WorldWideScience

Sample records for roll-your-own cigarette market

  1. Roll-your-own cigarettes in Europe: use, weight and implications for fiscal policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Ghislandi, Simone; La Vecchia, Carlo; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-05-01

    Excise duties on roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, which are generally based on RYO cigarettes containing 1 g of tobacco, are lower than duties on factory-made (FM) cigarettes. This provides a price incentive for smokers to switch to RYO, the use of which is increasing across Europe. To effectively approximate duties on the two types of products, accurate data on the weight of RYO cigarettes are required. We provide updated information on RYO use and RYO cigarette weight across Europe. From a representative face-to-face survey conducted in 2010 in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden), we considered data from 5158 current smokers aged 15 years or above, with available information on daily consumption of FM and RYO cigarettes separately. In Europe, 10.4% of current smokers (12.9% of men and 7.5% of women) were 'predominant' RYO users (i.e. >50% of cigarettes smoked). This proportion was highest in England (27.3%), France (16.5%) and Finland (13.6%). The median weight of one RYO cigarette is 0.75 g (based on 192 smokers consuming exclusively RYO cigarettes). The proportion of RYO smokers is substantial in several European countries. Our finding on the weight of RYO cigarettes is consistent with the scientific literature and industry documents showing that the weight of RYO cigarettes is substantially lower than that of FM ones. Basing excise duties on RYO on an average cigarette weight of 0.75 g rather than 1 g would help increase the excise levels to those on FM cigarettes.

  2. Fiscal and policy implications of selling pipe tobacco for roll-your-own cigarettes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Daniel S; Tynan, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    The Federal excise tax was increased for tobacco products on April 1, 2009. While excise tax rates prior to the increase were the same for roll-your-own (RYO) and pipe tobacco, the tax on pipe tobacco was $21.95 per pound less than the tax on RYO tobacco after the increase. Subsequently, tobacco manufacturers began labeling loose tobacco as pipe tobacco and marketing these products to RYO consumers at a lower price. Retailers refer to these products as "dual purpose" or "dual use" pipe tobacco. Data on tobacco tax collections comes from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Joinpoint software was used to identify changes in sales trends. Estimates were generated for the amount of pipe tobacco sold for RYO use and for Federal and state tax revenue lost through August 2011. Approximately 45 million pounds of pipe tobacco has been sold for RYO use from April 2009 to August 2011, lowering state and Federal revenue by over $1.3 billion. Marketing pipe tobacco as "dual purpose" and selling it for RYO use provides an opportunity to avoid paying higher cigarette prices. This blunts the public health impact excise tax increases would otherwise have on reducing tobacco use through higher prices. Selling pipe tobacco for RYO use decreases state and Federal revenue and also avoids regulations on flavored tobacco, banned descriptors, prohibitions on shipping, and reporting requirements.

  3. [Changes in tobacco consumption: boom of roll-your-own cigarettes and emergence of e-cigarettes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrazo, Marina; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María I; Malvar, Alberto; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    To assess changes in smoking prevalence and study roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco and e-cigarette use in the Galician population between 2007 and 2015. Data were obtained from five independent, cross-sectional studies carried out in Galicia (Spain) between 2007-2015 in the population aged 16 and over (n=8,000/year). Prevalence of use was estimated, with 95% confidence intervals, overall, according to sex and by age group, area of residence and level of education. Smoking prevalence decreased from 25.4% in 2007 to 21.8% in 2015. In 2007, 1.8% of current smokers declared that they had smoked RYO tobacco, compared to 18.6% in 2015. Among smokers, RYO tobacco consumption increased across all demographic groups. In both 2014 and 2015, ever use of e-cigarettes was 0.7%. E-cigarette use was more frequent in urban settings. Smoking prevalence decreased in Galicia between 2007 and 2015, and there has been rapid growth in the prevalence of RYO tobacco use. Although smokers are more likely to use e-cigarettes, both former and never smokers declared their use. The boom of RYO cigarettes and the emergence of e-cigarettes highlight the importance of having continuous surveillance systems to identify smoking behavioural changes. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Roll your own cigarettes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, David S.

    2017-04-01

    The study employed data from the HSE’s Environmental Health Service National Tobacco Control Office (NTCO)’s monthly survey of smoking prevalence. Data for 2014 and for 2003-2014 were analysed to determine prevalence, socio-demographic patterns, and overall trends.

  5. Assessing the Temporal Stability of a Cigarette Purchase Task After an Excise Tax Increase for Factory-Made and Roll-Your-Own Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Randolph C; Kivell, Bronwyn M; Laugesen, Murray

    2015-11-01

    Cigarette purchase tasks (CPTs) are used increasingly to measure simulated demand curves for tobacco. However, there is currently limited information about the temporal stability of demand curves obtained from these tasks. We interviewed a sample (N = 210) of smokers in New Zealand both before and after a 10% increase in the tobacco excise tax that took effect on January 1, 2013. Participants were interviewed in November-December 2012 (wave 1) and February-March 2013 (wave 2). At each interview, participants completed a high-resolution CPT with 64 prices ranging from NZ $0.00 to NZ $5.00/cigarette, and questionnaires regarding their smoking habit. Roll-your-own smokers had higher levels of nicotine dependence and tobacco demand based on CPT responses than factory-made smokers. Although demand curves for waves 1 and 2 were similar, intentions to purchase cigarettes were significantly less at wave 2 for three prices (NZ $0.85, NZ $0.90, and NZ $0.95) that were just higher than the actual price after the tax increase, for both roll-your-own and factory-made smokers. Measures of elasticity (α) derived from Hursh and Silberberg's model were significantly greater at wave 2 than wave 1, and there was a significant reduction in smoking habit as measured by cigarettes/day and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence at wave 2. Purchase tasks can discriminate between smokers based on their tobacco preference, and although results are relatively stable over time, they depend on contextual factors such as the current real price for tobacco. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Do consumers of manufactured cigarettes respond differently to price changes compared with their Roll-Your-Own counterparts? Evidence from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Peter; Rutherford, Paul; Saunders, Caroline

    2015-05-01

    Price-based mechanisms are an important tobacco cessation policy tool in New Zealand (NZ) and so measurement of smokers' reaction to price changes is crucial in determining efficacy of this approach. Although approximately two-thirds of NZ tobacco demand is for manufactured cigarettes (MC) and one-third is for Roll-Your-Own (RYO) tobacco, previous price elasticity estimates have ignored differences between RYO tobacco and MC consumers. We employ a seemingly unrelated regression econometric approach applied to quarterly data over the period 1991-2011 to estimate price elasticities of demand separately for MC and RYO tobacco. Estimate of price elasticity of demand for MC is -1.033, and -0.441 for RYO tobacco. RYO tobacco is an inferior good; a 1% increase in average weekly income is associated with a 0.8% reduction in demand. RYO tobacco is a substitute for MC; a 1% increase in the price of MC is associated with a 0.867% increase in demand for RYO tobacco. There is significantly different price responsiveness across the two tobacco product types. MC smokers react far more strongly to price increases compared with RYO tobacco smokers. These findings suggest that pricing mechanisms may be more effective for reducing MC demand than for RYO tobacco. However, substitution between products means that this pricing effect is muted by the uptake of RYO tobacco use. Cessation policy specific to RYO use should be designed to target this growing group. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Current manufactured cigarette smoking and roll-your-own cigarette smoking in Thailand: findings from the 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjakul, Sarunya; Termsirikulchai, Lakkhana; Hsia, Jason; Kengganpanich, Mondha; Puckcharern, Hataichanok; Touchchai, Chitrlada; Lohtongmongkol, Areerat; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira

    2013-03-27

    Current smoking prevalence in Thailand decreased from 1991 to 2004 and since that time the prevalence has remained flat. It has been suggested that one of the reasons that the prevalence of current smoking in Thailand has stopped decreasing is due to the use of RYO cigarettes. The aim of this study was to examine characteristics of users of manufactured and RYO cigarettes and dual users in Thailand, in order to determine whether there are differences in the characteristics of users of the different products. The 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS Thailand) provides detailed information on current smoking patterns. GATS Thailand used a nationally and regionally representative probability sample of 20,566 adults (ages 15 years and above) who were chosen through stratified three-stage cluster sampling and then interviewed face-to-face. The prevalence of current smoking among Thai adults was 45.6% for men and 3.1% for women. In all, 18.4% of men and 1.0% of women were current users of manufactured cigarettes only, while 15.8% of men and 1.7% of women were current users of RYO cigarettes only. 11.2% of men and 0.1% of women used both RYO and manufactured cigarettes. Users of manufactured cigarettes were younger and users of RYO were older. RYO smokers were more likely to live in rural areas. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes appeared to be more knowledgeable about the health risks of tobacco use. However, the difference was confounded with age and education; when demographic variables were controlled, the knowledge differences no longer remained. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes were more likely than dual users and those who used only RYO to report that they were planning on quitting in the next month. Users of RYO only appeared to be more addicted than the other two groups as measured by time to first cigarette. There appears to be a need for product targeted cessation and prevention efforts that are directed toward specific population subgroups in Thailand and

  8. 76 FR 52913 - Standards for Pipe Tobacco and Roll-Your-Own Tobacco; Request for Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... products'' as ``cigars, cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, pipe tobacco, and roll-your-own tobacco.'' Each of..., and all electronic or mailed comments TTB has received or will receive in response to [[Page 52915...

  9. 27 CFR 40.216b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 40.216b Section 40.216b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  10. 27 CFR 45.45b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 45.45b Section 45.45b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  11. 27 CFR 41.72b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 41.72b Section 41.72b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  12. Perceptions of plain packaging among young adult roll-your-own smokers in France: a naturalistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Moodie, Crawford; Eker, Figen; Beguinot, Emmanuelle; Martinet, Yves

    2015-03-01

    We explored, for the first time, young adult roll-your-own smokers' response to using plain packaging in real-world settings. Naturalistic research was employed, where 133 French young adult smokers (18-25 years of age) used plain roll-your-own packs for 10 days; the plain packs they were provided with contained their usual brand of rolling tobacco and displayed the name of their usual brand. Participants were recruited in five cities in France (Paris, Marseille, Metz, Nantes, Toulouse) and completed two questionnaires to measure their response to their own branded packs and the plain packs. Both questionnaires assessed pack perceptions, brand attachment, product perceptions (eg, taste, quality, natural), feelings about smoking (satisfying, pleasurable), feelings when using the pack in front of others (embarrassment, image), warning response (credibility, awareness of risks) and smoking-related behaviour (eg, consumption, quitting). Compared to their own fully branded packs, plain packs were associated with less positive pack and product perceptions, lower brand attachment and less positive feelings about smoking and feelings when using the pack in front of others. Participants were also more likely to report feeling like reducing consumption and quitting when using the plain packs, and more likely to feel like missing out on rolling a cigarette. No significant differences between the two pack types (plain and branded) were found in terms of credibility of warnings and perceptions of level of tar. The study suggests that the impacts of plain packaging for roll-your-own cigarette smokers are the same as for smokers of factory-made cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS...

  14. Roll-your-own tobacco use among Canadian youth: is it a bigger problem than we think?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leatherdale Scott T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the apparent decline in the popularity of roll-your-own (RYO cigarettes over the past few decades, RYO tobacco products are widely available and used by a substantial number of adult smokers. Considering research has yet to examine the prevalence of RYO tobacco use among youth populations, this manuscript examines the prevalence of RYO tobacco use and factors associated with RYO use in a nationally representative sample of youth smokers from Canada. Methods This study used data collected from 3,630 current smokers in grades 9 to 12 as part of the 2008-09 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (YSS. Descriptive analyses of the sample demographic characteristics, smoking status, cigarettes per day, weekly spending money, and frequency of marijuana use were examined by RYO tobacco ever use and RYO tobacco current use. Two logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with RYO tobacco ever use and RYO tobacco current use. Results We identified that 51.2% of current smokers were RYO ever users and 24.2% were RYO current users. The prevalence of RYO current users was highest in Atlantic Canada (40.1% and lowest in Quebec (12.3%. RYO current users were more likely to be male (OR 1.27, to be daily smokers (OR 1.75, to use marijuana once a month or more (OR 2.74, and to smoke 11 or more cigarettes per day (OR 6.52. RYO current users were less likely to be in grade 11 (OR 0.65 or grade 12 (OR 0.40 and less likely to have between $20 to $100 (OR 0.44 or more than $100 (OR 0.45 of disposable income. Conclusions Developing a better understanding of RYO tobacco use among youth is important for advancing population-level tobacco control prevention strategies and cessation programs. We identified that RYO tobacco use is not a negligible problem among Canadian youth. Ongoing research is needed to continue monitoring the prevalence of RYO use among youth and the factors associated with its use, but to also monitor if this

  15. Prevalence and correlates of roll-your-own smoking in Thailand and Malaysia: Findings of the ITC-South East Asia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Ross, Hana; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Kin, Foong; Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2008-05-01

    Roll-your-own (RYO) cigarette use has been subject to relatively limited research, particularly in developing countries. This paper seeks to describe RYO use in Thailand and Malaysia and relate RYO use to smokers' knowledge of the harmfulness of tobacco. Data come from face-to-face surveys with 4,004 adult smokers from Malaysia (N = 2,004) and Thailand (N = 2000), collected between January and March 2005. The prevalence of any use of RYO cigarettes varied greatly between Malaysia (17%) and Thailand (58%). In both countries, any RYO use was associated with living in rural areas, older average age, lower level of education, male gender, not being in paid work, slightly lower consumption of cigarettes, higher social acceptability of smoking, and positive attitudes toward tobacco regulation. Among RYO users, exclusive use of RYO cigarettes (compared with mixed use) was associated with older age, female gender (relatively), thinking about the enjoyment of smoking, and not making a special effort to buy cheaper cigarettes if the price goes up. Finally, exclusive RYO smokers were less aware of health warnings (RYO tobacco carries no health warnings), but even so, knowledge of the health effects of tobacco was equivalent.

  16. Trends in Roll-Your-Own Smoking: Findings from the ITC Four-Country Survey (2002–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Young

    2012-01-01

    Methods. Participants were 19,456 cigarette smokers interviewed during the longitudinal International Tobacco Control (ITC Four-Country Survey in Canada, USA, UK, and Australia. Results. “Predominant” RYO use (i.e., >50% of cigarettes smoked increased significantly in the UK and USA as a proportion of all cigarette use (both P<.001 and in all countries as a proportion of any RYO use (all P<.010. Younger, financially stressed smokers are disproportionately contributing to “some” use (i.e., ≤50% of cigarettes smoked. Relative cost was the major reason given for using RYO, and predominant RYO use is consistently and significantly associated with low income. Conclusions. RYO market trends reflect the price advantages accruing to RYO (a product of favourable taxation regimes in some jurisdictions reinforced by the enhanced control over the amount of tobacco used, especially following the impact of the Global Financial Crisis; the availability of competing low-cost alternatives to RYO; accessibility of duty-free RYO tobacco; and tobacco industry niche marketing strategies. If policy makers want to ensure that the RYO option does not inhibit the fight to end the tobacco epidemic, especially amongst the disadvantaged, they need to reduce the price advantage, target additional health messages at (young RYO users, and challenge niche marketing of RYO by the industry.

  17. 75 FR 42659 - Standards for Pipe Tobacco and Roll-Your-Own Tobacco; Request for Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... be rolled into cigarettes and, further, consumers can use basic kitchen or hardware appliances to... consider to be confidential or that is inappropriate for public disclosure. Public Disclosure On the...

  18. Adult Smokers? Reactions to Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs in Thailand and Moderating Effects of Type of Cigarette Smoked: Findings From the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Driezen, Pete; Borland, Ron; Quah, Anne C. K.; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Hamann, Stephen; Omar, Maizurah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we aimed to examine, in Thailand, the impact on smokers? reported awareness of and their cognitive and behavioral reactions following the change from text-only to pictorial warnings printed on cigarette packs. We also sought to explore differences by type of cigarette smoked (roll-your-own [RYO] vs. factory-made [FM] cigarettes). Methods: Data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey, conducted in Thailand and Malaysia, where a representat...

  19. The Use of Legal, Illegal, and Roll-you-own Cigarettes to Increasing Tobacco Excise Taxes and Comprehensive Tobacco Control Policies-Findings from the ITC Uruguay Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Dardo; Shang, Ce; Ridgeway, William; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Background Little research has been done to examine whether smokers switch to illegal or roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes in response to a change in their relative price. Objective This paper explores how relative prices between three cigarette forms (manufactured legal, manufactured illegal, and RYO cigarettes) are associated with the choice of one form over another after controlling for covariates, including sociodemographic characteristics, smokers’ exposure to anti-smoking messaging, health warning labels, and tobacco marketing. Methods Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to analyse the association between the price ratio of two different cigarette forms and the usage of one form over the other. Findings A 10% increase in the relative price ratio of legal to RYO cigarettes is associated with 4.6% increase in the probability of consuming RYO over manufactured legal cigarettes (P≤0.05). In addition, more exposure to anti-smoking messaging is associated with lower odds of choosing RYO over manufactured legal cigarettes (P≤0.05). Non-significant associations exist between the manufactured illegal to legal cigarette price ratios and choosing manufactured illegal cigarettes, suggesting that smokers do not switch to manufactured illegal cigarettes as prices of legal ones increase. However, these non-significant findings may be due to lack of variation in the price ratio measures. In order to improve the effectiveness of increased taxes and prices in reducing smoking, policy makers need to narrow price variability in the tobacco market. Moreover, increasing anti-smoking messaging reduces tax avoidance in the form of switching to cheaper RYO cigarettes in Uruguay. PMID:25740084

  20. Receptivity to e-cigarette marketing, harm perceptions, and e-cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-01-01

    To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations.

  1. Receptivity to E-cigarette Marketing, Harm Perceptions, and E-cigarette Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Methods Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Results Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations. PMID:25290604

  2. E-Cigarette Marketing and Communication: How E-Cigarette Companies Market E-Cigarettes and the Public Engages with E-cigarette Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lauren; Glasser, Allison M; Abudayyeh, Haneen; Pearson, Jennifer L; Villanti, Andrea C

    2018-01-05

    Given the lack of regulation on marketing of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in the U.S. and the increasing exchange of e-cigarette-related information online, it is critical to understand how e-cigarette companies market e-cigarettes and how the public engages with e-cigarette information. Results are from a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature on e-cigarettes via a PubMed search through June 1, 2017. Search terms included: "e-cigarette*" OR "electronic cigarette" OR "electronic cigarettes" OR "electronic nicotine delivery" OR "vape" OR "vaping." Experimental studies, quasi-experimental studies, observational studies, qualitative studies, and mixed methods studies providing empirical findings on e-cigarette marketing and communication (i.e., non-marketing communication in the public) were included. One hundred twenty-four publications on e-cigarette marketing and communication were identified. They covered topics including e-cigarette advertisement claims/promotions and exposure/receptivity, the effect of e-cigarette advertisements on e-cigarette and cigarette use, public engagement with e-cigarette information, and the public's portrayal of e-cigarettes. Studies show increases in e-cigarette marketing expenditures and online engagement through social media over time, that e-cigarettes are often framed as an alternative to combustible cigarettes, and that e-cigarette advertisement exposure may be associated with e-cigarette trial in adolescents and young adults. Few studies examine the effects of e-cigarette marketing on perceptions and e-cigarette and cigarette use. Evidence suggests that exposure to e-cigarette advertisements affects perceptions and trial of e-cigarettes, but there is no evidence that exposure affects cigarette use. No studies examined how exposure to e-cigarette communication, particularly misleading or inaccurate information, impacts e-cigarette and tobacco use behaviors. The present article provides a comprehensive review of e-cigarette

  3. E-cigarettes: facts, perceptions, and marketing messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Ellen R

    2014-02-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are perceived as an alternative to standard tobacco cigarette smoking, primarily because of the e-cigarette industry's marketing messages. However, scientific studies about e-cigarette safety and efficacy remain limited. This column presents some of the issues associated with e-cigarette use, such as potential components of regulation, perceptions that e-cigarettes can help users quit smoking, and free-wheeling marketing strategies that include expanding e-cigarette use to young people. Nurses can be a reliable source of information about e-cigarettes.

  4. E-Cigarette Marketing Exposure Is Associated With E-Cigarette Use Among US Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Cooper, Maria R; Clendennen, Stephanie L; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarettes are currently the most commonly used tobacco product among US youth. However, unlike conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes are not subject to marketing restrictions. This study investigates the association between exposure to e-cigarette marketing and susceptibility and use of e-cigarettes in youth. Data were obtained from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Participants were 22,007 US middle and high school students. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed the relationship between e-cigarette marketing (internet, print, retail, and TV/movies) and current and ever use as well as susceptibility to use e-cigarettes among never e-cigarette users. Exposure to each type of e-cigarette marketing was significantly associated with increased likelihood of ever and current use of e-cigarettes among middle and high school students. Exposure was also associated with susceptibility to use of e-cigarettes among current nonusers. In multivariate models, as the number of channels of e-cigarette marketing exposure increased, the likelihood of use and susceptibility also increased. Findings highlight the significant associations between e-cigarette marketing and e-cigarette use among youth and the need for longitudinal research on these relationships. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cigarette price and other factors associated with brand choice and brand loyalty in Zambia: findings from the ITC Zambia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Goma, Fastone; Chelwa, Grieve; Cheng, Xi; Zulu, Richard; Kaai, Susan C; Quah, Anne C K; Thrasher, James F; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about cigarette pricing and brand loyalty in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines these issues in Zambia, analysing data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Zambia Survey. Data from Wave 1 of the ITC Zambia Survey (2012) were analysed for current smokers of factory-made (FM) cigarettes compared with those who smoked both FM and roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes, using multivariate logistic regression models to identify the predictors of brand loyalty and reasons for brand choice. 75% of FM-only smokers and 64% of FM+RYO smokers reported having a regular brand. Compared with FM-only smokers, FM+RYO smokers were, on average, older (28% vs 20% ≥40 years), low income (64% vs 43%) and had lower education (76% vs 44% brands was ZMW0.50 (US$0.08) per stick. Smokers were significantly less likely to be brand loyal (>1 year) if they were aged 15-17 years (vs 40-54 years) and if they had moderate (vs low) income. Brand choice was predicted mostly by friends, taste and brand popularity. Price was more likely to be a reason for brand loyalty among FM+RYO smokers, among ≥55-year-old smokers and among those who reported being more addicted to cigarettes. These results in Zambia document the high levels of brand loyalty in a market where price variation is fairly small across cigarette brands. Future research is needed on longitudinal trends to evaluate the effect of tobacco control policies in Zambia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Tobacco Marketing and Subsequent Use of Cigarettes, E-cigarettes and Hookah in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Tess Boley; McConnell, Rob; Low, Brittany Wagman; Unger, Jennifer B; Pentz, Mary Ann; Urman, Robert; Berhane, Kiros; Chou, Chih Ping; Liu, Fei; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica

    2018-05-28

    Tobacco marketing has expanded from cigarettes to other tobacco products through many promotional channels. Marketing exposure is associated with use of that tobacco product. However, it's unclear if marketing for one product leads to subsequent use of other tobacco products. This prospective cohort study assessed self-reported marketing exposure for six tobacco products across five marketing channels in 11th/12th grade students in 2014. Approximately 16 months later a follow-up survey was conducted online (N=1553) to assess initiation of cigarettes, e-cigarettes and hookah. Adolescent never smokers with frequent exposure to cigarette marketing on the Internet and in stores are more than two times as likely to begin smoking as young adults (Internet OR 2.98 [95% CI, 1.56-5.66); Stores OR, 2.83 [95% CI, 1.23-6.50]). Never users of e-cigarettes were significantly more likely to initiate use, if exposed to Internet, store and outdoor e-cigarette marketing. Never users of hookah were more likely to use hookah after seeing it marketed in stores. Youth exposed to marketing of e-cigarettes, hookah, cigars, smokeless and pipe tobacco in stores were two to three times more likely to begin smoking cigarettes even though the marketed products were not cigarettes. Adolescent exposure to marketing of tobacco products is associated with initiation of those products as young adults. Exposure to marketing for non-cigarette tobacco products is associated with subsequent cigarette smoking, even when the promoted products are not cigarettes. Future research and interventions should consider the influence of marketing from multiple tobacco products on adolescent tobacco use. Adolescents grow up in a rich media environment with exposure to tobacco marketing in both their homes (e.g., through the Internet and television) and their communities (e.g., stores and billboards). This prospective study provides evidence that adolescents exposed to tobacco marketing for multiple tobacco

  7. E-cigarette marketing and older smokers: Road to renormalization

    OpenAIRE

    Cataldo, JK; Petersen, AB; Hunter, M; Wang, J; Sheon, N

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, PNG Publications. All rights reserved. Objectives: To describe older smokers' perceptions of risks and use of e-cigarettes, and their responses to marketing and knowledge of, and opinions about, regulation of e-cigarettes. Methods: Eight 90-minute focus groups with 8 to 9 participants met in urban and suburban California to discuss topics related to cigarettes and alternative tobacco products. Results: Older adults are using e-cigarettes for cessation and as a way to circumvent no-smo...

  8. E-cigarette marketing and older smokers: road to renormalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Janine K; Petersen, Anne Berit; Hunter, Mary; Wang, Julie; Sheon, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    To describe older smokers' perceptions of risks and use of e-cigarettes, and their responses to marketing and knowledge of, and opinions about, regulation of e-cigarettes. Eight 90-minute focus groups with 8 to 9 participants met in urban and suburban California to discuss topics related to cigarettes and alternative tobacco products. Older adults are using e-cigarettes for cessation and as a way to circumvent no-smoking policies; they have false perceptions about the effectiveness and safety of e-cigarettes. They perceive e-cigarette marketing as a way to renormalize smoking. To stem the current epidemic of nicotine addiction, the FDA must take immediate action because e-cigarette advertising promotes dual use and may contribute to the renormalization of smoking.

  9. E-cigarette Marketing and Older Smokers: Road to Renormalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Janine K.; Petersen, Anne Berit; Hunter, Mary; Wang, Julie; Sheon, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe older smokers’ perceptions of risks and use of e-cigarettes, and their responses to marketing and knowledge of, and opinions about, regulation of e-cigarettes. Methods Eight 90-minute focus groups with 8 to 9 participants met in urban and suburban California to discuss topics related to cigarettes and alternative tobacco products. Results Older adults are using e-cigarettes for cessation and as a way to circumvent no-smoking policies; they have false perceptions about the effectiveness and safety of e-cigarettes. They perceive e-cigarette marketing as a way to renormalize smoking. Conclusions To stem the current epidemic of nicotine addiction, the FDA must take immediate action because e-cigarette advertising promotes dual use and may contribute to the renormalization of smoking. PMID:25741681

  10. The impact of the cigarette market opening in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C P; Cheng, T Y; Eriksen, M P; Tsai, S P; Hsu, C C

    2005-06-01

    To assess the effect of the opening of the Taiwanese cigarette market on cigarette consumption, changes in market share, and the effects on tobacco control efforts. With the use of key word "Taiwan", the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library of the University of California, San Francisco, was searched for internal documents related to smuggling activities, promotion of light cigarettes, and market share analyses in Taiwan. Age adjusted smoking rates and cigarette and betel quid consumption before and after market opening were compared. By 2000, the market share of imported cigarettes increased from less than 2% in 1986 to nearly 50%, and per capita cigarette consumption increased 15% following market opening. Because of the sharp increase in smuggling, with contraband cigarettes being as popular as legal imports, and the rapid proliferation of retail outlets, such as betel quid stalls, the market penetration by foreign tobacco companies was greater in Taiwan than among the other Super 301 Asian countries. Aggressive cigarette marketing strategies were associated with a 6% increase in adult male smoking prevalence, and with a 13% increase in the youth rate, within three years after market opening. The market opening also had an incidental effect on increasing the popularity of betel quid. Betel quid chewing has since become a major public health problem in Taiwan. The opening of the cigarette market in 1987 had a long lasting impact on Taiwan. It increased smoking prevalence and the market has become dominated by foreign companies. The seriousness of smuggling and its associated loss of revenue by the government, the extent of increased youth smoking and its associated future health care costs, and the increased use of betel quid and the associated doubling of oral cancer mortality rates each pose significant problems to Taiwan. However, the market opening galvanised anti-smoking sentiment and forced the government to initiate and intensify a series of tobacco control

  11. Retail availability and marketing of electronic cigarettes in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; White, Christine M; Czoli, Christine D; Martin, Christina L; Magennis, Paul; Shiplo, Samantha

    2015-10-09

    Canada is among an increasing number of countries with restrictions on the sale of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). In Canada, e-cigarettes containing nicotine have not been approved for sale; however, e-cigarettes that do not contain nicotine and do not make health claims can be sold. To date, there is little empirical evidence assessing the retail availability and marketing of e-cigarettes in countries such as Canada. Audits were conducted at 59 brick-and-mortar retail outlets (grocery stores, convenience stores, tobacconist shops and vape shops) in four cities (Vancouver, Toronto, Montreal and Halifax) in August-October 2014. In addition, a total of 21 e-cigarette manufacturer/retailer websites were audited, and inquiries were made as to whether the companies sold nicotine-containing products. Overall, 76% of the retail outlets sold e-cigarette products. Of convenience stores, grocery stores and tobacconist shops with e-cigarettes for sale, the vast majority (94%) sold nicotine-free products only; in contrast, all the vape shops sold at least one nicotine-containing e-cigarette product. Front counter displays were the most common form of in-store promotions and were present in virtually all convenience stores, tobacconist shops and vape shops. Nicotine-containing e-cigarettes were available for purchase at approximately half (52%) of the online e-cigarette retailers surveyed. E-cigarettes with and without nicotine are widely available and marketed at a variety of retail outlets in Canada. "Illegal" sales of nicotinecontaining e-cigarettes were predominantly found at vape shops and online outlets, suggesting limited compliance with existing regulations.

  12. Assessing market competition in the Philippine cigarette industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Reganon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The recent passage of the Philippine Competition Act has caused many to rethink the market structure of Philippine industries. Foremost is the cigarette industry, whose structure bear important implications on the health of Filipinos. A competitive cigarette industry may mean price wars and intensified advertising, disproportionately harming the young and the poor. On the other hand, a concentrated industry may mean a dominant player with ability to engage in predatory pricing. The latter will also likely possess power to lobby against tobacco control policies. In this study, we assess the market competition in the Philippine cigarette industry, and its correlation with cigarette affordability in recent years. Methods Using retail volume data from Euromonitor International and financial reports from the Securities and Exchange Commission, we calculate for various measures of market concentration such as the Top 4 Concentration Ratio (C4, the Herfindahl-Hirschmann Index (HHI, and the Dominance Index (DI over the period 2007 to 2016. We then compare these measures against cigarette affordability trends. Results Across all measures, we find a highly concentrated cigarette industry. C4 ratios ranged from 97%-99%, HHI from 4754-8848, and DI from 7479-9973. In 2010 when Philip Morris acquired Fortune Tobacco, industry concentration peaked (HHI rose by 72% and DI by 33%. In 2012 when the Sin Tax Law was passed, competition slightly intensified with Mighty Corporation taking advantage of the transitionary dual tax structure. Most significantly, fluctuations in market concentration did not affect cigarette affordability. A pack of cigarettes costed 7.4%-8.4% of the daily minimum wage between 2006-2012. Conclusions Assessing the market structure of the cigarette industry better informs the formulation of effective tobacco control regulations. For a concentrated cigarette industry such as in the Philippines, an effective tax policy must temper

  13. Misperceptions of "light" cigarettes abound: National survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson George

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many smokers believe that "light" cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes, which is at variance with the scientific evidence. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC aims to address this problem in Article 11 which deals with misleading labelling of tobacco products. In this study we aimed to determine smokers' use and beliefs concerning "light" and "mild" cigarettes ("lights", including in relation to ethnicity, deprivation and other socio-demographic characteristics. Methods The New Zealand (NZ arm of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey (ITC Project uses as its sampling frame the NZ Health Survey. This is a national sample with boosted sampling of Maori, Pacific peoples and Asians. From this sample we surveyed adult smokers (n = 1376 about use and beliefs relating to "light" cigarettes. We assessed the associations with smoking "lights" after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, and smoking-related behaviours and beliefs. Results Many smokers of "lights" believed that smoking "lights" made it easier to quit smoking (25%, that "lights" are less harmful (42%, and that smokers of "lights" take in less tar (43%. Overall most "lights" smokers (60% had at least one of these three beliefs, a proportion significantly higher than for smokers of "regular" cigarettes at 45% (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.29 – 2.96. While "lights" smokers had significantly lower tobacco consumption and were more aware of smoking harms, they were no more likely to be intending to quit or have made a previous quit attempt. By ethnicity, both Maori and Pacific people were less likely to smoke "lights" than Europeans (aOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.35 – 0.80 and aOR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.05 – 0.40 respectively. In contrast there was no significant difference by level of deprivation. Roll-your-own (RYO tobacco smokers were less likely to smoke "light" forms of RYO tobacco while both older and women

  14. E-Cigarette Marketing Exposure is Associated with E-cigarette Use among U.S. Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S.; Cooper, Maria R.; Clendennen, Stephanie; Pasch, Keryn; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction E-cigarettes are currently the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. youth. However, unlike conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes are not subject to marketing restrictions. This study investigates the association between exposure to e-cigarette marketing and susceptibility and use of e-cigarettes in youth. Methods Data were obtained from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Participants were 22,007 U.S. middle and high school students. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed the relationship between e-cigarette marketing (internet, print, retail, TV/movies) and current and ever use as well as susceptibility to use e-cigarettes among never e-cigarette users. Results Exposure to each type of e-cigarette marketing was significantly associated with increased likelihood of ever and current use of e-cigarettes among middle and high school students. Exposure was also associated with susceptibility to use of e-cigarettes among current non-users. In multivariate models, as the number of channels of e-cigarette marketing exposure increased, the likelihood of use and susceptibility also increased. Conclusions Findings highlight the significant associations between e-cigarette marketing and e-cigarette use among youth, and the need for longitudinal research on these relationships. PMID:27080732

  15. Development of a commercial cigarette "market map" comparison methodology for evaluating new or non-conventional cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, M E; Hsu, F S; Tewes, F J

    2006-12-01

    A "market map" comparison methodology for cigarette smoke chemistry yields is presented. Federal Trade Commission machine-method smoke chemistry was determined for a range of filtered cigarettes from the US marketplace. These data were used to develop illustrative market maps for each smoke constituent as analytical tools for comparing new or non-conventional cigarettes to a sampling of the broader range of marketplace cigarettes. Each market map contained best-estimate "market-means," showing the relationship between commercial cigarette constituent and tar yields, and yield "market ranges" defined by prediction intervals. These market map means and ranges are the basis for comparing new cigarette smoke yields to those of conventional cigarettes. The potential utility of market maps for evaluating differences in smoke chemistry was demonstrated with 1R4F and 2R4F Kentucky reference cigarettes, an Accord cigarette, and an Advance cigarette. Conventional cigarette tobacco nicotine, nitrate, soluble ammonia, and tobacco specific nitrosamine levels are reported. Differences among conventional cigarette constituent yields at similar tar levels were explained in part by the chemical composition range of those cigarette tobaccos. The study also included a comparison of smoke constituent yields and in vitro smoke cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assay results for the 1R4F Kentucky reference cigarette and its replacement 2R4F. Significant smoke yield differences were noted for lead, NNK, and NNN. The majority of their smoke constituent yields were within the market range developed from the sampled conventional cigarettes. Within the sensitivity and specificity of the in vitro bioassays used, smoke toxic activity differences for the two reference cigarettes were not statistically significant. These results add to the limited information available for the 2R4F reference cigarette.

  16. Exposure to Point-of-Sale Marketing of Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes as Predictors of Smoking Cessation Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Pasch, Keryn E; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-06

    Cue-reactivity theory suggests smoking-related visual cues such as point-of-sale (POS) marketing (e.g., advertising, product displays) may undermine cessation attempts by causing an increase in nicotine cravings among users. This study examined the relationship between recall of exposure to POS marketing and subsequent cessation behaviors among young adult cigarette smokers. Participants included 813 18-29 year old (m=21.1, sd=2.70) current cigarette smokers attending 24 Texas colleges. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the impact of baseline self-reported exposure to cigarette and e-cigarette advertising and product displays, on using e-cigarettes for cessation and successful cigarette cessation at 6-month follow-up. Two-way interactions between product-specific advertising and between product-specific displays were examined to determine if the marketing of one product strengthened the cue-reactivity of the other. Baseline covariates included socio-demographic factors, past quit attempts, intentions to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence. Exposure to e-cigarette displays was associated with lower odds of cigarette smoking cessation, controlling for covariates and conventional cigarette display exposure. E-cigarette advertising was positively associated with use of e-cigarettes for cigarette cessation among participants exposed to low (i.e., at least one standard deviation below the mean) levels of cigarette advertising. Cigarette advertising was associated with use of e-cigarettes for cigarette cessation only among those exposed to low levels of e-cigarette advertising. Exposure to cigarette displays was not associated with either outcome. Smoking-related cues at POS may undermine successful cigarette cessation. Exposure to product displays decrease odds of cessation. Advertising exposure increased odds for using e-cigarettes for cessation attempts, but may have guided smokers towards an unproven cessation aid. By examining the interaction of

  17. Influence of Additives on Cigarette Related Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klus H

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco additives play an important role in the manufacturing and for the quality of tobacco products, particularly cigarettes and roll-your-own tobaccos. Attention is increasingly given to the potential effects of additives on consumer behavior and health. This review is intended to compile, collate and - to some degree - evaluate the wealth of pertinent scientific information available from the published literature and other special sources. At first, the reasons are set forth for the use of additives in cigarette manufacturing. In response to the growing controversy over the attractiveness and addictiveness of smoking, the clarification of terms and concepts is followed by a detailed discussion of two kinds of substances with particular relevance: Additives like ammonium compounds that are claimed to increase nicotine availability, and additives that are claimed to increase nicotine addictiveness.

  18. Tobacco Marketing, E-cigarette Susceptibility, and Perceptions among Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicksic, Nicole E; Snell, L Morgan; Rudy, Alyssa K; Cobb, Caroline O; Barnes, Andrew J

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the impact of tobacco marketing on e-cigarette (EC) susceptibility and perceptions is essential to inform efforts to mitigate tobacco product burden on public health. Data were collected online in 2016 from 634 conventional cigarette (CC) smokers and 393 non-smokers using a convenience sample from Amazon Mechanical Turk. Logistic regression models, stratified by smoking status and adjusted for socio-demographics, examined the relationship among tobacco advertisements and coupons, EC and CC susceptibility, and EC perceptions. Among non-smokers, increased exposure to tobacco advertising and receiving tobacco coupons was significantly related to measures of EC and CC susceptibility (p marketing reduce EC use by decreasing susceptibility.

  19. Cigarette smoking and cigarette marketing exposure among students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cigarette smoking prevalence and exposure to various forms of cigarette marketing among students in 10 African countries. We used data collected during 2009-2011 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based cross-sectional survey of students aged 13-15years, to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to cigarette marketing; comparisons to estimates from 2005 to 2006 were conducted for five countries where data were available. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.4% to 13.6% among students aged 13-15 in the 10 countries studied, although use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was more prevalent in all countries except in Cote D'Ivoire. Cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in seven out of the 10 countries. Among the five countries with two rounds of surveys, a significant decrease in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed in Mauritania and Niger; these two countries also experienced a decline in three measures of cigarette marketing exposure. It is also possible that smoking prevalence might have risen faster among girls than boys. Cigarette smoking among youth was noticeable in 10 African countries evaluated, with the prevalence over 10% in Cote D'Ivoire, Mauritania, and South Africa. Cigarette marketing exposure varied by the types of marketing; traditional venues such as TV, outdoor billboards, newspapers, and magazines were still prominent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Point-of-Sale Cigarette Marketing, Urge to Buy Cigarettes, and Impulse Purchases of Cigarettes: Results From a Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Hyland, Andrew; Smith, Danielle; Sikora Kessler, Asia; Meza, Jane; Wan, Neng; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS) cigarette marketing for one's regular brand, as well as any brand of cigarettes, with the urge to buy cigarettes and frequency of impulse purchases of cigarettes. Nine hundred ninety-nine smokers in Omaha, Nebraska were interviewed via telephone. Cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions such as discounts for their regular brand as well as any brand of cigarettes in their neighborhoods stores. We measured urge to buy cigarettes with the question "When you are in a store in your neighborhood that sells tobacco products, how often do you get an urge to buy cigarettes?" We measured frequency of impulse purchases of cigarettes with the question "When you are shopping in a store in your neighborhood for something other than cigarettes, how often do you decide to buy cigarettes?" We estimated ordinary least squares linear regression models to address the study aim. Higher levels of POS marketing for one's regular brand and any brands of cigarettes were associated with more frequent urges to buy (P purchases of cigarettes (P = .01 and P = .013, respectively), after adjusting for covariates. Exposure to POS marketing for one's own brand of cigarette as well as any brand is associated with urges to buy and impulse purchases of cigarettes. Existing studies on the association of POS cigarette marketing with urge to buy and an impulse purchase of cigarettes only focus on cigarette pack displays, not on advertisements and promotions. Also, these studies make no distinction between marketing for the smokers' regular brand and any brand of cigarettes. This study found that Exposure to POS marketing for one's own brand of cigarette as well as any brand is associated with urges to buy and impulse purchases of cigarettes. Our findings can provide part of the evidence-base needed by the Food and Drug Administration or local

  1. Cigarette smokers' classification of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casseus, M; Garmon, J; Hrywna, M; Delnevo, C D

    2016-11-01

    Cigarette consumption has declined in the USA. However, cigar consumption has increased. This may be due in part to some cigarette smokers switching to filtered cigars as a less expensive substitute for cigarettes. Additionally, some cigarette smokers may perceive and consume little filtered cigars as cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to determine how cigarette smokers classify tobacco products when presented with photographs of those products. An online survey was conducted with a sample of 344 self-identified cigarette smokers. Respondents were presented with pictures of various types of tobacco products, both with and without packaging, and then asked to categorise them as either a cigarette, little cigar, cigarillo, cigar or machine-injected roll-your-own cigarette (RYO). Respondents were also asked about their tobacco use and purchasing behaviour. Overall, respondents had difficulty distinguishing between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos and RYO. When presented with images of the products without packaging, 93% of respondents identified RYO as a cigarette, while 42% identified a little cigar as a cigarette. Additionally, respondents stated that they would consider purchasing little cigars as substitutes for cigarettes because of the price advantage. The results of this survey suggest that when presented with photographs of tobacco products, large proportions of current smokers were unable to differentiate between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos, RYO and cigars. Findings have implications for existing public health efforts targeting cigarette smokers, and underscore the need to review current definitions of tobacco products and federal excise taxes on such products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Open source marketing: Camel cigarette brand marketing in the "Web 2.0" world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, B; Chapman, S

    2009-06-01

    The international trend towards comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising has seen the tobacco industry become increasingly innovative in its approach to marketing. Further fuelling this innovation is the rapid evolution and accessibility of web-based technology. The internet, as a relatively unregulated marketing environment, provides many opportunities for tobacco companies to pursue their promotional ambitions. In this paper, "open source marketing" is considered as a vehicle that has been appropriated by the tobacco industry, through a case study of efforts to design the packaging for the Camel Signature Blends range of cigarettes. Four sources are used to explore this case study including a marketing literature search, a web-based content search via the Google search engine, interviews with advertising trade informants and an analysis of the Camel brand website. RJ Reynolds (RJR) has proven to be particularly innovative in designing cigarette packaging. RJR engaged with thousands of consumers through their Camel brand website to design four new cigarette flavours and packages. While the Camel Signature Blends packaging designs were subsequently modified for the retail market due to problems arising with their cartoon-like imagery, important lessons arise on how the internet blurs the line between marketing and market research. Open source marketing has the potential to exploit advertising ban loopholes and stretch legal definitions in order to generate positive word of mouth about tobacco products. There are also lessons in the open source marketing movement for more effective tobacco control measures including interactive social marketing campaigns and requiring plain packaging of tobacco products.

  3. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions: a review of tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey J

    2011-05-01

    To examine tobacco industry marketing of menthol cigarettes and to determine what the tobacco industry knew about consumer perceptions of menthol. A snowball sampling design was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL) (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between 28 February and 27 April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results from the major US tobacco companies and affiliated organisations. A collection of 953 documents from the 1930s to the first decade of the 21st century relevant to 1 or more of the research questions were qualitatively analysed, as follows: (1) are/were menthol cigarettes marketed with health reassurance messages? (2) What other messages come from menthol cigarette advertising? (3) How do smokers view menthol cigarettes? (4) Were menthol cigarettes marketed to specific populations? Menthol cigarettes were marketed as, and are perceived by consumers to be, healthier than non-menthol cigarettes. Menthol cigarettes are also marketed to specific social and demographic groups, including African-Americans, young people and women, and are perceived by consumers to signal social group belonging. The tobacco industry knew consumers perceived menthol as healthier than non-menthol cigarettes, and this was the intent behind marketing. Marketing emphasising menthol attracts consumers who may not otherwise progress to regular smoking, including young, inexperienced users and those who find 'regular' cigarettes undesirable. Such marketing may also appeal to health-concerned smokers who might otherwise quit.

  4. Vaporous Marketing: Uncovering Pervasive Electronic Cigarette Advertisements on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Eric M; Jones, Chris A; Williams, Jake Ryland; Kurti, Allison N; Norotsky, Mitchell Craig; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter has become the "wild-west" of marketing and promotional strategies for advertisement agencies. Electronic cigarettes have been heavily marketed across Twitter feeds, offering discounts, "kid-friendly" flavors, algorithmically generated false testimonials, and free samples. All electronic cigarette keyword related tweets from a 10% sample of Twitter spanning January 2012 through December 2014 (approximately 850,000 total tweets) were identified and categorized as Automated or Organic by combining a keyword classification and a machine trained Human Detection algorithm. A sentiment analysis using Hedonometrics was performed on Organic tweets to quantify the change in consumer sentiments over time. Commercialized tweets were topically categorized with key phrasal pattern matching. The overwhelming majority (80%) of tweets were classified as automated or promotional in nature. The majority of these tweets were coded as commercialized (83.65% in 2013), up to 33% of which offered discounts or free samples and appeared on over a billion twitter feeds as impressions. The positivity of Organic (human) classified tweets has decreased over time (5.84 in 2013 to 5.77 in 2014) due to a relative increase in the negative words 'ban', 'tobacco', 'doesn't', 'drug', 'against', 'poison', 'tax' and a relative decrease in the positive words like 'haha', 'good', 'cool'. Automated tweets are more positive than organic (6.17 versus 5.84) due to a relative increase in the marketing words like 'best', 'win', 'buy', 'sale', 'health', 'discount' and a relative decrease in negative words like 'bad', 'hate', 'stupid', 'don't'. Due to the youth presence on Twitter and the clinical uncertainty of the long term health complications of electronic cigarette consumption, the protection of public health warrants scrutiny and potential regulation of social media marketing.

  5. Vaporous Marketing: Uncovering Pervasive Electronic Cigarette Advertisements on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Clark

    Full Text Available Twitter has become the "wild-west" of marketing and promotional strategies for advertisement agencies. Electronic cigarettes have been heavily marketed across Twitter feeds, offering discounts, "kid-friendly" flavors, algorithmically generated false testimonials, and free samples.All electronic cigarette keyword related tweets from a 10% sample of Twitter spanning January 2012 through December 2014 (approximately 850,000 total tweets were identified and categorized as Automated or Organic by combining a keyword classification and a machine trained Human Detection algorithm. A sentiment analysis using Hedonometrics was performed on Organic tweets to quantify the change in consumer sentiments over time. Commercialized tweets were topically categorized with key phrasal pattern matching.The overwhelming majority (80% of tweets were classified as automated or promotional in nature. The majority of these tweets were coded as commercialized (83.65% in 2013, up to 33% of which offered discounts or free samples and appeared on over a billion twitter feeds as impressions. The positivity of Organic (human classified tweets has decreased over time (5.84 in 2013 to 5.77 in 2014 due to a relative increase in the negative words 'ban', 'tobacco', 'doesn't', 'drug', 'against', 'poison', 'tax' and a relative decrease in the positive words like 'haha', 'good', 'cool'. Automated tweets are more positive than organic (6.17 versus 5.84 due to a relative increase in the marketing words like 'best', 'win', 'buy', 'sale', 'health', 'discount' and a relative decrease in negative words like 'bad', 'hate', 'stupid', 'don't'.Due to the youth presence on Twitter and the clinical uncertainty of the long term health complications of electronic cigarette consumption, the protection of public health warrants scrutiny and potential regulation of social media marketing.

  6. Vapours of US and EU Market Leader Electronic Cigarette Brands and Liquids Are Cytotoxic for Human Vascular Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Putzhammer, Raphaela; Doppler, Christian; Jakschitz, Thomas; Heinz, Katharina; F?rste, Juliane; Danzl, Katarina; Messner, Barbara; Bernhard, David

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to provide toxicological data on e-cigarette vapours of different e-cigarette brands and liquids from systems viewed as leaders in the e-cigarette market and to compare e-cigarette vapour toxicity to the toxicity of conventional strong high-nicotine cigarette smoke. Using an adapted version of a previously constructed cigarette smoke constituent sampling device, we collected the hydrophilic fraction of e-cigarette vapour and exposed human umbilical vein endothe...

  7. Exploring the e-cigarette e-commerce marketplace: Identifying Internet e-cigarette marketing characteristics and regulatory gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Miner, Angela; Cuomo, Raphael E

    2015-11-01

    The electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) market is maturing into a billion-dollar industry. Expansion includes new channels of access not sufficiently assessed, including Internet sales of e-cigarettes. This study identifies unique e-cigarette Internet vendor characteristics, including geographic location, promotional strategies, use of social networking, presence/absence of age verification, and consumer warning representation. We performed structured Internet search engine queries and used inclusion/exclusion criteria to identify e-cigarette vendors. We then conducted content analysis of characteristics of interest. Our examination yielded 57 e-cigarette Internet vendors including 54.4% (n=31) that sold exclusively online. The vast majority of websites (96.5%, n=55) were located in the U.S. Vendors used a variety of sales promotion strategies to market e-cigarettes including 70.2% (n=40) that used more than one social network service (SNS) and 42.1% (n=24) that used more than one promotional sales strategies. Most vendors (68.4%, n=39) displayed one or more health warnings on their website, but often displayed them in smaller font or in their terms and conditions. Additionally, 35.1% (n=20) of vendors did not have any detectable age verification process. E-cigarette Internet vendors are actively engaged in various promotional activities to increase the appeal and presence of their products online. In the absence of FDA regulations specific to the Internet, the e-cigarette e-commerce marketplace is likely to grow. This digital environment poses unique challenges requiring targeted policy-making including robust online age verification, monitoring of SNS marketing, and greater scrutiny of certain forms of marketing promotional practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vaporous Marketing: Uncovering Pervasive Electronic Cigarette Advertisements on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Chris A.; Williams, Jake Ryland; Kurti, Allison N.; Norotsky, Mitchell Craig; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2016-01-01

    Background Twitter has become the “wild-west” of marketing and promotional strategies for advertisement agencies. Electronic cigarettes have been heavily marketed across Twitter feeds, offering discounts, “kid-friendly” flavors, algorithmically generated false testimonials, and free samples. Methods All electronic cigarette keyword related tweets from a 10% sample of Twitter spanning January 2012 through December 2014 (approximately 850,000 total tweets) were identified and categorized as Automated or Organic by combining a keyword classification and a machine trained Human Detection algorithm. A sentiment analysis using Hedonometrics was performed on Organic tweets to quantify the change in consumer sentiments over time. Commercialized tweets were topically categorized with key phrasal pattern matching. Results The overwhelming majority (80%) of tweets were classified as automated or promotional in nature. The majority of these tweets were coded as commercialized (83.65% in 2013), up to 33% of which offered discounts or free samples and appeared on over a billion twitter feeds as impressions. The positivity of Organic (human) classified tweets has decreased over time (5.84 in 2013 to 5.77 in 2014) due to a relative increase in the negative words ‘ban’, ‘tobacco’, ‘doesn’t’, ‘drug’, ‘against’, ‘poison’, ‘tax’ and a relative decrease in the positive words like ‘haha’, ‘good’, ‘cool’. Automated tweets are more positive than organic (6.17 versus 5.84) due to a relative increase in the marketing words like ‘best’, ‘win’, ‘buy’, ‘sale’, ‘health’, ‘discount’ and a relative decrease in negative words like ‘bad’, ‘hate’, ‘stupid’, ‘don’t’. Conclusions Due to the youth presence on Twitter and the clinical uncertainty of the long term health complications of electronic cigarette consumption, the protection of public health warrants scrutiny and potential regulation of social media

  9. A cross-sectional examination of marketing of electronic cigarettes on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Kornfield, Rachel; Szczypka, Glen; Emery, Sherry L

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid increases in marketing of e-cigarettes coincide with growth in e-cigarette use in recent years; however, little is known about how e-cigarettes are marketed on social media platforms. Methods Keywords were used to collect tweets related to e-cigarettes from the Twitter Firehose between 1 May 2012 and 30 June 2012. Tweets were coded for smoking cessation mentions, as well as health and safety mentions, and were classified as commercial or non-commercial (‘organic’) tweets using a combination of Naïve Bayes machine learning methods, keyword algorithms and human coding. Metadata associated with each tweet were used to examine the characteristics of accounts tweeting about e-cigarettes. Results 73 672 tweets related to e-cigarettes were captured in the study period, 90% of which were classified as commercial tweets. Accounts tweeting commercial e-cigarette content were associated with lower Klout scores, a measure of influence. Commercial tweeting was largely driven by a small group of highly active accounts, and 94% of commercial tweets included links to websites, many of which sell or promote e-cigarettes. Approximately 10% of commercial and organic tweets mentioned smoking cessation, and 34% of commercial tweets included mentions of prices or discounts for e-cigarettes. Conclusions Twitter appears to be an important marketing platform for e-cigarettes. Tweets related to e-cigarettes were overwhelmingly commercial, and a substantial proportion mentioned smoking cessation. E-cigarette marketing on Twitter may have public health implications. Continued surveillance of e-cigarette marketing on social media platforms is needed. PMID:24935894

  10. Social Disparities in Exposure to Point-of-Sale Cigarette Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siahpush

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While most ecological studies have shown that higher levels of point-of-sale (POS cigarette marketing are associated with larger proportions of residents from lower socioeconomic and minority backgrounds in neighborhoods, there are no studies that examine individual-level social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing among smokers in the United States. Our aim was to examine these disparities in a Midwestern metropolitan area in the United States. We conducted a telephone survey to collect data on 999 smokers. Cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing advertisements, promotions, and displays of cigarettes within their respective neighborhoods. The questions were combined to create a summated scale. We estimated ordered logistic regression models to examine the association of sociodemographic variables with exposure to POS cigarette marketing. Adjusted results showed that having a lower income (p < 0.003 and belonging to a race/ethnicity other than “non-Hispanic White” (p = 0.011 were associated with higher levels of exposure to POS cigarette marketing. The results highlight social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing in the United States, which can potentially be eliminated by banning all forms of cigarette marketing.

  11. An evaluation of four measures of adolescents' exposure to cigarette marketing in stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, Ellen C; Henriksen, Lisa; Wang, Yun; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2006-12-01

    This study evaluates four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing in relation to adolescent smoking behavior. The measures are (a) shopping frequency in types of stores known to carry more cigarette advertising than other store types, (b) shopping frequency in specific stores that sell cigarettes in the study community, (c) the amount of exposure to cigarette brand impressions in stores where students shopped, and (d) perceived exposure to cigarette advertising. The study combined data from classroom surveys administered to 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade students in three California middle schools, and direct store observations quantifying cigarette marketing materials and product placement in stores where students shopped. Logistic regression models were used to examine how each exposure measure related to the odds of ever smoking and susceptibility to smoke, controlling for grade, gender, ethnicity, school performance, unsupervised time, and exposure to household and friend smoking. Frequent exposure to retail cigarette marketing as defined by each of the four measures was independently associated with a significant increase in the odds of ever smoking. All but the measure of exposure to store types was associated with a significant increase in the odds of susceptibility to smoke. Four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing may serve equally well to predict adolescent smoking but may vary in cost, complexity, and meaning. Depending on the outcomes of interest, the most useful measure may be a combination of self-reported exposure to types of stores that contain cigarette marketing and perceived exposure to such messages.

  12. Social Disparities in Exposure to Point-of-Sale Cigarette Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Farazi, Paraskevi A; Kim, Jungyoon; Michaud, Tzeyu L; Yoder, Aaron M; Soliman, Ghada; Tibbits, Melissa K; Nguyen, Minh N; Shaikh, Raees A

    2016-12-21

    While most ecological studies have shown that higher levels of point-of-sale (POS) cigarette marketing are associated with larger proportions of residents from lower socioeconomic and minority backgrounds in neighborhoods, there are no studies that examine individual-level social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing among smokers in the United States. Our aim was to examine these disparities in a Midwestern metropolitan area in the United States. We conducted a telephone survey to collect data on 999 smokers. Cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing advertisements, promotions, and displays of cigarettes within their respective neighborhoods. The questions were combined to create a summated scale. We estimated ordered logistic regression models to examine the association of sociodemographic variables with exposure to POS cigarette marketing. Adjusted results showed that having a lower income ( p marketing. The results highlight social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing in the United States, which can potentially be eliminated by banning all forms of cigarette marketing.

  13. E-cigarette marketing exposure and combustible tobacco use among adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auf, Rehab; Trepka, Mary Jo; Selim, Moaz; Ben Taleb, Ziyad; De La Rosa, Mario; Cano, Miguel Ángel

    2018-03-01

    E-cigarette advertising has been shown to be associated with use of e-cigarettes, but its association with tobacco use has not been studied. Therefore, we examined the association between e-cigarettes advertisement and tobacco use. Data from nationally representative 22,007 middle and high school students (grades 6-12) were used to conduct the analysis. Logistic regression models estimated the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of ever and current use of cigarette, hookah, cigar, and polytobacco use. Odds ratios were weighted and adjusted for study design, non-response rates, school level, gender, race/ethnicity, e-cigarette use, and smoking at home. E-cigarette marketing exposure was significantly associated with ever use of cigarettes (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5), hookah (AOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.7), cigars (AOR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.4-1.6), and polytobacco (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5-1.8). Likewise, E-cigarette marketing exposure was significantly associated with current use of cigarettes (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6), hookah (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.03-1.7), cigars (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6), and polytobacco use (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.5-2.1). The results suggest that e-cigarette advertisement is associated with use of cigarettes, hookah, cigars, and polytobacco products. These results add to the evidence about the risks of e-cigarette marketing and highlight the need for stricter regulation of e-cigarette advertisements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In-person retail marketing claims in tobacco and E-cigarette shops in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joshua S; Wood, Michele M; Peirce, Katelynn

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarette use has been increasing in the United States, though knowledge of potential risks and harms associated with e-cigarette use is low. Marketing of e-cigarettes may serve as a source of information to shape beliefs and attitudes toward e-cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to identify the most common marketing claims made within "vape" and tobacco shops in sales interactions with customers in demographically diverse cities. Vape and tobacco shops from three diverse cities in Southern California were selected for inclusion in the study. From May 2015 to July 2015, simulated customers asked salespeople in vape and tobacco shops how e-cigarettes compare to conventional cigarettes, and then recorded the resulting claims that were made using a standardized form designed for this purpose. Data were analyzed from January to March 2016. The most frequent claims made by sales staff were that: smoking e-cigarettes helps one quit smoking (57% of the simulated shopping interactions), e-cigarettes come in multiple flavors (54%), and e-cigarettes are healthier than conventional cigarettes (50%). Simulated customer interactions that took place in vape shops included more positive marketing claims than those that occurred in tobacco shops; this relationship approached statistical significance ( p  = .087). There was a significant relationship between city and the average number of positive e-cigarette claims made ( p  marketing claims are made about e-cigarettes in retail settings. These may vary by geographic location, community demographics, and type of retail outlet.

  15. Price-Minimizing Behaviors in a Cohort of Smokers before and after a Cigarette Tax Increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzner, Anne; Boyle, Raymond G; St Claire, Ann W

    2016-06-17

    Cigarette tax increases result in a reduced demand for cigarettes and increased efforts by smokers to reduce their cost of smoking. Less is known about how smokers think about their expenditures for cigarettes and the possible mechanisms that underlie price-minimizing behaviors. In-depth longitudinal interviews were conducted with Minnesota smokers to explore the factors that influence smokers' decisions one month prior to a $1.75 cigarette tax increase and again one and three months after the increase. A total of 42 were sampled with 35 completed interviews at all three time points, resulting in 106 interviews across all participants at all time points. A qualitative descriptive approach examined smoking and buying habits, as well as reasons behind these decisions. A hierarchy of ways to save money on cigarettes included saving the most money by changing to roll your own pipe tobacco, changing to a cheaper brand, cutting down or quitting, changing to cigarillos, and buying online. Using coupons, shopping around, buying by the carton, changing the style of cigarette, and stocking up prior to the tax increase were described as less effective. Five factors emerged as impacting smokers' efforts to save money on cigarettes after the tax: brand loyalty, frugality, addiction, stress, and acclimation.

  16. Direct Marketing Promotion and Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adults, National Adult Tobacco Survey, 2013–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among US adults has increased since 2007. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of direct marketing promotion of e-cigarettes and its association with e-cigarette use among US adults. Methods We used using data from the 2013–2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) to estimate prevalence of e-cigarette promotions received by mail or email. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations ...

  17. E-cigarette use in Canada: prevalence and patterns of use in a regulated market

    OpenAIRE

    Shiplo, Samantha; Czoli, Christine D; Hammond, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective Canada is among the few countries in which e-cigarettes containing nicotine are prohibited. To date, there is little evidence on the prevalence and patterns of use of e-cigarettes in markets with product bans. The current study examines e-cigarette use among a sample of non-smokers and smokers in Canada. Design Online cross-sectional survey. Setting Conducted in October 2013 using a commercial panel of Canadians from Global Market Insite, Inc (GMI). Participants In total, 1095 Canad...

  18. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topics, including trends in e-cigarette use; health effects of e-cigarettes, nicotine, and secondhand e-cigarette aerosol; e-cigarette marketing and advertising; and evidence-based strategies to reduce e-cigarette use among young people. ...

  19. Electronic Cigarette Marketing Online: a Multi-Site, Multi-Product Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kar-Hai; Sidhu, Anupreet K; Valente, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarette awareness and use has been increasing rapidly. E-cigarette brands have utilized social networking sites to promote their products, as the growth of the e-cigarette industry has paralleled that of Web 2.0. These online platforms are cost-effective and have unique technological features and user demographics that can be attractive for selective marketing. The popularity of multiple sites also poses a risk of exposure to social networks where e-cigarette brands might not have a presence. To examine the marketing strategies of leading e-cigarette brands on multiple social networking sites, and to identify how affordances of the digital media are used to their advantage. Secondary analyses include determining if any brands are benefitting from site demographics, and exploring cross-site diffusion of marketing content through multi-site users. We collected data from two e-cigarette brands from four social networking sites over approximately 2.5 years. Content analysis is used to search for themes, population targeting, marketing strategies, and cross-site spread of messages. Twitter appeared to be the most frequently used social networking site for interacting directly with product users. Facebook supported informational broadcasts, such as announcements regarding political legislation. E-cigarette brands also differed in their approaches to their users, from informal conversations to direct product marketing. E-cigarette makers use different strategies to market their product and engage their users. There was no evidence of direct targeting of vulnerable populations, but the affordances of the different sites are exploited to best broadcast context-specific messages. We developed a viable method to study cross-site diffusion, although additional refinement is needed to account for how different types of digital media are used.

  20. Point-of-sale cigarette marketing and smoking-induced deprivation in smokers: results from a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Robbins, Regina; Tibbits, Melissa; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Soliman, Ghada; McCarthy, Molly; Singh, Gopal K

    2016-04-28

    Strict restrictions on outdoor cigarette marketing have resulted in increasing concentration of cigarette marketing at the point-of-sale (POS). The association between POS cigarette marketing and smoking-induced deprivation (SID) has never been studied. The aim of this study was to examine this association and how it is mediated by cravings to smoke, urges to buy cigarettes, and unplanned purchases of cigarettes. Data from a telephone survey of 939 smokers were collected in Omaha, Nebraska. POS cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions such as cigarette price discounts within their respective neighborhoods. SID was measured with the following question: "In the last six months, has there been a time when the money you spent on cigarettes resulted in not having enough money for household essentials such as food? [yes/no]" We used structural equation modeling to examine the study aim. There was overwhelming evidence for an association between higher levels of POS cigarette marketing and a higher probability of SID (p marketing is associated with a higher probability of experiencing SID, policies that ban POS cigarette marketing might help some smokers afford essentials household items such as food more easily and thus have better standards of living.

  1. E-cigarette marketing in UK stores: an observational audit and retailers’ views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, D; Stead, M; MacKintosh, A M; MacDonald, L; Purves, R; Pearce, J; Tisch, C; van der Sluijis, W; Amos, A; MacGregor, A; Haw, S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore how e-cigarettes are being promoted at point of sale in the UK and how retailers perceive market trends. Setting Fixed retail outlets subject to a ban on the display of tobacco products. Participants Observational audit of all stores selling tobacco products (n=96) in 4 Scottish communities, conducted over 2 waves 12 months apart (2013–2014), and qualitative interviews with small retailers (n=25) in 4 matched communities. Primary and secondary outcome measures The audit measured e-cigarette display characteristics, advertising materials and proximity to other products, and differences by area-level disadvantage. Interviews explored retailers’ perceptions of e-cigarette market opportunities and risks, and customer responses. Results The number of e-cigarette point-of-sale display units and number of brands displayed increased between waves. E-cigarettes were displayed close to products of interest to children in 36% of stores. Stores in more affluent areas were less likely to have external e-cigarette advertising than those in deprived areas. Although e-cigarettes delivered high profit margins, retailers were confused by the diversity of brands and products, and uncertain of the sector's viability. Some customers were perceived to purchase e-cigarettes as cessation aids, and others, particularly low-income smokers, as a cheaper adjunct to conventional tobacco. Conclusions E-cigarette point-of-sale displays and number of brands displayed increased over 12 months, a potential cause for concern given their lack of regulation. Further scrutiny is needed of the content and effects of such advertising, and the potentially normalising effects of placing e-cigarettes next to products of interest to children. PMID:26362665

  2. E-cigarette marketing in UK stores: an observational audit and retailers' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, D; Stead, M; MacKintosh, A M; MacDonald, L; Purves, R; Pearce, J; Tisch, C; van der Sluijis, W; Amos, A; MacGregor, A; Haw, S

    2015-09-11

    To explore how e-cigarettes are being promoted at point of sale in the UK and how retailers perceive market trends. Fixed retail outlets subject to a ban on the display of tobacco products. Observational audit of all stores selling tobacco products (n=96) in 4 Scottish communities, conducted over 2 waves 12 months apart (2013-2014), and qualitative interviews with small retailers (n=25) in 4 matched communities. The audit measured e-cigarette display characteristics, advertising materials and proximity to other products, and differences by area-level disadvantage. Interviews explored retailers' perceptions of e-cigarette market opportunities and risks, and customer responses. The number of e-cigarette point-of-sale display units and number of brands displayed increased between waves. E-cigarettes were displayed close to products of interest to children in 36% of stores. Stores in more affluent areas were less likely to have external e-cigarette advertising than those in deprived areas. Although e-cigarettes delivered high profit margins, retailers were confused by the diversity of brands and products, and uncertain of the sector's viability. Some customers were perceived to purchase e-cigarettes as cessation aids, and others, particularly low-income smokers, as a cheaper adjunct to conventional tobacco. E-cigarette point-of-sale displays and number of brands displayed increased over 12 months, a potential cause for concern given their lack of regulation. Further scrutiny is needed of the content and effects of such advertising, and the potentially normalising effects of placing e-cigarettes next to products of interest to children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. E-cigarette use in Canada: prevalence and patterns of use in a regulated market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiplo, Samantha; Czoli, Christine D; Hammond, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective Canada is among the few countries in which e-cigarettes containing nicotine are prohibited. To date, there is little evidence on the prevalence and patterns of use of e-cigarettes in markets with product bans. The current study examines e-cigarette use among a sample of non-smokers and smokers in Canada. Design Online cross-sectional survey. Setting Conducted in October 2013 using a commercial panel of Canadians from Global Market Insite, Inc (GMI). Participants In total, 1095 Canadians were included in the analysis: 311 non-smokers aged 16–24 years (younger non-smokers), 323 smokers aged 16–24 years (younger smokers) and 461 smokers 25 years and older (older smokers). Primary and secondary outcome measures E-cigarette ever and current use, types of products used, and reasons for use. Results Approximately 79% of younger non-smokers, 82% of younger smokers and 81% of older smokers were aware of e-cigarettes. Ever trial of e-cigarettes was reported by 10% of younger non-smokers, 42% of younger smokers and 27% of older smokers. Moreover, current use of an e-cigarette, which was defined as use in the last 30 days, was reported by 0.3% of younger non-smokers, 18% of younger smokers and 10% of older smokers. Among those who had ever tried an e-cigarette, approximately 10% of younger non-smokers, 46% of younger smokers and 43% of older smokers reported trying an e-cigarette that contained nicotine. The most popular e-cigarette flavours were fruit followed by menthol, and the most common reason for using e-cigarettes was to help them quit smoking. Conclusions In the context of previous research, it appears that the prevalence of e-cigarette trial has increased in Canada. Although a considerable proportion of non-smokers have tried e-cigarettes, current use is almost entirely concentrated among smokers. Further research should be conducted to monitor e-cigarette use by Canadians. PMID:26310400

  4. E-cigarette use in Canada: prevalence and patterns of use in a regulated market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiplo, Samantha; Czoli, Christine D; Hammond, David

    2015-08-26

    Canada is among the few countries in which e-cigarettes containing nicotine are prohibited. To date, there is little evidence on the prevalence and patterns of use of e-cigarettes in markets with product bans. The current study examines e-cigarette use among a sample of non-smokers and smokers in Canada. Online cross-sectional survey. Conducted in October 2013 using a commercial panel of Canadians from Global Market Insite, Inc (GMI). In total, 1095 Canadians were included in the analysis: 311 non-smokers aged 16-24 years (younger non-smokers), 323 smokers aged 16-24 years (younger smokers) and 461 smokers 25 years and older (older smokers). E-cigarette ever and current use, types of products used, and reasons for use. Approximately 79% of younger non-smokers, 82% of younger smokers and 81% of older smokers were aware of e-cigarettes. Ever trial of e-cigarettes was reported by 10% of younger non-smokers, 42% of younger smokers and 27% of older smokers. Moreover, current use of an e-cigarette, which was defined as use in the last 30 days, was reported by 0.3% of younger non-smokers, 18% of younger smokers and 10% of older smokers. Among those who had ever tried an e-cigarette, approximately 10% of younger non-smokers, 46% of younger smokers and 43% of older smokers reported trying an e-cigarette that contained nicotine. The most popular e-cigarette flavours were fruit followed by menthol, and the most common reason for using e-cigarettes was to help them quit smoking. In the context of previous research, it appears that the prevalence of e-cigarette trial has increased in Canada. Although a considerable proportion of non-smokers have tried e-cigarettes, current use is almost entirely concentrated among smokers. Further research should be conducted to monitor e-cigarette use by Canadians. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. The marketing of menthol cigarettes in the United States: populations, messages, and channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Charyn D; Robinson, Robert G

    2004-02-01

    This commentary looks at the marketing menthol cigarettes to various targeted populations--women, middle school youth and Asian/Pacific Islander immigrants as well as African Americans. The authors take the position that "ethnic awareness" as evidenced in the advertising of menthol cigarette brands to African Americans is just one of four distinct messages that tobacco marketers have used for what they have termed the "coolness" category. The other messages are: healthy/medicinal; fresh/refreshing/cool/clean/crisp; and youthfulness/silliness and fun. The commentary poses three questions: (a) Are new population segments being steered toward menthol cigarettes using marketing approaches that are similar to what has occurred with African Americans and women? (b) What exactly is the relationship between the marketing of menthol cigarettes and subsequent use of menthol tobacco products by specific population subgroups? (c) Are there lessons to be learned from the marketing of menthol cigarettes that can be used to improve the public health and medical communities' smoking cessation and tobacco use prevention communications efforts?

  6. Exploratory Analysis of Marketing and Non-marketing E-cigarette Themes on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sifei; Kavuluru, Ramakanth

    2016-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have been gaining popularity and have emerged as a controversial tobacco product since their introduction in 2007 in the U.S. The smoke-free aspect of e-cigs renders them less harmful than conventional cigarettes and is one of the main reasons for their use by people who plan to quit smoking. The US food and drug administration (FDA) has introduced new regulations early May 2016 that went into effect on August 8, 2016. Given this important context, in this paper, we report results of a project to identify current themes in e-cig tweets in terms of semantic interpretations of topics generated with topic modeling. Given marketing/advertising tweets constitute almost half of all e-cig tweets, we first build a classifier that identifies marketing and non-marketing tweets based on a hand-built dataset of 1000 tweets. After applying the classifier to a dataset of over a million tweets (collected during 4/2015 - 6/2016), we conduct a preliminary content analysis and run topic models on the two sets of tweets separately after identifying the appropriate numbers of topics using topic coherence. We interpret the results of the topic modeling process by relating topics generated to specific e-cig themes. We also report on themes identified from e-cig tweets generated at particular places (such as schools and churches) for geo-tagged tweets found in our dataset using the GeoNames API. To our knowledge, this is the first effort that employs topic modeling to identify e-cig themes in general and in the context of geo-tagged tweets tied to specific places of interest.

  7. Vapours of US and EU Market Leader Electronic Cigarette Brands and Liquids Are Cytotoxic for Human Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzhammer, Raphaela; Doppler, Christian; Jakschitz, Thomas; Heinz, Katharina; Förste, Juliane; Danzl, Katarina; Messner, Barbara; Bernhard, David

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to provide toxicological data on e-cigarette vapours of different e-cigarette brands and liquids from systems viewed as leaders in the e-cigarette market and to compare e-cigarette vapour toxicity to the toxicity of conventional strong high-nicotine cigarette smoke. Using an adapted version of a previously constructed cigarette smoke constituent sampling device, we collected the hydrophilic fraction of e-cigarette vapour and exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to the mixture of compounds present in the vapour of 4 different single-use e-cigarettes, 6 different liquid vapours produced by the same refillable e-cigarette, and one e-cigarette with an exchangeable liquid cartridge. After incubation of cells with various concentrations and for various periods of time we analysed cell death induction, proliferation rates, the occurrence of intra-cellular reactive oxygen species, cell morphology, and we also measured e-cigarette heating coil temperatures. Overall, conventional cigarette smoke extract showed the most severe impact on endothelial cells. However, some e-cigarette vapour extracts showed high cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell proliferation, and alterations in cell morphology, which were comparable to conventional high-nicotine cigarettes. The vapours generated from different liquids using the same e-cigarette show substantial differences, pointing to the liquids as an important source for toxicity. E-cigarette vapour-mediated induction of oxidative stress was significant in one out of the 11 analysed vapours. There is a high variability in the acute cytotoxicity of e-cigarette vapours depending on the liquid and on the e-cigarettes used. Some products showed toxic effects close to a conventional high-nicotine cigarette. Liquid nicotine, menthol content, and the formation of acute intracellular reactive oxygen species do not seem to be the central elements in e-cigarette vapour toxicity. PMID:27351725

  8. Vapours of US and EU Market Leader Electronic Cigarette Brands and Liquids Are Cytotoxic for Human Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzhammer, Raphaela; Doppler, Christian; Jakschitz, Thomas; Heinz, Katharina; Förste, Juliane; Danzl, Katarina; Messner, Barbara; Bernhard, David

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to provide toxicological data on e-cigarette vapours of different e-cigarette brands and liquids from systems viewed as leaders in the e-cigarette market and to compare e-cigarette vapour toxicity to the toxicity of conventional strong high-nicotine cigarette smoke. Using an adapted version of a previously constructed cigarette smoke constituent sampling device, we collected the hydrophilic fraction of e-cigarette vapour and exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to the mixture of compounds present in the vapour of 4 different single-use e-cigarettes, 6 different liquid vapours produced by the same refillable e-cigarette, and one e-cigarette with an exchangeable liquid cartridge. After incubation of cells with various concentrations and for various periods of time we analysed cell death induction, proliferation rates, the occurrence of intra-cellular reactive oxygen species, cell morphology, and we also measured e-cigarette heating coil temperatures. Overall, conventional cigarette smoke extract showed the most severe impact on endothelial cells. However, some e-cigarette vapour extracts showed high cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell proliferation, and alterations in cell morphology, which were comparable to conventional high-nicotine cigarettes. The vapours generated from different liquids using the same e-cigarette show substantial differences, pointing to the liquids as an important source for toxicity. E-cigarette vapour-mediated induction of oxidative stress was significant in one out of the 11 analysed vapours. There is a high variability in the acute cytotoxicity of e-cigarette vapours depending on the liquid and on the e-cigarettes used. Some products showed toxic effects close to a conventional high-nicotine cigarette. Liquid nicotine, menthol content, and the formation of acute intracellular reactive oxygen species do not seem to be the central elements in e-cigarette vapour toxicity.

  9. Vapours of US and EU Market Leader Electronic Cigarette Brands and Liquids Are Cytotoxic for Human Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaela Putzhammer

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to provide toxicological data on e-cigarette vapours of different e-cigarette brands and liquids from systems viewed as leaders in the e-cigarette market and to compare e-cigarette vapour toxicity to the toxicity of conventional strong high-nicotine cigarette smoke. Using an adapted version of a previously constructed cigarette smoke constituent sampling device, we collected the hydrophilic fraction of e-cigarette vapour and exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs to the mixture of compounds present in the vapour of 4 different single-use e-cigarettes, 6 different liquid vapours produced by the same refillable e-cigarette, and one e-cigarette with an exchangeable liquid cartridge. After incubation of cells with various concentrations and for various periods of time we analysed cell death induction, proliferation rates, the occurrence of intra-cellular reactive oxygen species, cell morphology, and we also measured e-cigarette heating coil temperatures. Overall, conventional cigarette smoke extract showed the most severe impact on endothelial cells. However, some e-cigarette vapour extracts showed high cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell proliferation, and alterations in cell morphology, which were comparable to conventional high-nicotine cigarettes. The vapours generated from different liquids using the same e-cigarette show substantial differences, pointing to the liquids as an important source for toxicity. E-cigarette vapour-mediated induction of oxidative stress was significant in one out of the 11 analysed vapours. There is a high variability in the acute cytotoxicity of e-cigarette vapours depending on the liquid and on the e-cigarettes used. Some products showed toxic effects close to a conventional high-nicotine cigarette. Liquid nicotine, menthol content, and the formation of acute intracellular reactive oxygen species do not seem to be the central elements in e-cigarette vapour toxicity.

  10. The lightest market in the world: light and mild cigarettes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, Mary; Chapman, Simon

    2008-05-01

    This article reviews the history of the introduction and use of light and mild labeled cigarettes in Japan, the "lightest" market in the world. Systematic keyword and opportunistic Web site searches were conducted on tobacco industry internal documents relevant to Japan, supplemented with relevant material from the tobacco trade and sociological literatures. Certain "market quirks" of the Japanese society benefited the tobacco industry in promoting its light and mild cigarettes. Japan's is a trend-conscious society with a penchant for new fashion and products. The Japanese are innovative, with the propensity to transform concepts into something characteristically their own marked by a distinct cultural style, such as the concept of keihaku tansho ("light-thin-short-small"). With big-budget sophisticated advertising, tobacco companies developed a lucrative market for mild, light, and ultra-low-tar cigarettes. Smokers had a preference for charcoal filters, which they believed protected them. Tar numbers meant little to smokers. The transnational tobacco companies capitalized on consumer concerns about the health hazards of smoking to promote low-tar cigarettes as a safer alternative. This may be one factor that explains why smoking prevalence in Japan remains high. Light and mild cigarettes are popular in Japan because Japanese smokers believe low tar/nicotine cigarette with charcoal filters protect them and help mollify their health concerns about smoking.

  11. Vaping versus JUULing: how the extraordinary growth and marketing of JUUL transformed the US retail e-cigarette market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Duan, Zongshuan; Kwok, Julian; Binns, Steven; Vera, Lisa E; Kim, Yoonsang; Szczypka, Glen; Emery, Sherry L

    2018-05-31

    While national surveys showed declines in e-cigarette use in the USA between 2015 and 2016, recent reports indicate that JUUL, a sleekly designed e-cigarette that looks like a USB drive, is increasingly being used by youth and young adults. However, the extent of JUUL's growth and its marketing strategy have not been systematically examined. A variety of data sources were used to examine JUUL retail sales in the USA and its marketing and promotion. Retail store scanner data were used to capture the retail sales of JUUL and other major e-cigarette brands for the period 2011-2017. A list of JUUL-related keywords was used to identify JUUL-related tweets on Twitter; to identify JUUL-related posts, hashtags and accounts on Instagram and to identify JUUL-related videos on YouTube. In the short 3-year period 2015-2017, JUUL has transformed from a little-known brand with minimum sales into the largest retail e-cigarette brand in the USA, lifting sales of the entire e-cigarette category. Its US$150 million retail sales in the last quarter of 2017 accounted for about 40% of e-cigarette retail market share. While marketing expenditures for JUUL were moderate, the sales growth of JUUL was accompanied by a variety of innovative, engaging and wide-reaching campaigns on Twitter, Instagram and YouTube, conducted by JUUL and its affiliated marketers. The discrepancies between e-cigarette sales data and the prevalence of e-cigarette use from surveys highlight the challenges in tracking and understanding the use of new and emerging tobacco products. In a rapidly changing media environment, where successful and influential marketing campaigns can be conducted on social media at little cost, marketing expenditures alone may not fully capture the influence, reach and engagement of tobacco marketing. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Using Twitter Data to Gain Insights into E-cigarette Marketing and Locations of Use: An Infoveillance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Hopper, Timothy; Simpson, Sean; Nonnemaker, James; Lieberman, Alicea J; Hansen, Heather; Porter, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Background Marketing and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and other electronic nicotine delivery devices have increased exponentially in recent years fueled, in part, by marketing and word-of-mouth communications via social media platforms, such as Twitter. Objective This study examines Twitter posts about e-cigarettes between 2008 and 2013 to gain insights into (1) marketing trends for selling and promoting e-cigarettes and (2) locations where people use e-cigarettes. Methods We used keywords to gather tweets about e-cigarettes between July 1, 2008 and February 28, 2013. A randomly selected subset of tweets was manually coded as advertising (eg, marketing, advertising, sales, promotion) or nonadvertising (eg, individual users, consumers), and classification algorithms were trained to code the remaining data into these 2 categories. A combination of manual coding and natural language processing methods was used to indicate locations where people used e-cigarettes. Additional metadata were used to generate insights about users who tweeted most frequently about e-cigarettes. Results We identified approximately 1.7 million tweets about e-cigarettes between 2008 and 2013, with the majority of these tweets being advertising (93.43%, 1,559,508/1,669,123). Tweets about e-cigarettes increased more than tenfold between 2009 and 2010, suggesting a rapid increase in the popularity of e-cigarettes and marketing efforts. The Twitter handles tweeting most frequently about e-cigarettes were a mixture of e-cigarette brands, affiliate marketers, and resellers of e-cigarette products. Of the 471 e-cigarette tweets mentioning a specific place, most mentioned e-cigarette use in class (39.1%, 184/471) followed by home/room/bed (12.5%, 59/471), school (12.1%, 57/471), in public (8.7%, 41/471), the bathroom (5.7%, 27/471), and at work (4.5%, 21/471). Conclusions Twitter is being used to promote e-cigarettes by different types of entities and the online marketplace is more

  13. Using Twitter Data to Gain Insights into E-cigarette Marketing and Locations of Use: An Infoveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Hopper, Timothy; Simpson, Sean; Nonnemaker, James; Lieberman, Alicea J; Hansen, Heather; Guillory, Jamie; Porter, Lauren

    2015-11-06

    Marketing and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and other electronic nicotine delivery devices have increased exponentially in recent years fueled, in part, by marketing and word-of-mouth communications via social media platforms, such as Twitter. This study examines Twitter posts about e-cigarettes between 2008 and 2013 to gain insights into (1) marketing trends for selling and promoting e-cigarettes and (2) locations where people use e-cigarettes. We used keywords to gather tweets about e-cigarettes between July 1, 2008 and February 28, 2013. A randomly selected subset of tweets was manually coded as advertising (eg, marketing, advertising, sales, promotion) or nonadvertising (eg, individual users, consumers), and classification algorithms were trained to code the remaining data into these 2 categories. A combination of manual coding and natural language processing methods was used to indicate locations where people used e-cigarettes. Additional metadata were used to generate insights about users who tweeted most frequently about e-cigarettes. We identified approximately 1.7 million tweets about e-cigarettes between 2008 and 2013, with the majority of these tweets being advertising (93.43%, 1,559,508/1,669,123). Tweets about e-cigarettes increased more than tenfold between 2009 and 2010, suggesting a rapid increase in the popularity of e-cigarettes and marketing efforts. The Twitter handles tweeting most frequently about e-cigarettes were a mixture of e-cigarette brands, affiliate marketers, and resellers of e-cigarette products. Of the 471 e-cigarette tweets mentioning a specific place, most mentioned e-cigarette use in class (39.1%, 184/471) followed by home/room/bed (12.5%, 59/471), school (12.1%, 57/471), in public (8.7%, 41/471), the bathroom (5.7%, 27/471), and at work (4.5%, 21/471). Twitter is being used to promote e-cigarettes by different types of entities and the online marketplace is more diverse than offline product offerings and

  14. Design and marketing features influencing choice of e-cigarettes and tobacco in the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Anthony A; Vardavas, Constantine I; Filippidis, Filippos T

    2016-10-01

    Data were analysed from the 2014 Special Eurobarometer for Tobacco survey. We estimated self-rated importance of various factors in the choice of both tobacco and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among tobacco smokers who had ever used an e-cigarette. Among ever users of tobacco and e-cigarettes (N = 2430), taste (39.4%), price (39.2%) and amount of nicotine (27.3%) were the most commonly cited reasons for choosing their brand of e-cigarettes. Those aged 15-24 were more likely to cite external packaging [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.00-4.23)] and design features (aPR = 1.99, 1.20-3.29) as important. As further legislation is debated and enacted enhanced regulation of price, design and marketing features of e-cigarettes may help to reduce the appeal of e-cigarettes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  15. Cigarette purchasing behaviour in Thailand and Malaysia: Comparative analysis of a semi-monopolistic and a free-market structure

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, H.; Driezen, P.; Sirirassamee, B.; Kin, F.

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of cigarette prices can undermine the impact of tobacco tax policy when smokers switch to cheaper cigarettes instead of quitting. In order to better understand this behaviour, we study socio-economic determinants of price/brand choices in two different markets: a semi-monopolistic market in Thailand and a competitive market in Malaysia. The hypothesis that the factors affecting the price/brand choice are different in these two markets is analysed by employing a 2005 survey among ...

  16. E-Cigarette Market Trends in Traditional U.S. Retail Channels, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovenco, Daniel P; Hammond, David; Corey, Catherine G; Ambrose, Bridget K; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2015-10-01

    E-cigarette sales continue to increase in the United States. To date, little surveillance research has documented the specific product attributes driving growth. This study uses national market scanner data to describe sales trends in traditional U.S. tobacco retail channels between 2012 and 2013 and identifies product features associated with sales increases. Data on e-cigarette sales in convenience stores, drug stores, grocery stores, and mass merchandisers in the United States were obtained from the Nielsen Company. Each product was coded for attributes such as brand, flavor, and unit size. Total sales volume, market share, and percent growth were calculated for various product attributes. E-cigarette sales more than doubled between 2012 and 2013, from $273.6 million to $636.2 million, respectively. Growth was particularly strong in the convenience store channel. Blu eCigs quickly emerged as the best-selling brand and in 2013 constituted nearly half (44.1%) of overall sales. Although fruit-flavored and other flavored products experienced marked growth, unflavored and menthol e-cigarettes overwhelmingly dominated the market. Sales of single unit products (likely disposable e-cigarettes) increased by 216.4%, a much faster rate than multi-unit packs and cartridge refills. In traditional U.S. retail channels, particularly the convenience store channel, sales of e-cigarettes continue to grow, with brands like blu and disposable products as the likely drivers. Given the rapidly-changing market, expanded surveillance is needed to monitor sales not only in traditional retail locations, but sales online and in specialty "vape shops," as well. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cigarette smoke chemistry market maps under Massachusetts Department of Public Health smoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Michael J; Laffoon, Susan W

    2008-06-01

    This study extends the market mapping concept introduced by Counts et al. (Counts, M.E., Hsu, F.S., Tewes, F.J., 2006. Development of a commercial cigarette "market map" comparison methodology for evaluating new or non-conventional cigarettes. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 46, 225-242) to include both temporal cigarette and testing variation and also machine smoking with more intense puffing parameters, as defined by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH). The study was conducted over a two year period and involved a total of 23 different commercial cigarette brands from the U.S. marketplace. Market mapping prediction intervals were developed for 40 mainstream cigarette smoke constituents and the potential utility of the market map as a comparison tool for new brands was demonstrated. The over-time character of the data allowed for the variance structure of the smoke constituents to be more completely characterized than is possible with one-time sample data. The variance was partitioned among brand-to-brand differences, temporal differences, and the remaining residual variation using a mixed random and fixed effects model. It was shown that a conventional weighted least squares model typically gave similar prediction intervals to those of the more complicated mixed model. For most constituents there was less difference in the prediction intervals calculated from over-time samples and those calculated from one-time samples than had been anticipated. One-time sample maps may be adequate for many purposes if the user is aware of their limitations. Cigarette tobacco fillers were analyzed for nitrate, nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, ammonia, chlorogenic acid, and reducing sugars. The filler information was used to improve predicting relationships for several of the smoke constituents, and it was concluded that the effects of filler chemistry on smoke chemistry were partial explanations of the observed brand-to-brand variation.

  18. E-Cigarette Market Trends in Traditional U.S. Retail Channels, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Corey, Catherine G.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: E-cigarette sales continue to increase in the United States. To date, little surveillance research has documented the specific product attributes driving growth. This study uses national market scanner data to describe sales trends in traditional U.S. tobacco retail channels between 2012 and 2013 and identifies product features associated with sales increases. Methods: Data on e-cigarette sales in convenience stores, drug stores, grocery stores, and mass merchandisers in the United States were obtained from the Nielsen Company. Each product was coded for attributes such as brand, flavor, and unit size. Total sales volume, market share, and percent growth were calculated for various product attributes. Results: E-cigarette sales more than doubled between 2012 and 2013, from $273.6 million to $636.2 million, respectively. Growth was particularly strong in the convenience store channel. Blu eCigs quickly emerged as the best-selling brand and in 2013 constituted nearly half (44.1%) of overall sales. Although fruit-flavored and other flavored products experienced marked growth, unflavored and menthol e-cigarettes overwhelmingly dominated the market. Sales of single unit products (likely disposable e-cigarettes) increased by 216.4%, a much faster rate than multi-unit packs and cartridge refills. Conclusions: In traditional U.S. retail channels, particularly the convenience store channel, sales of e-cigarettes continue to grow, with brands like blu and disposable products as the likely drivers. Given the rapidly-changing market, expanded surveillance is needed to monitor sales not only in traditional retail locations, but sales online and in specialty “vape shops,” as well. PMID:25542918

  19. Direct Marketing Promotion and Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adults, National Adult Tobacco Survey, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang

    2017-09-21

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among US adults has increased since 2007. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of direct marketing promotion of e-cigarettes and its association with e-cigarette use among US adults. We used using data from the 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) to estimate prevalence of e-cigarette promotions received by mail or email. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations between e-cigarette promotions and the prevalence and frequency of e-cigarette use among US adults. In the 2013-2014 survey period, 7.1% of adults (about 16.0 million) reported receiving mail or email e-cigarette promotions in the previous 6 months; 3.2% received mail promotions, and 5.1% received email promotions. A higher prevalence of promotions was found among men versus women, adults aged under 65 years versus those older, current e-cigarette users, current smokers, and people with no smoking restriction rules in their homes or vehicles. In the multivariable analysis, receiving mail or email e-cigarette promotions was associated with higher odds of being current e-cigarette users (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.0; P marketing promotions was prevalent among US adults. Receiving e-cigarette promotions was associated with increased odds of both prevalence and frequency of e-cigarette use. Future longitudinal studies are needed to measure causal effects of e-cigarette promotions on e-cigarette use among adults.

  20. Measuring changes in the illicit cigarette market using government revenue data: the example of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walbeek, Corné

    2014-05-01

    The tobacco industry claims that illicit trade in cigarettes has increased sharply since the 1990s and that government has lost substantial tax revenue. (1) To determine whether cigarette excise tax revenue has been below budget in recent years, compared with previous decades. (2) To determine trends in the size of the illicit market since 1995. For (1), mean percentage errors and root mean square percentage errors were calculated for budget revenue deviation for three products (cigarettes, beer and spirits), for various subperiods. For (2), predicted changes in total consumption, using actual cigarette price and GDP changes and previously published price and income elasticity estimates, were calculated and compared with changes in tax-paid consumption. Cigarette excise revenues were 0.7% below budget for 2000-2012 on average, compared with 3.0% below budget for beer and 4.7% below budget for spirits. There is no evidence that illicit trade in cigarettes in South Africa increased between 2002 and 2009. There is a substantial increase in illicit trade in 2010, probably peaking in 2011. In 2012 tax-paid consumption of cigarettes increased 2.6%, implying that the illicit market share decreased an estimated 0.6 percentage points. Other than in 2010, there is no evidence that illicit trade is significantly undermining government revenue. Claims that illicit trade has consistently increased over the past 15 years, and has continued its sharp increase since 2010, are not supported. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Recall of Point-of-Sale Marketing Predicts Cigar and E-Cigarette Use among Texas Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Keryn E; Nicksic, Nicole E; Opara, Samuel C; Jackson, Christian; Harrell, Melissa B; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-10-23

    While research has documented associations between recall of point-of sale tobacco marketing and youth tobacco use, much of the research is cross-sectional and focused on cigarettes. The present longitudinal study examined recall of tobacco marketing at the point-of-sale and multiple types of tobacco use six months later. The Texas Adolescent Tobacco Advertising and Marketing Surveillance System (TATAMS) is a large-scale, representative study of 6th, 8th, and 10th graders in 79 middle and high schools in five counties in Texas. Weighted logistic regression examined associations between recall of tobacco advertisements and products on display at baseline and ever use, current use, and susceptibility to use for cigarette, e-cigarette, cigar, and smokeless products six months later. Students' recall of signs marketing e-cigarettes at baseline predicted ever e-cigarette use and increased susceptibility to use e-cigarettes at follow-up across all store types. Recall of e-cigarette displays only predicted susceptibility to use e-cigarettes at follow-up, across all store types. Both recall of signs marketing cigars and cigar product displays predicted current and ever cigar smoking and increased susceptibility to smoking cigars at follow-up, across all store types. Recall of cigarette and smokeless product marketing and displays was not associated with tobacco use measures. The point-of-sale environment continues to be an important influence on youth tobacco use. Restrictions on point-of-sale marketing, particularly around schools, are warranted. Cross-sectional studies have shown that exposure to point-of-sale cigarette marketing is associated with use of cigarettes among youth, though longitudinal evidence of the same is sparse and mixed. Cross-sectional studies have found that recall of cigars, smokeless product, and e-cigarette tobacco marketing at point-of-sale is associated with curiosity about tobacco use or intentions to use tobacco among youth, but limited

  2. The importance of cigarette packaging in a 'dark' market: the 'Silk Cut' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Crawford; Angus, Kathryn; Ford, Allison

    2014-05-01

    In a growing number of countries tobacco companies are severely restricted in how they can legally market their products. In these 'dark' markets the role of packaging as a promotional and communications tool becomes more pronounced. How packaging is used for the most expensive cigarette brands in dark markets has received limited attention however, even though these 'premium' cigarette brands significantly impact upon the profitability of tobacco companies. We outline, using retail trade press journals, how packaging was used for premium brand 'Silk Cut' in the UK from 2004 to 2011, following a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotions and sponsorship. From 2004 to 2008 packaging was used to help launch two new variants and during this period Silk Cut market share of the premium sector grew by 1.1%. Overall share of the cigarette market for the Silk Cut house (brand family) fell however due to the continuing decline of the premium sector. From 2008 to 2011 changes to the packaging were much more frequent, including the repeated use of limited-edition designs, and modifications to pack shape, texture, style of opening, cellophane, foil and inner frame. Silk Cut's share of the premium sector grew a further 2.9% from 2008 to 2011, and overall cigarette market share increased. That a premium brand can report any level of growth within such a hostile market, where most advertising, promotion and sponsorship is banned, taxation is among the highest in the world, and in the midst of a recession, is testament to the value of packaging.

  3. How the industry is marketing menthol cigarettes: the audience, the message and the medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Amanda; Ganz, Ollie; Pearson, Jennifer; Celcis, Nathalie; Vallone, Donna; Villanti, Andrea C

    2015-11-01

    Despite declines in overall US cigarette consumption, the menthol cigarette market share has increased in recent years. Advertising contributes to menthol initiation and use, but little has been done to characterise menthol cigarette advertising outside of the point of sale. Two full-service advertising firms were used to develop a library of menthol cigarette advertisements (ads) over a 9-month period (June 2012-February 2013) in the USA. The volume of ads, media channel (direct mail, print, online, email), estimated spend and households reached was summarised overall and by brand in 2013. Direct mail, email and print ads were coded for content and the target audience of print publications was examined. Over the study period, 205 menthol cigarette ads were identified with estimated expenditures exceeding US$31 million, with 70% spent on direct mail ads. Over 90% of ads promoted Camel, Marlboro and Newport menthol cigarettes. A majority (87%) of direct mail ads contained coupons or other incentives known to appeal to price-sensitive customers. Only two brands' print ads appeared during this period: Newport ads focused on themes of sociability and sexuality, and were placed in magazines targeting African-Americans and younger consumers; American Spirit print ads were placed in general interest magazines and predominantly stressed the 'natural' aspects of their brand. The tobacco industry continues to spend millions of dollars promoting menthol cigarettes through channels that preferentially target vulnerable subgroups, such as African-Americans and younger consumers. Public health campaigns to educate and combat the influence of menthol advertising are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Essays on the Marketing and Packaging of Cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Leas, Eric Craig

    2017-01-01

    Background: To curb smoking rates, the World Health Organizations’ Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends that countries ban all forms of tobacco advertising and restrict the use of certain terminology on packaging and branding. However, in many countries, including the United States, tobacco remains one of the most heavily marketed consumer goods. Through a series of studies I explore several issues pertaining to the marketing of tobacco products including: whether some brands ac...

  5. Electronic cigarette use among Korean adolescents: a cross-sectional study of market penetration, dual use, and relationship to quit attempts and former smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Grana, Rachel A; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-06-01

    As elsewhere, in South Korea electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are marketed, in part, as a smoking cessation aid. We assessed the prevalence of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents and the relationship between e-cigarette use and current (past 30-day) smoking, cigarettes/day, attempts to quit conventional cigarettes, and ceasing to use cigarettes. Data from the 2011 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 75,643 students aged 13-18 years were analyzed with logistic regression. A total of 9.4% (8.0% ever-dual users who were concurrently using e-cigarettes and smoking conventional cigarettes and 1.4% ever-e-cigarette only users) of Korean adolescents have ever used e-cigarettes and 4.7% were current (past 30-day) e-cigarette users (3.6% dual users and 1.1% e-cigarettes only). After adjusting for demographics, current cigarette smokers were much more likely to use e-cigarettes than were nonsmokers. Among current cigarette smokers, those who smoked more frequently were more likely to be current e-cigarette users. The odds of being an e-cigarette user were 1.58 times (95% confidence interval, 1.39-1.79) higher among students who had made an attempt to quit than for those who had not. It was rare for students no longer using cigarettes to be among current e-cigarette users (odds ratio, .10; confidence interval, .09-.12). Some Korean adolescents may be responding to advertising claims that e-cigarettes are a cessation aid: those who had made an attempt to quit were more likely to use e-cigarettes but less likely to no longer use cigarettes. E-cigarette use was strongly associated with current and heavier cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cigarette purchasing behaviour in Thailand and Malaysia: comparative analysis of a semi-monopolistic and a free-market structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, H; Driezen, P; Sirirassamee, B; Kin, F

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of cigarette prices can undermine the impact of tobacco tax policy when smokers switch to cheaper cigarettes instead of quitting. In order to better understand this behaviour, we study socio-economic determinants of price/brand choices in two different markets: a semi-monopolistic market in Thailand and a competitive market in Malaysia. The hypothesis that the factors affecting the price/brand choice are different in these two markets is analysed by employing a 2005 survey among smokers. This survey provides a unique perspective on market characteristics usually described only in business reports by the tobacco industry. We found that smokers in Thailand have fewer opportunities to trade down to save money on cigarettes, but pay lower prices than smokers in Malaysia, despite Thailand's higher tax rate. The Malaysian market, on the other hand, offers many possibilities to shop around for cheaper cigarettes. Higher income and education increase the price paid per cigarette in both countries, but the impact of these factors is larger in Malaysia. This has implications for sensitivity to cigarette prices. Using tax policy alone should be a more effective tobacco control measure in Thailand as compared to Malaysia. The effectiveness of a tax increase in Malaysia can be improved by adding programmes focusing on smoking cessation among low-income/low-educated smokers.

  7. Discouraging cigarette smoking through de-marketing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Chauhan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries report high prevalence of smoking habits among youngsters. The transition from school to college is a critical phase where young people are more likely to adopt such unhealthy habits and life-style. It is necessary to understand the factors that lead youngsters to smoking and analyze the relationship of these factors with other socio-economic and demographic variables. The present study is a cross sectional empirical research based on multi-stage sampling process. Data analysis reveals some important relationships among the variables under study which have been suitably utilized in the formulation of de-marketing strategies for vulnerable age groups. These de-marketing strategies are based on the notion that consumption behavior among college students varies significantly which is also evident from factor analysis of data.

  8. Price elasticity of demand of non-cigarette tobacco products: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Lee, John Tayu; Glantz, Stanton; Millett, Christopher

    2018-01-23

    To systematically review the price elasticity of demand of non-cigarette tobacco products. Medline, Embase, EconLit and the Web of Science without language or time restrictions. Two reviewers screened title and abstracts, then full texts, independently and in duplicate. We based eligibility criteria on study design (interventional or observational), population (individuals or communities without geographic restrictions), intervention (price change) and outcome (change in demand). We abstracted data on study features, outcome measures, statistical approach, and single best own- and cross-price elasticity estimates with respect to cigarettes. We conducted a random effects meta-analysis for estimates of similar product, outcome and country income level. For other studies we reported median elasticities by product and country income level. We analysed 36 studies from 15 countries yielding 125 elasticity estimates. A 10% price increase would reduce demand by: 8.3% for cigars (95% CI 2.9 to 13.8), 6.4% for roll your owns (95% CI 4.3 to 8.4), 5.7% for bidis (95% CI 4.3 to 7.1) and 2.1% for smokeless tobacco (95% CI -0.6 to 4.8). Median price elasticities for all ten products were also negative. Results from few studies that examined cross-price elasticity suggested a positive substitution effect between cigarette and non-cigarette tobacco products. There is sufficient evidence in support of the effectiveness of price increases to reduce consumption of non-cigarette tobacco products as it is for cigarettes. Positive substitutability between cigarette and non-cigarette tobacco products suggest that tax and price increases need to be simultaneous and comparable across all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Exploratory Analysis of Marketing and Non-marketing E-cigarette Themes on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Sifei; Kavuluru, Ramakanth

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have been gaining popularity and have emerged as a controversial tobacco product since their introduction in 2007 in the U.S. The smoke-free aspect of e-cigs renders them less harmful than conventional cigarettes and is one of the main reasons for their use by people who plan to quit smoking. The US food and drug administration (FDA) has introduced new regulations early May 2016 that went into effect on August 8, 2016. Given this important context, in this paper...

  10. Selected Constituent Yield Variation in the Smoke of Commercial Cigarette Brands on the Japanese Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyodo Takatsugu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the variation in the yields of constituents in smoke from commercial cigarette brands available on the Japanese market. Nineteen commercial cigarette brands were sampled five times every two months from 2009 to 2010. The target constituents were benzo[a]-pyrene, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN, 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK, carbon monoxide, “tar”, and nicotine. The results of this study showed that the coefficient of variation (CV values varied greatly by brands, constituents, and smoking regimes. The yields of NNN and NNK in the smoke were strongly correlated to their yields in the tobacco filler blend for most brands. The yields of benzo[a]pyrene under the International Organization for Standardization (ISO and the Health Canada Intense (HCI smoking regimes and 1,3-butadiene under the HCI smoking regime were found to be influenced by the measurement. It was shown that factors for variation were highly varied among constituents. The grand mean of CV values for NNN and formaldehyde associated with cigarette manufacturing over ten months and measurement at the JT laboratory under the HCI smoking regimes were 17.1% and 6.6% respectively. The grand mean of CV values for NNN and formaldehyde associated with both cigarette manufacturing over ten months and measurement at different laboratories under the HCI smoking regimes were 23.7% and 22.9% respectively. This is due to the fact that formaldehyde showed the highest CV values for reproducibility among the constituents. Thus, in order to set realistic and robust confidence intervals, it is very important to take into account the variations associated with cigarette manufacturing and measurement within and between laboratories.

  11. Cigarette brand variant portfolio strategy and the use of colour in a darkening market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Steven J

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate cigarette branding strategies used to segment a market with some of the toughest tobacco controls. To document brand variant and packaging portfolios and assess the role played by colour before plain packaging, as well as consider the threat that recently implemented legislation poses for tobacco manufacturers. Brand variant and packaging details were extracted from manufacturer ingredient reports, as well as a retail audit of Australian supermarkets. Details were also collected for other product categories to provide perspective on cigarette portfolios. Secondary and primary data sources were analysed to evaluate variant and packaging portfolio strategy. In Australia, 12 leading cigarette brands supported 120 brand variants. Of these 61 had names with a specific colour and a further 26 had names with colour connotation. There were 338 corresponding packaging configurations, with most variants available in the primary cigarette distribution channel in four pack size options. Tobacco companies microsegment Australian consumers with highly differentiated product offerings and a family branding strategy that helps ameliorate the effects of marketing restrictions. To date, tobacco controls have had little negative impact upon variant and packaging portfolios, which have continued to expand. Colour has become a key visual signifier differentiating one variant from the next, and colour names are used to extend brand lines. However, the role of colour, as a heuristic to simplify consumer decision-making processes, becomes largely redundant with plain packaging. Plain packaging's impact upon manufacturers' branding strategies is therefore likely to be significant. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. The association of point-of-sale cigarette marketing with cravings to smoke: results from a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Dodd, Michael; Carlson, Les; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Meza, Jane; Wan, Neng; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-07-01

    To examine the association between recalled exposure to point-of-sale (POS) cigarette marketing (ie, pack displays, advertisements and promotions such as discounts) and reported cravings to smoke while visiting a store. Data were collected using a telephone survey of a cross-sectional sample of 999 adult smokers in Omaha, Nebraska. Recalled exposure to POS cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents about noticing (a) pack displays, (b) advertisements and (c) promotions in store in their neighbourhood. A 3-item scale indicating the frequency of experiencing cravings to smoke in locations where cigarettes are sold was created by asking respondents: (1) "feel a craving for a cigarette?" (2) "feel like nothing would be better than smoking a cigarette?" and (3) "feel like all you want is a cigarette?" The association between recalled exposure to POS cigarette marketing and cravings was estimated using ordinary least squares linear regression models, controlling for nicotine dependence, gender, age, race/ethnicity, income, education, frequency of visiting stores in one's neighbourhood and method of recruitment into the study. Recalled exposure to POS cigarette displays (pmarketing is associated with cravings to smoke as predicted by laboratory studies on the effects of smoking cues on cigarette craving. Policies that reduce or eliminate POS cigarette marketing could reduce cigarette cravings and might attenuate impulse buying of cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Consumption of cigarettes and combustible tobacco--United States, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    Smoking cigarettes and other combustible tobacco products causes adverse health outcomes, particularly cancer and cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. A priority of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is to develop innovative, rapid-response surveillance systems for assessing changes in tobacco use and related health outcomes. The two standard approaches for measuring smoking rates and behaviors are 1) surveying a representative sample of the public and asking questions about personal smoking behaviors and 2) estimating consumption based on tobacco excise tax data. Whereas CDC regularly publishes findings on national and state-specific smoking rates from public surveys, CDC has not reported consumption estimates. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which previously provided such estimates, stopped reporting on consumption in 2007. To estimate consumption for the period 2000-2011, CDC examined excise tax data from the U.S. Department of Treasury's Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB); consumption estimates were calculated for cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco, pipe tobacco, and small and large cigars. From 2000 to 2011, total consumption of all combustible tobacco decreased from 450.7 billion cigarette equivalents to 326.6, a 27.5% decrease; per capita consumption of all combustible tobacco products declined from 2,148 to 1,374, a 36.0% decrease. However, while consumption of cigarettes decreased 32.8% from 2000 to 2011, consumption of loose tobacco and cigars increased 123.1% over the same period. As a result, the percentage of total combustible tobacco consumption composed of loose tobacco and cigars increased from 3.4% in 2000 to 10.4% in 2011. The data suggest that certain smokers have switched from cigarettes to other combustible tobacco products, most notably since a 2009 increase in the federal tobacco excise tax that created tax disparities between product types.

  14. How Philip Morris unlocked the Japanese cigarette market: lessons for global tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, A; Sargent, J D; Glantz, S A; Ling, P M

    2004-12-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control includes tobacco advertising restrictions that are strongly opposed by the tobacco industry. Marketing strategies used by transnational tobacco companies to open the Japanese market in the absence of such restrictions are described. Analysis of internal company documents. Between 1982 and 1987 transnational tobacco companies influenced the Japanese government through the US Trade Representative to open distribution networks and eliminate advertising restrictions. US cigarette exports to Japan increased 10-fold between 1985 and 1996. Television advertising was central to opening the market by projecting a popular image (despite a small actual market share) to attract existing smokers, combined with hero-centred advertisements to attract new smokers. Philip Morris's campaigns featured Hollywood movie personalities popular with young men, including James Coburn, Pierce Brosnan, Roger Moore, and Charlie Sheen. Event sponsorships allowed television access despite restrictions. When reinstatement of television restrictions was threatened in the late 1980s, Philip Morris more than doubled its television advertising budget and increased sponsorship of televised events. By adopting voluntary advertising standards, transnational companies delayed a television advertising ban for over a decade. Television image advertising was important to establish a market, and it has been enhanced using Hollywood personalities. Television advertising bans are essential measures to prevent industry penetration of new markets, and are less effective without concurrent limits on sponsorship and promotion. Comprehensive advertising restrictions, as included in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, are vital for countries where transnational tobacco companies have yet to penetrate the market.

  15. E-cigarette marketing in UK stores : an observational audit and retailers' views

    OpenAIRE

    Eadie, D; Stead, M; MacKintosh, A M; MacDonald, L; Purves, R; Pearce, J; Tisch, C; van der Sluijs, Winfried; Amos, A; MacGregor, A; Haw, S

    2015-01-01

    This study was supported by grant 10/3000/07 from the National Institute for Health Research. OBJECTIVES: To explore how e-cigarettes are being promoted at point of sale in the UK and how retailers perceive market trends. SETTING: Fixed retail outlets subject to a ban on the display of tobacco products. PARTICIPANTS: Observational audit of all stores selling tobacco products (n=96) in 4 Scottish communities, conducted over 2 waves 12 months apart (2013-2014), and qualitative interviews wit...

  16. E-Cigarette Social Media Messages: A Text Mining Analysis of Marketing and Consumer Conversations on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background As the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) rises, social media likely influences public awareness and perception of this emerging tobacco product. Objective This study examined the public conversation on Twitter to determine overarching themes and insights for trending topics from commercial and consumer users. Methods Text mining uncovered key patterns and important topics for e-cigarettes on Twitter. SAS Text Miner 12.1 software (SAS Institute Inc) was used for descriptive text mining to reveal the primary topics from tweets collected from March 24, 2015, to July 3, 2015, using a Python script in conjunction with Twitter’s streaming application programming interface. A total of 18 keywords related to e-cigarettes were used and resulted in a total of 872,544 tweets that were sorted into overarching themes through a text topic node for tweets (126,127) and retweets (114,451) that represented more than 1% of the conversation. Results While some of the final themes were marketing-focused, many topics represented diverse proponent and user conversations that included discussion of policies, personal experiences, and the differentiation of e-cigarettes from traditional tobacco, often by pointing to the lack of evidence for the harm or risks of e-cigarettes or taking the position that e-cigarettes should be promoted as smoking cessation devices. Conclusions These findings reveal that unique, large-scale public conversations are occurring on Twitter alongside e-cigarette advertising and promotion. Proponents and users are turning to social media to share knowledge, experience, and questions about e-cigarette use. Future research should focus on these unique conversations to understand how they influence attitudes towards and use of e-cigarettes. PMID:27956376

  17. E-Cigarette Social Media Messages: A Text Mining Analysis of Marketing and Consumer Conversations on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazard, Allison J; Saffer, Adam J; Wilcox, Gary B; Chung, Arnold DongWoo; Mackert, Michael S; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2016-12-12

    As the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) rises, social media likely influences public awareness and perception of this emerging tobacco product. This study examined the public conversation on Twitter to determine overarching themes and insights for trending topics from commercial and consumer users. Text mining uncovered key patterns and important topics for e-cigarettes on Twitter. SAS Text Miner 12.1 software (SAS Institute Inc) was used for descriptive text mining to reveal the primary topics from tweets collected from March 24, 2015, to July 3, 2015, using a Python script in conjunction with Twitter's streaming application programming interface. A total of 18 keywords related to e-cigarettes were used and resulted in a total of 872,544 tweets that were sorted into overarching themes through a text topic node for tweets (126,127) and retweets (114,451) that represented more than 1% of the conversation. While some of the final themes were marketing-focused, many topics represented diverse proponent and user conversations that included discussion of policies, personal experiences, and the differentiation of e-cigarettes from traditional tobacco, often by pointing to the lack of evidence for the harm or risks of e-cigarettes or taking the position that e-cigarettes should be promoted as smoking cessation devices. These findings reveal that unique, large-scale public conversations are occurring on Twitter alongside e-cigarette advertising and promotion. Proponents and users are turning to social media to share knowledge, experience, and questions about e-cigarette use. Future research should focus on these unique conversations to understand how they influence attitudes towards and use of e-cigarettes. ©Allison J Lazard, Adam J Saffer, Gary B Wilcox, Arnold DongWoo Chung, Michael S Mackert, Jay M Bernhardt. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 12.12.2016.

  18. Does tobacco industry marketing of 'light' cigarettes give smokers a rationale for postponing quitting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Elizabeth A; Emery, Sherry; White, Martha M; Pierce, John P

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to examine further whether tobacco industry marketing using the labels light and ultra-light is perceived by smokers as a health claim. Smokers might view low tar/nicotine brands of cigarettes as a means to reduce the harm to their health from smoking and postpone quitting. Data were from smokers responding to a large, population-based survey of Californians' smoking behavior, conducted in 1996 (8,582 current smokers). Sixty percent of smokers thought the labels light and ultra-light referred to low tar/nicotine cigarettes, or otherwise implied a health claim. This percentage was higher for smokers of low tar/nicotine brands. Among smokers of regular brands, the more highly addicted, those who were trying unsuccessfully to quit, those who had cut consumption or thought about it, and those with health concerns were more likely to have considered switching. While some of these characteristics also were associated with smokers of low tar/nicotine brands, the associations were not as numerous or as strong. We conclude that some smokers appear to view low tar/nicotine brands as one short-term strategy to reduce the harm to their health from smoking without quitting. By implying reduced tar or nicotine exposure, tobacco industry marketing using the labels light and ultra-light is misleading smokers. The use of such labels should be regulated.

  19. Assessing tobacco marketing receptivity among youth: integrating point of sale marketing, cigarette package branding and branded merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sandra; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Barrientos, Inti; Mejía, Raúl; Morello, Paola; Sargent, James D; Thrasher, James F

    2016-11-01

    As countries prohibit tobacco marketing through traditional channels, marketing at point of sale (PoS) and through tobacco packaging is increasingly important for promoting tobacco consumption. Assess the validity of a novel marketing receptivity index that considers frequency of PoS exposures, tobacco brand recall and ownership of branded merchandise. Data come from a cross-sectional survey of 3172 secondary school students in Argentina. Questions assessed frequency of going to stores where tobacco is often sold; cued recall of brand names for 3 cigarette packages with brand name removed and ownership of branded merchandise. A four-level marketing receptivity index was derived: low PoS exposure only; high PoS exposure or recall of 1 brand; recall of 2 or more brands; and ownership of branded merchandise. Indicators of marketing receptivity and smoking involvement were regressed on the index, including in adjusted models that controlled for sociodemographics, social influences and sensation seeking. Among never-smokers, the index had independent positive associations with smoking susceptibility (ie, adjusted OR (AOR) 2v1 =1.66; AOR 3v1 =1.64; AOR 4v1 =2.95), willingness to try a specific brand (ie, AOR 2v1 =1.45; AOR 3v1 =2.38; AOR 4v1 =2.20) and positive smoking expectancies (ie, B adj 2v1 =0.09; B adj 3v1 =0.18; B adj 4v1 =0.34). A more marked dose-response independent association was found with current smoking behaviour (ie, AOR 2v1 =2.47; AOR 3v1 =3.16; AOR 4v1 =3.62). The marketing receptivity index was associated with important variation in smoking-related perceptions, intentions and behaviour among Argentine adolescents. Future research should determine the predictive validity and generalisability of this measure to other contexts, including the explanatory power gained by integrating cigarette package brand recognition tasks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Marketing cigarettes when all else is unavailable: evidence of discounting in price-sensitive neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Suzan; Williams, Kelly; Fry, Rae; Chapman, Kathy; Soulos, Greg; Tang, Anita; Walsberger, Scott; Egger, Sam

    2014-05-01

    Since price is both a key determinant of smoking and one of the few remaining marketing strategies available in countries without point-of-sale tobacco display, this study examines cigarette price variations in the Australian market and assesses whether those variations are consistent with price being used to increase or maintain smoking among price-sensitive groups. An audit of 1739 tobacco retailers was used to collect variations in the price of the best-selling Australian cigarette brand, as well as record retailer compliance with tobacco retailing legislation. We examined variation in pricing across outlet type, demographic variations (socioeconomic level, % in the area under 18 and % born in Australia), remoteness and retailer compliance with tobacco retailing legislation. Multipacks were offered by 27.8% of retailers, with the average pack price in a twin pack $1.32 (or 7.3%) cheaper than a single pack. Prices were significantly lower in some outlet types, in lower socioeconomic postcodes and in those with a higher percentage of people under 18. In contrast with other consumer goods, prices were lower (although not significantly so) outside major cities. The provision of substantial multi-pack discounts and lower prices in postcodes with a higher proportion of price-sensitive smokers (young people and those from lower socioeconomic groups) is consistent with targeted discounts being used as a tobacco marketing strategy. The results support policy interventions to counter selective discounts and to require disclosure of trade-based discounts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Adult smokers' reactions to pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packs in Thailand and moderating effects of type of cigarette smoked: findings from the international tobacco control southeast Asia survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey T; Driezen, Pete; Borland, Ron; Quah, Anne C K; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Hamann, Stephen; Omar, Maizurah

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to examine, in Thailand, the impact on smokers' reported awareness of and their cognitive and behavioral reactions following the change from text-only to pictorial warnings printed on cigarette packs. We also sought to explore differences by type of cigarette smoked (roll-your-own [RYO] vs. factory-made [FM] cigarettes). Data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey, conducted in Thailand and Malaysia, where a representative sample of 2,000 adult smokers from each country were recruited and followed up. We analyzed data from one wave before (Wave 1) and two waves after the implementation of the new pictorial warnings (two sets introduced at Waves 2 and 3, respectively) in Thailand, with Malaysia, having text-only warnings, serving as a control. Following the warning label change in Thailand, smokers' reported awareness and their cognitive and behavioral reactions increased markedly, with the cognitive and behavioral effects sustained at the next follow-up. By contrast, no significant change was observed in Malaysia over the same period. Compared to smokers who smoke any FM cigarettes, smokers of only RYO cigarettes reported a lower salience but greater cognitive reactions to the new pictorial warnings. The new Thai pictorial health warning labels have led to a greater impact than the text-only warning labels, and refreshing the pictorial images may have helped sustain effects. This finding provides strong support for introducing pictorial warning labels in low- and middle-income countries, where the benefits may be even greater, given the lower literacy rates and generally lower levels of readily available health information on the risks of smoking.

  2. Adult Smokers’ Reactions to Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs in Thailand and Moderating Effects of Type of Cigarette Smoked: Findings From the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we aimed to examine, in Thailand, the impact on smokers’ reported awareness of and their cognitive and behavioral reactions following the change from text-only to pictorial warnings printed on cigarette packs. We also sought to explore differences by type of cigarette smoked (roll-your-own [RYO] vs. factory-made [FM] cigarettes). Methods: Data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey, conducted in Thailand and Malaysia, where a representative sample of 2,000 adult smokers from each country were recruited and followed up. We analyzed data from one wave before (Wave 1) and two waves after the implementation of the new pictorial warnings (two sets introduced at Waves 2 and 3, respectively) in Thailand, with Malaysia, having text-only warnings, serving as a control. Results: Following the warning label change in Thailand, smokers’ reported awareness and their cognitive and behavioral reactions increased markedly, with the cognitive and behavioral effects sustained at the next follow-up. By contrast, no significant change was observed in Malaysia over the same period. Compared to smokers who smoke any FM cigarettes, smokers of only RYO cigarettes reported a lower salience but greater cognitive reactions to the new pictorial warnings. Conclusions: The new Thai pictorial health warning labels have led to a greater impact than the text-only warning labels, and refreshing the pictorial images may have helped sustain effects. This finding provides strong support for introducing pictorial warning labels in low- and middle-income countries, where the benefits may be even greater, given the lower literacy rates and generally lower levels of readily available health information on the risks of smoking. PMID:23291637

  3. Online E-cigarette Marketing Claims: A Systematic Content and Legal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Berman, Micah; Hemmerich, Natalie; Carlson, Cristen; Htut, SuSandi; Slater, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), or e-cigarettes, are heavily marketed online. The purpose of our study was to perform a systematic identification and evaluation of claims made within ENDS retailer and manufacturer websites, and the legal status of such claims. We employed a systematic search protocol with popular search engines using 6 terms: (1) e-cigarettes; (2) e-cigs; (3) e-juice; (4) e-liquid; (5) e-hookah; and (6) vape pen. We analyzed English-language websites where ENDS are sold for implicit and explicit health-related claims. A legal analysis determined whether such claims are permissible under the US Food and Drug Administration's regulations. The vast majority of ENDS manufacturer (N = 78) and retailer (N = 32) websites made at least one health-related claim (77% and 65%, respectively). Modified risk claims and secondhand smoke-related claims were most prevalent, with an average of 2 claims per site. Health-related claims are plentiful within ENDS manufacturer and retailer websites. Results demonstrate that these sites focus on potential benefits while minimizing or eliminating information about possible harmful effects of ENDS. These claims are subject to the current regulatory authority by the FDA, and pose a risk of misinforming consumers.

  4. Electronic cigarette

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    As we know E-cigarette is becoming increasingly popular all over the world. It is a new product that the most of smoking people would like to buy and use. However, we are not realizing advantages and disadvantages of e-cigarette clearly. My objective was to research the development of electronic cigarette whether it is under control or a good way of marketing. The thesis has two main parts. They include answers to questions what is electronic cigarette and how to manage the whole industry...

  5. Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (E-cigarettes marketing, sale and availability - an emerging challenge for tobacco control in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (E-cigarettes are being advertised as novel products in all media and platforms across the globe. Despite the fact that these products are still not evaluated for safety and effectiveness by any regulatory body in most countries including India; their advertisements claiming the e-cigarettes to be health friendly is on rampant especially in the internet media.To explore the availability of e-cigarette brands for Indian existing and potential consumers and to understand their distribution network and marketing tactics, the investigator did the internet search. Methods Investigator performed the keyword search on Google in May 2014 and November 2016. Brand websites were examined for specifics about each product (flavor and nicotine strength, ingredients, and their claims about the safety of the products and usefulness in smoking cessation. Distributor's network and kiosk selling these products were also searched for. Results Total 112 brands of different flavor (12 types and different nicotine strengths (9 types of the e-cigarettes were found. In majority brands (95%, most common ingredients were chemical nicotine, propylene glycol, water and flavours. 10% websites claimed that their product are useful as smoking cessation devices. Most brands claimed their product to be healthier and safer (90%, suitable to use in public places (92% and an economical option (70% than conventional cigarettes. Near half of the websites gave their distribution details in the websites. 12 websites offer free shipping services, 27 websites offers the web chat options for marketing the products. Conclusions ENDS (e-cigarette poses another challenge for tobacco control in India. The claims (especially healthier option and useful for cessation of the websites marketing these products are questionable and needs further research. Ongoing advertisements on internet are the gross violations of Indian tobacco control legislation

  6. Cigarette design and marketing features are associated with increased smoking susceptibility and perception of reduced harm among smokers in 27 EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Omaduvie, Uyoyo T; Filippidis, Filippos T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the role of cigarette design and marketing characteristics in initial smoking, cigarette brand choice and the perception of reduced harm of cigarette brands among adults in the European Union in 2012. Data were from the Eurobarometer 385 (V.77.1) survey conducted in 2012 (n=26 566). Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess associations between cigarette design/marketing features with aspects of initial smoking (among current and former smokers), cigarette brand choice and perception of reduced harm of cigarette brands (among current smokers; pmarketing strategies that may increase the attractiveness of tobacco products or promote perceptions of harm reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Trends in market share of leading cigarette brands in the USA: national survey on drug use and health 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anushree; Fix, Brian V; Delnevo, Cristine; Cummings, K Michael; O'Connor, Richard J

    2016-01-29

    The main objective of this study is to examine trends in market share for leading cigarette brands, both before (2002-2008) and after (2009-2013) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco products.Design Data come from the annual National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2002 through 2013. Descriptive statistics, cross tabulations, and logistic regression were employed. Data were weighted to the US population and adjusted for cigarette consumption. Our analysis is restricted to 164,343 current cigarette smokers who were at least 12 years of age or older, had smoked at least one cigarette in the 30 days prior to the survey, and reported a usual cigarette brand at the time of the survey. Over 12 years, 14 brands comprised over 77% of the cigarette market. Marlboro consistently held over 38% of the market. Newport held the second highest market share, and increased from 7.2% in 2002 to 10.9% by 2013. Market share of Pall Mall grew by over 400% (1.7% in 2002 vs 8.9% in 2013), likely aided by the 2009 Federal excise tax increase. No clear associations of changes in market share with the implementation of FDA's regulatory authority over tobacco in 2009 were noted. Tracking market share trends offers clues about brand marketing changing preferences of consumers. Rapidly growing cigarette brands should be monitored to determine if specific marketing practices or design changes are drivers, as these could represent public health concerns. Monitoring trends in cigarette market share could inform regulatory decision-making efforts related to marketing and advertising. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Design and marketing features influencing choice of e-cigarettes and tobacco in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Laverty, Anthony A.; Vardavas, Constantine I.; Filippidis, Filippos T.

    2016-01-01

    Data were analysed from the 2014 Special Eurobarometer for Tobacco survey. We estimated self-rated importance of various factors in the choice of both tobacco and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among tobacco smokers who had ever used an e-cigarette. Among ever users of tobacco and e-cigarettes (N = 2430), taste (39.4%), price (39.2%) and amount of nicotine (27.3%) were the most commonly cited reasons for choosing their brand of e-cigarettes. Those aged 15?24 were more likely to cite ext...

  9. Marketing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-03-01

    While the 'low-tar' scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of 'less harmful, low tar' was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's 'less harmful, low-tar' initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing.

  10. Pre-adolescent Receptivity to Tobacco Marketing and Its Relationship to Acquiring Friends Who Smoke and Cigarette Smoking Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, David R; Messer, Karen; Hartman, Sheri J; Nodora, Jesse; Vera, Lisa; White, Martha M; Leas, Eric; Pharris-Ciurej, Nikolas; Borek, Nicolette; Pierce, John P

    2017-10-01

    This study extends research on receptivity to tobacco marketing over a key developmental period for cigarette smoking experimentation. The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of receptivity to tobacco marketing and exposure to friends who smoke on smoking experimentation. Participants were 10 to 13 years old who had never tried cigarettes (n = 878), interviewed six times at 8-month intervals. At baseline, 25% percent of the 10 and 11 years old in the sample of never smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing, while less than 5% had friends who smoked. Having a friend who smoked at study baseline and acquiring such friends for the first time during the study were the strongest predictors of smoking experimentation. Initial receptivity to tobacco marketing increased the risk of smoking experimentation independently of having friends who smoke at baseline or acquiring friends who smoke throughout the study period. The high level of receptivity observed even among 10 and 11 years old and its robust relationship with cigarette smoking experimentation independent of the significant risk associated with having friends who smoke suggests that successful prevention of receptivity may require intervention at an early age.

  11. Are the tobacco industry's claims about the size of the illicit cigarette market credible? The case of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walbeek, Corné; Shai, Lerato

    2015-06-01

    The tobacco industry claims that illicit cigarette trade in South Africa is high and rising. This is often used as an argument not to increase the tobacco excise tax or to regulate tobacco products. To determine how the tobacco industry's estimates of the size of the illicit cigarette market have changed over time. Published media articles were obtained from South African Press Cuttings; published articles and press releases were sourced from the internet. The period of interest is 1990-2012. Between 1990 and 2012 we found 90 newspaper articles and press statements that emphasised the tobacco industry's view on illicit trade. Articles that reported on action taken against illicit trade were excluded. Between 2006 and early 2011 the Tobacco Institute of Southern Africa, a body representing the interests of large cigarette companies, reported that South Africa's illicit cigarette market share was 20%. This share increased to 25% in late 2011 and 30% in 2012. In a 2012 presentation by Tobacco Institute of Southern Africa to National Treasury the illicit market share in 2008 was indicated as 7.9%, compared with claims in that year that the illicit market share was 20%. Industry findings that the illicit market decreased in 2007 and 2008 were not reported in the press. The tobacco industry has adjusted previous estimates of the illicit trade share downwards to create the impression that illicit trade is high and rising. If previous estimates by the tobacco industry were incorrect the credibility of current estimates should be questioned. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. E-Cigarette Uptake and Marketing:A Report Commissioned by Public Health England

    OpenAIRE

    Bauld, Linda; Angus, Kathryn; De Andrade, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    E-cigarettes are battery operated devices that aim to simulate combustiblecigarettes. They don’t contain tobacco but operate by heating nicotine andother chemicals into a vapour that is inhaled. Nicotine is the addictivesubstance in tobacco but it is the many other chemicals in cigarettes that areresponsible for smoking-related diseases. Electronic cigarettes delivernicotine without the vast majority of these other chemicals, and it is for thisreason that organisations such as the Medicines a...

  13. Understanding tobacco industry pricing strategy and whether it undermines tobacco tax policy: the example of the UK cigarette market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Taylor, Gordon; Reed, Howard

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco tax increases are the most effective means of reducing tobacco use and inequalities in smoking, but effectiveness depends on transnational tobacco company (TTC) pricing strategies, specifically whether TTCs overshift tax increases (increase prices on top of the tax increase) or undershift the taxes (absorb the tax increases so they are not passed onto consumers), about which little is known. Review of literature on brand segmentation. Analysis of 1999-2009 data to explore the extent to which tax increases are shifted to consumers, if this differs by brand segment and whether cigarette price indices accurately reflect cigarette prices. UK. UK smokers. Real cigarette prices, volumes and net-of-tax- revenue by price segment. TTCs categorise brands into four price segments: premium, economy, mid and 'ultra-low price' (ULP). TTCs have sold ULP brands since 2006; since then, their real price has remained virtually static and market share doubled. The price gap between premium and ULP brands is increasing because the industry differentially shifts tax increases between brand segments; while, on average, taxes are overshifted, taxes on ULP brands are not always fully passed onto consumers (being absorbed at the point each year when tobacco taxes increase). Price indices reflect the price of premium brands only and fail to detect these problems. Industry-initiated cigarette price changes in the UK appear timed to accentuate the price gap between premium and ULP brands. Increasing the prices of more expensive cigarettes on top of tobacco tax increases should benefit public health, but the growing price gap enables smokers to downtrade to cheaper tobacco products and may explain smoking-related inequalities. Governments must monitor cigarette prices by price segment and consider industry pricing strategies in setting tobacco tax policies. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Understanding tobacco industry pricing strategy and whether it undermines tobacco tax policy: the example of the UK cigarette market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Taylor, Gordon; Reed, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Aims Tobacco tax increases are the most effective means of reducing tobacco use and inequalities in smoking, but effectiveness depends on transnational tobacco company (TTC) pricing strategies, specifically whether TTCs overshift tax increases (increase prices on top of the tax increase) or undershift the taxes (absorb the tax increases so they are not passed onto consumers), about which little is known. Design Review of literature on brand segmentation. Analysis of 1999–2009 data to explore the extent to which tax increases are shifted to consumers, if this differs by brand segment and whether cigarette price indices accurately reflect cigarette prices. Setting UK. Participants UK smokers. Measurements Real cigarette prices, volumes and net-of-tax- revenue by price segment. Findings TTCs categorise brands into four price segments: premium, economy, mid and ‘ultra-low price’ (ULP). TTCs have sold ULP brands since 2006; since then, their real price has remained virtually static and market share doubled. The price gap between premium and ULP brands is increasing because the industry differentially shifts tax increases between brand segments; while, on average, taxes are overshifted, taxes on ULP brands are not always fully passed onto consumers (being absorbed at the point each year when tobacco taxes increase). Price indices reflect the price of premium brands only and fail to detect these problems. Conclusions Industry-initiated cigarette price changes in the UK appear timed to accentuate the price gap between premium and ULP brands. Increasing the prices of more expensive cigarettes on top of tobacco tax increases should benefit public health, but the growing price gap enables smokers to downtrade to cheaper tobacco products and may explain smoking-related inequalities. Governments must monitor cigarette prices by price segment and consider industry pricing strategies in setting tobacco tax policies. PMID:23445255

  15. Exporting an Inherently Harmful Product: The Marketing of Virginia Slims Cigarettes in the United States, Japan, and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonkyong B.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical issues surrounding the marketing and trade of controversial products such as tobacco require a better understanding. Virginia Slims, an exclusively women’s cigarette brand first launched in 1968 in the USA, was introduced during the mid 1980s to major Asian markets, such as Japan and Korea, dominated by male smokers. By reviewing internal corporate documents, made public from litigation, we examine the marketing strategies used by Philip Morris as they entered new markets such as Japan and Korea and consider the extent that the company attempted to appeal to women in markets where comparatively few women were smokers. The case study of Virginia Slims reveals that the classification of “vulnerable” consumers is variable depending on culture, tobacco firms display responsive efforts and strategies when operating within a “mature” market, and cultural values played a role in informing Philip Morris’ strategic decision to embrace an adaptive marketing approach, particularly when entering the Korean market. Finally, moral questions are raised with tobacco being identified as a priority product for export and international trade agreements being used by corporations, governments, or trade partners in efforts to undermine domestic public health policies. PMID:28025588

  16. Exporting an Inherently Harmful Product: The Marketing of Virginia Slims Cigarettes in the United States, Japan, and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhirst, Timothy; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-11-01

    Ethical issues surrounding the marketing and trade of controversial products such as tobacco require a better understanding. Virginia Slims, an exclusively women's cigarette brand first launched in 1968 in the USA, was introduced during the mid 1980s to major Asian markets, such as Japan and Korea, dominated by male smokers. By reviewing internal corporate documents, made public from litigation, we examine the marketing strategies used by Philip Morris as they entered new markets such as Japan and Korea and consider the extent that the company attempted to appeal to women in markets where comparatively few women were smokers. The case study of Virginia Slims reveals that the classification of "vulnerable" consumers is variable depending on culture, tobacco firms display responsive efforts and strategies when operating within a "mature" market, and cultural values played a role in informing Philip Morris' strategic decision to embrace an adaptive marketing approach, particularly when entering the Korean market. Finally, moral questions are raised with tobacco being identified as a priority product for export and international trade agreements being used by corporations, governments, or trade partners in efforts to undermine domestic public health policies.

  17. E-cigarette nicotine content and labelling practices in a restricted market: Findings from Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czoli, Christine D; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Palumbo, Mary; White, Christine M; Hammond, David

    2018-05-04

    Although several countries, including Canada, have prohibited the sale of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, there is little evidence examining the impact of such regulatory measures on nicotine content and labelling. E-cigarettes were systematically purchased at 80 retail outlets across 4 cities in Ontario, Canada in January-February 2015. Products' nicotine content and labelling accuracy were assessed using gas chromatography. A total of 166 e-cigarette products were purchased, including disposable products (33%), refillable products (14%), and e-liquids (53%). Similar proportions of products were labelled as 'without nicotine' (41%), and 'with nicotine' (44%), while 15% of products were unlabelled. Analyses revealed that almost half the products (48%) contained nicotine. With respect to the presence of nicotine, 10 products (6%) were mislabelled. Just over one-quarter (27%) of products labelled as 'with nicotine' (n = 73) fell outside their labelled concentration. All of the mislabelled products were e-liquids (100%) and the vast majority were sold in vape shops (90%). Despite a prohibition, nicotine-containing e-cigarettes are commonly sold in Canada. While many e-cigarettes were correctly labelled, inaccuracies were common, particularly among nicotine-containing products sold in vape shops. The findings reflect limitations regarding the design and enforcement of the current e-cigarette regulatory framework. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Increasing excise taxes in the presence of an illegal cigarette market: the 2011 Brazil tobacco tax reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magno Iglesias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Brazilian cigarette excise tax reform of 2011 increased tax rates significantly in the presence of a high proportion of illegal and cheap cigarettes contributing to total consumption. Prior to 2011, tobacco tax policy in Brazil had reduced excise tax share on consumer prices, for fear of smuggling. This report examines two hypotheses explaining why tax authorities changed direction. The first is related to lack of concern regarding smuggling in tobacco industry pricing behavior before 2011 (rather than reducing prices following tax reduction, legal companies increased net of tax prices above inflation and key costs. The second hypothesis regards inconsistent industry assessments of the size of the illicit market, which ultimately undermined the credibility of the industry with tax authorities. The author concludes that the 2011 reform was designed to revert the weakness of previous policies, and did indeed succeed. The post-2011 experience in Brazil indicates that increased cigarette excise taxes can increase government revenues and reduce smoking prevalence and consumption despite widespread smuggling of tobacco products.

  19. E-Cigarettes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español E-Cigarettes KidsHealth / For Parents / E-Cigarettes What's in this ... Print en español Los cigarrillos electrónicos What Are E-Cigarettes? E-cigarettes are devices marketed as a safe ...

  20. How Cigarettes Are Sold in Magazines: Special Messages for Special Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil, Michael D.; Schooler, Caroline

    Tobacco companies have the ability to target their products to segmented audiences by advertising in specialty magazines. Segmentation is a means of providing audiences with ads appropriate to their behavioral, demographic, and psychological characteristics. Through a content analysis of cigarette advertising in 10 popular magazines, a study…

  1. Sensory analysis of characterising flavours: evaluating tobacco product odours using an expert panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüsemann, Erna J Z; Lasschuijt, Marlou P; de Graaf, C; de Wijk, René A; Punter, Pieter H; van Tiel, Loes; Cremers, Johannes W J M; van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Boesveldt, Sanne; Talhout, Reinskje

    2018-05-23

    Tobacco flavours are an important regulatory concept in several jurisdictions, for example in the USA, Canada and Europe. The European Tobacco Products Directive 2014/40/EU prohibits cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco having a characterising flavour. This directive defines characterising flavour as 'a clearly noticeable smell or taste other than one of tobacco […]'. To distinguish between products with and without a characterising flavour, we trained an expert panel to identify characterising flavours by smelling. An expert panel (n=18) evaluated the smell of 20 tobacco products using self-defined odour attributes, following Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. The panel was trained during 14 attribute training, consensus training and performance monitoring sessions. Products were assessed during six test sessions. Principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering (four and six clusters) and Hotelling's T-tests (95% and 99% CIs) were used to determine differences and similarities between tobacco products based on odour attributes. The final attribute list contained 13 odour descriptors. Panel performance was sufficient after 14 training sessions. Products marketed as unflavoured that formed a cluster were considered reference products. A four-cluster method distinguished cherry-flavoured, vanilla-flavoured and menthol-flavoured products from reference products. Six clusters subdivided reference products into tobacco leaves, roll-your-own and commercial products. An expert panel was successfully trained to assess characterising odours in cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco. This method could be applied to other product types such as e-cigarettes. Regulatory decisions on the choice of reference products and significance level are needed which directly influences the products being assessed as having a characterising odour. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use

  2. The Impact of Income and Taxation in a Price-Tiered Cigarette Market - findings from the ITC Bangladesh Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Iftekharul; Nargis, Nigar; Lkhagvasuren, Damba; Hussain, Akm Ghulam; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2018-04-25

    Taxing tobacco is among the most effective measures of tobacco control. However, in a tiered market structure where multiple tiers of taxes coexist, the anticipated impact of tobacco taxes on consumption is complex. This paper investigates changing smoking behaviour in lieu of changing prices and changing income. The objective of the paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of change in prices (through taxes) and change in income in a price-tiered cigarette market. A panel dataset from the International Tobacco Control Bangladesh surveys is used for analysis. For preliminary analysis transition matrices are developed. Next, probit and multinomial logit regression models are used to identify the effects of changes in prices and changes in income along with other control variables. Transition matrices show significant movement of smokers across price tiers from one wave to another. Regression results show that higher income raises the probability to up-trade and decreases the probability to down-trade. Results also show that higher prices raises the probability to up-trade and reduces the probability to down-trade. Although not significant, there exists a negative relationship between the probability to down-trade and the probability to intend to quit. It is evident from the results that a price-tiered market provides smokers more opportunities to accommodate their smoking behaviour when faced with price and income change. Therefore, tiered structure of the tax system should be replaced with uniform taxes. Moreover, overall cigarette taxes need to be raised to an extent so that it off-sets any positive effects of income growth. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. The Prevalence and Marketing of Electronic Cigarettes in Proximity to At-Risk Youths: An Investigation of Point-of-Sale Practices near Alternative High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen; Pike, James; Chapman, Jared; Xie, Bin; Hilton, Brian N.; Ames, Susan L.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the point-of-sale marketing practices used to promote electronic cigarettes at stores near schools that serve at-risk youths. One hundred stores selling tobacco products within a half-mile of alternative high schools in Southern California were assessed for this study. Seventy percent of stores in the sample sold electronic…

  4. Brand appearances in contemporary cinema films and contribution to global marketing of cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, J D; Tickle, J J; Beach, M L; Dalton, M A; Ahrens, M B; Heatherton, T F

    2001-01-06

    The appearance of a cigarette brand in a cinema film gives the brand a certain distinction through its association with the characters and general tone of the film. Through the worldwide distribution of films, brands are promoted globally. We assessed the tobacco-brand appearances in a 10-year sample of contemporary films. We viewed the contents of the top 25 US box-office films for each year of release, from 1988 to 1997 (250 films in total). We compared the prevalence of brand appearances for films produced before a voluntary ban on paid product placement by the tobacco industry (1988-90) with films produced after the ban (1991-97). Tobacco-brand appearance was defined as the screen appearance of a brand name, logo, or identifiable trademark on products or product packaging, billboards, store-front advertising, or tobacco promotional items. We defined actor endorsement of a brand as the display of a brand while being handled or used by an actor. More than 85% of the films contained tobacco use. Tobacco brands appeared in 70 (28%) films. Brand appearances were as common in films suitable for adolescent audiences as they were in films for adult audiences (32 vs 35%), and were also present in 20% of those rated for children. Prevalence of brand appearance did not change overall in relation to the ban. However, there was a striking increase in the type of brand appearance depicted, with actor endorsement increasing from 1% of films before the ban to 11% after. Four US cigarette brands accounted for 80% of brand appearances. Revenues outside the USA accounted for 49% of total revenues for these films, indicating a large international audience. Tobacco-brand appearances are common in films and are becoming increasingly endorsed by actors. The most highly advertised US cigarette brands account for most brand appearances, which suggests an advertising motive to this practice.

  5. Marketing ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-01-01

    While the ‘low-tar’ scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of ‘less harmful, low tar’ was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's ‘less harmful, low-tar’ initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing. PMID:23349230

  6. The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Bradford

    2011-01-01

    Background When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the ‘filter problem’. These extensive filter resea...

  7. How Philip Morris unlocked the Japanese cigarette market: lessons for global tobacco control

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, A; Sargent, J; Glantz, S; Ling, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control includes tobacco advertising restrictions that are strongly opposed by the tobacco industry. Marketing strategies used by transnational tobacco companies to open the Japanese market in the absence of such restrictions are described. Methods: Analysis of internal company documents. Findings: Between 1982 and 1987 transnational tobacco companies influenced the Japanese government through the US Trade Representative to open distribution net...

  8. Finding the Kool Mixx: how Brown & Williamson used music marketing to sell cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Navid; Ling, Pamela M

    2006-10-01

    To describe the history of Kool's music-themed promotions and analyse the role that music played in the promotion of the brand. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents, legal documents, and promotional materials. Brown & Williamson started Kool sponsorship of musical events in 1975 with Kool Jazz concerts. Music was considered to be an effective marketing tool because: (1) music helped consumers make emotional connections with the brand; (2) music concerts were effective for targeted marketing; (3) music tied together an integrated marketing campaign; and (4) music had potential to appeal widely to a young audience. Brown & Williamson's first music campaigns successfully targeted young African-American male audiences. Subsequent campaigns were less effective, exploring different types of music to achieve a broader young adult appeal. This case study suggests Brown & Williamson used music most successfully for targeted marketing, but they failed to develop a wider audience using music because their attempts lacked consistency with the Kool brand's established identity. The 2004 "Kool Mixx" campaign both returned to Brown & Williamson's historic practice targeting young African-American males, and also exploited a musical genre with much more potential to bring Kool more universal appeal, as hip-hop music is increasingly popular among diverse audiences. Tobacco control efforts led by African-American community activists to oppose these marketing strategies should continue; expanding these coalitions to include the hip-hop community may further increase their effectiveness.

  9. Finding the Kool Mixx: how Brown & Williamson used music marketing to sell cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Navid; Ling, Pamela M

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the history of Kool's music‐themed promotions and analyse the role that music played in the promotion of the brand. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents, legal documents, and promotional materials. Results Brown & Williamson started Kool sponsorship of musical events in 1975 with Kool Jazz concerts. Music was considered to be an effective marketing tool because: (1) music helped consumers make emotional connections with the brand; (2) music concerts were effective for targeted marketing; (3) music tied together an integrated marketing campaign; and (4) music had potential to appeal widely to a young audience. Brown & Williamson's first music campaigns successfully targeted young African‐American male audiences. Subsequent campaigns were less effective, exploring different types of music to achieve a broader young adult appeal. Conclusions This case study suggests Brown & Williamson used music most successfully for targeted marketing, but they failed to develop a wider audience using music because their attempts lacked consistency with the Kool brand's established identity. The 2004 “Kool Mixx” campaign both returned to Brown & Williamson's historic practice targeting young African‐American males, and also exploited a musical genre with much more potential to bring Kool more universal appeal, as hip‐hop music is increasingly popular among diverse audiences. Tobacco control efforts led by African‐American community activists to oppose these marketing strategies should continue; expanding these coalitions to include the hip‐hop community may further increase their effectiveness. PMID:16998169

  10. 'Acceptable rebellion': marketing hipster aesthetics to sell Camel cigarettes in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendlin, Yogi; Anderson, Stacey J; Glantz, Stanton A

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to understand why and how RJ Reynolds and other tobacco companies have marketed tobacco products to young adult social trendsetting consumers (termed 'hipsters') to recruit trendsetters and average consumers to smoke. Analysis of tobacco industry documents and industry marketing materials. Since 1995, RJ Reynolds developed its marketing campaigns to better suit the lifestyle, image identity and attitudes of hip trendsetters (so-called 'hipsters'), and Camel's brand identity actively shifted to more closely convey the hipster persona. Camel emphasised in-venue events such as promotional music tours to link the brand and smoking to activities and symbols appealing to hipsters and their emulating masses. To reach this targeted and socially valuable trend-setting population, public health advocates must tap into hipster psychology and expose to the targeted community the tobacco company's efforts to infiltrate the hipster community to turn hipsters into tobacco-using role models.

  11. Cigarette Ads and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Julia

    1988-01-01

    Points out ways the tobacco industry markets products to youth, including paid advertisements, sponsorship of sporting events, music concerts, and magazines. Relates several focal points for smoking prevention, which include deglamorization of cigarette advertisements and making smoking socially undesirable. (LS)

  12. E-Cigarette Social Media Messages: A Text Mining Analysis of Marketing and Consumer Conversations on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Lazard, Allison J; Saffer, Adam J; Wilcox, Gary B; Chung, Arnold DongWoo; Mackert, Michael S; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2016-01-01

    Background As the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) rises, social media likely influences public awareness and perception of this emerging tobacco product. Objective This study examined the public conversation on Twitter to determine overarching themes and insights for trending topics from commercial and consumer users. Methods Text mining uncovered key patterns and important topics for e-cigarettes on Twitter. SAS Text Miner 12.1 software (SAS Institute Inc) was used for descriptiv...

  13. Electronic cigarette: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Mahishale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal addictive component of tobacco smoke is nicotine. The mechanisms of nicotine addiction are highly complex and are responsible for maintenance of smoking behaviour. Use of electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes, devices that deliver a nicotine containing vapor has increased rapidly across the world. They are marketed as a "healthier alternatives" to conventional cigarettes. There is extensive debate over long-term safety and efficacy of these devices on public health. Studies show that the vapor generated from the E-cigarettes has a variable amount of nicotine and potential harmful toxins. Until robust research demonstrates the safety of E-cigarettes and efficacy in the treatment of tobacco dependence, their role as safe smoking cessation tool is unclear. This review highlights the recent data regarding E-cigarettes toxicity, impact on lung function, and efficacy in smoking reduction and cessation.

  14. Moving East: how the transnational tobacco industry gained entry to the emerging markets of the former Soviet Union-part I: establishing cigarette imports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A B; McKee, M

    2004-06-01

    To identify British American Tobacco's (BAT) reasons for targeting the former Soviet Union following its collapse in 1991 and the initial strategies BAT used to enter the region. Analysis of tobacco industry documents held at the Guildford BAT archive. Desire to expand to new markets was based in part on the decline in old markets. The large population, proximity to China, scope to expand sales to women and, in Central Asia, a young population with high growth rates made the former Soviet Union particularly attractive. High consumption rates and unfilled demand caused by previous shortages offered potential for rapid returns on investment. A series of steps were taken to penetrate the markets with the initial focus on establishing imports. The documents suggest that BAT encouraged the use of aid money and barter trade to fund imports and directed the smuggling of cigarettes which graduated from an opportunistic strategy to a highly organised operation. In establishing a market presence, promotion of BAT's brands and corporate image were paramount, and used synonymously to promote both the cigarettes and the company. The tobacco industry targeted young people and women. It used the allure of western products to promote its brands and brand stretching and corporate imagery to pre-empt future marketing restrictions. BAT used the chaotic conditions in the immediate post-transition period in the former Soviet Union to exploit legislative loopholes and ensure illegal cigarette imports. Governments of countries targeted by the tobacco industry need to be aware of industry tactics and develop adequate tobacco control policies in order to prevent the exploitation of vulnerable populations. Marketing restrictions that focus on advertising without restricting the use of brand or company promotions will have a limited impact.

  15. ‘Acceptable rebellion’: marketing hipster aesthetics to sell Camel cigarettes in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendlin, Yogi; Anderson, Stacey J; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present work was to understand why and how RJ Reynolds and other tobacco companies have marketed tobacco products to young adult social trendsetting consumers (termed ‘hipsters’) to recruit trendsetters and average consumers to smoke. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents and industry marketing materials. Results Since 1995, RJ Reynolds developed its marketing campaigns to better suit the lifestyle, image identity and attitudes of hip trendsetters (so-called ‘hipsters’), and Camel’s brand identity actively shifted to more closely convey the hipster persona. Camel emphasised in-venue events such as promotional music tours to link the brand and smoking to activities and symbols appealing to hipsters and their emulating masses. Conclusions To reach this targeted and socially valuable trend-setting population, public health advocates must tap into hipster psychology and expose to the targeted community the tobacco company’s efforts to infiltrate the hipster community to turn hipsters into tobacco-using role models. PMID:20501494

  16. An exploratory analysis of cigarette price premium, market share and consumer loyalty in relation to continued consumption versus cessation in a national US panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Cahn, Zachary; Berg, Carla J

    2015-11-03

    Brand equity and consumer loyalty play a role in continued purchasing behaviour; however, this research has largely focused on non-addictive products without counter-marketing tactics. We examined the impact of brand equity (price premium, market share) and consumer loyalty (switching rates) on smoking cessation (discontinued cigarette purchases for 1 year) among smokers in a consumer panel. In Spring 2015, we analysed 1077 cigarette-purchasing households in the Nielsen Homescan Panel. We analysed cessation in relation to brand equity, consumer loyalty, other purchasing behaviours (nicotine intake, frequency), sociodemographics and tobacco control activities (per state-specific data) over a 6-year period (2004-2009) using Cox proportional hazard modelling. The sample was 13.28% African-American; the average income was $52,334 (SD=31,445). The average price premium and market share of smokers' dominant brands were $1.31 (SD=0.49) and 15.41% (SD=19.15), respectively. The mean brand loyalty level was 0.90 (SD=0.17), indicating high loyalty. In our final model, a higher price premium and market share were associated with lower quit rates (p=0.039); however, an interaction effect suggested that greater market share was not associated with lower cessation rates for African-American smokers (p=0.006). Consumer loyalty was not associated with cessation. Other predictors of lower quit rates included a higher nicotine intake (p=0.006) and baseline purchase frequency (pconsumer relationships. Thus, continued efforts should aim to regulate tobacco marketing efforts in order to disrupt these relationships to promote cessation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. An exploratory analysis of cigarette price premium, market share and consumer loyalty in relation to continued consumption versus cessation in a national US panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Cahn, Zachary; Berg, Carla J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Brand equity and consumer loyalty play a role in continued purchasing behaviour; however, this research has largely focused on non-addictive products without counter-marketing tactics. We examined the impact of brand equity (price premium, market share) and consumer loyalty (switching rates) on smoking cessation (discontinued cigarette purchases for 1 year) among smokers in a consumer panel. Methods In Spring 2015, we analysed 1077 cigarette-purchasing households in the Nielsen Homescan Panel. We analysed cessation in relation to brand equity, consumer loyalty, other purchasing behaviours (nicotine intake, frequency), sociodemographics and tobacco control activities (per state-specific data) over a 6-year period (2004–2009) using Cox proportional hazard modelling. Results The sample was 13.28% African-American; the average income was $52 334 (SD=31 445). The average price premium and market share of smokers’ dominant brands were $1.31 (SD=0.49) and 15.41% (SD=19.15), respectively. The mean brand loyalty level was 0.90 (SD=0.17), indicating high loyalty. In our final model, a higher price premium and market share were associated with lower quit rates (p=0.039); however, an interaction effect suggested that greater market share was not associated with lower cessation rates for African-American smokers (p=0.006). Consumer loyalty was not associated with cessation. Other predictors of lower quit rates included a higher nicotine intake (p=0.006) and baseline purchase frequency (pconsumer relationships. Thus, continued efforts should aim to regulate tobacco marketing efforts in order to disrupt these relationships to promote cessation. PMID:26534732

  18. Transforming the tobacco market: why the supply of cigarettes should be transferred from for-profit corporations to non-profit enterprises with a public health mandate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callard, C; Thompson, D; Collishaw, N

    2005-08-01

    Current tobacco control strategies seek primarily to decrease the demand for cigarettes through measures that encourage individuals to adopt healthier behaviours. These measures are impeded and undermined by tobacco corporations, whose profit drive compels them to seek to maintain and expand cigarette sales. Tobacco corporations seek to expand cigarette sales because they are for-profit business corporations and are obliged under law to maximise profits, even when this results in harm to others. It is not legally possible for a for-profit corporation to relinquish its responsibility to make profits or for it to temper this obligation with responsibilities to support health. Tobacco could be supplied through other non-profit enterprises. The elimination of profit driven behaviour from the supply of tobacco would enhance the ability of public health authorities to reduce tobacco use. Future tobacco control strategies can seek to transform the tobacco market from one occupied by for-profit corporations to one where tobacco is supplied by institutions that share a health mandate and will help to reduce smoking and smoking related disease and death.

  19. Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinc Nayir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette is a device developed with an intent to enable smokers to quit smoking and avoid the unhealthful effects of cigarettes. The popularity of e-cigarette has increased rapidly in recent years. The increase in its use during the adolescence period is attention-grabbing. Despite the fact that e-cigarette has become popular in a dramatic way, there are certain differences of opinion regarding its long-term effects on health, in particular. While some people assert that it is less harmful than conventional cigarettes, some others assert the contrary. Although e-cigarette contains less toxic substances compared to conventional cigarette, it contains certain carcinogens existing in conventional cigarette such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. It also contains heavy metals (nickel, chrome that conventional cigarette does not contain; and therefore, raises concerns about health. E-cigarette leads to upper and lower respiratory tract irritation as well as an increased airway resistance and an increased bacterial colonization in the respiratory tract. It may also cause tahcycardia and increase diastolic blood pressure. Although e-cigarette has been found to have certain benefits in terms of smoking cessation, most of the studies have shown unfavorable results. In this collected work, the effects of e-cigarette on health and its role in smoking cessation are discussed in detail.

  20. The intractable cigarette 'filter problem'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bradford

    2011-05-01

    When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the 'filter problem'. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the 'filter problem'. These reveal a period of intense focus on the 'filter problem' that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate

  1. Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette)

    OpenAIRE

    Erdinc Nayir; Burak Karacabey; Onder Kirca; Mustafa Ozdogan

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) is a device developed with an intent to enable smokers to quit smoking and avoid the unhealthful effects of cigarettes. The popularity of e-cigarette has increased rapidly in recent years. The increase in its use during the adolescence period is attention-grabbing. Despite the fact that e-cigarette has become popular in a dramatic way, there are certain differences of opinion regarding its long-term effects on health, in particular. While some people assert ...

  2. Impact of cigarette minimum price laws on the retail price of cigarettes in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Michael A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Loomis, Brett R

    2013-05-01

    Cigarette price increases prevent youth initiation, reduce cigarette consumption and increase the number of smokers who quit. Cigarette minimum price laws (MPLs), which typically require cigarette wholesalers and retailers to charge a minimum percentage mark-up for cigarette sales, have been identified as an intervention that can potentially increase cigarette prices. 24 states and the District of Columbia have cigarette MPLs. Using data extracted from SCANTRACK retail scanner data from the Nielsen company, average cigarette prices were calculated for designated market areas in states with and without MPLs in three retail channels: grocery stores, drug stores and convenience stores. Regression models were estimated using the average cigarette pack price in each designated market area and calendar quarter in 2009 as the outcome variable. The average difference in cigarette pack prices are 46 cents in the grocery channel, 29 cents in the drug channel and 13 cents in the convenience channel, with prices being lower in states with MPLs for all three channels. The findings that MPLs do not raise cigarette prices could be the result of a lack of compliance and enforcement by the state or could be attributed to the minimum state mark-up being lower than the free-market mark-up for cigarettes. Rather than require a minimum mark-up, which can be nullified by promotional incentives and discounts, states and countries could strengthen MPLs by setting a simple 'floor price' that is the true minimum price for all cigarettes or could prohibit discounts to consumers and retailers.

  3. An Analysis of Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Advertising in US Women's Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Mongiovi, Jennifer; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Ethan, Danna; Hammond, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    Traditional cigarette advertising has existed in the US for over 200 years. Studies suggest that advertising has an impact on the initiation and maintenance of smoking behaviors. In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) emerged on the market as an alternative to the traditional tobacco cigarette. The purpose of this study was to describe advertisements in popular US magazines marketed to women for cigarettes and e-cigarettes. This study involved analyzing 99 issues of 14 popular US magazines marketed to women. Compared to advertisements for traditional cigarettes, advertisements for e-cigarettes were more often found in magazines geared toward the 31-40-year-old audience (76.5% vs. 53.1%, P = 0.011) whereas traditional cigarette advertisements were nearly equally distributed among women 31-40 and ≥40 years. More than three-quarters of the e-cigarette advertisements presented in magazines aimed at the higher median income households compared to a balanced distribution by income for traditional cigarettes (P = 0.033). Future studies should focus on specific marketing tactics used to promote e-cigarette use as this product increases in popularity, especially among young women smokers.

  4. Using Alcohol to Sell Cigarettes to Young Adults: A Content Analysis of Cigarette Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belstock, Sarah A.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Carpenter, Carrie M.; Tucker, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Advertising influences the health-related behaviors of college-aged individuals. Cigarette manufacturers aggressively market to young adults and may exploit their affinity for alcohol when creating advertisements designed to increase cigarettes' appeal. Internal tobacco industry documents reveal that cigarette manufacturers understood…

  5. Up in Vapor: Exploring the Health Messages of E-Cigarette Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Erin; Haught, Matthew J; Morris Ii, David L

    2017-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have gained popularity in the United States, and marketers are using advertising to recruit new users to their products. Despite outright bans on traditional cigarette advertisements, e-cigarettes have no specific regulations. This study uses framing theory to explore the themes in e-cigarette advertisements. Also, practical implications are discussed.

  6. Sensory analysis of characterising flavours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krüsemann, Erna J.Z.; Lasschuijt, Marlou P.; Graaf, de C.; Wijk, de René A.; Punter, Pieter H.; Tiel, van Loes; Cremers, Johannes W.J.M.; Nobelen, van de Suzanne; Boesveldt, Sanne; Talhout, Reinskje

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco flavours are an important regulatory concept in several jurisdictions, for example in the USA, Canada and Europe. The European Tobacco Products Directive 2014/40/EU prohibits cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco having a characterising flavour. This directive defines

  7. Examining Youth Dual and Polytobacco Use with E-Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Ok Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes and other non-cigarette tobacco products are increasingly popular among youth. Little is known to inform public health efforts to reduce youth use. We examined psychosocial correlates of single and multiple tobacco product use among youth e-cigarette users. Data were from the 2014 Florida Youth Tobacco Survey (N = 69,923, a representative sample of Florida middle and high school students. Associations between combinations of e-cigarette, cigarette and other tobacco product (OTP use and psychosocial variables were examined using multinomial logistic regression with an analytic sample of N = 2756. Most e-cigarette-using youth used at least one other product (81%. Perceiving cigarettes as easy to quit was significantly associated with greater likelihood of combined e-cigarette/OTP use (relative risk ratio (RRR = 2.51, p < 0.001 and combined e-cigarette/cigarette/OTP use (RRR = 3.20, p < 0.0001. Thinking you will be smoking cigarettes in 5 years was associated with product combinations that include cigarettes. Tobacco company marketing receptivity was associated with multiple product user types. Given that specific psychosocial factors put youth at risk for concurrent use of e-cigarettes with tobacco products, public health efforts should address polytobacco use specifically, instead of individual product use. Youth perceptions about the ease of quitting cigarettes, intentions to continue smoking cigarettes and receptivity to tobacco company marketing are promising areas for messaging aimed at reducing e-cigarette polytobacco product use.

  8. Examining Youth Dual and Polytobacco Use with E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Pepper, Jessica K; MacMonegle, Anna J; Nonnemaker, James M; Duke, Jennifer C; Porter, Lauren

    2018-04-08

    E-cigarettes and other non-cigarette tobacco products are increasingly popular among youth. Little is known to inform public health efforts to reduce youth use. We examined psychosocial correlates of single and multiple tobacco product use among youth e-cigarette users. Data were from the 2014 Florida Youth Tobacco Survey ( N = 69,923), a representative sample of Florida middle and high school students. Associations between combinations of e-cigarette, cigarette and other tobacco product (OTP) use and psychosocial variables were examined using multinomial logistic regression with an analytic sample of N = 2756. Most e-cigarette-using youth used at least one other product (81%). Perceiving cigarettes as easy to quit was significantly associated with greater likelihood of combined e-cigarette/OTP use (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 2.51, p < 0.001) and combined e-cigarette/cigarette/OTP use (RRR = 3.20, p < 0.0001). Thinking you will be smoking cigarettes in 5 years was associated with product combinations that include cigarettes. Tobacco company marketing receptivity was associated with multiple product user types. Given that specific psychosocial factors put youth at risk for concurrent use of e-cigarettes with tobacco products, public health efforts should address polytobacco use specifically, instead of individual product use. Youth perceptions about the ease of quitting cigarettes, intentions to continue smoking cigarettes and receptivity to tobacco company marketing are promising areas for messaging aimed at reducing e-cigarette polytobacco product use.

  9. How do minimum cigarette price laws affect cigarette prices at the retail level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, E C; Ribisl, K M; Schleicher, N C; Zellers, L; Wellington, N

    2005-04-01

    Half of US states have minimum cigarette price laws that were originally passed to protect small independent retailers from unfair price competition with larger retailers. These laws prohibit cigarettes from being sold below a minimum price that is set by a formula. Many of these laws allow cigarette company promotional incentives offered to retailers, such as buydowns and master-type programmes, to be calculated into the formula. Allowing this provision has the potential to lower the allowable minimum price. This study assesses whether stores in states with minimum price laws have higher cigarette prices and lower rates of retailer participation in cigarette company promotional incentive programmes. Retail cigarette prices and retailer participation in cigarette company incentive programmes in 2001 were compared in eight states with minimum price laws and seven states without them. New York State had the most stringent minimum price law at the time of the study because it excluded promotional incentive programmes in its price setting formula; cigarette prices in New York were compared to all other states included in the study. Cigarette prices were not significantly different in our sample of US states with and without cigarette minimum price laws. Cigarette prices were significantly higher in New York stores than in the 14 other states combined. Most existing minimum cigarette price laws appear to have little impact on the retail price of cigarettes. This may be because they allow the use of promotional programmes, which are used by manufacturers to reduce cigarette prices. New York's strategy to disallow these types of incentive programmes may result in higher minimum cigarette prices, and should also be explored as a potential policy strategy to control cigarette company marketing practices in stores. Strict cigarette minimum price laws may have the potential to reduce cigarette consumption by decreasing demand through increased cigarette prices and reduced

  10. Behavioral economic substitutability of e-cigarettes, tobacco cigarettes, and nicotine gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Johnson, Patrick S; Rass, Olga; Pacek, Lauren R

    2017-07-01

    The public health impact of e-cigarettes may depend on their substitutability for tobacco cigarettes. Dual users of e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes completed purchasing tasks in which they specified daily use levels under hypothetical conditions that varied the availability and price of e-cigarettes, tobacco cigarettes, and nicotine gum (for those with nicotine gum experience). When either e-cigarettes or tobacco cigarettes were the only available commodity, as price per puff increased, purchasing decreased, revealing similar reinforcement profiles. When available concurrently, as the price of tobacco puffs increased, purchasing of tobacco puffs decreased while purchasing of fixed-price e-cigarette puffs increased. Among those with nicotine gum experience, when the price of tobacco puffs was closest to the actual market value of tobacco puffs, e-cigarette availability decreased median tobacco puff purchases by 44% compared to when tobacco was available alone. In contrast, nicotine gum availability caused no decrease in tobacco puff purchases. E-cigarettes may serve as a behavioral economic substitute for tobacco cigarettes, and may be a superior substitute compared to nicotine gum in their ability to decrease tobacco use. Although important questions remain regarding the health impacts of e-cigarettes, these data are consistent with the possibility that e-cigarettes may serve as smoking cessation/reduction aids.

  11. Do current and former cigarette smokers have an attentional bias for e-cigarette cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Wileyto, E Paul; Tang, Kathy Z; Mercincavage, Melissa; Cappella, Joseph N; Strasser, Andrew A

    2018-03-01

    The similarity of e-cigarettes to tobacco cigarettes with regard to shape and usage raises the question of whether e-cigarette cues have the same incentive motivational properties as tobacco cigarette cues. The objective of the present study was to examine whether e-cigarette cues capture and hold smokers' and former smokers' attention and whether the attentional focus is associated with subsequent craving for tobacco cigarettes. It was also examined whether device type (cigalike or mod) moderated this relationship. Participants (46 current daily smokers, 38 former smokers, 48 non-smokers) were randomly assigned to a device type condition in which their eye-movements were assessed while completing a visual probe task. Craving was assessed before and after the task. Smokers, but not former or non-smokers, maintained their gaze longer on e-cigarette than on neutral pictures ( p = 0.004). No difference in dwell time was found between device type. None of the smoking status groups showed faster initial fixations or faster reaction times to e-cigarette compared with neutral cues. Baseline craving was associated with dwell time on e-cigarette cues ( p = 0.004). Longer dwell time on e-cigarette cues was associated with more favorable attitudes towards e-cigarettes. These findings indicate that e-cigarette cues may contribute to craving for tobacco cigarettes and suggest the potential regulation of e-cigarette marketing.

  12. Transforming the tobacco market: why the supply of cigarettes should be transferred from for-profit corporations to non-profit enterprises with a public health mandate

    OpenAIRE

    Callard, C; Thompson, D; Collishaw, N

    2005-01-01

    Current tobacco control strategies seek primarily to decrease the demand for cigarettes through measures that encourage individuals to adopt healthier behaviours. These measures are impeded and undermined by tobacco corporations, whose profit drive compels them to seek to maintain and expand cigarette sales. Tobacco corporations seek to expand cigarette sales because they are for-profit business corporations and are obliged under law to maximise profits, even when this results in harm to othe...

  13. E-cigarettes and National Adolescent Cigarette Use: 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-02-01

    E-cigarette use is rapidly increasing among adolescents in the United States, with some suggesting that e-cigarettes are the cause of declining youth cigarette smoking. We hypothesized that the decline in youth smoking changed after e-cigarettes arrived on the US market in 2007. Data were collected by using cross-sectional, nationally representative school-based samples of sixth- through 12th-graders from 2004-2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (samples ranged from 16 614 in 2013 to 25 324 in 2004). Analyses were conducted by using interrupted time series of ever (≥1 puff) and current (last 30 days) cigarette smoking. Logistic regression was used to identify psychosocial risk factors associated with cigarette smoking in the 2004-2009 samples; this model was then applied to estimate the probability of cigarette smoking among cigarette smokers and e-cigarette users in the 2011-2014 samples. Youth cigarette smoking decreased linearly between 2004 and 2014 (P = .009 for ever smoking and P = .05 for current smoking), with no significant change in this trend after 2009 (P = .57 and .23). Based on the psychosocial model of smoking, including demographic characteristics, willingness to wear clothing with a tobacco logo, living with a smoker, likelihood of smoking in the next year, likelihood of smoking cigarettes from a friend, and use of tobacco products other than cigarettes or e-cigarettes, the model categorized e-cigarette-only users (between 11.0% in 2012 and 23.1% in 2013) as current smokers. The introduction of e-cigarettes was not associated with a change in the linear decline in cigarette smoking among youth. E-cigarette-only users would be unlikely to have initiated tobacco product use with cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Are E-cigarettes a safe and good alternative to cigarette smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2015-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are devices that can vaporize a nicotine solution combined with liquid flavors instead of burning tobacco leaves. Since their emergence in 2004, E-cigarettes have become widely available, and their use has increased exponentially worldwide. E-cigarettes are aggressively advertised as a smoking cessation aid; as healthier, cheaper, and more socially acceptable than conventional cigarettes. In recent years, these claims have been evaluated in numerous studies. This review explores the development of the current E-cigarette and its market, prevalence of awareness, and use. The review also explores the beneficial and adverse effects of E-cigarettes in various aspects in accordance with recent research. The discussed aspects include smoking cessation or reduction and the health risks, social impact, and environmental consequences of E-cigarettes. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Electronic cigarettes: ambiguity and controversies of usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savant, Suyog; Shetty, Deeksha; Phansopkar, Sushil; Jamkhande, Amol

    2014-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (EC), a proxy to conventional cigarettes, gained popularity on the basis of its own advocacy, marketing and large scale publicity. Sometimes marketed as an adjunct to quitting or a substitute for cigarettes, its popularity rose. However, its sale in the global markets was subjected to prejudice. Reasons cited by the regulatory bodies for its ouster were the toxic contents it contained. Some countries preferred to ban them while some have legalised them. However, the manufacturers have claimed that it does have the potential to help smokers quit or at least replace the conventional cigarettes which cause millions of death globally. Research is hence needed to prove the efficacy and utility of this device for welfare of people who are looking for better options than puffing cigarettes.

  16. Electronic Cigarettes: Ambiguity and Controversies of Usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savant, S.; Shetty, D.; Phansopkar, S.; Jamkhande, A.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (EC), a proxy to conventional cigarettes, gained popularity on the basis of its own advocacy, marketing and large scale publicity. Sometimes marketed as an adjunct to quitting or a substitute for cigarettes, its popularity rose. However, its sale in the global markets was subjected to prejudice. Reasons cited by the regulatory bodies for its ouster were the toxic contents it contained. Some countries preferred to ban them while some have legalised them. However, the manufacturers have claimed that it does have the potential to help smokers quit or at least replace the conventional cigarettes which cause millions of death globally. Research is hence needed to prove the efficacy and utility of this device for welfare of people who are looking for better options than puffing cigarettes. (author)

  17. [Focus on electronic cigarettes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinghino, Biagio; Pacifici, Roberta; Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Palmi, Ilaria; Solimini, Renata; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    There is no clear regulation on electronic cigarettes (e-cig); their health effects are not yet fully investigated and there is insufficient standardisation and quality control of the product. Moreover, the e-cig could be a gateway for young people to nicotine addiction and traditional cigarette smoking. In Italy, the Ministry of Health banned the sale of e-cig with nicotine firstly to adolescents aged marketing of e-cigs, to make them less attractive, to forbid their use in enclosed areas, and prevent them from being promoted. E-cigs, however, seem to be much less dangerous than traditional cigarettes, although the few studies conducted are not sufficient to demonstrate either a clear therapeutic efficacy of e-cig or their total harmlessness. If e-cig had a known content, were made according to clear rules and in certified laboratories, without toxic substances, it could be used to help heavy smokers to quit, or at least to reduce smoking habits. There is a large proportion of smokers who are unable to quit. The revision of the European Directive (the proposal is being evaluated and we are waiting for its final approval) on tobacco recommends free sale for a minority of e-cigs only, those with a nicotine content e-cig and the much more dangerous tobacco cigarettes are still sold without any restriction.

  18. Determination of 210 Po in cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Ana Claudia; Hiromoto, Goro

    1999-01-01

    A radiochemical procedure for the determination of 110 Po in cigarettes is presented. The method is based on solvent extraction, followed by spontaneous deposition on copper disks and counting by alpha spectrometry. Some commercial cigarette brands available in the national market were analysed, obtaining 210 Po concentrations ranging from 15 to 26 mBq per gram of dry tobacco. (author)

  19. Estimating cross-price elasticity of e-cigarettes using a simulated demand procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Randolph C; Kivell, Bronwyn M; Laugesen, Murray

    2015-05-01

    Our goal was to measure the cross-price elasticity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and simulated demand for tobacco cigarettes both in the presence and absence of e-cigarette availability. A sample of New Zealand smokers (N = 210) completed a Cigarette Purchase Task to indicate their demand for tobacco at a range of prices. They sampled an e-cigarette and rated it and their own-brand tobacco for favorability, and indicated how many e-cigarettes and regular cigarettes they would purchase at 0.5×, 1×, and 2× the current market price for regular cigarettes, assuming that the price of e-cigarettes remained constant. Cross-price elasticity for e-cigarettes was estimated as 0.16, and was significantly positive, indicating that e-cigarettes were partially substitutable for regular cigarettes. Simulated demand for regular cigarettes at current market prices decreased by 42.8% when e-cigarettes were available, and e-cigarettes were rated 81% as favorably as own-brand tobacco. However when cigarettes cost 2× the current market price, significantly more smokers said they would quit (50.2%) if e-cigarettes were not available than if they were available (30.0%). Results show that e-cigarettes are potentially substitutable for regular cigarettes and their availability will reduce tobacco consumption. However, e-cigarettes may discourage smokers from quitting entirely as cigarette price increases, so policy makers should consider maintaining a constant relative price differential between e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the ‘filter problem’. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. Objective This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Methods Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. Results 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the ‘filter problem’. These reveal a period of intense focus on the ‘filter problem’ that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette

  1. Global approaches to regulating electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Awopegba, Ayodeji; De León, Elaine; Cohen, Joanna E

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Classify and describe the policy approaches used by countries to regulate e-cigarettes. Methods National policies regulating e-cigarettes were identified by (1) conducting web searches on Ministry of Health websites, and (2) broad web searches. The mechanisms used to regulate e-cigarettes were classified as new/amended laws, or existing laws. The policy domains identified include restrictions or prohibitions on product: sale, manufacturing, importation, distribution, use, product design including e-liquid ingredients, advertising/promotion/sponsorship, trademarks, and regulation requiring: taxation, health warning labels and child-safety standards. The classification of the policy was reviewed by a country expert. Results The search identified 68 countries that regulate e-cigarettes: 22 countries regulate e-cigarettes using existing regulations; 25 countries enacted new policies to regulate e-cigarettes; 7 countries made amendments to existing legislation; 14 countries use a combination of new/amended and existing regulation. Common policies include a minimum-age-of-purchase, indoor-use (vape-free public places) bans and marketing restrictions. Few countries are applying a tax to e-cigarettes. Conclusions A range of regulatory approaches are being applied to e-cigarettes globally; many countries regulate e-cigarettes using legislation not written for e-cigarettes. PMID:27903958

  2. Electronic cigarette awareness and use among adults in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Chen, Jing; Wang, Man-Ping; McGhee, Sarah M; Kwong, Antonio C S; Lai, Vienna W Y; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have gained popularity rapidly in the Western world but data in the East are scarce. We examined the awareness and ever use of e-cigarettes, and reasons for e-cigarette use in a probability sample of adults in Hong Kong. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2014 from Chinese adults aged 15-65 in Hong Kong (819 never smokers, 800 former smokers, 800 current smokers) via computer-assisted telephone interviews (response rate: 73.8%). Analysis was limited to a subset of 809 respondents (i.e., 357 never smokers, 269 former smokers, 183 current smokers) who were randomly selected to answer questions on e-cigarettes. Chi-square analyses compared e-cigarette awareness and ever use by gender, age, education, and cigarette smoking status. Multivariable logistic regression examined if e-cigarette awareness was associated with demographic variables and cigarette smoking status. 75.4% of adults had heard of e-cigarettes, and 2.3% reported having used e-cigarettes. Greater awareness was associated with male gender and higher education. Ever use of e-cigarettes was higher among males (3.6%, p=.03), younger adults (aged 15-29, 5.2%, p=.002), and current cigarette smokers (11.8%, preasons for using e-cigarettes were curiosity (47.4%), the stylish product design (25.8%), and quitting smoking (13.6%). Awareness of e-cigarettes was widespread in Hong Kong. Although the use of e-cigarettes was low, its relation with younger age and current smoking is of concern. Health surveillance of e-cigarette use is needed. Interventions should target young adults and cigarette smokers, and address the marketing messages, especially the effect of e-cigarettes on smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2010-04-01

    Although most agree that the association between tobacco marketing and youth smoking is causal, few studies have assessed the specificity of this association. This study aims to examine the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and teen smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 3415 German schoolchildren aged 10-17 years was conducted using masked images of six cigarette brands and eight other commercial products in 2008. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency (recognition) and brand names (cued recall). Sample quartile (Q) exposure to advertisement exposure was calculated in 2009. Outcome variables were ever tried and current (monthly) smoking, and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. The prevalence of ever smoking was 31.1% and that of current smoking was 7.4%, and 35.3% of never smokers were susceptible to smoking. Ad recognition rates ranged from 15% for a regionally advertised cigarette brand to 99% for a sweet. Lucky Strike and Marlboro were the most highly recognized cigarette brands (with ad recognition rates of 55% and 34%, respectively). After controlling for a range of established influences on smoking behaviors, the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking were 1.97 (95% CI=1.40, 2.77) for Q4 exposure to cigarette ads compared with adolescents in Q1, 2.90 (95% CI=1.48, 5.66) for current smoking, and 1.79 (95% CI=1.32, 2.43) for susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. Exposure to ads for commercial products other than cigarettes was significantly associated with smoking in crude but not multivariate models. This study underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and youth smoking, with exposure to cigarette ads, but not other ads, being associated with smoking behavior and intentions to smoke. This finding suggests a content-related effect of tobacco advertisements. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Higher cigarette prices influence cigarette purchase patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, A; Bauer, J E; Li, Q; Abrams, S M; Higbee, C; Peppone, L; Cummings, K M

    2005-04-01

    To examine cigarette purchasing patterns of current smokers and to determine the effects of cigarette price on use of cheaper sources, discount/generic cigarettes, and coupons. Higher cigarette prices result in decreased cigarette consumption, but price sensitive smokers may seek lower priced or tax-free cigarette sources, especially if they are readily available. This price avoidance behaviour costs states excise tax money and dampens the health impact of higher cigarette prices. Telephone survey data from 3602 US smokers who were originally in the COMMIT (community intervention trial for smoking cessation) study were analysed to assess cigarette purchase patterns, use of discount/generic cigarettes, and use of coupons. 59% reported engaging in a high price avoidance strategy, including 34% who regularly purchase from a low or untaxed venue, 28% who smoke a discount/generic cigarette brand, and 18% who report using cigarette coupons more frequently that they did five years ago. The report of engaging in a price avoidance strategy was associated with living within 40 miles of a state or Indian reservation with lower cigarette excise taxes, higher average cigarette consumption, white, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity, and female sex. Data from this study indicate that most smokers are price sensitive and seek out measures to purchase less expensive cigarettes, which may decrease future cessation efforts.

  5. E-cigarettes: Considerations for the otolaryngologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyani, Sneh; Derkay, Craig S

    2015-08-01

    To review the literature regarding electronic cigarettes and discuss potential implications and need for advocacy for the pediatric otolaryngologist. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-operated devices that deliver nicotine-containing vapors via inhalation. Research on the health related consequences of e-cigarettes is ongoing and safety has yet to be established. E-cigarettes are not presently under the regulation of any national governing body with wide accessibility to minors. Use of these products has substantially increased since arrival to the market, particularly within the adolescent population. These products are marketed via various platforms including television, Internet and social media. Hundreds of flavors are offered and e-cigarettes are packaged in various colors. Not only are the ill health effects and addictive quality of nicotine concerning, these products have the potential to serve as a gateway for minors to tobacco use. The relationship between tobacco use, secondhand smoke exposure and otolaryngology specific diseases has well been defined. As use of electronic cigarettes increases, pediatric otolaryngologists should be aware of the ongoing literature regarding these products and to be prepared to counsel families accordingly. The use of e-cigarettes among teenagers, potential implications of secondhand vapor exposure from parents and friends, and concerns this may encourage adolescents to utilize conventional tobacco products needs to be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Measures of E-cigarette Advertising Exposure and Receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Schmid, Simone; Kawamoto, Crissy T; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-10-01

    We tested how various measures of e-cigarette advertising exposure and receptivity are related to each other and compare to each other in their associations with e-cigarette use susceptibility and behavior. Cross-sectional data were collected from young adult college students (N = 470; M age = 20.9, SD = 2.1; 65% women). Measures of e-cigarette advertising exposure/receptivity compared included a cued recall measure, measures of marketing receptivity, perceived ad exposure, liking of e-cigarette ads, and frequency of convenience store visit, which is considered a measure of point-of-sale ad exposure. The cued-recall measure was associated with e-cigarette use experimentation but not current e-cigarette use. Marketing receptivity was associated with current e-cigarette use but not e-cigarette use experimentation. Liking of e-cigarette ads was the only measure associated with e-cigarette use susceptibility. Frequency of convenience store visit was associated with current e-cigarette use but not e-cigarette use experimentation or susceptibility. Inclusion of multiple measures of marketing exposure and receptivity is recommended for regulatory research concerning e-cigarette marketing. Marketing receptivity and cued recall measures are strong correlates of current and ever e-cigarette use, respectively.

  7. Cigarette advertising and teen smoking initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2011-02-01

    To test the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. A longitudinal survey of 2102 adolescents, aged 10 to 17 years at baseline, who never smoked was conducted by using masked images of 6 cigarette advertisements and 8 other commercial products with all brand information digitally removed. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency and cued recall of brands for cigarette and other advertisements. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were used to assess smoking initiation 9 months after the baseline assessment as a function of cigarette-advertisement exposure, other advertisement exposure, and baseline covariates. Thirteen percent (n = 277) of students initiated smoking during the observation period. Although the incidence of trying smoking was associated with increased exposure to cigarette advertisements (10% in the low, 12% in the medium, and 19% in the high cigarette-advertisement exposure tertile initiated smoking), exposure to other advertisements did not predict smoking initiation. Compared with low exposure to cigarette advertisements, high exposure remained a significant predictor of adolescent smoking initiation after controlling for baseline covariates (adjusted relative risk: 1.46 [95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.97]; P content-related effect of cigarette advertisements and underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and teen smoking; exposure to cigarette advertisements, but not other advertisements, is associated with smoking initiation.

  8. Social media e-cigarette exposure and e-cigarette expectancies and use among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Laestadius, Linnea; Buente, Wayne; Kawamoto, Crissy T; Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Unger, Jennifer B

    2018-03-01

    A vast majority of U.S. young adults use social media such as Facebook and Instagram daily. Research suggests that young adults are commonly exposed to e-cigarette-related marketing or user-generated content on the social media they use. Currently, however, there is limited empirical evidence as to how social media e-cigarette exposure is associated with e-cigarette use beliefs and behavior. In particular, limited evidence exists to support the proposition that social media e-cigarette exposure is uniquely associated with e-cigarette use, even after adjusting for the effects of e-cigarette use in young adults' in-person or 'offline' social networks. This study was conducted to test the hypotheses that 1) social media e-cigarette exposure is associated with e-cigarette use outcome expectancies and current e-cigarette use; and 2) the association between social media and e-cigarette use is linked via outcome expectancies. We collected cross-sectional data from a sample of 470 young adult college students in Hawaii. Hypotheses were tested by fitting a structural equation model to the data. The model accounted for the associations of demographic variables, cigarette smoking history, as well as e-cigarette use in individuals' actual social networks with expectancies and behavior. Results indicated that social media e-cigarette exposure was associated with current e-cigarette use indirectly through two of the four positive outcome expectancies examined, namely, positive "smoking" experience and positive sensory experience. We discuss the implications of the findings in the context of tobacco control efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electronic Cigarettes and Vaping: A New Challenge in Clinical Medicine and Public Health. A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Palazzolo, Dominic L.

    2013-01-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in the United States and worldwide is increasing. These devices closely mimic smoking of conventional cigarettes and can be used by consumers as a substitute for their smoking and nicotine addiction. Reasons for their popularity are that vendors of e-cigarettes have previously marketed their product as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, and as a possible smoking cessation tool. Rather than inhaling harmful smoke from burning tobacco, users o...

  10. Electronic cigarettes: a safer alternative or potential poison?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Janet E

    2014-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes have been marketed as a safer alternative to cigarettes, and their use is expanding exponentially. However, there is a severe lack of scientific data about the ingredients in the liquid used in the device and the health consequences of using electronic cigarettes. As technology has outpaced regulations, the production and sale of electronic cigarettes are, as yet, unregulated and do not fall under the purview of the Food and Drug Administration. This article will review the mechanism of action and what is currently known about the safety of electronic cigarettes. The risk of poisoning for children will also be identified, as well as the implications for home healthcare clinicians.

  11. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Kolar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Results: Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%. Results demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy.

  12. Electronic Cigarette and Traditional Cigarette Use among Middle and High School Students in Florida, 2011-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Porter

    Full Text Available Recent youth trends in the prevalence of e-cigarette and traditional cigarette use in Florida were examined in a cross-sectional, representative state sample from 2011 to 2014. Traditional cigarette use among youth declined during the study period. Experimentation with and past 30-day use of e-cigarettes among Florida youth tripled over 4 years. Past 30-day e-cigarette use exceeded traditional cigarette use in 2014; 10.8% of high school and 4.0% of middle school students reported recent e-cigarette use, compared with 8.7% of high school and 2.9% of middle school students for traditional cigarettes (P<0.001. By 2014, 20.5% of high school and 8.5% of middle school students reported ever use of e-cigarettes. Among ever e-cigarette users in 2014, 30.3% of high school and 42.2% of middle school students had never smoked traditional cigarettes. Given the concern that significant rates of e-cigarette use by U.S. adolescents may have a negative effect on public health, further review of e-cigarette advertising, marketing, sales, and use among U.S. youth is warranted.

  13. Electronic Cigarette and Traditional Cigarette Use among Middle and High School Students in Florida, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lauren; Duke, Jennifer; Hennon, Meredith; Dekevich, David; Crankshaw, Erik; Homsi, Ghada; Farrelly, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Recent youth trends in the prevalence of e-cigarette and traditional cigarette use in Florida were examined in a cross-sectional, representative state sample from 2011 to 2014. Traditional cigarette use among youth declined during the study period. Experimentation with and past 30-day use of e-cigarettes among Florida youth tripled over 4 years. Past 30-day e-cigarette use exceeded traditional cigarette use in 2014; 10.8% of high school and 4.0% of middle school students reported recent e-cigarette use, compared with 8.7% of high school and 2.9% of middle school students for traditional cigarettes (Pe-cigarettes. Among ever e-cigarette users in 2014, 30.3% of high school and 42.2% of middle school students had never smoked traditional cigarettes. Given the concern that significant rates of e-cigarette use by U.S. adolescents may have a negative effect on public health, further review of e-cigarette advertising, marketing, sales, and use among U.S. youth is warranted.

  14. Differences in the design and sale of e-cigarettes by cigarette manufacturers and non-cigarette manufacturers in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Jo, Catherine L; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-04-01

    Three categories of e-cigarette brands have emerged within the US market: e-cigarette brands developed by cigarette manufacturers, brands acquired by cigarette manufacturers and brands with no cigarette manufacturer affiliation. In the absence of federal regulatory oversight of e-cigarettes, we assessed differences in e-cigarette products and sales practices across these categories. Brand websites for top-selling e-cigarette brands from each of these categories were examined in October of 2015 to compare website access restrictions, online sales practices and products sold, including e-cigarette model type (eg, 'cigalike' vs advanced systems) and options available (eg, flavoured, nicotine free). Website access to brands developed by cigarette manufacturers was restricted to users aged 21 years or older, and one website required user registration. In addition, these brands were exclusively reusable/rechargeable 'cigalikes.' Limited flavour options were available for these products, and nicotine-free options were not sold. In contrast, brands acquired by cigarette manufacturers and brands with no cigarette manufacturer affiliation generally required website visitors to be 18, offered a nicotine-free option, and most offered disposable products and an array of flavoured products (eg, fruit/candy flavours). This exploratory study finds differences in e-cigarette products and sales practices across these three e-cigarette brand categories, with brands developed by cigarette manufacturers adopting a particularly distinctive product and sales strategy. Anticipated regulation of e-cigarettes in the USA may be influencing these product and sales decisions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Egyptian and foreign cigarettes Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, F.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The concentration of 27 elements was measured using neutron activation analysis in a cigarette brand commercially manufactured in Egypt and in three foreign brands available on the Egyptian market. The cigarette components examined were tobacco, wrapping paper and ash. All results are expressed in absolute values per cigarette. The concentration of Al, As, Ba, Br, Cl, Cs, Eu, Fe, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, Ti and V in the Egyptian cigarette were above the range determined for the foreign brands examined; however, Ce, Co, Cr, Hf, K, La, Mg, Se and Zn were within that range. Except for K, Mn, Ni and Ti, the above conclusions were the same for elements determined in the ash. The wrapping paper used for the Egyptian cigarette contains the lowest quantity of Cl and Mn. (author)

  16. Cigarette smuggling in Europe: who really benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1998-01-01

    Cigarette smuggling, now on the increase, is so widespread and well organised that it poses a serious threat to public health. This threat comes from two principal directions. First, smuggling makes cigarettes available cheaply, thereby increasing consumption. A third of annual global exports go to the contraband market, representing an enormous impact on consumption, and thus causing an increase in the burden of disease, especially in poorer countries. It is also costing government treasuries thousands of millions of dollars in lost tax revenue. Second, the tobacco industry uses smuggling politically, lobbying governments to lower tax, arguing that smuggling is caused by price differences. This paper shows that the claimed correlation between high prices and high levels of smuggling does not exist in western Europe. In fact, countries such as Norway and Sweden, with expensive cigarettes, do not have a large smuggling problem, whereas countries in the south of Europe do. Cigarette smuggling is not caused principally by "market forces". It is mainly caused by fraud, by the illegal evasion of import duty. The cigarettes involved are not the cheap brands from southern European countries, for which there is no international market. It is the well-known international brands such as Marlboro and Winston. We propose much tighter regulation of cigarette trade, including an international transport convention, and a total ban on transit trade-sale by the manufacturers to dealers, who sell on to smugglers.

  17. [Fiscal policy, affordability and cross effects in the demand for tobacco products: the case of Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajales, Alejandro Ramos; Curti, Dardo

    2010-01-01

    Uruguay, a country with a solid tobacco control policy since 2005 shows, contrary to expectations, an insignificant decrease in total tobacco products' sales in the last five years. The hypothesis is that on one side, changes in household income and the income elasticity of the demand for cigarettes were important countervailing factors in the demand of both products. The period 2005-2009 shows a large increase of 36% in household real income in Uruguay due to fast economic recovery after the 2002 crisis. The second factor is the interchangeability of roll your own and cigarettes and the impact on the demand of each product as a reaction to tax and price changes. The tax and price of roll your own tobacco remains substantially lower than that of cigarettes. This fact, and the increased substitution of roll your own for cigarettes seems to be the main reasons for the low impact of the policy of tobacco tax and price increases. This paper then consists of a revision of a 2004 study to estimate separate demands for both main tobacco products and obtain estimates for own price, cross price and income elasticities. Then, a simulation study was performed using the elasticities found and two scenarios of increases in household income: moderate (2.5% per year) and high (5% per year) confirming that countries where income is growing fast and with a potential for substitution towards cheaper products require substantial cigarette tax and price increases for a fiscal tobacco control policy to become effective.

  18. Can increases in the cigarette tax rate be linked to cigarette retail prices? Solving mysteries related to the cigarette pricing mechanism in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Zheng, Rong; Hu, Teh-wei

    2012-11-01

    To explain China's cigarette pricing mechanism and the role of the Chinese State Tobacco Monopoly Administration (STMA) on cigarette pricing and taxation. Published government tobacco tax documentation and statistics published by the Chinese STMA are used to analyse the interrelations among industry profits, taxes and retail price of cigarettes in China. The 2009 excise tax increase on cigarettes in China has not translated into higher retail prices because the Chinese STMA used its policy authority to ensure that retail cigarette prices did not change. The government tax increase is being collected at both the producer and wholesale levels. As a result, the 2009 excise tax increase in China has resulted in higher tax revenue for the government and lower profits for the tobacco industry, with no increase in the retail price of cigarettes for consumers. Numerous studies have found that taxation is one of the most effective policy instruments for tobacco control. However, these findings come from countries that have market economies where market forces determine prices and influence how cigarette taxes are passed to the consumers in retail prices. China's tobacco industry is not a market economy; therefore, non-market forces and the current Chinese tobacco monopoly system determine cigarette prices. The result is that tax increases do not necessarily get passed on to the retail price.

  19. Estimating Demand and Cross-Price Elasticity for Very Low Nicotine Content (VLNC) Cigarettes Using a Simulated Demand Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Megan R; Laugesen, Murray; Grace, Randolph C

    2017-03-03

    Very Low Nicotine Content (VLNC) cigarettes might be useful as part of a tobacco control strategy, but relatively little is known about their acceptability as substitutes for regular cigarettes. We compared subjective effects and demand for regular cigarettes and Very Low Nicotine Content (VLNC) cigarettes, and estimated cross-price elasticity for VLNC cigarettes, using simulated demand tasks. 40 New Zealand smokers sampled a VLNC cigarette and completed Cigarette Purchase Tasks to indicate their demand for regular cigarettes and VLNC cigarettes at a range of prices, and a cross-price task indicating how many regular cigarettes and VLNC cigarettes they would purchase at 0.5x, 1x, and 2x the current market price for regular cigarettes, assuming the price of VLNC cigarettes remained constant. They also rated the subjective effects of the VLNC cigarette and their usual-brand regular cigarettes. Cross-price elasticity for VLNC cigarettes was estimated as 0.24 and was significantly positive, indicating that VLNC cigarettes are partially substitutable for regular cigarettes. VLNC cigarettes were rated as less satisfying and psychologically rewarding than regular cigarettes, but this was unrelated to demand or substitutability. VLNC cigarettes are potentially substitutable for regular cigarettes. Their availability may reduce tobacco consumption, nicotine intake and addiction; making it easier for smokers to quit. VLNC cigarettes share the behavioural and sensory components of smoking whilst delivering negligible levels of nicotine. Although smokers rated VLNCs as less satisfying than regular cigarettes, smokers said they would increase their consumption of VLNCs as the price of regular cigarettes increased, if VLNCs were available at a lower price. This suggests that VLNCs are partially substitutable for regular cigarettes. VLNCs can be part of an effective tobacco control strategy, by reducing nicotine dependence and improving health and financial outcomes for smokers

  20. A Randomized Trial of the Effect of Youth Appealing E-Cigarette Advertising on Susceptibility to Use E-Cigarettes Among Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padon, Alisa A; Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Maloney, Erin K; Cappella, Joseph N

    2017-07-05

    Very little is known about how e-cigarette marketing is being perceived by youth, and the potential effect it will have on youth vaping and smoking behaviors. This limits the ability to identify youth-focused marketing efforts and to design effective policies for the regulation of e-cigarette marketing content and placement. A sample of 417 nonsmoking youth (mean age = 15, SD = 1.3) were randomly assigned to either view four e-cigarette ads with low youth appeal, four e-cigarette ads with high youth appeal or four control ads. After exposure, participants completed covert and overt measurements of e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette attitudes and susceptibility to use. Youth in an e-cigarette ad condition were more likely to select an e-cigarette item in a product choice task compared to control, and had more positive e-cigarette beliefs. Contrary to hypotheses, youth in the low youth appeal condition reported greater susceptibility to trying e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes compared to control. Exposure to any e-cigarette advertising may play a role in teens' decision to initiate e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette use. As the Food and Drug Administration now has regulatory authority over the marketing of e-cigarettes, regulations on e-cigarette advertising are suggested. Teens are increasingly being exposed to e-cigarette advertising, and many places are considering e-cigarette regulations, yet we know very little about how e-cigarette advertisements might influence youth tobacco use. This study utilized a novel dataset of e-cigarette ads coded for youth appeal and presented them to a sample of 417 nonsmoking teens in a randomized controlled design to test the effect of features on youth susceptibility to initiating e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette use. The findings inform evidence-based recommendations for regulating the marketing of e-cigarettes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and

  1. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  2. Marketing ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2013-01-01

    While the ‘low-tar’ scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of ‘less harmful, low tar’ was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by th...

  3. Prices and E-Cigarette Demand: Evidence From the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoklosa, Michal; Drope, Jeffrey; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-10-01

    Many European Union (EU) Member States have expressed the need for EU legislation to clarify the issue of e-cigarette taxation, but the economic evidence to inform creation of such policies has been lacking. To date, only one study-on the United States only-has examined responsiveness of e-cigarette demand to price changes. We used 2011-2014 pooled time-series data on e-cigarette sales, as well as e-cigarette and cigarette prices for six EU markets (Estonia, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden, and the United Kingdom). We utilized static and dynamic fixed-effects models to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes. In a separate model for Sweden, we examined the effects of snus prices on e-cigarette sales. Based on static models, every 10% increase in e-cigarette prices is associated with a drop in e-cigarettes sales of approximately 8.2%, while based on dynamic models, the drop is 2.7% in the short run and 11.5% in the long run. Combustible cigarette prices are positively associated with sales of e-cigarettes. Snus prices are positively associated with sales of e-cigarettes in Sweden. Our results indicate that the sales of e-cigarettes are responsive to price changes, which suggests that excise taxes can help governments to mitigate an increase in e-cigarette use. E-cigarettes and regular cigarettes are substitutes, with higher cigarette prices being associated with increased e-cigarette sales. Making combustible cigarettes more expensive compared to e-cigarettes could be effective in moving current combustible smokers to e-cigarettes, which might have positive health effects. This study is an exploratory analysis of the issues around e-cigarette taxation in Europe. Our results suggest that taxation is a measure that could potentially address the concerns of both opponents and proponents of e-cigarettes: taxes on e-cigarettes could be used to raise prices so as to deter e-cigarette initiation by never users, while concomitant greater

  4. The impact of electronic cigarettes on the paediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmowicz, Elizabeth L

    2014-05-01

    To review the impact of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on children. Five electronic databases were searched through 31 December 2013. Studies in English that included data for children younger than 18 years of age were included. In addition, relevant data from articles identified during searches of the e-cigarette literature, relevant state survey data and paediatric voluntary adverse event reports submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were reviewed and included. Use of e-cigarettes by youth is increasing and is not limited to traditional cigarette smokers. Data regarding the reasons for youth e-cigarette initiation and ongoing use are limited. The effects of e-cigarette marketing and the availability of flavoured e-liquids on youth use are unknown. The abuse liability of e-cigarettes in youth is also not known. Unintentional exposures to e-cigarettes and e-liquids have been reported in children. The number of e-cigarette-related reports received by poison centres is increasing. No data are available on secondhand and thirdhand e-cigarette aerosol exposures in children. Data on the impact of e-cigarettes on children are extremely limited. The available data indicate that youth awareness is high and use is increasing rapidly. The extent to which e-cigarette use in youth will result in nicotine dependence and subsequent use of other tobacco products is unknown. e-cigarettes present risks of unintentional nicotine exposure and are potential choking hazards. A greater understanding of the impact of e-cigarettes on children is needed and will be important in the evaluation of the effects of these products on the public health.

  5. Electronic Cigarette Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J Drew; Michaels, David; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Nugent, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often advertised as a healthier product when compared with traditional cigarettes. Currently, there are limited data to support this and only a threat of federal regulation from the US Food and Drug Administration. Calls to poison control centers about e-cigarette toxicity, especially in children, and case reports of toxic exposures have increased over the past 3 years. This research letter reports the frequency of hazardous exposures to e-cigarettes and characterizes the reported adverse health effects associated with e-cigarette toxicity.

  6. The behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y-W; Sung, H-Y; Yang, C-L; Shih, S-F

    2003-03-01

    Since market liberalization in 1987, the Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau (TTWMB) annual statistics indicate that both the demand for imported cigarettes as well as the number of seized smuggled packs have increased with an average revenue loss of NT dollars 4942 million over the past 15 years. The NT dollars 10 average increase in cigarette prices after Taiwan entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the implementation of the Tobacco and Alcohol Tax Law in 2002 are forcing policy makers to examine smuggling even more closely. This study evaluates factors that affect an individual smoker's decision to purchase smuggled cigarettes, particularly when faced with higher prices. 437 male smokers of imported cigarettes were drawn from a national interview survey on cigarette consumption, which the Division of Health Policy Research at the National Health Research Institutes conducted during the year 2000. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse the behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes with respect to demographic factors, economic factors, smoking behaviour, and other variables. Cigarette price was the driving factor most closely linked to the purchase of smuggled cigarettes--a 1% increase in cigarette price raised the likelihood of purchasing smuggled cigarettes at least 2.60 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 to 6.26). Smokers who spent more than NT 1000/month dollars on cigarettes were twice as likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes as those who spent less than NT 1000 dollars (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.70). Betel nut chewers were more likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.90). Smokers who opposed cigarette taxation policy were 1.69 times more likely to buy smuggled cigarettes. Personal income was not significantly associated with smuggled cigarettes purchases. This study evaluates what causes smokers to purchase smuggled cigarettes. We have determined that cigarette price is the most

  7. Cigarette sales in pharmacies in the USA (2005-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Behm, Ilan; Rees, Vaughan W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2012-09-01

    Several US jurisdictions have adopted policies prohibiting pharmacies from selling tobacco products. Little is known about how pharmacies contribute to total cigarette sales. Pharmacy and total cigarette sales in the USA were tabulated from AC Nielsen and Euromonitor, respectively, for the years 2005-2009. Linear regression was used to characterise trends over time, with observed trends extrapolated to 2020. Between 2005 and 2009, pharmacy cigarette sales increased 22.72% (p=0.004), while total cigarette sales decreased 17.43% (p=0.015). In 2005, pharmacy cigarette sales represented 3.05% of total cigarette sales, increasing to 4.54% by 2009. Extrapolation of these findings resulted in estimated pharmacy cigarette sales of 14.59% of total US cigarette sales by 2020. Cigarette sales in American pharmacies have risen in recent years, while cigarette sales nationally have declined. If current trends continue, pharmacy cigarette market share will, by 2020, increase to more than four times the 2005 share.

  8. Polonium-210 budget in cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.E.M.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the relatively high activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb that are found in tobacco and its products, cigarette smoking highly increases the internal intake of both radionuclides and their concentrations in the lung tissues. That might contribute significantly to an increase in the internal radiation dose and in the number of instances of lung cancer observed among smokers. Samples of most frequently smoked fine and popular brands of cigarettes were collected from those available on the Egyptian market. 210 Po activity concentrations were measured by alpha spectrometry, using surface barrier detectors, following the radiochemical separation of polonium. Samples of fresh tobacco, wrapping paper, fresh filters, ash and post-smoking filters were spiked with 208 Po for chemical recovery calculation. The samples were dissolved using mineral acids (HNO 3 , HCl and HF). Polonium was spontaneously plated-out on stainless steel disks from diluted HCl solution. The 210 Po activity concentration in smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in fresh tobacco and wrapping paper, fresh filter, ash and post-smoking filters. The percentages of 210 Po activity concentrations that were recovered from the cigarette tobacco to ash, post-smoking filters, and smokes were assessed. The results of this work indicate that the average (range) activity concentration of 210 Po in cigarette tobacco was 16.6 (9.7-22.5) mBq/cigarette. The average percentages of 210 Po content in fresh tobacco plus wrapping paper that were recovered by post-smoking filters, ash and smoke were 4.6, 20.7 and 74.7, respectively. Cigarette smokers, who are smoking one pack (20 cigarettes) per day, are inhaling on average 123 mBq/d of 210 Po and 210 Pb each. The annual effective doses were calculated on the basis of 210 Po and 210 Pb intake with the cigarette smoke. The mean values of the annual effective dose for smokers (one pack per day) were estimated to be 193 and 251 μSv from 210 Po and 210

  9. The association of retail promotions for cigarettes with the Master Settlement Agreement, tobacco control programmes and cigarette excise taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Brett R; Farrelly, Matthew C; Mann, Nathan H

    2006-12-01

    Retail stores are the primary medium for marketing cigarettes to smokers in the US. The prevalence and characteristics of cigarette retail advertising and promotions have been described by several investigators. Less is known about the proportion of cigarette sales occurring as part of a retail promotion and about the effects of tobacco control policies on cigarette promotions. To estimate the effect of the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), state tobacco control programme funding and cigarette taxes on retail promotions for cigarettes in supermarkets in the US. Proportion of cigarette sales occurring under a retail promotion and the value of multipack promotions (eg, buy one pack, get one pack free) and cents-off promotions, measured using scanner data in supermarkets from 50 retail market areas from 1994 to 2004. Promoted cigarette sales have increased significantly since the MSA (pmarket areas with high tobacco control programme funding (pmarket areas with high cigarette tax (pmarket areas with strong tobacco control policies, compared with market areas with weaker tobacco control policies, may partially offset the decline in smoking achieved in those areas.

  10. Patient-physician communication regarding electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Michael B; Giovenco, Daniel P; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2015-01-01

    Smokers are likely asking their physicians about the safety of e-cigarettes and their potential role as a cessation tool; however, the research literature on this communication is scant. A pilot study of physicians in the United States was conducted to investigate physician-patient communication regarding e-cigarettes. A total of 158 physicians were recruited from a direct marketing e-mail list and completed a short, web-based survey between January and April 2014. The survey addressed demographics, physician specialty, patient-provider e-cigarette communication, and attitudes towards tobacco harm reduction. Nearly two-thirds (65%) of physicians reported being asked about e-cigarettes by their patients, and almost a third (30%) reported that they have recommended e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation tool. Male physicians were significantly more likely to endorse a harm reduction approach. Physician communication about e-cigarettes may shape patients' perceptions about the products. More research is needed to explore the type of information that physicians share with their patients regarding e-cigarettes and harm reduction.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette perceptions and trial among Mexican adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Abad-Vivero, Erika N.; Barrientos-Gutíerrez, Inti; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Miriam; Mejía, Raúl; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Assess the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette perceptions and trial among adolescents in Mexico, where e-cigarettes are banned. METHODS Cross-sectional data were collected in 2015 from a representative sample of middle school students (n=10,146). Prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, relative harm, and trial were estimated, adjusting for sampling weights and school-level clustering. Multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for school-level clustering to assess correlates of e-cigarette awareness and trial. Finally, students who had tried only e-cigarettes were compared with students who had tried: 1) conventional cigarettes only; 2) both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes (dual triers); 3) neither cigarette type (never triers). RESULTS 51% of students had heard about e-cigarettes, 19% believed e-cigarettes were less harmful than conventional cigarettes, and 10% had tried them. Independent correlates of e-cigarette awareness and trial included established risk factors for smoking, as well as technophilia (i.e., use of more media technologies) and greater Internet tobacco advertising exposure. Exclusive e-cigarette triers (4%) had significantly higher technophilia, bedroom Internet access, and Internet tobacco advertising exposure compared to conventional cigarette triers (19%) and never triers (71%), but not compared to dual triers (6%), even though dual triers had significantly stronger conventional cigarette risk factors. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that adolescent e-cigarette awareness and use is high in Mexico, in spite of its e-cigarette ban. A significant number of medium-risk youth have tried e-cigarettes only, suggesting that e-cigarettes could lead to more intensive substance use. Strategies to reduce e-cigarette use should consider reducing exposures to Internet marketing. PMID:26903433

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of E-Cigarette Perceptions and Trial Among Early Adolescents in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Barrientos-Gutíerrez, Inti; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Miriam; Mejía, Raúl; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Sargent, James D

    2016-03-01

    Assess the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette perceptions and trial among adolescents in Mexico, where e-cigarettes are banned. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2015 from a representative sample of middle-school students (n = 10,146). Prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, relative harm, and trial were estimated, adjusting for sampling weights and school-level clustering. Multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for school-level clustering to assess correlates of e-cigarette awareness and trial. Finally, students who had tried only e-cigarettes were compared with students who had tried: (1) conventional cigarettes only; (2) both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes (dual triers); and (3) neither cigarette type (never triers). Fifty-one percent of students had heard about e-cigarettes, 19% believed e-cigarettes were less harmful than conventional cigarettes, and 10% had tried them. Independent correlates of e-cigarette awareness and trial included established risk factors for smoking, as well as technophilia (i.e., use of more media technologies) and greater Internet tobacco advertising exposure. Exclusive e-cigarette triers (4%) had significantly higher technophilia, bedroom Internet access, and Internet tobacco advertising exposure compared to conventional cigarette triers (19%) and never triers (71%) but not compared to dual triers (6%), although dual triers had significantly stronger conventional cigarette risk factors. This study suggests that adolescent e-cigarette awareness and use is high in Mexico, in spite of its e-cigarette ban. A significant number of medium-risk youth have tried e-cigarettes only, suggesting that e-cigarettes could lead to more intensive substance use. Strategies to reduce e-cigarette use should consider reducing exposures to Internet marketing. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clean, cheap, convenient: promotion of Electronic cigarettes on YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Clara G.; Walker, Kandi L.; Hart, Joy L.; Lee, Alexander S.; Siu, Allison; Smith, Courteney

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Videos promoting electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can be easily accessed on YouTube. Marketing claims present in YouTube videos may help shape the public’s opinion of e-cigarettes. Thus, it is important to understand the most frequent marketing claims and video sources. Methods The objectives of this study were to 1) identify marketing claims in YouTube videos that are commonly made on e-cigarette retail websites and 2) compare the frequency of marketing claims in u...

  14. What's in a Cigarette?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toluene - used to manufacture paint What's in an e-cigarette? Get the facts about nicotine, flavorings, colorings and other chemicals found in e-cigarettes. Find out more » Learn about the American Lung ...

  15. Manage Emotions Without Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybe you used to reach for a cigarette after a tough day at the office. Or found comfort in the companionship of a cigarette on a lonely night. Maybe you used to have cigarettes available as one way to help you deal with uncomfortable emotions.

  16. Nicotine and Cotinine Levels With Electronic Cigarette: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsot, A; Simon, N

    2016-01-01

    Since their introduction in 2004, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have gained popularity worldwide. E-cigarettes are marketed as nicotine delivery devices. Commonly reported reasons for use include to quit smoking, to reduce urge to smoke, or the perceived lower risk alternative to smoking. But what are the actual amounts of nicotine delivered? This review summarizes all the published studies concerning nicotine or cotinine levels following e-cigarette use. A literature search was conducted from the PubMed database, from 1985 to January 2014, using the following terms: electronic cigarette(s), e-cigarette(s), electronic nicotine delivery system, cotinine, and nicotine. Articles were excluded if they were not pertinent according to our criteria. References of all relevant articles were also evaluated. Eight studies were included in this review. The following information was extracted from the articles: population size, age of participants, recruitment, inclusion and exclusion criteria, concentration of nicotine in refills liquids, study sample design, and observed concentrations. Following design of studies, plasma nicotine Cmax was observed between 0 and 5 ng/mL (no significant changes) or between 13.9 and 16.3 ng/mL (similar to a tobacco cigarette) with a Tmax between 70 and 75 minutes. Cotinine levels after "vaping" an e-cigarette are similar to a tobacco cigarette. This review summarizes e-cigarette studies that contain information on nicotine or cotinine levels. The peak concentration of nicotine appears to be dependent on the use and dose level of e-cigarette cartridge. The value of this peak concentration is similar to the value found with a tobacco cigarette. However, the time corresponding to the peak concentration is delayed compared to a tobacco cigarette. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. E-cigarette Use Among High School and Middle School Adolescents in Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E.; Camenga, Deepa R.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Kong, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There is limited evidence on electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among U.S. adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional, anonymous surveys conducted in 4 high schools (HS; n = 3,614) and 2 middle schools (MS; n = 1,166) in Connecticut in November 2013 examined e-cigarette awareness, use patterns, susceptibility to future use, preferences, product components used (battery type, nicotine content, flavors), and sources of marketing and access. Results: High rates of awareness (MS: 84.3%; HS: 92.0%) and of lifetime (3.5% MS, 25.2 % HS) and current (1.5% MS, 12% HS) use of e-cigarettes was observed. Among those who had not tried e-cigarettes, 26.4% of MS and 31.7% of HS students reported being susceptible to future use. Males (OR = 1.70, p e-cigarette users and to report greater future susceptibility (males: OR = 1.30; Caucasians: OR = 1.14; ever cigarette smokers; OR = 3.85; current cigarette smokers; OR = 9.81; ps e-cigarette users, 51.2% reported that e-cigarette was the first tobacco product they had tried. E-cigarettes that were rechargeable and had sweet flavors were most popular. Smokers preferred e-cigarettes to cigarettes. Current cigarette smokers were more likely to initiate with nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, and ever and never cigarette smokers to initiate with e-cigarettes without nicotine. Primary sources for e-cigarette advertisements were televisions and gas stations and, for acquiring e-cigarettes, were peers. Conclusions: Longitudinal monitoring of e-cigarette use among adolescents and establishment of policies to limit access are imperatively needed. PMID:25385873

  18. Modeling the Health Effects of Expanding e-Cigarette Sales in the United States and United Kingdom: A Monte Carlo Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoran, Sara; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing. Population health effects will depend on cigarette smoking behaviors, levels of dual use with conventional cigarettes, and e-cigarette toxicity. To evaluate potential health effects of various scenarios of increasing promotion and use of e-cigarettes. A base case model was developed using data on actual cigarette and e-cigarette use patterns that quantifies transitions from an initial state of no cigarette or e-cigarette use to 1 of 5 final states: never use of cigarettes or e-cigarettes, cigarette use, e-cigarette use, dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, or quit. Seven scenarios were created that cover a range of use patterns, depending on how the e-cigarette market might develop, as well as a range of possible long-term health effects of e-cigarette use. Scenarios for changes from the base case were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. Separate sets of base case model parameters were evaluated for the US and UK populations. We assigned unitless health "costs" for each final state on a scale of 0 to 100. Population health "costs" were compared with the base case (status quo) assuming e-cigarette use health "costs" from 1% to 50% as dangerous as conventional cigarette use health costs. Compared with the base case, a harm reduction scenario in which e-cigarette use increases only among smokers who are interested in quitting with more quit attempts and no increased initiation of e-cigarette use among nonsmokers, and another scenario in which e-cigarettes are taken up only by youth who would have smoked conventional cigarettes, had population-level health benefits regardless of e-cigarette health costs in both the United States and United Kingdom. Conversely, scenarios in which e-cigarette promotion leads to renormalization of cigarette smoking or e-cigarettes are used primarily by youth who never would have smoked showed net health harms across all e-cigarette health costs. In other

  19. Point-of-Sale E-cigarette Advertising Among Tobacco Stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Neng; Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; McCarthy, Molly; Ramos, Athena; Correa, Antonia

    2017-12-01

    The marketing expenditure and sale of e-cigarettes increased sharply in the United States in recent years. However, little is known about neighborhood characteristics of point-of-sale (POS) e-cigarette advertising among tobacco stores. The purpose of this study was to examine socio-demographic characteristics of POS e-cigarette advertising among tobacco stores in the Omaha metropolitan area of Nebraska, USA. Between April and June 2014, trained fieldworkers completed marketing audits of all stores that sell tobacco (n = 463) in the Omaha metropolitan area and collected comprehensive e-cigarette advertising data of these stores. Based on the auditing information, we categorized tobacco stores based on e-cigarette advertising status. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between neighborhood socio-demographic factors and e-cigarette advertising among tobacco stores. 251 (54.2%) of the 463 tobacco stores had e-cigarette advertisements. We found that neighborhoods of stores with POS e-cigarette advertising had higher per capita income (p advertising. There were negative associations between e-cigarette advertising and number of adolescents or number of middle/high school students. After adjusting for covariates, only percentage of non-Hispanic Whites remained a significant factor for e-cigarette advertising. POS e-cigarette advertising among tobacco stores is related with neighborhood socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Future studies are needed to understand how these characteristics are related with e-cigarette purchasing and e-cigarette prevalence among social groups.

  20. E-Cigarette Toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegin, Gulay; Mekala, Hema Madhuri; Sarai, Simrat Kaur; Lippmann, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. In just a few short years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have become increasingly popular, especially for younger individuals. Many people believe that e-cigarettes are safe. The inhaled aerosols of e-cigarettes contain numerous potential toxicities, some of which could be dangerous for health with long-term use. The safety of prolonged aerosol exposure is not known. The use of e-cigarettes as a harm-reduction tool at stopping tobacco smoking is not uniformly successful. E-cigarettes may be safer than tobacco products, but repeated prolonged exposure to their aerosols has its own considerable potential risk. The long-term health consequences of their use remain to be established. Physicians should vigorously discourage the use of e-cigarettes and tobacco products, with special emphasis on abstinence for younger people and during pregnancy or lactation.

  1. Analysis of Polish internet retail sites offering electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarobkiewicz, Michał Konrad; Woźniakowski, Mateusz Mariusz; Sławiński, Mirosław Aleksander; Samborski, Patryk Michał; Wawryk-Gawda, Ewelina; Jodłowska-Jędrych, Barbara

    Electronic cigarettes as possibly healthier alternative to conventional cigarettes are gaining popularity worldwide, although they are still hazardous to human health. Partly it is caused by unregulated advertising and online sales. Unfortunately it is more and more popular for youth to try electronic cigarettes. The aim of the study was to assess the marketing claims used by Polish websites offering electronic cigarettes. A search using Google search engine was performed in July 2015 for two keywords: e-papierosy [e-cigarettes] and elektroniczne papierosy [electronic cigarettes]. First 150 websites (15 pages) were listed. After initial review 86 pages met all inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Pages were searched for presence of 13 selected marketing claims as well as age-related warning and any social websites connections. Age-related warning was present on only 33.72% (n=29) websites. Two thirds has its own Facebook fan-page with average 1922.09 ± 3634.86 likes. Articles about health are available on 10.46% (n=9) websites, 53.49% (n=46) states that e-cigarettes are healthier than conventional ones, 39.53% (n=34) emphasized that during usage of e-cigarettes no tarry substances are produced. Two pages had special article in which conventional and electronic cigarettes were compared. Almost half (44.19%) remarked that e-cigarettes are cheaper in usage than conventional, one third pointed out the simplicity of usage. 32.56% advertised e-cigarettes as aid in quitting smoking. One fourth stated that e-cigarettes are harmless for surroundings. 33.72% marketed them as a way of bypassing public smoking act. 56.98% remarked the variety of liquid tastes offered. Electronic cigarettes and their rising popularity create another new possible threat for public health as the widely available information emphasize safety of e-cigarettes usage and as their availability and usage is not limited or restricted by law. electronic cigarettes, e-cigarettes, internet

  2. The importance of social sources of cigarettes to school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croghan, E; Aveyard, P; Griffin, C; Cheng, K K

    2003-03-01

    To discover the importance of social sources of tobacco to young people as opposed to commercial sources; to describe the peer market for cigarettes in schools and the consequences for young people of their involvement in it. Cross sectional questionnaire survey, one-to-one interviews, and focus groups. Seven schools in Birmingham, UK. All students in two randomly selected classes from each school completed the questionnaire, and never smokers, occasional smokers, and regular smokers were interviewed. Two thirds of occasional smokers and one quarter of regular smokers obtained cigarettes socially, mostly for free. A few smokers regularly bought their cigarettes from others. Among friendship groups, both smokers and non-smokers were involved in the exchange of cigarettes, often for money, which is a common activity. A few young people use the selling of cigarettes to fund their own smoking. Some young people, smokers and non-smokers, are involved in semi-commercial selling of cigarettes. All school students are aware of where to purchase cigarettes from non-friends, which is only used "in emergency" because of the high price. One school had a strong punishment policy for students caught with cigarettes. In this school, more people bought singles from the peer market and the price was higher. The passing and selling of cigarettes in school is a common activity, which from the young persons perspective, ensures that all share cross counter purchases. A few people are prepared to use the peer market for monetary gain and it appears to be responsive to external conditions. The peer market might mean that efforts to control illegal sales of cigarettes are not as effective as hoped.

  3. Adolescents' and Young Adults' Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Deepa R; Cavallo, Dana A; Kong, Grace; Morean, Meghan E; Connell, Christian M; Simon, Patricia; Bulmer, Sandra M; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that adults perceive that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are effective for smoking cessation, yet little is known about adolescents and young adults' perceptions of e-cigarettes for quitting cigarette smoking. This study describes middle, high school, and college students' beliefs about, and experiences with, e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation. We conducted 18 focus groups (n = 127) with male and female cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in 2 public colleges, 2 high schools, and 1 middle school in Connecticut between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants discussed cigarette smoking cessation in relation to e-cigarettes. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. All participants, regardless of age and smoking status, were aware that e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation. College and high school participants described different methods of how e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation: (a) nicotine reduction followed by cessation; (b) cigarette reduction/dual use; and (c) long-term exclusive e-cigarette use. However, overall, participants did not perceive that e-cigarette use led to successful quitting experiences. Participants described positive attributes (maintenance of smoking actions, "healthier" alternative to cigarettes, and parental approval) and negative attributes (persistence of craving, maintenance of addiction) of e-cigarettes for cessation. Some college students expressed distrust of marketing of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Adolescent and young adult smokers and nonsmokers perceive that there are several methods of using e-cigarettes for quitting and are aware of both positive and negative aspects of the product. Future research is needed to determine the role of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in this population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions

  4. Harm Reduction or Harm Introduction? Prevalence and Correlates of E-Cigarette Use Among French Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Laura J; Bazillier-Bruneau, Cécile; Rouëssé, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes are marketed as a tool to give up or reduce cigarette smoking, and their use has risen sharply in recent years. There is concern that use is increasing particularly among adolescents and that they are not being used as a cessation tool but as a novel experience in their own right. The present research assessed prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of e-cigarette use and standard cigarette use and also explored the extent to which e-cigarettes appear to be used as a cessation tool. This was assessed using a questionnaire administered to 1,486 French adolescents aged 16 years. Prevalence of e-cigarette experimentation was high (54%) and comparable to that for standard cigarettes (55%). Furthermore, 20% of those who had experimented with e-cigarettes had never tried standard cigarettes, and among regular smokers of standard cigarettes, intentions to quit were not associated with e-cigarette usage frequency. Experimentation with both e-cigarettes and standard cigarettes was significantly predicted by higher age, higher socioeconomic status, and parental smoking of standard cigarettes (in particular the father). Being male marginally predicted e-cigarette use, whereas being female significantly predicted standard cigarette use. These findings give cause for concern: e-cigarette usage experimentation is extremely high, and is not associated with attempts to quit smoking standard cigarettes. Rather, it is exposing adolescents to a highly addictive drug (nicotine) and may pave the way for a future cigarette habit. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Deepa R.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Kong, Grace; Morean, Meghan E.; Connell, Christian M.; Simon, Patricia; Bulmer, Sandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Research has shown that adults perceive that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are effective for smoking cessation, yet little is known about adolescents and young adults’ perceptions of e-cigarettes for quitting cigarette smoking. This study describes middle, high school, and college students’ beliefs about, and experiences with, e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation. Methods: We conducted 18 focus groups (n = 127) with male and female cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in 2 public colleges, 2 high schools, and 1 middle school in Connecticut between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants discussed cigarette smoking cessation in relation to e-cigarettes. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: All participants, regardless of age and smoking status, were aware that e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation. College and high school participants described different methods of how e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation: (a) nicotine reduction followed by cessation; (b) cigarette reduction/dual use; and (c) long-term exclusive e-cigarette use. However, overall, participants did not perceive that e-cigarette use led to successful quitting experiences. Participants described positive attributes (maintenance of smoking actions, “healthier” alternative to cigarettes, and parental approval) and negative attributes (persistence of craving, maintenance of addiction) of e-cigarettes for cessation. Some college students expressed distrust of marketing of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Conclusions: Adolescent and young adult smokers and nonsmokers perceive that there are several methods of using e-cigarettes for quitting and are aware of both positive and negative aspects of the product. Future research is needed to determine the role of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in this population. PMID:25646346

  6. Patients with lung cancer: Are electronic cigarettes harmful or useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautzenberg, Bertrand; Garelik, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    E-cigarettes remain controversial because the scientific evidence of short term and long term effects on tolerance and the health value of a switch from tobacco to e-cigarettes is contested and controversial. Nevertheless the quality of e-cigarettes and e-liquids has improved. The main ingredients, propylene glycol, vegetable glycerine and nicotine are pharmaceutical-grade quality in most e-liquids. Flavors are almost all food grade. The high quality of ingredients has decreased the presence of impurities in e-liquids. The emissions of e-cigarettes do not contain solid particles or carbon monoxide. Nitrosamine content is at least one hundred times lower than in tobacco smoke. E-cigarette emissions in normal use do not contain any harmful constituents at significant levels except nicotine. UK public health authorities have stated that e-cigarette use is likely to be at least 95% less toxic than cigarette use. There are benefits from having a well-regulated legal market. In countries where e-liquid containing nicotine is not allowed, "do-it-yourself" liquids are common and have handling risks and may sometimes contain toxic impurities. Though e-cigarettes should never be assumed safe products for non-smokers, for smokers, the e-cigarette is at least 20 times less dangerous than the cigarette. Tobacco cessation specialists in countries where nicotine containing e-cigarettes are available increasingly provide counselling for e-cigarette use to stop smoking or to reduce smoking at the request of patients. Based on current knowledge, for patients with lung or other forms of cancer who would otherwise continue to smoke, e-cigarettes offer an alternative way to quit smoking while they undergo medical treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electronic cigarette sales to minors via the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca S; Derrick, Jason; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) entered the US market in 2007 and, with little regulatory oversight, grew into a $2-billion-a-year industry by 2013. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has reported a trend of increasing e-cigarette use among teens, with use rates doubling from 2011 to 2012. While several studies have documented that teens can and do buy cigarettes online, to our knowledge, no studies have yet examined age verification among Internet tobacco vendors selling e-cigarettes. To estimate the extent to which minors can successfully purchase e-cigarettes online and assess compliance with North Carolina's 2013 e-cigarette age-verification law. In this cross-sectional study conducted from February 2014 to June 2014, 11 nonsmoking minors aged 14 to 17 years made supervised e-cigarette purchase attempts from 98 Internet e-cigarette vendors. Purchase attempts were made at the University of North Carolina Internet Tobacco Vendors Study project offices using credit cards. Rate at which minors can successfully purchase e-cigarettes on the Internet. Minors successfully received deliveries of e-cigarettes from 76.5% of purchase attempts, with no attempts by delivery companies to verify their ages at delivery and 95% of delivered orders simply left at the door. All delivered packages came from shipping companies that, according to company policy or federal regulation, do not ship cigarettes to consumers. Of the total orders, 18 failed for reasons unrelated to age verification. Only 5 of the remaining 80 youth purchase attempts were rejected owing to age verification, resulting in a youth buy rate of 93.7%. None of the vendors complied with North Carolina's e-cigarette age-verification law. Minors are easily able to purchase e-cigarettes from the Internet because of an absence of age-verification measures used by Internet e-cigarette vendors. Federal law should require and enforce rigorous age verification for all e-cigarette sales as with the federal

  8. No sisyphean task: how the FDA can regulate electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of smoking have fostered a natural market for smoking cessation and smoking reduction products. Smokers attempting to quit or reduce consumption have tried everything: "low" or "light" cigarettes; nicotine-infused chewing gum, lozenges, and lollipops; dermal patches; and even hypnosis. The latest craze in the quest to find a safer source of nicotine is the electronic cigarette. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have swept the market, reaching a rapidly expanding international consumer base. Boasting nicotine delivery and the tactile feel of a traditional cigarette without the dozens of other chemical constituents that contribute to carcinogenicity, e-cigarettes are often portrayed as less risky, as a smoking reduction or even a complete smoking cessation product, and perhaps most troubling for its appeal to youth, as a flavorful, trendy, and convenient accessory. The sensationalism associated with e-cigarettes has spurred outcry from health and medical professional groups, as well as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), because of the unknown effects on public health. Inhabiting a realm of products deemed "tobacco products" under recent 2009 legislation, e-cigarettes pose new challenges to FDA regulation because of their novel method of nicotine delivery, various mechanical and electrical parts, and nearly nonexistent safety data. Consumer use, marketing and promotional claims, and technological characteristics of e-cigarettes have also raised decades old questions of when the FDA can assert authority over products as drugs or medical devices. Recent case law restricting FDA enforcement efforts against e-cigarettes further confounds the distinction among drugs and medical devices, emerging e-cigarette products, and traditional tobacco products such as cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco. This Article investigates the e-cigarette phenomenon in the wake of the recently enacted Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009

  9. Clean, cheap, convenient: promotion of Electronic cigarettes on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Clara G; Walker, Kandi L; Hart, Joy L; Lee, Alexander S; Siu, Allison; Smith, Courteney

    2017-04-01

    Videos promoting electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can be easily accessed on YouTube. Marketing claims present in YouTube videos may help shape the public's opinion of e-cigarettes. Thus, it is important to understand the most frequent marketing claims and video sources. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify marketing claims in YouTube videos that are commonly made on e-cigarette retail websites and 2) compare the frequency of marketing claims in user-generated and professional YouTube videos. Through content analysis, this study evaluated six marketing claims and descriptive information about YouTube videos (n = 50) related to "electronic cigarettes" and "vape". Overall, the most frequent marketing claim promoted e-cigarette use as better than traditional tobacco use (52%). Approximately 65% of videos appeared to be user-generated and 35% were professionally-produced. Compared to user-generated videos, significantly more professional videos made claims that e-cigarettes are cleaner (p YouTube promote e-cigarettes as safer than other tobacco products. Videos appearing to be user-generated contained different marketing claims compared to professional videos. Further research is necessary to assess how the perceived source of the video impacts the ways these marketing claims shape public perception and influence use.

  10. Changes in tar yields and cigarette design in samples of Chinese cigarettes, 2009 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneller, Liane M; Zwierzchowski, Benjamin A; Caruso, Rosalie V; Li, Qiang; Yuan, Jiang; Fong, Geoffrey T; O'Connor, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    China is home to the greatest number of smokers as well as the greatest number of smoking-related deaths. An active and growing market of cigarettes marketed as 'light' or 'low tar' may keep health-concerned smokers from quitting, wrongly believing that such brands are less harmful. This study sought to observe changes in cigarette design characteristics and reported tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide (TNCO) levels in a sample of cigarette brands obtained in seven Chinese cities from 2009 to 2012. Cigarettes were purchased and shipped to Roswell Park Cancer Institute, where 91 pairs of packs were selected for physical cigarette design characteristic testing and recording of TNCO values. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS, and was initially characterised using descriptive statistics, correlations and generalised estimating equations to observe changes in brand varieties over time. Reported TNCO values on packs saw mean tar, nicotine and CO levels decrease from 2009 to 2012 by 7.9%, 4.5% and 6.0%, respectively. Ventilation was the only cigarette design feature that significantly changed over time (p<0.001), with an increase of 31.7%. Significant predictors of tar and CO yield overall were ventilation and per-cigarette tobacco weight, while for nicotine tobacco moisture was also an independent predictor of yield. The use of ventilation to decrease TNCO emissions is misleading smokers to believe that they are smoking a 'light/low' tar cigarette that is healthier, and is potentially forestalling the quitting behaviours that would begin to reduce the health burden of tobacco in China, and so should be prohibited. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Cigarette pack labelling in 12 countries at different levels of economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Hassan; Buchanan, Daniel; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin; Yusuf, Salim; Chow, Clara K

    2011-05-01

    With increasing restrictions on cigarette marketing, the cigarette pack itself has become a main means of marketing. We describe a method to examine cigarette labelling and use it to evaluate packs collected from 12 countries at different stages of economic development. Health warnings were present on all 115 packs of cigarettes examined, but were on the front and back panels of only 68 per cent. Promotional labels were widespread, found on packs from all countries and more numerous (although not necessarily larger) than health warning labels in 10 of the 12 countries. Deceptive terms such as 'light' and 'mild' were observed on 42 per cent of all packs examined. The simple method described here can be used to compare cigarette labelling and potentially evaluate and track the implementation of cigarette labelling policy. We found health warning legislation poorly enforced and cigarette packs widely used to promote smoking and deceive smokers about health risks. The findings underline the need for generic (plain) packaging.

  12. E-cigarette price sensitivity among middle- and high-school students: evidence from monitoring the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Huang, Jidong; Johnston, Lloyd D; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2018-05-01

    We estimated associations between e-cigarette prices (both disposable and refill) and e-cigarette use among middle and high-school students in the United States. We also estimated associations between cigarette prices and e-cigarette use. We used regression models to estimate the associations between e-cigarette and cigarette prices and e-cigarette use. In our regression models, we exploited changes in e-cigarette and cigarette prices across four periods of time and across 50 markets. We report the associations as price elasticities. In our primary model, we controlled for socio-demographic characteristics, cigarette prices, tobacco control policies, market fixed effects and year-quarter fixed effects. United States of America. A total of 24 370 middle- and high-school students participating in the Monitoring the Future Survey in years 2014 and 2015. Self-reported e-cigarette use over the last 30 days. Average quarterly cigarette prices, e-cigarette disposable prices and e-cigarette refill prices were constructed from Nielsen retail data (inclusive of excise taxes) for 50 US markets. In a model with market fixed effects, we estimated that a 10% increase in e-cigarette disposable prices is associated with a reduction in the number of days vaping among e-cigarette users by approximately 9.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) = -17.7 to 1.8%; P = 0.02] and is associated with a reduction in the number of days vaping by the full sample by approximately 17.9% (95% CI = -31.5 to -4.2%; P = 0.01). Refill e-cigarette prices were not statistically significant predictors of vaping. Cigarette prices were not associated significantly with e-cigarette use regardless of the e-cigarette price used. However, in a model without market fixed effects, cigarette prices were a statistically significant positive predictor of total e-cigarette use. Higher e-cigarette disposable prices appear to be associated with reduced e-cigarette use among adolescents in the US. © 2017 Society

  13. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Because cigarette smokers constitute a large fraction of the population, a synergistic effect of plutonium and cigarette smoke might influence estimates of the health risk for plutonium and other transuranics released to the environment

  14. Prevalence of smuggled and foreign cigarette use in Tehran, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Tafti, Saeid Fallah; Telischi, Firouzeh; Joossens, Luk; Hosseini, Mostafa; Ghafari, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Background Iran is one of two main target markets for tobacco smuggling in the WHO's Eastern Mediterranean Region. The Iranian government has a local tobacco monopoly but there is high demand for international brands. Informal reports show about 20% of cigarette consumption is smuggled brands. This pack survey study is the first in Iran to gather validated information on use of smuggled cigarettes. Methods A randomized cross-sectional household survey in Tehran in 2008–2009 of 1540 smokers aged 16–90 (83% men) was performed, including interviewer checking of cigarette packs. Results In all, 20.9% of cigarettes and 6.7% of domestic branded cigarettes were smuggled. A total of 60.1% of smokers preferred foreign cigarettes. There was no significant difference between consumption of illegal cigarettes by sex. (Fisher exact test p=0.61) Use of smuggled cigarettes was higher among younger smokers (p=0.01) Conclusions Use of illegal cigarettes is high. Tobacco control laws outlawing their sale are not being enforced. PMID:20876076

  15. E-cigarette- specific symptoms of nicotine dependence among Texas adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kathleen R; Mantey, Dale S; Creamer, MeLisa R; Harrell, Melissa B; Kelder, Steven H; Perry, Cheryl L

    2018-09-01

    The potential of e-cigarettes to elicit symptoms of nicotine dependence has not been adequately studied, particularly in adolescent populations. The present study examined the prevalence of e-cigarette-specific symptoms of nicotine dependence ("symptoms of e-cigarette dependence") and the associations between these symptoms, e-cigarette usage group, and e-cigarette cessation-related items among Texas adolescents. This study involved a cross-sectional analysis of adolescents from Wave 4 of the Texas Adolescent Tobacco and Marketing Surveillance System (TATAMS) (n = 2891/N = 461,069). Chi-Square analyses examined differences in the prevalence of symptoms of dependence by e-cigarette usage group (exclusive versus dual users of e-cigarettes and combustible tobacco products) and demographic characteristics. Weighted multivariable logistic regression analyses examined the associations between symptoms of e-cigarette dependence, e-cigarette usage group, and e-cigarette cessation items. Exclusive e-cigarette users experienced symptoms of e-cigarette dependence, although the prevalence of most of the symptoms was higher for dual users. Adolescents who reported more symptoms of dependence were less likely to report both wanting to quit e-cigarettes and a past-year quit attempt for e-cigarettes (adjusted odds ratio "AOR" = 0.61 (95% CI = 0.41, 0.92) and AOR = 0.52 (95% CI = 0.30, 0.92), respectively). This study is the first to demonstrate that adolescent e-cigarette users are experiencing symptoms of dependence specific to e-cigarettes. In addition, symptoms of dependence may be barriers to e-cigarette cessation. Future research is needed to determine if characteristics of e-cigarette use (e.g. frequency and intensity) are associated with dependence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The importance of product definitions in US e-cigarette laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Lauren K; Grana, Rachel; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-04-01

    How electronic cigarettes and similar products (e-cigarettes) are defined affects how they are regulated, particularly whether existing laws for cigarettes apply, including sales and marketing, youth access, smoke-free and taxation laws. We examined the text of 46 bills that define e-cigarettes enacted in 40 states and characterised how e-cigarettes and similar products were defined. States enact laws creating new product categories for e-cigarettes separate from the 'tobacco product' category (eg, 'alternative nicotine product,' 'vapour product,' 'electronic nicotine device'), with four states explicitly excluding e-cigarettes from 'tobacco products.' Twenty-eight states do not include e-cigarettes in their definitions of 'tobacco products' or 'smoking,' eight include e-cigarettes as 'tobacco products,' three include e-cigarettes in 'smoking.' Sixteen states' definitions of e-cigarettes require nicotine, and five states pre-empt more stringent local laws. Tobacco and e-cigarette industry representatives tried to shape laws that benefit their interests. Definitions separating e-cigarettes from other tobacco products are common. Similar to past 'Trojan horse' policies, e-cigarette policies that initially appear to restrict sales (eg, limit youth access) may actually undermine regulation if they establish local pre-emption or create definitions that divide e-cigarettes from other tobacco products. Comparable issues are raised by the European Union Tobacco Products Directive and e-cigarette regulations in other countries. Policymakers should carefully draft legislation with definitions of e-cigarettes that broadly define the products, do not require nicotine or tobacco, do not pre-empt stronger regulations and explicitly include e-cigarettes in smoke-free and taxation laws. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. E-Cigarettes: Use, Effects on Smoking, Risks, and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, Stanton A; Bareham, David W

    2018-04-01

    Since e-cigarettes appeared in the mid-2000s, some practitioners, researchers, and policy makers have embraced them as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes and an effective way to stop smoking. While e-cigarettes deliver lower levels of carcinogens than do conventional cigarettes, they still expose users to high levels of ultrafine particles and other toxins that may substantially increase cardiovascular and noncancer lung disease risks, which account for more than half of all smoking-caused deaths, at rates similar to conventional cigarettes. Moreover, rather than stimulating smokers to switch from conventional cigarettes to less dangerous e-cigarettes or quitting altogether, e-cigarettes are reducing smoking cessation rates and expanding the nicotine market by attracting youth.

  18. The radioactive cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulatowski, J.; Skwarzec, B.

    2002-01-01

    The carcinogenic effect of 210 Po and 210 Pb on lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. Poland has one of the highest consumption of cigarettes in the world. The results of 210 Po determination in fourteen most frequently smoked brands of cigarettes which constitute over 70% total cigarette consumption in Poland, are presented and discussed. Moreover, polonium content in cigarette smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in fresh tobacco, ash, fresh filter and post smoking filter. The annual effective doses were calculated on the basis of 210 Po and 210 Pb inhalation with cigarette smoke. The results of this work indicate that Polish smokers who smoke one pack (20 cigarettes) per day inhale from 20 to 215 mBq of 210 Po and 210 Pb (each of them). The highest 210 Po content per sample was found in the cheep 'Popularne' brand (24.12 mBq), the lowest in 'Caro' (4.23 mBq). The mean values and annual effective dose for smokers were estimated to be 35 and 70 μSv from 210 Po and 210 Pb, respectively. For persons who smoke 2 packs of cigarettes with higher radionuclide concentrations, the effective dose is much higher (471 μSv/y) in comparison with intake in diet. Therefore, cigarettes and the absorption through the respiratory system are the main sources and principal pathway of 210 Po and 210 Pb intake of smokers in Poland. (author)

  19. The E-cigarette Social Environment, E-cigarette Use, and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Berhane, Kiros; Unger, Jennifer B; Cruz, Tess Boley; Urman, Robert; Chou, Chih Ping; Howland, Steve; Wang, Kejia; Pentz, Mary Ann; Gilreath, Tamika D; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M; Samet, Jonathan M; McConnell, Rob

    2016-07-01

    One concern regarding the recent increase in adolescent e-cigarette use is the possibility that electronic (e-) cigarettes may be used by those who might not otherwise have used cigarettes, and that dual use, or transition to cigarette use alone, may follow. Questionnaire data were obtained in 2014 from 11th/12th grade students attending schools in 12 communities included in the Southern California Children's Health Study. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between e-cigarette use, the social environment (family and friends' use and approval of e-cigarettes and cigarettes), and susceptibility to future cigarette use among never cigarette smokers (N = 1,694), using previously validated measures based on reported absence of a definitive commitment not to smoke. Among adolescents who had never used cigarettes, 31.8% of past e-cigarette users and 34.6% of current (past 30-day) e-cigarette users indicated susceptibility to cigarette use, compared with 21.0% of never e-cigarette users. The odds of indicating susceptibility to cigarette use were two times higher for current e-cigarette users compared with never users (odds ratio = 1.97; 95% confidence interval: 1.21-3.22). A social environment favorable to e-cigarettes (friends' use of and positive attitudes toward the use of e-cigarettes) was also associated with greater likelihood of susceptibility to cigarette use, independent of an individual's e-cigarette use. E-cigarette use in adolescence, and a pro-e-cigarette social environment, may put adolescents at risk for future use of cigarettes. E-cigarettes may contribute to subsequent cigarette use via nicotine addiction or social normalization of smoking behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A content analysis of electronic cigarette manufacturer websites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tingting; Jiang, Nan; Grana, Rachel; Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to summarise the websites of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) manufacturers in China and describe how they market their products. From March to April 2013, we used two search keywords 'electronic cigarette' (Dian Zi Xiang Yan in Chinese) and 'manufacturer' (Sheng Chan Chang Jia in Chinese) to search e-cigarette manufacturers in China on Alibaba, an internet-based e-commerce business that covers business-to-business online marketplaces, retail and payment platforms, shopping search engine and data-centric cloud computing services. A total of 18 websites of 12 e-cigarette manufacturers in China were analysed by using a coding guide which includes 14 marketing claims. Health-related benefits were claimed most frequently (89%), followed by the claims of no secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure (78%), and utility for smoking cessation (67%). A wide variety of flavours, celebrity endorsements and e-cigarettes specifically for women were presented. None of the websites had any age restriction on access, references to government regulation or lawsuits. Instruction on how to use e-cigarettes was on 17% of the websites. Better regulation of e-cigarette marketing messages on manufacturers' websites is needed in China. The frequent claims of health benefits, smoking cessation, strategies appealing to youth and women are concerning, especially targeting women. Regulators should prohibit marketing claims of health benefits, no SHS exposure and value for smoking cessation in China until health-related, quality and safety issues have been adequately addressed. To avoid e-cigarette use for initiation to nicotine addiction, messages targeting youth and women should be prohibited. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure Between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C; Harrington, Kathleen F

    2015-12-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N=944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous 6 months. Most Whites (99%) reported ever hearing of an e-cigarette compared to 96% of Blacks (padvertisement exposure reported for the previous 6 months, with a 14% increase each month (padvertisement exposure than Blacks (mean=25 vs. 8 in month 1 to 79 vs. 45 in month 9, respectively; padvertisement exposure was significantly associated with e-cigarette use (padvertisement exposure from stores and the Internet, and Blacks reported more advertisement exposure from radio or television. Results suggest that e-cigarette marketing is beginning to breach the Black population who are, as a consequence, "catching up" with Whites with regard to e-cigarette use. Given the significant disparities for smoking-related morbidity and mortality between Blacks and Whites, these findings identify new areas for future research and policy.

  2. Flavoring Compounds Dominate Toxic Aldehyde Production during E-Cigarette Vaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlystov, Andrey; Samburova, Vera

    2016-12-06

    The growing popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) raises concerns about the possibility of adverse health effects to primary users and people exposed to e-cigarette vapors. E-Cigarettes offer a very wide variety of flavors, which is one of the main factors that attract new, especially young, users. How flavoring compounds in e-cigarette liquids affect the chemical composition and toxicity of e-cigarette vapors is practically unknown. Although e-cigarettes are marketed as safer alternatives to traditional cigarettes, several studies have demonstrated formation of toxic aldehydes in e-cigarette vapors during vaping. So far, aldehyde formation has been attributed to thermal decomposition of the main components of e-cigarette e-liquids (propylene glycol and glycerol), while the role of flavoring compounds has been ignored. In this study, we have measured several toxic aldehydes produced by three popular brands of e-cigarettes with flavored and unflavored e-liquids. We show that, within the tested e-cigarette brands, thermal decomposition of flavoring compounds dominates formation of aldehydes during vaping, producing levels that exceed occupational safety standards. Production of aldehydes was found to be exponentially dependent on concentration of flavoring compounds. These findings stress the need for a further, thorough investigation of the effect of flavoring compounds on the toxicity of e-cigarettes.

  3. The unbearable lightness of "light" cigarettes: a comparison of smoke yields in six varieties of Canadian "light" cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Paul L; Vitaro, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Labelling cigarettes as "light" or "mild" is claimed to be one of the biggest marketing scams in Canadian history. Arguably, such labelling implies that these varieties of cigarettes are less harmful than "regular" cigarettes. In Canada, a food product can be labelled "light" if there is a 25% reduction from the "reference food" and if the constituent being reduced is clearly identified (e.g., light in fat). Cigarette labelling does not comply with these regulations, however. To examine whether or not some tobacco constituents meet the 25% reduction criterion, we compared yields of 41 toxic and/or carcinogenic smoke constituents in six varieties of "light" cigarettes to the yields of "regular" cigarettes. We selected cigarettes from the two most popular Canadian brands, Du Maurier and Players. Using a set of data provided by Imperial Tobacco Canada and made available to the public by the Government of British Columbia, we compared yields measured under a laboratory protocol (modified ISO) that was designed to provide a more rigorous evaluation of the differences between varieties of cigarettes and a more accurate assessment of smokers' potential smoke intake than the traditional protocol (standard ISO). For all six varieties of "light" cigarettes, the yields of nicotine were higher by an average of 5% (range: 1% to 13%). The 25% reduction criterion was not met for any variety of "light" cigarettes concerning yields of tar. For all cigarettes tested, yields of tar were reduced on average by only 16% (range: 5% to 22%). For carbon monoxide (CO), only Player's Smooth Light had an over 25% reduction (30%) compared with Player's Regular. Conversely, yield of CO was 24% higher for Du Maurier Lights compared with Du Maurier Regular. As for the other smoke constituents, the majority (75%) were not reduced by 25% or more in "light" cigarettes, and a sizeable proportion of yields (e.g., acrylonitrile, benzene, chromium, m+p cresol, mercury, nickel, toluene) were larger in

  4. The Experimental Tobacco Marketplace II: Substitutability and sex effects in dual electronic cigarette and conventional cigarette users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quisenberry, Amanda J.; Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of the current study was to evaluate tobacco product purchasing in the Experimental Tobacco Marketplace (ETM) among male and female smokers who also use e-cigarettes. We hypothesized a high substitution profile for e-cigarettes and that males would purchase more Snus than females. Methods The ETM is an online market used in clinical abuse liability research to mimic real-world purchasing patterns. Tobacco products, including each participant’s usual choice of conventional and e-cigarettes, were presented along with a price and description of nicotine content. Participants were endowed with an account balance based on the number of cigarettes and e-cigarettes consumed per week. Each participant was exposed to four ETM sessions in random order during which the price of conventional cigarettes was manipulated. Results Cigarette consumption decreased as price increased. A mixed factor three-way ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of price (i.e., more alternative products were purchased at higher cigarette prices), product (i.e., more e-cigarettes were purchased than gum, lozenges, and Snus), and sex (i.e., males purchased more than females). A significant three-way interaction indicated that males purchased more e-cigarettes, Snus, and dip than females at higher cigarette prices. Conclusion This study suggests that the user profile of cigarette smokers is associated with behavioral economic measures of alternative product substitution and indicates that the evaluation of nicotine replacement products should be considered for both males and females separately. PMID:28732318

  5. The Experimental Tobacco Marketplace II: Substitutability and sex effects in dual electronic cigarette and conventional cigarette users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quisenberry, Amanda J; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Epstein, Leonard H; Bickel, Warren K

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate tobacco product purchasing in the Experimental: Tobacco Marketplace (ETM) among male and female smokers who also use e-cigarettes. We hypothesized a high substitution profile for e-cigarettes and that males would purchase more Snus than females. The ETM is an online market used in clinical abuse liability research to mimic real-world purchasing patterns. Tobacco products, including each participant's usual choice of conventional and e-cigarettes, were presented along with a price and description of nicotine content. Participants were endowed with an account balance based on the number of cigarettes and e-cigarettes consumed per week. Each participant was exposed to four ETM sessions in random order during which the price of conventional cigarettes was manipulated. Cigarette consumption decreased as price increased. A mixed factor three-way ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of price (i.e., more alternative products were purchased at higher cigarette prices), product (i.e., more e-cigarettes were purchased than gum, lozenges, and Snus), and sex (i.e., males purchased more than females). A significant three-way interaction indicated that males purchased more e-cigarettes, Snus, and dip than females at higher cigarette prices. This study suggests that the user profile of cigarette smokers is associated with behavioral economic measures of alternative product substitution and indicates that the evaluation of nicotine replacement products should be considered for both males and females separately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparing Twitter and Online Panels for Survey Recruitment of E-Cigarette Users and Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Guillory, Jamie; Kim, Annice; Murphy, Joe; Bradfield, Brian; Nonnemaker, James; Hsieh, Yuli

    2016-01-01

    Background E-cigarettes have rapidly increased in popularity in recent years, driven, at least in part, by marketing and word-of-mouth discussion on Twitter. Given the rapid proliferation of e-cigarettes, researchers need timely quantitative data from e-cigarette users and smokers who may see e-cigarettes as a cessation tool. Twitter provides an ideal platform for recruiting e-cigarette users and smokers who use Twitter. Online panels offer a second method of accessing this population, but th...

  7. Employing the Precautionary Principle to Evaluate the Use of E-Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley M Bush

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes have emerged onto the public market as an alternative to tobacco cigarettes; however, science is inconclusive as electronic cigarettes have not been thoroughly investigated, including their short- and long-term risks and benefits.1,2 The question arises of whether electronic cigarettes will become the future tobacco crisis. This paper connects the Precautionary Principle to the use of electronic cigarettes in an effort to guide decision-makers in the prevention of adverse health outcomes and societal costs.

  8. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar, Stephanie K.; Rogers, Brooke G.; Webb Hooper, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and w...

  9. "Smoking revolution": a content analysis of electronic cigarette retail websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, Rachel A; Ling, Pamela M

    2014-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been increasingly available and marketed in the U.S. since 2007. As patterns of product adoption are frequently driven and reinforced by marketing, it is important to understand the marketing claims encountered by consumers. To describe the main advertising claims made on branded e-cigarette retail websites. Websites were retrieved from two major search engines in 2011 using iterative searches with the following terms: electronic cigarette, e-cigarette, e-cig, and personal vaporizer. Fifty-nine websites met inclusion criteria, and 13 marketing claims were coded for main marketing messages in 2012. Ninety-five percent of the websites made explicit or implicit health-related claims, 64% had a smoking cessation-related claim, 22% featured doctors, and 76% claimed that the product does not produce secondhand smoke. Comparisons to cigarettes included claims that e-cigarettes were cleaner (95%) and cheaper (93%). Eighty-eight percent stated that the product could be smoked anywhere and 71% mentioned using the product to circumvent clean air policies. Candy, fruit, and coffee flavors were offered on most sites. Youthful appeals included images or claims of modernity (73%); increased social status (44%); enhanced social activity (32%); romance (31%); and use by celebrities (22%). Health claims and smoking-cessation messages that are unsupported by current scientific evidence are frequently used to sell e-cigarettes. Implied and overt health claims, the presence of doctors on websites, celebrity endorsements, and the use of characterizing flavors should be prohibited. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Availability and range of tobacco products for sale in Massachusetts pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Hong, Weiwei; Liu, Jiayue; Noel, Jonathan K; Rees, Vaughan W

    2013-11-01

    New tobacco control policies have been introduced in Massachusetts which restrict tobacco product sales in pharmacies. The purpose of this investigation was to outline the scope of pharmacy involvement in the tobacco market by assessing the availability and range of tobacco products sold in Massachusetts pharmacies. Public listings of licenced pharmacies and tobacco retailers in Massachusetts were examined to determine the proportion of pharmacies licenced to sell tobacco, and the proportion of tobacco retailers possessing a pharmacy licence. Telephone interviews were conducted with a random sample (n=70) of pharmacies possessing a tobacco licence to assess the availability and range of tobacco products for sale. The availability of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products was assessed as a comparison. The majority of pharmacies in Massachusetts possessed a tobacco licence (69%), and pharmacies made up 9% of licenced tobacco retailers. Among pharmacies surveyed that reported selling tobacco (90%), cigarettes were the most available tobacco product for sale (100%), followed by cigars (69%), little cigars/cigarillos (66%), moist snuff (53%), pipe tobacco (49%), roll-your-own tobacco (34%), snus (14%), dissolvable tobacco (11%) and electronic cigarettes (2%). Nearly all pharmacies selling tobacco offered the nicotine patch (100%), gum (100%) and lozenge (98%). Tobacco-free pharmacy policies would affect a majority of Massachusetts pharmacies and remove a variety of tobacco products from their store shelves. Further, nearly one in ten tobacco retailers would be eliminated by prohibiting tobacco sales in Massachusetts pharmacies statewide.

  11. Assessing the Association Between E-Cigarette Use and Exposure to Social Media in College Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawdey, Michael D; Hancock, Linda; Messner, Marcus; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth C

    2017-12-06

    Social media platforms provide an indirect medium for encouraging e-cigarette use between individuals and also serve as a direct marketing tool from e-cigarette brands to potential users. E-cigarette users share information via social media that often contains product details or health-related claims. Determine whether e-cigarette use is associated with exposure to e-cigarettes on social media in college students. Data from a sample of 258 college students was obtained via a clicker-response questionnaire (90% response rate). Demographic, lifetime and current e-cigarette/cigarette use, and e-cigarette exposure via social media (peer posts or advertisements) were examined. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between lifetime and current e-cigarette use and viewing peer posts or advertisements on social media while adjusting for cigarette use and self-posting about e-cigarettes. Overall, 46% of participants reported lifetime e-cigarette use, 16% current e-cigarette use, and 7% were current dual users of e-cigarettes and cigarettes. There were positive and significant associations between lifetime e-cigarette use and viewing peer posts (aOR = 3.11; 95% CI = 1.25-7.76) as well as advertisements (aOR = 3.01; 95% CI = 1.19-7.65) on e-cigarettes via social media after adjusting for cigarette use. Current e-cigarette use was only significantly associated with viewing peer posts via social media (aOR = 7.58; 95% CI = 1.66-34.6) after adjusting for cigarette use. Conclusions/Importance: Almost half of college students view peer posts and advertisements on e-cigarettes via social media. This exposure is associated with individual e-cigarette use. Continued efforts to examine online e-cigarette content are needed to help future interventions decrease e-cigarette use.

  12. Do e-cigarettes have the potential to compete with conventional cigarettes?: a survey of conventional cigarette smokers' experiences with e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralikova, Eva; Novak, Jan; West, Oliver; Kmetova, Alexandra; Hajek, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are becoming increasingly popular globally. If they were to replace conventional cigarettes, it could have a substantial impact on public health. To evaluate EC's potential for competing with conventional cigarettes as a consumer product, we report the first data, to our knowledge, on the proportion of smokers who try ECs and become regular users. A total of 2,012 people seen smoking or buying cigarettes in the Czech Republic were approached to answer questions about smoking, with no mention made of ECs to avoid the common bias in surveys of EC users. During the interview, the volunteers' experience with ECs was then discussed. A total of 1,738 smokers (86%) participated. One-half reported trying ECs at least once. Among those who tried ECs, 18.3% (95% CI, 0.15.7%-20.9%) reported using them regularly, and 14% (95% CI, 11.6%-16.2%) used them daily. On average, regular users used ECs daily for 7.1 months. The most common reason for using ECs was to reduce consumption of conventional cigarettes; 60% of regular EC users reported that ECs helped them to achieve this. Being older and having a more favorable initial experience with ECs explained 19% of the variance in progressing to regular EC use. Almost one-fifth of smokers who try ECs once go on to become regular users. ECs may develop into a genuine competitor to conventional cigarettes. Government agencies preparing to regulate ECs need to ensure that such moves do not create a market monopoly for conventional cigarettes.

  13. Measuring illicit cigarette trade in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Norman; Llorente, Blanca Amalia; Iglesias, Roberto Magno; Escobar, Diego

    2018-03-14

    By 2016, tobacco industry provided the only illicit trade estimates in Colombia and used these to discourage tax increases since the 1990s. To establish the viability of a threefold hike in the excise tax, policy makers needed unbiased estimates of the illicit cigarette. To estimate the size of illicit cigarette trade in five Colombian cities (63% of the market), analyse characteristics of smokers of illicit cigarettes and compare market share results with one industry-funded survey. Street cross-sectional survey with smokers' self-report on consumption pattern, last purchase information and direct observation of smoker's packs. Sampling frame: smokers, men and women, 12 years old or older, all income levels, resident in five Colombian cities (Bogotá, Medellín, Cali, Cartagena and Cúcuta) with 1 733 316 smokers in 2013. Sample size 1697, simple random sample by city, sampling weights based on age groups and cities. Confidence level 95%, margin of error 3.5% for Bogotá and Medellín and 5% for the other three cities. Data collection period: 24 August-14 September 2016. Illicit cigarettes represent 3.5% of consumption in the five cities, a much lower estimate than the industry data. There are significant differences across cities, with Bogotá at the bottom (1.5%) and Cúcuta at the top (22.8%). The low overall penetration of illicit cigarettes in Colombia indicates that the industry's warnings against tax increases are not justified. The limited importance of tax levels as determinant of consumption of illicit cigarettes is also suggested by the differences across cities, all of them with the same tax regime. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to determine whether cigarette smoking increases the probability of plutonium-induced lung cancer. Initial experiments, designed to characterize the effect of chronic cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of plutonium aerosols, are described

  15. Retail price and point of sale display of tobacco in the UK: a descriptive study of small retailers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysis Spanopoulos

    Full Text Available Since the implementation of the 2002 Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act, point-of-sale (PoS tobacco displays are one of few remaining means of communication between the tobacco industry and customers in the UK. This study aimed to explore the characteristics of tobacco displays in a UK city, and particularly to assess the tobacco prices and promotional offers, types and pack sizes on display.Digital pictures of PoS displays were taken in 117 small retail shops in Nottingham in mid 2010. Data were analysed using Windows Photo Gallery software and SPSS version 16.Just over half (52% of cigarette packs on display were packs of 20, and 43% packs of 10. Cigarette prices differed substantially between brands, ranging from £4.19 to £6.85 for 20-packs, and from £2.12 to £3.59 for 10-packs. Forty four percent of cigarette packs and 40% of RYO (Roll-Your-Own tobacco pouches, almost exclusively lower priced brands, were displayed with a pricemark, implying a promotional price offer. Eighty percent of 20-pack cigarette brand or brand variants on sale were priced below the EU-defined Most Popular Price Category (MPPC for the UK in 2010; 45% were priced below the Weighted Average Price (WAP, which replaced the MPPC in 2011.PoS displays communicate value by displaying a high proportion of lower cost brands, and smaller and hence lower-cost packs, and by displaying price discounts on packs. The MPPC substantially overestimated the prices at which most 20-cigarette packs were available. Removal of PoS displays will prevent this means of price marketing but our study also suggests that minimum pricing of 20-pack cigarettes, prohibition of sale of cigarettes in packs less than 20, and plain packaging to prevent pricemarking are necessary if price is to be used effectively as a tobacco control measure.

  16. Retail price and point of sale display of tobacco in the UK: a descriptive study of small retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanopoulos, Dionysis; Ratschen, Elena; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2012-01-01

    Since the implementation of the 2002 Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act, point-of-sale (PoS) tobacco displays are one of few remaining means of communication between the tobacco industry and customers in the UK. This study aimed to explore the characteristics of tobacco displays in a UK city, and particularly to assess the tobacco prices and promotional offers, types and pack sizes on display. Digital pictures of PoS displays were taken in 117 small retail shops in Nottingham in mid 2010. Data were analysed using Windows Photo Gallery software and SPSS version 16. Just over half (52%) of cigarette packs on display were packs of 20, and 43% packs of 10. Cigarette prices differed substantially between brands, ranging from £4.19 to £6.85 for 20-packs, and from £2.12 to £3.59 for 10-packs. Forty four percent of cigarette packs and 40% of RYO (Roll-Your-Own) tobacco pouches, almost exclusively lower priced brands, were displayed with a pricemark, implying a promotional price offer. Eighty percent of 20-pack cigarette brand or brand variants on sale were priced below the EU-defined Most Popular Price Category (MPPC) for the UK in 2010; 45% were priced below the Weighted Average Price (WAP), which replaced the MPPC in 2011. PoS displays communicate value by displaying a high proportion of lower cost brands, and smaller and hence lower-cost packs, and by displaying price discounts on packs. The MPPC substantially overestimated the prices at which most 20-cigarette packs were available. Removal of PoS displays will prevent this means of price marketing but our study also suggests that minimum pricing of 20-pack cigarettes, prohibition of sale of cigarettes in packs less than 20, and plain packaging to prevent pricemarking are necessary if price is to be used effectively as a tobacco control measure.

  17. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  18. Media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs: Findings from the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS-FDA 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Hoffman, Allison C; Zandberg, Izabella; Blake, Kelly D

    2017-09-01

    Addiction beliefs about tobacco use are associated with intentions to use and use of tobacco products. Exposure to information about tobacco products in media sources may affect addiction beliefs. To examine the relationship between media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs. A nationally representative sample of US adults (n=3738) from the 2015 National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey was used to examine addiction beliefs about cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, hookah/waterpipe tobacco, and roll-your-own cigarettes. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between media exposure and addiction beliefs. We defined media exposure by hours exposed, as well as exposure to tobacco use health effects information through media sources including social media. We categorized media sources by whether respondents actively or passively engaged with the source. A majority (60.6% to 87.3%) of respondents believed that cigarettes, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes and smokeless tobacco are addictive. Less than half of respondents believed that electronic cigarettes or hookah/waterpipes are addictive (45.2% and 49.8%, respectively). Respondents exposed to messages about tobacco use health effects on active media channels (e.g., social media) had greater odds of believing that smokeless tobacco (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.48), hookah/waterpipe (AOR=1.69), and roll-your-own cigarettes (AOR=1.61) are addictive. Respondents exposed to tobacco use health effects messages on passive media channels (e.g., television), had greater odds of believing that cigarettes (AOR=2.76) and electronic cigarettes (AOR=2.12) are addictive. US adult exposure to information about the health effects of tobacco use was associated with addiction beliefs about tobacco products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Measurement of an electronic cigarette aerosol size distribution during a puff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belka Miloslav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes have become very popular recently because they are marketed as a healthier alternative to tobacco smoking and as a useful tool to smoking cessation. E-cigarettes use a heating element to create an aerosol from a solution usually consisting of propylene glycol, glycerol, and nicotine. Despite the wide spread of e-cigarettes, information about aerosol size distributions is rather sparse. This can be caused by the relative newness of e-cigarettes and by the difficulty of the measurements, in which one has to deal with high concentration aerosol containing volatile compounds. Therefore, we assembled an experimental setup for size measurements of e-cigarette aerosol in conjunction with a piston based machine in order to simulate a typical puff. A TSI scanning mobility particle sizer 3936 was employed to provide information about particle concentrations and sizes. An e-cigarette commercially available on the Czech Republic market was tested and the results were compared with a conventional tobacco cigarette. The particles emitted from the e-cigarette were smaller than those of the conventional cigarette having a CMD of 150 and 200 nm. However, the total concentration of particles from e-cigarette was higher.

  20. Measurement of an electronic cigarette aerosol size distribution during a puff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belka, Miloslav; Lizal, Frantisek; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav; Pospisil, Jiri

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have become very popular recently because they are marketed as a healthier alternative to tobacco smoking and as a useful tool to smoking cessation. E-cigarettes use a heating element to create an aerosol from a solution usually consisting of propylene glycol, glycerol, and nicotine. Despite the wide spread of e-cigarettes, information about aerosol size distributions is rather sparse. This can be caused by the relative newness of e-cigarettes and by the difficulty of the measurements, in which one has to deal with high concentration aerosol containing volatile compounds. Therefore, we assembled an experimental setup for size measurements of e-cigarette aerosol in conjunction with a piston based machine in order to simulate a typical puff. A TSI scanning mobility particle sizer 3936 was employed to provide information about particle concentrations and sizes. An e-cigarette commercially available on the Czech Republic market was tested and the results were compared with a conventional tobacco cigarette. The particles emitted from the e-cigarette were smaller than those of the conventional cigarette having a CMD of 150 and 200 nm. However, the total concentration of particles from e-cigarette was higher.

  1. Ethical considerations of e-cigarette use for tobacco harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Caroline; Filion, Kristian B; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Grad, Roland; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2016-05-17

    Due to their similarity to tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) could play an important role in tobacco harm reduction. However, the public health community remains divided concerning the appropriateness of endorsing a device whose safety and efficacy for smoking cessation remain unclear. We identified the major ethical considerations surrounding the use of e-cigarettes for tobacco harm reduction, including product safety, efficacy for smoking cessation and reduction, use among non-smokers, use among youth, marketing and advertisement, use in public places, renormalization of a smoking culture, and market ownership. Overall, the safety profile of e-cigarettes is unlikely to warrant serious public health concerns, particularly given the known adverse health effects associated with tobacco cigarettes. As a result, it is unlikely that the population-level harms resulting from e-cigarette uptake among non-smokers would overshadow the public health gains obtained from tobacco harm reduction among current smokers. While the existence of a gateway effect for youth remains uncertain, e-cigarette use in this population should be discouraged. Similarly, marketing and advertisement should remain aligned with the degree of known product risk and should be targeted to current smokers. Overall, the available evidence supports the cautionary implementation of harm reduction interventions aimed at promoting e-cigarettes as attractive and competitive alternatives to cigarette smoking, while taking measures to protect vulnerable groups and individuals.

  2. [Cigarette taxes and demand in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Norman; Llorente, Blanca; Deaza, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Estimate price and income elasticities of aggregate demand for cigarettes in Colombia, by controlling for structural market changes since the late 1990s, to identify policy opportunities for taxes that could improve public health and increase tax revenues. Measurement of aggregate demand for cigarettes using gross income reported on value-added tax returns submitted to Colombia's National Tax and Customs Office (DIAN is the acronym in Spanish) by the tobacco product manufacturing industry, subtracting exports. A quarterly time series was obtained for the period 1994-2014. The econometric estimation using two-stage least squares controls for price endogeneity and uses a set of dummy variables to control for structural changes in the market and in its regulation. Demand is, from a statistical standpoint, sensitive to price and to income. Price elasticity of demand is -0.78 and income elasticity is 0.61. Inelastic demand implies that it is possible, through cigarette excise taxes, to meet public health targets and increase revenues simultaneously. The results also suggest that the considerable increase in household income in Colombia in the first decade of the 21st century increased purchasing power, which, lacking an accompanying tax increase, promoted cigarette consumption, with negative effects on public health, and wasted an opportunity to increase tax revenues.

  3. E-cigarette advertising exposure and implicit attitudes among young adult non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Chen, Qimei; Muranaka, Nicholas; Kehl, Lisa; Unger, Jennifer B

    2016-06-01

    This study tested whether exposure to e-cigarette advertising affects the subliminal-spontaneous or automatic-attitudes towards e-cigarettes as a more pleasant or safer alternative to cigarettes among non-smoking young adults. 187 young adult (mean age=21.9; SD=4.1) current non-smokers who had never used an e-cigarette were randomly assigned to one of the 3 conditions that involved viewing magazine advertisements. Two of the 3 conditions were experimental conditions where thematically different [harm-reduction ("Health") vs. social enhancement ("Social") focused] e-cigarette ads were interspersed among ads of everyday objects. The third condition was the control condition in which participants viewed ads of everyday objects only. Participants provided data on explicit (e.g., harm perceptions) and implicit [e.g., Implicit Association Test (IAT), Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP)] measures after viewing the ads. Relative to the Control condition, participants in the Social condition showed 2.8 times higher odds of being open to using an e-cigarette in the future. Participants in the Health condition showed significantly higher implicit attitudes towards e-cigarettes as a safer alternative to cigarettes than participants in the Control condition. E-cigarette stimuli elicited more positive spontaneous affective reactions among participants in the Social condition than participants in the Health condition. E-cigarette ads may implicitly promote e-cigarettes as a reduced-harm cigarette alternative. Marketing of e-cigarette use as a way to enhance social life or self-image may encourage non-smoking young adults to try e-cigarettes. Findings may inform regulations on e-cigarette marketing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cigarettes Butts and the Case for an Environmental Policy on Hazardous Cigarette Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Barnes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Discarded cigarette butts are a form of non-biodegradable litter. Carried as runoff from streets to drains, to rivers, and ultimately to the ocean and its beaches, cigarette filters are the single most collected item in international beach cleanups each year. They are an environmental blight on streets, sidewalks, and other open areas. Rather than being a protective health device, cigarette filters are primarily a marketing tool to help sell ‘safe’ cigarettes. They are perceived by much of the public (especially current smokers to reduce the health risks of smoking through technology. Filters have reduced the machine-measured yield of tar and nicotine from burning cigarettes, but there is controversy as to whether this has correspondingly reduced the disease burden of smoking to the population. Filters actually may serve to sustain smoking by making it seem less urgent for smokers to quit and easier for children to initiate smoking because of reduced irritation from early experimentation. Several options are available to reduce the environmental impact of cigarette butt waste, including developing biodegradable filters, increasing fines and penalties for littering butts, monetary deposits on filters, increasing availability of butt receptacles, and expanded public education. It may even be possible to ban the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether on the basis of their adverse environmental impact. This option may be attractive in coastal regions where beaches accumulate butt waste and where smoking indoors is increasingly prohibited. Additional research is needed on the various policy options, including behavioral research on the impact of banning the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether.

  5. Cigarettes butts and the case for an environmental policy on hazardous cigarette waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Lum, Kristen; Smith, Elizabeth; Wang, Vivian; Barnes, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Discarded cigarette butts are a form of non-biodegradable litter. Carried as runoff from streets to drains, to rivers, and ultimately to the ocean and its beaches, cigarette filters are the single most collected item in international beach cleanups each year. They are an environmental blight on streets, sidewalks, and other open areas. Rather than being a protective health device, cigarette filters are primarily a marketing tool to help sell 'safe' cigarettes. They are perceived by much of the public (especially current smokers) to reduce the health risks of smoking through technology. Filters have reduced the machine-measured yield of tar and nicotine from burning cigarettes, but there is controversy as to whether this has correspondingly reduced the disease burden of smoking to the population. Filters actually may serve to sustain smoking by making it seem less urgent for smokers to quit and easier for children to initiate smoking because of reduced irritation from early experimentation. Several options are available to reduce the environmental impact of cigarette butt waste, including developing biodegradable filters, increasing fines and penalties for littering butts, monetary deposits on filters, increasing availability of butt receptacles, and expanded public education. It may even be possible to ban the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether on the basis of their adverse environmental impact. This option may be attractive in coastal regions where beaches accumulate butt waste and where smoking indoors is increasingly prohibited. Additional research is needed on the various policy options, including behavioral research on the impact of banning the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether.

  6. Electronic cigarettes: health impact, nicotine replacement therapy, regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While the adverse effects of conventional cigarettes on human health have been thoroughly examined, in the last 15 years we have witnessed the birth of electronic cigarettes. There are many types of these devices available on the market. Studies are still underway to determine their negative impact on the human body. Electronic cigarettes comprise of power supply and a vaporising system. The user inhales the aerosol produced by heating up the liquid containing nicotine. In contrast with conventional cigarettes, the tobacco is not combusted, thus the compositions of the aerosol and cigarette smoke are considerably different. Out of 93 chemical substances present in the e-cigarette smoke, the aerosol contains only acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, formaldehyde and nicotine. More toxic substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals, are not present. The amount of evidence suggesting electronic cigarettes’ harmful effects on the human body is constantly increasing. Some reports imply that the electronic cigarettes negatively influence pregnancy, human psyche, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. They might also be involved in oncogenesis. With electronic cigarettes constantly gaining popularity, the question about the adverse effects of passive smoking becomes increasingly more relevant. Although various methods of helping people cease smoking or delivering nicotine to their bodies without burning toxic substances are being explored, electronic cigarettes are not recommended in nicotine substitution therapy. Legal regulations regarding electronic cigarettes are still being worked on. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects electronic cigarettes have on the human’s health.

  7. Characteristics of illegal and legal cigarette packs sold in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Rodrigo; Corral, Juan E; Monzon, Diego; Yoon, Mira; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2016-11-25

    Guatemala, as a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is required to regulate cigarette packaging and labeling and eliminate illicit tobacco trade. Current packaging and labeling characteristics (of legal and illegal cigarettes) and their compliance with the FCTC is unknown. We sought to analyze package and label characteristics of illegal and legal cigarettes sold in Guatemala. We visited the 22 largest traditional markets in the country to purchase illegal cigarettes. All brands registered on tobacco industry websites were purchased as legal cigarettes. Analysis compared labeling characteristics of illegal and legal packs. Most (95%) markets and street vendors sold illegal cigarettes; 104 packs were purchased (79 illegal and 25 legal). Ten percent of illegal and none of the legal packs had misleading terms. Half of the illegal packs had a warning label covering 26 to 50% of the pack surface. All legal packs had a label covering 25% of the surface. Illegal packs were more likely to have information on constituents and emissions (85% vs. 45%, p Guatemala, neither illegal nor legal cigarette packs comply with FCTC labeling mandates. Urgent implementation and enforcement of the FCTC is necessary to halt the tobacco epidemic.

  8. Vape, quit, tweet? Electronic cigarettes and smoking cessation on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tempel, Jan; Noormohamed, Aliya; Schwartz, Robert; Norman, Cameron; Malas, Muhannad; Zawertailo, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Individuals seeking information about electronic cigarettes are increasingly turning to social media networks like Twitter. We surveyed dominant Twitter communications about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation, examining message sources, themes, and attitudes. Tweets from 2014 were searched for mentions of e-cigarettes and smoking cessation. A purposive sample was subjected to mixed-methods analysis. Twitter communication about e-cigarettes increased fivefold since 2012. In a sample of 300 tweets from high-authority users, attitudes about e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids were favorable across user types (industry, press, public figures, fake accounts, and personal users), except for public health professionals, who lacked consensus and contributed negligibly to the conversation. The most prevalent message themes were marketing, news, and first-person experiences with e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. We identified several industry strategies to reach Twitter users. Our findings show that Twitter users are overwhelmingly exposed to messages that favor e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids, even when disregarding commercial activity. This underlines the need for effective public health engagement with social media to provide reliable information about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation online.

  9. A content analysis of electronic cigarette manufacturer websites in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tingting; Jiang, Nan; Grana, Rachel; Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to summarise the websites of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) manufacturers in China and describe how they market their products. Methods From March to April 2013, we used two search keywords ‘electronic cigarette’ (Dian Zi Xiang Yan in Chinese) and ‘manufacturer’ (Sheng Chan Chang Jia in Chinese) to search e-cigarette manufacturers in China on Alibaba, an internet-based e-commerce business that covers business-to-business online marketplaces, retail and payment platforms, shopping search engine and data-centric cloud computing services. A total of 18 websites of 12 e-cigarette manufacturers in China were analysed by using a coding guide which includes 14 marketing claims. Results Health-related benefits were claimed most frequently (89%), followed by the claims of no secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure (78%), and utility for smoking cessation (67%). A wide variety of flavours, celebrity endorsements and e-cigarettes specifically for women were presented. None of the websites had any age restriction on access, references to government regulation or lawsuits. Instruction on how to use e-cigarettes was on 17% of the websites. Conclusions Better regulation of e-cigarette marketing messages on manufacturers’ websites is needed in China. The frequent claims of health benefits, smoking cessation, strategies appealing to youth and women are concerning, especially targeting women. Regulators should prohibit marketing claims of health benefits, no SHS exposure and value for smoking cessation in China until health-related, quality and safety issues have been adequately addressed. To avoid e-cigarette use for initiation to nicotine addiction, messages targeting youth and women should be prohibited. PMID:25335902

  10. A study on cigarette tobacco by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Soot Haji Ahmad; Tey Nsan Yen

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of 25 elements in cigarette tobacco of popular brands locally marketed were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. These elements are: Al, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, and Zn. Comparison of the element contents to the reported cigarette tobacco of Egypt, Iran and Turkey was also done. (author)

  11. Urinary cotinine levels of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göney, Gülşen; Çok, İsmet; Tamer, Uğur; Burgaz, Sema; Şengezer, Tijen

    2016-07-01

    The popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is rapidly increasing in many countries. These devices are designed to imitate regular cigarettes, delivering nicotine via inhalation without combusting tobacco but currently, there is a lack of scientific evidence on the presence or absence of nicotine exposure. Such research relies on evidence from e-cigarette users urine samples. In this study, we aimed to determine the levels and compare the amount of nicotine to which e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers and passive smokers are exposed. Therefore, urine samples were collected from e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, passive smokers, and healthy nonsmokers. The urinary cotinine levels of the subjects were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mean (±SD) urinary cotinine levels were determined as 1755 ± 1848 ng/g creatinine for 32 e-cigarette users, 1720 ± 1335 ng/g creatinine for 33 cigarette smokers and 81.42 ± 97.90 ng/g creatinine for 33 passive smokers. A significant difference has been found between cotinine levels of e-cigarette users and passive smokers (p e-cigarette users and cigarette smokers (p > 0.05). This is a seminal study to demonstrate the e-cigarette users are exposed to nicotine as much as cigarette smokers.

  12. Cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette vaping patterns as a function of e-cigarette flavourings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Mark D; Duffy, Valerie; Oncken, Cheryl

    2016-11-01

    The present study examined the influence of flavouring on the smoking and vaping behaviour of cigarette smokers asked to adopt e-cigarettes for a period of 6 weeks. Participants were 88 current male and female smokers with no intention to stop smoking, but who agreed to substitute e-cigarettes for their current cigarettes. On intake, participants were administered tests of taste and smell for e-cigarettes flavoured with tobacco, menthol, cherry and chocolate, and were given a refillable e-cigarette of their preferred flavour or a control flavour. Participants completed daily logs of cigarette and e-cigarette use and were followed each week. Analyses over days indicated that, during the 6-week e-cigarette period, cigarette smoking rates dropped from an average of about 16 to about 7 cigarettes/day. e-Cigarette flavour had a significant effect such that the largest drop in cigarette smoking occurred among those assigned menthol e-cigarettes, and the smallest drop in smoking occurred among those assigned chocolate and cherry flavours. e-Cigarette vaping rates also differed significantly by flavour assigned, with the highest vaping rates for tobacco- and cherry-flavoured e-cigarettes, and the lowest rates for those assigned to chocolate. The findings suggest that adoption of e-cigarettes in smokers may influence smoking rates and that e-cigarette flavourings can moderate this effect. e-Cigarette vaping rates are also influenced by flavourings. These findings may have implications for the utility of e-cigarettes as a nicotine replacement device and for the regulation of flavourings in e-cigarettes for harm reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Kim

    2011-05-01

    To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers.

  14. RJR Nabisco's cartoon camel promotes camel cigarettes to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranza, J R; Richards, J W; Paulman, P M; Wolf-Gillespie, N; Fletcher, C; Jaffe, R D; Murray, D

    1991-12-11

    To determine if RJR Nabisco's cartoon-theme advertising is more effective in promoting Camel cigarettes to children or to adults. To determine if children see, remember, and are influenced by cigarette advertising. Use of four standard marketing measures to compare the effects of Camel's Old Joe cartoon advertising on children and adults. High school students, grades 9 through 12, from five regions of the United States, and adults, aged 21 years and over, from Massachusetts. Recognition of Camel's Old Joe cartoon character, product and brand name recall, brand preference, appeal of advertising themes. Children were more likely to report prior exposure to the Old Joe cartoon character (97.7% vs 72.2%; P less than .0001). Children were better able to identify the type of product being advertised (97.5% vs 67.0%; P less than .0001) and the the Camel cigarette brand name (93.6% vs 57.7%; P less than .0001). Children also found the Camel cigarette advertisements more appealing (P less than .0001). Camel's share of the illegal children's cigarette market segment has increased from 0.5% to 32.8%, representing sales estimated at $476 million per year. Old Joe Camel cartoon advertisements are far more successful at marketing Camel cigarettes to children than to adults. This finding is consistent with tobacco industry documents that indicate that a major function of tobacco advertising is to promote and maintain tobacco addiction among children.

  15. Electronic Cigarettes Among Priority Populations: Role of Smoking Cessation and Tobacco Control Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Kim, Yoonsang; Vera, Lisa; Emery, Sherry L

    2016-02-01

    The electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) market has evolved rapidly in recent years, with exploding growth in brands and product types; however, e-cigarette use among priority (sexual minority and low-income) populations and its relationship with smoking-cessation and tobacco control policies have yet to be fully characterized. The authors conducted a nationally representative online survey of 17,522 U.S. adults in 2013. Participants were drawn from GfK's KnowledgePanel. Logistic regression models were used to analyze relationships between e-cigarettes (awareness, ever use, current use) and cigarette smoking and cessation behaviors, tobacco control policies, and demographics. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Approximately 15% of participants reported ever use of e-cigarettes, 5.1% reported current use, and 34.5% of ever users reported current use. E-cigarette awareness was lower among women, minorities, and those with low education. Ever and current use of e-cigarettes was higher among current cigarette smokers, young adults, and those with low SES; both ever use and current use were correlated with current cigarette smoking status, particularly when combined with quit intentions or attempts. Lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender respondents had higher rates of ever use and current use. Ever use was lower in states with comprehensive smoking bans. No significant relationship between cigarette price and e-cigarette use was detected. Ongoing surveillance of e-cigarette use among subpopulation groups and monitoring their use for combustible cigarette cessation are needed. Important variations in the patterns and correlates of e-cigarette awareness and use exist among priority populations. These findings have implications for future e-cigarette policy decisions. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of health-oriented descriptors on combustible cigarette and electronic cigarette packaging: an experiment among adult smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Tan, Andy S L; Yie, Kyeungyeun

    2017-10-05

    Certain tobacco companies use health-oriented descriptors (eg, 100% organic) on product packaging and advertising of combustible cigarettes or electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) that create a 'health halo' around smoking and vaping. Previous observational research suggests that such language may be associated with more favourable attitudes and reduced risk perceptions toward these brands compared with others. This study aimed to determine the effects of health-oriented descriptors on smokers' attitude toward the brand, perception of packaging information, comparative harm versus other brands and intention to purchase either combustible cigarettes or e-cigarettes. US adult smokers were randomly assigned to view either a health-oriented language package ('100% organic,' 'all natural' or 'no additives'), traditional marketing language package ('fine quality,' 'premium blend' or '100% original') or a no-language package of a combustible cigarette brand (Study 1, n=405) or an e-cigarette brand (Study 2, n=396) in an experimental design. Study 1: Participants in the health-oriented condition reported more favourable perceptions toward the package information, lower comparative harm and higher intention to purchase combustible cigarettes versus the no language control. In addition, participants in the health-oriented condition reported more positive attitude toward the brand and lower comparative harm versus the traditional marketing condition. Study 2: Compared with the traditional marketing condition, participants in the health-oriented condition reported greater intention to purchase Absolute e-cigarettes. There were no significant differences in attitude toward the brand, perception of packaging information and comparative harm versus other brands across conditions. The effect of health-oriented language was significant for combustible cigarettesand e-cigarette packages. Policies to restrict health-oriented language on cigarette and e-cigarette packaging are

  17. Do E-cigarettes induce weight changes and increase cardiometabolic risk? A signal for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, A; Van Gaal, L

    2017-10-01

    The prevalence of non-cigarette tobacco use in electronic cigarettes, also called vaping, is rapidly increasing, especially in adolescents and young adults, due to attractive marketing techniques promoting them as healthier alternatives to conventional tobacco cigarettes. Although smoking is associated with weight loss, it increases insulin resistance and attributes to other features of the metabolic syndrome, increasing the cardiometabolic risk profile. Whether vaping has the same deleterious effects on metabolic parameters as regular cigarette smoke has not yet been studied thoroughly in humans. However, animal model experiments attribute comparable effects of e-cigarette smoking, even without nicotine exposure, on weight and metabolic parameters as compared to smoking cigarettes. In this review paper, we want to give an overview of published data on the effects on weight and cardiometabolic parameters of e-cigarette use and formulate some mechanistic hypotheses. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Knowledge and Beliefs About E-Cigarettes in Straight-to-Work Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Mary; Cheney, Marshall K; Wann, Taylor F

    2017-02-01

    Young adults are a growing segment of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users. Young adults who go straight to work (STW) from high school make up a large portion of the young adult population, yet research to date has focused on college-educated young adults. This study explored STW young adult beliefs and knowledge about e-cigarettes. Semistructured individual interviews were used to elicit in-depth information from STW young adults ages 19-31 from a state in the southwest United States. Thirty interviews were conducted focusing on beliefs about e-cigarettes, current knowledge, and information-seeking practices. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo. Nine themes were identified falling into three categories: (1) beliefs about e-cigarettes, (2) knowledge about e-cigarettes, and (3) personal rules about e-cigarettes. STW young adults held positive beliefs about the health and safety of e-cigarettes for themselves, others, and the environment. They reported their social networks and the Internet as reliable sources of information about e-cigarettes, but they reported parents as the best source for advice. Participants had rules about e-cigarettes that contradicted some of their beliefs such as using e-cigarettes around children indicating that their beliefs were not as strongly held as they initially reported. Industry marketing and contradictory information may contribute to STW young adult knowledge and beliefs about e-cigarettes. Lack of credible public health information may also contribute to this issue. Ensuring that what is known about the benefits and harms of e-cigarettes is conveyed through multichannel communication and continued monitoring of marketing practices of the e-cigarette industry in light of the soon to be implemented regulations should be top priorities for public health. Beliefs and knowledge of STW young adults have not been explored even though they are heavily targeted by the e-cigarette industry. This group

  19. Pricing and sales tax collection policies for e-cigarette starter kits and disposable products sold online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Raphael E; Miner, Angela; Mackey, Tim K

    2015-10-23

    Previous studies have examined marketing characteristics of e-cigarettes sold online and others have examined e-cigarettes pricing in retail (non-Internet) settings. This study expands on these findings by examining pricing and marketing characteristics of interest among e-cigarette online vendors. Structured web searches were conducted from August-September 2014 to identify popular e-cigarette Internet vendors. We then collected pricing data (e-cigarette starter kits and disposables), sales tax collection policies and other vendor marketing characteristics. Average price for each product category was then compared with marketing characteristics using linear regression for continuous variables and independent t-tests for binary variables. Our searches yielded 44 e-cigarette Internet vendors of which 77% (n = 34) sold a total of 238 starter kit offerings (Mprice = $55.89). Half (n = 22) sold disposable types of e-cigarettes (Mprice = $7.17 p/e-cigarette) at a price lower than reported elsewhere in retail settings. Average disposable e-cigarette prices were also significantly higher for vendors displaying more health warning notices (P = 0.001). Only 46% disclosed sales tax collection policies and only 39% collected sales tax in their state of business. This study expands on current understanding of e-cigarette pricing and availability online and finds variation in e-cigarette pricing may be influenced by type of product, use of online health warnings and vendor sales tax collection policies. It also finds that e-cigarette online access and availability may be impacted by a combination of pricing and marketing strategies uniquely different from e-cigarette retail settings that requires further study and targeted policy-making. [Cuomo RE, Miner A, Mackey TK. Pricing and sales tax collection policies for e-cigarette starter kits and disposable products sold online. Drug Alcohol Rev 2015]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and

  20. Risky business: a longitudinal study examining cigarette smoking initiation among susceptible and non-susceptible e-cigarette users in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleyan, Sarah; Cole, Adam; Qian, Wei; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2018-05-26

    Given that many adolescent e-cigarette users are never-smokers, the possibility that e-cigarettes may act as a gateway to future cigarette smoking has been discussed in various studies. Longitudinal data are needed to explore the pathway between e-cigarette and cigarette use, particularly among different risk groups including susceptible and non-susceptible never-smokers. The objective of this study was to examine whether baseline use of e-cigarettes among a sample of never-smoking youth predicted cigarette smoking initiation over a 2-year period. Longitudinal cohort study. 89 high schools across Ontario and Alberta, Canada. A sample of grade 9-11 never-smoking students at baseline (n=9501) who participated in the COMPASS study over 2 years. Participants completed in-class questionnaires that assessed smoking susceptibility and smoking initiation. Among the baseline sample of non-susceptible never-smokers, 45.2% of current e-cigarette users reported trying a cigarette after 2 years compared with 13.5% of non-current e-cigarette users. Among the baseline sample of susceptible never-smokers, 62.4% of current e-cigarette users reported trying a cigarette after 2 years compared with 36.1% of non-current e-cigarette users. Overall, current e-cigarette users were more likely to try a cigarette 2 years later. This association was stronger among the sample of non-susceptible never-smokers (AOR=5.28, 95% CI 2.81 to 9.94; pe-cigarette use may contribute to the development of a new population of cigarette smokers. They also support the notion that e-cigarettes are expanding the tobacco market by attracting low-risk youth who would otherwise be unlikely to initiate using cigarettes. Careful consideration will be needed in developing an appropriate regulatory framework that prevents e-cigarette use among youth. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  1. Hospitalized Smokers’ Expectancies for Electronic Cigarettes versus Tobacco Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Peter S.; Cases, Mallory G.; Thorne, Christopher B.; Cheong, JeeWon; Harrington, Kathleen F.; Kohler, Connie L.; Bailey, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To compare hospitalized smokers’ expectancies for electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) against their expectancies for tobacco cigarettes and evaluate relationships between e-cigarette expectancies and intention to use e-cigarettes. Methods Analysis of baseline data from a one-year longitudinal observational study. The setting was a tertiary care academic center hospital in the Southeastern U.S. Participants were 958 hospitalized tobacco cigarette smokers. A questionnaire of e-cigarette expectancies based on the Brief Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (BSCQ-A) was developed and administered along with the original, tobacco-specific, BSCQ-A. Intention to use e-cigarettes was assessed with a single 10-point Likert scale item. Results Participants reported significantly weaker expectancies for e-cigarettes relative to tobacco cigarettes on all 10 BSCQ-A scales. Participants held sizably weaker expectancies for the health risks of e-cigarettes (p < .001, Cohen's d = −2.07) as well as the ability of e-cigarettes to relieve negative affect (p < .001, Cohen's d = −1.01), satisfy the desire for nicotine (p < .001, Cohen's d = −.83), and taste pleasant (p < .001, Cohen's d = −.73). Among the strongest predictors of intention to use e-cigarettes were greater expectancies that e-cigarettes taste pleasant (p < .001, adjusted β = .34), relieve negative affect (p < .001, adjusted β = .32), and satisfy the desire for nicotine (p < .001, adjusted β = .31). Conclusions Hospitalizedtobacco smokers expect fewer negative and positive outcomes from e-cigarettes versus tobacco cigarettes. This suggests that e-cigarettes might be viable though imperfect substitutes for tobacco cigarettes. PMID:25452052

  2. Slowing Menthol's Progress: Differential Impact of a Tobacco Tax Increase on Cigarette Sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Michael S; D'Silva, Joanne; Boyle, Raymond G

    2016-05-01

    The proportion of smokers who use menthol cigarettes has increased nationally since 2004, while use of non-menthol cigarettes is declining, suggesting that menthol may be undermining the effectiveness of population level tobacco control efforts. In 2013 Minnesota passed a $1.75 cigarette tax increase. We investigated whether sales of menthol and non-menthol cigarettes were differentially affected by the price increase. Cigarette sales data from convenience stores in the Minneapolis, Minnesota, metro area from January 2012, through May 2015, were obtained. Proportion of sales accounted for by menthol cigarettes was analyzed with segmented regression. Before the price increase, menthol cigarettes gained 2.21% (1.17, 3.12) of market share annually. Following the price increase, the trend slowed to 0.26% (-0.78, 1.56) annually. The slope before the price increase was significantly positive; the slope following the price increase did not significantly differ from zero. Sales of menthol cigarettes declined less rapidly than non-menthol cigarettes before the price increase. Sales of menthol and non-menthol cigarettes declined at more comparable rates after the price increase. Increasing the price of tobacco may help ensure declines in consumption are more evenly distributed across menthol and non-menthol cigarettes. Using sales data, we found that a trend of increasing market share for menthol cigarettes was significantly reduced by a $1.75 cigarette price increase. These results suggest that cigarette price increases, a core tobacco control policy, may have a greater effect on menthol smokers than non-menthol smokers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Social influences on use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and hookah by college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Melody; Ickes, Melinda J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Butler, Karen; Wiggins, Amanda T; Hahn, Ellen J

    2016-01-01

    (1) Compare social norms and perceived peer use between college student cigarette, e-cigarette, and/or hookah users and nonusers; and (2) determine variables associated with social influences. Undergraduate students attending a large university in the Southeast United States (N = 511). An April 2013 online survey assessed use of 3 types of tobacco, social norms, perception of peer use, number of smokers in life, exposure to secondhand smoke, and demographic characteristics. Participants indicated greater acceptance of emerging tobacco products than for cigarettes and consistently overestimated the percent of peers who use various tobacco products. Males and current users had higher social norm scores for all 3 forms of tobacco. To counter marketing of alternative tobacco products, education about the dangers of their use needs to be implemented across college campuses as part of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy that also includes tobacco-free campus policies.

  4. Menthol Cigarette Smoking among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Goodin, Amie J.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Menthol can mask the harshness and taste of tobacco, making menthol cigarettes easier to use and increasing their appeal among vulnerable populations. The tobacco industry has targeted youth, women, and racial minorities with menthol cigarettes, and these groups smoke menthol cigarettes at higher rates. The tobacco industry has also targeted the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities with tobacco product marketing. Purpose To assess current menthol cigarette smoking by sexual orientation among a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods Data were obtained from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a national landline and cellular telephone survey of non-institutionalized U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, to compare current menthol cigarette smoking between LGBT (n=2,431) and heterosexual/straight (n=110,841) adults. Data were analyzed during January–April 2014 using descriptive statistics and logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, race, and educational attainment. Results Among all current cigarette smokers, 29.6% reported usually smoking menthol cigarettes in the past 30 days. Menthol use was significantly higher among LGBT smokers, with 36.3% reporting that the cigarettes they usually smoked were menthol compared to 29.3% of heterosexual/straight smokers (p<0.05); this difference was particularly prominent among LGBT females (42.9%) compared to heterosexual/straight women (32.4%) (p<0.05). Following adjustment, LGBT smokers had greater odds of usually smoking menthol cigarettes than heterosexual/straight smokers (OR=1.31, 95% CI=1.09, 1.57). Conclusions These findings suggest that efforts to reduce menthol cigarette use may have the potential to reduce tobacco use and tobacco-related disease and death among LGBT adults. PMID:25245795

  5. Turning off the tap: the real solution to cigarette smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    2003-03-01

    The tobacco industry has argued that tobacco smuggling is caused by market forces, i.e., by the price differences between countries, which create an incentive to smuggle cigarettes from 'cheaper' to 'more expensive' countries, and so urged governments to solve the problem by reducing taxes to remove this differential, which will also, they say, restore revenue. Although such market forces have some effect, smuggling is in fact more prevalent in 'cheaper' countries, and reducing tax is not the solution. Where taxes have been reduced tobacco consumption has risen and revenue has fallen, with disastrous consequences for public health. The key to understanding cigarette smuggling is understanding the role of the tobacco industry. At the heart of cigarette smuggling is large scale fraud: container loads of cigarettes are exported, legally and duty unpaid, to countries where they have no market, and where they disappear into the contraband market. They are often smuggled back into the country of origin, where they are sold at a third to half price. It is therefore profitable because duty has been illegally evaded. The key to controlling cigarette smuggling is not lowering taxes, it is controlling the tobacco manufacturing industry and its exporting practices.

  6. Modeling the Health Effects of Expanding e-Cigarette Sales in the United States and United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoran, Sara; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing. Population health effects will depend on cigarette smoking behaviors, levels of dual use with conventional cigarettes, and e-cigarette toxicity. OBJECTIVE To evaluate potential health effects of various scenarios of increasing promotion and use of e-cigarettes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A base case model was developed using data on actual cigarette and e-cigarette use patterns that quantifies transitions from an initial state of no cigarette or e-cigarette use to 1 of 5 final states: never use of cigarettes or e-cigarettes, cigarette use, e-cigarette use, dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, or quit. Seven scenarios were created that cover a range of use patterns, depending on how the e-cigarette market might develop, as well as a range of possible long-term health effects of e-cigarette use. Scenarios for changes from the base case were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. Separate sets of base case model parameters were evaluated for the US and UK populations. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We assigned unitless health “costs” for each final state on a scale of 0 to 100. Population health “costs” were compared with the base case (status quo) assuming e-cigarette use health “costs” from 1% to 50% as dangerous as conventional cigarette use health costs. RESULTS Compared with the base case, a harm reduction scenario in which e-cigarette use increases only among smokers who are interested in quitting with more quit attempts and no increased initiation of e-cigarette use among nonsmokers, and another scenario in which e-cigarettes are taken up only by youth who would have smoked conventional cigarettes, had population-level health benefits regardless of e-cigarette health costs in both the United States and United Kingdom. Conversely, scenarios in which e-cigarette promotion leads to renormalization of cigarette smoking or e-cigarettes are used primarily by youth

  7. Smokers' and e-cigarette users' perceptions of modified risk warnings for e-cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia A. Wackowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act opened the possibility for tobacco companies to apply to market their products as having “modified” or reduced risks. However, research on how to communicate comparative tobacco risks and how such messages are interpreted is limited. This study aimed to qualitatively examine perceptions of potential modified risk statements presented as warning labels for e-cigarettes. We conducted six focus groups between 2014 and 2015 with 27 adult e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers who provided comments on two versions of a modified risk warning for e-cigarettes: 1 “WARNING: No tobacco product is safe, but this product presents substantially lower risks to health than cigarettes” (as proposed by two companies for their smokeless tobacco products and 2 “WARNING: This product may be harmful to health, but is substantially less harmful than cigarettes” (an alternative developed by our team. Although most personally believed that e-cigarettes are safer than cigarettes and some thought the messages were true and accurate, many were skeptical and uncomfortable with the warnings because they did not “seem like a warning” and because use of the phrase “substantially lower risks” could be misleading and difficult to understand. Several thought the second warning was stronger (e.g., more active, more specific. Modified risk messages about e-cigarettes may impact perceptions and use of the product. More research is needed to identify the framing, wording and placement (e.g. within or in addition to a warning that could potentially increase population-level benefits and minimize harms.

  8. Celebrity-endorsed e-cigarette brand Instagram advertisements: Effects on young adults' attitudes towards e-cigarettes and smoking intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Joe; Jin, Seunga Venus; Hahm, Jung Min

    2018-03-01

    Celebrities endorsing e-cigarette brands on social media may exert a strong influence on e-cigarette uptake. Using a between-subject experiment, this study examines the effects of endorser type (celebrities, non-celebrities and products only) in e-cigarette brand Instagram advertisements on e-cigarette attitudes and smoking intentions. Results showed that celebrity endorsers significantly increased positive attitudes towards e-cigarettes and smoking intentions, compared to non-celebrities or products only. Celebrity endorsers also rated significantly higher on trustworthiness, expertise, goodwill and attractiveness, compared to non-celebrities. Additionally, identification, social comparison, health consciousness and social networking site use moderated between endorser type and key dependent measures. Implications for e-cigarette marketing regulation are discussed.

  9. The knowledge, concerns and healthcare practices among physicians regarding electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchustambham, Venkatkiran; Saladi, Swetha; Rodrigues, Jonathan; Fernandes, Hermina; Patolia, Setu; Santosh, Sadhashiv

    2017-07-01

    Background : Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that deliver aerosolized nicotine. With easy access and over-the-counter availability, many patients consider using electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation. Few studies have looked at long-term safety/efficacy and physician knowledge/attitudes toward e-cigarettes. Physicians have insufficient guidelines for advising their patients about e-cigarettes. Objective : 1) To identify knowledge and attitude of health care practitioners toward electronic cigarettes. 2) To identify the effect of level of training, experience and speciality on knowledge and practice of electronic cigarettes. 3) To identify factors influencing electronic cigarettes advise/prescribing practice. Methods : An anonymous online questionnaire was sent to residents, fellows, and faculty in pre-selected specialties at Saint Louis University (SLU) Hospital. Results : We received 115 responses. Nine percent reported being 'very familiar' with e-cigarettes, while 25% reported no familiarity; 18% of physicians would advise e-cigarettes as nicotine-replacement therapy if asked by patients; 91% were aware of the nicotine content of e-cigarettes, but only 20% and 39%, respectively, were aware of the presence of carcinogens and polyethylene glycol. Only 63% of respondents knew what 'vape' meant. Lack of evidence regarding long-term safety (76%), e-cigarettes as starter products for nonsmokers (50%), absence of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations (51%) and marketing to youth (42%) were major concerns. Stricter regulations (54%), warning labels similar to tobacco products (53%), restricting advertising (36%), banning sales to minors (34%), and banning use in public spaces (25%) were favored as regulatory measures. More than 50% of physicians see a role for e-cigarettes as part of 'harm-reduction strategy'. Conclusions : Further research is needed to assess whether e- cigarettes could be an effective smoking

  10. Use of electronic cigarettes among Romanian university students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrean, Lucia Maria

    2015-04-11

    Because electronic cigarettes are relatively new, data on usage patterns and factors which influence them are sparse. Hence, this study aims at assessing awareness, beliefs about electronic cigarettes and experimentation with them among university students from Romania- a country where the sales and marketing of these products are widespread. Secondly, correlates of electronic cigarette experimentation will also be investigated. A cross-sectional study was performed by means of anonymous questionnaires among 480 students, aged 19-24, from Cluj-Napoca, Romania, between April-May 2013. The results show that 92.5% of the students have heard about e-cigarettes; out of these, one quarter (53.3% of the smokers, 25% of the ex-smokers, 5.5% of the non-smokers) have tried electronic cigarettes at least once during lifetime. The results of the multinomial logistic regression point out that the correlates of electronic cigarette experimentation were: male gender, being a smoker of traditional cigarettes, having friends who experimented with electronic cigarettes, having stronger beliefs that electronic cigarettes could help them quit smoking and being less convinced that they are used only by smokers. The explained variance was 59%. The results underline the importance of addressing the issue of e-cigarette use through health education programs and regulatory interventions, since e-cigarettes are a reality faced by the Romanian youth.

  11. The cigarette pack as image: new evidence from tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M; Morley, C; Horan, J K; Cummings, K M

    2002-03-01

    To gain an understanding of the role of pack design in tobacco marketing. A search of tobacco company document sites using a list of specified search terms was undertaken during November 2000 to July 2001. Documents show that, especially in the context of tighter restrictions on conventional avenues for tobacco marketing, tobacco companies view cigarette packaging as an integral component of marketing strategy and a vehicle for (a) creating significant in-store presence at the point of purchase, and (b) communicating brand image. Market testing results indicate that such imagery is so strong as to influence smoker's taste ratings of the same cigarettes when packaged differently. Documents also reveal the careful balancing act that companies have employed in using pack design and colour to communicate the impression of lower tar or milder cigarettes, while preserving perceived taste and "satisfaction". Systematic and extensive research is carried out by tobacco companies to ensure that cigarette packaging appeals to selected target groups, including young adults and women. Cigarette pack design is an important communication device for cigarette brands and acts as an advertising medium. Many smokers are misled by pack design into thinking that cigarettes may be "safer". There is a need to consider regulation of cigarette packaging.

  12. Preferred flavors and reasons for e-cigarette use and discontinued use among never, current, and former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J

    2016-03-01

    To compare e-cigarette flavors preferred and reasons for use and discontinued use across never, current, and former e-cigarette users and cigarette smokers. We recruited 1567 participants aged 18-34 years through Facebook ads targeting tobacco users and nonusers in August 2014 to complete an online survey. We assessed tobacco use, preferred flavors, and reasons for e-cigarette use and discontinued use. Our sample was 49 % male, 87 % White; 56 % current cigarette smokers; and 53 % e-cigarette users. Current e-cigarette users used an average of 20.9 days in the past 30 (SD = 11.7) and 55.2 puffs/day (SD = 37.3). Compared to never and current smokers, former smokers used e-cigarettes more frequently (p's reason for e-cigarette use was "they might be less harmful than cigarettes". The most endorsed reason for discontinued e-cigarette use was "using other tobacco products instead". Never, current, and former smokers had distinct reasons for e-cigarette use and discontinued use and differed in flavor preferences. Regulating marketing and flavors may impact e-cigarette uptake by young adults.

  13. The Association of Point-of-Sale E-cigarette Advertising with Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Neng; Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; McCarthy, Molly; Ramos, Athena; Correa, Antonia

    2018-06-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) marketing expenditure is skyrocketing in the United States. However, little is understood about the geographic and socio-demographic patterns of e-cigarette advertising. We examined the associations between point-of-sale (POS) e-cigarette advertising and neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics in the Omaha Metropolitan Area of Nebraska. In 2014, fieldworkers collected comprehensive POS e-cigarette advertising data from all stores that sell tobacco (n = 463) in the Omaha Metropolitan Area. We used Geographic Information Systems to map POS e-cigarette advertisement density for the entire study area. Linear regression was used to examine the association between socio-demographic factors and POS e-cigarette advertising density. E-cigarette advertising density exhibited an obviously uneven geographic pattern in Omaha. Higher level of POS e-cigarette advertising was significantly related to lower median household income, higher percentage of Hispanics, and higher percentage of young adults. However, after adjusting for covariates, only median household income remained significantly associated with POS e-cigarette advertising. We found geographic, socioeconomic, and racial and ethnic disparities in exposure to POS e-cigarette advertising in Omaha, Nebraska. Future studies are needed to understand how these disparities influence e-cigarette adoption by different social groups and how to use such information to inform e-cigarette prevention strategies.

  14. E-cigarette advertising expenditures in the U.S., 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Arnold, Kristin Y; Makarenko, Olga

    2014-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are growing in popularity, but little is known about the extent to which these products are advertised to consumers. To estimate expenditures for e-cigarette advertising in magazines, TV, the Internet, newspapers, and radio in the U.S. from 2011 to 2012. E-cigarette advertising data were obtained from leading media intelligence companies, Kantar Media and Nielsen. Estimated e-cigarette advertising expenditures were summarized across media channels for 2011 and 2012. Additional information on brands advertised and market-level buys (i.e., local versus national) also was examined. Overall, e-cigarette advertising expenditures across media channels tripled from $6.4 million in 2011 to $18.3 million in 2012. Expenditures were highest in magazines and TV and lowest in newspapers and on the Internet. More than 80 unique brands were advertised, but blu eCigs dominated ad spending, comprising 76.7% of all e-cigarette advertising expenditures in 2012. National markets were increasingly targeted from 54.9% of ad buys in 2011 to 87.0% of ad buys in 2012. E-cigarette advertising expenditures are increasing, with a greater focus on national markets and TV ads, which will likely increase consumer awareness and use of e-cigarettes in the future. Federal-level efforts are needed to mandate that e-cigarette companies report their advertising expenditures. Future studies should examine how e-cigarette advertising expenditures and message content influence consumer awareness of, interest in, and use of e-cigarettes. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  15. An Examination of Electronic Cigarette Content on Social Media: Analysis of E-Cigarette Flavor Content on Reddit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the emerging electronic cigarette (e-cigarette marketplace has shown great development prospects all over the world. Reddit, one of the most popular forums in the world, has a very large user group and thus great influence. This study aims to gain a systematic understanding of e-cigarette flavors based on data collected from Reddit. Flavor popularity, mixing, characteristics, trends, and brands are analyzed. Fruit flavors were mentioned the most (n = 15,720 among all the posts and were among the most popular flavors (n = 2902 used in mixed blends. Strawberry and vanilla flavors were the most popular for e-juice mixing. The number of posts discussing e-cigarette flavors has increased sharply since 2014. Mt. Baker Vapor and Hangen were the most popular brands discussed among users. Information posted on Reddit about e-cigarette flavors reflected consumers’ interest in a variety of flavors. Our findings suggest that Reddit could be used for data mining and analysis of e-cigarette-related content. Understanding how e-cigarette consumers’ view and utilize flavors within their vaping experience and how producers and marketers use social media to promote flavors and sell products could provide valuable information for regulatory decision-makers.

  16. E-cigarette use and smoking reduction or cessation in the 2010/2011 TUS-CPS longitudinal cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Yuyan Shi; John P. Pierce; Martha White; Maya Vijayaraghavan; Wilson Compton; Kevin Conway; Anne M. Hartman; Karen Messer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are heavily marketed and widely perceived as helpful for quitting or reducing smoking intensity. We test whether ever-use of e-cigarettes among early adopters was associated with: 1) increased cigarette smoking cessation; and 2) reduced cigarette consumption. Methods A representative cohort of U.S. smokers (N = 2454) from the 2010 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) was re-interviewed 1 year later. Outcomes...

  17. College Students' Perceptions of Risk and Addictiveness of E-Cigarettes and Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maria; Loukas, Alexandra; Harrell, Melissa B.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: As conventional cigarette use is declining, electronic cigarette ("e-cigarette") use is rising and is especially high among college students. Few studies examine dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes among this population. This study explores the relationship between dual and exclusive e-cigarette / cigarette use and…

  18. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  19. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette ae...

  20. Toxicological and analytical assessment of e-cigarette refill components on airway epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasjot; Luquet, Emilie; Smith, David P T; Potgieter, Herman J; Ragazzon, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    There are over 2.6 million users of e-cigarettes in the United Kingdom alone as they have been promoted as a safer alternative to traditional cigarettes. The addition of flavours and aromas has also proven to be popular with younger generations. In this review, we survey the range of studies in the short timeframe since e-cigarettes reached the market to draw attention to the health associated risks and benefits of their introduction. We complement this review with a case study reporting on the composition of selected e-cigarette refills with particular emphasis on the toxicological activity of its components on lung cells.

  1. Exploring Differences in Youth Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Electronic Cigarette Television Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Jennifer C; Allen, Jane A; Eggers, Matthew E; Nonnemaker, James; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2016-05-01

    Studies suggest that exposure to televised electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) advertising contributes to the recent increase in e-cigarette use among youth. This study examines the relationship between perceptions of e-cigarette advertisements and attitudes toward and intentions to use e-cigarettes among youth who had never used e-cigarettes. In May 2014, we conducted an online survey of 5020 youth aged 13 to 17. Participants were randomly assigned to answer questions about their attitudes toward and intentions to use e-cigarettes before or after viewing e-cigarette advertisements. Perceived effectiveness (PE) of advertisements was measured after ad exposure. Ordinary least squares models were used to assess the relationship between PE and study outcomes. Among never e-cigarette users, greater PE was associated with more positive attitudes toward e-cigarettes (b = 0.74, P effective were more likely to have a positive attitude toward e-cigarettes and greater intention to try e-cigarettes in the future. Restricting televised e-cigarette advertising may reduce e-cigarette initiation among youth. Previous studies demonstrate that, among adults, PE is antecedent to actual ad effectiveness across a range of behaviors. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the relationship between PE and advertising effectiveness among youth. It provides evidence that PE may be a useful tool to quantify the potential influence of advertising on youth-advertising that, in this case, is designed to market a consumer good that may be harmful to youth but that may also be used to develop public health campaigns. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Who thinks what about e-cigarette regulation? A content analysis of UK newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Chris; Hilton, Shona; Weishaar, Heide

    2016-07-01

    To establish how frequently different types of stakeholders were cited in the UK media debate about e-cigarette regulation, their stances towards different forms of e-cigarette regulation, and what rationales they employed in justifying those stances. Quantitative and qualitative content analyses of 104 articles about e-cigarette regulation published in eight UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014. Reporting on e-cigarette regulation grew significantly (P e-cigarette regulation greatly outnumbered arguments against regulation. Regulating purchasing age, restricting marketing and regulating e-cigarettes as medicine were broadly supported, while stakeholders disagreed about prohibiting e-cigarette use in enclosed public spaces. In rationalizing their stances, supporters of regulation cited child protection and concerns about the safety of e-cigarette products, while opponents highlighted the potential of e-cigarettes in tobacco cessation and questioned the evidence base associating e-cigarette use with health harms. In the UK between 2013 and 2014, governments and tobacco control advocates frequently commented on e-cigarettes in UK-wide and Scottish national newspapers. Almost all commentators supported e-cigarette regulation, but there was disagreement about whether e-cigarette use should be allowed in enclosed public spaces. This appeared to be linked to whether commentators emphasized the harms of vapour and concerns about renormalizing smoking or emphasized the role of e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid. © 2016 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Electronic Cigarette Exposure: Calls to Wisconsin Poison Control Centers, 2010–2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Debora; Tomasallo, Carrie D; Meiman, Jon G; Creswell, Paul D; Melstrom, Paul C; Gummin, David D; Patel, Disa J; Michaud, Nancy T; Sebero, Heather A; Anderson, Henry A

    2016-12-01

    E-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine and flavorings by aerosol and have been marketed in the United States since 2007. Because e-cigarettes have increased in popularity, toxicity potential from device misuse and malfunction also has increased. National data indicate that during 2010–2014, exposure calls to US poison control centers increased only 0.3% for conventional cigarette exposures, whereas calls increased 41.7% for e-cigarette exposures. We characterized cigarette and e-cigarette exposure calls to the Wisconsin Poison Center January 1, 2010 through October 10, 2015. We compared cigarette and e-cigarette exposure calls by exposure year, demographic characteristics, caller site, exposure site, exposure route, exposure reason, medical outcome, management site, and level of care at a health care facility. During January 2010 to October 2015, a total of 98 e-cigarette exposure calls were reported, and annual exposure calls increased approximately 17-fold, from 2 to 35. During the same period, 671 single-exposure cigarette calls with stable annual call volumes were reported. E-cigarette exposure calls were associated with children aged ≤5 years (57/98, 58.2%) and adults aged ≥20 years (30/98, 30.6%). Cigarette exposure calls predominated among children aged ≤5 years (643/671, 95.8%). The frequency of e-cigarette exposure calls to the Wisconsin Poison Center has increased and is highest among children aged ≤5 years and adults. Strategies are warranted to prevent future poisonings from these devices, including nicotine warning labels and public advisories to keep e-cigarettes away from children.

  4. Physicians' attitudes and use of e-cigarettes as cessation devices, North Carolina, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Kandra

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are not currently approved or recommended by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or various medical organizations; yet, they appear to play a substantial role in tobacco users' cessation attempts. This study reports on a physician survey that measured beliefs, attitudes, and behavior related to e-cigarettes and smoking cessation. To our knowledge this is the first study to measure attitudes toward e-cigarettes among physicians treating adult smokers.Using a direct marketing company, a random sample of 787 North Carolina physicians were contacted in 2013 through email, with 413 opening the email and 128 responding (response rate = 31%. Physicians' attitudes towards e-cigarettes were measured through a series of close-ended questions. Recommending e-cigarettes to patients served as the outcome variable for a logistic regression analysis.Two thirds (67% of the surveyed physicians indicated e-cigarettes are a helpful aid for smoking cessation, and 35% recommended them to their patients. Physicians were more likely to recommend e-cigarettes when their patients asked about them or when the physician believed e-cigarettes were safer than smoking standard cigarettes.Many North Carolina physicians are having conversations about e-cigarettes with their patients, and some are recommending them. Future FDA regulation of e-cigarettes may help provide evidence-based guidance to physicians about e-cigarettes and will help ensure that patients receive evidence-based recommendations about the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes in tobacco cessation.

  5. Reduced nicotine content cigarettes, e-cigarettes and the cigarette end game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L.; Donny, Eric C.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2017-01-01

    The reduced nicotine content cigarette and the emergence of non-combusted nicotine products like e-cigarettes should be viewed not as alternatives but as complementary components of regulatory interventions that could virtually end combusted tobacco use. PMID:27555354

  6. Adolescent smoking behaviour and cigarette brand preference in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Y; Tanihata, T; Ohida, T; Minowa, M; Wada, K; Suzuki, K; Kaetsu, A; Okamoto, M; Kishimoto, T

    2006-06-01

    As part of efforts to develop a smoking control strategy for Japanese adolescents, the results of two nationwide surveys on adolescent smoking behaviour were compared. Descriptive study on smoking behaviour among high school students was conducted. Self-reporting anonymous questionnaires were administered to 115,814 students in 1996 and 106,297 in 2000 through randomly sampled junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. Smoking prevalence, proportion of smokers by usual sources of cigarettes, national estimated cigarettes consumed by minors, share of cigarette brands smoked by high school students. The experiment rate among junior high school boys decreased in 2000 compared with that in 1996, whereas current and daily smoking rates did not. Although prevalence among Japanese girls was much lower than that among boys, prevalence among girls increased in 2000. The main source of cigarettes among high school smokers was vending machines. The proportion of smokers who usually purchased cigarettes from vending machines increased in 2000, in spite of the 1998 introduction of restrictions on night-time operations. Japanese adolescents were more likely than adults to smoke American cigarette brands, and the adolescent market share of American brands has increased rapidly, especially for menthol brands. This survey revealed the seriousness of the problem of smoking behaviour among Japanese high school students, and suggested that this behaviour may be influenced by social environmental factors, including the marketing strategies of the tobacco industry. Action should be taken to reduce the prevalence and impact of pro-tobacco marketing messages and to abolish cigarette vending machines.

  7. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Progress was made on two fronts during the past year. The autoradiographic technique developed from detection of plutonium on the interior surface of pulmonary airways (Annual Report, 1978) has been adapted to routine use in examining tracheas and bronchi of rats. Also, dogs exposed to cigarette smoke for over a year after inhalation of plutonium were killed and necropsied

  8. Transnational tobacco industry promotion of the cigarette gifting custom in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Alexandria; Jiang, Nan; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-07-01

    To understand how British American Tobacco (BAT) and Philip Morris (PM) researched the role and popularity of cigarette gifting in forming relationships among Chinese customs and how they exploited the practice to promote their brands State Express 555 and Marlboro. Searches and analysis of industry documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library complemented by searches on LexisNexis Academic news, online search engines and information from the tobacco industry trade press. From 1980-1999, BAT and PM employed Chinese market research firms to gather consumer information about perceptions of foreign cigarettes and the companies discovered that cigarettes, especially prestigious ones, were gifted and smoked purposely for building relationships and social status in China. BAT and PM promoted their brands as gifts by enhancing cigarette cartons and promoting culturally themed packages, particularly during the gifting festivals of Chinese New Year and Mid-Autumn Festival to tie their brands in to festival values such as warmth, friendship and celebration. They used similar marketing in Chinese communities outside China. BAT and PM tied their brands to Chinese cigarette gifting customs by appealing to social and cultural values of respect and personal honour. Decoupling cigarettes from their social significance in China and removing their appeal would probably reduce cigarette gifting and promote a decline in smoking. Tobacco control efforts in countermarketing, large graphic warnings and plain packaging to make cigarette packages less attractive as gifts could contribute to denormalising cigarette gifting.

  9. Transnational tobacco industry promotion of the cigarette gifting custom in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Alexandria; Jiang, Nan; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand how British American Tobacco (BAT) and Philip Morris (PM) researched the role and popularity of cigarette gifting in forming relationships among Chinese customs and how they exploited the practice to promote their brands State Express 555 and Marlboro. Methods Searches and analysis of industry documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library complemented by searches on LexisNexis Academic news, online search engines and information from the tobacco industry trade press. Results From 1980–1999, BAT and PM employed Chinese market research firms to gather consumer information about perceptions of foreign cigarettes and the companies discovered that cigarettes, especially prestigious ones, were gifted and smoked purposely for building relationships and social status in China. BAT and PM promoted their brands as gifts by enhancing cigarette cartons and promoting culturally themed packages, particularly during the gifting festivals of Chinese New Year and Mid-Autumn Festival to tie their brands in to festival values such as warmth, friendship and celebration. They used similar marketing in Chinese communities outside China. Conclusions BAT and PM tied their brands to Chinese cigarette gifting customs by appealing to social and cultural values of respect and personal honour. Decoupling cigarettes from their social significance in China and removing their appeal would probably reduce cigarette gifting and promote a decline in smoking. Tobacco control efforts in countermarketing, large graphic warnings and plain packaging to make cigarette packages less attractive as gifts could contribute to denormalising cigarette gifting. PMID:21282136

  10. TSNA levels in machine-generated mainstream cigarette smoke: 35 years of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Scott; Olegario, Raquel M; Lipowicz, Peter J

    2013-07-01

    This paper characterizes historical and current tobacco specific nitrosamine (TSNA) levels in mainstream (MS) cigarette smoke of US commercial cigarettes. To conduct this analysis, we gathered 35 years of published data of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) levels in MS cigarette smoke. We also assessed internal data of MS smoke NNK and NNN levels generated from various market monitoring initiatives and from control cigarettes used in a multi-year program for testing cigarette ingredients. In all, we analyzed machine smoking data from 401 cigarette samples representing a wide range of products and design characteristics from multiple manufacturers and market leaders. There was no indication that TSNA levels systematically increased in cigarette MS smoke over the 35-year analysis period. In particular, TSNA levels expressed as either per cigarette or normalized for tar suggest a downward trend in MS smoke over the past 10 years. The apparent downward trend in TSNA levels in MS smoke may reflect industry and agricultural community efforts to reduce levels of TSNAs in tobacco and cigarette smoke. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Five-year yield variation in N-nitrosonornicotine and (4-methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone from the smoke of commercial cigarette brands on the Japanese market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, T; Minagawa, K; Mikita, A

    2015-12-01

    This study reports on variation in the yields of N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and (4-methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) from the mainstream smoke of cigarette brands and describes factors affecting this variation. Yields of NNN and NNK from smoke and tobacco filler, which is blended and cut tobacco filled in a cigarette tube, together with cigarette design parameters, were measured for 11 commercial cigarette brands, which were available in Japan from 2009 to 2013. The ranges of the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for NNN from the smoke of each brand were 5.0%-29.9% under International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and 6.3%-26.3% under Health Canada Intense (HCI) smoking regime. When these RSDs were compared with those of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields in each brand, they were found to be much higher for all of the brands under the HCI, and higher for most of the brands under the ISO smoking regime. In addition, the RSDs of NNN and NNK in smoke were mostly higher than those of KY3R4F which was manufactured in a single batch. It was identified that variation in NNN yields from tobacco filler mainly contribute to variation in NNN yields from smoke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. E-cigarettes: a need to broaden the debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, E; Nair, M

    2016-11-01

    The unregulated market for e-cigarettes continues to grow, with debates on their efficacy and impact on global public health. E-cigarettes, or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDs), are marketed as a 'safe' alternative to tobacco products and a tool for 'harm reduction'. Some public health experts are calling it a 'game changer' and favour the 'harm reduction' strategy, while others dispute this claim. In our opinion, the debate needs to be broadened to encompass other related concerns and effects on non-users and affected stakeholders. As with tobacco control, a holistic approach is needed to build a raft of policies that effectively address the issue from all angles and look beyond the direct health implications of e-cigarette use to explore the social, economic, political and environmental aspects of this debate, putting 'harm reduction' in context.

  13. "I always thought they were all pure tobacco": American smokers' perceptions of "natural" cigarettes and tobacco industry advertising strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2007-12-01

    To examine how the US tobacco industry markets cigarettes as "natural" and American smokers' views of the "naturalness" (or unnaturalness) of cigarettes. Internal tobacco industry documents, the Pollay 20th Century Tobacco Ad Collection, and newspaper sources were reviewed, themes and strategies were categorised, and the findings were summarised. Cigarette advertisements have used the term "natural" since at least 1910, but it was not until the 1950s that "natural" referred to a core element of brand identity, used to describe specific product attributes (filter, menthol, tobacco leaf). The term "additive-free", introduced in the 1980s, is now commonly used to define natural cigarettes. Tobacco company market research, available from 1970 to 1998, consistently revealed that within focus group sessions, smokers initially had difficulty interpreting the term "natural" in relation to cigarettes; however, after discussion of cigarette ingredients, smokers viewed "natural" cigarettes as healthier. Tobacco companies regarded the implied health benefits of natural cigarettes as their key selling point, but hesitated to market them because doing so might raise doubts about the composition of their highly profitable "regular" brands. Although our findings support the idea advanced by some tobacco control advocates that informing smokers of conventional cigarettes' chemical ingredients could promote cessation, they also suggest that such a measure could increase the ubiquity and popularity of "natural" cigarettes. A more effective approach may be to "denaturalise" smoking.

  14. Taxation, smuggling and demand for cigarettes in Canada: evidence from time-series data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, J W; Kaiserman, M

    1997-06-01

    This study analyzes Canadian cigarette consumption and taxation between 1980 and 1994, a period in which there have been large price rises and declines, and a dramatic increase in the consumption of contraband tobacco products. We examine elasticities of legal cigarette sales and total sales (including contraband) with respect to the price of legal cigarettes and various other factors. The growth of the contraband market since 1987 appears to have created two classes of cigarette--taxed and untaxed--with responses to changes in the legal price that are respectively higher, and lower, than was previously the case. The sensitivity of total cigarette sales to the taxation instrument is much lower than it would appear from sales of taxed cigarettes alone.

  15. Adolescent perceptions of cigarette appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Allison; Moodie, Crawford; MacKintosh, Anne M; Hastings, Gerard

    2014-06-01

    To reduce the possibility of cigarette appearance misleading consumers about harm caused by the product, the European Commission's draft Tobacco Products Directive proposed banning cigarettes implied a more pleasant and palatable smoke for young smokers. A long brown cigarette was viewed as particularly unattractive and communicated a stronger and more harmful product. This exploratory study provides some support that standardising cigarette appearance could reduce the appeal of cigarettes in adolescents and reduce the opportunity for stick design to mislead young smokers in terms of harm. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Mutagenicity of smoke condensates from Canadian cigarettes with different design features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladjenovic, Nemanja; Maertens, Rebecca M; White, Paul A; Soo, Evelyn C

    2014-01-01

    There is currently limited knowledge regarding the impact of different cigarette designs on the toxicological properties of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). This study used the Salmonella Mutagenicity Assay to examine the mutagenic activity of mainstream CSCs from 11 commercial Canadian cigarette brands with different design features or tobacco blend. The brands were selected to include design features that are common for cigarettes sold in the Canadian market, as well as cigarettes with alternate filters (charcoal or MicroBlue™), the super slim design, and cigarettes containing mixed blends of different tobacco types. CSCs were obtained using the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and Health Canada Intense (HCI) smoking regimes, and mutagenic activity was assessed using Salmonella strains TA98, YG1041 and YG5185. Comparisons of the commercial brands to the Kentucky 3R4F, the Canadian Monitor 8 reference and a Canadian best seller revealed no significant reduction in CSC mutagenicity for cigarettes with alternate filters. However, the super slim design did afford some reduction in mutagenic potency. Nevertheless, since the study did not attempt to evaluate the impact of the cigarette designs on human health at the individual or population level, the super slim cigarettes cannot be considered 'reduced-harm' cigarettes.

  17. Access to cigarettes by daily smokers in Florida's public middle schools and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Charles

    2011-07-01

    Youth who smoke daily have diverse methods for obtaining cigarettes, which range from commercial sources to essentially black market transactions. This study examines access to cigarettes, attitudes toward tobacco, and the demographic characteristics of youth who are daily cigarette smokers. Biennial data from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey, a representative sample of Florida public middle- and high-school students, were used. Daily smoking was categorized into ordinal categories of increasing intensity. Analysis was done with a logistic partial proportional odds model, which allowed the effects of the independent predictors to vary according to smoking intensity. The multivariate analysis revealed that males and females have different methods of obtaining cigarettes. Moreover, certain modes of access to cigarettes were related to daily smoking intensity. Males who obtained cigarettes from their parents or stole them from a store were much more likely to have a higher intensity of daily smoking. Females who gave someone money to buy their cigarettes or bought them from a person were more likely to smoke more cigarettes per day. Males, but not females, also perceived that increasing the number of cigarettes smoked per day provides social benefits in the form of more friends. Understanding how daily youth smokers obtain cigarettes is necessary if effective antitobacco policies are to be developed for these individuals. Daily youth smokers are at increased risk of becoming addicted to nicotine, making them more likely to transition to daily adult smoking.

  18. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Meernik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121 to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62% completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  19. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O

    2015-12-29

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  20. Cigarette weight control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, G.F.W.; Bolt, R.C.; Simmons, A.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for monitoring the weight of a continuous wrapped rod of tobacco formed by a cigarette-making machine. A scanner unit can be used which passes beta-rays from a primary radiation source through the rod. The absorption is measured by comparison of the intensity at a detector on the opposite side of the rod with that at a detector facing another smaller source, the balance unit. This is pre-set so that when the rod weight is correct the detected intensities from the two sources will be equal. It is essential that the scanning station is kept clean otherwise the dust is included in the weight reading and the cigarettes manufactured would be underweight. This can be checked using an artificial cigarette of known weight as a calibration check. In this device a test circuit can be connected to the scanner head and this opens the shutter over the radioactive source when the test is initiated. A warning device is initiated if the reading is beyond predetermined limits and can be made to prevent operation of the cigarette machine if a satisfactory test is not obtained. (U.K.)

  1. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques with liquid photographic emulsion and cellulose nitrate track-etch film are being used to investigate the spatial distribution of inhaled plutonium in the lungs of beagle dogs exposed to cigarette smoke or to the plutonium aerosol only. More plutonium than expected was detected on the inner surfaces of bronchi, and particles were observed beneath the bronchial mucosa. 2 figures, 2 tables

  2. Advertising media and cigarette demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rajeev K

    2011-01-01

    Using state-level panel data for the USA spanning three decades, this research estimates the demand for cigarettes. The main contribution lies in studying the effects of cigarette advertising disaggregated across five qualitatively different groups. Results show cigarette demand to be near unit elastic, the income effects to be generally insignificant and border price effects and habit effects to be significant. Regarding advertising effects, aggregate cigarette advertising has a negative effect on smoking. Important differences across advertising media emerge when cigarette advertising is disaggregated. The effects of public entertainment and Internet cigarette advertising are stronger than those of other media. Anti-smoking messages accompanying print cigarette advertising seem relatively more effective. Implications for smoking control policy are discussed.

  3. Exposure to electronic cigarette television advertisements among youth and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Jennifer C; Lee, Youn O; Kim, Annice E; Watson, Kimberly A; Arnold, Kristin Y; Nonnemaker, James M; Porter, Lauren

    2014-07-01

    Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration does not regulate electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) marketing unless it is advertised as a smoking cessation aid. To date, the extent to which youth and young adults are exposed to e-cigarette television advertisements is unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in youth and young adult exposure to e-cigarette television advertisements in the United States. Nielsen data on television household audiences' exposure to e-cigarette advertising across US markets were examined by calendar quarter, year, and sponsor. Youth exposure to television e-cigarette advertisements, measured by target rating points, increased 256% from 2011 to 2013. Young adult exposure increased 321% over the same period. More than 76% of all youth e-cigarette advertising exposure occurred on cable networks and was driven primarily by an advertising campaign for 1 e-cigarette brand. E-cigarette companies currently advertise their products to a broad audience that includes 24 million youth. The dramatic increase in youth and young adult television exposure between 2011 and 2013 was driven primarily by a large advertising campaign on national cable networks. In the absence of evidence-based public health messaging, the current e-cigarette television advertising may be promoting beliefs and behaviors that pose harm to the public health. If current trends in e-cigarette television advertising continue, awareness and use of e-cigarettes are likely to increase among youth and young adults. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Internet-based Advertising Claims and Consumer Reasons for Using Electronic Cigarettes by Device Type in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvers, Kim; Sun, Jessica Y; Zhuang, Yue-Lin; Holguin, Gabriel; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2017-10-01

    Important differences exist between closed-system and open-system e-cigarettes, but it is unknown whether online companies are marketing these devices differently and whether consumer reasons for using e-cigarettes vary by device type. This paper compares Internet-based advertising claims of closed- versus open-system products, and evaluates US consumers' reasons for using closed- versus open-system e-cigarettes. Internet sites selling exclusively closed (N = 130) or open (N = 129) e-cigarettes in December 2013-January 2014 were coded for advertising claims. Current users (≥18 years old) of exclusively closed or open e-cigarettes (N = 860) in a nationally representative online survey in February-March 2014 provided their main reason for using e-cigarettes. Internet sites that exclusively sold closed-system e-cigarettes were more likely to make cigarette-related claims such as e-cigarettes being healthier and cheaper than cigarettes (ps < .0001) compared to sites selling open systems. Many sites implied their products could help smokers quit. Exclusive users of both systems endorsed cessation as their top reason. Closed-system users were more likely to report their reason as "use where smoking is banned." Although promotion of e-cigarettes as cessation aids is prohibited, consumers of both systems endorsed smoking cessation as their top reason for using e-cigarettes.

  5. Notes from the field: calls to poison centers for exposures to electronic cigarettes--United States, September 2010-February 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatham-Stephens, Kevin; Law, Royal; Taylor, Ethel; Melstrom, Paul; Bunnell, Rebecca; Wang, Baoguang; Apelberg, Benjamin; Schier, Joshua G

    2014-04-04

    Electronic nicotine delivery devices such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine, flavorings (e.g., fruit, mint, and chocolate), and other chemicals via an inhaled aerosol. E-cigarettes that are marketed without a therapeutic claim by the product manufacturer are currently not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In many states, there are no restrictions on the sale of e-cigarettes to minors. Although e-cigarette use is increasing among U.S. adolescents and adults, its overall impact on public health remains unclear. One area of concern is the potential of e-cigarettes to cause acute nicotine toxicity. To assess the frequency of exposures to e-cigarettes and characterize the reported adverse health effects associated with e-cigarettes, CDC analyzed data on calls to U.S. poison centers (PCs) about human exposures to e-cigarettes (exposure calls) for the period September 2010 (when new, unique codes were added specifically for capturing e-cigarette calls) through February 2014. To provide a comparison to a conventional product with known toxicity, the number and characteristics of e-cigarette exposure calls were compared with those of conventional tobacco cigarette exposure calls.

  6. How tobacco companies have used package quantity for consumer targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoskie, Alexander; Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Ryant, Chase

    2018-05-31

    Package quantity refers to the number of cigarettes or amount of other tobacco product in a package. Many countries restrict minimum cigarette package quantities to avoid low-cost packs that may lower barriers to youth smoking. We reviewed Truth Tobacco Industry Documents to understand tobacco companies' rationales for introducing new package quantities, including companies' expectations and research regarding how package quantity may influence consumer behaviour. A snowball sampling method (phase 1), a static search string (phase 2) and a follow-up snowball search (phase 3) identified 216 documents, mostly from the 1980s and 1990s, concerning cigarettes (200), roll-your-own tobacco (9), smokeless tobacco (6) and 'smokeless cigarettes' (1). Companies introduced small and large packages to motivate brand-switching and continued use among current users when faced with low market share or threats such as tax-induced price increases or competitors' use of price promotions. Companies developed and evaluated package quantities for specific brands and consumer segments. Large packages offered value-for-money and matched long-term, heavy users' consumption rates. Small packages were cheaper, matched consumption rates of newer and lighter users, and increased products' novelty, ease of carrying and perceived freshness. Some users also preferred small packages as a way to try to limit consumption or quit. Industry documents speculated about many potential effects of package quantity on appeal and use, depending on brand and consumer segment. The search was non-exhaustive, and we could not assess the quality of much of the research or other information on which the documents relied. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Adolescent Sports Participation, E-cigarette Use, and Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Sean Esteban; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-11-01

    Although sport participation among adolescents has been found to lower the risk of traditional cigarette smoking, no studies to date have assessed if this type of physical activity lowers the risk of e-cigarette use among adolescents. National data from the 2014 and 2015 Monitoring the Future study of 12th-grade students were used and analyses were conducted in 2016. Measures for past 30-day e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were used to assess differences between adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport during the past year and adolescents who did not. Differences in e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were assessed between 13 different sports to determine which sports were associated with a greater or lower risk of these behaviors. Adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport were less likely to engage in past 30-day traditional cigarette smoking (AOR=0.73, 95% CI=0.538, 0.973) and past 30-day dual use of traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes (AOR=0.66, 95% CI=0.438, 0.982) when compared with their nonparticipating peers. Adolescents who participated in baseball/softball and wrestling were at greatest risk of e-cigarette use. Of the 13 assessed sports, none were found to lower the odds of e-cigarette use. No significant evidence was found that participation in a sport was a protective factor against e-cigarette use. Certain types of athletes are at an elevated risk of e-cigarette use, and prevention efforts targeted at these specific sports should be considered by school administrators. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. E-cigarettes and cardiovascular risk: beyond science and mysticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Meschi, Tiziana; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Borghi, Loris; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2014-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is the most important cause of premature death, and it is currently listed as a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Because of restrictive measures and widespread control policies, tobacco companies are now using aggressive marketing strategies in favor of smokeless tobacco, including electronic nicotine delivery systems, which are also known as electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes. Although the regular use of these devices appears less hazardous than traditional cigarettes or other forms of smokeless tobacco, recent studies have shown that various potentially harmful substances, especially nicotine, ultraparticles, and volatile organic compounds, may be effectively inhaled or liberated in exhaled air during repeated e-cigarette puffing. This would enhance the risk of cardiac arrhythmias and hypertension, which may predispose some users to increased risk of cardiovascular events, which may be further magnified by other potential adverse effects such as arrhythmias, increased respiratory, and flow respiratory resistance. Some cases of intoxication have also been described, wherein large amounts of nicotine and other harmful compounds may be effectively absorbed. As the use of e-cigarettes is continuously rising, and it is also considered a potentially effective method for smoking cessation, more focused research is urgently needed to definitely establish the cardiovascular safeness of these devices. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Does e-cigarette consumption cause passive vaping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripp, T; Markewitz, D; Uhde, E; Salthammer, T

    2013-02-01

    Electronic cigarette consumption ('vaping') is marketed as an alternative to conventional tobacco smoking. Technically, a mixture of chemicals containing carrier liquids, flavors, and optionally nicotine is vaporized and inhaled. The present study aims at the determination of the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and (ultra)fine particles (FP/UFP) from an e-cigarette under near-to-real-use conditions in an 8-m(3) emission test chamber. Furthermore, the inhaled mixture is analyzed in small chambers. An increase in FP/UFP and VOC could be determined after the use of the e-cigarette. Prominent components in the gas-phase are 1,2-propanediol, 1,2,3-propanetriol, diacetin, flavorings, and traces of nicotine. As a consequence, 'passive vaping' must be expected from the consumption of e-cigarettes. Furthermore, the inhaled aerosol undergoes changes in the human lung that is assumed to be attributed to deposition and evaporation. The consumption of e-cigarettes marks a new source for chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. To evaluate the impact of e-cigarettes on indoor air quality and to estimate the possible effect of passive vaping, information about the chemical characteristics of the released vapor is needed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. The extent of cigarette brand and company switching: results from the Adult Use-of-Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, M; Nelson, D E; Peddicord, J P; Merritt, R K; Giovino, G A; Eriksen, M P

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cigarette advertising on brand switching, an accurate estimate of the extent of cigarette brand and company switching among current smokers is needed. Data from the 1986 Adult Use-of-Tobacco Survey were analyzed to estimate the percentage of adult smokers who switched cigarette brands and companies in the previous year. Approximately 9.2% of adult smokers (4.2 million) switched cigarette brands in 1986, and 6.7% (3.1 million) switched cigarette companies. The aggregate profitability of brand switching in 1986 was approximately $362 million. Based on this analysis, brand switching alone justifies only a small percentage of a cigarette company's advertising and promotion expenditures, suggesting that future research should address other potential effects of advertising, including maintenance of brand loyalty and expanding the cigarette market. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): addictive behavior, advertising, smoking, tobacco.

  11. Single Cigarette Sales: State Differences in FDA Advertising and Labeling Violations, 2014, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Hannah M; Lee, Joseph G L; Ranney, Leah M; Goldstein, Adam O

    2016-02-01

    Single cigarettes, which are sold without warning labels and often evade taxes, can serve as a gateway for youth smoking. The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 gives the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authority to regulate the manufacture, distribution, and marketing of tobacco products, including prohibiting the sale of single cigarettes. To enforce these regulations, the FDA conducted over 335,661 inspections between 2010 and September 30, 2014, and allocated over $115 million toward state inspections contracts. To examine differences in single cigarette violations across states and determine if likely correlates of single cigarette sales predict single cigarette violations at the state level. Cross-sectional study of publicly available FDA warning letters from January 1 to July 31, 2014. All 50 states and the District of Columbia. Tobacco retailer inspections conducted by FDA (n = 33 543). State cigarette tax, youth smoking prevalence, poverty, and tobacco production. State proportion of FDA warning letters issued for single cigarette violations. There are striking differences in the number of single cigarette violations found by state, with 38 states producing no warning letters for selling single cigarettes even as state policymakers developed legislation to address retailer sales of single cigarettes. The state proportion of warning letters issued for single cigarettes is not predicted by state cigarette tax, youth smoking, poverty, or tobacco production, P = .12. Substantial, unexplained variation exists in violations of single cigarette sales among states. These data suggest the possibility of differences in implementation of FDA inspections and the need for stronger quality monitoring processes across states implementing FDA inspections. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. E-Cigarette Use Among Adolescents Not Susceptible to Using Cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Kowitt, Sarah D.; Osman, Amira; Ranney, Leah M.; Heck, Courtney; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Research suggests that adolescents who use electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), including adolescents not susceptible to smoking cigarettes (ie, those who have never smoked cigarettes and are not attitudinally susceptible to using cigarettes), are more likely to initiate using cigarettes or other combustible tobacco products than adolescents who do not use e-cigarettes. In this study, we examined correlates of e-cigarette use and susceptibility among adolescents not susceptible ...

  13. Contexts of cigarette and e-cigarette use among dual users: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Muranaka, Nicholas; Regmi, Sakshi; Fagan, Pebbles

    2015-01-01

    Background Not much is currently understood regarding the contexts of cigarette and e-cigarette use among dual users. Proper application of e-cigarettes to smoking cessation or tobacco harm reduction would require an understanding of when and why dual users use cigarettes versus e-cigarettes. This study sought to elucidate the contexts of cigarette versus e-cigarette use among dual users. Methods Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with 62 young adult current daily e-cigarette users...

  14. Smokers' strategic responses to sin taxes: evidence from panel data in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Justin S; Ross, Hana

    2015-02-01

    In addition to quitting and cutting consumption, smokers faced with higher cigarette prices may compensate in several ways that mute the health impact of cigarette taxes. This study examines three price avoidance strategies among adult male smokers in Thailand: trading down to a lower-priced brand, buying individual sticks of cigarettes instead of packs, and substituting roll-your-own tobacco for factory-manufactured cigarettes. Using two panels of microlevel data from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Study, collected in 2005 and 2006, we estimate the effects of a substantial excise tax increase implemented throughout Thailand in December 2005. We present estimates of the marginal effects and price elasticities for each of five consumer behaviors. We find that, controlling for baseline smoking characteristics, sociodemographics, and policy variables, quitting is highly sensitive to changes in cigarette prices, but so are brand choice, stick-buying, and use of roll-your-own tobacco. Neglecting such strategic responses leads to overestimates of a sin tax's health impact, and neglecting product substitution distorts estimates of the price elasticity of cigarette demand. We discuss the implications for consumer welfare and several policies that mitigate the adverse impact of consumer responses. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers. Cigarette...

  16. Multielement determination in a Chinese cigarette brand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, F.Y.

    1992-01-01

    A cigarette brand manufactured in the Republic of China was analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of 27 elements in cigarette tobacco, cigarette wrapping paper, cigarette filter before and after smoking and in the dropped ash. The results were compared to the literature values for American and other international cigarette brands. (author) 28 refs.; 3 tabs

  17. Illicit cigarette consumption and government revenue loss in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Abdillah; Wiyono, Nur Hadi; Setyonaluri, Diahhadi; Denniston, Ryan; So, Anthony D

    2014-11-19

    Illicit cigarettes comprise more than 11% of tobacco consumption and 17% of consumption in low- and middle-income countries. Illicit cigarettes, defined as those that evade taxes, lower consumer prices, threaten national tobacco control efforts, and reduce excise tax collection. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette consumption within Indonesia using two methods: the discrepancies between legal cigarette sales and domestic consumption estimated from surveys, and discrepancies between imports recorded by Indonesia and exports recorded by trade partners. Smuggling plays a minor role in the availability of illicit cigarettes because Indonesians predominantly consume kreteks, which are primarily manufactured in Indonesia. Looking at the period from 1995 to 2013, illicit cigarettes first emerged in 2004. When no respondent under-reporting is assumed, illicit consumption makes up 17% of the domestic market in 2004, 9% in 2007, 11% in 2011, and 8% in 2013. Discrepancies in the trade data indicate that Indonesia was a recipient of smuggled cigarettes for each year between 1995 and 2012. The value of this illicit trade ranges from less than $1 million to nearly $50 million annually. Singapore, China, and Vietnam together accounted for nearly two-thirds of trade discrepancies over the period. Tax losses due to illicit consumption amount to between Rp 4.1 and 9.3 trillion rupiah, 4% to 13% of tobacco excise revenue, in 2011 and 2013. Due to the predominance of kretek consumption in Indonesia and Indonesia's status as the predominant producer of kreteks, illicit domestic production is likely the most important source for illicit cigarettes, and initiatives targeted to combat this illicit production carry the promise of the greatest potential impact.

  18. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data. PMID:24732161

  19. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.

  20. In Their Own Words: Young Adults' Menthol Cigarette Initiation, Perceptions, Experiences and Regulation Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Evans, Kiameesha R; Harrell, Melissa B; Loukas, Alexandra; Lewis, M Jane; Delnevo, Cristine D; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-02-17

    Menthol cigarettes are disproportionately used by young people and have been called smoking starter products. However, limited qualitative research exists on young adults' perceptions of and experiences with these products, with much of it based on document reviews of the tobacco industry's research. We conducted six focus groups with young adult (ages 18-24) menthol smokers in New Jersey (half with black smokers) between December 2014 and March 2015. Participants were asked open-ended questions about their menthol smoking initiation, preference reasons, substitution behaviors, and perceptions of menthol cigarette risks and regulation. Participants' menthol cigarette initiation and preference were influenced by their perceived popularity, brand recognition, taste, smoothness, satisfaction and access (including as "loosies," typically available for Newport). Some believed menthol cigarettes were less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes when initiating smoking. Many currently believed menthol cigarettes were more harmful because they contained extra "additives," were stronger (ie, requiring fewer cigarettes to feel satisfied), and/or based on hearsay. Many had tried new brand Camel Crush, which was perceived to be especially minty, fun, and attractive for newer smokers. While some used non-menthol cigarettes when menthols were unavailable, many said they would never or almost never substitute. Many acknowledged a menthol cigarettes ban would likely help them quit smoking, even though they did not support the idea. Menthol cigarette initiation is influenced by an interplay of multiple factors including their sensory properties, marketing, perceived popularity and availability. The FDA should continue to pursue closing this flavored cigarette loophole. In this first qualitative study of menthol cigarette use among young adults, we found further evidence that menthol cigarettes can act as starter products because they are perceived as easier to smoke and taste and smell

  1. Electronic cigarette use in young people in Great Britain 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, B; Dockrell, M J; Arnott, D; Britton, J; Cheeseman, H; Jarvis, M J; McNeill, A

    2015-09-01

    The recent growth in the market for electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has led to concerns over their use by young people. It is therefore important to examine trends in the perception and use of e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes in this group. Two-wave cross-sectional survey design. Young people aged 11-18 in Great Britain were surveyed online by YouGov in 2013 and 2014. Use of e-cigarettes, together with perceived health harms and intention to use were assessed and compared in relation to cigarette smoking history, age and gender. Ever-use of e-cigarettes increased significantly from 4.6% (95% CI 3.8-5.7) in 2013 to 8.2% (95% CI 7.0-9.6) in 2014. Monthly or more use of e-cigarettes increased from 0.9% (95% CI 0.5-1.5) to 1.7 (1.2-2.4), but remained rare in never-smokers at under 0.2%. The proportion of young people who perceived e-cigarettes to be less harmful to users than cigarettes fell from 73.4% (95% CI 71.0-75.8) to 66.9% (95% CI 64.5-69.2), while the proportion who considered e-cigarettes to cause similar levels of harm increased from 11.8% (95% CI 10.0-13.5) to 18.2% (95% CI 16.3-20.1). Of the 8.2% of e-cigarette ever-users in 2014, 69.8% (95% CI 62.2%-77.3%) had smoked a cigarette prior to using an e-cigarette, while 8.2% (95% CI 4.1%-12.2%) first smoked a cigarette after e-cigarette use. A growing proportion of young people in Great Britain believe e-cigarettes are as harmful as smoking tobacco. Use of e-cigarettes by young people is increasing, but is largely confined to those who smoke. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Internet-based Advertising Claims and Consumer Reasons for Using Electronic Cigarettes by Device Type in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Pulvers, K; Sun, JY; Zhuang, Y-L; Holguin, G; Zhu, S-H

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Important differences exist between closed-system and open-system e-cigarettes, but it is unknown whether online companies are marketing these devices differently and whether consumer reasons for using e-cigarettes vary by device type. This paper compares Internet-based advertising claims of closed- versus open-system products, and evaluates US consumers’ reasons for using closed- versus open-system e-cigarettes. Methods Internet sites selling exclusively closed (N = 130)...

  3. E-Cigarettes and the Use of Conventional Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Nies, Alina; Goecke, Michaela; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2018-04-06

    In 2015, 12.1% of 12- to 17-year-olds in Germany had reportedly already tried e-cigarette smoking at least once. We carried out a study of the "gateway" hypothesis, according to which the use of e-cigarettes can motivate adolescents to start smoking conventional cigarettes. During the 2015/2016 school year, 2186 tenth-graders in the German states of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein who had never smoked conventional cigarettes before took part in a survey over a 6-month period (mean age 15.5 years, standard deviation 0.65; 53.6% female). 14.3% of the survey population (313 adolescents) said at the start of the survey period that they had already tried e-cigarettes at least once. By the end of the survey period, 12.3% (268) of those who had never smoked before had begun to experiment with conventional cigarettes. The risk of beginning such experimentation was 2.2 times higher among e-cigarette users. This association remained (relative risk = 2.18 [1.65; 2.83]) after statistical control for age, sex, state, immigrant background, type of school, socioeconomic status, various personality traits (sensation-seeking, impulsivity, anxiety, hopelessness, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness), and the use of alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit drugs. Further analysis revealed that the association between the use of e-cigarettes and the onset of conventional cigarette smoking was stronger among adolescents with low sensation-seeking scores and without any experience of alcohol intoxication. Among adolescents who have never smoked, experimentation with conventional cigarettes is more common in those who have used e-cigarettes. This effect seems to be stronger among adolescents who, in general, have a lower risk of starting to smoke. The 6-month observation period of this study is too short to allow any inference regarding a connection between e-cigarette use and the development of tobacco dependence.

  4. Analysis of Mexican cigarettes by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Navarrete, M.; Morales, O.Y.; Aguilar, F.; Cuapio, L.A.; Lopez, C.

    2008-01-01

    Due to large consumption of tobacco in Mexico and in order to complement previous work performed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence, the present study has determined 15 elements by INAA in 9 cigarettes brands being marketed in Mexico. As a part of a Quality Control Program, NIST standard reference materials (SRM) and an IAEA reference material were analyzed to confirm the accuracy and reproducibility. Average of As and Cd were 0.56 and 1.15 μg x g -1 , respectively, in the range of those of foreign brands. (author)

  5. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difranza, J R; Clark, D M; Pollay, R W

    2002-06-15

    To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  6. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollay RW

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  7. What is included with your online e-cigarette order? An analysis of e-cigarette shipping, product and packaging features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Amanda Y; Derrick, Jason C; Abrantes, Anthony S; Williams, Rebecca S

    2016-06-29

    The electronic cigarette industry is growing, with youth using e-cigarettes at higher rates than they are using cigarettes, and retail and online sales projected to reach $10 billion in 2017. Minimal regulation of the production and marketing of e-cigarettes exists to date, which has allowed companies to promote unsupported claims. We assessed the shipping, product features and packaging of a wide variety of e-cigarettes purchased online by adults and youth. The most popular internet e-cigarette vendors were identified from a larger study of internet tobacco vendors. Between August 2013 and June 2014, adults made 56 purchase attempts from online vendors, and youth made 98 attempts. Packages received were assessed for exterior and internal packaging features, including product information, health warnings and additional materials. We analysed a total of 125 orders featuring 86 unique brands of e-cigarettes. The contents were rarely indicated on package exteriors. Product information came with just 60% of orders and just 38.4% included an instruction manual. Only 44.6% of products included a health warning, and some had unsupported claims, such as lack of secondhand smoke exposure. Additionally, some products were leaking e-liquid and battery fluid on arrival. A large variety of e-cigarette products are manufactured and marketed to consumers. Many products do not include instructions for use, and unsupported claims are being presented to consumers. Effective federal regulation of the manufacturing, packaging, product information and health claims surrounding e-cigarettes is necessary to ensure consumers are presented with accurate e-cigarette use information. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Adolescents' responses to the promotion and flavouring of e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Allison; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Bauld, Linda; Moodie, Crawford; Hastings, Gerard

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine adolescents' awareness of e-cigarette marketing and investigate the impact of e-cigarette flavour descriptors on perceptions of product harm and user image. Data come from the 2014 Youth Tobacco Policy Survey, a cross-sectional in-home survey conducted with 11-16 year olds across the UK (n = 1205). Adolescents' awareness of e-cigarette promotion, brands, and flavours was assessed. Perceptions of product harm, and likely user of four examples of e-cigarette flavours was also examined. Some participants had tried e-cigarettes (12 %) but regular use was low (2 %) and confined to adolescents who had also smoked tobacco. Most were aware of at least one promotional channel (82 %) and that e-cigarettes came in different flavours (69 %). Brand awareness was low. E-cigarettes were perceived as harmful (M = 3.54, SD = 1.19) but this was moderated by product flavours. Fruit and sweet flavours were perceived as more likely to be tried by young never smokers than adult smokers trying to quit (p < 0.001). There is a need to monitor the impact of future market and regulatory change on youth uptake and perceptions of e-cigarettes.

  9. One of several 'toys' for smoking: young adult experiences with electronic cigarettes in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Emily Anne; Ling, Pamela M

    2015-11-01

    This qualitative research explores the use of electronic cigarettes and other similar 'vapor' delivery devices among young adults in New York City. We employed 17 focus groups followed by 12 semistructured interviews to understand the beliefs, opinions and practices related to the use of electronic cigarettes among young adult smokers (N=87). Participants were mainly daily (52%) and non-daily (41%) smokers. While experimentation with electronic cigarette devices was frequently reported, participants related an overall lack of information about the devices and what they did know often reflected messages in e-cigarette marketing campaigns. Participants also used their own bodily sensations as a way to gauge potential risks and benefits of the products. Finally, young adults, steeped in a culture of personal technologies, perceived e-cigarettes as one more 'toy' among other technologies integrated into their everyday lives. E-cigarettes were also frequently used with other tobacco products, including conventional cigarettes. Our research indicates that public health campaigns may be needed to counter current industry marketing and inform the public that electronic cigarettes are currently unregulated, understudied and contain toxicants and carcinogens. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. E-Cigarette use among children and young people: the need for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowicz, Adam; Feleszko, Wojciech; Goniewicz, Maciej L

    2015-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are devices designed to deliver nicotine to the body via the route of inhalation. The principle of operation is based on heating a nicotine solution in propylene glycol and/or glycerine (e-liquid), turning it into aerosol (commonly called 'vapour'), which is then inhaled by the user. The scientific evidence on the health consequences of long-term e-cigarette use is sparse and currently inconclusive. Young people are the most vulnerable group to initiate use of e-cigarettes. The novelty of the e-cigarette, perceptions about the harmlessness of the product, a wide variety of flavours (fruit, chocolate, peanut butter, bubble gum, gummy bear, amongst others), and peer-influence are just a few examples of factors contributing to the e-cigarette popularity among youth. The comprehensive e-cigarette regulations need to include rules on marketing, safety of newly introduced products (nicotine dosage, packaging, and labelling), marketing limitations, and banning the sale of e-cigarettes to minors.

  11. Classification of Twitter Users Who Tweet About E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Thomas; Chew, Robert; Eggers, Matthew; Nonnemaker, James

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite concerns about their health risks, e‑cigarettes have gained popularity in recent years. Concurrent with the recent increase in e‑cigarette use, social media sites such as Twitter have become a common platform for sharing information about e-cigarettes and to promote marketing of e‑cigarettes. Monitoring the trends in e‑cigarette–related social media activity requires timely assessment of the content of posts and the types of users generating the content. However, little is known about the diversity of the types of users responsible for generating e‑cigarette–related content on Twitter. Objective The aim of this study was to demonstrate a novel methodology for automatically classifying Twitter users who tweet about e‑cigarette–related topics into distinct categories. Methods We collected approximately 11.5 million e‑cigarette–related tweets posted between November 2014 and October 2016 and obtained a random sample of Twitter users who tweeted about e‑cigarettes. Trained human coders examined the handles’ profiles and manually categorized each as one of the following user types: individual (n=2168), vaper enthusiast (n=334), informed agency (n=622), marketer (n=752), and spammer (n=1021). Next, the Twitter metadata as well as a sample of tweets for each labeled user were gathered, and features that reflect users’ metadata and tweeting behavior were analyzed. Finally, multiple machine learning algorithms were tested to identify a model with the best performance in classifying user types. Results Using a classification model that included metadata and features associated with tweeting behavior, we were able to predict with relatively high accuracy five different types of Twitter users that tweet about e‑cigarettes (average F1 score=83.3%). Accuracy varied by user type, with F1 scores of individuals, informed agencies, marketers, spammers, and vaper enthusiasts being 91.1%, 84.4%, 81.2%, 79.5%, and 47.1%, respectively

  12. Chemical evaluation of electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Tianrong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the chemicals in refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted to identify research related to e-cigarettes and chemistry using 5 reference databases and 11 search terms. The search date range was January 2007 to September 2013. The search yielded 36 articles, of which 29 were deemed relevant for analysis. Results The levels ...

  13. Electronic Cigarettes and Vaping: A New Challenge in Clinical Medicine and Public Health.A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic L. Palazzolo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use in the United States and worldwide is increasing. These devices closely mimic smoking of conventional cigarettes and can be used by consumers as a substitute for their smoking and nicotine addiction. Reasons for their popularity are that vendors of e-cigarettes have previously marketed their product as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, and as a possible smoking cessation tool. Rather than inhaling harmful smoke from burning tobacco, users of electronic cigarettes inhale a potentially less harmful vaporized mist primarily consisting of propylene glycol, nicotine, and water in a process referred to as vaping. Furthermore, the e-cigarette web pages are full of anecdotal claims from ex-smokers on how e-cigarettes helped them to give up traditional cigarettes in favor of these electronic devices. Government agencies and the medical community are skeptical, indicating that there is not enough empirically-derived evidence to substantiate such claims. While vaping e-cigarettes appear to do very little to abate nicotine addiction, and almost certainly carry unknown potential dangers, its supporters believe it is a safer alternative to smoking cigarettes. However, before e-cigarettes and vaping can be considered as a viable harm reduction clinical approach to smoking cessation, the medical community must first face the challenges e-cigarettes and vaping present to public health. For example, what should the primary medical focus be for a patient who has successfully transitioned from conventional cigarettes to e-cigarettes? Should it be to maintain smoking abstinence or should it be to quit vaping? Would it not be prudent for a patient who is unwilling to quit smoking or to give up nicotine to vape instead of smoke? Given these circumstances, how should medical care providers advise their patients? To effectively face these challenges, health care professionals need to become more familiar with the

  14. E-cigarette use and smoking reduction or cessation in the 2010/2011 TUS-CPS longitudinal cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyan Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are heavily marketed and widely perceived as helpful for quitting or reducing smoking intensity. We test whether ever-use of e-cigarettes among early adopters was associated with: 1 increased cigarette smoking cessation; and 2 reduced cigarette consumption. Methods A representative cohort of U.S. smokers (N = 2454 from the 2010 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS was re-interviewed 1 year later. Outcomes were smoking cessation for 30+ days and change in cigarette consumption at follow-up. E-cigarettes use was categorized as for cessation purposes or for another reason. Multivariate regression was used to adjust for demographics and baseline cigarette dependence level. Results In 2011, an estimated 12 % of adult U.S. smokers had ever used e-cigarettes, and 41 % of these reported use to help quit smoking. Smokers who had used e-cigarettes for cessation were less likely to be quit for 30+ days at follow-up, compared to never-users who tried to quit (11.1 % vs 21.6 %; ORadj = 0.44, 95 % CI = 0.2–0.8. Among heavier smokers at baseline (15+ cigarettes per day (CPD, ever-use of e-cigarettes was not associated with change in smoking consumption. Lighter smokers (<15 CPD who had ever used e-cigarettes for quitting had stable consumption, while increased consumption was observed among all other lighter smokers, although this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Among early adopters, ever-use of first generation e-cigarettes to aid quitting cigarette smoking was not associated with improved cessation or with reduced consumption, even among heavier smokers.

  15. E-cigarette use and smoking reduction or cessation in the 2010/2011 TUS-CPS longitudinal cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuyan; Pierce, John P; White, Martha; Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Compton, Wilson; Conway, Kevin; Hartman, Anne M; Messer, Karen

    2016-10-21

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are heavily marketed and widely perceived as helpful for quitting or reducing smoking intensity. We test whether ever-use of e-cigarettes among early adopters was associated with: 1) increased cigarette smoking cessation; and 2) reduced cigarette consumption. A representative cohort of U.S. smokers (N = 2454) from the 2010 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) was re-interviewed 1 year later. Outcomes were smoking cessation for 30+ days and change in cigarette consumption at follow-up. E-cigarettes use was categorized as for cessation purposes or for another reason. Multivariate regression was used to adjust for demographics and baseline cigarette dependence level. In 2011, an estimated 12 % of adult U.S. smokers had ever used e-cigarettes, and 41 % of these reported use to help quit smoking. Smokers who had used e-cigarettes for cessation were less likely to be quit for 30+ days at follow-up, compared to never-users who tried to quit (11.1 % vs 21.6 %; ORadj = 0.44, 95 % CI = 0.2-0.8). Among heavier smokers at baseline (15+ cigarettes per day (CPD)), ever-use of e-cigarettes was not associated with change in smoking consumption. Lighter smokers (<15 CPD) who had ever used e-cigarettes for quitting had stable consumption, while increased consumption was observed among all other lighter smokers, although this difference was not statistically significant. Among early adopters, ever-use of first generation e-cigarettes to aid quitting cigarette smoking was not associated with improved cessation or with reduced consumption, even among heavier smokers.

  16. E-cigarettes and E-hookahs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000761.htm E-cigarettes and E-hookahs To use the sharing features ... cigarettes because they believe these devices are safe. E-cigarettes and Children Many experts also have concerns about ...

  17. E-cigarette use, perceptions, and cigarette smoking intentions in a community sample of young adult nondaily cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brikmanis, Kristin; Petersen, Angela; Doran, Neal

    2017-05-01

    E-cigarettes have been suggested as a strategy for reducing harm from cigarettes. Although e-cigarettes could be a less-harmful alternative to cigarettes for those trying to quit, there may also be costs that outweigh any benefits of reduction. The purpose of the present study was to prospectively investigate perceptions of e-cigarettes, cigarette smoking intentions, and their associations with e-cigarette use over time. Community participants (N = 348, 57% male) aged 18 to 24 years were recruited for a longitudinal study of tobacco use. Inclusion criteria included nondaily cigarette smoking for ≥ 6 months with no history of daily smoking. Participants reported e-cigarette use over the past 14 days at baseline, and for the past 9 days at 3, 6, and 9 months. Assessments were completed online or via mobile phone. Across the 4 assessments, 22% to 33% of participants reported recent e-cigarette use. Intent to quit smoking cigarettes and intent to maintain smoking were unrelated to e-cigarette frequency. E-cigarette frequency was positively associated with perceiving e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes and more positive e-cigarette expectancies (ps E-cigarette use was also more frequent among those who smoked cigarettes frequently and who used e-cigarettes to circumvent cigarette bans more often (ps e-cigarette use more than harm reduction. Findings instead seem consistent with the hypothesis that e-cigarettes are more often used to complement ongoing cigarette smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The Impact of the Malaysian Minimum Cigarette Price Law: Findings from the ITC Malaysia Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C.; Ross, Hana; Omar, Maizurah; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Study the effects of the 2011 Malaysian minimum price law (MPL) on prices of licit and illicit cigarette brands. Identify barriers to the MPL achieving positive public health effects. Methods The International Tobacco Control Project's Southeast Asia survey collected information on Malaysian smokers' cigarette purchases (n=7,520) in five survey waves between 2005 and 2012. Consumption-weighted comparisons of proportions tests and adjusted Wald tests were used to evaluate changes over time in violation rates of the inflation-adjusted MPL, the proportion of illicit cigarette purchases, and mean prices. Results After the passage of the MPL, the proportion of licit brand cigarette purchases that were below the inflation-adjusted 2011 minimum price level fell substantially (before 3.9%, after 1.8%, p=0.002), while violation of the MPL for illicit brand cigarette purchases was unchanged (before 89.8%, after 91.9%, p=0.496). At the same time, the mean real price of licit cigarettes rose (p=0.006) while the mean real price of illicit cigarettes remained unchanged (p=0.134). The proportion of illicit cigarette purchases rose as well (before 13.4%, after 16.5%, p=0.041). Discussion The MPL appears not to have meaningfully changed cigarette prices in Malaysia, as licit brand prices remained well above and illicit brand prices remained well below the minimum price level before and after MPL's implementation. The increasing proportion of illicit cigarettes on the market may have undermined any positive health effects of the Malaysian MPL. The illicit cigarette trade must be addressed before a full evaluation of the Malaysian MPL's impact on public health can take place. The authors encourage the continued use of specific excise tax increases to reliably increase the price and decrease the consumption of cigarettes in Malaysia and elsewhere. PMID:25808666

  19. Reduced harm or another gateway to smoking? source, message, and information characteristics of E-cigarette videos on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Kim, Sookyong; Hove, Thomas; Huh, Jung Yoon

    2014-01-01

    E-cigarettes are widely promoted on the Internet, but little is known about what kinds of information about them are available online. This study examines message, source, and health information characteristics of e-cigarette videos on the popular online video-sharing platform YouTube. A content analysis of 365 e-cigarette videos indicates that 85% of the videos were sponsored by marketers. These videos highlight e-cigarettes' economic and social benefits, featuring a low level of fear appeal and negative message valence and a high level of marketing information about e-cigarette products. They also convey certain health claims that have been proscribed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the prevalence of which warrants ongoing monitoring and regulatory guidelines for online e-cigarette marketing.

  20. Chemical evaluation of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tianrong

    2014-05-01

    To review the available evidence evaluating the chemicals in refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Systematic literature searches were conducted to identify research related to e-cigarettes and chemistry using 5 reference databases and 11 search terms. The search date range was January 2007 to September 2013. The search yielded 36 articles, of which 29 were deemed relevant for analysis. The levels of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), aldehydes, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), flavours, solvent carriers and tobacco alkaloids in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions vary considerably. The delivery of nicotine and the release of TSNAs, aldehydes and metals are not consistent across products. Furthermore, the nicotine level listed on the labels of e-cigarette cartridges and refill solutions is often significantly different from measured values. Phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and drugs have also been reported in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges and aerosols. Varying results in particle size distributions of particular matter emissions from e-cigarettes across studies have been observed. Methods applied for the generation and chemical analyses of aerosols differ across studies. Performance characteristics of e-cigarette devices also vary across and within brands. Additional studies based on knowledge of e-cigarette user behaviours and scientifically validated aerosol generation and chemical analysis methods would be helpful in generating reliable measures of chemical quantities. This would allow comparisons of e-cigarette aerosol and traditional smoke constituent levels and would inform an evaluation of the toxicity potential of e-cigarettes.

  1. Chemical evaluation of electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tianrong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the chemicals in refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted to identify research related to e-cigarettes and chemistry using 5 reference databases and 11 search terms. The search date range was January 2007 to September 2013. The search yielded 36 articles, of which 29 were deemed relevant for analysis. Results The levels of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), aldehydes, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), flavours, solvent carriers and tobacco alkaloids in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions vary considerably. The delivery of nicotine and the release of TSNAs, aldehydes and metals are not consistent across products. Furthermore, the nicotine level listed on the labels of e-cigarette cartridges and refill solutions is often significantly different from measured values. Phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and drugs have also been reported in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges and aerosols. Varying results in particle size distributions of particular matter emissions from e-cigarettes across studies have been observed. Methods applied for the generation and chemical analyses of aerosols differ across studies. Performance characteristics of e-cigarette devices also vary across and within brands. Conclusions Additional studies based on knowledge of e-cigarette user behaviours and scientifically validated aerosol generation and chemical analysis methods would be helpful in generating reliable measures of chemical quantities. This would allow comparisons of e-cigarette aerosol and traditional smoke constituent levels and would inform an evaluation of the toxicity potential of e-cigarettes. PMID:24732157

  2. Classification of Twitter Users Who Tweet About E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice; Miano, Thomas; Chew, Robert; Eggers, Matthew; Nonnemaker, James

    2017-09-26

    Despite concerns about their health risks, e‑cigarettes have gained popularity in recent years. Concurrent with the recent increase in e‑cigarette use, social media sites such as Twitter have become a common platform for sharing information about e-cigarettes and to promote marketing of e‑cigarettes. Monitoring the trends in e‑cigarette-related social media activity requires timely assessment of the content of posts and the types of users generating the content. However, little is known about the diversity of the types of users responsible for generating e‑cigarette-related content on Twitter. The aim of this study was to demonstrate a novel methodology for automatically classifying Twitter users who tweet about e‑cigarette-related topics into distinct categories. We collected approximately 11.5 million e‑cigarette-related tweets posted between November 2014 and October 2016 and obtained a random sample of Twitter users who tweeted about e‑cigarettes. Trained human coders examined the handles' profiles and manually categorized each as one of the following user types: individual (n=2168), vaper enthusiast (n=334), informed agency (n=622), marketer (n=752), and spammer (n=1021). Next, the Twitter metadata as well as a sample of tweets for each labeled user were gathered, and features that reflect users' metadata and tweeting behavior were analyzed. Finally, multiple machine learning algorithms were tested to identify a model with the best performance in classifying user types. Using a classification model that included metadata and features associated with tweeting behavior, we were able to predict with relatively high accuracy five different types of Twitter users that tweet about e‑cigarettes (average F 1 score=83.3%). Accuracy varied by user type, with F 1 scores of individuals, informed agencies, marketers, spammers, and vaper enthusiasts being 91.1%, 84.4%, 81.2%, 79.5%, and 47.1%, respectively. Vaper enthusiasts were the most challenging user

  3. The temporal relationship between advertising and sales of low-tar cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mark B; Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M

    2006-12-01

    To determine whether a temporal relationship exists between the advertising and sales of low-tar cigarettes. It was hypothesised that increases in the advertising of low-tar cigarettes would precede increases in sales for these cigarettes. The themes of cigarette advertisements were reviewed and coded for 20 low-tar cigarette brands advertised in 13 widely read magazines in the US between 1960 and 1996. These 20 brands represented most of the low-tar cigarette advertisements and cigarette sales from 1967 to 1996. Cigarette sales data were obtained from the 1994 Maxwell report that summarises all cigarette sales from 1925 to 1990. If the advertisement referred to the low-tar attributes of the cigarette advertised, the advertisement was coded as having a low-tar theme and was included in the analysis. Five different graphical presentations of the relationship between the advertising and sales of the 20 low-tar cigarette brands showed a temporal relationship between low-tar advertising and sales for these brands. This relationship was observed for brands that introduced a low-tar alternative into an existing brand family (eg, Marlboro Light) and for new exclusively low-tar brands (eg, Carlton). Despite large increases in the advertising for the exclusively low-tar brands, sales of these brands remained low relative to sales of the low-tar alternative brands. Increases in print advertising of 20 of the most popular low-tar cigarette brands were followed by increases in sales for these cigarettes. Despite increases in the advertising of exclusively low-tar brands in the mid-1970s and early 1980s, the sales of these brands never matched the sales of the low-tar alternative brands. This suggests that it may have been easier to get smokers to switch to low-tar brands within a brand family compared with entirely new low-tar brands. Over the past 30 years, the marketing of low-tar cigarettes as a healthier alternative to higher-tar cigarettes has resulted in these brands

  4. The temporal relationship between advertising and sales of low‐tar cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mark B; Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M

    2006-01-01

    Objective and hypothesis To determine whether a temporal relationship exists between the advertising and sales of low‐tar cigarettes. It was hypothesised that increases in the advertising of low‐tar cigarettes would precede increases in sales for these cigarettes. Methods The themes of cigarette advertisements were reviewed and coded for 20 low‐tar cigarette brands advertised in 13 widely read magazines in the US between 1960 and 1996. These 20 brands represented most of the low‐tar cigarette advertisements and cigarette sales from 1967 to 1996. Cigarette sales data were obtained from the 1994 Maxwell report that summarises all cigarette sales from 1925 to 1990. If the advertisement referred to the low‐tar attributes of the cigarette advertised, the advertisement was coded as having a low‐tar theme and was included in the analysis. Results Five different graphical presentations of the relationship between the advertising and sales of the 20 low‐tar cigarette brands showed a temporal relationship between low‐tar advertising and sales for these brands. This relationship was observed for brands that introduced a low‐tar alternative into an existing brand family (eg, Marlboro Light) and for new exclusively low‐tar brands (eg, Carlton). Despite large increases in the advertising for the exclusively low‐tar brands, sales of these brands remained low relative to sales of the low‐tar alternative brands. Conclusions Increases in print advertising of 20 of the most popular low‐tar cigarette brands were followed by increases in sales for these cigarettes. Despite increases in the advertising of exclusively low‐tar brands in the mid‐1970s and early 1980s, the sales of these brands never matched the sales of the low‐tar alternative brands. This suggests that it may have been easier to get smokers to switch to low‐tar brands within a brand family compared with entirely new low‐tar brands. Over the past 30 years, the marketing of low

  5. Tobacco cigarette use versus electronic cigarette use: determinants of smoking and vaping behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Romijnders; Marlieke Beijaert; Liesbeth van Osch; Hein de Vries; Reinskje Talhout

    2018-01-01

    Background It is important to know why individuals use electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) compared to tobacco cigarettes. This comparison provides policy makers with opportunities to target different types of users. This study examined behavioral determinants associated with both tobacco and e-cigarette use. Differences between non-users (neither e-cigarette users nor smokers), smokers, e-cigarette users, and dual users were assessed for tobacco use versus e-cigarette u...

  6. “Smoking Revolution” A Content Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Retail Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, Rachel A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been increasingly available and marketed in the U.S. since 2007. As patterns of product adoption are frequently driven and reinforced by marketing, it is important to understand the marketing claims encountered by consumers. Purpose To describe the main advertising claims made on branded e-cigarette retail websites. Methods Websites were retrieved from two major search engines in 2011 using iterative searches with the following terms: electronic cigarette, e-cigarette, e-cig, and personal vaporizer. Fifty-nine websites met inclusion criteria, and 13 marketing claims were coded for main marketing messages in 2012. Results Ninety-five percent of the websites made explicit or implicit health-related claims, 64% had a smoking cessation-related claim, 22% featured doctors, and 76% claimed that the product does not produce secondhand smoke. Comparisons to cigarettes included claims that e-cigarettes were cleaner (95%) and cheaper (93%). Eighty-eight percent stated that the product could be smoked anywhere and 71% mentioned using the product to circumvent clean air policies. Candy, fruit, and coffee flavors were offered on most sites. Youthful appeals included images or claims of modernity (73%), increased social status (44%), enhanced social activity (32%), romance (31%), and use by celebrities (22%). Conclusions Health claims and smoking cessation messages that are unsupported by current scientific evidence are frequently used to sell e-cigarettes. Implied and overt health claims, the presence of doctors on websites, celebrity endorsements, and the use of characterizing flavors should be prohibited. PMID:24650842

  7. Adverse effects of e-cigarette exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, F Lee

    2014-06-01

    In 2007, a new source of nicotine exposure was introduced to the United States market, the electronic cigarette (ECIG) or "e-cigarette". Since then, the USA ECIG market has been doubling annually. Despite their widespread popularity, there is a paucity of existing data regarding ECIG toxicity. We report the experience of a statewide poison system. The database of a statewide poison system was queried for human ECIG exposures from 2010 (when Poisindex code first generated) through 2012. Year, age, manner and route of exposure, estimate exposure amount, product concentration, if evaluated at healthcare facility and symptoms were recorded. A total of 35 cases were identified--4 in 2010, 12 in 2011, 19 in 2012. Age range 8 months-60 years. Reported symptoms were mild and transient. Five patients were evaluated in an emergency department and none were admitted. Product concentrations ranged from 4 to 30 mg of nicotine per ml. Poison centers are likely to see an increase in exposures to ECIG given their growing popularity. Our modest results suggest that adverse effects and accidental exposures to ECIG cartridges are unlikely to result in serious toxicity.

  8. Tobacco industry control of menthol in cigarettes and targeting of adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslake, Jennifer M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Alpert, Hillel R; Koh, Howard K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2008-09-01

    We examined whether tobacco manufacturers manipulate the menthol content of cigarettes in an effort to target adolescents and young adults. We analyzed data from tobacco industry documents describing menthol product development, results of laboratory testing of US menthol brands, market research reports, and the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The tobacco industry attracted new smokers by promoting cigarettes with lower menthol content, which were popular with adolescents and young adults, and provided cigarettes with higher menthol content to long-term smokers. Menthol cigarette sales remained stable from 2000 to 2005 in the United States, despite a 22% decline in overall packs sold. Tobacco companies manipulate the sensory characteristics of cigarettes, including menthol content, thereby facilitating smoking initiation and nicotine dependence. Menthol brands that have used this strategy have been the most successful in attracting youth and young adult smokers and have grown in popularity.

  9. Elemental content in cigarette components and its distribution as determined by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, Y.E.

    2003-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, a world-wide habit. Has a very bad and hazardous effects on the human body. In the present study, different kinds of cigarette brands have been collected from local and foreign markets representing ten countries all over the world. All the selected samples were irradiated in first Inshas reactor (IR-1) in Egypt. A comprehensive study of the elemental contents in cigarette samples under investigation has been carried out by using neutron activation analysis technique. Concentrations of the polluting elements and tracer contents of cigarette tobacco have been determined. The elemental distribution of the component (tobacco. ash. filter before and after smoking and wrapping paper) of some kinds of cigarettes has been studied. The obtained data resulting from the present work were discussed

  10. It's complicated: Examining smokers' relationships with their cigarette brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E; Coleman, Blair N; Schmitt, Carol L

    2016-12-01

    Despite increased restrictions and taxes, decreased social acceptability, and widespread awareness of the harms of tobacco use, many in the U.S. continue to smoke cigarettes. Thus, understanding smokers' attitudes and motivations remains an important goal. This study adopts the consumer psychology concept of brand relationship to provide a new lens through which to examine smokers' attitudes about their cigarette use. Twelve focus groups (N = 143) were conducted with adult cigarette smokers from September to November, 2013. Using a semistructured moderator guide and "top of mind" worksheets, the discussion examined participants' attitudes toward (a) their own cigarette brand and (b) tobacco companies in general. Data were coded and analyzed following principles of thematic analysis. Adult smokers reported positive attitudes toward their cigarette brand, as their brand was strongly associated with the positive experience of smoking (e.g., satisfying craving and relief from withdrawal). In contrast, thinking about tobacco companies in general evoked negative reactions, revealing overwhelmingly negative attitudes toward the industry. Findings reveal a complicated relationship between smokers and their cigarette brand: simultaneously embracing their cigarettes and rejecting the industry that makes them. Taken together, these data suggest smokers maintain largely positive brand relationships, diverting negative feelings about smoking toward the tobacco industry. Finally, they highlight the synergy between branding and the subjective smoking experience, whereby positive brand attitudes are reinforced through withdrawal relief. Ultimately, this information could inform a more complete understanding of how smokers interpret and respond to tobacco communications, including marketing from their brand. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Survey of community pharmacists' perception of electronic cigarettes in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Kayyali, Reem; Buonocore, Federico; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. Setting A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. Context E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK. Pharmacists find themselves with a shortage of information on their safety and efficacy, and may experience an ethical dilemma when consulted by patients/customers. Key findings Response rate: 60% (n=92). Independent pharmacies accounted for 90% of the sample. The majority of participants (73%) sell e-cigarettes. A minority of participants (20%) have been presented with adverse effects such as cough and dry mouth. As possible reasons for their use, pharmacists ranked ‘aid in stop smoking’ as the most important (56%), with ‘cheaper alternative’ (43%) and ‘social/recreational use’ (31%) being the least important ones. Safety issues were raised as statements such as ‘e-liquid in cartridges may be toxic’ were agreed by 52% of respondents. The majority of pharmacists (97%) were supportive of e-cigarettes being regulated, expressing current concerns regarding excipients (42%) and nicotine content (34%). Participants indicated that they would require training in the form of information packs (88%), online tutorials (67%), continuous professional development (CPD) workshops (43%) to cover safety, counselling, dosage instructions, adverse effects and role in the smoking cessation care pathway in the future. Conclusions Pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of e-cigarettes, especially regarding the amounts of excipients and nicotine as these still remain unregulated. Currently, there are no guidelines for pharmacists regarding e-cigarettes. Community

  12. Clove cigar sales following the US flavoured cigarette ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Hrywna, Mary

    2015-12-01

    Following the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009, flavoured cigarettes, including clove cigarettes, were banned based on the rationale that such cigarettes appealed to youth. However, the ban on characterising flavours was not extended to cigars. This study reviewed industry documents from Kretek International, the parent company behind Djarum clove cigars, to document the changes in their marketing and production strategies following the flavour ban on cigarettes. To assess sales trends following the ban, data for clove cigar sales in the USA from 2009 to 2012 were analysed using Nielsen's Convenience Track retail scanner database. Additionally, data on tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia were obtained from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service's Global Agricultural Trade System for the years 2008-2012. In anticipation of Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) flavour ban on cigarettes and recognising the regulatory advantages of cigars, Kretek International began developing Djarum clove cigars in 2007. Immediately following the flavour ban, sales of this product increased by more than 1400% between 2009 and 2012. During this same period, tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia, a leader in clove tobacco production, shifted from cigarettes to almost exclusively cigars. Kretek International, like other tobacco manufacturers, manipulated its products following the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act as a way to capitalise on regulatory loopholes and replace its now banned clove cigarettes. As a result, consumption of the company's Djarum clove cigars increased exponentially in recent years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. France acts on electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, Zachary

    2013-11-01

    France is deciding how to regulate electronic cigarettes. I first consider the French approach and how it contrasts with other attempts at electronic cigarette regulation globally. Next, I critique the individual elements of the French proposal. The overall approach taken by France is a positive development, but banning indoor use appears unnecessary and banning advertising may be counterproductive.

  14. Know More About Menthol Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Quit Why Do You Want to Quit? Health Effects Benefits of Quitting How Much Will You Save How Smoking Affects Your Workout Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E-Cigs, Menthol & Dip What We Know About E-Cigarettes Know More About Menthol Cigarettes Quitting Dip Stay ...

  15. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E; Meijer, B.C

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental

  16. Tobacco industry consumer research on socially acceptable cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, P M; Glantz, S A

    2005-10-01

    To describe tobacco industry consumer research to inform the development of more "socially acceptable" cigarette products since the 1970s. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. 28 projects to develop more socially acceptable cigarettes were identified from Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, British American Tobacco, and Lorillard tobacco companies. Consumer research and concept testing consistently demonstrated that many smokers feel strong social pressure not to smoke, and this pressure increased with exposure to smoking restrictions. Tobacco companies attempted to develop more socially acceptable cigarettes with less visible sidestream smoke or less odour. When presented in theory, these product concepts were very attractive to important segments of the smoking population. However, almost every product developed was unacceptable in actual product tests or test markets. Smokers reported the complete elimination of secondhand smoke was necessary to satisfy non-smokers. Smokers have also been generally unwilling to sacrifice their own smoking satisfaction for the benefit of others. Many smokers prefer smoke-free environments to cigarettes that produce less secondhand smoke. Concerns about secondhand smoke and clean indoor air policies have a powerful effect on the social acceptability of smoking. Historically, the tobacco industry has been unable to counter these effects by developing more socially acceptable cigarettes. These data suggest that educating smokers about the health dangers of secondhand smoke and promoting clean indoor air policies has been difficult for the tobacco industry to counter with new products, and that every effort should be made to pursue these strategies.

  17. A fMRI study on the impact of advertising for flavored e-cigarettes on susceptible young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2018-05-01

    E-cigarettes are sold in flavors such as "skittles," "strawberrylicious," and "juicy fruit," and no restrictions are in place on marketing e-cigarettes to youth. Sweets/fruits depicted in e-cigarette advertisements may increase their appeal to youth and interfere with health warnings. This study tested a brain biomarker of product preference for sweet/fruit versus tobacco flavor e-cigarettes, and whether advertising for flavors interfered with warning labels. Participants (N = 26) were college-age young adults who had tried an e-cigarette and were susceptible to future e-cigarette use. They viewed advertisements in fMRI for sweet/fruit and tobacco flavor e-cigarettes, menthol and regular cigarettes, and control images of sweets/fruits/mints with no tobacco product. Cue-reactivity was measured in the nucleus accumbens, a brain biomarker of product preference. Advertisements randomly contained warning labels, and recognition of health warnings was tested post-scan. Visual attention was measured using eye-tracking. There was a significant effect of e-cigarette condition (sweet/tobacco/control) on nucleus accumbens activity, that was not found for cigarette condition (menthol/regular/control). Nucleus accumbens activity was greater for sweet/fruit versus tobacco flavor e-cigarette advertisements and did not differ compared with control images of sweets and fruits. Greater nucleus accumbens activity was correlated with poorer memory for health warnings. These and exploratory eye-tracking findings suggest that advertising for sweet/fruit flavors may increase positive associations with e-cigarettes and/or override negative associations with tobacco, and interfere with health warnings, suggesting that one way to reduce the appeal of e-cigarettes to youth and educate youth about e-cigarette health risks is to regulate advertising for flavors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Perceptions of the Harm and Addictiveness of Conventional Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescent E-Cigarette Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owotomo, Olusegun; Maslowsky, Julie; Loukas, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Although existing evidence indicates that e-cigarette use is a risk factor for cigarette smoking initiation, mechanisms of this association are not yet known. E-cigarette users perceive e-cigarette use to be less harmful relative to conventional cigarettes, but their absolute perceptions of addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking are unknown. This study examines how e-cigarette users compare with nonusers (non-e-cigarette users/nonconventional cigarette smokers), conventional cigarette smokers, and dual users on perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking and on other known predictors of cigarette smoking such as peer smoking, influence of antismoking ads, and risk-taking propensity. National samples of 8th- and 10th-grade students from 2014 and 2015 (N = 14,151) were obtained from the Monitoring the Future Study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine relationships between adolescent smoking status and perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking while controlling for potential confounders. E-cigarette users had lower perceptions of the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking compared with nonusers but higher than cigarette smokers and dual users. E-cigarette users reported lower influence by antismoking ads, more conventional cigarette-smoking peers, and greater risk-taking propensity than nonusers. E-cigarette users and cigarette smokers did not differ in their perceived harm of conventional cigarette smoking or in their risk-taking propensity. E-cigarette users' attitudes and perceptions regarding conventional cigarette smoking may leave them vulnerable to becoming conventional cigarette smokers. Future studies should explore the prospective relationship between smoking-related perceptions of conventional cigarette smoking among e-cigarette users and the onset of cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published

  19. The use and perception of electronic cigarettes and snus among the U.S. population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hong Zhu

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes have generated controversy in the tobacco control field similar to that of Swedish snus, which came to the U.S. market six years earlier. Some argue that e-cigarettes have great potential to help smokers quit regular cigarettes while others contend they should be banned for lack of safety and efficacy data. This study examined population data from the U.S.A U.S. population survey with a national probability sample (N=10,041 was conducted (February 24 to March 8, 2012, before any major paid advertisement of e-cigarettes appeared on television. Survey respondents were asked if they had heard about e-cigarettes, where they had heard about them, whether they had used e-cigarettes or snus, how often they used them, and why they used them. Responses were weighted to represent the entire U.S. population.A high proportion, 75.4%, reported having heard about e-cigarettes. Television ranked as the number one source of information, followed by "in-person conversation" and "Internet." About 8.1% had tried e-cigarettes, and 1.4% were current users. These rates were twice those of snus (4.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Among current smokers, 32.2% had tried e-cigarettes, and 6.3% were current users. Over 80% of current e-cigarette users were non-daily users. Women were significantly more likely to have tried e-cigarettes than men. Those who had tried e-cigarettes were more likely than those who tried snus to report their products being safer than regular cigarettes (49.9% vs. 10.8%. Almost half (49.5% of current smokers were susceptible to using e-cigarettes in the future.That e-cigarettes have surpassed snus in adoption rate, even before any promotion by major tobacco companies, suggests that the former have tapped into smokers' intuitive preference for potentially harm-reducing products, probably due to the product design. E-cigarette use is likely to increase in the next few years.

  20. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78 and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51. The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49. Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47 and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30, respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents.

  1. Clean, Cheap, Convenient: Promotion of Electronic Cigarettes on YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara G Sears

    2017-04-01

    Videos on YouTube promote e-cigarettes as safer than other tobacco products. Videos appearing to be user-generated contained different marketing claims compared to professional videos. Further research is necessary to assess how the perceived source of the video impacts the ways these marketing claims shape public perception and influence use.

  2. Labelling of electronic cigarettes: regulations and current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Federico; Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Barton, Stephen J; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade e-cigarettes have established themselves in the global market. E-cigarettes triggered much interest in relation to their content and efficacy as smoking cessation tools, but less attention has been paid to users and environmental safety warnings and guidance. Several regulations have been introduced to promote their safe handling and disposal. From May 2016, liquids and cartridges will be regulated by European Community Directives (ECDs) 2001/83/EC and 93/42/EEC, or 2014/40/EU if marketed as tobacco-related products. Currently, manufacturers and distributors must abide by the Chemical (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2009 (CHIP) or Classification, Labelling and Packaging Regulations (CLP), the latter replacing CHIP in June 2015. In this work, the compliance of marketed e-liquids and e-cigarettes with current European Union and UK legislations is assessed. E-liquids and e-cigarettes (21 and 9 brands, respectively) were evaluated. Evidence of non-compliance was found in relation to the CHIP/CLP toxic (13%) and environmental (37%) pictograms, tactile warning (23%), nominal amount of solution (30%), supplier contact telephone number and address (40%). None of the evaluated e-cigarettes displayed information on the correct disposal/recycling of batteries in line with the ECD 2006/66/EC. More stringent enforcement of regulations is needed to ensure not only the user's safety and awareness, but also the safeguarding of the environment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. “I always thought they were all pure tobacco”: American smokers' perceptions of “natural” cigarettes and tobacco industry advertising strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine how the US tobacco industry markets cigarettes as “natural” and American smokers' views of the “naturalness” (or unnaturalness) of cigarettes. Methods Internal tobacco industry documents, the Pollay 20th Century Tobacco Ad Collection, and newspaper sources were reviewed, themes and strategies were categorised, and the findings were summarised. Results Cigarette advertisements have used the term “natural” since at least 1910, but it was not until the 1950s that “natural” referred to a core element of brand identity, used to describe specific product attributes (filter, menthol, tobacco leaf). The term “additive‐free”, introduced in the 1980s, is now commonly used to define natural cigarettes. Tobacco company market research, available from 1970 to 1998, consistently revealed that within focus group sessions, smokers initially had difficulty interpreting the term “natural” in relation to cigarettes; however, after discussion of cigarette ingredients, smokers viewed “natural” cigarettes as healthier. Tobacco companies regarded the implied health benefits of natural cigarettes as their key selling point, but hesitated to market them because doing so might raise doubts about the composition of their highly profitable “regular” brands. Conclusion Although our findings support the idea advanced by some tobacco control advocates that informing smokers of conventional cigarettes' chemical ingredients could promote cessation, they also suggest that such a measure could increase the ubiquity and popularity of “natural” cigarettes. A more effective approach may be to “denaturalise” smoking. PMID:18048597

  4. Combustible cigarettes cost less to use than e-cigarettes: global evidence and tax policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C; Drope, Jeffrey M; Stoklosa, Michal

    2017-03-01

    Some scholars suggest that price differences between combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes could be effective in moving current combustible smokers to e-cigarettes, which could reduce tobacco-related death and disease. Currently, in most jurisdictions, e-cigarettes are not subject to the same excise taxes as combustible cigarettes, potentially providing the category with a price advantage over combustible cigarettes. This paper tests whether e-cigarettes tax advantage has translated into a price advantage. In a sample of 45 countries, the price of combustible cigarettes, disposable e-cigarettes and rechargeable cigarettes were compared. Comparable units of combustible cigarettes cost less than disposable e-cigarettes in almost every country in the sample. While the e-liquids consumed in rechargeable e-cigarettes might cost less per comparable unit than combustible cigarettes, the initial cost to purchase a rechargeable e-cigarette presents a significant cost barrier to switching from smoking to vaping. Existing prices of e-cigarettes are generally much higher than of combustible cigarettes. If policymakers wish to tax e-cigarettes less than combustibles, forceful policy action-almost certainly through excise taxation-must raise the price of combustible cigarettes beyond the price of using e-cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Collin N; Kraemer, John D; Johnson, Andrea C; Mays, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. PMID:25897269

  6. Electronic cigarettes: patterns of use, health effects, use in smoking cessation and regulatory issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Hann, Nicholas; Wilson, Andrew; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that vaporize a liquid solution to deliver a dose of inhaled nicotine to the user. There is ongoing debate regarding their regulation. This comprehensive narrative review aimed to discuss key issues including usage patterns, health effects, efficacy in smoking cessation and regulatory concerns with a view to informing future regulation and research agendas. PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched using the terms (electronic cigarettes OR e-cigarettes) for articles in English, relevant to humans and published during January 2009-January 2014. The literature search revealed 37 relevant articles. Findings suggest that e-cigarettes are mostly used by middle-aged current smokers, particularly males, to help them for quitting or for recreation. E-cigarettes contain very low levels of multiple toxic substances such as formaldehyde and acrolein, but these levels are many times lower than those found in cigarettes. They were found to have effectiveness in aiding smoking cessation to a limited degree. Debate continues regarding regulating their use for cessation versus heavy restrictions to control recreational use on the basis that it perpetuates nicotine addiction. The cytotoxicity and long term health effects of e-cigarettes are unknown. Nevertheless the e-cigarette market continues to expand, largely driven by middle-aged smokers who claim to be using e-cigarettes in an attempt to reduce or quit smoking. E-cigarettes may have some potential as smoking cessation aids and, in the researchers' view, should therefore be subject to further research and regulation similar to other nicotine replacement therapies.

  7. Depiction of Health Effects of Electronic Cigarettes on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merianos, Ashley L; Gittens, Olivia E; Mahabee-Gittens, E Melinda

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the quantity, quality, and reach of e-cigarette health effects YouTube videos, and to quantify the description of positive and negative e-cigarette health effects and promotional content in each video. Searches for videos were conducted in 2015 using the YouTube search engine, and the top 20 search results by relevance and view count were identified. Videos were classified by educational/medical news, advertising/marketing, and personal/testimonial categories. A coding sheet was used to assess the presence or absence of negative and positive health effects, and promotional content. Of the 320 videos retrieved, only 55 unique videos were included. The majority of videos (46.9%) were educational/medical/news, 29.7% were personal/testimonial, and 23.4% were advertising/marketing. The three most common negative health effects included discussing nicotine, e-cigarettes not being FDA regulated, and known and unknown health consequences related to e-cigarette use. The top positive health effects discussed were how e-cigarettes can help individuals quit smoking, e-cigarettes are healthier than smoking, and e-cigarettes have no smoke or secondhand smoke exposure. It is critical to monitor YouTube health effects content and develop appropriate messages to inform consumers about the risks associated with use while mitigating misleading information presented.

  8. Depiction of Health Effects of Electronic Cigarettes on YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merianos, Ashley L.; Gittens, Olivia E.; Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to assess the quantity, quality, and reach of e-cigarette health effects YouTube videos, and to quantify the description of positive and negative e-cigarette health effects and promotional content in each video. Method Searches for videos were conducted in 2015 using the YouTube search engine, and the top 20 search results by relevance and view count were identified. Videos were classified by educational/medical news, advertising/marketing, and personal/testimonial categories. A coding sheet was used to assess the presence or absence of negative and positive health effects, and promotional content. Results Of the 320 videos retrieved, only 55 unique videos were included. The majority of videos (46.9%) were educational/medical/news, 29.7% were personal/testimonial, and 23.4% were advertising/marketing. The three most common negative health effects included discussing nicotine, e-cigarettes not being FDA regulated, and known and unknown health consequences related to e-cigarette use. The top positive health effects discussed were how e-cigarettes can help individuals quit smoking, e-cigarettes are healthier than smoking, and e-cigarettes have no smoke or secondhand smoke exposure. Conclusions It is critical to monitor YouTube health effects content and develop appropriate messages to inform consumers about the risks associated with use while mitigating misleading information presented. PMID:28217030

  9. Diffusion of Messages from an Electronic Cigarette Brand to Potential Users through Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar-Hai Chu

    Full Text Available This study explores the presence and actions of an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette brand, Blu, on Twitter to observe how marketing messages are sent and diffused through the retweet (i.e., message forwarding functionality. Retweet networks enable messages to reach additional Twitter users beyond the sender's local network. We follow messages from their origin through multiple retweets to identify which messages have more reach, and the different users who are exposed.We collected three months of publicly available data from Twitter. A combination of techniques in social network analysis and content analysis were applied to determine the various networks of users who are exposed to e-cigarette messages and how the retweet network can affect which messages spread.The Blu retweet network expanded during the study period. Analysis of user profiles combined with network cluster analysis showed that messages of certain topics were only circulated within a community of e-cigarette supporters, while other topics spread further, reaching more general Twitter users who may not support or use e-cigarettes.Retweet networks can serve as proxy filters for marketing messages, as Twitter users decide which messages they will continue to diffuse among their followers. As certain e-cigarette messages extend beyond their point of origin, the audience being exposed expands beyond the e-cigarette community. Potential implications for health education campaigns include utilizing Twitter and targeting important gatekeepers or hubs that would maximize message diffusion.

  10. Trends in awareness and use of electronic cigarettes among US adults, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian A; Patel, Roshni; Nguyen, Kimberly H; Dube, Shanta R

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) marketing has increased considerably since the product entered the US market in 2007, thereby warranting additional surveillance to monitor recent trends in population-level awareness and utilization. We assessed the prevalence, characteristics, and trends in e-cigarette awareness and use among nationally representative samples of US adults during 2010-2013. Data came from the 2010-2013 HealthStyles survey, an annual consumer-based web survey of US adults aged ≥ 18 years. Sample sizes ranged from 2,505 (2010) to 4,170 (2012). Descriptive statistics were used to assess e-cigarette awareness, ever use, and current use (use within the past 30 days) overall and by sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, US region, and cigarette smoking status. Trends were assessed using logistic regression. During 2010-2013, increases (p e-cigarette awareness (40.9%-79.7%), ever use (3.3%-8.5%), and current use (1.0%-2.6%). Awareness increased among all socio demographic subpopulations during 2010-2013 (p impact of e-cigarettes, continued surveillance of emerging use patterns is critical for public health planning. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the following...

  12. Graphical review: The redox dark side of e-cigarettes; exposure to oxidants and public health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Wang, Chen

    2017-10-01

    Since the initial marketing in 2005, the use of e-cigarettes has increased exponentially. Nonetheless, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the ineffectiveness of e-cigarettes in leading to smoking cessation, and decreasing the adverse health impacts of cigarette smoking. The number of adolescents adapted to e-cigarettes has been increasing substantially each year, and this adaptation has promoted openness to tobacco smoking. The present review discusses controversies regarding the smoking cessation effects of e-cigarettes, recent governmental policies and regulations of e-cigarette use, toxic components and vaporization products of e-cigarettes, and the novel molecular mechanisms underlying the adverse health impacts of e-cigarettes leading to oxidative stress in target tissues, and consequent development of cardiopulmonary diseases (i.e. COPD), neurodegenerative disorders (i.e. Alzheimer's' disease), and cancer. Health warning signs on the packaging and professional consultation to avoid adaptation in risk groups might be helpful solutions to control negative impacts of e-cigarettes. It is also recommended to further expand basic and clinical investigations to reveal more detailed oxidative stress mechanisms of e-cigarette induced damages, which would ultimately result in more effective protective strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Graphical review: The redox dark side of e-cigarettes; exposure to oxidants and public health concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Cai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial marketing in 2005, the use of e-cigarettes has increased exponentially. Nonetheless, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the ineffectiveness of e-cigarettes in leading to smoking cessation, and decreasing the adverse health impacts of cigarette smoking. The number of adolescents adapted to e-cigarettes has been increasing substantially each year, and this adaptation has promoted openness to tobacco smoking. The present review discusses controversies regarding the smoking cessation effects of e-cigarettes, recent governmental policies and regulations of e-cigarette use, toxic components and vaporization products of e-cigarettes, and the novel molecular mechanisms underlying the adverse health impacts of e-cigarettes leading to oxidative stress in target tissues, and consequent development of cardiopulmonary diseases (i.e. COPD, neurodegenerative disorders (i.e. Alzheimer's’ disease, and cancer. Health warning signs on the packaging and professional consultation to avoid adaptation in risk groups might be helpful solutions to control negative impacts of e-cigarettes. It is also recommended to further expand basic and clinical investigations to reveal more detailed oxidative stress mechanisms of e-cigarette induced damages, which would ultimately result in more effective protective strategies.

  14. Determination of the elemental content in cigarettes by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, E.

    2001-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, a worldwide habit, has a very bad and hazardous effect on the human body. Neutron activation analysis technique is used in the present study. Different kinds of cigarette brands have been collected from local and foreign markets representing ten countries all over the world. All the selected samples are irradiated in first Ins has reactor, ER-1 in Egypt. A comprehensive study of the elemental content in cigarette samples under investigation has been carried out. Concentrations of the polluting elements, tracers' content and more than twenty elements have been determined. The obtained data resulting from the present work are discussed

  15. How does increasingly plainer cigarette packaging influence adult smokers' perceptions about brand image? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M A; Germain, D; Durkin, S J

    2008-12-01

    Cigarette packaging is a key marketing strategy for promoting brand image. Plain packaging has been proposed to limit brand image, but tobacco companies would resist removal of branding design elements. A 3 (brand types) x 4 (degree of plain packaging) between-subject experimental design was used, using an internet online method, to expose 813 adult Australian smokers to one randomly selected cigarette pack, after which respondents completed ratings of the pack. Compared with current cigarette packs with full branding, cigarette packs that displayed progressively fewer branding design elements were perceived increasingly unfavourably in terms of smokers' appraisals of the packs, the smokers who might smoke such packs, and the inferred experience of smoking a cigarette from these packs. For example, cardboard brown packs with the number of enclosed cigarettes displayed on the front of the pack and featuring only the brand name in small standard font at the bottom of the pack face were rated as significantly less attractive and popular than original branded packs. Smokers of these plain packs were rated as significantly less trendy/stylish, less sociable/outgoing and less mature than smokers of the original pack. Compared with original packs, smokers inferred that cigarettes from these plain packs would be less rich in tobacco, less satisfying and of lower quality tobacco. Plain packaging policies that remove most brand design elements are likely to be most successful in removing cigarette brand image associations.

  16. A decade of e-cigarettes: Limited research & unresolved safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisar, Mohammad Abul; Prasad, Shikha; Liles, Tylor; Cucullo, Luca

    2016-07-15

    It is well known that tobacco consumption is a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and has been linked to major diseases ranging from cancer to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerosis, stroke and a host of neurological/neurodegenerative disorders. In the past decade a number of alternative vaping products have hit the market, rapidly gaining consumers especially among the younger population. Electronic nicotine delivery systems or e-cigarettes have become the sought-after product due to the belief that they are much safer than traditional cigarettes. However, inadequate research and lack of regulatory guidelines for both the manufacturing process and the content of the vaping solution of the e-cigarette has become a major concern. Highly debated and unresolved questions such as whether e-cigarettes may help smokers quit and whether e-cigarettes will promote the use of nicotine among non-smokers add to the confusion of the safety of e-cigarettes. In this review article, we summarize the current understanding (and lack thereof) of the potential health impacts of e-cigarettes. We will also highlight the most recent studies (in vivo/in vitro) which seem to conflict with the broad safety claims put forward by the manufacturers. Finally, we provide potential solutions to overcome the research gap of the short and long-term health impact of e-cigarettes. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. A decade of e-cigarettes: Limited research & unresolved safety concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaisar, Mohammad Abul; Prasad, Shikha; Liles, Tylor; Cucullo, Luca

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that tobacco consumption is a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and has been linked to major diseases ranging from cancer to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerosis, stroke and a host of neurological/neurodegenerative disorders. In the past decade a number of alternative vaping products have hit the market, rapidly gaining consumers especially among the younger population. Electronic nicotine delivery systems or e-cigarettes have become the sought-after product due to the belief that they are much safer than traditional cigarettes. However, inadequate research and lack of regulatory guidelines for both the manufacturing process and the content of the vaping solution of the e-cigarette has become a major concern. Highly debated and unresolved questions such as whether e-cigarettes may help smokers quit and whether e-cigarettes will promote the use of nicotine among non-smokers add to the confusion of the safety of e-cigarettes. In this review article, we summarize the current understanding (and lack thereof) of the potential health impacts of e-cigarettes. We will also highlight the most recent studies (in vivo/in vitro) which seem to conflict with the broad safety claims put forward by the manufacturers. Finally, we provide potential solutions to overcome the research gap of the short and long-term health impact of e-cigarettes.

  18. A Decade of e-Cigarettes: Limited Research & Unresolved Safety Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisar, Mohammad Abul; Prasad, Shikha; Liles, Tylor; Cucullo, Luca

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that tobacco consumption is a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and has been linked to major diseases ranging from cancer to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerosis, stroke and a host of neurological/neurodegenerative disorders. In the past decade a number of alternative vaping products have hit the market, rapidly gaining consumers especially among the younger population. Electronic nicotine delivery systems or e-cigarettes have become the sought-after product due to the belief that they are much safer than traditional cigarettes. However, inadequate research and lack of regulatory guidelines for both the manufacturing process and the content of the vaping solution of the e-cigarette has become a major concern. Highly debated and unresolved questions such as whether e-cigarettes may help smokers quit and whether e-cigarettes will promote the use of nicotine among non-smokers add to the confusion of the safety of e-cigarettes. In this review article, we summarize the current understanding (and lack thereof) of the potential health impacts of e-cigarettes. We will also highlight the most recent studies (in vivo/in vitro) which seem to conflict with the broad safety claims put forward by the manufacturers. Finally, we provide potential solutions to overcome the research gap of the short and long-term health impact of e-cigarettes. PMID:27477296

  19. The Advertising Strategies of Early E-cigarette Brand Leaders in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haardörfer, Regine; Cahn, Zachary; Lewis, Michael; Kothari, Shreya; Sarmah, Raina; Getachew, Betelihem; Berg, Carla J

    2017-04-01

    We examined differential advertising strategies used by 4 major United States e-cigarette companies with differential affiliations with the traditional tobacco industry (ie, Njoy - independent, Blu - acquired, Vuse and MarkTen - launched by cigarette companies) over time. We conducted a mixed-methods study regarding e-cigarette adspend, adspend per media channel (eg, TV, print), and advertising messaging strategies among these 4 top e-cigarette brands from January 2013 through December 2015. E-cigarette adspend increased from $59 million in 2013 to $91 million in 2014, followed by a sharp decline to $37 million in 2015. These companies showed distinct spending trajectories overall and across media channels, with Njoy and Vuse spending a higher proportion of their dollars on TV and Blu and MarkTen spending more on print. Marketing messages were also different by company. Key themes included switching from cigarettes (particularly by Njoy and Blu), circumventing smoke-free policies (particularly by Blu), and technological advancement (particularly by Vuse and MarkTen). These e-cigarette brands have shifted their adspend, use of media channels, and advertising messaging strategies over time. Some differing strategies may reflect the different affiliations of each brand to the traditional cigarette industry.

  20. Determination of the elementary composition in Brazilian cigarettes by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Helder de; Fernandes, Elisabete A.N.; Mortatti, Jefferson; Sarries, Gabriel Adrian

    2000-01-01

    The present work characterised the inorganic compounds of some brazilian cigarette tobacco by the use of INAA. Sixteen different brands were taken from the consumer market and analyzed for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Sm, Sr and Zn. Comparisons between the results from this work and those originated from several cigarette tobacco producing countries, indicate significant variation in the levels of some elements. (author)

  1. American Indian internet cigarette sales: another avenue for selling tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Felicia S; Geishirt Cantrell, Betty A; Struthers, Roxanne; Casken, John

    2004-02-01

    A study conducted by the University of Minnesota found that cigarettes can be purchased on American Indian-owned Internet sites for about one fifth of the price at grocery stores, making this a more convenient, lower-priced, and appealing method of purchasing cigarettes. Researchers and educators are challenged to address this new marketing ploy and to discover ways to curb rising smoking rates in American Indian communities.

  2. Wanna know about vaping? Patterns of message exposure, seeking and sharing information about e-cigarettes across media platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Sherry L; Vera, Lisa; Huang, Jidong; Szczypka, Glen

    2014-01-01

    Background Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes has rapidly grown in the USA recently, in step with increased product marketing. Using responses to a population survey of US adults, we analysed demographic patterns of exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information across media platforms. Methods An online survey of 17 522 US adults was conducted in 2013. The nationally representative sample was drawn from GfK Group's KnowledgePanel plus off-panel recruitment. Fixed effects logit models were applied to analyse relationships between exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information and demographic characteristics, e-cigarette and tobacco use, and media behaviours. Results High levels of awareness about e-cigarettes were indicated (86% aware; 47% heard through media channels). Exposure to e-cigarette-related information was associated with tobacco use, age, gender, more education, social media use and time spent online. Although relatively small proportions of the sample had searched for (∼5%) or shared (∼2%) e-cigarette information, our analyses indicated demographic patterns to those behaviours. Gender, high income and using social media were associated with searching for e-cigarette information; lesbian, gay and bisexual and less education were associated with sharing. Current tobacco use, age, being Hispanic and time spent online were associated with both searching and sharing. Conclusions US adults are widely exposed to e-cigarette marketing through the media; such marketing may differentially target specific demographic groups. Further research should longitudinally examine how exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette information relate to subsequent use of e-cigarettes and/or combustible tobacco. PMID:24935893

  3. Wanna know about vaping? Patterns of message exposure, seeking and sharing information about e-cigarettes across media platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Sherry L; Vera, Lisa; Huang, Jidong; Szczypka, Glen

    2014-07-01

    Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes has rapidly grown in the USA recently, in step with increased product marketing. Using responses to a population survey of US adults, we analysed demographic patterns of exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information across media platforms. An online survey of 17,522 US adults was conducted in 2013. The nationally representative sample was drawn from GfK Group's KnowledgePanel plus off-panel recruitment. Fixed effects logit models were applied to analyse relationships between exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information and demographic characteristics, e-cigarette and tobacco use, and media behaviours. High levels of awareness about e-cigarettes were indicated (86% aware; 47% heard through media channels). Exposure to e-cigarette-related information was associated with tobacco use, age, gender, more education, social media use and time spent online. Although relatively small proportions of the sample had searched for (∼5%) or shared (∼2%) e-cigarette information, our analyses indicated demographic patterns to those behaviours. Gender, high income and using social media were associated with searching for e-cigarette information; lesbian, gay and bisexual and less education were associated with sharing. Current tobacco use, age, being Hispanic and time spent online were associated with both searching and sharing. US adults are widely exposed to e-cigarette marketing through the media; such marketing may differentially target specific demographic groups. Further research should longitudinally examine how exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette information relate to subsequent use of e-cigarettes and/or combustible tobacco. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana-Barrios, Menfil A; Payne, Drew; Medrano-Juarez, Rita M; Yang, Shengping; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing, but their use as a smoking-cessation aid is controversial. The reporting of e-cigarette studies on cessation is variable and inconsistent. To date, only 1 randomized clinical trial has included an arm with other cessation methods (nicotine patches). The cessation rates for available clinical trials are difficult to compare given differing follow-up periods and broad ranges (4% at 12 months with non-nicotine e-cigarettes to 68% at 4 weeks with concomitant nicotine e-cigarettes and other cessation methods). The average combined abstinence rate for included prospective studies was 29.1% (combination of 6-18 months׳ rates). There are few comparable clinical trials and prospective studies related to e-cigarettes use for smoking cessation, despite an increasing number of citations. Larger randomized clinical trials are essential to determine whether e-cigarettes are effective smoking-cessation devices. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The mouse lymphoma thymidine kinase assay for the assessment and comparison of the mutagenic activity of cigarette mainstream smoke particulate phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramke, H; Meisgen, T J; Tewes, F J; Gomm, W; Roemer, E

    2006-10-29

    The mouse lymphoma thymidine kinase assay (MLA) has been optimized to quantitatively determine the in vitro mutagenicity of cigarette mainstream smoke particulate phase. To test whether the MLA is able to discriminate between different cigarette types, specially constructed cigarettes each containing a single tobacco type - Bright, Burley, or Oriental - were investigated. The mutagenic activity of the Burley cigarette was statistically significantly lower, up to approximately 40%, than that of the Bright and Oriental cigarettes. To determine the impact of two different sets of smoking conditions, American-blend cigarettes were smoked under US Federal Trade Commission/International Organisation for Standardisation conditions and under Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) conditions. Conventional cigarettes - eight from the US commercial market plus the Reference Cigarettes 1R4F and 2R4F - and an electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS) prototype were tested. There were no statistically significant differences between the two sets of smoking conditions on a per mg total particulate matter basis, although there was a consistent trend towards slightly lower mutagenic activity under MDPH conditions. The mutagenic activity of the EHCSS prototype was distinctly lower than that of the conventional cigarettes under both sets of smoking conditions. These results show that the MLA can be used to assess and compare the mutagenic activity of cigarette mainstream smoke particulate phase in the comprehensive toxicological assessment of cigarette smoke.

  6. Perceived Relative Harm of Selected Cigarettes and Non-Cigarette Tobacco Products—A Study of Young People from a Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Rural Area in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The perceived health risk of recently introduced nicotine and tobacco products may influence both their uptake and continued use. The aim of the study was to assess how adolescents rate relative harmfulness of slim and menthol cigarettes, water pipes, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco compared to regular cigarettes. Cross-sectional survey data from students aged 13–19 years from Piotrkowski district, Poland were analyzed. Among the sample of 4050 students, 3552 respondents completed anonymous, confidential, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS. The study results indicate that the students perceived slim cigarettes and menthol cigarettes as less harmful, which is in line with the message created by tobacco companies. On the other hand, less popular products such as water pipes and smokeless tobacco were considered as more harmful. The current study indicates insufficient and misleading perception of harmfulness of different tobacco/nicotine products available on the Polish market. Simultaneously, there is insufficient countrywide public health education in this matter. Preventive measures are necessary to discourage young people from smoking uptake and to ensure that potential consumers can, based on objective data, make informed decisions about cigarettes and non-cigarette tobacco products.

  7. Electronic Cigarette Use among Mississippi Adults, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Mendy, Vincent L.; Vargas, Rodolfo; Cannon-Smith, Gerri; Payton, Marinelle; Byambaa, Enkhmaa; Zhang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine in the form of aerosol. We identify differences and associations in e-cigarette use by sociodemographic characteristics and describe the reported reasons for initiating use among Mississippi adults. We used the 2015 Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which collected information on e-cigarette use from 6,035 respondents. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use and having ever tried an ...

  8. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    OpenAIRE

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M.; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess w...

  9. Impact of advertisements promoting candy-like flavoured e-cigarettes on appeal of tobacco smoking among children: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Milica; Petrescu, Dragos C; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-12-01

    There are concerns that the marketing of e-cigarettes may increase the appeal of tobacco smoking in children. We examined this concern by assessing the impact on appeal of tobacco smoking after exposure to advertisements for e-cigarettes with and without candy-like flavours, such as, bubble gum and milk chocolate. We assigned 598 English school children (aged 11-16 years) to 1 of 3 different conditions corresponding to the adverts to which they were exposed: adverts for flavoured e-cigarettes, adverts for non-flavoured e-cigarettes or a control condition in which no adverts were shown. The primary endpoint was appeal of tobacco smoking. Secondary endpoints were: appeal of using e-cigarettes, susceptibility to tobacco smoking, perceived harm of tobacco, appeal of e-cigarette adverts and interest in buying and trying e-cigarettes. Tobacco smokers and e-cigarette users were excluded from analyses (final sample=471). Exposure to either set of adverts did not increase the appeal of tobacco smoking, the appeal of using e-cigarettes, or susceptibility to tobacco smoking. Also, it did not reduce the perceived harm of tobacco smoking, which was high. Flavoured e-cigarette adverts were, however, more appealing than adverts for non-flavoured e-cigarettes and elicited greater interest in buying and trying e-cigarettes. Exposure to adverts for e-cigarettes does not seem to increase the appeal of tobacco smoking in children. Flavoured, compared with non-flavoured, e-cigarette adverts did, however, elicit greater appeal and interest in buying and trying e-cigarettes. Further studies extending the current research are needed to elucidate the impact of flavoured and non-flavoured e-cigarette adverts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Association between menthol cigarette smoking and current use of electronic cigarettes among us adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Agaku

    2017-05-01

    Current e-cigarette use was significantly higher among menthol than nonmenthol cigarette smokers. These findings underscore the importance of efforts to reduce all forms of tobacco product use, including e-cigarettes, among youth.

  11. The availability of electronic cigarettes in U.S. retail outlets, 2012: results of two national studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Barker, Dianne C; D'Angelo, Heather; Khan, Tamkeen; Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2014-07-01

    Since their introduction in 2007, electronic cigarette ('e-cigarette') awareness and use has grown rapidly. Little is known about variation in e-cigarette availability across areas with different levels of tobacco taxes and smoke-free air policies. This paper looks at US retail availability of e-cigarettes and factors at the store, neighbourhood and policy levels associated with it. In-person store audit data collected in 2012 came from two national samples of tobacco retailers in the contiguous US. Study 1 collected data from a nationally representative sample of tobacco retailers (n=2165). Study 2 collected data from tobacco retailers located in school enrolment zones for nationally representative samples of 8th, 10th and 12th grade public school students (n=2526). In 2012, e-cigarette retail availability was 34% in study 1 and 31% in study 2. Tobacco, pharmacy and gas/convenience stores were more likely to sell e-cigarettes than beer/wine/liquor stores. Retail availability of e-cigarettes was more likely in neighbourhoods with higher median household income (study 1), and lower percent of African-American (studies 1 and 2) and Hispanic residents (study 2). Price of traditional cigarettes was inversely related to e-cigarette availability. Stores in states with an American Lung Association Smoke-Free Air grade of F (study 1) or D (study 2) compared with A had increased likelihood of having e-cigarettes. Currently, e-cigarette availability appears more likely in areas with weak tax and smoke-free air policies. Given the substantial availability of e-cigarettes at tobacco retailers nationwide, states and localities should monitor the sales and marketing of e-cigarettes at point of sale (POS). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. From cigarette smuggling to illicit tobacco trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, Luk; Raw, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Tax policy is considered the most effective strategy to reduce tobacco consumption and prevalence. Tax avoidance and tax evasion therefore undermine the effectiveness of tax policies and result in less revenue for governments, cheaper prices for smokers and increased tobacco use. Tobacco smuggling and illicit tobacco trade have probably always existed, since tobacco's introduction as a valuable product from the New World, but the nature of the trade has changed. This article clarifies definitions, reviews the key issues related to illicit trade, describes the different ways taxes are circumvented and looks at the size of the problem, its changing nature and its causes. The difficulties of data collection and research are discussed. Finally, we look at the policy options to combat illicit trade and the negotiations for a WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) protocol on illicit tobacco trade. Twenty years ago the main type of illicit trade was large-scale cigarette smuggling of well known cigarette brands. A change occurred as some major international tobacco companies in Europe and the Americas reviewed their export practices due to tax regulations, investigations and lawsuits by the authorities. Other types of illicit trade emerged such as illegal manufacturing, including counterfeiting and the emergence of new cigarette brands, produced in a rather open manner at well known locations, which are only or mainly intended for the illegal market of another country. The global scope and multifaceted nature of the illicit tobacco trade requires a coordinated international response, so a strong protocol to the FCTC is essential. The illicit tobacco trade is a global problem which needs a global solution.

  13. Menthol Cigarettes, Time to First Cigarette, and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Edward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work is to determine if menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers differ with respect to time to first cigarette (TTFC and successful smoking cessation via a meta-analysis of published results. For 13 independent estimates, menthol smokers were slightly but statistically significantly more likely to exhibit TTFC ≤ 5 min (random-effects odds ratio (OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.04–1.21, while 17 independent estimates provided a non-significant difference for TTFC ≤ 30 min (random-effects OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.96–1.16. For cessation studies, meta-analysis of 30 published estimates indicated a decreased likelihood for menthol cigarette smokers to quit (random-effects OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80–0.96. There was no difference between cessation rates for Caucasian menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers, but the results support that African American menthol cigarette smokers find it more difficult to quit. Adjustment of cessation for socioeconomic status eliminated any statistically significant advantage for smoking cessation in non-menthol smokers. In conclusion, these results suggest that the observed differences in cessation rates between menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers are likely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and also suggest that TTFC may not be a robust predictor of successful smoking cessation.

  14. Flavoured cigarettes, sensation seeking and adolescents' perceptions of cigarette brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, K C; Kelly, K J; Comello, M L

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of cigarette package flavour descriptors and sensation seeking on adolescents' brand perceptions. High school students (n = 253) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions and sequentially exposed to cigarette package illustrations for three different brands. In the flavour descriptor condition, the packages included a description of the cigarettes as "cherry", while in the traditional descriptor condition the cigarette brands were described with common phrases found on tobacco packages such as "domestic blend." Following exposure to each package participants' hedonic beliefs, brand attitudes and trial intentions were assessed. Sensation seeking was also measured, and participants were categorised as lower or higher sensation seekers. Across hedonic belief, brand attitude and trial intention measures, there were interactions between package descriptor condition and sensation seeking. These interactions revealed that among high (but not low) sensation seekers, exposure to cigarette packages including sweet flavour descriptors led to more favourable brand impressions than did exposure to packages with traditional descriptors. Among high sensation seeking youths, the appeal of cigarette brands is enhanced through the use of flavours and associated descriptions on product packaging.

  15. Health care professional and cigarette cessation volunteers knowledge, attitude and practice on e-cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Hooman Sharifi

    2018-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarette) are new phenomenon that has been widely accepted. E- Cigarettes are more popular that has become one of the preferable rout of smoking cessation in patients. Further researches are required for future advice on e-cigarette use.To determine Health Care Professional and Cigarette Cessation Volunteers Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on e-Cigarettes Methods In a cross-sectional description study, 147 medical professional ...

  16. EAMJ April Cigarette.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-04

    Apr 4, 2009 ... associated with smoking compared to their non- smoking ... CIGARETTE SMOKING AND ORAL HEALTH AMONG HEALTHCARE STUDENTS. P. Komu, BDS (Nbi), ..... Ashwin, A. P., Hill, K., Balras, V., et al.A comparison.

  17. cigarette smoking and adolescent health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-15

    Feb 15, 2013 ... CI (95%) = 0.22 – 0.96). Conclusively, the prevalence of smoking was high among in-school adolescents in the ... The link between cigarette smoking and many non- ..... potential. Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations;.

  18. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized;...... units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  19. Cardiology Patient Page: Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products come in kid-friendly flavors (including grape, chocolate, bubble gum, and gummy bear). E-cigarette advertising ... a tobacco telephone quit line), approved nicotine replacement therapies (eg, patch, gum, or inhaler), and oral nonnicotine ...

  20. Symptoms during Adolescents’ First Use of Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May S. Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms adolescents experience during their first time using a cigarette predict their current use, but little is known regarding the symptoms experienced during first e-cigarette use. We conducted a pilot study to understand the symptoms adolescents experience when they first tried cigarettes and e-cigarettes and the associations between these symptoms and current use. Participants were 41 adolescents in two U.S. cities who had tried cigarettes or e-cigarettes. We asked adolescents to recall the symptoms they experienced during their first cigarette or e-cigarette and categorized symptoms as negative (felt bad, coughing/chest pain, bad taste, upset stomach, dizzy/lightheaded or positive (felt relaxed, rush/buzz. Adolescents reported fewer negative symptoms for first e-cigarette than first cigarette use (all p < 0.05. Current cigarette smoking was associated with endorsing fewer negative symptoms (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = [0.25, 0.95] and more positive symptoms (OR = 7.11, 95% CI = [1.47, 34.33] at first cigarette use. First e-cigarette use symptoms were not associated with current e-cigarette use. Adolescents reported fewer negative symptoms from first e-cigarette than from first cigarette, and e-cigarette symptoms did not influence use as they do for cigarettes. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings in longitudinal studies.

  1. Symptoms during Adolescents’ First Use of Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, May S.; Hall, Marissa G.; Parada, Humberto; Peebles, Kathryn; Brodar, Kaitlyn E.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2017-01-01

    Symptoms adolescents experience during their first time using a cigarette predict their current use, but little is known regarding the symptoms experienced during first e-cigarette use. We conducted a pilot study to understand the symptoms adolescents experience when they first tried cigarettes and e-cigarettes and the associations between these symptoms and current use. Participants were 41 adolescents in two U.S. cities who had tried cigarettes or e-cigarettes. We asked adolescents to recall the symptoms they experienced during their first cigarette or e-cigarette and categorized symptoms as negative (felt bad, coughing/chest pain, bad taste, upset stomach, dizzy/lightheaded) or positive (felt relaxed, rush/buzz). Adolescents reported fewer negative symptoms for first e-cigarette than first cigarette use (all p < 0.05). Current cigarette smoking was associated with endorsing fewer negative symptoms (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = [0.25, 0.95]) and more positive symptoms (OR = 7.11, 95% CI = [1.47, 34.33]) at first cigarette use. First e-cigarette use symptoms were not associated with current e-cigarette use. Adolescents reported fewer negative symptoms from first e-cigarette than from first cigarette, and e-cigarette symptoms did not influence use as they do for cigarettes. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings in longitudinal studies. PMID:29053574

  2. Low-Yield Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts Health Effects Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Tobacco Tobacco Marketing and Products Youth Tobacco Use Get Email Updates ... Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding ...

  3. Spring Breaks and Cigarette Tax Noncompliance: Evidence From a New York City College Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consroe, Kimberly; Kurti, Marin; Merriman, David; von Lampe, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    Estimate cigarette tax noncompliance (tax avoidance and evasion) before and after mid-semester recesses in a New York City college campus, where the majority of students are residents of nearby lower-tax states, using data derived from garbology, an archaeological method that reconstructs patterns of human behavior from discarded materials. We systematically divided the college campus into four geographic areas and established a total of 12 transects (survey lines) and five quadrats (survey spheres) in those areas to encompass 74 outdoor trash cans. Weekly collections of discarded cigarette packs (n = 174) in the four areas during Spring 2012 and 2013 were conducted to quantify the percentage of cigarette packs that were tax noncompliant. Overall, we find that 72.4% of the cigarette packs collected in Spring 2012 and 2013 did not bear the required joint New York City and New York State tax stamp. Additionally, we find that cigarette tax avoidance significantly increased after recesses (mid-March and early April) in Spring 2012 and subsequently declined. We also find that packs with a Virginia tax stamp became more prevalent as time elapsed after each recess. College students practice tax avoidance, drawing on legal purchases from their own home states as the primary source of cheap cigarettes. As stocks decline, some students shift to tax evasion by illegally purchasing cigarettes in New York City that have been bootlegged from low tax states (eg, Virginia). Our study adds to the growing literature on cigarette tax noncompliance (ie, tax avoidance and evasion). First, we provide evidence that college students in our New York City sample avoid the payment of taxes in high tax states by purchasing low taxed cigarettes in their home state. Second, we find that once those sources are depleted, students find access to the black market nearby campus. This black market functions through cigarette tax evasion: the resale of cigarettes purchased in low tax states. Our study

  4. The Australian cigarette brand as product, person, and symbol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S M

    2003-12-01

    To examine, for dominant Australian cigarette brands, brand identity (overriding brand vision), brand positioning (brand identity elements communicated to the consumer), brand image (consumers' brand perceptions) and brand equity (financial value). Tobacco industry documents, articles from retail trade publications since 1990, and current brand advertising from retail trade publications were searched for information about Australian brands. Cigarette manufacturers benefit from their competitors' brand equity as well as their own. The industry sees Australian smokers as far less brand loyal and strongly oriented to "low tar". A few predominantly local brands dominate the market, with variation by state. Successful Australian brands exist in one of three categories: premium, mainstream, and supervalue. Their brand identity essence is as follows. Premium: quality. Mainstream: a good humoured "fair go" for ordinary Australians. Supervalue: value for money. All supervalue brand identities also include freedom, escape, mildness, an aspirational attitude, blue tones, and waterside scenes. Brand image and brand identity is frequently congruent, even when marketing is restricted, and brand image is generally more positive for a smoker's own brand. Tobacco control activities have undermined cigarette brand equity. Further research is needed regarding brand loyalty, low tar, and brand categories. Smokers may respond more positively to tobacco control messages consistent with the identities of their chosen brand, and brand-as-organisation elements may assist. Further marketing restrictions should consider all elements of brand identity, and aim to undermine brand categories.

  5. The Australian cigarette brand as product, person, and symbol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine, for dominant Australian cigarette brands, brand identity (overriding brand vision), brand positioning (brand identity elements communicated to the consumer), brand image (consumers' brand perceptions) and brand equity (financial value). Design: Tobacco industry documents, articles from retail trade publications since 1990, and current brand advertising from retail trade publications were searched for information about Australian brands. Results: Cigarette manufacturers benefit from their competitors' brand equity as well as their own. The industry sees Australian smokers as far less brand loyal and strongly oriented to "low tar". A few predominantly local brands dominate the market, with variation by state. Successful Australian brands exist in one of three categories: premium, mainstream, and supervalue. Their brand identity essence is as follows. Premium: quality. Mainstream: a good humoured "fair go" for ordinary Australians. Supervalue: value for money. All supervalue brand identities also include freedom, escape, mildness, an aspirational attitude, blue tones, and waterside scenes. Brand image and brand identity is frequently congruent, even when marketing is restricted, and brand image is generally more positive for a smoker's own brand. Conclusions: Tobacco control activities have undermined cigarette brand equity. Further research is needed regarding brand loyalty, low tar, and brand categories. Smokers may respond more positively to tobacco control messages consistent with the identities of their chosen brand, and brand-as-organisation elements may assist. Further marketing restrictions should consider all elements of brand identity, and aim to undermine brand categories. PMID:14645952

  6. Chemical composition of cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a concentrated aerosol of liquid particles suspended in an atmosphere consisting mainly of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. While the precise chemical composition of the particulate and gaseous phases is dependent on the characteristics of the cigarette and the manner in which it is smoked, both phases contain tens of hundreds of individual constitutents. Notable among potentially hazardous constituents of smoke are tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, benzo(a)pyrene, and N-nitrosamines.

  7. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Collin N Smith,1 John D Kraemer,2 Andrea C Johnson,1 Darren Mays1 1Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, USA; 2Department of Health Systems Administration, School of Nursing and Health Studies, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. Keywords: cigarette smoking, tobacco, plain packaging, regulation, policy

  8. E-Cigarette Users' Attitudes on the Banning of Sales of Nicotine E-Liquid, Its Implication on E-Cigarette Use Behaviours and Alternative Sources of Nicotine E-Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Alias, Haridah; Agha Mohammadi, Nasrin; Ghadimi, Azadeh; Hoe, Victor Chee Wai

    2017-12-01

    The banning of sales of nicotine e-liquid in e-cigarette shops has been implemented in several states in Malaysia. The distribution of nicotine e-liquid can only be allowed by licensed pharmacies or registered medical practitioners. This study aimed to evaluate e-cigarette users' responses to the control policy in a cross-sectional survey of 851 e-cigarette users by utilizing a self-report questionnaire that assessed (1) attitudes on regulation policy of e-cigarette banning; (2) e-cigarette use behaviors; and (3) sources of e-liquid after the regulation policy has been implemented. Participants from the state of Selangor where the banning policy was implemented were surveyed. The majority (95.8%) opposed the banning and believed e-cigarettes should be sold to anyone aged 18 years or above as with tobacco cigarettes, only a minority believed that nicotine e-liquid should only be available for sale over the counter in pharmacy stores (14.6%) and in clinics with a doctor's prescription (11.8%). The majority (44.2%) reported that they would continue their e-cigarette use as before the banning policy, while 20% plan to completely stop e-cigarette usage without replacing it with any alternatives. The vast majority (87.9%) was still able to obtained nicotine e-liquid from e-cigarette shops in spite of the ban and the second most common source was from online purchase (63.1%). The sales of nicotine e-liquid from black-market were evidenced as many reported obtaining zero nicotine e-liquid from the black market (54.4%). Self- or home-made (30.8%) nicotine e-liquid was also reported. Majority of respondents that self-made e-liquid were from the average monthly income group (below MYR3000). Obtaining nicotine from the pharmacy was least preferred (21.4%). Provision of professional advice to nicotine e-liquid users along with the ban may lessen the likelihood of users switching to tobacco cigarettes or other nicotine alternatives. Banning of sales of nicotine e-liquid in e-cigarette

  9. Electronic Cigarette and Electronic Hookah: A Pilot Study Comparing Two Vaping Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanta R. Dube

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of e-cigarettes into the U.S. market, the number and variety of vaping products have proliferated. E-hookahs are long, pen-like vaping devices that debuted in U.S. markets in 2014. By applying the Host, Agent, Vector, Environment (HAVE model, the objective of this exploratory study was to assess differences between e-cigarettes and e-hookahs to help inform tobacco regulatory science and practice. In June–August 2014, a total of 54 unique manufactured e-cigarette and e-hookah products were identified at point of sales (POS around three college campuses in Southeast U.S. Documented characteristics included brand name, disposable, rechargeable, nicotine containing, packaging, and flavor type. Descriptive analyses were conducted October to November 2014 to assess frequency and percent of product type across POS and specific characteristics. Among 54 products, 70.4% was e-cigarettes and 29.6% was e-hookahs. Across POS, drug stores and grocery stores carried e-cigarettes exclusively, while gas stations carried the greatest proportion of e-hookahs. Compared to e-hookahs, a greater proportion of e-cigarettes were non-disposable and contained nicotine; a greater proportion of e-hookahs came in fruit and other types of flavors compared to e-cigarettes. The present study suggests that e-cigarettes and e-hookahs differ by specific product characteristics and by places where they are sold. Despite these differences, the products are used for similar purposes warranting careful monitoring of industry manufacturing and marketing, because the safety of both products is still undetermined. Additional research is needed to understand the uptake and continued use of these products.

  10. Electronic Cigarette and Electronic Hookah: A Pilot Study Comparing Two Vaping Products☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R.; Pathak, Sarita; Nyman, Amy L.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of e-cigarettes into the U.S. market, the number and variety of vaping products have proliferated. E-hookahs are long, pen-like vaping devices that debuted in U.S. markets in 2014. By applying the Host, Agent, Vector, Environment (HAVE) model, the objective of this exploratory study was to assess differences between e-cigarettes and e-hookahs to help inform tobacco regulatory science and practice. In June–August 2014, a total of 54 unique manufactured e-cigarette and e-hookah products were identified at point of sales (POS) around three college campuses in Southeast U.S. Documented characteristics included brand name, disposable, rechargeable, nicotine containing, packaging, and flavor type. Descriptive analyses were conducted October to November 2014 to assess frequency and percent of product type across POS and specific characteristics. Among 54 products, 70.4% was e-cigarettes and 29.6% was e-hookahs. Across POS, drug stores and grocery stores carried e-cigarettes exclusively, while gas stations carried the greatest proportion of e-hookahs. Compared to e-hookahs, a greater proportion of e-cigarettes were non-disposable and contained nicotine; a greater proportion of e-hookahs came in fruit and other types of flavors compared to e-cigarettes. The present study suggests that e-cigarettes and e-hookahs differ by specific product characteristics and by places where they are sold. Despite these differences, the products are used for similar purposes warranting careful monitoring of industry manufacturing and marketing, because the safety of both products is still undetermined. Additional research is needed to understand the uptake and continued use of these products. PMID:26740911

  11. Electronic Cigarette and Electronic Hookah: A Pilot Study Comparing Two Vaping Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R; Pathak, Sarita; Nyman, Amy L; Eriksen, Michael P

    Since the introduction of e-cigarettes into the U.S. market, the number and variety of vaping products has proliferated. E-hookahs are long, pen-like vaping devices that debuted in U.S. markets in 2014. By applying the Host, Agent, Vector, Environment (HAVE) Model, the objective of this exploratory study was to assess differences between e-cigarettes and e-hookahs to help inform tobacco regulatory science and practice. In June-August 2014, a total of 54 unique manufactured e-cigarette and e-hookah products were identified at point of sales (POS) around three college campuses in Southeast U.S. Documented characteristics included brand name, disposable, rechargeable, nicotine containing, packaging, and flavor type. Statistical analyses were conducted October to November 2014 to assess frequency and percent of product type across POS and specific characteristics. Among 54 products, 70.4% were e-cigarettes and 29.6% were e-hookahs. Across POS, drug stores and grocery stores carried e-cigarettes exclusively, while gas stations carried the greatest proportion of e-hookahs. Compared to e-hookahs, a greater proportion of e-cigarettes were non-disposable and contained nicotine; a greater proportion of e-hookahs came in fruit and other types of flavors compared to e-cigarettes. The present study suggests that e-cigarettes and e-hookahs differ by specific product characteristics and by places where they are sold. Despite these differences, the products are used for similar purposes warranting careful monitoring of industry manufacturing and marketing, because the safety of both products is still undetermined. Additional research is needed to understand the uptake and continued use of these products.

  12. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions.

  13. E-Cigarette Use, Perceptions, and Cigarette Smoking Intentions in a Community Sample of Young Adult Non-Daily Cigarette Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brikmanis, Kristin; Petersen, Angela; Doran, Neal

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarettes have been suggested as a strategy for reducing harm from cigarettes. While e-cigarettes could be a less-harmful alternative to cigarettes for those trying to quit, there may also be costs that outweigh any benefits of reduction. The purpose of the present study was to prospectively investigate perceptions of e-cigarettes, cigarette smoking intentions and their associations with e-cigarette use over time. Community participants (n = 348, 57% male) aged 18–24 were recruited for a longitudinal study of tobacco use. Inclusion criteria included non-daily cigarette smoking for ≥ 6 months with no history of daily smoking. Participants reported e-cigarette use over the past 14 days at baseline and for the past 9 days at 3, 6, and 9 months. Assessments were completed online or via mobile phone. Across the 4 assessments, 22–33% of participants reported recent e-cigarette use. Intent to quit smoking cigarettes and intent to maintain smoking were unrelated to e-cigarette frequency. E-cigarette frequency was positively associated with perceiving e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes and more positive e-cigarette expectancies (ps E-cigarette use was also more frequent among those who smoked cigarettes frequently and who used e-cigarettes to circumvent cigarette bans more often (ps e-cigarette use more than harm reduction. Findings instead seem consistent with the hypothesis that e-cigarettes are more often used to complement ongoing cigarette smoking. PMID:28125242

  14. Electronic Cigarette Use among Mississippi Adults, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendy, Vincent L; Vargas, Rodolfo; Cannon-Smith, Gerri; Payton, Marinelle; Byambaa, Enkhmaa; Zhang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine in the form of aerosol. We identify differences and associations in e-cigarette use by sociodemographic characteristics and describe the reported reasons for initiating use among Mississippi adults. We used the 2015 Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which collected information on e-cigarette use from 6,035 respondents. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use and having ever tried an e-cigarette was determined overall and by sociodemographic characteristics. Weighted prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and prevalences for subgroups were compared using the X 2 tests and associations were assessed using logistic regression. In 2015, 4.7% of Mississippi adults currently used e-cigarettes, while 20.5% had ever tried an e-cigarette. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use was significantly higher for young adults, whites, men, individuals unable to work, those with income $35,000-$49,999, and current smokers compared to their counterparts. Similar results were observed for having ever tried an e-cigarette. E-cigarette use was associated with age, race, income, and smoking status. Most (71.2%) of current e-cigarette users and over half (52.1%) of those who have ever tried e-cigarettes reported that a main reason for trying or using e-cigarettes was "to cut down or quit smoking."

  15. Electronic Cigarette Use among Mississippi Adults, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent L. Mendy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine in the form of aerosol. We identify differences and associations in e-cigarette use by sociodemographic characteristics and describe the reported reasons for initiating use among Mississippi adults. We used the 2015 Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which collected information on e-cigarette use from 6,035 respondents. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use and having ever tried an e-cigarette was determined overall and by sociodemographic characteristics. Weighted prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and prevalences for subgroups were compared using the X2 tests and associations were assessed using logistic regression. In 2015, 4.7% of Mississippi adults currently used e-cigarettes, while 20.5% had ever tried an e-cigarette. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use was significantly higher for young adults, whites, men, individuals unable to work, those with income $35,000–$49,999, and current smokers compared to their counterparts. Similar results were observed for having ever tried an e-cigarette. E-cigarette use was associated with age, race, income, and smoking status. Most (71.2% of current e-cigarette users and over half (52.1% of those who have ever tried e-cigarettes reported that a main reason for trying or using e-cigarettes was “to cut down or quit smoking.”

  16. Differential trends in cigarette smoking in the USA: is menthol slowing progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, Gary A; Villanti, Andrea C; Mowery, Paul D; Sevilimedu, Varadan; Niaura, Raymond S; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B

    2015-01-01

    Mentholated cigarettes are at least as dangerous to an individual's health as non-mentholated varieties. The addition of menthol to cigarettes reduces perceived harshness of smoke, which can facilitate initiation. Here, we examine correlates of menthol use, national trends in smoking menthol and non-menthol cigarettes, and brand preferences over time. We estimated menthol cigarette use during 2004-2010 using annual data on persons ≥12 years old from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We adjusted self-reported menthol status for selected brands that were either exclusively menthol or non-menthol, based on sales data. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. Among cigarette smokers, menthol cigarette use was more common among 12-17 year olds (56.7%) and 18-25 year olds (45.0%) than among older persons (range 30.5% to 34.7%). In a multivariable analysis, menthol use was associated with being younger, female and of non-Caucasian race/ethnicity. Among all adolescents, the percentage who smoked non-menthol cigarettes decreased from 2004-2010, while menthol smoking rates remained constant; among all young adults, the percentage who smoked non-menthol cigarettes also declined, while menthol smoking rates increased. The use of Camel menthol and Marlboro menthol increased among adolescent and young adult smokers, particularly non-Hispanic Caucasians, during the study period. Young people are heavy consumers of mentholated cigarettes. Progress in reducing youth smoking has likely been attenuated by the sale and marketing of mentholated cigarettes, including emerging varieties of established youth brands. This study should inform the Food and Drug Administration regarding the potential public health impact of a menthol ban. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. One of several ‘toys’ for smoking: young adult experiences with electronic cigarettes in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Emily Anne; Ling, Pamela M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This qualitative research explores the use of electronic cigarettes and other similar ‘vapor’ delivery devices among young adults in New York City. Methods We employed 17 focus groups followed by 12 semistructured interviews to understand the beliefs, opinions and practices related to the use of electronic cigarettes among young adult smokers (N=87). Results Participants were mainly daily (52%) and non-daily (41%) smokers. While experimentation with electronic cigarette devices was frequently reported, participants related an overall lack of information about the devices and what they did know often reflected messages in e-cigarette marketing campaigns. Participants also used their own bodily sensations as a way to gauge potential risks and benefits of the products. Finally, young adults, steeped in a culture of personal technologies, perceived e-cigarettes as one more ‘toy’ among other technologies integrated into their everyday lives. Discussion E-cigarettes were also frequently used with other tobacco products, including conventional cigarettes. Our research indicates that public health campaigns may be needed to counter current industry marketing and inform the public that electronic cigarettes are currently unregulated, understudied and contain toxicants and carcinogens. PMID:25564287

  18. Availability, Price, and Packaging of Electronic Cigarettes and E-Liquids in Guatemala City Retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Violeta; Arriaza, Astrid; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2018-01-05

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have the potential to normalize smoking and undermine tobacco control efforts. However, if well regulated, they also have a potential as smoking cessation aids. This study sought to determine the availability and types of e-cigarettes and e-liquids in Guatemala. We also assessed packaging characteristics and price. We surveyed a convenient sample of 39 Guatemala City retailers and purchased all e-cigarettes and e-liquids available. Duplicate samples (same brand, e-liquid type, flavor, nicotine content, or packaging) were purchased when prices were different between each other. Country of manufacture, flavor, expiration date, nicotine concentration, and price were recorded. We also documented package marketing strategies and warning labels. We purchased 64 e-cigarettes (53 unique and 11 duplicates) and 57 e-liquids (52 unique and 5 duplicates), mostly found on mall retailers. Most e-cigarettes (42, 66%) were first generation, followed by second (18, 28%) and third generations (4, 6%). Price of e-cigarettes differed significantly by generation. Most e-cigarettes (31, 58%) and 24 (46%) e-liquids did not include warning labels. Nicotine content was reported in 21 (39%) e-cigarettes that included e-liquids and 41 (79%) e-liquids' packages. E-cigarettes and e-liquids are available among a variety of retailers in Guatemala City and the industry is taking advantage of the fact that they are not regulated (eg, health claims, minimum sales age, and taxation). Our findings support the need for further research on e-cigarettes and e-liquids in Guatemala. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing e-cigarettes and e-liquids available in retailers in a low/middle-income country like Guatemala. E-cigarettes and e-liquids were found in a variety of types, flavors, and nicotine concentrations in Guatemalan retailers. Our findings support the need for further research on e-cigarettes and e-liquids in Guatemala. © The Author

  19. Comparing Twitter and Online Panels for Survey Recruitment of E-Cigarette Users and Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Jamie; Kim, Annice; Murphy, Joe; Bradfield, Brian; Nonnemaker, James; Hsieh, Yuli

    2016-11-15

    E-cigarettes have rapidly increased in popularity in recent years, driven, at least in part, by marketing and word-of-mouth discussion on Twitter. Given the rapid proliferation of e-cigarettes, researchers need timely quantitative data from e-cigarette users and smokers who may see e-cigarettes as a cessation tool. Twitter provides an ideal platform for recruiting e-cigarette users and smokers who use Twitter. Online panels offer a second method of accessing this population, but they have been criticized for recruiting too few young adults, among whom e-cigarette use rates are highest. This study compares effectiveness of recruiting Twitter users who are e-cigarette users and smokers who have never used e-cigarettes via Twitter to online panelists provided by Qualtrics and explores how users recruited differ by demographics, e-cigarette use, and social media use. Participants were adults who had ever used e-cigarettes (n=278; male: 57.6%, 160/278; age: mean 34.26, SD 14.16 years) and smokers (n=102; male: 38.2%, 39/102; age: mean 42.80, SD 14.16 years) with public Twitter profiles. Participants were recruited via online panel (n=190) or promoted tweets using keyword targeting for e-cigarette users (n=190). Predictor variables were demographics (age, gender, education, race/ethnicity), e-cigarette use (eg, past 30-day e-cigarette use, e-cigarette puffs per day), social media use behaviors (eg, Twitter use frequency), and days to final survey completion from survey launch for Twitter versus panel. Recruitment method (Twitter, panel) was the dependent variable. Across the total sample, participants were recruited more quickly via Twitter (incidence rate ratio=1.30, P=.02) than panel. Compared with young adult e-cigarette users (age 18-24 years), e-cigarette users aged 25 to 34 years (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.00-0.60, P=.03) and 35 to 44 years (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.00-0.51, P=.02) were more likely to be recruited via Twitter than panel. Smokers aged 35 to 44 years were less

  20. Expectancies for cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and nicotine replacement therapies among e-cigarette users (aka vapers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul T; Marquinez, Nicole S; Correa, John B; Meltzer, Lauren R; Unrod, Marina; Sutton, Steven K; Simmons, Vani N; Brandon, Thomas H

    2015-02-01

    Use of e-cigarettes has been increasing exponentially, with the primary motivation reported as smoking cessation. To understand why smokers choose e-cigarettes as an alternative to cigarettes, as well as to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)--approved nicotine replacement therapies (NRT), we compared outcome expectancies (beliefs about the results of drug use) for the three nicotine delivery systems among vapers, i.e., e-cigarette users, who were former smokers. Vapers (N = 1,434) completed an online survey assessing 14 expectancy domains as well as perceived cost and convenience. We focused on comparisons between e-cigarettes and cigarettes to determine the attraction of e-cigarettes as a smoking alternative and between e-cigarettes and NRT to determine perceived advantages of e-cigarettes over FDA-approved pharmacotherapy. Participants believed that e-cigarettes, in comparison to conventional cigarettes, had fewer health risks; caused less craving, withdrawal, addiction, and negative physical feelings; tasted better; and were more satisfying. In contrast, conventional cigarettes were perceived as better than e-cigarettes for reducing negative affect, controlling weight, providing stimulation, and reducing stress. E-cigarettes, compared to NRT, were perceived to be less risky, cost less, cause fewer negative physical feelings, taste better, provide more satisfaction, and be better at reducing craving, negative affect, and stress. Moderator analyses indicated history with ad libitum forms of NRT was associated with less positive NRT expectancies. The degree to which expectancies for e-cigarettes differed from expectancies for either tobacco cigarettes or NRT offers insight into the motivation of e-cigarette users and provides guidance for public health and clinical interventions to encourage smoking-related behavior change. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved

  1. E-cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking Cessation among Texas College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Cooper, Maria R; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-01

    We examined the relationships between e-cigarette use and subsequent cigarette smoking behaviors at 6- and 12-month follow-ups among young adults. Participants were 18-29 year-old current and former cigarette smokers (N = 627) at 24 Texas colleges, participating in a 3-wave study. Multi-level, multivariable logistic regression models, accounting for school clustering, examined the impact of self-reported use of e-cigarettes on cigarette smoking status at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Two mutually-exclusive groups of e-cigarette users were examined: those that used for cigarette smoking cessation and those that used for reasons other than cessation. Baseline covariates included socio-demographics, past quit attempts, nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, and other tobacco use. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation was associated with increased odds of cigarette smoking cessation at 6- and 12-month follow-ups, while using e-cigarettes for other reasons was not, when adjusting for covariates. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation may reduce cigarette smoking rates in young adult college students. Additional research is needed examining e-cigarettes as a complement to evidence-based cessation resources that are associated with cigarette smoking cessation among young adults.

  2. A New Area to Fight: Electronic Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şermin Börekçi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette is spreading like an epidemic that threatens the public health. Last one year, e-cigarette use increased by 2 times in both adults and children, and just as the cigarette ads of 1950s and 1960s, e-cigarette ads are taking place in the television, radio, internet, magazines and in the all kinds of advertising media. E-sigara should be recognized as a serious health threat, and should be fought against it. The aim of this review is to show the effects of e-cigarette on health by the scientific evidences.

  3. Effect of e-cigarette advertisements and antismoking messages on explicit and implicit attitudes towards tobacco and e-cigarette smoking in 18–65-year-olds: a randomised controlled study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albery, Ian P; Frings, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Since the advent of e-cigarettes, e-cigarette advertising has escalated and companies are able to use marketing strategies that are not permissible for tobacco products. Research into the effect of e-cigarette advertising on attitudes towards tobacco and e-cigarettes is in its infancy. To date, no research has compared indirect (implicit) measures of attitude towards e-cigarettes with direct (explicit) measures. Furthermore, little consideration has been given to how viewing online advertisements may have an effect on attitudes towards e-cigarettes or how positive attitudes to e-cigarettes may undermine antismoking public health messages. The objectives of this study are to investigate (1) the relationship between explicit and implicit attitudes towards tobacco and e-cigarettes, (2) the effect of e-cigarette advertising on these attitudes and (3) the effect of these attitudes on the efficacy of antismoking health messages. Methods and analysis In experiment 1 an analysis of covariance will be conducted to determine whether viewing an e-cigarette advertisement, compared with a neutral image, has an effect on implicit or explicit attitudes towards tobacco and e-cigarettes, and if these attitudes differ between smokers, vapers and non-smokers aged 18 - 25 years. In experiment 2, moderation analysis will be conducted to assess whether attitudes towards e-cigarettes moderate the psychological efficacy of antismoking health messages in participants aged 18–65 years. In each experiment, attitudes will be measured preintervention and postintervention and 1 week later (n=150) in participants who are smokers (n=50), vapers (n=50) or non-smokers (n=50). Ethics and dissemination Approval for this study has been given by the London South Bank University’s (LSBU) Research Ethics Committee. The findings of these studies will be submitted for publication and disseminated via conferences. The results will be integrated into course provision for practitioners

  4. Cigarette advertising in Mumbai, India: targeting different socioeconomic groups, women, and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, R; John, S; Ling, P M

    2005-06-01

    Despite a recent surge in tobacco advertising and the recent advertising ban (pending enforcement at the time of this study), there are few studies describing current cigarette marketing in India. This study sought to assess cigarette companies' marketing strategies in Mumbai, India. A two week field study was conducted in Mumbai in September 2003, observing, documenting, and collecting cigarette advertising on billboards, storefronts and at point of sale along two major thoroughfares, and performing a content analysis of news, film industry, and women's magazines and three newspapers. Cigarette advertising was ubiquitous in the environment, present in news and in film magazines, but not in women's magazines or the newspapers. The four major advertising campaigns all associated smoking with aspiration; the premium brands targeting the higher socioeconomic status market utilised tangible images of westernization and affluence whereas the "bingo" (low priced) segment advertisements invited smokers to belong to a league of their own and "rise to the taste" using intangible images. Women were not depicted smoking, but were present in cigarette advertisements--for example, a woman almost always accompanied a man in "the man with the smooth edge" Four Square campaign. Advertisements and product placements at low heights and next to candies at point of sale were easily accessible by children. In view of the imminent enforcement of the ban on tobacco advertisements, cigarette companies are increasing advertising for the existing brand images, launching brand extensions, and brand stretching. Cigarette companies have developed sophisticated campaigns targeting men, women, and children in different socioeconomic groups. Many of these strategies circumvent the Indian tobacco advertising ban. Understanding these marketing strategies is critical to minimise the exploitation of loopholes in tobacco control legislation.

  5. Cigarette advertising in Mumbai, India: targeting different socioeconomic groups, women, and youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, R; John, S; Ling, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Despite a recent surge in tobacco advertising and the recent advertising ban (pending enforcement at the time of this study), there are few studies describing current cigarette marketing in India. This study sought to assess cigarette companies' marketing strategies in Mumbai, India. Methods: A two week field study was conducted in Mumbai in September 2003, observing, documenting, and collecting cigarette advertising on billboards, storefronts and at point of sale along two major thoroughfares, and performing a content analysis of news, film industry, and women's magazines and three newspapers. Results: Cigarette advertising was ubiquitous in the environment, present in news and in film magazines, but not in women's magazines or the newspapers. The four major advertising campaigns all associated smoking with aspiration; the premium brands targeting the higher socioeconomic status market utilised tangible images of westernisation and affluence whereas the "bingo" (low priced) segment advertisements invited smokers to belong to a league of their own and "rise to the taste" using intangible images. Women were not depicted smoking, but were present in cigarette advertisements—for example, a woman almost always accompanied a man in "the man with the smooth edge" Four Square campaign. Advertisements and product placements at low heights and next to candies at point of sale were easily accessible by children. In view of the iminent enforcement of the ban on tobacco advertisements, cigarette companies are increasing advertising for the existing brand images, launching brand extensions, and brand stretching. Conclusion: Cigarette companies have developed sophisticated campaigns targeting men, women, and children in different socioeconomic groups. Many of these strategies circumvent the Indian tobacco advertising ban. Understanding these marketing strategies is critical to mimimise the exploitation of loopholes in tobacco control legislation. PMID:15923471

  6. Contexts of cigarette and e-cigarette use among dual users: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Muranaka, Nicholas; Regmi, Sakshi; Fagan, Pebbles

    2015-09-04

    Not much is currently understood regarding the contexts of cigarette and e-cigarette use among dual users. Proper application of e-cigarettes to smoking cessation or tobacco harm reduction would require an understanding of when and why dual users use cigarettes versus e-cigarettes. This study sought to elucidate the contexts of cigarette versus e-cigarette use among dual users. Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with 62 young adult current daily e-cigarette users [63% men; mean age = 25.1 (Standard Deviation = 5.5)]. Almost all participants either concurrently smoked cigarettes or had been recent dual users. Data were analyzed following principles of inductive deduction. Results indicated that dual users' use of cigarettes is influenced by particular activities (e.g., before/after eating), strong craving or need for stimulation (e.g., in response to stress), places/situations (e.g., when cigarette smokers are nearby; outdoors), use of other substances (alcohol, coffee), and unavailability of an e-cigarette when needed. In addition to particular activities and places/situations that are conducive to e-cigarette use, use of e-cigarette when cigarette is not available or where cigarette smoking is not permitted emerged as contexts specific to e-cigarette use. For habitual cigarette smokers wanting to quit tobacco smoking, switching over completely to e-cigarettes may require skills of cognitive-behavioral management. Future research needs to ascertain the characteristics of dual users who use e-cigarettes as cessation aids versus as cigarette alternative when cigarette is unavailable or smoking is not permitted.

  7. It’s Complicated: Examining Smokers’ Relationships With Their Cigarette Brands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E.; Coleman, Blair N.; Schmitt, Carol L.

    2017-01-01

    Despite increased restrictions and taxes, decreased social acceptability, and widespread awareness of the harms of tobacco use, many in the U.S. continue to smoke cigarettes. Thus, understanding smokers’ attitudes and motivations remains an important goal. This study adopts the consumer psychology concept of brand relationship to provide a new lens through which to examine smokers’ attitudes about their cigarette use. Twelve focus groups (N = 143) were conducted with adult cigarette smokers from September to November, 2013. Using a semistructured moderator guide and “top of mind” worksheets, the discussion examined participants’ attitudes toward (a) their own cigarette brand and (b) tobacco companies in general. Data were coded and analyzed following principles of thematic analysis. Adult smokers reported positive attitudes toward their cigarette brand, as their brand was strongly associated with the positive experience of smoking (e.g., satisfying craving and relief from withdrawal). In contrast, thinking about tobacco companies in general evoked negative reactions, revealing overwhelmingly negative attitudes toward the industry. Findings reveal a complicated relationship between smokers and their cigarette brand: simultaneously embracing their cigarettes and rejecting the industry that makes them. Taken together, these data suggest smokers maintain largely positive brand relationships, diverting negative feelings about smoking toward the tobacco industry. Finally, they highlight the synergy between branding and the subjective smoking experience, whereby positive brand attitudes are reinforced through withdrawal relief. Ultimately, this information could inform a more complete understanding of how smokers interpret and respond to tobacco communications, including marketing from their brand. PMID:27831717

  8. Victimless vapour? Health care organizations should restrict the use of e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Sally T; Smith, Maxwell J

    2016-03-16

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that heat a liquid containing either vegetable glycerin or propylene glycol in combination with nicotine and/or flavours; an aerosol is produced that is inhaled by the user. Health Canada currently prohibits the importation, marketing or selling of e-cigarettes containing nicotine, although they can be easily purchased. Because of the availability of e-cigarettes, patients and visitors to health care organizations (HCOs) are inquiring about their use within and on the grounds of those facilities. We contend that in provinces or municipalities where e-cigarette use has not been restricted, HCOs should develop institutional policies to do so. We argue that the following reasons collectively justify measures to restrict the use of e-cigarettes within HCOs: unknown long-term safety, uncertain effectiveness in harm reduction, the conflict with the mission of HCOs to promote health, the potential negative health impacts on vulnerable patients with a compromised health status, and the risk of re-normalization of smoking. However, because of the rapidly developing evidence base in this area, HCOs should remain responsive to emerging evidence regarding the status of e-cigarettes as an effective harm reduction tool.

  9. It is time to regulate carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the Food and Drug Administration power to regulate tobacco products. This commentary calls for immediate regulation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in cigarette tobacco as a logical path to cancer prevention. NNK and NNN, powerful carcinogens in laboratory animals, have been evaluated as “carcinogenic to humans” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. NNK and NNN are present in the tobacco of virtually all marketed cigarettes; levels in cigarette smoke are directly proportional to the amounts in tobacco. The NNK metabolite NNAL, itself a strong carcinogen, is present in the urine of smokers and non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Some of the highest levels of NNK and NNN are found in U.S. products. It is well established that factors such as choice of tobacco blend, agricultural conditions, and processing methods influence levels of NNK and NNN in cigarette tobacco and cigarette smoke. Therefore, it is time to control these factors and produce cigarettes with 100 ppb or less each of NNK and NNN in tobacco, which would result in an approximate 15-20 fold reduction of these carcinogens in the mainstream smoke of popular cigarettes sold in the United States. PMID:24806664

  10. Cigarette advertising and promotional strategies in retail outlets: results of a statewide survey in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, E C; Ribisl, K M; Schleicher, N; Lee, R E; Halvorson, S

    2001-06-01

    To examine the extent and types of cigarette advertising materials in stores and to assess tobacco company compliance with the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA). A cross-sectional analysis of a random sample of 586 stores that sold cigarettes. US state of California. Trained data collectors classified cigarette advertising materials by type (signs, displays, functional items), location (interior or exterior), and placement (below 3 feet (1 m) or near candy). California retail outlets featured 17.2 (SD 16.1) tobacco advertising materials on average, and 94% of stores featured at least some advertising. About 85% of these were within 4 feet (1.3 m) of the counter. About 50% of the stores had ads at or below 3 feet, and 23% had cigarette product displays next to candy. In violation of the MSA, 3% of stores featured signs with cartoons and 11% had large exterior signs. Tobacco companies are aggressively using stores to market cigarettes. Moreover, the spirit of the MSA-to protect children from cigarette advertising-has not been realised. Future studies should monitor industry use of this venue and assess the impact of exposure to cigarette advertising materials in stores on adult smokers and youth.

  11. [The impact of electronic cigarettes usage on the endothelial function and the progression of atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knura, Miłosz; Dragon, Jonasz; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Okopień, Bogusław

    2018-01-23

    The exponetial growth in popularity of electronic cigarettes in the world markets intensifies the debate about their health effects. The smoking of traditional tabacoo products is a factor associated with the endothelium damage and progression of atherosclerosis. The elimination of the combustion process in electronic cigarettes allows to conclude that they are less harmful to a vascular endothelium than traditional tobacco products. E-cigarette aerosol contains many compounds that have an influence on initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Nicotine protherogenic action is not fully explained. On one hand, nicotine modifies metabolic pathways leading to atherosclerosis, whereas epidemiological studies do not show an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the population using nicotine replacement therapy or snuff. Acrolein, formaldehyde and the ultrafine particles generated during e-liquid heating have an impact on initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, but their level is lower than that of tobacco smoke. In order to assess accurately the longterm effects of e-cigarettes, it is necessary to conduct epidemiological studies measuring the effects of using e-cigarettes. It is claimed that the use of electronic cigarettes has a potential impact on the development of atherosclerosis, but is significantly lower than that of traditional cigarettes.

  12. Menthol cigarette pricing at military and community retail outlets in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Walker S C; Jahnke, Sara A; Haddock, Christopher K; Hyder, Melissa L; Taylor, Jennifer E; Lando, Harry A; Kaipust, Christopher M

    2012-09-01

    Cigarette prices at military exchanges historically have been discounted. DoD Instruction 1330.9 has mandated that prices be within 5% of the price offered in the local community since 2001. Because minorities are highly represented in the military, we determined whether menthol cigarette prices, the leading choice of African Americans, were compliant with the instruction. We collected, via telephone, menthol cigarette price data from 48 randomly selected US military installation exchanges and matched local area Walmarts. We collected prices after taxes to determine the cost to consumer. Newport was selected as the index brand for menthol cigarettes because it is the leading and second leading brand smoked by African Americans and by Hispanics, respectively and has the second overall highest market share in the US. Smokers purchasing menthols at exchanges would realize average savings of 22.78%. There were no significant differences in savings based on military service (F = 1.850, p = 0.152) or US Census Division (F = 1.226, p = 0.311: data not shown). In addition, not a single exchange price was compliant with the DoD instruction. Newport menthol cigarettes at military exchanges cost substantially less than the nearest Walmart, with an average savings of 23%. Our findings demonstrate that menthol cigarettes are substantially discounted on military installations, in a manner similar to other cigarette prices, and that DoD Instruction 1330.09 is not enforced.

  13. Social Listening: A Content Analysis of E-Cigarette Discussions on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Lewis, Heather; Pugatch, Jillian; Sanders, Amy; Varghese, Arun; Posada, Susana; Yun, Christopher; Schwarz, Mary; Augustson, Erik

    2015-10-27

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in the United States, leading to active debate in the public health sphere regarding e-cigarette use and regulation. To better understand trends in e-cigarette attitudes and behaviors, public health and communication professionals can turn to the dialogue taking place on popular social media platforms such as Twitter. The objective of this study was to conduct a content analysis to identify key conversation trends and patterns over time using historical Twitter data. A 5-category content analysis was conducted on a random sample of tweets chosen from all publicly available tweets sent between May 1, 2013, and April 30, 2014, that matched strategic keywords related to e-cigarettes. Relevant tweets were isolated from the random sample of approximately 10,000 tweets and classified according to sentiment, user description, genre, and theme. Descriptive analyses including univariate and bivariate associations, as well as correlation analyses were performed on all categories in order to identify patterns and trends. The analysis revealed an increase in e-cigarette-related tweets from May 2013 through April 2014, with tweets generally being positive; 71% of the sample tweets were classified as having a positive sentiment. The top two user categories were everyday people (65%) and individuals who are part of the e-cigarette community movement (16%). These two user groups were responsible for a majority of informational (79%) and news tweets (75%), compared to reputable news sources and foundations or organizations, which combined provided 5% of informational tweets and 12% of news tweets. Personal opinion (28%), marketing (21%), and first person e-cigarette use or intent (20%) were the three most common genres of tweets, which tended to have a positive sentiment. Marketing was the most common theme (26%), and policy and government was the second most common theme (20%), with 86%