snake. The author suggests that these figures represent the north ecliptic pole and argues for the importance of this astronomical reference in the Mithraic iconography and mythology. The author also demonstrates the possible relation of his proposed astrological model to the geocentric understanding of the axial precession around the ecliptic pole, where the Roman bull-slaying Mithras could be visualized in the form of a Mithraic constellation. This astrological model also is proposed to be the architectural design concept of Roman Mithraeum. The author also points to the core Christian symbols as possible contemporaneous parallels or derivatives of the Mithraic iconography and theology.

  15. The central and northern Appalachian Basin-a frontier region for coalbed methane development

    Lyons, P.C.


    The Appalachian basin is the world's second largest coalbed-methane (CBM) producing basin. It has nearly 4000 wells with 1996 annual production at 147.8 billion cubic feet (Bcf). Cumulative CBM production is close to 0.9 trillion cubic feet (Tcf). The Black Warrior Basin of Alabama in the southern Appalachian basin (including a very minor amount from the Cahaba coal field) accounts for about 75% of this annual production and about 75% of the wells, and the remainder comes from the central and northern Appalachian basin. The Southwest Virginia coal field accounts for about 95% of the production from the central and northern parts of the Appalachian basin. Production data and trends imply that several of the Appalachian basin states, except for Alabama and Virginia, are in their infancy with respect to CBM development. Total in-place CBM resources in the central and northern Appalachian basin have been variously estimated at 66 to 76 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), of which an estimated 14.55 Tcf (~ 20%) is technically recoverable according to a 1995 U.S. Geological Survey assessment. For comparison in the Black Warrior basin of the 20 Tcf in-place CBM resources, 2.30 Tcf (~ 12%) is technically recoverable. Because close to 0.9 Tcf of CBM has already been produced from the Black Warrior basin and the proved reserves are about 0.8 Tcf for 1996 [Energy Information Administration (EIA), 1997]. U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 1996 Annual Report. U.S. Department of Energy DOE/EIA-0216(96), 145 pp.], these data imply that the central and northern Appalachian basin could become increasingly important in the Appalachian basin CBM picture as CBM resources are depleted in the southern Appalachian basin (Black Warrior Basin and Cahaba Coal Field). CBM development in the Appalachian states could decrease the eastern U.S.A.'s dependence on coal for electricity. CBM is expected to provide over the next few decades a virtually untapped source of

  16. A multi-wavelength view of the central kiloparsec region in the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 1614

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Pérez-Torres, Miguel Á.; Alberdi, Antxon; Hernández-García, Lorena [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, P.O. Box 3004, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, Almudena [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Colina, Luis [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Ctra. de Torrejón a Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Efstathiou, Andreas [School of Sciencies, European University Cyprus, Diogenes Street, Engomi, 1516 Nicosia (Cyprus); Miralles-Caballero, Daniel [Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Väisänen, Petri [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 Cape Town (South Africa); Packham, Christopher C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Rajpaul, Vinesh [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Zijlstra, Albert A. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)


    The Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 1614 hosts a prominent circumnuclear ring of star formation. However, the nature of the dominant emitting mechanism in its central ∼100 pc is still under debate. We present sub-arcsecond angular resolution radio, mid-infrared, Paα, optical, and X-ray observations of NGC 1614, aimed at studying in detail both the circumnuclear ring and the nuclear region. The 8.4 GHz continuum emission traced by the Very Large Array and the Gemini/T-ReCS 8.7 μm emission, as well as the Paα line emission, show remarkable morphological similarities within the star-forming ring, suggesting that the underlying emission mechanisms are tightly related. We used a Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS Paα map of similar resolution to our radio maps to disentangle the thermal free-free and non-thermal synchrotron radio emission, from which we obtained the intrinsic synchrotron power law for each individual region within the central kiloparsec of NGC 1614. The radio ring surrounds a relatively faint, steep-spectrum source at the very center of the galaxy, suggesting that the central source is not powered by an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but rather by a compact (r ≲ 90 pc) starburst (SB). Chandra X-ray data also show that the central kiloparsec region is dominated by SB activity, without requiring the existence of an AGN. We also used publicly available infrared data to model-fit the spectral energy distribution of both the SB ring and a putative AGN in NGC 1614. In summary, we conclude that there is no need to invoke an AGN to explain the observed bolometric properties of the galaxy.

  17. Study on the Implementation of Quality Management System in Small Medium-sized Enterprises from the Central Region of Romania

    Liviu Pop


    Full Text Available With over 12% share of the national total, small and medium enterprises from the Central Region of Romania, play the role of one of the pistons of the economic engine and social development of this country, finding them in all fields. Even if the global crisis has affected the region, however lately there is an improvement in the situation, thanks to the support either from foreign investment or from the Romanian state. Therefore, these organizations are striving through proactive involvement and long-term vision, to detect effective ways of implementing existing systems based on processes, balanced investment in human skills, technical and technological competence. This paper investigates the operation of the quality management system and the research methodology consists in the investigation based on online interviews of a total of 191 organizations from Central Region of Romania, with certified quality management system according to ISO 9001. The research was conducted during six months, the companies accessing the online questionnaire, specially created by the author, data being retrieved and analyzed by one of the most powerful and popular software, SPSS 17.0. The paper highlights some important factors that influence the operation of quality systems implemented in the SMEs of this region in order to increase their competitiveness.

  18. The central region of M83: Massive star formation, kinematics, and the location and origin of the nucleus

    Knapen, J H; Ryder, S D; Falcon-Barroso, J; Fathi, K; Gutierrez, L


    We report new near-IR integral field spectroscopy of the central starburst region of the barred spiral galaxy M83 obtained with CIRPASS on Gemini-S, which we analyse in conjunction with GHaFaS Fabry-Perot data, an AAT IRIS2 Ks-band image, and near- and mid-IR imaging from the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes. The bulk of the current star formation activity is hidden from optical view by dust extinction, but is seen in the near- and mid-IR to the north of the nucleus. This region is being fed by inflow of gas through the bar of M83, traced by the prominent dust lane entering into the circumnuclear region from the north. An analysis of stellar ages confirms that the youngest stars are indeed in the northwest. A gradual age gradient, with older stars further to the south, characterises the well-known star-forming arc in the central region of M83. Detailed analyses of the Pa beta ionised gas kinematics and near-IR imaging confirm that the kinematic centre coincides with the photometric centre of M83, and that ...

  19. The Relation between Stellar and Dynamical Surface Densities in the Central Regions of Disk Galaxies

    Lelli, Federico; Schombert, James M; Pawlowski, Marcel S


    We use the SPARC (Spitzer Photometry & Accurate Rotation Curves) database to study the relation between the central surface density of stars Sstar and dynamical mass Sdyn in 135 disk galaxies (S0 to dIrr). We find that Sdyn correlates tightly with Sstar over 4 dex. This central density relation can be described by a double power law. High surface brightness galaxies are consistent with a 1:1 relation, suggesting that they are self-gravitating and baryon dominated in the inner parts. Low surface brightness galaxies systematically deviate from the 1:1 line, indicating that the dark matter contribution progressively increases but remains tightly coupled to the stellar one. The observed scatter is small (~0.2 dex) and largely driven by observational uncertainties. The residuals show no correlations with other galaxy properties like stellar mass, size, or gas fraction.

  20. ‘Reconstructing Centrality and Peripherality in the North Denmark Region

    Fisker, Jens Kaae


    and a local historian), as well as quantitative data for more descriptional purposes (i.e. commuting patterns as an indicator of functional peripherality/centrality for the laborforce). The contribution of the paper is to show, how the application of a multiscalar and multimodal perspective can produce...... the implication that a locality can be considered simultaneously central and peripheral. In definitional terms, then, absolute delineations of centres and peripheries cannot be meaningfully carried out, unless the issue at stake is of a very specific and bounded nature. Rarely can a locality as a whole...... be labelled as peripheral, as this would imply peripherality independently of scalar perspective and across all defining aspects. Beyond definitional issues, this situation makes it appropriate to wonder, how a multiscalar and multimodal reading of place can contribute to a more nuanced understanding...