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Sample records for roles ii survey

  1. The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS): Pilot Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.; Dickey, John M.; Jordan, C.; Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.; Bania, T. M.; Dawson, J. R.; Mc Clure-Griffiths, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey is a survey of the third and fourth quadrants of the Galactic plane that will detect radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission at cm-wavelengths from several hundred H ii region candidates using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The targets for this survey come from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions and were identified based on mid-infrared and radio continuum emission. In this pilot project, two different configurations of the Compact Array Broad Band receiver and spectrometer system were used for short test observations. The pilot surveys detected RRL emission from 36 of 53 H ii region candidates, as well as seven known H ii regions that were included for calibration. These 36 recombination line detections confirm that the candidates are true H ii regions and allow us to estimate their distances.

  2. The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS): Pilot Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.; Dickey, John M. [School of Physical Sciences, Private Bag 37, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 7001 (Australia); Jordan, C. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Perth, WA, 6845 (Australia); Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6315, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Bania, T. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Dawson, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and MQ Research Centre in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, NSW, 2109 (Australia); Mc Clure-Griffiths, N. M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2017-07-01

    The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey is a survey of the third and fourth quadrants of the Galactic plane that will detect radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission at cm-wavelengths from several hundred H ii region candidates using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The targets for this survey come from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions and were identified based on mid-infrared and radio continuum emission. In this pilot project, two different configurations of the Compact Array Broad Band receiver and spectrometer system were used for short test observations. The pilot surveys detected RRL emission from 36 of 53 H ii region candidates, as well as seven known H ii regions that were included for calibration. These 36 recombination line detections confirm that the candidates are true H ii regions and allow us to estimate their distances.

  3. The sloan digital sky survey-II supernova survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) has embarked on a multi-year project to identify and measure light curves for intermediate-redshift (0.05 < z < 0.35) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using repeated five-band (ugriz) imaging over an area of 300 sq. deg. The survey region is a stripe 2.5° wide...

  4. Graphics Education Survey. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Sandra B.

    After a 1977 survey reflected the importance of graphics education for news students, a study was developed to investigate the state of graphics education in the whole field of journalism. A questionnaire was sent to professors and administrators in four print-oriented professional fields of education: magazine, advertising, public relations, and…

  5. Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey, 1975. Part II. The U.S. electric power system and the potential role of nuclear energy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Information related to Nuclear Energy Centers (NEC) in the U.S. is presented concerning the U.S. electric power system today; electricity demand history and forecasts; history and forecasts of the electric utility industry; regional notes; the status, history, and forecasts of the nuclear role; power plant siting problems and practices; nuclear facilities siting problems and practices; origin and evolution of the nuclear energy center concept; conceptualized description of nuclear energy centers; potential role of nuclear energy centers; assumptions, criteria, and bases; typical evolution of a nuclear energy center; and the nuclear fuel cycle

  6. Survey of Biomass Gasification, Volume II: Principles of Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  7. The Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sako, Masao; Bassett, Bruce; C. Becker, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey conducted between 2005 and 2007. Light curves, spectra, classifications, and ancillary data are presented for 10,258 variable and transient sources discovered through repeat ugriz imaging of SDSS S...

  8. The Extended Northern ROSAT Galaxy Cluster Survey (NORAS II). I. Survey Construction and First Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung; Trümper, Joachim [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Retzlaff, Jörg [ESO, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Meisenheimer, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schartel, Norbert [ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, E-28692 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-05-01

    As the largest, clearly defined building blocks of our universe, galaxy clusters are interesting astrophysical laboratories and important probes for cosmology. X-ray surveys for galaxy clusters provide one of the best ways to characterize the population of galaxy clusters. We provide a description of the construction of the NORAS II galaxy cluster survey based on X-ray data from the northern part of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. NORAS II extends the NORAS survey down to a flux limit of 1.8 × 10{sup −12} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} (0.1–2.4 keV), increasing the sample size by about a factor of two. The NORAS II cluster survey now reaches the same quality and depth as its counterpart, the southern REFLEX II survey, allowing us to combine the two complementary surveys. The paper provides information on the determination of the cluster X-ray parameters, the identification process of the X-ray sources, the statistics of the survey, and the construction of the survey selection function, which we provide in numerical format. Currently NORAS II contains 860 clusters with a median redshift of z  = 0.102. We provide a number of statistical functions, including the log N –log S and the X-ray luminosity function and compare these to the results from the complementary REFLEX II survey. Using the NORAS II sample to constrain the cosmological parameters, σ {sub 8} and Ω{sub m}, yields results perfectly consistent with those of REFLEX II. Overall, the results show that the two hemisphere samples, NORAS II and REFLEX II, can be combined without problems into an all-sky sample, just excluding the zone of avoidance.

  9. The Extended Northern ROSAT Galaxy Cluster Survey (NORAS II). I. Survey Construction and First Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung; Trümper, Joachim; Retzlaff, Jörg; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Schartel, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    As the largest, clearly defined building blocks of our universe, galaxy clusters are interesting astrophysical laboratories and important probes for cosmology. X-ray surveys for galaxy clusters provide one of the best ways to characterize the population of galaxy clusters. We provide a description of the construction of the NORAS II galaxy cluster survey based on X-ray data from the northern part of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. NORAS II extends the NORAS survey down to a flux limit of 1.8 × 10 −12 erg s −1 cm −2 (0.1–2.4 keV), increasing the sample size by about a factor of two. The NORAS II cluster survey now reaches the same quality and depth as its counterpart, the southern REFLEX II survey, allowing us to combine the two complementary surveys. The paper provides information on the determination of the cluster X-ray parameters, the identification process of the X-ray sources, the statistics of the survey, and the construction of the survey selection function, which we provide in numerical format. Currently NORAS II contains 860 clusters with a median redshift of z  = 0.102. We provide a number of statistical functions, including the log N –log S and the X-ray luminosity function and compare these to the results from the complementary REFLEX II survey. Using the NORAS II sample to constrain the cosmological parameters, σ 8 and Ω m , yields results perfectly consistent with those of REFLEX II. Overall, the results show that the two hemisphere samples, NORAS II and REFLEX II, can be combined without problems into an all-sky sample, just excluding the zone of avoidance.

  10. The CLASS blazar survey - II. Optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccianiga, A; Marcha, MJ; Anton, S; Mack, KH; Neeser, MJ

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the optical properties of the objects selected in the CLASS blazar survey. Because an optical spectrum is now available for 70 per cent of the 325 sources present in the sample, a spectral classification, based on the appearance of the emission/absorption lines, is possible. A

  11. THE DISKMASS SURVEY. II. ERROR BUDGET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershady, Matthew A.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Martinsson, Thomas; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a performance analysis of the DiskMass Survey. The survey uses collisionless tracers in the form of disk stars to measure the surface density of spiral disks, to provide an absolute calibration of the stellar mass-to-light ratio (Υ * ), and to yield robust estimates of the dark-matter halo density profile in the inner regions of galaxies. We find that a disk inclination range of 25 0 -35 0 is optimal for our measurements, consistent with our survey design to select nearly face-on galaxies. Uncertainties in disk scale heights are significant, but can be estimated from radial scale lengths to 25% now, and more precisely in the future. We detail the spectroscopic analysis used to derive line-of-sight velocity dispersions, precise at low surface-brightness, and accurate in the presence of composite stellar populations. Our methods take full advantage of large-grasp integral-field spectroscopy and an extensive library of observed stars. We show that the baryon-to-total mass fraction (F bar ) is not a well-defined observational quantity because it is coupled to the halo mass model. This remains true even when the disk mass is known and spatially extended rotation curves are available. In contrast, the fraction of the rotation speed supplied by the disk at 2.2 scale lengths (disk maximality) is a robust observational indicator of the baryonic disk contribution to the potential. We construct the error budget for the key quantities: dynamical disk mass surface density (Σ dyn ), disk stellar mass-to-light ratio (Υ disk * ), and disk maximality (F *,max disk ≡V disk *,max / V c ). Random and systematic errors in these quantities for individual galaxies will be ∼25%, while survey precision for sample quartiles are reduced to 10%, largely devoid of systematic errors outside of distance uncertainties.

  12. Pajarito Plateau archaeological surveys and excavations. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, C R

    1982-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory continues its archaeological program of data gathering and salvage excavations. Sites recently added to the archaeological survey are described, as well as the results of five excavations. Among the more interesting and important discoveries are (1) the apparently well-established local use of anhydrous lime, and (2) a late pre-Columbian use of earlier house sites and middens for garden plots. Evidence indicated that the local puebloan population was the result of an expansion of upper Rio Grande peoples, not an influx of migrants.

  13. Role of dust in H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarazin, C.L.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to determine quantitatively the effects of U.V. absorbing dust on H II regions, and compare these effects with observations. Many observations indicate that dust grains are present within H II regions. An analytic theory is presented which describes all three of the effects of dust in H II regions. Although this model is relatively crude, it is useful in determining the approximate size of the modifications due to dust. In order to explore this problem more carefully, detailed numerical models of H II regions with dust were constructed. The ionization and thermal structure of these model H II regions is discussed. The observational consequences of the presence of dust are explored; the optical line intensities, radio continuum and line fluxes, and infrared emission of model H II regions with dust are given. These numerical models are compared with observations of diffuse nebulae. The optical line ratios are compared to several nearby bright H II regions, and it is found that the dust models may explain several anomalies in their spectrum

  14. NEWLY IDENTIFIED EXTENDED GREEN OBJECTS (EGOs) FROM THE SPITZER GLIMPSE II SURVEY. II. MOLECULAR CLOUD ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xi; Gan Conggui; Shen Zhiqiang [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ellingsen, Simon P.; Titmarsh, Anita [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); He Jinhua, E-mail: chenxi@shao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Yunnan Astronomical Observatory/National Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011, Yunnan Province (China)

    2013-06-01

    We have undertaken a survey of molecular lines in the 3 mm band toward 57 young stellar objects using the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m radio telescope. The target sources were young stellar objects with active outflows (extended green objects (EGOs)) newly identified from the GLIMPSE II survey. We observe a high detection rate (50%) of broad line wing emission in the HNC and CS thermal lines, which combined with the high detection rate of class I methanol masers toward these sources (reported in Paper I) further demonstrates that the GLIMPSE II EGOs are associated with outflows. The physical and kinematic characteristics derived from the 3 mm molecular lines for these newly identified EGOs are consistent with these sources being massive young stellar objects with ongoing outflow activity and rapid accretion. These findings support our previous investigations of the mid-infrared properties of these sources and their association with other star formation tracers (e.g., infrared dark clouds, methanol masers and millimeter dust sources) presented in Paper I. The high detection rate (64%) of the hot core tracer CH{sub 3}CN reveals that the majority of these new EGOs have evolved to the hot molecular core stage. Comparison of the observed molecular column densities with predictions from hot core chemistry models reveals that the newly identified EGOs from the GLIMPSE II survey are members of the youngest hot core population, with an evolutionary time scale of the order of 10{sup 3} yr.

  15. A Type II Supernova Hubble diagram from the CSP-I, SDSS-II, and SNLS surveys

    OpenAIRE

    de Jaeger, T.; González-Gaitán, S.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Anderson, J. P.; Phillips, M. M.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Carlberg, R. G.; Sullivan, M.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. Andrew; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.

    2016-01-01

    The coming era of large photometric wide-field surveys will increase the detection rate of supernovae by orders of magnitude. Such numbers will restrict spectroscopic follow-up in the vast majority of cases, and hence new methods based solely on photometric data must be developed. Here, we construct a complete Hubble diagram of Type II supernovae (SNe II) combining data from three different samples: the Carnegie Supernova Project-I, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II SN, and th...

  16. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey: Technical Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; /Fermilab /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington; Choi, Changsu; /Seoul Natl. U.; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; DeJongh, Don Frederic; /Fermilab; Depoy, Darren L.; /Ohio State U.; Doi, Mamoru; /Tokyo U.; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U.; Hogan, Craig J.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Holtzman, Jon; /New Mexico State U.; Im, Myungshin; /Seoul Natl. U.; Jha, Saurabh; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Konishi, Kohki; /Tokyo U.; Lampeitl, Hubert; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Marriner, John; /Fermilab; Marshall, Jennifer L.; /Ohio State U.; McGinnis,; /Fermilab; Miknaitis, Gajus; /Fermilab; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U.; Prieto, Jose Luis; /Ohio State U. /Rochester Inst. Tech. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Pennsylvania U.

    2007-09-14

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) has embarked on a multi-year project to identify and measure light curves for intermediate-redshift (0.05 < z < 0.35) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using repeated five-band (ugriz) imaging over an area of 300 sq. deg. The survey region is a stripe 2.5 degrees wide centered on the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap that has been imaged numerous times in earlier years, enabling construction of a deep reference image for discovery of new objects. Supernova imaging observations are being acquired between 1 September and 30 November of 2005-7. During the first two seasons, each region was imaged on average every five nights. Spectroscopic follow-up observations to determine supernova type and redshift are carried out on a large number of telescopes. In its first two three-month seasons, the survey has discovered and measured light curves for 327 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia, 30 probable SNe Ia, 14 confirmed SNe Ib/c, 32 confirmed SNe II, plus a large number of photometrically identified SNe Ia, 94 of which have host-galaxy spectra taken so far. This paper provides an overview of the project and briefly describes the observations completed during the first two seasons of operation.

  17. THE PITTSBURGH SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY Mg II QUASAR ABSORPTION-LINE SURVEY CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quider, Anna M.; Nestor, Daniel B.; Turnshek, David A.; Rao, Sandhya M.; Weyant, Anja N.; Monier, Eric M.; Busche, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    We present a catalog of intervening Mg II quasar absorption-line systems in the redshift interval 0.36 ≤ z ≤ 2.28. The catalog was built from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Four (SDSS DR4) quasar spectra. Currently, the catalog contains ∼17, 000 measured Mg II doublets. We also present data on the ∼44, 600 quasar spectra which were searched to construct the catalog, including redshift and magnitude information, continuum-normalized spectra, and corresponding arrays of redshift-dependent minimum rest equivalent widths detectable at our confidence threshold. The catalog is available online. A careful second search of 500 random spectra indicated that, for every 100 spectra searched, approximately one significant Mg II system was accidentally rejected. Current plans to expand the catalog beyond DR4 quasars are discussed. Many Mg II absorbers are known to be associated with galaxies. Therefore, the combination of large size and well understood statistics makes this catalog ideal for precision studies of the low-ionization and neutral gas regions associated with galaxies at low to moderate redshift. An analysis of the statistics of Mg II absorbers using this catalog will be presented in a subsequent paper.

  18. The sloan digital sky Survey-II supernova survey: search algorithm and follow-up observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, Masao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Bassett, Bruce [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Becker, Andrew; Hogan, Craig J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cinabro, David [Department of Physics, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); DeJongh, Fritz; Frieman, Joshua A.; Marriner, John; Miknaitis, Gajus [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Depoy, D. L.; Prieto, Jose Luis [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States); Dilday, Ben; Kessler, Richard [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Doi, Mamoru [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Garnavich, Peter M. [University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, MSC 4500, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Jha, Saurabh [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, P.O. Box 20450, MS29, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Konishi, Kohki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8582 (Japan); Lampeitl, Hubert [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Nichol, Robert C. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Mercantile House, Hampshire Terrace, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2EG (United Kingdom); and others

    2008-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey has identified a large number of new transient sources in a 300 deg{sup 2} region along the celestial equator during its first two seasons of a three-season campaign. Multi-band (ugriz) light curves were measured for most of the sources, which include solar system objects, galactic variable stars, active galactic nuclei, supernovae (SNe), and other astronomical transients. The imaging survey is augmented by an extensive spectroscopic follow-up program to identify SNe, measure their redshifts, and study the physical conditions of the explosions and their environment through spectroscopic diagnostics. During the survey, light curves are rapidly evaluated to provide an initial photometric type of the SNe, and a selected sample of sources are targeted for spectroscopic observations. In the first two seasons, 476 sources were selected for spectroscopic observations, of which 403 were identified as SNe. For the type Ia SNe, the main driver for the survey, our photometric typing and targeting efficiency is 90%. Only 6% of the photometric SN Ia candidates were spectroscopically classified as non-SN Ia instead, and the remaining 4% resulted in low signal-to-noise, unclassified spectra. This paper describes the search algorithm and the software, and the real-time processing of the SDSS imaging data. We also present the details of the supernova candidate selection procedures and strategies for follow-up spectroscopic and imaging observations of the discovered sources.

  19. Role for DNA topoisomerase II in prostatic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.G. V.

    1987-01-01

    In the studies presented the role of the mammalian type II topoisomerase in the proliferation of normal and neoplastic rat prostate cells in vitro and in vivo was evaluated. First, the utility of mammalian type II topoisomerase inhibitors for the study of the biologic functions of the enzyme was assessed. Novobiocin inhibited rat topoisomerase II, but also interacted directly with chromatin in rat ventral prostate nuclei as well. Teniposide and amsacrine both trapped topoisomerase II in a covalent enzyme-DNA reaction intermediate that could be recovered using a K-SDS precipitation assay. The specific trapping of covalent topoisomerase II-DNA complexes by teniposide was exploited to implicate topoisomerase II in DNA replication in cultured Dunning R3327-G rat prostatic adenocarcinoma cells. In 3 H-thymidine pulse and pulse-chase labelling experiments, newly replicated DNA was found to be enriched among DNA linked topoisomerase II following teniposide treatment. Additional experiments demonstrated that topoisomerase II formed covalent complexes in the presence of teniposide directly with nascent DNA chains. On the basis of this data, a model for topoisomerase II function in untangling intertwined daughter DNA strands during replication by acting in the wake of the DNA replication fork near the site of DNA synthesis was proposed

  20. The springboks in East Africa: the role of 1 SA Survey Company ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The springboks in East Africa: the role of 1 SA Survey Company (SAEC) in the East African campaign of World War II, 1940–1941. ... Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies ... As a member of the British Commonwealth, South Africa was part of Britain's war effort from September 1939 onward. When Italy ...

  1. Complement System Part II: Role in Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Nicolas S.; Noe, Remi; Halbwachs-Mecarelli, Lise; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; Roumenina, Lubka T.

    2015-01-01

    The complement system has been considered for a long time as a simple lytic cascade, aimed to kill bacteria infecting the host organism. Nowadays, this vision has changed and it is well accepted that complement is a complex innate immune surveillance system, playing a key role in host homeostasis, inflammation, and in the defense against pathogens. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of complement in physiology and pathology. It starts with a description of complement contribution to the normal physiology (homeostasis) of a healthy organism, including the silent clearance of apoptotic cells and maintenance of cell survival. In pathology, complement can be a friend or a foe. It acts as a friend in the defense against pathogens, by inducing opsonization and a direct killing by C5b–9 membrane attack complex and by triggering inflammatory responses with the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Opsonization plays also a major role in the mounting of an adaptive immune response, involving antigen presenting cells, T-, and B-lymphocytes. Nevertheless, it can be also an enemy, when pathogens hijack complement regulators to protect themselves from the immune system. Inadequate complement activation becomes a disease cause, as in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, C3 glomerulopathies, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Age-related macular degeneration and cancer will be described as examples showing that complement contributes to a large variety of conditions, far exceeding the classical examples of diseases associated with complement deficiencies. Finally, we discuss complement as a therapeutic target. PMID:26074922

  2. The Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, Masao; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew C.; Brown, Peter J.; Campbell, Heather; Wolf, Rachel; Cinabro, David; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Dawson, Kyle S.; DeJongh, Fritz; Depoy, Darren L.; Dilday, Ben; Doi, Mamoru; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Fischer, John A.; Foley, Ryan J.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Galbany, Lluis; Garnavich, Peter M.; Goobar, Ariel; Gupta, Ravi R.; Hill, Gary J.; Hayden, Brian T.; Hlozek, Renée; Holtzman, Jon A.; Hopp, Ulrich; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kessler, Richard; Kollatschny, Wolfram; Leloudas, Giorgos; Marriner, John; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Miquel, Ramon; Morokuma, Tomoki; Mosher, Jennifer; Nichol, Robert C.; Nordin, Jakob; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Östman, Linda; Prieto, Jose L.; Richmond, Michael; Romani, Roger W.; Sollerman, Jesper; Stritzinger, Max; Schneider, Donald P.; Smith, Mathew; Wheeler, J. Craig; Yasuda, Naoki; Zheng, Chen

    2018-06-01

    This paper describes the data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey conducted between 2005 and 2007. Light curves, spectra, classifications, and ancillary data are presented for 10,258 variable and transient sources discovered through repeat ugriz imaging of SDSS Stripe 82, a 300 deg2 area along the celestial equator. This data release is comprised of all transient sources brighter than r ≃ 22.5 mag with no history of variability prior to 2004. Dedicated spectroscopic observations were performed on a subset of 889 transients, as well as spectra for thousands of transient host galaxies using the SDSS-III BOSS spectrographs. Photometric classifications are provided for the candidates with good multi-color light curves that were not observed spectroscopically, using host galaxy redshift information when available. From these observations, 4607 transients are either spectroscopically confirmed, or likely to be, supernovae, making this the largest sample of supernova candidates ever compiled. We present a new method for SN host-galaxy identification and derive host-galaxy properties including stellar masses, star formation rates, and the average stellar population ages from our SDSS multi-band photometry. We derive SALT2 distance moduli for a total of 1364 SN Ia with spectroscopic redshifts as well as photometric redshifts for a further 624 purely photometric SN Ia candidates. Using the spectroscopically confirmed subset of the three-year SDSS-II SN Ia sample and assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmology, we determine Ω M = 0.315 ± 0.093 (statistical error only) and detect a non-zero cosmological constant at 5.7σ.

  3. The Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, Masao; et al.

    2014-01-14

    This paper describes the data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey conducted between 2005 and 2007. Light curves, spectra, classifications, and ancillary data are presented for 10,258 variable and transient sources discovered through repeat ugriz imaging of SDSS Stripe 82, a 300 deg2 area along the celestial equator. This data release is comprised of all transient sources brighter than r~22.5 mag with no history of variability prior to 2004. Dedicated spectroscopic observations were performed on a subset of 889 transients, as well as spectra for thousands of transient host galaxies using the SDSS-III BOSS spectrographs. Photometric classifications are provided for the candidates with good multi-color light curves that were not observed spectroscopically. From these observations, 4607 transients are either spectroscopically confirmed, or likely to be, supernovae, making this the largest sample of supernova candidates ever compiled. We present a new method for SN host-galaxy identification and derive host-galaxy properties including stellar masses, star-formation rates, and the average stellar population ages from our SDSS multi-band photometry. We derive SALT2 distance moduli for a total of 1443 SN Ia with spectroscopic redshifts as well as photometric redshifts for a further 677 purely-photometric SN Ia candidates. Using the spectroscopically confirmed subset of the three-year SDSS-II SN Ia sample and assuming a flat Lambda-CDM cosmology, we determine Omega_M = 0.315 +/- 0.093 (statistical error only) and detect a non-zero cosmological constant at 5.7 sigmas.

  4. A Survey of Secondary School Students' Perceptions of and Attitudes Toward Use of Drugs by Teenagers. Part I, Part II, Part III.; A Survey of Secondary School Teachers' Perceptions of the Role of the Schools in Dealing with Teenage Drug Use. A General Overview of Survey Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Three volumes report the findings of a student survey among a random sample of 2,777 junior high and senior high school students. Volume one presents the overall findings: the typical student believes that drug use and experimentation are not common, except for marihuana, alcohol, cigarettes, and glue; believes that drug use is increasing; is not…

  5. A Green Bank Telescope Survey of Large Galactic H II Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Luisi, Matteo; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.

    2018-02-01

    As part of our ongoing H II Region Discovery Survey (HRDS), we report the Green Bank Telescope detection of 148 new angularly large Galactic H II regions in radio recombination line (RRL) emission. Our targets are located at a declination of δ > -45^\\circ , which corresponds to 266^\\circ > {\\ell }> -20^\\circ at b=0^\\circ . All sources were selected from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Catalog of Galactic H II Regions, and have infrared angular diameters ≥slant 260\\prime\\prime . The Galactic distribution of these “large” H II regions is similar to that of the previously known sample of Galactic H II regions. The large H II region RRL line width and peak line intensity distributions are skewed toward lower values, compared with that of previous HRDS surveys. We discover seven sources with extremely narrow RRLs 100 {pc}, making them some of the physically largest known H II regions in the Galaxy. This survey completes the HRDS H II region census in the Northern sky, where we have discovered 887 H II regions and more than doubled the size of the previously known census of Galactic H II regions.

  6. TYPE II-P SUPERNOVAE FROM THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY AND THE STANDARDIZED CANDLE METHOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Andrea, Chris B.; Sako, Masao; Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh; Frieman, Joshua A.; Kessler, Richard; Holtzman, Jon; Konishi, Kohki; Yasuda, Naoki; Schneider, D. P.; Sollerman, Jesper; Wheeler, J. Craig; Cinabro, David; Nichol, Robert C.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Smith, Mathew; Atlee, David W.; Bassett, Bruce; Castander, Francisco J.; Goobar, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    We apply the Standardized Candle Method (SCM) for Type II Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P), which relates the velocity of the ejecta of a SN to its luminosity during the plateau, to 15 SNe II-P discovered over the three season run of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey. The redshifts of these SNe-0.027 0.01) as all of the current literature on the SCM combined. We find that the SDSS SNe have a very small intrinsic I-band dispersion (0.22 mag), which can be attributed to selection effects. When the SCM is applied to the combined SDSS-plus-literature set of SNe II-P, the dispersion increases to 0.29 mag, larger than the scatter for either set of SNe separately. We show that the standardization cannot be further improved by eliminating SNe with positive plateau decline rates, as proposed in Poznanski et al. We thoroughly examine all potential systematic effects and conclude that for the SCM to be useful for cosmology, the methods currently used to determine the Fe II velocity at day 50 must be improved, and spectral templates able to encompass the intrinsic variations of Type II-P SNe will be needed.

  7. National Youth Survey US: Wave II (NYS-1977)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Youth data for the second wave of the National Youth Survey are contained in this data collection. The first wave was conducted in 1976. Youths were interviewed in...

  8. MMT HYPERVELOCITY STAR SURVEY. II. FIVE NEW UNBOUND STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-05-20

    We present the discovery of five new unbound hypervelocity stars (HVSs) in the outer Milky Way halo. Using a conservative estimate of Galactic escape velocity, our targeted spectroscopic survey has now identified 16 unbound HVSs as well as a comparable number of HVSs ejected on bound trajectories. A Galactic center origin for the HVSs is supported by their unbound velocities, the observed number of unbound stars, their stellar nature, their ejection time distribution, and their Galactic latitude and longitude distribution. Other proposed origins for the unbound HVSs, such as runaway ejections from the disk or dwarf galaxy tidal debris, cannot be reconciled with the observations. An intriguing result is the spatial anisotropy of HVSs on the sky, which possibly reflects an anisotropic potential in the central 10-100 pc region of the Galaxy. Further progress requires measurement of the spatial distribution of HVSs over the southern sky. Our survey also identifies seven B supergiants associated with known star-forming galaxies; the absence of B supergiants elsewhere in the survey implies there are no new star-forming galaxies in our survey footprint to a depth of 1-2 Mpc.

  9. The DiskMass Survey. II. Error Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershady, Matthew A.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.; Martinsson, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    We present a performance analysis of the DiskMass Survey. The survey uses collisionless tracers in the form of disk stars to measure the surface density of spiral disks, to provide an absolute calibration of the stellar mass-to-light ratio (Υ_{*}), and to yield robust estimates of the dark-matter halo density profile in the inner regions of galaxies. We find that a disk inclination range of 25°-35° is optimal for our measurements, consistent with our survey design to select nearly face-on galaxies. Uncertainties in disk scale heights are significant, but can be estimated from radial scale lengths to 25% now, and more precisely in the future. We detail the spectroscopic analysis used to derive line-of-sight velocity dispersions, precise at low surface-brightness, and accurate in the presence of composite stellar populations. Our methods take full advantage of large-grasp integral-field spectroscopy and an extensive library of observed stars. We show that the baryon-to-total mass fraction ({F}_bar) is not a well-defined observational quantity because it is coupled to the halo mass model. This remains true even when the disk mass is known and spatially extended rotation curves are available. In contrast, the fraction of the rotation speed supplied by the disk at 2.2 scale lengths (disk maximality) is a robust observational indicator of the baryonic disk contribution to the potential. We construct the error budget for the key quantities: dynamical disk mass surface density (Σdyn), disk stellar mass-to-light ratio (Υ^disk_{*}), and disk maximality ({F}_{*,max}^disk≡ V^disk_{*,max}/ V_c). Random and systematic errors in these quantities for individual galaxies will be ~25%, while survey precision for sample quartiles are reduced to 10%, largely devoid of systematic errors outside of distance uncertainties.

  10. THE ELM SURVEY. II. TWELVE BINARY WHITE DWARF MERGER SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, S. J.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Agueeros, M. A.; Heinke, Craig

    2011-01-01

    We describe new radial velocity and X-ray observations of extremely low-mass white dwarfs (ELM WDs, ∼0.2 M sun ) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 and the MMT Hypervelocity Star survey. We identify four new short period binaries, including two merger systems. These observations bring the total number of short period binary systems identified in our survey to 20. No main-sequence or neutron star companions are visible in the available optical photometry, radio, and X-ray data. Thus, the companions are most likely WDs. Twelve of these systems will merge within a Hubble time due to gravitational wave radiation. We have now tripled the number of known merging WD systems. We discuss the characteristics of this merger sample and potential links to underluminous supernovae, extreme helium stars, AM CVn systems, and other merger products. We provide new observational tests of the WD mass-period distribution and cooling models for ELM WDs. We also find evidence for a new formation channel for single low-mass WDs through binary mergers of two lower mass objects.

  11. A Type II Supernova Hubble Diagram from the CSP-I, SDSS-II, and SNLS Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jaeger, T.; González-Gaitán, S.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Anderson, J. P.; Phillips, M. M.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Carlberg, R. G.; Sullivan, M.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. Andrew; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Folatelli, G.; Pritchet, C.; Basa, S.

    2017-02-01

    The coming era of large photometric wide-field surveys will increase the detection rate of supernovae by orders of magnitude. Such numbers will restrict spectroscopic follow-up in the vast majority of cases, and hence new methods based solely on photometric data must be developed. Here, we construct a complete Hubble diagram of Type II supernovae (SNe II) combining data from three different samples: the Carnegie Supernova Project-I, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II SN, and the Supernova Legacy Survey. Applying the Photometric Color Method (PCM) to 73 SNe II with a redshift range of 0.01-0.5 and with no spectral information, we derive an intrinsic dispersion of 0.35 mag. A comparison with the Standard Candle Method (SCM) using 61 SNe II is also performed and an intrinsic dispersion in the Hubble diagram of 0.27 mag, I.e., 13% in distance uncertainties, is derived. Due to the lack of good statistics at higher redshifts for both methods, only weak constraints on the cosmological parameters are obtained. However, assuming a flat universe and using the PCM, we derive the universe’s matter density: {{{Ω }}}m={0.32}-0.21+0.30 providing a new independent evidence for dark energy at the level of two sigma. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes, with the du Pont and Swope telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; and the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Program N-2005A-Q-11, GN-2005B-Q-7, GN-2006A-Q-7, GS-2005A-Q-11, GS-2005B-Q-6, and GS-2008B-Q-56). Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programmes 076.A-0156,078.D-0048, 080.A-0516, and 082.A-0526).

  12. The M33 Synoptic Stellar Survey. II. Mira Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Wenlong; Macri, Lucas M. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); He, Shiyuan; Long, James; Huang, Jianhua Z., E-mail: lmacri@tamu.edu [Department of Statistics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present the discovery of 1847 Mira candidates in the Local Group galaxy M33 using a novel semi-parametric periodogram technique coupled with a random forest classifier. The algorithms were applied to ∼2.4 × 10{sup 5} I -band light curves previously obtained by the M33 Synoptic Stellar Survey. We derive preliminary period–luminosity relations at optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared wavelengths and compare them to the corresponding relations in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  13. The Core Collapse Supernova Rate from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Matt; Cinabro, David; Dilday, Ben; Galbany, Lluis; Gupta, Ravi R.; Kessler, R.; Marriner, John; Nichol, Robert C.; Richmond, Michael; Schneider, Donald P.; Sollerman, Jesper

    2014-08-26

    We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SNS) data to measure the volumetric core collapse supernova (CCSN) rate in the redshift range (0.03 < z < 0.09). Using a sample of 89 CCSN, we find a volume-averaged rate of 1.06 ± 0.19 × 10(–)(4)((h/0.7)(3)/(yr Mpc(3))) at a mean redshift of 0.072 ± 0.009. We measure the CCSN luminosity function from the data and consider the implications on the star formation history.

  14. Gravitational lensing statistics with extragalactic surveys - II. Analysis of the Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbig, P; Marlow, D; Quast, R; Wilkinson, PN; Browne, IWA; Koopmans, LVE

    We present constraints on the cosmological constant lambda(0) from gravitational lensing statistics of the Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey (JVAS). Although this is the largest gravitational lens survey which has been analysed, cosmological constraints are only comparable to those from optical

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: REFLEX II. Properties of the survey (Boehringer+ 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, H.; Chon, G.; Collins, C. A.; Guzzo, L.; Nowak, N.; Bobrovskyi, S.

    2013-06-01

    Like REFLEX I, the extended survey covers the southern sky outside the band of the Milky Way (|bII|>=20°) with regions around the Magellanic clouds excised (3 in LMC, 3 in SMC). The total survey area after this excision amounts to 4.24 steradian (or 13924°2) which corresponds to 33.75% of the sky. Different from REFLEX I, we use the refined RASS product RASS III (Voges et al. 1999, Cat. IX/10). (2 data files).

  16. THE CARNEGIE-IRVINE GALAXY SURVEY. II. ISOPHOTAL ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhaoyu; Ho, Luis C.; Barth, Aaron J.; Peng, Chien Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey (CGS) is a comprehensive investigation of the physical properties of a complete, representative sample of 605 bright (B T ≤ 12.9 mag) galaxies in the southern hemisphere. This contribution describes the isophotal analysis of the broadband (BVRI) optical imaging component of the project. We pay close attention to sky subtraction, which is particularly challenging for some of the large galaxies in our sample. Extensive crosschecks with internal and external data confirm that our calibration and sky subtraction techniques are robust with respect to the quoted measurement uncertainties. We present a uniform catalog of one-dimensional radial profiles of surface brightness and geometric parameters, as well as integrated colors and color gradients. Composite profiles highlight the tremendous diversity of brightness distributions found in disk galaxies and their dependence on Hubble type. A significant fraction of S0 and spiral galaxies exhibit non-exponential profiles in their outer regions. We perform Fourier decomposition of the isophotes to quantify non-axisymmetric deviations in the light distribution. We use the geometric parameters, in conjunction with the amplitude and phase of the m = 2 Fourier mode, to identify bars and quantify their size and strength. Spiral arm strengths are characterized using the m = 2 Fourier profiles and structure maps. Finally, we utilize the information encoded in the m = 1 Fourier profiles to measure disk lopsidedness. The databases assembled here and in Paper I lay the foundation for forthcoming scientific applications of CGS.

  17. ALMA Survey of Lupus Protoplanetary Disks. II. Gas Disk Radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, M.; Williams, J. P.; Trapman, L.; van Terwisga, S. E.; Facchini, S.; Manara, C. F.; van der Marel, N.; Miotello, A.; Tazzari, M.; Hogerheijde, M.; Guidi, G.; Testi, L.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2018-05-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-Millimeter Array (ALMA) Band 6 observations of a complete sample of protoplanetary disks in the young (∼1–3 Myr) Lupus star-forming region, covering the 1.33 mm continuum and the 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J = 2–1 lines. The spatial resolution is ∼0.″25 with a medium 3σ continuum sensitivity of 0.30 mJy, corresponding to M dust ∼ 0.2 M ⊕. We apply Keplerian masking to enhance the signal-to-noise ratios of our 12CO zero-moment maps, enabling measurements of gas disk radii for 22 Lupus disks; we find that gas disks are universally larger than millimeter dust disks by a factor of two on average, likely due to a combination of the optically thick gas emission and the growth and inward drift of the dust. Using the gas disk radii, we calculate the dimensionless viscosity parameter, α visc, finding a broad distribution and no correlations with other disk or stellar parameters, suggesting that viscous processes have not yet established quasi-steady states in Lupus disks. By combining our 1.33 mm continuum fluxes with our previous 890 μm continuum observations, we also calculate the millimeter spectral index, α mm, for 70 Lupus disks; we find an anticorrelation between α mm and millimeter flux for low-mass disks (M dust ≲ 5), followed by a flattening as disks approach α mm ≈ 2, which could indicate faster grain growth in higher-mass disks, but may also reflect their larger optically thick components. In sum, this work demonstrates the continuous stream of new insights into disk evolution and planet formation that can be gleaned from unbiased ALMA disk surveys.

  18. The role of metallothionein II in neuronal differentiation and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler, Lene B; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    -I+II can affect neurons directly. It is likely that MT isoforms could be beneficial also during neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we have examined if MT-II affects survival and neurite extension of dopaminergic and hippocampal neurons. We show for the first time that MT-II treatment can....... Accordingly, treatment with MT-II may be of therapeutic value in neurodegenerative disorders....

  19. Biennial Survey of Education, 1916-18. Volume II. Bulletin, 1919, No. 89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1921

    1921-01-01

    Volume II of the Biennial Survey of Education, 1916-1918 includes the following chapters: (1) Education in Great Britain and Ireland (I. L. Kandel); (2) Education in parts of the British Empire: Educational Developments in the Dominion of Canada (Walter A. Montgomery), Public School System of Jamaica (Charles A. Asbury), Recent Progress of…

  20. PHYSICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF [O II] EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE HETDEX PILOT SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Hagen, Alex; Zeimann, Greg; Malz, A. I.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Dark Energy Experiment pilot survey identified 284 [O II] λ3727 emitting galaxies in a 169 arcmin 2 field of sky in the redshift range 0 < z < 0.57. This line flux limited sample provides a bridge between studies in the local universe and higher-redshift [O II] surveys. We present an analysis of the star formation rates (SFRs) of these galaxies as a function of stellar mass as determined via spectral energy distribution fitting. The [O II] emitters fall on the ''main sequence'' of star-forming galaxies with SFR decreasing at lower masses and redshifts. However, the slope of our relation is flatter than that found for most other samples, a result of the metallicity dependence of the [O II] star formation rate indicator. The mass-specific SFR is higher for lower mass objects, supporting the idea that massive galaxies formed more quickly and efficiently than their lower mass counterparts. This is confirmed by the fact that the equivalent widths of the [O II] emission lines trend smaller with larger stellar mass. Examination of the morphologies of the [O II] emitters reveals that their star formation is not a result of mergers, and the galaxies' half-light radii do not indicate evolution of physical sizes

  1. Mg II-Absorbing Galaxies in the UltraVISTA Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroupe, Darren; Lundgren, Britt

    2018-01-01

    Light that is emitted from distant quasars can become partially absorbed by intervening gaseous structures, including galaxies, in its path toward Earth, revealing information about the chemical content, degree of ionization, organization and evolution of these structures through time. In this project, quasar spectra are used to probe the halos of foreground galaxies at a mean redshift of z=1.1 in the COSMOS Field. Mg II absorption lines in Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar spectra are paired with galaxies in the UltraVISTA catalog at an impact parameter less than 200 kpc. A sample of 77 strong Mg II absorbers with a rest-frame equivalent width ≥ 0.3 Å and redshift from 0.34 < z < 2.21 are investigated to find equivalent width ratios of Mg II, C IV and Fe II absorption lines, and their relation to the impact parameter and the star formation rates, stellar masses, environments and redshifts of their host galaxies.

  2. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey:Search Algorithm and Follow-up Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, Masao; /Pennsylvania U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; DeJongh, Don Frederic; /Fermilab; Depoy, D.L.; /Ohio State U.; Doi, Mamoru; /Tokyo U.; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U.; Craig, Hogan, J.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Holtzman, Jon; /New Mexico State U.; Jha, Saurabh; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Konishi, Kohki; /Tokyo U.; Lampeitl, Hubert; /Baltimore, Space; Marriner, John; /Fermilab; Miknaitis, Gajus; /Fermilab; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U.; Prieto, Jose Luis; /Ohio State U.; Richmond, Michael W.; /Rochester Inst.; Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Smith, Mathew; /Portsmouth U.; SubbaRao, Mark; /Chicago U. /Tokyo U. /Tokyo U. /South African Astron. Observ. /Tokyo

    2007-09-14

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey has identified a large number of new transient sources in a 300 deg2 region along the celestial equator during its first two seasons of a three-season campaign. Multi-band (ugriz) light curves were measured for most of the sources, which include solar system objects, Galactic variable stars, active galactic nuclei, supernovae (SNe), and other astronomical transients. The imaging survey is augmented by an extensive spectroscopic follow-up program to identify SNe, measure their redshifts, and study the physical conditions of the explosions and their environment through spectroscopic diagnostics. During the survey, light curves are rapidly evaluated to provide an initial photometric type of the SNe, and a selected sample of sources are targeted for spectroscopic observations. In the first two seasons, 476 sources were selected for spectroscopic observations, of which 403 were identified as SNe. For the Type Ia SNe, the main driver for the Survey, our photometric typing and targeting efficiency is 90%. Only 6% of the photometric SN Ia candidates were spectroscopically classified as non-SN Ia instead, and the remaining 4% resulted in low signal-to-noise, unclassified spectra. This paper describes the search algorithm and the software, and the real-time processing of the SDSS imaging data. We also present the details of the supernova candidate selection procedures and strategies for follow-up spectroscopic and imaging observations of the discovered sources.

  3. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Biological Resources Survey, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada. Volume II, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    years ago; the transplant was considered unsuccessful. Sagebrush is the principal item in the diet of adult sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), and...canyon areas in the normal chukar partridge range but can also extend its range to areas too dry for the chukar. The transplant was not con- sidered...determined. - Ertee E-TR-48-II-I SSL1’N SL xx- C - - _ 0S91’ - - I. 009t N - - 0’J o,, s). N, - . ,o 09 -SW,- - - ,o T z X -4 oseo 0L91 - N - = - ozot ma

  4. The HIFI spectral survey of AFGL 2591 (CHESS). II. Summary of the survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak-Barthel, M.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Helmich, F. P.; Chavarría, L.; Wang, K.-S.; Ceccarelli, C.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: This paper presents the richness of submillimeter spectral features in the high-mass star forming region AFGL 2591. Methods: As part of the Chemical Herschel Survey of Star Forming Regions (CHESS) key programme, AFGL 2591 was observed by the Herschel (HIFI) instrument. The spectral survey covered a frequency range from 480 to 1240 GHz as well as single lines from 1267 to 1901 GHz (i.e. CO, HCl, NH3, OH, and [CII]). Rotational and population diagram methods were used to calculate column densities, excitation temperatures, and the emission extents of the observed molecules associated with AFGL 2591. The analysis was supplemented with several lines from ground-based JCMT spectra. Results: From the HIFI spectral survey analysis a total of 32 species were identified (including isotopologues). Although the lines are mostly quite weak (∫TmbdV ~ few K km s-1), 268 emission and 16 absorption lines were found (excluding blends). Molecular column densities range from 6 × 1011 to 1 × 1019 cm-2 and excitation temperatures from 19 to 175 K. Cold (e.g. HCN, H2S, and NH3 with temperatures below 70 K) and warm species (e.g. CH3OH, SO2) in the protostellar envelope can be distinguished. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Role of nuclear hexokinase II in DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, S.; Bhatt, A.N.; Dwarakanath, B.S.; Kalaiarasan, P.; Brahmachari, V.

    2012-01-01

    A common signature of many cancer cells is a high glucose catabolic rate primarily due to the over expression of Type II hexokinase (HKII; responsible for the phosphorylation of glucose), generally known as cytosolic and mitochondrial bound enzyme that also suppresses cell death. Although, nuclear localization and transcriptional regulation of HKII has been reported in yeast; we and few others have recently demonstrated its nuclear localization in malignant cell lines. Interestingly, modification of a human glioma cell line (BMG-1) for enhancing glycolysis through mitochondrial respiration (OPMBMG cells) resulted in a higher nuclear localization of HKII as compared to the parental cells with concomitant increase in DNA repair and radio-resistance. Further, the glucose phosphorylation activity of the nuclear HKII was nearly 2 folds higher in the relatively more radioresistant HeLa cells (human cervical cancer cell line) as compared to MRC-5 cells (human normal lung fibroblast cell line). Therefore, we hypothesize that nuclear HKII facilitates DNA repair, in a hither to unknown mechanism, that may partly contribute to the enhanced resistance of highly glycolytic cells to radiation. Sequence alignment studies suggest that the isoenzymes, HKI and HKII share strong homology in the kinase active site, which is also found in few protein kinases. Interestingly HKI has been shown to phosphorylate H2A in-vitro. Further, in-silico protein-protein interaction data suggest that HKII can interact with several DNA repair proteins including ATM. Taken together; available experimental evidences as well as in-silico predictions strongly suggest that HKII may play a role in DNA repair by phosphorylation of certain DNA repair proteins. (author)

  6. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. III. KINEMATIC DISTANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Bania, T. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Balser, Dana S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Rood, Robert T., E-mail: Loren.Anderson@mail.wvu.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903-0818 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    Using the H I emission/absorption method, we resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity and derive distances for 149 of 182 (82%) H II regions discovered by the Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS). The HRDS is an X-band (9 GHz, 3 cm) GBT survey of 448 previously unknown H II regions in radio recombination line and radio continuum emission. Here, we focus on HRDS sources from 67 Degree-Sign {>=} l {>=} 18 Degree-Sign , where kinematic distances are more reliable. The 25 HRDS sources in this zone that have negative recombination line velocities are unambiguously beyond the orbit of the Sun, up to 20 kpc distant. They are the most distant H II regions yet discovered. We find that 61% of HRDS sources are located at the far distance, 31% at the tangent-point distance, and only 7% at the near distance. 'Bubble' H II regions are not preferentially located at the near distance (as was assumed previously) but average 10 kpc from the Sun. The HRDS nebulae, when combined with a large sample of H II regions with previously known distances, show evidence of spiral structure in two circular arc segments of mean Galactocentric radii of 4.25 and 6.0 kpc. We perform a thorough uncertainty analysis to analyze the effect of using different rotation curves, streaming motions, and a change to the solar circular rotation speed. The median distance uncertainty for our sample of H II regions is only 0.5 kpc, or 5%. This is significantly less than the median difference between the near and far kinematic distances, 6 kpc. The basic Galactic structure results are unchanged after considering these sources of uncertainty.

  7. Survey of non-linear hydrodynamic models of type-II Cepheids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolec, R.

    2016-03-01

    We present a grid of non-linear convective type-II Cepheid models. The dense model grids are computed for 0.6 M⊙ and a range of metallicities ([Fe/H] = -2.0, -1.5, -1.0), and for 0.8 M⊙ ([Fe/H] = -1.5). Two sets of convective parameters are considered. The models cover the full temperature extent of the classical instability strip, but are limited in luminosity; for the most luminous models, violent pulsation leads to the decoupling of the outermost model shell. Hence, our survey reaches only the shortest period RV Tau domain. In the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, we detect two domains in which period-doubled pulsation is possible. The first extends through the BL Her domain and low-luminosity W Vir domain (pulsation periods ˜2-6.5 d). The second domain extends at higher luminosities (W Vir domain; periods >9.5 d). Some models within these domains display period-4 pulsation. We also detect very narrow domains (˜10 K wide) in which modulation of pulsation is possible. Another interesting phenomenon we detect is double-mode pulsation in the fundamental mode and in the fourth radial overtone. Fourth overtone is a surface mode, trapped in the outer model layers. Single-mode pulsation in the fourth overtone is also possible on the hot side of the classical instability strip. The origin of the above phenomena is discussed. In particular, the role of resonances in driving different pulsation dynamics as well as in shaping the morphology of the radius variation curves is analysed.

  8. Psychometric properties of the School Fears Survey Scale for preadolescents (SFSS-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, José Manuel; Espada Sánchez, José Pedro; Orgilés Amorós, Mireia; Méndez Carrillo, Xavier

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes the psychometric properties of a new children's self-report measure. The School Fears Survey Scale, Form II (SFSS-II) assesses school fears in children from ages 8 to 11. The factor solution with a Spanish sample of 3,665 children isolated four factors: Fear of academic failure and punishment, fear of physical discomfort, fear of social and school assessment and anticipatory and separation anxiety. The questionnaire was tested by confirmatory factor analysis, which accounted for 55.80% of the total variance. Results indicated that the SFSS-II has a high internal consistency (alpha= .89). The results revealed high test-retest reliability and appropriate relationship with other scales. The age by gender interaction was significant. Two-way analysis of variance found that older children and girls had higher anxiety. The instrument shows adequate psychometric guarantees and can be used for the multidimensional assessment of anxiety in clinical and educational settings.

  9. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Zanichelli, A; Caballero, T; Bouillet, L; Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Fain, O; Fabien, V; Andresen, I

    2017-04-01

    Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1-INH-HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1-INH-AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1-INH-HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6-month intervals during patient follow-up visits. In the icatibant-treated population, 16 patients with C1-INH-AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33-64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70-15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1-INH-AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II versus C1-INH-AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P types I/II, respectively. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  10. PLANETARY NEBULAE DETECTED IN THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE GLIMPSE II LEGACY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Sun Kwok

    2009-01-01

    We report the result of a search for the infrared counterparts of 37 planetary nebulae (PNs) and PN candidates in the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire II (GLIMPSE II) survey. The photometry and images of these PNs at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm, taken through the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS), are presented. Most of these nebulae are very red and compact in the IRAC bands, and are found to be bright and extended in the 24 μm band. The infrared morphology of these objects are compared with Hα images of the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbourg (MASH) and MASH II PNs. The implications for morphological difference in different wavelengths are discussed. The IRAC data allow us to differentiate between PNs and H II regions and be able to reject non-PNs from the optical catalog (e.g., PNG 352.1 - 00.0). Spectral energy distributions are constructed by combing the IRAC and MIPS data with existing near-, mid-, and far-IR photometry measurements. The anomalous colors of some objects allow us to infer the presence of aromatic emission bands. These multi-wavelength data provide useful insights into the nature of different nebular components contributing to the infrared emission of PNs.

  11. Optimal power flow: a bibliographic survey II. Non-deterministic and hybrid methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Stephen [Colorado School of Mines, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Golden, CO (United States); Steponavice, Ingrida [Univ. of Jyvaskyla, Dept. of Mathematical Information Technology, Agora (Finland); Rebennack, Steffen [Colorado School of Mines, Division of Economics and Business, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Over the past half-century, optimal power flow (OPF) has become one of the most important and widely studied nonlinear optimization problems. In general, OPF seeks to optimize the operation of electric power generation, transmission, and distribution networks subject to system constraints and control limits. Within this framework, however, there is an extremely wide variety of OPF formulations and solution methods. Moreover, the nature of OPF continues to evolve due to modern electricity markets and renewable resource integration. In this two-part survey, we survey both the classical and recent OPF literature in order to provide a sound context for the state of the art in OPF formulation and solution methods. The survey contributes a comprehensive discussion of specific optimization techniques that have been applied to OPF, with an emphasis on the advantages, disadvantages, and computational characteristics of each. Part I of the survey provides an introduction and surveys the deterministic optimization methods that have been applied to OPF. Part II of the survey (this article) examines the recent trend towards stochastic, or non-deterministic, search techniques and hybrid methods for OPF. (orig.)

  12. Calls for Tender and Market Surveys Roles and Procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Annila, L

    2000-01-01

    ST division has implemented certain procedures to handle the calls for tender and market surveys. In January 1998, the division leader set up the 'call-for-tender co-ordination office' to check and approve each technical document leaving the division. The mandate of the call-for-tender co-ordination office is to check the quality of the documents, in order for these documents to be as clear as possible in terms of both content and structure. The role of this office is to contribute positively and give service to the people writing the documents, and not to give negative criticism. The aim of this paper is to present the mandate of the office, how papers are processed, and to draw up a first result summary.

  13. Photometric type Ia supernova candidates from the three-year SDSS-II SN survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, Masao; /Pennsylvania U.; Bassett, Bruce; /South African Astron. Observ. /Cape Town U., Dept. Math.; Connolly, Brian; /Pennsylvania U.; Dilday, Benjamin; /Las Cumbres Observ. /UC, Santa Barbara /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Cambell, Heather; /Portsmouth U., ICG; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP /Fermilab; Gladney, Larry; /Pennsylvania U.; Kessler, Richard; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Lampeitl, Hubert; /Portsmouth U., ICG; Marriner, John; /Fermilab; Miquel, Ramon; /Barcelona, IFAE /ICREA, Barcelona /Portsmouth U., ICG

    2011-07-01

    We analyze the three-year Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova (SN) Survey data and identify a sample of 1070 photometric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) candidates based on their multiband light curve data. This sample consists of SN candidates with no spectroscopic confirmation, with a subset of 210 candidates having spectroscopic redshifts of their host galaxies measured while the remaining 860 candidates are purely photometric in their identification. We describe a method for estimating the efficiency and purity of photometric SN Ia classification when spectroscopic confirmation of only a limited sample is available, and demonstrate that SN Ia candidates from SDSS-II can be identified photometrically with {approx}91% efficiency and with a contamination of {approx}6%. Although this is the largest uniform sample of SN candidates to date for studying photometric identification, we find that a larger spectroscopic sample of contaminating sources is required to obtain a better characterization of the background events. A Hubble diagram using SN candidates with no spectroscopic confirmation, but with host galaxy spectroscopic redshifts, yields a distance modulus dispersion that is only {approx}20%-40% larger than that of the spectroscopically confirmed SN Ia sample alone with no significant bias. A Hubble diagram with purely photometric classification and redshift-distance measurements, however, exhibits biases that require further investigation for precision cosmology.

  14. PHOTOMETRIC TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA CANDIDATES FROM THE THREE-YEAR SDSS-II SN SURVEY DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Masao; Connolly, Brian; Gladney, Larry; Bassett, Bruce; Dilday, Benjamin; Cambell, Heather; Lampeitl, Hubert; Nichol, Robert C.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Kessler, Richard; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Schneider, Donald P.; Smith, Mathew; Sollerman, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the three-year Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova (SN) Survey data and identify a sample of 1070 photometric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) candidates based on their multiband light curve data. This sample consists of SN candidates with no spectroscopic confirmation, with a subset of 210 candidates having spectroscopic redshifts of their host galaxies measured while the remaining 860 candidates are purely photometric in their identification. We describe a method for estimating the efficiency and purity of photometric SN Ia classification when spectroscopic confirmation of only a limited sample is available, and demonstrate that SN Ia candidates from SDSS-II can be identified photometrically with ∼91% efficiency and with a contamination of ∼6%. Although this is the largest uniform sample of SN candidates to date for studying photometric identification, we find that a larger spectroscopic sample of contaminating sources is required to obtain a better characterization of the background events. A Hubble diagram using SN candidates with no spectroscopic confirmation, but with host galaxy spectroscopic redshifts, yields a distance modulus dispersion that is only ∼20%-40% larger than that of the spectroscopically confirmed SN Ia sample alone with no significant bias. A Hubble diagram with purely photometric classification and redshift-distance measurements, however, exhibits biases that require further investigation for precision cosmology.

  15. Unusual broad-line Mg II emitters among luminous galaxies in the baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roig, Benjamin; Blanton, Michael R.; Ross, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    Many classes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been observed and recorded since the discovery of Seyfert galaxies. In this paper, we examine the sample of luminous galaxies in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We find a potentially new observational class of AGNs, one with strong and broad Mg II λ2799 line emission, but very weak emission in other normal indicators of AGN activity, such as the broad-line Hα, Hβ, and the near-ultraviolet AGN continuum, leading to an extreme ratio of broad Hα/Mg II flux relative to normal quasars. Meanwhile, these objects' narrow-line flux ratios reveal AGN narrow-line regions with levels of activity consistent with the Mg II fluxes and in agreement with that of normal quasars. These AGN may represent an extreme case of the Baldwin effect, with very low continuum and high equivalent width relative to typical quasars, but their ratio of broad Mg II to broad Balmer emission remains very unusual. They may also be representative of a class of AGN where the central engine is observed indirectly with scattered light. These galaxies represent a small fraction of the total population of luminous galaxies (≅ 0.1%), but are more likely (about 3.5 times) to have AGN-like nuclear line emission properties than other luminous galaxies. Because Mg II is usually inaccessible for the population of nearby galaxies, there may exist a related population of broad-line Mg II emitters in the local universe which is currently classified as narrow-line emitters (Seyfert 2 galaxies) or low ionization nuclear emission-line regions.

  16. First-Year Spectroscopy for the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Chen; Romani, Roger W.; Sako, Masao; Marriner, John; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Choi, Changsu; Cinabro, David; DeJongh, Fritz; Depoy, Darren L.; Dilday, Ben; Doi, Mamoru; Frieman, Joshua A.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Hogan, Craig J.; Holtzman, Jon; Im, Myungshin; Jha, Saurabh; Kessler, Richard; Konishi, Kohki; Lampeitl, Hubert

    2008-03-25

    This paper presents spectroscopy of supernovae discovered in the first season of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey. This program searches for and measures multi-band light curves of supernovae in the redshift range z = 0.05-0.4, complementing existing surveys at lower and higher redshifts. Our goal is to better characterize the supernova population, with a particular focus on SNe Ia, improving their utility as cosmological distance indicators and as probes of dark energy. Our supernova spectroscopy program features rapid-response observations using telescopes of a range of apertures, and provides confirmation of the supernova and host-galaxy types as well as precise redshifts. We describe here the target identification and prioritization, data reduction, redshift measurement, and classification of 129 SNe Ia, 16 spectroscopically probable SNe Ia, 7 SNe Ib/c, and 11 SNe II from the first season. We also describe our efforts to measure and remove the substantial host galaxy contamination existing in the majority of our SN spectra.

  17. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. IV. HELIUM AND CARBON RECOMBINATION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Bania, T. M. [Astronomy Department, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Balser, Dana S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA, 22903-2475 (United States); Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    The Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS) found hundreds of previously unknown Galactic regions of massive star formation by detecting hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) emission from candidate H II region targets. Since the HRDS nebulae lie at large distances from the Sun, they are located in previously unprobed zones of the Galactic disk. Here, we derive the properties of helium and carbon RRL emission from HRDS nebulae. Our target sample is the subset of the HRDS that has visible helium or carbon RRLs. This criterion gives a total of 84 velocity components (14% of the HRDS) with helium emission and 52 (9%) with carbon emission. For our highest quality sources, the average {sup 4}He{sup +}/H{sup +} abundance ratio by number, (y {sup +}), is 0.068 {+-} 0.023(1{sigma}). This is the same ratio as that measured for the sample of previously known Galactic H II regions. Nebulae without detected helium emission give robust y {sup +} upper limits. There are 5 RRL emission components with y {sup +} less than 0.04 and another 12 with upper limits below this value. These H II regions must have either a very low {sup 4}He abundance or contain a significant amount of neutral helium. The HRDS has 20 nebulae with carbon RRL emission but no helium emission at its sensitivity level. There is no correlation between the carbon RRL parameters and the 8 {mu}m mid-infrared morphology of these nebulae.

  18. Guideline appraisal with AGREE II: online survey of the potential influence of AGREE II items on overall assessment of guideline quality and recommendation for use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann-Eßer, Wiebke; Siering, Ulrich; Neugebauer, Edmund A M; Brockhaus, Anne Catharina; McGauran, Natalie; Eikermann, Michaela

    2018-02-27

    The AGREE II instrument is the most commonly used guideline appraisal tool. It includes 23 appraisal criteria (items) organized within six domains. AGREE II also includes two overall assessments (overall guideline quality, recommendation for use). Our aim was to investigate how strongly the 23 AGREE II items influence the two overall assessments. An online survey of authors of publications on guideline appraisals with AGREE II and guideline users from a German scientific network was conducted between 10th February 2015 and 30th March 2015. Participants were asked to rate the influence of the AGREE II items on a Likert scale (0 = no influence to 5 = very strong influence). The frequencies of responses and their dispersion were presented descriptively. Fifty-eight of the 376 persons contacted (15.4%) participated in the survey and the data of the 51 respondents with prior knowledge of AGREE II were analysed. Items 7-12 of Domain 3 (rigour of development) and both items of Domain 6 (editorial independence) had the strongest influence on the two overall assessments. In addition, Items 15-17 (clarity of presentation) had a strong influence on the recommendation for use. Great variations were shown for the other items. The main limitation of the survey is the low response rate. In guideline appraisals using AGREE II, items representing rigour of guideline development and editorial independence seem to have the strongest influence on the two overall assessments. In order to ensure a transparent approach to reaching the overall assessments, we suggest the inclusion of a recommendation in the AGREE II user manual on how to consider item and domain scores. For instance, the manual could include an a-priori weighting of those items and domains that should have the strongest influence on the two overall assessments. The relevance of these assessments within AGREE II could thereby be further specified.

  19. The role and importance of victim surveys in criminal research

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Polat; Serdar Kenan Gül

    2010-01-01

    Due to increasing crime rates, insufficient policies and the limitations of the official statistics, victim surveys are being used as an alternative crime measurement technique. These types of surveys are inspired most of the criminological theories and regarded as a data source especially in shaping the crime policies of the Anglo-Saxon countries. Even though they have developed over time, victim surveys have limitations which create an obstacle in measuring crime. However, these surveys cou...

  20. Characteristics and verification of a car-borne survey system for dose rates in air: KURAMA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, S.; Yoshida, T.; Tsutsumi, M.; Saito, K.

    2015-01-01

    The car-borne survey system KURAMA-II, developed by the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, has been used for air dose rate mapping after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. KURAMA-II consists of a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector, a GPS device, and a control device for data processing. The dose rates monitored by KURAMA-II are based on the G(E) function (spectrum-dose conversion operator), which can precisely calculate dose rates from measured pulse-height distribution even if the energy spectrum changes significantly. The characteristics of KURAMA-II have been investigated with particular consideration to the reliability of the calculated G(E) function, dose rate dependence, statistical fluctuation, angular dependence, and energy dependence. The results indicate that 100 units of KURAMA-II systems have acceptable quality for mass monitoring of dose rates in the environment. - Highlights: • KURAMA-II is a car-borne survey system developed by Kyoto University. • A spectrum-dose conversion operator for KURAMA-II was calculated and examined. • We examined the radiation characteristics of KURAMA-II such as energy dependence. • KURAMA-II has acceptable quality for environmental mass dose rate monitoring

  1. Exploring the Milky Way halo with SDSS-II SN survey RR Lyrae stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lee, Nathan

    This thesis details the creation of a large catalog of RR Lyrae stars, their lightcurves, and their associated photometric and kinematic parameters. This catalog contains 421 RR Lyrae stars with 305 RRab and 116 RRc. Of these, 241 stars have stellar spectra taken with either the Blanco 4m RC spectrograph or the SDSS/SEGUE survey, and in some cases taken by both. From these spectra and photometric methods derived from them, an analysis is conducted of the RR lyrae's distribution, metallicity, kinematics, and photometric properties within the halo. All of these RR Lyrae originate from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. The SDSS-II SN Survey covers a 2.5 degree equatorial stripe ranging from -60 to +60 degrees in RA. This corresponds to relatively high southern galactic latitudes in the anti-center direction. The full catalog ranges from g 0 magnitude 13 to 20 which covers a distance of 3 to 95 kpc from the sun. Using this sample, we explore the Oosterhoff dichotomy through the D log P method as a function of | Z | distance from the plane. This results in a clear division of the RRab stars into OoI and OoII groups at lower | Z |, but the population becomes dominated by OoI stars at higher | Z |. The idea of a dual halo is explored primarily in the context of radial velocity distributions as a function of | Z |. In particular, V gsr , the radial velocity in the galactic standard of rest, is used as a proxy for V [straight phi] , the cylindrical rotational velocity. This is then compared against a single halo model galaxy, which results in very similar V gsr histograms for both at low to medium | Z |. However, at high | Z | there is a clear separation into two distinct velocity groups for the data without a corresponding separation in the model, suggesting that at least a two-component model for the halo is necessary. The final part of the analysis involves [Fe/H] measurements from both spectra and photometric relations cut in both | Z | and radial velocity. In this case

  2. The role of adhesive molecules in endometrial cancer: part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Malinowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The carcinogenesis is a result of both functional and structural disorders in the tissue. It initiates as a mutationin a gene encoding protein that is essential for cellular function. The subsequent cascade of eventsleads to accumulation of mutations and loss of cellular function. The cell loses its tissue-specific morphology,disconnects from other cells and extracellular matrix and migrates – the invasion begins. It is now clear thatadhesive molecules are a key player in this cascade. These proteins of the cell membrane surface are responsiblefor attachment of the cells to each other and to the extracellular matrix. These interactions are crucial forboth structural and functional tissue organization. Lack of this homeostasis destroys the tissue architectureand impairs its function and results in invasion. Abnormal expression of adhesive molecules was reported in allexamined cancers, including endometrial cancer.Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in developed countries. Although in many casesdiagnosed and treated in early stages, and thus with good results, some patients cannot be cured. Completeknowledge of the pathogenesis of the disease will be helpful in identifying the patients with negative prognosticfactors, increased risk of recurrence and, perhaps, to find other therapeutic options. In the paper we are trying tosum up the up-to-date knowledge of the role of adhesive molecules in pathogenesis of endometrial cancer.

  3. Environmental monitoring survey of oil and gas fields in Region II in 2009. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    The oil companies Statoil ASA, ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Norway AS, Total E&P Norge AS, Talisman Energy Norge AS and Marathon Petroleum Norge AS commissioned Section of Applied Environmental Research at UNI RESEARCH AS to undertake the monitoring survey of Region II in 2009. Similar monitoring surveys in Region II have been carried out in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2006. The survey in 2009 included in total 18 fields: Rev, Varg, Sigyn, Sleipner Vest, Sleipner OEst, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Vale, Skirne, Byggve, Heimdal, Volve, Vilje og Alvheim. Sampling was conducted from the vessel MV Libas between May 18 and May 27. Samples were collected from in totally 137 sampling sites, of which 15 were regional sampling sites. Samples for chemical analysis were collected at all sites, whereas samples for benthos analysis were collected at 12 fields. As in previous surveys, Region II is divided into natural sub-regions. One sub-region is shallow (77-96 m) sub-region, a central sub-region (107-130 m) and a northern subregion (115-119 m). The sediments of the shallow sub-region had relatively lower content of TOM and pelite and higher content of fine sand than the central and northern sub-regions. Calculated areas of contamination are shown for the sub-regions in Table 1.1. The fields Sigyn, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Skirne, Byggve, Vilje og Alvheim showed no contamination of THC. At the other fields there were minor changes from 2006. The concentrations of barium increased in the central sub-region from 2006 to 2009, also at fields where no drilling had been undertaken during the last years. The same laboratory and methods are used during the three last regional investigations. The changes in barium concentrations may be due to high variability of barium concentrations in the sediments. This is supported by relatively large variations in average barium concentrations at the regional sampling sites in

  4. Role of oxygen free radicals in the proliferation of myofibroblasts induced by AngII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated the important role of angiotension II (AngII in promoting proliferation of myofibroblasts (myoFbs and myocardial fibrosis. However, the underlying mechanisms and the role of oxygen free radicals in the proliferation of myofibroblasts induced by AngII are unclear. The present study was designed to shed light on this issue through exploration of AngII signaling pathways via in vitro experiments. Primary cultures of neonatal rat myoFbs were divided into five groups which were treated with AngII (10−8 to 10−6 M, AngII with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, or normal culture medium. We observed the proliferation of myoFbs as induced by AngII at different concentrations with MTT. Reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in myoFbs were detected by monitoring the fluorescence of 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein. The contents and levels of oxygen free radicals (OH· in the three groups were detected by spectrophotometer, immunocytochemical staining, and confocal fluorescence. Western blot and image analysis were used to measure membrane translocation and expression of phospho-protein kinase Cα. MyoFbs incubated with AngII (10−8 to 10−6 M for 24 h increased their rate of proliferation, the content of OH·, and expression of ROS (P<0.01 vs. control group, whereas these parameters decreased in the presence of NAC. Immunocytochemistry, confocal fluorescence staining and image analysis showed that AngII could promote the translocation and expression of p-PKCα in membrane, and the antioxidant NAC blocked this increase (P<0.01. Western blot results also showed that NAC could inhibit the expression of p-PKCα.

  5. Cultural-resource survey report: Hoover Dam Powerplant Modification Project II. Associated transmission-line facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queen, R.L.

    1991-06-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) is proposing to modify or install additional transmission facilities between the Hoover Dam hydroelectric plant and the Western Area Power Authority substation near Boulder City, Nevada. Reclamation has completed cultural resource investigations to identify historic or prehistoric resources in the project area that might be affected during construction of the transmission line. Four possible transmission corridors approximately 50 feet wide and between 9.5 and 11.5 miles long were investigated. The proposed transmission lines either parallel or replace existing transmission lines. The corridors generally have undergone significant disturbance from past transmission line construction. A Class II sampling survey covering approximately 242 acres was conducted. Access or construction roads have not been identified and surveys of these areas will have to be completed in the future. No historic or prehistoric archeological sites were encountered within the four corridor right-of-ways. It is believed that the probability for prehistoric sites is very low. Four historic period sites were recorded that are outside, but near, the proposed corridor. These sites are not individually eligible for the National Register of Historic Places, but may be associated with the construction of Hoover Dam and contribute to a historic district or multiple property resource area focusing on the dam and its construction

  6. Survey II of public and leadership attitudes toward nuclear power development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    In August 1975, Ebasco Services Incorporated released results of a survey conducted by Louis Harris and Associates, Inc. to determine attitudes of the American public and its leaders toward nuclear power development in the U.S. Results showed, among other things, that the public favored building nuclear power plants; that they believed we have an energy shortage that will not go away soon; that they were not willing to make environmental sacrifices; and that, while favoring nuclear power development, they also had concerns about some aspects of nuclear power. Except for the environmental group, the leadership group felt the same way the public does. A follow-up survey was made in July 1976 to measure any shifts in attitudes. Survey II showed that one of the real worries that remains with the American public is the shortage of energy; additionally, the public and the leaders are concerned about the U.S. dependence on imported oil. With exception of the environmentalists, the public and its leaders support a host of measures to build energy sources, including: solar and oil shale development; speeding up the Alaskan pipeline; speeding up off-shore drilling; and building nuclear power plants. The public continues to be unwilling to sacrifice the environment. There is less conviction on the part of the public that electric power will be in short supply over the next decade. The public believes the days of heavy dependence on oil or hydroelectric power are coming to an end. By a margin of 3 to 1, the public favors building more nuclear power plants in the U.S., but some concerns about the risks have not dissipated. Even though the public is worried about radioactivity escaping into the atmosphere, they consider nuclear power generation more safe than unsafe

  7. Albuminuria in mice after injection of antibodies against aminopeptidase A: role of angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlofs-Nijland, M E; Assmann, K J; Dijkman, H B; Dieker, J W; van Son, J P; Mentzel, S; van Kats, J P; Danser, A H; Smithies, O; Groenen, P J; Wetzels, J F

    2001-12-01

    It has been shown that injection of combinations of anti-aminopeptidase A (APA) monoclonal antibodies (mAb) that inhibit the enzyme activity induces an acute albuminuria in mice. This albuminuria is not dependent on inflammatory cells, complement, or the coagulation system. APA is an important regulator of the renin-angiotensin system because it is involved in the degradation of angiotensin II (Ang II). This study examined the potential role of glomerular Ang II in the induction of albuminuria. The relation among renal Ang II, glomerular APAX enzyme activity, and albuminuria was examined first. Injection of the nephritogenic combinations ASD-3/37 and ASD-37/41 in BALB/c mice induced albuminuria, whereas the non-nephritogenic combination ASD-3/41 had no effect. There was no clear relation between the inhibition of glomerular APA activity and albuminuria, yet it was evident that intrarenal Ang II levels were significantly increased in albuminuric mice and not in nonalbuminuric mice. As a next step, anti-APA mAb were administered to angiotensinogen-deficient mice that do not produce Ang II, and kidney morphology and albuminuria were determined. Angiotensinogen-deficient mice also developed albuminuria upon ASD-37/41 administration. Altogether, these findings clearly demonstrate that Ang II is not required for the induction of albuminuria upon injection of enzyme-inhibiting anti-APA mAb.

  8. Emerging roles for biomedical librarians: a survey of current practice, challenges, and changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Janet A; Cooper, I Diane

    2013-10-01

    This study is intended to (1) identify emerging roles for biomedical librarians and determine how common these roles are in a variety of library settings, (2) identify barriers to taking on new roles, and (3) determine how librarians are developing the capacity to take on new roles. A survey was conducted of librarians in biomedical settings. Most biomedical librarians are taking on new roles. The most common roles selected by survey respondents include analysis and enhancement of user experiences, support for social media, support for systematic reviews, clinical informationist, help for faculty or staff with authorship issues, and implementation of researcher profiling and collaboration tools. Respondents in academic settings are more likely to report new roles than hospital librarians are, but some new roles are common in both settings. Respondents use a variety of methods to free up time for new roles, but predominant methods vary between directors and librarians and between academic and hospital respondents. Lack of time is the biggest barrier that librarians face when trying to adopt new roles. New roles are associated with increased collaboration with individuals and/or groups outside the library. This survey documents the widespread incorporation of new roles in biomedical libraries in the United States, as well as the barriers to adopting these roles and the means by which librarians are making time for them. The results of the survey can be used to inform strategic planning, succession planning, library education, and career development for biomedical librarians.

  9. Purification, molecular cloning, and enzymatic properties of a family 12 endoglucanase (EG-II) from fomitopsis palustris: role of EG-II in larch holocellulose hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Tomoko; Shibuya, Hajime; Nojiri, Masanobu; Yoshida, Shigeki; Ishihara, Mitsuro

    2008-09-01

    A family 12 endoglucanase with a molecular mass of 23,926 Da (EG-II) from the brown-rot basidiomycete Fomitopsis palustris was purified and characterized. One of the roles of EG-II in wood degradation is thought to be to loosen the polysaccharide network in cell walls by disentangling hemicelluloses that are associated with cellulose.

  10. Sequestration and Distribution Characteristics of Cd(II by Microcystis aeruginosa and Its Role in Colony Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong Bi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the sequestration and distribution characteristics of Cd(II by Microcystis aeruginosa and its role in Microcystis colony formation, M. aeruginosa was exposed to six different Cd(II concentrations for 10 days. Cd(II exposure caused hormesis in the growth of M. aeruginosa. Low concentrations of Cd(II significantly induced formation of small Microcystis colonies (P93% of Cd(II was sequestrated in the groups with lower added concentrations of Cd(II. More than 80% of the sequestrated Cd(II was bioadsorbed by bEPS. The Pearson correlation coefficients of exterior and interior factors related to colony formation of M. aeruginosa revealed that Cd(II could stimulate the production of IPS and bEPS via increasing Cd(II bioaccumulation and bioadsorption. Increased levels of cross-linking between Cd(II and bEPS stimulated algal cell aggregation, which eventually promoted the formation of Microcystis colonies.

  11. [The role of international comparison in surveying divorce trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh-szombathy, L

    1982-04-01

    In this study, the main survey methods and approaches to analyzing data on divorce in different countries are described. Some problems concerning the international comparability of divorce statistics are examined, and the value of international comparative studies for identifying common factors affecting divorce is stressed. (summary in ENG, RUS)

  12. Hydra II: A Faint and Compact Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy Found in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Nidever, David L.; Besla, Gurtina; Olsen, Knut; Walker, Alistair R.; Vivas, A. Katherina; Gruendl, Robert A.; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Blum, Robert D.; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C.; Bell, Eric F.; Chu, You-Hua; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; de Boer, Thomas J. L.; Gallart, Carme; Jin, Shoko; Kunder, Andrea; Majewski, Steven R.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Monachesi, Antonela; Monelli, Matteo; Monteagudo, Lara; Noël, Noelia E. D.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Zaritsky, Dennis

    We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Hydra II, found serendipitously within the data from the ongoing Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History conducted with the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4 m Telescope. The new satellite is compact ({{r}h}=68 ± 11 pc) and faint ({{M}V}=-4.8 ± 0.3),

  13. The Unique Optical Design of the CTI-II Survey Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, J. T.; MacFarlane, M.

    2006-12-01

    The CCD/Transit Instrument with Innovative Instrumentation (CTI-II) is being developed for precision ground-based astrometric and photometric astronomical observations. The 1.8m telescope will be stationary, near-zenith pointing and will feature a CCD-mosaic array operated in time-delay and integrate (TDI) mode to image a continuous strip of the sky in five bands. The heart of the telescope is a Nasmyth-like bent-Cassegrain optical system optimized to produce near diffraction-limited images with near zero distortion over a circular1.42 deg field. The optical design includes an f/2.2 parabolic ULE primary with no central hole salvaged from the original CTI telescope and adds the requisite hyperbolic secondary, a folding flat and a highly innovative all-spherical, five lens corrector which includes three plano surfaces. The reflective and refractive portions of the design have been optimized as individual but interdependent systems so that the same reflective system can be used with slightly different refractive correctors. At present, two nearly identical corrector designs are being evaluated, one fabricated from BK-7 glass and the other of fused silica. The five lens corrector consists of an air-spaced triplet separated from follow-on air-spaced doublet. Either design produces 0.25 arcsecond images at 83% encircled energy with a maximum of 0.0005% distortion. The innovative five lens corrector design has been applied to other current and planned Cassegrain, RC and super RC optical systems requiring correctors. The basic five lens approach always results in improved performance compared to the original designs. In some cases, the improvement in image quality is small but includes substantial reductions in distortion. In other cases, the improvement in image quality is substantial. Because the CTI-II corrector is designed for a parabolic primary, it might be especially useful for liquid mirror telescopes. We describe and discuss the CTI-II optical design with respect

  14. Radiation survey of first Hi-Art II Tomotherapy vault design in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A.; Jamema, S.V.; Pai, Rajeshree; Sharma, P.K. Dash; Deshpande, Deepak D.

    2009-01-01

    A vault as per government-regulation compliance with adequate shielding needs was designed and constructed for Hi-Art II Tomotherapy machine being the first in India. Radiation measurements around this Tomotherapy treatment vault were carried out to check the shielding adequacy of the source housing and the vault. It was mandatory to get this un-conventional machine 'Type Approved' by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) in India. The aim of this paper was to report on the radiation levels measured during the radiation survey carried out for this machine. The radiation levels in and around the vault were measured for stationary as well as rotational treatment procedures with the largest open field size (5 cm x 40 cm) at the isocenter with and without scattering medium. The survey was performed at three locations near each wall surrounding the vault as well. The leakage radiation from the source housing was measured both in the patient plane outside the treatment field and one meter distance from the source outside the patient plane. The radiation levels both for stationary as well as rotational procedures were within 1 mR/h. No significance difference was observed in the radiation levels measured for rotational procedures with and without scattering medium. The leakage radiation in the patient plane was found to be 0.04% (Tolerance 0.2%), while the head leakage was 0.007% (Tolerance 0.5%) of the dose rate at the isocenter. The treatment delivery with Tomotherapy does play safe radiation levels around the installation layout and also passes the leakage criteria as well.

  15. A Survey of Ca II H and K Chromospheric Emission in Southern Solar-Type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Todd J.; Soderblom, David R.; Donahue, Robert A.; Baliunas, Sallie L.

    1996-01-01

    More than 800 southern stars within 50 pc have been observed for chromospheric emission in the cores of the Ca II H and K lines. Most of the sample targets were chosen to be G dwarfs on the basis of colors and spectral types. The bimodal distribution in stellar activity first noted in a sample of northern stars by Vaughan and Preston in 1980 is confirmed, and the percentage of active stars, about 30%, is remarkably consistent between the northern and southern surveys. This is especially compelling given that we have used an entirely different instrumental setup and stellar sample than used in the previous study. Comparisons to the Sun, a relatively inactive star, show that most nearby solar-type stars have a similar activity level, and presumably a similar age. We identify two additional subsamples of stars -- a very active group, and a very inactive group. The very active group may be made up of young stars near the Sun, accounting for only a few percent of the sample, and appears to be less than ~0.1 Gyr old. Included in this high-activity tail of the distribution, however, is a subset of very close binaries of the RS CVn or W UMa types. The remaining members of this population may be undetected close binaries or very young single stars. The very inactive group of stars, contributting ~5%--10% to the total sample, may be those caught in a Maunder Minimum type phase. If the observations of the survey stars are considered to be a sequence of snapshots of the Sun during its life, we might expect that the Sun will spend about 10% of the remainder of its main sequence life in a Maunder Minimum phase.

  16. A multi-institutional survey evaluating patient related QA – phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teichmann Tobias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In phase I of the survey a planning intercomparison of patient-related QA was performed at 12 institutions. The participating clinics created phantom based IMRT and VMAT plans which were measured utilizing the ArcCheck diode array. Mobius3D (M3D was used in phase II. It acts as a secondary dose verification tool for patient-specific QA based on average linac beam data collected by Mobius Medical Systems. All Quasimodo linac plans will be analyzed for the continuation of the intercomparison. We aim to determine if Mobius3D is suited for use with diverse treatment techniques, if beam model customization is needed. Initially we computed first Mobius3D results by transferring all plans from phase I to our Mobius3D server. Because of some larger PTV mean dose differences we checked if output factor customization would be beneficial. We performed measurements and output factor correction to account for discrepancies in reference conditions. Compared to Mobius3D's preconfigured average beam data values, these corrected output factors differed by ±1.5% for field sizes between 7x7cm2 and 30x30cm2 and to −3.9% for 3x3cm2. Our method of correcting the output factors turns out good congruence to M3D's reference values for these medium field sizes.

  17. Survey Team On: Conceptualisation of the Role of Competencies, Knowing and Knowledge in Mathematics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niss, Mogens; Bruder, Regina; Planas, Núria; Turner, Ross; Villa-Ochoa, Jhony Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of the work of the ICME 13 Survey Team on "Conceptualisation and the role of competencies, knowing and knowledge in mathematics education research". It surveys a variety of historical and contemporary views and conceptualisations of what it means to master mathematics, focusing on notions such as…

  18. A Survey of Optometry Graduates to Determine Practice Patterns: Part II: Licensure and Practice Establishment Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleimann, Robert L.; Smith, Lee W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of Part II of a two-volume study of optometry graduates conducted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry is presented. Part II includes the analysis of the graduates' licensure and practice establishment experiences. (MLW)

  19. A Survey for Assessment of Role of Pharmacist in Community

    OpenAIRE

    P Kapur; M Aqil; M S Alam; S Karim; Himanshu Sharma; P Jinda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of pharmacist in community setting & consumer’s perception in National Capital
    Region.
    Setting: The study was conducted in National Capital Region of India during the year 2003-04.
    Method: Four pharmacy shops were selected for this study which were not attached to any hospital or clinic. Seventy
    seven consumers, who visited these pharmacies during ...

  20. Hydra II: A Faint and Compact Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy Found in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, NF; Nidever, DL; Besla, G; Olsen, K; Walker, AR; Vivas, AK; Gruendl, RA; Kaleida, CC; Muñoz, RR; Blum, RD; Saha, A; Conn, BC; Bell, EF; Chu, YH; Cioni, MRL

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Hydra II, found serendipitously within the data from the ongoing Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History conducted with the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4 m Telescope. The new satellite is compact (rh = 68 ± 11 pc) and faint (MV = -4.8 ± 0.3), but well within the realm of dwarf galaxies. The stellar distribution of Hydra II in the color-magnitude diagram is well-described by a m...

  1. An emerging role of pectic rhamnogalacturonanII for cell wall integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Reboul, Rebecca; Tenhaken, Raimund

    2012-01-01

    The plant cell wall is a complex network of different polysaccharides and glycoproteins, showing high diversity in nature. The essential components, tethering cell wall are under debate, as novel mutants challenge established models. The mutant ugd2,3 with a reduced supply of the important wall precursor UDP-glucuronic acid reveals the critical role of the pectic compound rhamnogalacturonanII for cell wall stability. This polymer seems to be more important for cell wall integrity than the pre...

  2. The immunoregulatory role of type I and type II NKT cells in cancer and other diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2014-01-01

    NKT cells are CD1d-restricted T cells that recognize lipid antigens. They also have been shown to play critical roles in the regulation of immune responses. In the immune responses against tumors, two subsets of NKT cells, type I and type II, play opposing roles and cross-regulate each other. As members of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, which form a network of multiple components, they also interact with other immune components. Here we discuss the function of NKT cells in tumor immunity and their interaction with other regulatory cells, especially CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. PMID:24384834

  3. SHOCK BREAKOUT IN TYPE II PLATEAU SUPERNOVAE: PROSPECTS FOR HIGH-REDSHIFT SUPERNOVA SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, N.; Morokuma, T.; Blinnikov, S. I.; Nomoto, K.; Baklanov, P.; Sorokina, E. I.

    2011-01-01

    Shock breakout is the brightest radiative phenomenon in a supernova (SN) but is difficult to be observed owing to the short duration and X-ray/ultraviolet (UV)-peaked spectra. After the first observation from the rising phase reported in 2008, its observability at high redshift is attracting enormous attention. We perform multigroup radiation hydrodynamics calculations of explosions for evolutionary presupernova models with various main-sequence masses M MS , metallicities Z, and explosion energies E. We present multicolor light curves of shock breakouts in Type II plateau SNe, being the most frequent core-collapse SNe, and predict apparent multicolor light curves of shock breakout at various redshifts z. We derive the observable SN rate and reachable redshift as functions of filter x and limiting magnitude m x,lim by taking into account an initial mass function, cosmic star formation history, intergalactic absorption, and host galaxy extinction. We propose a realistic survey strategy optimized for shock breakout. For example, the g'-band observable SN rate for m g',lim = 27.5 mag is 3.3 SNe deg -2 day -1 and half of them are located at z ≥ 1.2. It is clear that the shock breakout is a beneficial clue for probing high-z core-collapse SNe. We also establish ways to identify shock breakout and constrain SN properties from the observations of shock breakout, brightness, timescale, and color. We emphasize that the multicolor observations in blue optical bands with ∼hour intervals, preferably over ≥2 continuous nights, are essential to efficiently detect, identify, and interpret shock breakout.

  4. THE EFFECT OF HOST GALAXIES ON TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampeitl, Hubert; Smith, Mathew; Nichol, Robert C.; Bassett, Bruce; Cinabro, David; Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh W.; Foley, Ryan J.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Goobar, Ariel; Nordin, Jakob; Im, Myungshin; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Oestman, Linda; Riess, Adam G.; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P.; Sollerman, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the host galaxy dependences of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) from the full three year sample of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. We re-discover, to high significance, the strong correlation between host galaxy type and the width of the observed SN light curve, i.e., fainter, quickly declining SNe Ia favor passive host galaxies, while brighter, slowly declining Ia's favor star-forming galaxies. We also find evidence (at between 2σ and 3σ) that SNe Ia are ≅0.1 ± 0.04 mag brighter in passive host galaxies than in star-forming hosts, after the SN Ia light curves have been standardized using the light-curve shape and color variations. This difference in brightness is present in both the SALT2 and MCLS2k2 light-curve fitting methodologies. We see evidence for differences in the SN Ia color relationship between passive and star-forming host galaxies, e.g., for the MLCS2k2 technique, we see that SNe Ia in passive hosts favor a dust law of R V = 1.0 ± 0.2, while SNe Ia in star-forming hosts require R V = 1.8 +0.2 -0.4 . The significance of these trends depends on the range of SN colors considered. We demonstrate that these effects can be parameterized using the stellar mass of the host galaxy (with a confidence of >4σ) and including this extra parameter provides a better statistical fit to our data. Our results suggest that future cosmological analyses of SN Ia samples should include host galaxy information.

  5. Role for the MED21-MED7 Hinge in Assembly of the Mediator-RNA Polymerase II Holoenzyme*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shigeo; Tomomori-Sato, Chieri; Tsai, Kuang-Lei; Yu, Xiaodi; Sardiu, Mihaela; Saraf, Anita; Washburn, Michael P.; Florens, Laurence; Asturias, Francisco J.; Conaway, Ronald C.

    2016-01-01

    Mediator plays an integral role in activation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription. A key step in activation is binding of Mediator to Pol II to form the Mediator-Pol II holoenzyme. Here, we exploit a combination of biochemistry and macromolecular EM to investigate holoenzyme assembly. We identify a subset of human Mediator head module subunits that bind Pol II independent of other subunits and thus probably contribute to a major Pol II binding site. In addition, we show that binding of human Mediator to Pol II depends on the integrity of a conserved “hinge” in the middle module MED21-MED7 heterodimer. Point mutations in the hinge region leave core Mediator intact but lead to increased disorder of the middle module and markedly reduced affinity for Pol II. These findings highlight the importance of Mediator conformation for holoenzyme assembly. PMID:27821593

  6. Role of Leadership in Transforming the Profession of Quantity Surveying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Ofori

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is facing a period of change. The roles ofthe professions involved in the industry in general, and of quantitysurveyors in particular, are also changing. There are opportunitiesfor surveyors to seize the initiative to broaden their involvement inprojects, and attain strategic positions within the industry. However,they will have to improve upon their skill sets and their knowledgebases. Senior quantity surveyors interviewed in Singapore sharedtheir views on the challenges facing the construction industry,and their profession. They suggested that the quantity surveyingprofession would only be able to address the pressing issues itfaces if it pays more attention to innovation and the development ofits people. It should be able to attract and retain talent. Knowledgemanagement will be of critical importance. This will be enabled andfacilitated by knowledge leadership.

  7. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume III, Part II. Cultural Resources Survey, Pine and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    including horse, camel, mammoth, Ertm E-TR-48-III-II 20 musk ox, and certain species of bison, goat, and bear, which had previously inhabited the marsh and...34 - - -9,$.. 𔄃 Im I I I Si to * Location lype/Contents Affiliation 42B@644 rid e over cr ek - P/J depression, cleared areas, Fr elon (f4-5-18-92) ground

  8. THE MUSCLES TREASURY SURVEY. II. INTRINSIC LY α AND EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA OF K AND M DWARFS WITH EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Loyd, R. O. Parke [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 600 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Redfield, Seth [Astronomy Department and Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459-0123 (United States); Schneider, P. Christian [European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Wood, Brian E. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Brown, Alexander [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Froning, Cynthia [Dept. of Astronomy C1400, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Miguel, Yamila [Laboratoire Lagrange, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, CNRS, Blvd de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice cedex 4 (France); Rugheimer, Sarah [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Irvine Building, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9AL (United Kingdom); Walkowicz, Lucianne, E-mail: allison.youngblood@colorado.edu [The Adler Planetarium, 1300 S Lakeshore Dr, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States)

    2016-06-20

    The ultraviolet (UV) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of low-mass (K- and M-type) stars play a critical role in the heating and chemistry of exoplanet atmospheres, but are not observationally well-constrained. Direct observations of the intrinsic flux of the Ly α line (the dominant source of UV photons from low-mass stars) are challenging, as interstellar H i absorbs the entire line core for even the closest stars. To address the existing gap in empirical constraints on the UV flux of K and M dwarfs, the MUSCLES Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Survey has obtained UV observations of 11 nearby M and K dwarfs hosting exoplanets. This paper presents the Ly α and extreme-UV spectral reconstructions for the MUSCLES targets. Most targets are optically inactive, but all exhibit significant UV activity. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique to correct the observed Ly α profiles for interstellar absorption, and we employ empirical relations to compute the extreme-UV SED from the intrinsic Ly α flux in ∼100 Å bins from 100–1170 Å. The reconstructed Ly α profiles have 300 km s{sup −1} broad cores, while >1% of the total intrinsic Ly α flux is measured in extended wings between 300 and 1200 km s{sup −1}. The Ly α surface flux positively correlates with the Mg ii surface flux and negatively correlates with the stellar rotation period. Stars with larger Ly α surface flux also tend to have larger surface flux in ions formed at higher temperatures, but these correlations remain statistically insignificant in our sample of 11 stars. We also present H i column density measurements for 10 new sightlines through the local interstellar medium.

  9. [Cost of lost productivity in pharmacoeconomics analysis. Part II. Survey in the expert group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrona, Witold; Hermanowski, Tomasz; Jakubczyk, Michał; Golicki, Dominik; Czech, Marcin; Niewada, Maciej; Kolasa, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the survey was to collect data on practice and preferences of decision-makers and experts in health economics concerning the role of indirect costs in Poland. The questionnaire contained 18 questions covering the need for indirect costs calculation in economic evaluations and measures used to calculate indirect cost. Fifty four respondents related to health economics returned completed questionnaires. Mean age of respondents was 33,3 years; mean experience in health economics 4.7 years; 43% (23/54) of responders had non-economic background; 30% each were users and doers of health technology assessment reports. All (excluding one) responders indicated that indirect costs should be calculated in pharmacoeconomic studies. Twenty three (i.e., 43%) responders indicated human capital approach as the best method to estimate costs from societal perspective; friction cost method came second best 11%; 42% respondents had no opinion. The doers of economics evaluations pointed to GDP per capita (61%, 11/18), average salary (61%, 11/18), and costs of sick pay or injury benefit (61%, 11/18) as measures which could be used to value production losses. Indirect costs are considered important component of economic evaluations of healthcare interventions in Poland. The lack of widely accepted methods for indirect cost evaluation support further research.

  10. Comprehensive RNA Polymerase II Interactomes Reveal Distinct and Varied Roles for Each Phospho-CTD Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Harlen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcription controls splicing and other gene regulatory processes, yet mechanisms remain obscure due to our fragmented knowledge of the molecular connections between the dynamically phosphorylated RNA polymerase II (Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD and regulatory factors. By systematically isolating phosphorylation states of the CTD heptapeptide repeat (Y1S2P3T4S5P6S7, we identify hundreds of protein factors that are differentially enriched, revealing unappreciated connections between the Pol II CTD and co-transcriptional processes. These data uncover a role for threonine-4 in 3′ end processing through control of the transition between cleavage and termination. Furthermore, serine-5 phosphorylation seeds spliceosomal assembly immediately downstream of 3′ splice sites through a direct interaction with spliceosomal subcomplex U1. Strikingly, threonine-4 phosphorylation also impacts splicing by serving as a mark of co-transcriptional spliceosome release and ensuring efficient post-transcriptional splicing genome-wide. Thus, comprehensive Pol II interactomes identify the complex and functional connections between transcription machinery and other gene regulatory complexes.

  11. Transparency, citizen participation, organisation and roles. Report from the third RISCOM-II Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell; Paeivioe, Josefin

    2003-10-01

    This workshop was the final one in a series of three workshops within the RISCOM II project. It was an event where the RISCOM group of researchers disseminated the results to a wider circle of the nuclear waste management community in Europe with the focus on their own 'peers' in participating countries. However, the aim was not just to present RISCOM II results but also to see them in the context of adjacent projects. Especially, the workshop was set up in cooperation with the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) since this was seen as a good opportunity for exchange of experiences between the two activities. There was also participation by representatives from the EC COWAM Concerted Action and one presentation was devoted to this activity. There was thus an opportunity to discuss the three activities together. A draft of the RISCOM II Final Report had been made available for workshop participants before the meeting. The first part of the workshop entitled Transparency and citizen participation was moderated by Yves Le Bars, FSC chairman, and president of ANDRA. The second part dealt with Outcomes of the RISCOM Project and was moderated by Elizabeth Atherton from UK Nirex. Magnus Westerlind (SKI), the RISCOM-II coordinator, moderated the third part that dealt with Organisation and roles

  12. Transparency, citizen participation, organisation and roles. Report from the third RISCOM-II Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden); Paeivioe, Josefin [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    This workshop was the final one in a series of three workshops within the RISCOM II project. It was an event where the RISCOM group of researchers disseminated the results to a wider circle of the nuclear waste management community in Europe with the focus on their own 'peers' in participating countries. However, the aim was not just to present RISCOM II results but also to see them in the context of adjacent projects. Especially, the workshop was set up in cooperation with the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) since this was seen as a good opportunity for exchange of experiences between the two activities. There was also participation by representatives from the EC COWAM Concerted Action and one presentation was devoted to this activity. There was thus an opportunity to discuss the three activities together. A draft of the RISCOM II Final Report had been made available for workshop participants before the meeting. The first part of the workshop entitled Transparency and citizen participation was moderated by Yves Le Bars, FSC chairman, and president of ANDRA. The second part dealt with Outcomes of the RISCOM Project and was moderated by Elizabeth Atherton from UK Nirex. Magnus Westerlind (SKI), the RISCOM-II coordinator, moderated the third part that dealt with Organisation and roles.

  13. A Hubble Space Telescope Survey of the Disk Cluster Population of M31. II. Advanced Camera for Surveys Pointings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krienke, O. K.; Hodge, P. W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey of star clusters in M31 based on archival images from the Hubble Space Telescope. Paper I reported results from images obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and this paper reports results from the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The ACS survey has yielded a total of 339 star clusters, 52 of which—mostly globular clusters—were found to have been cataloged previously. As for the previous survey, the luminosity function of the clusters drops steeply for absolute magnitudes fainter than MV = -3 the implied cluster mass function has a turnover for masses less than a few hundred solar masses. The color-integrated magnitude diagram of clusters shows three significant features: (1) a group of very red, luminous objects: the globular clusters, (2) a wide range in color for the fainter clusters, representing a considerable range in age and reddening, and (3) a maximum density of clusters centered approximately at V = 21, B - V = 0.30, V - I = 0.50, where there are intermediate-age, intermediate-mass clusters with ages close to 500 million years and masses of about 2000 solar masses. We give a brief qualitative interpretation of the distribution of clusters in the CMDs in terms of their formation and destruction rates. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for research in astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  14. A Survey for Assessment of Role of Pharmacist in Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kapur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Objective: To assess the role of pharmacist in community setting & consumer’s perception in National Capital
    Region.
    Setting: The study was conducted in National Capital Region of India during the year 2003-04.
    Method: Four pharmacy shops were selected for this study which were not attached to any hospital or clinic. Seventy
    seven consumers, who visited these pharmacies during the study period, were selected for this study and
    interviewed just after they visited the pharmacy.
    Key findings: A total of 77 consumers in the age group of 11 to 72 years were included in the present study, of
    which 66.2% were males and 33.8% were females. It is observed that 46.7% consumers came for prescription
    medicines, 23.4% for over the counter medicines. Close to general physicians’ clinics and proximity to home
    were most important reasons given for visiting particular pharmacy. Majority of the consumers (n=56, 72.7%
    rated the advice given by the pharmacist as very useful, only 1(1.3% rated it as not useful at all and 2 (2.6%
    consumers did not respond. Among consumer groups 31 (40.3% thought that pharmacist has a good balance
    between health and business matter and 35.7% were in opinion that pharmacist is more concerned with making
    money, while 5.2% supported that the pharmacist is also interested in the health of his/her customers. The pharmacists
    were ranked at the top with 28(36.4% by the consumers and favoured pharmacy as the most convenient
    place to get advice about staying healthy.
    Conclusion: Most of the consumers in the present study were of the opinion that pharmacist is concerned with the
    health of the consumers, though he/she is also interested in making money. Many respondents were unaware
    about the difference between pharmacist and doctor, most of them consider

  15. The roles of MHC class II genes and post-translational modification in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollid, Ludvig M

    2017-08-01

    Our increasing understanding of the etiology of celiac disease, previously considered a simple food hypersensitivity disorder caused by an immune response to cereal gluten proteins, challenges established concepts of autoimmunity. HLA is a chief genetic determinant, and certain HLA-DQ allotypes predispose to the disease by presenting posttranslationally modified (deamidated) gluten peptides to CD4 + T cells. The deamidation of gluten peptides is mediated by transglutaminase 2. Strikingly, celiac disease patients generate highly disease-specific autoantibodies to the transglutaminase 2 enzyme. The dual role of transglutaminase 2 in celiac disease is hardly coincidental. This paper reviews the genetic mapping and involvement of MHC class II genes in disease pathogenesis, and discusses the evidence that MHC class II genes, via the involvement of transglutaminase 2, influence the generation of celiac disease-specific autoantibodies.

  16. Role of Kidneys in Sex Differences in Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Ximing; Qu, Helena Y; Jiang, Shan; Zhang, Jie; Fu, Liying; Buggs, Jacentha; Pang, Bo; Wei, Jin; Liu, Ruisheng

    2017-12-01

    The significance of kidneys in regulation of sodium and water balance and hemodynamics has been demonstrated both in patients and animal models. In the present study, we tested our hypothesis that kidneys play an essential role in control of sex differences in angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertension. Kidney transplantations (KTXs) were performed between male (M) and female (F) C57BL/6 mice (donor→recipient: F→F, M→M, F→M, and M→F). Radiotelemetry transmitters were implanted for measurement of mean arterial pressure during the infusion of Ang II (600 ng·kg -1 ·min -1 ). Gene expressions and inflammatory responses in the transplanted grafts were assessed. We found that same-sex-KTX mice still exhibited sex differences in Ang II-dependent hypertension (31.3±0.8 mm Hg in M→M versus 12.2±0.6 mm Hg in F→F), which were reduced between males and females when they received kidneys of the opposite sex (32.9±1 mm Hg in M→F versus 22.3±0.7 mm Hg in F→M). The sex differences in gene expressions, including AT 1 R (angiotensin II receptor, type 1), AT 1 R/AT 2 R, ET-1 (endothelin-1), ETA (endothelin receptor type A), NHE3 (sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3), α-ENaC (α-epithelial sodium channel), and γ-ENaC, were unaltered in same-sex KTXs and much lessened in cross-sex KTXs. In addition, the cross-sex KTXs exhibited more robust inflammatory responses reflected by higher expression of IL-6 (interleukin 6), TNFα (tumor necrosis factor α), and KC (keratinocyte-derived chemokine) than same-sex KTX. Our results indicate that kidneys play an essential role in sex differences of Ang II-dependent hypertension. KTX of male kidneys to females augmented the blood pressure response, whereas KTX of female kidneys to males attenuated the blood pressure response. The host's extrarenal systems modulate expressions of many genes and inflammatory response, which may also contribute to the sex differences in blood pressure regulation. © 2017 American Heart

  17. ERK1/2 signaling plays an important role in topoisomerase II poison-induced G2/M checkpoint activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Ryan H; Greer, Patrick M; Cao, Phu T; Cowan, Kenneth H; Yan, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Topo II poisons, which target topoisomerase II (topo II) to generate enzyme mediated DNA damage, have been commonly used for anti-cancer treatment. While clinical evidence demonstrate a capability of topo II poisons in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, accumulating evidence also show that topo II poison treatment frequently results in cell cycle arrest in cancer cells, which was associated with subsequent resistance to these treatments. Results in this report indicate that treatment of MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells with topo II poisons resulted in an increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and an subsequent induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 activation using specific inhibitors markedly attenuated the topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest and diminished the topo II poison-induced activation of ATR and Chk1 kinases. Moreover, decreased expression of ATR by specific shRNA diminished topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest but had no effect on topo II poison-induced ERK1/2 activation. In contrast, inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling had little, if any, effect on topo II poison-induced ATM activation. In addition, ATM inhibition by either incubation of cells with ATM specific inhibitor or transfection of cells with ATM specific siRNA did not block topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest. Ultimately, inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling greatly enhanced topo II poison-induced apoptosis. These results implicate a critical role for ERK1/2 signaling in the activation of G2/M checkpoint response following topo II poison treatment, which protects cells from topo II poison-induced apoptosis.

  18. The Isan Culture Maintenance and Revitalisation Programme's Multilingual Signage Attitude Survey: Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, John

    2016-01-01

    This article contextualises and presents to the academic community the full dataset of the Isan Culture Maintenance and Revitalisation Programme's (ICMRP) multilingual signage survey. The ICMRP is a four-year European Union co-sponsored project in Northeast Thailand. This article focuses on one aspect of the project, four surveys each of 1,500…

  19. National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses II. Status of Nurses: November 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Barbara S.; And Others

    This report provides data describing the nursing population as determined by the second national sample survey of registered nurses. A brief introduction is followed by a chapter that presents an overview of the survey methodology, including details on the sampling design, the response rate, and the statistical reliability. Chapter 3 provides a…

  20. What's for Lunch? II. A 1990 Survey of Options in the School Lunch Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Patricia McGrath; And Others

    This report provides information on the content of school lunches offered to middle school children in the public schools. A total of 163 middle schools in 42 states responded to the school lunch survey. Survey findings are given on: (1) the contents of the main course, vegetable and fruit offerings, desserts, and beverages; and (2) lunches…

  1. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; Smith, Russell J.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lucey, John R.; Jogee, Shardha; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Chiboucas, Kristin; Davies, Jonathan I.; del Burgo, Carlos; Erwin, Peter; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hudson, Michael J.; Huxor, Avon; Jenkins, Leigh; Karick, Arna; Khosroshahi, Habib; Kourkchi, Ehsan; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lotz, Jennifer; Marzke, Ronald O.; Marinova, Irina; Matkovic, Ana; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W.; Miller, Neal A.; Mobasher, Bahram; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Okamura, Sadanori; Percival, Sue; Phillipps, Steven; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Price, James; Sharples, Ray M.; Tully, R. Brent; Valentijn, Edwin

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers ~50% of the core high-density region in

  2. What is the role of Pb(II) in high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveau, B.; Hervieu, M.; Michel, C.; Groult, D.; Provost, J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the layered lead cuprates is presented here. The structure of these oxides and their non-stoichiometry are studied in connection with their superconducting properties. The phenomena involving a modulation of the structure, characterized by the presence of satellites on E.D. patterns are described and the particular role of the 6s 2 lone pair of Pb(II) is discussed. Divalent lead is, owing to its size intermediate between that of strontium and barium, a potential cation for superconductive cuprates. Moreover, this interest for Pb(II), is supported by its electronic structure which involves an electronic 6s 2 lone pair well known for its ability to form layered structures. In spite of these characteristics, few superconductive layered suprates were isolated at the beginning of the rush to high Tc superconductors. This is probably due to the possibility of existence of redox reactions involving the couple Pb(II)/Pb(IV), which require very particular experimental conditions. The authors report here on the recent development of the crystal chemistry of those materials and on their corresponding superconducting properties

  3. The Role of Angiotensin II in Parietal Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Crescent Formation in Glomerular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Paola; Novelli, Rubina; Rota, Cinzia; Gagliardini, Elena; Ruggiero, Barbara; Rottoli, Daniela; Benigni, Ariela; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2017-11-01

    Crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) is a devastating disease with rapidly progressive deterioration in kidney function, which, histologically, manifests as crescent formation in most glomeruli. We previously found that crescents derive from the aberrant proliferation and migration of parietal epithelial cells (PECs)/progenitor cells, and that the angiotensin (ang) II/ang II type-1 (AT 1 ) receptor pathway may participate, together with the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 axis, in the development of those lesions. Herein, we elucidated sequential events and cellular and molecular interactions occurring during crescentic lesion onset and evolution. By analyzing kidney biopsy specimens of patients with extracapillary GN, divided according to the grade of glomerular lesions, we found that the accumulation of macrophages expressing matrix metalloproteinase-12 started manifesting in glomeruli affected by early-stage lesions, whereas AT 1 receptor expression could not be detected. In glomeruli with advanced lesions, AT 1 receptor expression increased markedly, and the up-regulation of SDF-1, and its receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor 7, was documented on podocytes and PECs, respectively. In vitro studies were instrumental to demonstrating the role of ang II in inducing podocyte SDF-1 production, which ultimately activates PECs. The present findings support the possibility that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment might limit PEC activation and reduce the frequency and extension of crescents in extracapillary GN. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Predictors of BMI Vary along the BMI Range of German Adults – Results of the German National Nutrition Survey II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kilson; Krems, Carolin; Heuer, Thorsten; Roth, Alexander; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to identify predictors of BMI in German adults by considering the BMI distribution and to determine whether the association between BMI and its predictors varies along the BMI distribution. Methods The sample included 9,214 adults aged 18–80 years from the German National Nutrition Survey II (NVS II). Quantile regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between BMI and the following predictors: age, sports activities, socio-economic status (SES), healthy eating index-NVS II (HEI-NVS II), dietary knowledge, sleeping duration and energy intake as well as status of smoking, partner relationship and self-reported health. Results Age, SES, self-reported health status, sports activities and energy intake were the strongest predictors of BMI. The important outcome of this study is that the association between BMI and its predictors varies along the BMI distribution. Especially, energy intake, health status and SES were marginally associated with BMI in normal-weight subjects; this relationships became stronger in the range of overweight, and were strongest in the range of obesity. Conclusions Predictors of BMI and the strength of these associations vary across the BMI distribution in German adults. Consequently, to identify predictors of BMI, the entire BMI distribution should be considered. PMID:28219069

  5. The role of stellar feedback in the dynamics of H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Laura A.; Castro, Daniel; Krumholz, Mark R.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Bolatto, Alberto D.

    2014-01-01

    Stellar feedback is often cited as the biggest uncertainty in galaxy formation models today. This uncertainty stems from a dearth of observational constraints as well as the great dynamic range between the small scales (≲1 pc) where the feedback originates and the large scales of galaxies (≳1 kpc) that are shaped by this feedback. To bridge this divide, in this paper we aim to assess observationally the role of stellar feedback at the intermediate scales of H II regions (∼10-100 pc). In particular, we employ multiwavelength data to examine several stellar feedback mechanisms in a sample of 32 H II regions (with ages ∼3-10 Myr) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, respectively. Using optical, infrared, radio, and X-ray images, we measure the pressures exerted on the shells from the direct stellar radiation, the dust-processed radiation, the warm ionized gas, and the hot X-ray-emitting gas. We find that the warm ionized gas dominates over the other terms in all of the sources, although two have comparable dust-processed radiation pressures to their warm gas pressures. The hot gas pressures are comparatively weak, while the direct radiation pressures are one to two orders of magnitude below the other terms. We discuss the implications of these results, particularly highlighting evidence for hot gas leakage from the H II shells and regarding the momentum deposition from the dust-processed radiation to the warm gas. Furthermore, we emphasize that similar observational work should be done on very young H II regions to test whether direct radiation pressure and hot gas can drive the dynamics at early times.

  6. Environmental monitoring survey of oil and gas fields in Region II in 2009. Summary report; Miljoeovervaaking av olje- og gassfelt i Region II i 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    The oil companies Statoil ASA, ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Norway AS, Total E&P Norge AS, Talisman Energy Norge AS and Marathon Petroleum Norge AS commissioned Section of Applied Environmental Research at UNI RESEARCH AS to undertake the monitoring survey of Region II in 2009. Similar monitoring surveys in Region II have been carried out in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2006. The survey in 2009 included in total 18 fields: Rev, Varg, Sigyn, Sleipner Vest, Sleipner OEst, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Vale, Skirne, Byggve, Heimdal, Volve, Vilje og Alvheim. Sampling was conducted from the vessel MV Libas between May 18 and May 27. Samples were collected from in totally 137 sampling sites, of which 15 were regional sampling sites. Samples for chemical analysis were collected at all sites, whereas samples for benthos analysis were collected at 12 fields. As in previous surveys, Region II is divided into natural sub-regions. One sub-region is shallow (77-96 m) sub-region, a central sub-region (107-130 m) and a northern subregion (115-119 m). The sediments of the shallow sub-region had relatively lower content of TOM and pelite and higher content of fine sand than the central and northern sub-regions. Calculated areas of contamination are shown for the sub-regions in Table 1.1. The fields Sigyn, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Skirne, Byggve, Vilje og Alvheim showed no contamination of THC. At the other fields there were minor changes from 2006. The concentrations of barium increased in the central sub-region from 2006 to 2009, also at fields where no drilling had been undertaken during the last years. The same laboratory and methods are used during the three last regional investigations. The changes in barium concentrations may be due to high variability of barium concentrations in the sediments. This is supported by relatively large variations in average barium concentrations at the regional sampling sites in

  7. Environmental monitoring survey of oil and gas fields in Region II in 2009. Summary report; Miljoeovervaaking av olje- og gassfelt i Region II i 2009. Sammendragsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    The oil companies Statoil ASA, ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Norway AS, Total E&P Norge AS, Talisman Energy Norge AS and Marathon Petroleum Norge AS commissioned Section of Applied Environmental Research at UNI RESEARCH AS to undertake the monitoring survey of Region II in 2009. Similar monitoring surveys in Region II have been carried out in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2006. The survey in 2009 included in total 18 fields: Rev, Varg, Sigyn, Sleipner Vest, Sleipner Oest, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Vale, Skirne, Byggve, Heimdal, Volve, Vilje og Alvheim. Sampling was conducted from the vessel MV Libas between May 18 and May 27. Samples were collected from in totally 137 sampling sites, of which 15 were regional sampling sites. Samples for chemical analysis were collected at all sites, whereas samples for benthos analysis were collected at 12 fields. As in previous surveys, Region II is divided into natural sub-regions. One sub-region is shallow (77-96 m) sub-region, a central sub-region (107-130 m) and a northern subregion (115-119 m). The sediments of the shallow sub-region had relatively lower content of TOM and pelite and higher content of fine sand than the central and northern sub-regions. Calculated areas of contamination are shown for the sub-regions in Table 1.1. The fields Sigyn, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Skirne, Byggve, Vilje og Alvheim showed no contamination of THC. At the other fields there were minor changes from 2006. The concentrations of barium increased in the central sub-region from 2006 to 2009, also at fields where no drilling had been undertaken during the last years. The same laboratory and methods are used during the three last regional investigations. The changes in barium concentrations may be due to high variability of barium concentrations in the sediments. This is supported by relatively large variations in average barium concentrations at the regional sampling sites in

  8. Sequestration and Distribution Characteristics of Cd(II) by Microcystis aeruginosa and Its Role in Colony Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiangdong; Yan, Ran; Li, Fenxiang; Dai, Wei; Jiao, Kewei; Zhou, Qixing; Liu, Qi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the sequestration and distribution characteristics of Cd(II) by Microcystis aeruginosa and its role in Microcystis colony formation, M. aeruginosa was exposed to six different Cd(II) concentrations for 10 days. Cd(II) exposure caused hormesis in the growth of M. aeruginosa . Low concentrations of Cd(II) significantly induced formation of small Microcystis colonies ( P bEPS) contents of M. aeruginosa significantly ( P 93% of Cd(II) was sequestrated in the groups with lower added concentrations of Cd(II). More than 80% of the sequestrated Cd(II) was bioadsorbed by bEPS. The Pearson correlation coefficients of exterior and interior factors related to colony formation of M. aeruginosa revealed that Cd(II) could stimulate the production of IPS and bEPS via increasing Cd(II) bioaccumulation and bioadsorption. Increased levels of cross-linking between Cd(II) and bEPS stimulated algal cell aggregation, which eventually promoted the formation of Microcystis colonies.

  9. A survey on control schemes for distributed solar collector fields. Part II: Advanced control approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, E.F.; Rubio, F.R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Departamento de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Camino de Los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Berenguel, M. [Universidad de Almeria, Departamento de Lenguajes y Computacion, Area de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Carretera Sacramento s/n, E-04120 La Canada, Almeria (Spain); Valenzuela, L. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, Carretera Senes s/n, P.O. Box 22, E-04200 Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    This article presents a survey of the different advanced automatic control techniques that have been applied to control the outlet temperature of solar plants with distributed collectors during the last 25 years. A classification of the modeling and control approaches described in the first part of this survey is used to explain the main features of each strategy. The treated strategies range from classical advanced control strategies to those with few industrial applications. (author)

  10. Linear feature detection algorithm for astronomical surveys - II. Defocusing effects on meteor tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektešević, Dino; Vinković, Dejan; Rasmussen, Andrew; Ivezić, Željko

    2018-03-01

    Given the current limited knowledge of meteor plasma micro-physics and its interaction with the surrounding atmosphere and ionosphere, meteors are a highly interesting observational target for high-resolution wide-field astronomical surveys. Such surveys are capable of resolving the physical size of meteor plasma heads, but they produce large volumes of images that need to be automatically inspected for possible existence of long linear features produced by meteors. Here, we show how big aperture sky survey telescopes detect meteors as defocused tracks with a central brightness depression. We derive an analytic expression for a defocused point source meteor track and use it to calculate brightness profiles of meteors modelled as uniform brightness discs. We apply our modelling to meteor images as seen by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope telescopes. The expression is validated by Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations of photons travelling through the atmosphere and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope telescope optics. We show that estimates of the meteor distance and size can be extracted from the measured full width at half-maximum and the strength of the central dip in the observed brightness profile. However, this extraction becomes difficult when the defocused meteor track is distorted by the atmospheric seeing or contaminated by a long-lasting glowing meteor trail. The full width at half-maximum of satellite tracks is distinctly narrower than meteor values, which enables removal of a possible confusion between satellites and meteors.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The HII Region Discovery Survey (HRDS). II. (Anderson+, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. D.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, D. S.; Rood, R. T.

    2011-08-01

    Our observations were made with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) 100m telescope from 2008 June through 2010 October. We assembled our target list from the following multi-frequency, large solid angle Galactic surveys: the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA) Galactic Plane Survey at 21cm HI and continuum (VGPS: Stil et al. 2006AJ....132.1158S), the NRAO VLA Sky Survey at 20cm continuum (NVSS: Condon et al. 1998, Cat. VIII/65), the Southern Galactic Plane Survey at 21cm HI and continuum (SGPS: Haverkorn et al. 2006ApJS..167..230H), the VLA MAGPIS at 20cm continuum (Helfand et al. 2006, Cat. J/AJ/131/2525), and the Spitzer 24um MIPSGAL survey (Carey et al. 2009PASP..121...76C). Our analysis here also uses 8.0um data from the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE: Benjamin et al. 2003PASP..115..953B), which were obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. (4 data files).

  12. High School and Beyond. 1980 Senior Coort. Third-Follow-Up (1986). Data File User's Manual. Volume II: Survey Instruments. Contractor Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebring, Penny; And Others

    Survey instruments used in the collection of data for the High School and Beyond base year (1980) through the third follow-up surveys (1986) are provided as Volume II of a user's manual for the senior cohort data file. The complete user's manual is designed to provide the extensive documentation necessary for using the cohort data files. Copies of…

  13. THE PRISM MULTI-OBJECT SURVEY (PRIMUS). II. DATA REDUCTION AND REDSHIFT FITTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, Richard J. [MMT Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics, Siena College, 515 Loudon Rd., Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Blanton, Michael R.; Hogg, David W. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Burles, Scott M. [D.E. Shaw and Co. L.P, 20400 Stevens Creek Blvd., Suite 850, Cupertino, CA 95014 (United States); Coil, Alison L.; Aird, James; Mendez, Alexander J. [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wong, Kenneth C. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Zhu, Guangtun [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bernstein, Rebecca A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCA/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bolton, Adam S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    The PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS) is a spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey to z {approx} 1 completed with a low-dispersion prism and slitmasks allowing for simultaneous observations of {approx}2500 objects over 0.18 deg{sup 2}. The final PRIMUS catalog includes {approx}130,000 robust redshifts over 9.1 deg{sup 2}. In this paper, we summarize the PRIMUS observational strategy and present the data reduction details used to measure redshifts, redshift precision, and survey completeness. The survey motivation, observational techniques, fields, target selection, slitmask design, and observations are presented in Coil et al. Comparisons to existing higher-resolution spectroscopic measurements show a typical precision of {sigma}{sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.005. PRIMUS, both in area and number of redshifts, is the largest faint galaxy redshift survey completed to date and is allowing for precise measurements of the relationship between active galactic nuclei and their hosts, the effects of environment on galaxy evolution, and the build up of galactic systems over the latter half of cosmic history.

  14. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. II. CATALOG OF THE IMAGE DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosolowsky, Erik; Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Glenn, Jason; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Bradley, E. Todd; Aguirre, James; Cyganowski, Claudia; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Walawender, Josh; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    We present a catalog of 8358 sources extracted from images produced by the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). The BGPS is a survey of the millimeter dust continuum emission from the northern Galactic plane. The catalog sources are extracted using a custom algorithm, Bolocat, which was designed specifically to identify and characterize objects in the large-area maps generated from the Bolocam instrument. The catalog products are designed to facilitate follow-up observations of these relatively unstudied objects. The catalog is 98% complete from 0.4 Jy to 60 Jy over all object sizes for which the survey is sensitive ( -2.4±0.1 and that the mean Galactic latitude for sources is significantly below the midplane: (b) = (-0. 0 095 ± 0. 0 001).

  15. 10C survey of radio sources at 15.7 GHz - II. First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMI Consortium; Davies, Mathhew L.; Franzen, Thomas M. O.; Waldram, Elizabeth M.; Grainge, Keith J. B.; Hobson, Michael P.; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Lasenby, Anthony; Olamaie, Malak; Pooley, Guy G.; Riley, Julia M.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, Carmen; Saunders, Richard D. E.; Scaife, Anna M. M.; Schammel, Michel P.; Scott, Paul F.; Shimwell, Timothy W.; Titterington, David J.; Zwart, Jonathan T. L.

    2011-08-01

    In a previous paper (Paper I), the observational, mapping and source-extraction techniques used for the Tenth Cambridge (10C) Survey of Radio Sources were described. Here, the first results from the survey, carried out using the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Large Array (LA) at an observing frequency of 15.7 GHz, are presented. The survey fields cover an area of ≈27 deg2 to a flux-density completeness of 1 mJy. Results for some deeper areas, covering ≈12 deg2, wholly contained within the total areas and complete to 0.5 mJy, are also presented. The completeness for both areas is estimated to be at least 93 per cent. The 10C survey is the deepest radio survey of any significant extent (≳0.2 deg2) above 1.4 GHz. The 10C source catalogue contains 1897 entries and is available online. The source catalogue has been combined with that of the Ninth Cambridge Survey to calculate the 15.7-GHz source counts. A broken power law is found to provide a good parametrization of the differential count between 0.5 mJy and 1 Jy. The measured source count has been compared with that predicted by de Zotti et al. - the model is found to display good agreement with the data at the highest flux densities. However, over the entire flux-density range of the measured count (0.5 mJy to 1 Jy), the model is found to underpredict the integrated count by ≈30 per cent. Entries from the source catalogue have been matched with those contained in the catalogues of the NRAO VLA Sky Survey and the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm survey (both of which have observing frequencies of 1.4 GHz). This matching provides evidence for a shift in the typical 1.4-GHz spectral index to 15.7-GHz spectral index of the 15.7-GHz-selected source population with decreasing flux density towards sub-mJy levels - the spectra tend to become less steep. Automated methods for detecting extended sources, developed in Paper I, have been applied to the data; ≈5 per cent of the sources are found to be extended

  16. Designing future dark energy space missions. II. Photometric redshift of space weak lensing optimized surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouvel, S.; Kneib, J.-P.; Bernstein, G.; Ilbert, O.; Jelinsky, P.; Milliard, B.; Ealet, A.; Schimd, C.; Dahlen, T.; Arnouts, S.

    2011-08-01

    Context. With the discovery of the accelerated expansion of the universe, different observational probes have been proposed to investigate the presence of dark energy, including possible modifications to the gravitation laws by accurately measuring the expansion of the Universe and the growth of structures. We need to optimize the return from future dark energy surveys to obtain the best results from these probes. Aims: A high precision weak-lensing analysis requires not an only accurate measurement of galaxy shapes but also a precise and unbiased measurement of galaxy redshifts. The survey strategy has to be defined following both the photometric redshift and shape measurement accuracy. Methods: We define the key properties of the weak-lensing instrument and compute the effective PSF and the overall throughput and sensitivities. We then investigate the impact of the pixel scale on the sampling of the effective PSF, and place upper limits on the pixel scale. We then define the survey strategy computing the survey area including in particular both the Galactic absorption and Zodiacal light variation accross the sky. Using the Le Phare photometric redshift code and realistic galaxy mock catalog, we investigate the properties of different filter-sets and the importance of the u-band photometry quality to optimize the photometric redshift and the dark energy figure of merit (FoM). Results: Using the predicted photometric redshift quality, simple shape measurement requirements, and a proper sky model, we explore what could be an optimal weak-lensing dark energy mission based on FoM calculation. We find that we can derive the most accurate the photometric redshifts for the bulk of the faint galaxy population when filters have a resolution ℛ ~ 3.2. We show that an optimal mission would survey the sky through eight filters using two cameras (visible and near infrared). Assuming a five-year mission duration, a mirror size of 1.5 m and a 0.5 deg2 FOV with a visible pixel

  17. The role of calcium in the oxygen evolving center of photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latimer, Matthew John [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The photosynthetic oxygen evolving complex (OEC) contains a cluster of four manganese atoms and requires both Ca and Cl for activity. Ca can be replaced by Sr with retention of activity. The role of Ca in the OEC has been investigated by performing Mn X-ray absorption experiments on Ca-depleted samples of photosystem II (PS II) and on PS II samples depleted of Ca and reconstituted by either Ca or Sr. Mn X-ray K-edge spectra exhibit no significant differences in oxidation state or symmetry between Ca- and Sr-reactivated preparations, but differences are observed in the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The amplitude of a Fourier transform peak arising from scatterers at distances greater than 3 A is larger for samples reactivated with strontium relative to calcium. Curve-fitting analyses of the EXAFS data using FEFF 5-calculated parameters favor a model where both manganese and calcium (or strontium) scatterers contribute to the ~3 Å Fourier peak (Mn-Mn at 3.3Å and Mn-Ca(Sr) at 3.4--3.5 Å). Possible structural arrangements for a calcium binding site are discussed. Analysis of Mn K-edge spectra from Ca-depleted samples in the S1, S2, and S3 states shows an edge shift on the S1-S2 transition, but no edge shift on the S2-S3 transition, supporting a model where the oxidizing equivalent from the S2 to S3 transition is stored on a ligand or nearby protein residue rather than on the Mn cluster. Parallels between Ca-depleted and native samples are discussed.

  18. Antigen presentation and MHC class II expression by human esophageal epithelial cells: role in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Daniel J; Pooni, Aman; Mak, Nanette; Hurlbut, David J; Basta, Sameh; Justinich, Christopher J

    2011-02-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a crucial role in initiating immune responses. Under pathological conditions, epithelial cells at mucosal surfaces act as nonprofessional APCs, thereby regulating immune responses at the site of exposure. Epithelial cells in the esophagus may contribute to the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) by presenting antigens on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. Our goal was to demonstrate the ability of esophageal epithelial cells to process and present antigens on the MHC class II system and to investigate the contribution of epithelial cell antigen presentation to EoE. Immunohistochemistry detected HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 expression and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detected interferon-γ (IFNγ) in esophageal biopsies. Antigen presentation was studied using the human esophageal epithelial cell line HET-1A by reverse transcriptase-PCR, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. T helper cell lymphocyte proliferation was assessed by flow cytometry and IL-2 secretion. IFNγ and MHC class II were increased in mucosa of patients with EoE. IFNγ increased mRNA of HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR, and CIITA in HET-1A cells. HET-1A engulfed cell debris and processed ovalbumin. HET-1A cells expressed HLA-DR after IFNγ treatment. HET-1A stimulated T helper cell activation. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of esophageal epithelial cells to act as nonprofessional APCs in the presence of IFNγ. Esophageal epithelial cell antigen presentation may contribute to the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The adequacy of measures of gender roles attitudes: a review of current measures in omnibus surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jessica Gabriele

    2018-01-01

    The measures of attitudes toward gender roles included in many representative international and national omnibus surveys were developed mostly in the 1970s and 1980s with a focus on the male breadwinner model. This article deals with the issue of whether the measures provided in these omnibus surveys need to be adjusted to specific social changes. A review of these measures has found that adjustments have occurred in a limited way that focused on the role of women and disregarded the role of men. Furthermore, most of these measures only examined the traditional roles of men and women. More egalitarian role models have not been considered sufficiently. In addition, most items that have been measured are phrased in a general form and, for example, do not specify parents' employment or the ages of children. A specification of these aspects of measurement would help to clarify the conceptual meaning of the results and increase the possibility of more accurately analyzing gender role attitudes over time.

  20. Seroepidemiological Survey of HTLV-I/II in Blood Donors of Mazandaran in 1999.

    OpenAIRE

    N. Tabarestani; R. F. Hosseini; ِA. Ajami

    2000-01-01

    SummaryBackground and purpose: HTL-I/II viruses of the Retroviridae family are known to be the causes of various diseases. They are transmitted by blood transfusion, sexual contact and breast milk. As of contaminated mothers. These viral infections are endemic in certain regions, Epidemiological studies appear to be necessary in the country. Blood donors from different transfusion Centers were investigated in a pilot study.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, blood samples of 180...

  1. Role of mitochondria-associated hexokinase II in cancer cell death induced by 3-Bromopyruvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Weiqin; Huang, Peng

    2009-01-01

    Summary It has long been observed that cancer cells rely more on glycolysis to generate ATP and actively use certain glycolytic metabolic intermediates for biosynthesis. Hexokinase II (HKII) is a key glycolytic enzyme that plays a role in the regulation of the mitochondria-initiated apoptotic cell death. As a potent inhibitor of hexokinase, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) is known to inhibit cancer cell energy metabolism and trigger cell death, supposedly through depletion of cellular ATP. The current study showed that 3-BrPA caused a covalent modification of HKII protein and directly triggered its dissociation from mitochondria, leading to a specific release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria to cytosol and eventual cell death. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed a physical interaction between HKII and AIF. Using a competitive peptide of HKII, we showed that the dissociation of hexokinase II from mitochondria alone could cause apoptotic cell death, especially in the mitochondria-deficient ρ0 cells that highly express HKII. Interestingly, the dissociation of HKII itself did no directly affect the mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS generation, and oxidative phosphorylation. Our study suggests that the physical association between HKII and AIF is important for the normal localization of AIF in the mitochondria, and disruption of this protein complex by 3-BrPA leads to their release from the mitochondria and eventual cell death. PMID:19285479

  2. The diesel exhaust in miners study: II. Exposure monitoring surveys and development of exposure groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coble, J.B.; Stewart, P.A.; Vermeulen, R.; Yereb, D.; Stanevich, R.; Blair, A.; Silverman, D.T.; Attfield, M.

    2010-01-01

    Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a

  3. Linking a Medical User Survey to Management for Library Effectiveness: II, A Checkland Soft Systems Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brember, V. L.

    1985-01-01

    Presents Checkland's soft systems methodology, discusses it in terms of the systems approach, and illustrates how it was used to relate evidence of user survey to practical problems of library management. Difficulties in using methodology are described and implications for library management and information science research are presented. (8…

  4. The roles of EBR-II and TREAT [Transient Reactor Test] in establishing liquid metal reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.; Lehto, W.K.; Solbrig, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) and Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facilities in contributing to the understanding and resolution of key safety issues in liquid metal reactor safety during the decade of the 80's. Fuels and materials testing has been carried out to address questions on fuels behavior during steady-state and upset conditions. In addition, EBR-II has conducted plant tests to demonstrate passive response to ATWS events and to develop control and diagnostic strategies for safe operation of advanced LMRs. TREAT and EBR-II complement each other and between them provide a transient testing capability that covers the whole range of concerns during overpower conditions. EBR-II, with use of the special Automatic Control Rod Drive System, can generate power change rates that overlap the lower end of the TREAT capability. 21 refs

  5. Genetic factors and multiple sclerosis in the Moroccan population: a role for HLA class II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouadghiri, S; El Alaoui Toussi, K; Brick, C; Ait Benhaddou, E H; Benseffaj, N; Benomar, A; El Yahyaoui, M; Essakalli, M

    2013-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that mainly affects young adults. The association between susceptibility to MS and HLA class II genes, in particular the DRB1*15 allele, has been reported in diverse ethnic groups. The aim of our study was to investigate the distribution of HLA-DRB1* and -DQB1* alleles in Moroccan population and their implication in the susceptibility to the disease. Fifty-seven MS patients were compared to 172 healthy controls unrelated to one another and matched by age, sex and ethnic origin. HLA class II (DRB1* and DQB1*) typing was performed by PCR-SSP and/or Luminex (PCR-SSO). Allelic and haplotypic frequencies, P-values, odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the software SPSS. A significant increase of DRB1*15 allele frequency (17.6% vs 8.4%, OR=2.67, 95% CI=1.36-5.23, P=0.004) and HLA-DRB1*15-DQB1*06 haplotype (8.8% vs 4.08%, OR=2.78, 95% CI=1.41-5.48, P=0.002) were observed in Moroccan MS patients. No association of the DR15 allele with sex or age at onset was appreciated. Concerning HLA-DQB1* alleles, no significant difference between patients and controls was found. Our results reveal a role for HLA-DRB1*15 allele molecules in the predisposition of Moroccan patients to MS. Although this study should be confirmed on a larger sample size, it analyzes for the first time the possible role of a genetic marker for susceptibility to MS in Moroccan population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. AKARI INFRARED CAMERA SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke; Sakon, Itsuki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kawamura, Akiko; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2013-01-01

    We performed a near-infrared spectroscopic survey toward an area of ∼10 deg 2 of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the infrared satellite AKARI. Observations were carried out as part of the AKARI Large-area Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LSLMC). The slitless multi-object spectroscopic capability of the AKARI/IRC enabled us to obtain low-resolution (R ∼ 20) spectra in 2-5 μm for a large number of point sources in the LMC. As a result of the survey, we extracted about 2000 infrared spectra of point sources. The data are organized as a near-infrared spectroscopic catalog. The catalog includes various infrared objects such as young stellar objects (YSOs), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, supergiants, and so on. It is shown that 97% of the catalog sources have corresponding photometric data in the wavelength range from 1.2 to 11 μm, and 67% of the sources also have photometric data up to 24 μm. The catalog allows us to investigate near-infrared spectral features of sources by comparison with their infrared spectral energy distributions. In addition, it is estimated that about 10% of the catalog sources are observed at more than two different epochs. This enables us to study a spectroscopic variability of sources by using the present catalog. Initial results of source classifications for the LSLMC samples are presented. We classified 659 LSLMC spectra based on their near-infrared spectral features by visual inspection. As a result, it is shown that the present catalog includes 7 YSOs, 160 C-rich AGBs, 8 C-rich AGB candidates, 85 O-rich AGBs, 122 blue and yellow supergiants, 150 red super giants, and 128 unclassified sources. Distributions of the classified sources on the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are discussed in the text. Continuous wavelength coverage and high spectroscopic sensitivity in 2-5 μm can only be achieved by space observations. This is an unprecedented large-scale spectroscopic survey toward the LMC in the near

  7. DETERMINANTS OF TAX FAIRNESS PERCEPTION AND THE ROLE OF SELFINTEREST - RESULTS FROM TWO GERMAN SURVEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian E. Spiegel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses why citizens perceive a tax system as fair or unfair. We review the literature about tax fairness and tax preferences. From this literature, we extract the most common explanations for tax fairness perception. Most important are the topics of vertical and horizontal fairness, complexity and the discussion between the benefit and the ability-to-pay-principle. Within these topics, we deal also with very current topics like the controversy between capital and labor taxation or the affluence tax. To answer the questions how the tax fairness is perceived in Germany and what criteria are most useful to explain these attitudes, we conduct two surveys. One is a convenience sample, by the help of SoSciPanel a German online respondent pool, and the other is a student survey. Also, the role of self-interest in these aspects is addressed. Especially we want to shed light on the role of income expectations by the difference between the full population survey and the student survey, since the latter group is more homogenous in actual income.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LMC NIR Synoptic Survey. II. Wesenheit relations (Bhardwaj+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Kanbur, S. M.; Macri, L. M.; Singh, H. P.; Ngeow, C.-C.; Wagner-Kaiser, R.; Sarajedini, A.

    2018-03-01

    We make use of NIR mean magnitudes for 775 fundamental-mode and 474 first-overtone Cepheids in the LMC from Macri et al. 2015, J/AJ/149/117 (Paper I). These magnitudes are based on observations from a synoptic survey (average of 16 epochs) of the central region of the LMC using the CPAPIR camera at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory 1.5-m telescope between 2006 and 2007. Most of these Cepheid variables were previously studied in the optical V and I bands by the third phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-III) survey (Soszynski et al. 2008, J/AcA/58/163; Ulaczyk et al. 2013, J/AcA/63/159). The V and I band mean magnitudes are also compiled in Paper I. The calibration into the 2MASS photometric system, extinction corrections, and the adopted reddening law are discussed in detail in Paper I. (4 data files).

  9. Visual servoing in medical robotics: a survey. Part II: tomographic imaging modalities--techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mahdi; Najmaei, Nima; Khoshnam, Mahta; Patel, Rajni

    2015-03-01

    Intraoperative application of tomographic imaging techniques provides a means of visual servoing for objects beneath the surface of organs. The focus of this survey is on therapeutic and diagnostic medical applications where tomographic imaging is used in visual servoing. To this end, a comprehensive search of the electronic databases was completed for the period 2000-2013. Existing techniques and products are categorized and studied, based on the imaging modality and their medical applications. This part complements Part I of the survey, which covers visual servoing techniques using endoscopic imaging and direct vision. The main challenges in using visual servoing based on tomographic images have been identified. 'Supervised automation of medical robotics' is found to be a major trend in this field and ultrasound is the most commonly used tomographic modality for visual servoing. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Defining the Simulation Technician Role: Results of a Survey-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rachel; Taylor, Regina G; FitzGerald, Michael R; Kerrey, Benjamin T; LeMaster, Thomas; Geis, Gary L

    2015-10-01

    In health care simulation, simulation technicians perform multiple tasks to support various educational offerings. Technician responsibilities and the tasks that accompany them seem to vary between centers. The objectives were to identify the range and frequency of tasks that technicians perform and to determine if there is a correspondence between what technicians do and what they feel their responsibilities should be. We hypothesized that there is a core set of responsibilities and tasks for the technician position regardless of background, experience, and type of simulation center. We conducted a prospective, survey-based study of individuals currently functioning in a simulation technician role in a simulation center. This survey was designed internally and piloted within 3 academic simulation centers. Potential respondents were identified through a national mailing list, and the survey was distributed electronically during a 3-week period. A survey request was sent to 280 potential participants, 136 (49%) responded, and 73 met inclusion criteria. Five core tasks were identified as follows: equipment setup and breakdown, programming scenarios into software, operation of software during simulation, audiovisual support for courses, and on-site simulator maintenance. Independent of background before they were hired, technicians felt unprepared for their role once taking the position. Formal training was identified as a need; however, the majority of technicians felt experience over time was the main contributor toward developing knowledge and skills within their role. This study represents a first step in defining the technician role within simulation-based education and supports the need for the development of a formal job description to allow recruitment, development, and certification.

  11. The infrared medium-deep survey. II. How to trigger radio AGNs? Hints from their environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin [CEOU—Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Chapman, Scott [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Pak, Soojong [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Edge, Alastair, E-mail: mkarouzos@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-10

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ∼25 deg{sup 2} and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (M{sub u} – M{sub r} ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  12. Test program element II blanket and shield thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing, experimental facility survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1981-12-01

    This report presents results of a survey conducted by EG and G Idaho to determine facilities available to conduct thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program. In response to EG and G queries, twelve organizations (in addition to EG and G and General Atomic) expressed interest in providing experimental facilities. A variety of methods of supplying heat is available

  13. Mammalian Survey Techniques for Level II Natural Resource Inventories on Corps of Engineers Projects (Part 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    sheep (Ovis dalli dalli), mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) and other hoofed animals are often surveyed using aerial counts from fixed-wing...Society Bulletin 34:69-73. Hilty, J. A., and A. M. Merenlender. 2004. Use of riparian corridors and vineyards by mammalian preda- tors in northern...Witmer, and R. M. Engeman. 2004. Feral swine impacts on agriculture and the environment. Sheep and Goat Research Journal 19:34-40. Slade, N. A., and

  14. Test program element II blanket and shield thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing, experimental facility survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, A.G.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1981-12-01

    This report presents results of a survey conducted by EG and G Idaho to determine facilities available to conduct thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program. In response to EG and G queries, twelve organizations (in addition to EG and G and General Atomic) expressed interest in providing experimental facilities. A variety of methods of supplying heat is available.

  15. A selection of hot subluminous stars in the GALEX survey - II. Subdwarf atmospheric parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Németh, Péter; Kawka, Adela; Vennes, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 427, č. 3 (2012), s. 2180-2211 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300030908; GA AV ČR IAA301630901; GA ČR GAP209/10/0967 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : catalogues * surveys * abundance Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.521, year: 2012

  16. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULAE. II. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T., E-mail: mkpresco@physics.ucsb.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Using a systematic broadband search technique, we have carried out a survey for large Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} {sup b}lobs{sup )} at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within 8.5 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field, corresponding to a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h {sup -3} {sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}. Here, we present our spectroscopic observations of candidate giant Ly{alpha} nebulae. Of 26 candidates targeted, 5 were confirmed to have Ly{alpha} emission at 1.7 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.7, 4 of which were new discoveries. The confirmed Ly{alpha} nebulae span a range of Ly{alpha} equivalent widths, colors, sizes, and line ratios, and most show spatially extended continuum emission. The remaining candidates did not reveal any strong emission lines, but instead exhibit featureless, diffuse, blue continuum spectra. Their nature remains mysterious, but we speculate that some of these might be Ly{alpha} nebulae lying within the redshift desert (i.e., 1.2 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.6). Our spectroscopic follow-up confirms the power of using deep broadband imaging to search for the bright end of the Ly{alpha} nebula population across enormous comoving volumes.

  17. The role of metals in production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species in photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospíšil, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    Metal ions play a crucial role in enzymatic reactions in all photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria, algae and plants. It well known that metal ions maintain the binding of substrate in the active site of the metalloenzymes and control the redox activity of the metalloenzyme in the enzymatic reaction. A large pigment-protein complex, PSII, known to serve as a water-plastoquinone oxidoreductase, contains three metal centers comprising non-heme iron, heme iron of Cyt b559 and the water-splitting manganese complex. Metal ions bound to PSII proteins maintain the electron transport from water to plastoquinone and regulate the pro-oxidant and antioxidant activity in PSII. In this review, attention is focused on the role of PSII metal centers in (i) the formation of superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals by sequential one-electron reduction of molecular oxygen and the formation of hydrogen peroxide by incomplete two-electron oxidation of water; and (ii) the elimination of superoxide anion radical by one-electron oxidation and reduction (superoxide dismutase activity) and of hydrogen peroxide by two-electron oxidation and reduction (catalase activity). The balance between the formation and elimination of reactive oxygen species by PSII metal centers is discussed as an important aspect in the prevention of photo-oxidative damage of PSII proteins and lipids. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The regulatory role of the Hungarian Geological Survey in the closure of Mecsek uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamor, T.; Gombor, L.

    2001-01-01

    Under Mining Act XLIII established in 1993, the Hungarian Geological Survey was given a wide range of authority related to the environment, mining, nuclear and general constructions. In implementing these task the Survey will be supported by the well established Geological Institute of Hungary and the Eoetvoes Lorand Geophysical Institute. The Survey's role in the nuclear field includes the licensing of plans and reports on geologically related research to any nuclear facilities. The Hungarian Geological Survey is also co-authority on matters related to the establishment, construction, modification and closure, environmental protection of nuclear facilities in general and all matter related to uranium mining. The Survey's regulatory activity in radioactive waste management follows the Decree of the Minister of Industry and Tourism 62/1997 which is based on the Atomic Energy Act CXVI of 1966. These regulations were prepared in harmony with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency conventions, standards and guides and those of other countries. Case histories on the applications of these regulations to the closure of Mecsek uranium mine and the operation of the research laboratory tunnel for long-lived, high level radioactive waste are presented here. (author)

  19. Fungal oxidative dissolution of the Mn(II)-bearing mineral rhodochrosite and the role of metabolites in manganese oxide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanzhi; Zeiner, Carolyn A; Santelli, Cara M; Hansel, Colleen M

    2013-04-01

    Microbially mediated oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides influences the cycling of metals and remineralization of carbon. Despite the prevalence of Mn(II)-bearing minerals in nature, little is known regarding the ability of microbes to oxidize mineral-hosted Mn(II). Here, we explored oxidation of the Mn(II)-bearing mineral rhodochrosite (MnCO3 ) and characteristics of ensuing Mn oxides by six Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi. All fungal species substantially enhanced rhodochrosite dissolution and surface modification. Mineral-hosted Mn(II) was oxidized resulting in formation of Mn(III/IV) oxides that were all similar to δ-MnO2 but varied in morphology and distribution in relation to cellular structures and the MnCO3 surface. For four fungi, Mn(II) oxidation occurred along hyphae, likely mediated by cell wall-associated proteins. For two species, Mn(II) oxidation occurred via reaction with fungal-derived superoxide produced at hyphal tips. This pathway ultimately resulted in structurally unique Mn oxide clusters formed at substantial distances from any cellular structure. Taken together, findings for these two fungi strongly point to a role for fungal-derived organic molecules in Mn(III) complexation and Mn oxide templation. Overall, this study illustrates the importance of fungi in rhodochrosite dissolution, extends the relevance of biogenic superoxide-based Mn(II) oxidation and highlights the potential role of mycogenic exudates in directing mineral precipitation. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. THE GALACTIC O-STAR SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY (GOSSS). II. BRIGHT SOUTHERN STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sota, A.; Apellániz, J. Maíz; Alfaro, E. J.; Morrell, N. I.; Barbá, R. H.; Arias, J. I.; Walborn, N. R.; Gamen, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present the second installment of GOSSS, a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R ∼ 2500 digital observations from both hemispheres selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog (GOSC). In this paper we include bright stars and other objects drawn mostly from the first version of GOSC, all of them south of δ = –20°, for a total number of 258 O stars. We also revise the northern sample of Paper I to provide the full list of spectroscopically classified Galactic O stars complete to B = 8, bringing the total number of published GOSSS stars to 448. Extensive sequences of exceptional objects are given, including the early Of/WN, O Iafpe, Ofc, ON/OC, Onfp, Of?p, and Oe types, as well as double/triple-lined spectroscopic binaries. The new spectral subtype O9.2 is also discussed. The magnitude and spatial distributions of the observed sample are analyzed. We also present new results from OWN, a multi-epoch high-resolution spectroscopic survey coordinated with GOSSS that is assembling the largest sample of Galactic spectroscopic massive binaries ever attained. The OWN data combined with additional information on spectroscopic and visual binaries from the literature indicate that only a very small fraction (if any) of the stars with masses above 15-20 M ☉ are born as single systems. In the future we will publish the rest of the GOSSS survey, which is expected to include over 1000 Galactic O stars

  1. The Dubai Community Psychiatric Survey: II. Development of the Socio-cultural Change Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebbington, P; Ghubash, R; Hamdi, E

    1993-04-01

    The Dubai Community Psychiatric Survey was carried out to assess the effect of very rapid social change on the mental health of women in Dubai, one of the United Arab Emirates. In order to measure social change at an individual level, we developed a questionnaire covering behaviour and attitudes in a wide range of situations, the Socio-cultural Change Questionnaire (ScCQ). In this paper we give an account of the considerations that determined the form of the ScCQ, its structural characteristics, and its validity.

  2. The Chandra planetary nebula survey (CHANPLANS). II. X-ray emission from compact planetary nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, M.; Kastner, J. H. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Montez, R. Jr. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Frew, D. J.; De Marco, O.; Parker, Q. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Macquarie Research Centre for Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Jones, D. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Atacama, Copayapu 485, Copiapó (Chile); Miszalski, B. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory, 7935 (South Africa); Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Blackman, E.; Frank, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Chu, Y.-H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Guerrero, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, Granada, E-18008 (Spain); Lopez, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 22860, Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico); Zijlstra, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bujarrabal, V. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Corradi, R. L. M. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nordhaus, J. [NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Fellow, Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); and others

    2014-10-20

    We present results from the most recent set of observations obtained as part of the Chandra X-ray observatory Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS), the first comprehensive X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood (i.e., within ∼1.5 kpc of the Sun). The survey is designed to place constraints on the frequency of appearance and range of X-ray spectral characteristics of X-ray-emitting PN central stars and the evolutionary timescales of wind-shock-heated bubbles within PNe. CHANPLANS began with a combined Cycle 12 and archive Chandra survey of 35 PNe. CHANPLANS continued via a Chandra Cycle 14 Large Program which targeted all (24) remaining known compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.4 pc), young PNe that lie within ∼1.5 kpc. Results from these Cycle 14 observations include first-time X-ray detections of hot bubbles within NGC 1501, 3918, 6153, and 6369, and point sources in HbDs 1, NGC 6337, and Sp 1. The addition of the Cycle 14 results brings the overall CHANPLANS diffuse X-ray detection rate to ∼27% and the point source detection rate to ∼36%. It has become clearer that diffuse X-ray emission is associated with young (≲ 5 × 10{sup 3} yr), and likewise compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.15 pc), PNe with closed structures and high central electron densities (n{sub e} ≳ 1000 cm{sup –3}), and is rarely associated with PNe that show H{sub 2} emission and/or pronounced butterfly structures. Hb 5 is one such exception of a PN with a butterfly structure that hosts diffuse X-ray emission. Additionally, two of the five new diffuse X-ray detections (NGC 1501 and NGC 6369) host [WR]-type central stars, supporting the hypothesis that PNe with central stars of [WR]-type are likely to display diffuse X-ray emission.

  3. ONLINE PORNOGRAPHY AND SEXUALITY: SOME RESULTS OF EU KIDS ONLINE SURVEY II IN THE ROMANIAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA MARINESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article intends to analyze the exposure of Romanian children and teens to sexually explicit message and the so-called „sexting” activities they perform in the online environment. The main research topic to which we try to find some answers is: are young people more exposed to risks because they view sexually explicit content online and send sexual messages to others? Our results validate the risk migration hypothesis, the blurring boundaries between the online and offline worlds enabling the migration of risk from the real world to the internet and the reverse. At the same time, the date of EU Kinds Online II validate the vulnerability hypothesis, according to which the harm declared by the children following the exposure to sexually explicit images and the receiving the sexual messages is the result of their socio-demographic vulnerabilities

  4. Measures of gender role attitudes under revision: The example of the German General Social Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jessica Gabriele

    2018-05-01

    Using the example of the German General Social Survey, this study describes how measures of gender role attitudes can be revised. To date measures have focused on the traditional male breadwinner model. However, social developments in female labor force participation, education, and family structure suggest that a revision and adjustment of existing measures are required. First, these measures need to be supplemented with items that represent more egalitarian models of division of labor and the role of the father in the family. Second, the phrasing of existing items needs to be revised. The results of this study indicate that especially regarding the amount of working hours and the age of children, a specification is needed. This study presents a revised measure, to facilitate analyses over time. This revised measure represents two factors: one referring to traditional and one to modern gender role attitudes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Brazil Geological Basic Survey Program - Ponte Nova - Sheet SF.23-X-B-II - Minas Gerais State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandalise, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The present report refers to the Ponte Nova Sheet (SF.23-X-B-II) systematic geological mapping, on the 1:100.000 scale. The Sheet covers the Zona da Mata region, Minas Gerais State, in the Mantiqueira Geotectonic Province, to the eastern part of Sao Francisco Geotectonic Province, as defined in the project. The high grade metamorphic rocks to low amphibolite, occurring in the area were affected by a marked low angle shearing transposition, and show diphtheritic effects. Archaean to Proterozoic ages are attributed to the metamorphites mostly by comparison to similar types of the region. Three deformed events were registered in the region. Analysis of the crustal evolution pattern based on geological mapping, laboratorial analyses, gravimetric and air magnetometry data, and available geochronologic data is given in the 6. Chapter, Part II, in the text. Major element oxides, trace-elements, and rare-earths elements were analysed to establish parameters for the rocks environment elucidation. Geochemical survey was carried out with base on pan concentrated and stream sediments distributed throughout the Sheet. Gneisses quarries (industrial rocks) in full exploration activity have been registered, as well as sand and clay deposits employed in construction industry. Metallogenetic/Provisional analysis points out the area as a favorable one for gold prospection. (author)

  6. Deep Chandra Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud. II. Timing Analysis of X-Ray Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, JaeSub; Antoniou, Vallia; Zezas, Andreas; Drake, Jeremy J.; Plucinsky, Paul P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Haberl, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbach straße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sasaki, Manami [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Sternwartstrasse 7, 96049 Bamberg (Germany); Laycock, Silas, E-mail: jaesub@head.cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We report the timing analysis results of X-ray pulsars from a recent deep Chandra survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We analyzed a total exposure of 1.4 Ms from 31 observations over a 1.2 deg{sup 2} region in the SMC under a Chandra X-ray Visionary Program. Using the Lomb–Scargle and epoch-folding techniques, we detected periodic modulations from 20 pulsars and a new candidate pulsar. The survey also covered 11 other pulsars with no clear sign of periodic modulation. The 0.5–8 keV X-ray luminosity ( L {sub X} ) of the pulsars ranges from 10{sup 34} to 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1} at 60 kpc. All of the Chandra sources with L {sub X} ≳ 4 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup −1} exhibit X-ray pulsations. The X-ray spectra of the SMC pulsars (and high-mass X-ray binaries) are in general harder than those of the SMC field population. All but SXP 8.02 can be fitted by an absorbed power-law model with a photon index of Γ ≲ 1.5. The X-ray spectrum of the known magnetar SXP 8.02 is better fitted with a two-temperature blackbody model. Newly measured pulsation periods of SXP 51.0, SXP 214, and SXP 701, are significantly different from the previous XMM-Newton and RXTE measurements. This survey provides a rich data set for energy-dependent pulse profile modeling. Six pulsars show an almost eclipse-like dip in the pulse profile. Phase-resolved spectral analysis reveals diverse spectral variations during pulsation cycles: e.g., for an absorbed power-law model, some exhibit an (anti)-correlation between absorption and X-ray flux, while others show more intrinsic spectral variation (i.e., changes in photon indices).

  7. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. II. DATA DESCRIPTION AND SOURCE CATALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, Derek; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Hoyos, Carlos; Balcells, Marc; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Jogee, Shardha; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers ∼50% of the core high-density region in Coma. Observations were performed for 25 fields that extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (∼1.75 Mpc or 1 0 ) with a total coverage area of 274 arcmin 2 . The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the southwest region of the cluster. In this paper, we present reprocessed images and SEXTRACTOR source catalogs for our survey fields, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for ∼73,000 unique objects; approximately one-half of our detections are brighter than the 10σ point-source detection limit at F814W = 25.8 mag (AB). The slight majority of objects (60%) are unresolved or only marginally resolved by ACS. We estimate that Coma members are 5%-10% of all source detections, which consist of a large population of unresolved compact sources (primarily globular clusters but also ultra-compact dwarf galaxies) and a wide variety of extended galaxies from a cD galaxy to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The red sequence of Coma member galaxies has a color-magnitude relation with a constant slope and dispersion over 9 mag (-21 F814W < -13). The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in 2008 August. The images and catalogs described

  8. Civilians in World War II and DSM-IV mental disorders: Results from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E.; Betancourt, Theresa S.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G.; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G.; Have, Margreet ten; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Methods Adults (n= 3,370)who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Results Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders. (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Conclusions Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders. PMID:29119266

  9. Civilians in World War II and DSM-IV mental disorders: results from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E; Betancourt, Theresa S; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G; Ten Have, Margreet; Kessler, Ronald C

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Adults (n = 3370) who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders.

  10. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume II. Inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, R.F. III; Sharma, R.K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 33 power plants located on inland waters other than the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV

  11. QUEST1 Variability Survey. II. Variability Determination Criteria and 200k Light Curve Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengstorf, A. W.; Mufson, S. L.; Andrews, P.; Honeycutt, R. K.; Vivas, A. K.; Abad, C.; Adams, B.; Bailyn, C.; Baltay, C.; Bongiovanni, A.; Briceño, C.; Bruzual, G.; Coppi, P.; Della Prugna, F.; Emmet, W.; Ferrín, I.; Fuenmayor, F.; Gebhard, M.; Hernández, J.; Magris, G.; Musser, J.; Naranjo, O.; Oemler, A.; Rosenzweig, P.; Sabbey, C. N.; Sánchez, Ge.; Sánchez, Gu.; Schaefer, B.; Schenner, H.; Sinnott, J.; Snyder, J. A.; Sofia, S.; Stock, J.; van Altena, W.

    2004-12-01

    The QUEST (QUasar Equatorial Survey Team) Phase 1 camera has collected multibandpass photometry on a large strip of high Galactic latitude sky over a period of 26 months. This robust data set has been reduced and nightly catalogs compared to determine the photometric variability of the ensemble objects. Subsequent spectroscopic observations have confirmed a subset of the photometric variables as quasars, as previously reported. This paper reports on the details of the data reduction and analysis pipeline and presents multiple bandpass light curves for 198,213 QUEST1 objects, along with global variability information and matched Sloan photometry. Based on observations obtained at the Llano del Hato National Astronomical Observatory, operated by the Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía for the Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia of Venezuela.

  12. The California- Kepler Survey. II. Precise Physical Properties of 2025 Kepler Planets and Their Host Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, John Asher; Cargile, Phillip A.; Sinukoff, Evan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Petigura, Erik A.; Howard, Andrew W. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States); Fulton, Benjamin J.; Hirsch, Lea A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hebb, Leslie [Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States); Morton, Timothy D.; Winn, Joshua N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Weiss, Lauren M. [Institut de Recherche sur les Exoplanètes, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada); Rogers, Leslie A., E-mail: petigura@caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We present stellar and planetary properties for 1305 Kepler Objects of Interest hosting 2025 planet candidates observed as part of the California- Kepler Survey. We combine spectroscopic constraints, presented in Paper I, with stellar interior modeling to estimate stellar masses, radii, and ages. Stellar radii are typically constrained to 11%, compared to 40% when only photometric constraints are used. Stellar masses are constrained to 4%, and ages are constrained to 30%. We verify the integrity of the stellar parameters through comparisons with asteroseismic studies and Gaia parallaxes. We also recompute planetary radii for 2025 planet candidates. Because knowledge of planetary radii is often limited by uncertainties in stellar size, we improve the uncertainties in planet radii from typically 42% to 12%. We also leverage improved knowledge of stellar effective temperature to recompute incident stellar fluxes for the planets, now precise to 21%, compared to a factor of two when derived from photometry.

  13. Redshifts for fainter galaxies in the first CfA survey slice. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Gary; Thorstensen, John R.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1990-01-01

    Redshifts were measured for 96 galaxies in right ascension alpha between 8h and 17h declination delta between 30 and 31 deg, and with m(Zwicky) in the range 15.6-15.7. These correspond to 94 of the 96 entries in the Zwicky-Nilson merged catalog. The declination range delta between 29 deg and 31 deg is now complete to m(Zwicky) = 15.7. The structures in the first 6-deg-wide slice of the Center for Astrophysics redshift survey slice (delta between 26.5 and 32.5 deg are clearly defined in the 2-deg-wide slightly deeper sample; the fainter galaxies trace the structures defined by the brighter ones.

  14. Shocked POststarburst Galaxy Survey. II. The Molecular Gas Content and Properties of a Subset of SPOGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Lisenfeld, Ute; Lanz, Lauranne; Appleton, Philip N.; Ardila, Felipe; Cales, Sabrina L.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Lacy, Mark; Medling, Anne M.; Nyland, Kristina; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Urry, C. Meg

    2016-08-01

    We present CO(1-0) observations of objects within the Shocked POststarburst Galaxy Survey taken with the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique 30 m single dish and the Combined Array for Research for Millimeter Astronomy interferometer. Shocked poststarburst galaxies (SPOGs) represent a transitioning population of galaxies, with deep Balmer absorption ({{EW}}{{H}δ }\\gt 5 {\\mathring{{A}}} ), consistent with an intermediate-age (A-star) stellar population, and ionized gas line ratios inconsistent with pure star formation. The CO(1-0) subsample was selected from SPOGs detected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with 22 μm flux detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 3. Of the 52 objects observed in CO(1-0), 47 are detected with S/N > 3. A large fraction (37%-46% ± 7%) of our CO-SPOG sample were visually classified as morphologically disrupted. The H2 masses detected were between {10}8.7-10.8 {M}⊙ , consistent with the gas masses found in normal galaxies, though approximately an order of magnitude larger than the range seen in poststarburst galaxies. When comparing the 22 μm and CO(1-0) fluxes, SPOGs diverge from the normal star-forming relation, having 22 μm fluxes in excess of the relation by a factor of ={4.91}-0.39+0.42, suggestive of the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The Na I D characteristics of CO-SPOGs show that it is likely that many of these objects host interstellar winds. Objects with large Na I D enhancements also tend to emit in the radio, suggesting possible AGN driving of neutral winds.

  15. THE SWIFT AGN AND CLUSTER SURVEY. II. CLUSTER CONFIRMATION WITH SDSS DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, Rhiannon D.; Dai, Xinyu; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2016-01-01

    We study 203 (of 442) Swift AGN and Cluster Survey extended X-ray sources located in the SDSS DR8 footprint to search for galaxy over-densities in three-dimensional space using SDSS galaxy photometric redshifts and positions near the Swift cluster candidates. We find 104 Swift clusters with a >3σ galaxy over-density. The remaining targets are potentially located at higher redshifts and require deeper optical follow-up observations for confirmation as galaxy clusters. We present a series of cluster properties including the redshift, brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) magnitude, BCG-to-X-ray center offset, optical richness, and X-ray luminosity. We also detect red sequences in ∼85% of the 104 confirmed clusters. The X-ray luminosity and optical richness for the SDSS confirmed Swift clusters are correlated and follow previously established relations. The distribution of the separations between the X-ray centroids and the most likely BCG is also consistent with expectation. We compare the observed redshift distribution of the sample with a theoretical model, and find that our sample is complete for z ≲ 0.3 and is still 80% complete up to z ≃ 0.4, consistent with the SDSS survey depth. These analysis results suggest that our Swift cluster selection algorithm has yielded a statistically well-defined cluster sample for further study of cluster evolution and cosmology. We also match our SDSS confirmed Swift clusters to existing cluster catalogs, and find 42, 23, and 1 matches in optical, X-ray, and Sunyaev–Zel’dovich catalogs, respectively, and so the majority of these clusters are new detections

  16. Differential roles of phase I and phase II enzymes in 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine-induced cytotoxicity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antolino Lobo, I.; Meulenbelt, J.; Nijmeijer, S.M.; Scherpenisse, P.; van den Berg, M.; van Duursen, M.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolism plays an important role in the toxic effects caused by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Most research has focused on the involvement of CYP2D6 enzyme in MDMA bioactivation, and less is known about the contribution of other cytochrome P450 (P450) and phase II metabolism. In this

  17. Black Hole Mass Estimation in Type 1 AGN: Hβ vs. Mg II Lines and the Role of Balmer Continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovačević-Dojčinović, Jelena [Astronomical Observatory, Belgrade (Serbia); Marčeta-Mandić, Sladjana; Popović, Luka Č., E-mail: sladjana@aob.rs [Astronomical Observatory, Belgrade (Serbia); Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2017-07-24

    Here we investigate the Hβ and Mg II spectral line parameters used for the black hole mass (M{sub BH}) estimation for a sample of Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) spectra selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database. We have analyzed and compared the virialization of the Hβ and Mg II emission lines, and found that the Hβ line is more confident virial estimator than Mg II. We have investigated the influence of the Balmer continuum emission to the M{sub BH} estimation from the UV parameters, and found that the Balmer continuum emission can contribute to the overestimation of the M{sub BH} on average for ~5% (up to 10%).

  18. Graduate-Assistant Athletic Trainers' Perceptions of the Supervisor's Role in Professional Socialization: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Ashley B; Walker, Stacy E; Hankemeier, Dorice A; Mulvihill, Thalia

    2016-10-01

    Many new athletic trainers (ATs) obtain graduate-assistant (GA) positions to gain more experience and professional development while being mentored by a veteran AT; however, GA ATs' perceptions of the supervisor's role in professional development are unknown. To explore the supervisor's role in the professional development of GAs in the collegiate setting. Qualitative study. Phone interviews. A total of 19 collegiate GAs (15 women, 4 men; average age = 23 ± 0.15 years; National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I = 13, II = 3, III = 2; National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics = 2; postprofessional athletic training program = 5). Data were collected via phone interviews and transcribed verbatim. Interviews were conducted until data saturation occurred. Data were analyzed through phenomenologic reduction. Trustworthiness was established via member checks and peer review. Three themes emerged: (1) GAs' expectations of supervisors, (2) professional development, and (3) mentoring and support. Participants expected their supervisors to provide mentorship, support, and feedback to help them improve their athletic training skills, but they also realized supervisors were busy with patient care responsibilities. Most participants felt their supervisors were available, but others believed their supervisors were too busy to provide support and feedback. Participants felt their supervisors provided professional development by teaching them new skills and socializing them into the profession. Furthermore, they thought their supervisors provided mentorship professionally, personally, and clinically. Supervisors supported the participants by standing behind them in clinical decisions and having open-door policies. The graduate assistantship allows new ATs to gain experience while pursuing professional development, mentorship, and support from a supervisor. The extent of development is highly dependent on the supervisor, but most supervisors mentor GAs. When

  19. THE ROLE OF CULTURAL CHANGES IN INTERGENERATIONAL CONFLICTS IN ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES: A SURVEY AIMED AT ACADEMICIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sena ERDEN AYHÜN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of change in the cultural structure brought about differences in values, beliefs and behavior in the social structure. The fact that the phenomenon of change is not acknowledged by adult generations, the inability to understand the behaviors of new generations brings about the possibility of conflicts between new and adult generations. The conflicts that individuals primarily experience in the family environment also manifest themselves when they are beginning to work within an institution. Many theoretical-based studies in the literature show that conflicts that occur during generations may be related to cultural changes. In the study, it was tried to determine whether the X generation academicians working at the universities had experienced conflict with the Y generation of the younger generation. In addition, the Y generation academics were investigated whether they lived in conflict with the elderly generations, named  X generation,, Baby Boomers generation and silent generation. In addition in the survey; the relation between the avoidance of variables measuring the cultural dimensions and uncertainty, power distance, collectivism I, collectivism II, assertiveness, gender segregation, being orientation for future and performance, differentiations in humanistic approach and intergenerational conflicts are searched. Data are collected over the web sites by survey method, face to face meeting and via fax and 428 applicable interview results have been provided.  In the analysis of the data, the structural equality model was utilized. As a result of the analyzes made; It has been determined that the X generation is rarely conflict with Y generation, the Y generation is rarely conflict with X generation, Baby Boomers generation and silent generation. Collectivism II and performance orientation and relation of intergenerational conflicts has been found in reverse direction where the relation of intergenerational conflicts with

  20. Type II Natural Killer T (NKT) Cells And Their Emerging Role In Health And Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhodapkar, Madhav V.; Kumar, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells recognize lipid antigens presented by a class I MHC-like molecule CD1d, a member of the CD1 family. While most of the initial studies on NKT cells focused on a subset with semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) termed iNKT cells, majority of CD1d-restricted lipid-reactive human T cells express diverse TCRs and are termed as type II NKT cells. These cells constitute a distinct population of circulating and tissue-resident effector T cells with immune-regulatory properties. They react to a growing list of self- as well as non-self lipid ligands, and share some properties with both iNKT as well as conventional T cells. Emerging body of evidence points to their role in the regulation of immunity to pathogens/tumors and in autoimmune/metabolic disorders. Improved understanding of the biology of these cells and the ability to manipulate their function may be of therapeutic benefit in diverse disease conditions. PMID:28115591

  1. Type II NKT Cells and Their Emerging Role in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhodapkar, Madhav V; Kumar, Vipin

    2017-02-01

    NKT cells recognize lipid Ags presented by a class I MHC-like molecule CD1d, a member of the CD1 family. Although most initial studies on NKT cells focused on a subset with semi-invariant TCR termed invariant NKT cells, the majority of CD1d-restricted lipid-reactive human T cells express diverse TCRs and are termed type II NKT cells. These cells constitute a distinct population of circulating and tissue-resident effector T cells with immune-regulatory properties. They react to a growing list of self- as well as non-self-lipid ligands, and share some properties with both invariant NKT and conventional T cells. An emerging body of evidence points to their role in the regulation of immunity to pathogens/tumors and in autoimmune/metabolic disorders. An improved understanding of the biology of these cells and the ability to manipulate their function may be of therapeutic benefit in diverse disease conditions. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. THE LESSER ROLE OF SHEAR IN GALACTIC STAR FORMATION: INSIGHT FROM THE GALACTIC RING SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, Sami; Dariush, Ali [Astrophysics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Helou, George [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Moore, Toby J. T. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Urquhart, James S., E-mail: s.dib@imperial.ac.uk [Max-Planck Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-10-20

    We analyze the role played by shear in regulating star formation in the Galaxy on the scale of individual molecular clouds. The clouds are selected from the {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 line of the Galactic Ring Survey. For each cloud, we estimate the shear parameter which describes the ability of density perturbations to grow within the cloud. We find that for almost all molecular clouds considered, there is no evidence that shear is playing a significant role in opposing the effects of self-gravity. We also find that the shear parameter of the clouds does not depend on their position in the Galaxy. Furthermore, we find no correlations between the shear parameter of the clouds with several indicators of their star formation activity. No significant correlation is found between the shear parameter and the star formation efficiency of the clouds which is measured using the ratio of the massive young stellar objects luminosities, measured in the Red MSX survey, to the cloud mass. There are also no significant correlations between the shear parameter and the fraction of their mass that is found in denser clumps which is a proxy for their clump formation efficiency, nor with their level of fragmentation expressed in the number of clumps per unit mass. Our results strongly suggest that shear is playing only a minor role in affecting the rates and efficiencies at which molecular clouds convert their gas into dense cores and thereafter into stars.

  3. THE LESSER ROLE OF SHEAR IN GALACTIC STAR FORMATION: INSIGHT FROM THE GALACTIC RING SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dib, Sami; Dariush, Ali; Helou, George; Moore, Toby J. T.; Urquhart, James S.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the role played by shear in regulating star formation in the Galaxy on the scale of individual molecular clouds. The clouds are selected from the 13 CO J = 1-0 line of the Galactic Ring Survey. For each cloud, we estimate the shear parameter which describes the ability of density perturbations to grow within the cloud. We find that for almost all molecular clouds considered, there is no evidence that shear is playing a significant role in opposing the effects of self-gravity. We also find that the shear parameter of the clouds does not depend on their position in the Galaxy. Furthermore, we find no correlations between the shear parameter of the clouds with several indicators of their star formation activity. No significant correlation is found between the shear parameter and the star formation efficiency of the clouds which is measured using the ratio of the massive young stellar objects luminosities, measured in the Red MSX survey, to the cloud mass. There are also no significant correlations between the shear parameter and the fraction of their mass that is found in denser clumps which is a proxy for their clump formation efficiency, nor with their level of fragmentation expressed in the number of clumps per unit mass. Our results strongly suggest that shear is playing only a minor role in affecting the rates and efficiencies at which molecular clouds convert their gas into dense cores and thereafter into stars.

  4. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; Den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of a HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially-completed survey still covers approximately 50% of the core high density region in Coma. Observations were performed for twenty-five fields with a total coverage area of 274 aremin(sup 2), and extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (approximately 1.75 Mpe or 1 deg). The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the south-west region of the cluster. In this paper we present SEXTRACTOR source catalogs generated from the processed images, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for 76,000 objects that consist of roughly equal numbers of extended galaxies and unresolved objects. Approximately two-thirds of all detections are brighter than F814W=26.5 mag (AB), which corresponds to the 10sigma, point-source detection limit. We estimate that Coma members are 5-10% of the source detections, including a large population of compact objects (primarily GCs, but also cEs and UCDs), and a wide variety of extended galaxies from cD galaxies to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in August 2008. The images and catalogs described in this study relate to our second data release.

  5. Association between drug use and urban violence: Data from the II Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey (BNADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rigacci Abdalla

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the association of alcohol and cocaine use with urban violence (both as victim and as perpetrator in a representative sample of the Brazilian population. Method: The Second Brazilian Alcohol and Drugs Survey (II BNADS interviewed 4607 individuals aged 14years and older from the Brazilian household population including an oversample of 1157 adolescents (14 to 18years old. The survey gathered information on alcohol, tobacco and illegal substances use as well as on risk factors for abuse and dependence, behaviors associated with the use of substances and the possible consequences, as urban violence indicators. Results: Approximately 9.3% of the Brazilian population has been victim of at least one form of urban violence. This proportion increases to 19.7% among cocaine users and to 18.1% among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD. Perpetration of violence was reported by 6.2% of the sample. Cocaine use and AUD increased in almost four times the chances of being an aggressor. Being religious and married decreased the chances of being a victim and/or perpetrador of urban violence. Higher education also decreased the chances of involvement in both victimization or perpetration of violence. Both Parallel Mediation Models considering cocaine use as a predictor of urban violence (victimization or perpetration were valid and alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms were mediators of this relationship. Conclusions: This study presents relevant data of interest to Brazil as this country is one of the major consumer market of cocaine and also is among the most violent countries worldwide. Keywords: Urban violence, Cocaine, Alcohol use disorder, Household survey, Epidemiology

  6. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume II. Appendix, Task I, literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This activity was begun with the assembly of information from Parsons' files and from contacts in the development and commercial fields. A further more extensive literature search was carried out using the Energy Data Base and the American Petroleum Institute Data Base. These are part of the DOE/RECON system. Approximately 6000 references and abstracts were obtained from the EDB search. These were reviewed and the especially pertinent documents, approximately 300, were acquired in the form of paper copy or microfiche. A Fuel Properties form was developed for listing information pertinent to gas turbine liquid fuel properties specifications. Fuel properties data for liquid fuels from selected synfuel processes, deemed to be successful candidates for near future commercial plants were tabulated on the forms. The processes selected consisted of H-Coal, SRC-II and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal liquefaction processes plus Paraho and Tosco shale oil processes. Fuel properties analyses for crude and distillate syncrude process products are contained in Section 2. Analyses representing synthetic fuels given refinery treatments, mostly bench scale hydrotreating, are contained in Section 3. Section 4 discusses gas turbine fuel specifications based on petroleum source fuels as developed by the major gas turbine manufacturers. Section 5 presents the on-site gas turbine fuel treatments applicable to petroleum base fuels impurities content in order to prevent adverse contaminant effects. Section 7 relates the environmental aspects of gas turbine fuel usage and combustion performance. It appears that the near future stationary industrial gas turbine fuel market will require that some of the synthetic fuels be refined to the point that they resemble petroleum based fuels.

  7. DEEP NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE PIPE NEBULA. II. DATA, METHODS, AND DUST EXTINCTION MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.; Alves, Joao F.; Lada, Charles J.; Lombardi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We present a new set of high-resolution dust extinction maps of the nearby and essentially starless Pipe Nebula molecular cloud. The maps were constructed from a concerted deep near-infrared imaging survey with the ESO-VLT, ESO-NTT, CAHA 3.5 m telescopes, and 2MASS data. The new maps have a resolution three times higher than the previous extinction map of this cloud by Lombardi et al. and are able to resolve structures down to 2600 AU. We detect 244 significant extinction peaks across the cloud. These peaks have masses between 0.1 and 18.4 M sun , diameters between 1.2 and 5.7 x 10 4 AU (0.06 and 0.28 pc), and mean densities of about 10 4 cm -3 , all in good agreement with previous results. From the analysis of the mean surface density of companions we find a well-defined scale near 1.4 x 10 4 AU below which we detect a significant decrease in structure of the cloud. This scale is smaller than the Jeans length calculated from the mean density of the peaks. The surface density of peaks is not uniform but instead it displays clustering. Extinction peaks in the Pipe Nebula appear to have a spatial distribution similar to the stars in Taurus, suggesting that the spatial distribution of stars evolves directly from the primordial spatial distribution of high-density material.

  8. The Gaia spectrophotometric standard stars survey: II. Instrumental effects of six ground-based observing campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altavilla, G.; Marinoni, S.; Pancino, E.; Galleti, S.; Ragaini, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Cocozza, G.; Bragaglia, A.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castro, A.; Di Fabrizio, L.; Federici, L.; Figueras, F.; Gebran, M.; Jordi, C.; Masana, E.; Schuster, W.; Valentini, G.; Voss, H.

    2015-08-01

    The Gaia SpectroPhotometric Standard Stars (SPSS) survey started in 2006, was awarded almost 450 observing nights and accumulated almost 100 000 raw data frames with both photometric and spectroscopic observations. Such large observational effort requires careful, homogeneous, and automatic data reduction and quality control procedures. In this paper, we quantitatively evaluate instrumental effects that might have a significant (i.e., ≥ 1 %) impact on the Gaia SPSS flux calibration. The measurements involve six different instruments, monitored over the eight years of observations dedicated to the Gaia flux standards campaigns: DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, EFOSC2@NTT and ROSS@REM in La Silla, CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, and LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir. We examine and quantitatively evaluate the following effects: CCD linearity and shutter times, calibration frames stability, lamp flexures, second order contamination, light polarization, and fringing. We present methods to correct for the relevant effects which can be applied to a wide range of observational projects at similar instruments. Based on data obtained with BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, Italy; EFOSC2@NTT in La Silla, Chile; DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, Spain; CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, Spain; LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir, Mexico (see acknowledgements for more details).

  9. Far-infrared data for symbiotic stars. II. The IRAS survey observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, S.J.; Fernandez-Castro, T.; Stencel, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    IRAS survey data for all known symbiotic binaries are reported. S type systems have 25 micron excesses much larger than those of single red giant stars, suggesting that these objects lose mass more rapidly than do normal giants. D type objects have far-IR colors similar to those of Mira variables, implying mass-loss rate of about 10 to the -6th solar masses/yr. The near-IR extinctions of the D types indicate that their Mira components are enshrouded in optically thick dust shells, while their hot companions lie outside the shells. If this interpretation of the data is correct, then the very red near-IR colors of D type symbiotic stars are caused by extreme amounts of dust absorption rather than dust emission. The small group of D prime objects possesses far-IR colors resembling those of compact planetary nebulae or extreme OH/IR stars. It is speculated that these binaries are not symbiotic stars at all, but contain a hot compact star and an exasymptotic branch giant which is in the process of ejecting a planetary nebula shell. 42 references

  10. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY DATA RELEASE 7 SPECTROSCOPIC M DWARF CATALOG. II. STATISTICAL PARALLAX ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochanski, John J.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; West, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a statistical parallax analysis of low-mass dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We calculate absolute r-band magnitudes (M r ) as a function of color and spectral type and investigate changes in M r with location in the Milky Way. We find that magnetically active M dwarfs are intrinsically brighter in M r than their inactive counterparts at the same color or spectral type. Metallicity, as traced by the proxy ζ, also affects M r , with metal-poor stars having fainter absolute magnitudes than higher metallicity M dwarfs at the same color or spectral type. Additionally, we measure the velocity ellipsoid and solar reflex motion for each subsample of M dwarfs. We find good agreement between our measured solar peculiar motion and previous results for similar populations, as well as some evidence for differing motions of early and late M-type populations in U and W velocities that cannot be attributed to asymmetric drift. The reflex solar motion and the velocity dispersions both show that younger populations, as traced by magnetic activity and location near the Galactic plane, have experienced less dynamical heating. We introduce a new parameter, the independent position altitude (IPA), to investigate populations as a function of vertical height from the Galactic plane. M dwarfs at all types exhibit an increase in velocity dispersion when analyzed in comparable IPA subgroups.

  11. Is the role as gatekeeper still feasible? A survey among Dutch general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wammes, Joost Johan Godert; Jeurissen, Patrick Paulus Theodoor; Verhoef, Lise Maria; Assendelft, Willem J J; Westert, Gert P; Faber, Marjan J

    2014-10-01

    In the 2012 International Health Policy Survey by the Commonwealth Fund, 57% of Dutch GPs indicated that Dutch patients receive too much health care. This is an unexpected finding, given the clear gatekeeper role of Dutch GPs and recent efforts strengthening this role. The study aims to explore where perceived overuse of care prevails and to identify factors associated with too much care at the entry point of Dutch health care. An American survey exploring perceptions of the amount of care among primary care providers was modified for relevance to the Dutch health system. We further included additional factors possibly related to overuse based on 12 interviews with Dutch GPs. The survey was sent to a random sample of 600 GPs. Dutch GPs (N = 157; response rate 26.2%) indicated that patients receive (much) too much care in general hospitals, primary care, GP cooperatives as well as private clinics. The Dutch responding GPs showed a relatively demand-satisfying attitude, which contributed to the delivery of too much care, often leading to deviation from guidelines and professional norms. The increasing availability of diagnostic facilities was identified as an additional factor contributing to the provision of unnecessary care. Finally, funding gaps between primary care and hospitals impede cooperation and coordination, provoking unnecessary care. Our results--most notably regarding the demand-satisfying attitude of responding GPs--call into question the classical view of the guidance and gatekeeper role of GPs in the Dutch health care system. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Role of major histocompatibility complex class II in the development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes and thyroiditis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, N; Hidaka, S; Tanabe, S; Ohya, M; Ishima, M; Takagi, Y; Masui, N; Seino, S

    2012-01-01

    Although the MHC class II ‘u' haplotype is strongly associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in rats, the role of MHC class II in the development of tissue-specific autoimmune diseases including T1D and autoimmune thyroiditis remains unclear. To clarify this, we produced a congenic strain carrying MHC class II ‘a' and ‘u' haplotypes on the Komeda diabetes-prone (KDP) genetic background. The u/u homozygous animals developed T1D similar to the original KDP rat; a/u heterozygous animals did develop T1D but with delayed onset and low frequency. In contrast, none of the a/a homozygous animals developed T1D; about half of the animals with a/u heterozygous or a/a homozygous genotypes showed autoimmune thyroiditis. To investigate the role of genetic background in the development of thyroiditis, we also produced a congenic strain carrying Cblb mutation of the KDP rat on the PVG.R23 genetic background (MHC class II ‘a' haplotype). The congenic rats with homozygous Cblb mutation showed autoimmune thyroiditis without T1D and slight to severe alopecia, a clinical symptom of hypothyroidism such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis. These data indicate that MHC class II is involved in the tissue-specific development of autoimmune diseases, including T1D and thyroiditis. PMID:21918539

  13. The Taurus Boundary of Stellar/Substellar (TBOSS) Survey. II. Disk Masses from ALMA Continuum Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Duong, K.; Patience, J.; Bulger, J.; van der Plas, G.; Ménard, F.; Pinte, C.; Jackson, A. P.; Bryden, G.; Turner, N. J.; Harvey, P.; Hales, A.; De Rosa, R. J.

    2018-02-01

    We report 885 μm ALMA continuum flux densities for 24 Taurus members spanning the stellar/substellar boundary with spectral types from M4 to M7.75. Of the 24 systems, 22 are detected at levels ranging from 1.0 to 55.7 mJy. The two nondetections are transition disks, though other transition disks in the sample are detected. Converting ALMA continuum measurements to masses using standard scaling laws and radiative transfer modeling yields dust mass estimates ranging from ∼0.3 to 20 M ⊕. The dust mass shows a declining trend with central object mass when combined with results from submillimeter surveys of more massive Taurus members. The substellar disks appear as part of a continuous sequence and not a distinct population. Compared to older Upper Sco members with similar masses across the substellar limit, the Taurus disks are brighter and more massive. Both Taurus and Upper Sco populations are consistent with an approximately linear relationship in M dust to M star, although derived power-law slopes depend strongly upon choices of stellar evolutionary model and dust temperature relation. The median disk around early-M stars in Taurus contains a comparable amount of mass in small solids as the average amount of heavy elements in Kepler planetary systems on short-period orbits around M-dwarf stars, with an order of magnitude spread in disk dust mass about the median value. Assuming a gas-to-dust ratio of 100:1, only a small number of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs have a total disk mass amenable to giant planet formation, consistent with the low frequency of giant planets orbiting M dwarfs.

  14. The H IX galaxy survey - II. H I kinematics of H I eXtreme galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.

    2018-05-01

    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected H I content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these H I eXtreme (H IX) galaxies to be so H I-rich. We model the H I kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed H IX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model DARK SAGE. We find that (1) H I discs in H IX galaxies are more likely to be warped and more likely to host H I arms and tails than in the control galaxies, (2) the average H I and average stellar column density of H IX galaxies is comparable to the control sample, (3) H IX galaxies have higher H I and baryonic specific angular momenta than control galaxies, (4) most H IX galaxies live in higher spin haloes than most control galaxies. These results suggest that H IX galaxies are H I-rich because they can support more H I against gravitational instability due to their high specific angular momentum. The majority of the H IX galaxies inherits their high specific angular momentum from their halo. The H I content of H IX galaxies might be further increased by gas-rich minor mergers. This paper is based on data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array through the large program C 2705.

  15. The Green Bank Northern Celestial Cap Pulsar Survey. II. The Discovery and Timing of 10 Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawash, A. M.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Kaplan, D. L.; DeCesar, M. E.; Levin, L.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lynch, R. S.; Stovall, K.; Swiggum, J. K.; Fonseca, E.; Archibald, A. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Boyles, J.; Cui, B.; Dartez, L. P.; Day, D.; Ernst, S.; Ford, A. J.; Flanigan, J.; Heatherly, S. A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hinojosa, J.; Jenet, F. A.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Leake, S.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A.; Matheny, T. D.; Mcewen, A. E.; Mingyar, M. G.; Orsini, A. L.; Ransom, S. M.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Rohr, M. D.; Siemens, X.; Spiewak, R.; Stairs, I. H.; van Leeuwen, J.; Walker, A. N.; Wells, B. L.

    2018-04-01

    We present timing solutions for 10 pulsars discovered in 350 MHz searches with the Green Bank Telescope. Nine of these were discovered in the Green Bank Northern Celestial Cap survey and one was discovered by students in the Pulsar Search Collaboratory program during an analysis of drift-scan data. Following the discovery and confirmation with the Green Bank Telescope, timing has yielded phase-connected solutions with high-precision measurements of rotational and astrometric parameters. Eight of the pulsars are slow and isolated, including PSR J0930‑2301, a pulsar with a nulling fraction lower limit of ∼30% and a nulling timescale of seconds to minutes. This pulsar also shows evidence of mode changing. The remaining two pulsars have undergone recycling, accreting material from binary companions, resulting in higher spin frequencies. PSR J0557‑2948 is an isolated, 44 ms pulsar that has been partially recycled and is likely a former member of a binary system that was disrupted by a second supernova. The paucity of such so-called “disrupted binary pulsars” (DRPs) compared to double neutron star (DNS) binaries can be used to test current evolutionary scenarios, especially the kicks imparted on the neutron stars in the second supernova. There is some evidence that DRPs have larger space velocities, which could explain their small numbers. PSR J1806+2819 is a 15 ms pulsar in a 44-day orbit with a low-mass white dwarf companion. We did not detect the companion in archival optical data, indicating that it must be older than 1200 Myr.

  16. CHROMOSPHERIC VARIABILITY IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY M DWARFS. II. SHORT-TIMESCALE Hα VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, E. A.; Berger, E.; Laskar, T.; Knapp, G. R.; Gunn, J. E.; Loomis, C. P.; Lupton, R. H.; Schlegel, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first comprehensive study of short-timescale chromospheric Hα variability in M dwarfs using the individual 15 minute spectroscopic exposures for 52, 392 objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our sample contains about 10 3 -10 4 objects per spectral type bin in the range M0-M9, with a typical number of three exposures per object (ranging up to a maximum of 30 exposures). Using this extensive data set, we find that about 16% of the sources exhibit Hα emission in at least one exposure, and of those about 45% exhibit Hα emission in all of the available exposures. As in previous studies of Hα activity (L Hα /L bol ), we find a rapid increase in the fraction of active objects from M0-M6. However, we find a subsequent decline in later spectral types that we attribute to our use of the individual spectra. Similarly, we find saturated activity at a level of L Hα /L bol ∼ 10 -3.6 for spectral types M0-M5 followed by a decline to about 10 -4.3 in the range M7-M9. Within the sample of objects with Hα emission, only 26% are consistent with non-variable emission, independent of spectral type. The Hα variability, quantified in terms of the ratio of maximum to minimum Hα equivalent width (R EW ), exhibits a rapid rise from M0 to M5, followed by a plateau and a possible decline in M9 objects. In particular, variability with R EW ∼> 10 is only observed in objects later than M5, and survival analysis indicates a probability of ∼ EW values for M0-M4 and M5-M9 are drawn from the same distribution. We further find that for an exponential distribution, the R EW values follow N(R EW ) ∝ exp[ - (R EW - 1)/2.3] for M0-M4 and ∝exp[ - (R EW - 1)/2.9] for M5-M9. Finally, comparing objects with persistent and intermittent Hα emission, we find that the latter exhibit greater variability. Based on these results, we conclude that Hα variability in M dwarfs on timescales of 15 minutes to 1 hr increases with later spectral type, and that the variability is

  17. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca II K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Loyd, R. O. Parke; Brown, Alexander; Mason, James P.; Schneider, P. Christian; Tilley, Matt A.; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Buccino, Andrea; Froning, Cynthia S.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Linsky, Jeffrey; Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Redfield, Seth; Kowalski, Adam; Miguel, Yamila; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Rugheimer, Sarah; Segura, Antígona; Roberge, Aki; Vieytes, Mariela

    2017-07-01

    Characterizing the UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of an exoplanet host star is critically important for assessing its planet’s potential habitability, particularly for M dwarfs, as they are prime targets for current and near-term exoplanet characterization efforts and atmospheric models predict that their UV radiation can produce photochemistry on habitable zone planets different from that on Earth. To derive ground-based proxies for UV emission for use when Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations are unavailable, we have assembled a sample of 15 early to mid-M dwarfs observed by HST and compared their nonsimultaneous UV and optical spectra. We find that the equivalent width of the chromospheric Ca II K line at 3933 Å, when corrected for spectral type, can be used to estimate the stellar surface flux in ultraviolet emission lines, including H I Lyα. In addition, we address another potential driver of habitability: energetic particle fluxes associated with flares. We present a new technique for estimating soft X-ray and >10 MeV proton flux during far-UV emission line flares (Si IV and He II) by assuming solar-like energy partitions. We analyze several flares from the M4 dwarf GJ 876 observed with HST and Chandra as part of the MUSCLES Treasury Survey and find that habitable zone planets orbiting GJ 876 are impacted by large Carrington-like flares with peak soft X-ray fluxes ≥10-3 W m-2 and possible proton fluxes ˜102-103 pfu, approximately four orders of magnitude more frequently than modern-day Earth.

  18. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca ii K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Loyd, R. O. Parke; Mason, James P. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 600 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Brown, Alexander [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Schneider, P. Christian [European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Tilley, Matt A. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Kowalski, Adam [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 2000 Colorado Ave., Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo J. D. [Dpto. de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (FCEN), Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Froning, Cynthia S. [Department of Astronomy/McDonald Observatory, C1400, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hawley, Suzanne L. [Astronomy Department, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Redfield, Seth [Astronomy Department and Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Miguel, Yamila [Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, Boulevard de l’Observatoire, CS 34229 F-06304 NICE Cedex 4 (France); Newton, Elisabeth R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rugheimer, Sarah, E-mail: allison.youngblood@colorado.edu [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of St. Andrews, Irvine Building, North Street, St. Andrews, KY16 9AL (United Kingdom); and others

    2017-07-01

    Characterizing the UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of an exoplanet host star is critically important for assessing its planet’s potential habitability, particularly for M dwarfs, as they are prime targets for current and near-term exoplanet characterization efforts and atmospheric models predict that their UV radiation can produce photochemistry on habitable zone planets different from that on Earth. To derive ground-based proxies for UV emission for use when Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) observations are unavailable, we have assembled a sample of 15 early to mid-M dwarfs observed by HST and compared their nonsimultaneous UV and optical spectra. We find that the equivalent width of the chromospheric Ca ii K line at 3933 Å, when corrected for spectral type, can be used to estimate the stellar surface flux in ultraviolet emission lines, including H i Ly α . In addition, we address another potential driver of habitability: energetic particle fluxes associated with flares. We present a new technique for estimating soft X-ray and >10 MeV proton flux during far-UV emission line flares (Si iv and He ii) by assuming solar-like energy partitions. We analyze several flares from the M4 dwarf GJ 876 observed with HST and Chandra as part of the MUSCLES Treasury Survey and find that habitable zone planets orbiting GJ 876 are impacted by large Carrington-like flares with peak soft X-ray fluxes ≥10{sup −3} W m{sup −2} and possible proton fluxes ∼10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} pfu, approximately four orders of magnitude more frequently than modern-day Earth.

  19. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca ii K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Loyd, R. O. Parke; Mason, James P.; Brown, Alexander; Schneider, P. Christian; Tilley, Matt A.; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Kowalski, Adam; Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Froning, Cynthia S.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Linsky, Jeffrey; Redfield, Seth; Miguel, Yamila; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Rugheimer, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of an exoplanet host star is critically important for assessing its planet’s potential habitability, particularly for M dwarfs, as they are prime targets for current and near-term exoplanet characterization efforts and atmospheric models predict that their UV radiation can produce photochemistry on habitable zone planets different from that on Earth. To derive ground-based proxies for UV emission for use when Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) observations are unavailable, we have assembled a sample of 15 early to mid-M dwarfs observed by HST and compared their nonsimultaneous UV and optical spectra. We find that the equivalent width of the chromospheric Ca ii K line at 3933 Å, when corrected for spectral type, can be used to estimate the stellar surface flux in ultraviolet emission lines, including H i Ly α . In addition, we address another potential driver of habitability: energetic particle fluxes associated with flares. We present a new technique for estimating soft X-ray and >10 MeV proton flux during far-UV emission line flares (Si iv and He ii) by assuming solar-like energy partitions. We analyze several flares from the M4 dwarf GJ 876 observed with HST and Chandra as part of the MUSCLES Treasury Survey and find that habitable zone planets orbiting GJ 876 are impacted by large Carrington-like flares with peak soft X-ray fluxes ≥10 −3 W m −2 and possible proton fluxes ∼10 2 –10 3 pfu, approximately four orders of magnitude more frequently than modern-day Earth.

  20. Job satisfaction and perceived future roles of Malaysian dental therapists: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, A; Mohd Nor, N A; Ab-Murat, N; Jaafar, N

    2015-08-01

    To assess Malaysian dental therapists' perceptions of their job satisfaction and future roles. A nationwide postal survey involving all Malaysian dental therapists who met the inclusion criteria (n = 1726). The response rate was 76.8%. All respondents were females; mean age 35.4 years (SD = 8.4). Majority were married (85.5%) and more than one-half had a working experience of income (45.2%), allowances (45.2%) and non-commensurate between pay and performance (44.0%). Majority perceived their role as very important in routine clinical tasks such as examination and diagnosis, preventive treatment, extraction of deciduous teeth and oral health promotion. However, fewer than one-half consider complex treatment such as placement of preformed crowns on deciduous teeth (37.1%) and extraction of permanent teeth (37.2%) as very important tasks. Majority expressed high career satisfaction with most aspects of their employment but expressed low satisfaction in remuneration, lack of career advancement opportunities and administrative tasks. We conclude that most Malaysian dental therapists have positive perceptions of their current roles but do not favour wider expansion of their roles. These findings imply that there was a need to develop a more attractive career pathway for therapists to ensure sustainability of effective primary oral healthcare delivery system for Malaysia's children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Consumer attitudes about the role of multivitamins and other dietary supplements: report of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Annette; MacKay, Douglas; Wong, Andrea

    2015-07-02

    U.S. nutrition surveys find that intakes of many nutrients fall short of recommendations. The majority of U.S. adults use multivitamins and other dietary supplements as one means of improving nutrient intakes. Some policy makers and health professionals appear reluctant to recommend routine use of dietary supplements to fill nutrient gaps in the diet, in part because they are concerned that people will view the supplements as a substitute for dietary improvement and that the use of supplements may lead to overconsumption of micronutrients. Surveys find that in fact users of dietary supplements tend to have better diets and adopt other healthy habits, suggesting that the supplements are viewed as one aspect of an overall effort to improve wellness. Furthermore, evidence demonstrates that the incidence of excess micronutrient intake is low. We report the results of a survey probing consumer attitudes about the role of dietary supplements. The Council for Responsible Nutrition funded a survey to measure consumer attitudes about the role of multivitamins, calcium and/or vitamin D supplements, and other supplements in improving dietary intakes. The research was designed and analyzed by FoodMinds and was fielded using Toluna's On-line Omnibus. The weighted sample of 2159 respondents is representative of U.S. adults. Nearly 90% of the survey respondents agreed that multivitamins and supplements of calcium and/or vitamin D can help meet nutrient needs when desirable intakes are not achieved through food alone. At the same time, 80% agreed that dietary supplements should not be used to replace healthy dietary or lifestyle habits, and 82% agreed that people considering taking a high dose, single nutrient supplement should talk with their physician. These results provide additional support for the conclusion that the vast majority of consumers recognize that multivitamins and other supplements can help fill nutrient gaps but should not be viewed as replacements for a healthy

  2. Non-Response in Student Surveys: The Role of Demographics, Engagement and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    What causes a student to participate in a survey? This paper looks at participation across multiple surveys to understand survey non-response; by using multiple surveys we minimize the impact of survey salience. Students at a selective liberal arts college were administered four different surveys throughout the 2002-2003 academic year, and we use…

  3. Use of Antihypertensive Drugs and Ischemic Stroke Severity - Is There a Role for Angiotensin-II?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwong, Wen Yea; Bots, Michiel L.; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Aziz, Zariah Abdul; Sidek, Norsima Nazifah; Spiering, Wilko; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increase in angiotensin II (Ang II) formation by selected antihypertensive drugs is said to exhibit neuroprotective properties, but this translation into improvement in clinical outcomes has been inconclusive. We undertook a study to investigate the relationship between types of

  4. Roles of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in long-term memory formation in crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Mizunami

    Full Text Available Ca(2+/calmodulin (CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII is a key molecule in many systems of learning and memory in vertebrates, but roles of CaMKII in invertebrates have not been characterized in detail. We have suggested that serial activation of NO/cGMP signaling, cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, Ca(2+/CaM and cAMP signaling participates in long-term memory (LTM formation in olfactory conditioning in crickets, and here we show participation of CaMKII in LTM formation and propose its site of action in the biochemical cascades. Crickets subjected to 3-trial conditioning to associate an odor with reward exhibited memory that lasts for a few days, which is characterized as protein synthesis-dependent LTM. In contrast, animals subjected to 1-trial conditioning exhibited memory that lasts for only several hours (mid-term memory, MTM. Injection of a CaMKII inhibitor prior to 3-trial conditioning impaired 1-day memory retention but not 1-hour memory retention, suggesting that CaMKII participates in LTM formation but not in MTM formation. Animals injected with a cGMP analogue, calcium ionophore or cAMP analogue prior to 1-trial conditioning exhibited 1-day retention, and co-injection of a CaMKII inhibitor impaired induction of LTM by the cGMP analogue or that by the calcium ionophore but not that by the cAMP analogue, suggesting that CaMKII is downstream of cGMP production and Ca(2+ influx and upstream of cAMP production in biochemical cascades for LTM formation. Animals injected with an adenylyl cyclase (AC activator prior to 1-trial conditioning exhibited 1-day retention. Interestingly, a CaMKII inhibitor impaired LTM induction by the AC activator, although AC is expected to be a downstream target of CaMKII. The results suggest that CaMKII interacts with AC to facilitate cAMP production for LTM formation. We propose that CaMKII serves as a key molecule for interplay between Ca(2+ signaling and cAMP signaling for LTM formation, a new role of Ca

  5. Child Odors and Parenting: A Survey Examination of the Role of Odor in Child-Rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Masako; Shirasu, Mika; Fujita, Rei; Hirasawa, Yukei; Touhara, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    Parental caregiving is critical for the survival of our young and continuation of our species. In humans, visual and auditory signals from offspring have been shown to be potent facilitators of parenting. However, whether odors emitted by our young also influence human parenting remains unclear. To explore this, we conducted a series of questionnaire surveys targeting parents with children under 6 years old. First, we collected episodes on experiencing odors/sniffing various parts of a child's body (n = 507). The prevalence of experiencing events described in those episodes was examined in a separate survey (n = 384). Based on those results, the Child Odor in Parenting scale (COPs) was developed, and subsequently used in the main survey (n = 888). We found COPs to have adequate content validity, concurrent validity, and reliability. Responses to the COPs demonstrated that parents, especially mothers with infants, are aware of odors from their offspring, and actively seek them in daily child-rearing. The factor structure and content of the COPs items indicated that child odors have both affective and instrumental roles. Affective experiences induce loving feeling and affectionate sniffing, while instrumental experiences pertain to specific hygienic needs. The head was the most frequent source of affective experiences, and the child's bottom of instrumental. Each was experienced by more than 90% of the mothers with a child below 1 year of age. Affective experiences significantly declined as the child grew older, possibly associated with the decline of physical proximity between parents and child. This age-related decline was not prominent for instrumental experiences, except for the bottom, which significantly declined after 3 years of age. The present findings suggest that child odors play roles in human parenting, and that their nature and significance change during the course of a child's development.

  6. Child Odors and Parenting: A Survey Examination of the Role of Odor in Child-Rearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Okamoto

    Full Text Available Parental caregiving is critical for the survival of our young and continuation of our species. In humans, visual and auditory signals from offspring have been shown to be potent facilitators of parenting. However, whether odors emitted by our young also influence human parenting remains unclear. To explore this, we conducted a series of questionnaire surveys targeting parents with children under 6 years old. First, we collected episodes on experiencing odors/sniffing various parts of a child's body (n = 507. The prevalence of experiencing events described in those episodes was examined in a separate survey (n = 384. Based on those results, the Child Odor in Parenting scale (COPs was developed, and subsequently used in the main survey (n = 888. We found COPs to have adequate content validity, concurrent validity, and reliability. Responses to the COPs demonstrated that parents, especially mothers with infants, are aware of odors from their offspring, and actively seek them in daily child-rearing. The factor structure and content of the COPs items indicated that child odors have both affective and instrumental roles. Affective experiences induce loving feeling and affectionate sniffing, while instrumental experiences pertain to specific hygienic needs. The head was the most frequent source of affective experiences, and the child's bottom of instrumental. Each was experienced by more than 90% of the mothers with a child below 1 year of age. Affective experiences significantly declined as the child grew older, possibly associated with the decline of physical proximity between parents and child. This age-related decline was not prominent for instrumental experiences, except for the bottom, which significantly declined after 3 years of age. The present findings suggest that child odors play roles in human parenting, and that their nature and significance change during the course of a child's development.

  7. SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY: AN ANALYSIS OF THE LARGEST SAMPLE OF TYPE IA SUPERNOVAE AND CORRELATIONS WITH HOST-GALAXY SPECTRAL PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Rachel C.; Gupta, Ravi R.; Sako, Masao; Fischer, John A.; March, Marisa C.; Fischer, Johanna-Laina; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Smith, Mathew; Kessler, Rick; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Campbell, Heather; Nichol, Robert C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Richmond, Michael; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Using the largest single-survey sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to date, we study the relationship between properties of SNe Ia and those of their host galaxies, focusing primarily on correlations with Hubble residuals (HRs). Our sample consists of 345 photometrically classified or spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia discovered as part of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-SNS). This analysis utilizes host-galaxy spectroscopy obtained during the SDSS-I/II spectroscopic survey and from an ancillary program on the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey that obtained spectra for nearly all host galaxies of SDSS-II SN candidates. In addition, we use photometric host-galaxy properties from the SDSS-SNS data release such as host stellar mass and star formation rate. We confirm the well-known relation between HR and host-galaxy mass and find a 3.6 σ significance of a nonzero linear slope. We also recover correlations between HR and host-galaxy gas-phase metallicity and specific star formation rate as they are reported in the literature. With our large data set, we examine correlations between HR and multiple host-galaxy properties simultaneously and find no evidence of a significant correlation. We also independently analyze our spectroscopically confirmed and photometrically classified SNe Ia and comment on the significance of similar combined data sets for future surveys.

  8. Clinical roles in clinical biochemistry: a national survey of practice in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sirazum M; Williams, Emma L; Barnes, Sophie C; Alaghband-Zadeh, Jamshid; Tan, Tricia M; Cegla, Jaimini

    2017-05-01

    Background Using an online survey, we collected data to present a picture of how clinical authorization is performed in the UK. Methods A 21-question survey was uploaded to www.surveymonkey.com , and responses were invited via the mail base of the Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The questionnaire examined the intensity and function of the duty biochemist role and how different types of authorization are used to handle and release results. Results Of 70 responses received, 60 were suitable for analysis. Responses were received from every region of the UK. A typical duty biochemist shift started on average at 8:50, and finished at 17:25. The mean duration was 8 h 58 min. Clinical scientists are the most abundantly represented group on duty biochemist rotas. Higher banded clinical scientists and chemical pathologists covered out-of-hours shifts. Results were handled differently depending on the level of abnormality and the requesting area. Normal results tended to be released either directly from the analyser or after technical then autoauthorization (90%). A greater preference for clinical authorization was seen for abnormal and critical results originating from outpatients (49% and 69%, respectively) or general practice (51% and 71%) than for inpatients (33% and 53%) or A&E (25% and 37%). Conclusions The handling and authorization of biochemistry results varies greatly between laboratories. The role is clearly heterogeneous in the UK. Guidance from the Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Royal College of Pathologists may help to clarify the essential roles of the duty biochemist.

  9. Comparison of two dietary assessment methods by food consumption: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinger-Watzl, Marianne; Straßburg, Andrea; Ramünke, Josa; Krems, Carolin; Heuer, Thorsten; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-04-01

    To further characterise the performance of the diet history method and the 24-h recalls method, both in an updated version, a comparison was conducted. The National Nutrition Survey II, representative for Germany, assessed food consumption with both methods. The comparison was conducted in a sample of 9,968 participants aged 14-80. Besides calculating mean differences, statistical agreement measurements encompass Spearman and intraclass correlation coefficients, ranking participants in quartiles and the Bland-Altman method. Mean consumption of 12 out of 18 food groups was higher assessed with the diet history method. Three of these 12 food groups had a medium to large effect size (e.g., raw vegetables) and seven showed at least a small strength while there was basically no difference for coffee/tea or ice cream. Intraclass correlations were strong only for beverages (>0.50) and revealed the least correlation for vegetables (diet history method to remember consumption of the past 4 weeks may be a source of inaccurateness, especially for inhomogeneous food groups. Additionally, social desirability gains significance. There is no assessment method without errors and attention to specific food groups is a critical issue with every method. Altogether, the 24-h recalls method applied in the presented study, offers advantages approximating food consumption as compared to the diet history method.

  10. The role of intrinsic disorder and dynamics in the assembly and function of the type II secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuang; Shevchik, Vladimir E; Shaw, Rosie; Pickersgill, Richard W; Garnett, James A

    2017-10-01

    Many Gram-negative commensal and pathogenic bacteria use a type II secretion system (T2SS) to transport proteins out of the cell. These exported proteins or substrates play a major role in toxin delivery, maintaining biofilms, replication in the host and subversion of host immune responses to infection. We review the current structural and functional work on this system and argue that intrinsically disordered regions and protein dynamics are central for assembly, exo-protein recognition, and secretion competence of the T2SS. The central role of intrinsic disorder-order transitions in these processes may be a particular feature of type II secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Photoreduction of Hg(II) and photodemethylation of methylmercury: the key role of thiol sites on dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiason, Jeffrey D.; Portner, Joshua C.; Aiken, George R.; Hiranaka, Amber J.; Dvorak, Michelle T.; Tran, Khuyen T.; Latch, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the kinetics of photoreduction of Hg(II) and photodemethylation of methylmercury (MeHg+) attached to, or in the presence of, dissolved organic matter (DOM). Both Hg(II) and MeHg+ are principally bound to reduced sulfur groups associated with DOM in many freshwater systems. We propose that a direct photolysis mechanism is plausible for reduction of Hg(II) bound to reduced sulfur groups on DOM while an indirect mechanism is supported for photodemethylation of MeHg+ bound to DOM. UV spectra of Hg(II) and MeHg+ bound to thiol containing molecules demonstrate that the Hg(II)–S bond is capable of absorbing UV-light in the solar spectrum to a much greater extent than MeHg+–S bonds. Experiments with chemically distinct DOM isolates suggest that concentration of DOM matters little in the photochemistry if there are enough reduced S sites present to strongly bind MeHg+ and Hg(II); DOM concentration does not play a prominent role in photodemethylation other than to screen light, which was demonstrated in a field experiment in the highly colored St. Louis River where photodemethylation was not observed at depths ≥10 cm. Experiments with thiol ligands yielded slower photodegradation rates for MeHg+ than in experiments with DOM and thiols; rates in the presence of DOM alone were the fastest supporting an intra-DOM mechanism. Hg(II) photoreduction rates, however, were similar in experiments with only DOM, thiols plus DOM, or only thiols suggesting a direct photolysis mechanism. Quenching experiments also support the existence of an intra-DOM photodemethylation mechanism for MeHg+. Utilizing the difference in photodemethylation rates measured for MeHg+ attached to DOM or thiol ligands, the binding constant for MeHg+ attached to thiol groups on DOM was estimated to be 1016.7.

  12. Perceived Role of Social Media in Urologic Knowledge Acquisition Among Young Urologists: A European Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Juan Gomez; Socarras, Moises Rodriguez; Patruno, Giulio; Uvin, Pieter; Esperto, Francesco; Dinis, Paulo Jorge; Roupret, Morgan; Borgmann, Hendrik

    2017-07-27

    Social media (SoMe) are increasingly being integrated into personal and professional life, with urology being a leading medical specialty in SoMe adoption. We aimed to assess the perceived role of SoMe in urologic knowledge acquisition among young urologists across Europe. Members of the European Society of Residents in Urology designed a 20-item online survey via surveymonkey.com. The survey was designed in accordance with Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet E-Surveys (CHERRIES) guidelines and was distributed via e-mail and social media in 23 European countries to urology residents and young urologists. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used for descriptive statistics and statistical analysis. For comparative analysis the Mann-Whitney U test was used. A total of 316 young urologists with a mean age of 31.2±3.9 yr responded to the survey. Of the respondents, 99% use SoMe in a personal and/or professional way. YouTube and LinkedIn are the most frequently used platforms for professional use. SoMe were ranked in third place as an information source for urologic news/updates, lying behind journals and websites but ahead of congresses and books. Video content from YouTube or other sources was ranked as a preferred tool to see/understand surgical techniques ahead of websites and reference books. 61% follow urologic associations, 47% follow urologic events, 44% follow urologic journals, and 39% follow urologic experts on SoMe. The perceived influence of SoMe on urology knowledge was rated as moderate to high by 63% and as low to none by 37% of young urologists. Of the respondents, 44% apply guidelines on the appropriate use of SoMe in urology. SoMe play a significant role in knowledge acquisition by young urologists in Europe. Physicians, organizations, and institutions should strive to spread and provide valuable educational content through SoMe. Social media can be valuable for education in urology because it is useful to keep

  13. Relative professional roles in antenatal care: results of a survey in Scottish rural general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jane; Stimpson, Paul; Tucker, Janet

    2003-11-01

    There is evidence of variation and some ambiguity about self-perceived relative professional roles in antenatal care in the UK. There is little information about models of antenatal care provision in UK rural areas. In rural areas, in particular, women have limited choice in accessing health care professionals or alternative primary care delivery settings. In the light of a recent review of Scottish maternity services, it is important and timely to examine models of care and interprofessional working in antenatal care in rural areas. This study explores midwives' and GPs' perceptions about their relative professional roles in remote and rural general practice in Scotland. A questionnaire survey involving all 174 Scottish remote and rural general practices (using one definition of rurality) was conducted, followed by 20 interviews. At least one professional returned a completed questionnaire from 91% of rural practices. A number of areas of dissonance were noted between GPs' and midwives' perceptions of their roles in maternity care and, given the context of service provision, these may impact upon rural patients. Findings are relevant to wider debates on extending the primary care team and strengthening inter-disciplinary working, particularly in rural areas.

  14. Psychotherapy for Bipolar II Disorder: The Role of Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz, Holly A.; Levenson, Jessica C.; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Although bipolar II disorder is a highly prevalent, chronic illness that is associated with burdensome psychosocial impairment, relatively little is known about the best ways to treat the disorder. Moreover, psychosocial interventions for the management of bipolar II disorder have been largely unexplored, leaving psychologists with few evidence-based recommendations for best treatment practices. In this article, we provide information about interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT), an ...

  15. ROLE OF DPP-IV INHIBITORS IN TREATMENT OF TYPE II DIABETES

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Kishan D; Patel Grishma M.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging as an epidemic of the 21st century type II diabetes has become a major health problem throughout the globe. Known treatments of type II diabetes mellitus have limitations such as weight gain and hypoglycaemias. A new perspective is the use of incretin hormones and incretin enhancers. Incretin mimetics are a new class of pharmacological agents with multiple antihyperglycemic actions that mimic the actions of incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. DPP-4, a protease th...

  16. The role of public relations for image creating in health services: a sample patient satisfaction survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirdar, YalçIn

    2007-01-01

    This study discusses the role of public relations for image creating in health services. Hospitals require public relations activities to distinguish them from competitors, provide bidirectional communication between the society and the hospital, and assist to create of a strong hospital image and culture. A satisfaction survey was conducted on 264 patients who have received health services at Maltepe University Hospital. The research focused on how the Hospital's examination, care, catering and physical services; doctor and nurse politeness towards patients and patient relatives, their attitudes and behaviors; examination, check-in, bedding and discharge operations; public relations activities in and out of the hospital were perceived. Another subject of the study was the degree of recommendation of patients who have been served by the hospital's health services to prospective patients seeking treatment.

  17. Survey and studies on the roles of nuclear power development in economy and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The development and utilization of nuclear energy is principally for security of energy supplies but, on the other hand, is contributing largely to the economic activities and technology developments in Japan. In order to clarify the economic and the technological roles played by the nuclear energy development and utilization, Atomic Energy Commission has made survey and studies on the present state of nuclear power industry and of nuclear power technology and the respective effects in other areas. The nuclear power industry, through its high growth, is now a substantial portion, and so has significant influence, in Japan's whole economic activities. Then, the nuclear power technology, started with its introduction, is now on the world's leading level. Its effects in other areas include quality control, system technology, etc. (Mori, K.)

  18. The role of rehabilitation specialists in Canadian NICUs: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limperopoulos, Catherine; Majnemer, Annette

    2002-01-01

    Rehabilitation specialists are an integral part of the team in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A national survey was conducted to elucidate the current roles of rehabilitation specialists. Occupational therapy (OT), physical therapy (PT), and speech and language pathology (SLP) departments in all Canadian health care institutions with tertiary level NICUs (n = 38) were surveyed by telephone. Results indicate that 16% have no rehabilitation coverage, while 11% receive very limited external services (< 1/month). Over half of the OT and PT departments provide weekly services whereas only 5/38 provide SLP coverage. Service delivery includes assessment and a number of therapeutic interventions. Splinting and feeding are predominantly performed by OT, whereas chest physiotherapy and ROM are carried out primarily by PT. Rehabilitation specialists are actively involved in education and case management. The extent of involvement of rehabilitation specialists was discrepant, and highly associated with the type of facility. Rehabilitation services, when provided, are comprehensive and include evaluation, treatment, teaching, decision-making, and family support.

  19. A role for human mitochondrial complex II in the production of reactive oxygen species in human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial respiratory chain is a major generator of cellular oxidative stress, thought to be an underlying cause of the carcinogenic and ageing process in many tissues including skin. Previous studies of the relative contributions of the respiratory chain (RC complexes I, II and III towards production of reactive oxygen species (ROS have focussed on rat tissues and certainly not on human skin which is surprising as this tissue is regularly exposed to UVA in sunlight, a potent generator of cellular oxidative stress. In a novel approach we have used an array of established specific metabolic inhibitors and DHR123 fluorescence to study the relative roles of the mitochondrial RC complexes in cellular ROS production in 2 types of human skin cells. These include additional enhancement of ROS production by exposure to physiological levels of UVA. The effects within epidermal and dermal derived skin cells are compared to other tissue cell types as well as those harbouring a compromised mitochondrial status (Rho-zero A549. The results show that the complex II inhibitor, TTFA, was the only RC inhibitor to significantly increase UVA-induced ROS production in both skin cell types (P<0.05 suggesting that the role of human skin complex II in terms of influencing ROS production is more important than previously thought particularly in comparison to liver cells. Interestingly, two-fold greater maximal activity of complex II enzyme was observed in both skin cell types compared to liver (P<0.001. The activities of RC enzymes appear to decrease with increasing age and telomere length is correlated with ageing. Our study showed that the level of maximal complex II activity was higher in the MRC5/hTERT (human lung fibroblasts transfected with telomerase cells than the corresponding wild type cells (P=0.0012 which can be considered (in terms of telomerase activity as models of younger and older cells respectively.

  20. Obligatory Role for B Cells in the Development of Angiotensin II-Dependent Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christopher T; Sobey, Christopher G; Lieu, Maggie; Ferens, Dorota; Kett, Michelle M; Diep, Henry; Kim, Hyun Ah; Krishnan, Shalini M; Lewis, Caitlin V; Salimova, Ekaterina; Tipping, Peter; Vinh, Antony; Samuel, Chrishan S; Peter, Karlheinz; Guzik, Tomasz J; Kyaw, Tin S; Toh, Ban-Hock; Bobik, Alexander; Drummond, Grant R

    2015-11-01

    Clinical hypertension is associated with raised serum IgG antibodies. However, whether antibodies are causative agents in hypertension remains unknown. We investigated whether hypertension in mice is associated with B-cell activation and IgG production and moreover whether B-cell/IgG deficiency affords protection against hypertension and vascular remodeling. Angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion (0.7 mg/kg per day; 28 days) was associated with (1) a 25% increase in the proportion of splenic B cells expressing the activation marker CD86, (2) an 80% increase in splenic plasma cell numbers, (3) a 500% increase in circulating IgG, and (4) marked IgG accumulation in the aortic adventitia. In B-cell-activating factor receptor-deficient (BAFF-R(-/-)) mice, which lack mature B cells, there was no evidence of Ang II-induced increases in serum IgG. Furthermore, the hypertensive response to Ang II was attenuated in BAFF-R(-/-) (Δ30±4 mm Hg) relative to wild-type (Δ41±5 mm Hg) mice, and this response was rescued by B-cell transfer. BAFF-R(-/-) mice displayed reduced IgG accumulation in the aorta, which was associated with 80% fewer aortic macrophages and a 70% reduction in transforming growth factor-β expression. BAFF-R(-/-) mice were also protected from Ang II-induced collagen deposition and aortic stiffening (assessed by pulse wave velocity analysis). Finally, like BAFF-R deficiency, pharmacological depletion of B cells with an anti-CD20 antibody attenuated Ang II-induced hypertension by ≈35%. Hence, these studies demonstrate that B cells/IgGs are crucial for the development of Ang II-induced hypertension and vessel remodeling in mice. Thus, B-cell-targeted therapies-currently used for autoimmune diseases-may hold promise as future treatments for hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Advanced practice registered nurses and physician assistants in sleep centers and clinics: a survey of current roles and educational background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Loretta; Cartwright, Ann; Collop, Nancy; Freedman, Neil; McLeod, Don; Weaver, Terri E; Rogers, Ann E

    2014-05-15

    To survey Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) and Physician Assistant (PA) utilization, roles and educational background within the field of sleep medicine. Electronic surveys distributed to American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) member centers and APRNs and PAs working within sleep centers and clinics. Approximately 40% of responding AASM sleep centers reported utilizing APRNs or PAs in predominantly clinical roles. Of the APRNs and PAs surveyed, 95% reported responsibilities in sleep disordered breathing and more than 50% in insomnia and movement disorders. Most APRNs and PAs were prepared at the graduate level (89%), with sleep-specific education primarily through "on the job" training (86%). All APRNs surveyed were Nurse Practitioners (NPs), with approximately double the number of NPs compared to PAs. APRNs and PAs were reported in sleep centers at proportions similar to national estimates of NPs and PAs in physicians' offices. They report predominantly clinical roles, involving common sleep disorders. Given current predictions that the outpatient healthcare structure will change and the number of APRNs and PAs will increase, understanding the role and utilization of these professionals is necessary to plan for the future care of patients with sleep disorders. Surveyed APRNs and PAs reported a significant deficiency in formal and standardized sleep-specific education. Efforts to provide formal and standardized educational opportunities for APRNs and PAs that focus on their clinical roles within sleep centers could help fill a current educational gap.

  2. Survey of eight dimensions quality of life for patients with diabetes type II, referred to Sanandaj diabetes center in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Khaledi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Diabetes is a chronic disease; the patients suffer from diabetes needs a special care. One of the programs to help these kinds of patients is to analyze their quality of life, which was carried out through a nursing disciplinary program by a cross sectional study during 2009. Materials & Methods: 198 type II diabetic patients who were referred to diabetic center of an educational hospital, affiliated to Sanandaj medical university were selected randomly, they were interviewed and obtained a written permission to join this study, then asked to fill up SF-36 questionnaires, and finally, the data from the questionnaires were analyzed by the SPSS software program. Results: The results showed the quality of life of diabetes patients (55.6% with respect to their physical fitness were acceptable. Whereas, in case of play in the physical role 67.7% were not acceptable but in case of the physical pain 45.3% had physical pain and effects on public health 45.6% were moderately effected, in case of energy and vitality 35.4% were not acceptable, in case of social functioning 38.5% were favorable, in case of emotional role 75.8% were undesirable and finally considering psycho mental health 49.5% were in the desirable limit. Statistical analysis for evaluation of relationship between quality of life and demographic data, were carried out by using "ANOVA” test. Conclusion: This study showed that the quality of life in all the group of study were at moderate level. In order to improve the quality of life in diabetes patients it is suggested that planners and managers should pay enough attention to support the physical, mental and social well being of the diabetes patients.

  3. A Measurement of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bender, Ralf; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ.; Castander, Francisco; /Barcelona, IEEC; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Galbany, Lluis; /Barcelona, IFAE; Garnavich, Peter; /Notre Dame U.; Goobar, Ariel; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Hopp, Ulrich; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ. /Tokyo U.

    2010-03-01

    We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z {le} 0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 {le} z {le} 0.3. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of (0.37{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.17+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.55{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.13+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} (SNux = 10{sup -12}L{sub x{circle_dot}}{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be (0.31{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.18+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.49{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.15+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be (2.04{sub -1.11-0.04}{sup +1.99+0.07}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.36{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.84+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The ratio of the SN Ia rate in cluster early-type galaxies to that of the SN Ia rate in field early-type galaxies is 1.94{sub -0.91-0.015}{sup +1.31+0.043} and 3.02{sub -1.03-0.048}{sup +1.31+0.062}, for C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate in galaxy clusters as a function of redshift, which probes the late time SN Ia delay distribution, shows only weak dependence on redshift. Combining our current measurements with previous measurements, we fit the cluster SN Ia rate data to a linear function of redshift, and find r{sub L} = [(0.49{sub -0.14}{sup +0.15}) + (0.91{sub -0.81}{sup +0.85}) x z] SNuB h{sup 2}. A comparison of the radial distribution of SNe in cluster to field early-type galaxies shows possible evidence for an enhancement of the SN rate in the cores of cluster early-type galaxies. With an observation of at most 3 hostless, intra-cluster SNe Ia, we estimate the fraction of cluster SNe that are

  4. A MEASUREMENT OF THE RATE OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN GALAXY CLUSTERS FROM THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh W.; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Castander, Francisco; Cinabro, David; Frieman, Joshua A.; Galbany, LluIs; Miquel, Ramon; Garnavich, Peter; Goobar, Ariel; Ihara, Yutaka; Kessler, Richard; Lampeitl, Hubert; Nichol, Robert C.; Marriner, John; Molla, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z ≤ 0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 0.3. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of (0.37 +0.17+0.01 -0.12-0.01 ) SNur h 2 and (0.55 +0.13+0.02 -0.11-0.01 ) SNur h 2 (SNux = 10 -12 L -1 xsun yr -1 ) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be (0.31 +0.18+0.01 -0.12-0.01 ) SNur h 2 and (0.49 +0.15+0.02 -0.11-0.01 ) SNur h 2 in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be (2.04 +1.99+0.07 -1.11-0.04 ) SNur h 2 and (0.36 +0.84+0.01 -0.30-0.01 ) SNur h 2 in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The ratio of the SN Ia rate in cluster early-type galaxies to that of the SN Ia rate in field early-type galaxies is 1.94 +1.31+0.043 -0.91-0.015 and 3.02 +1.31+0.062 -1.03-0.048 , for C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate in galaxy clusters as a function of redshift, which probes the late time SN Ia delay distribution, shows only weak dependence on redshift. Combining our current measurements with previous measurements, we fit the cluster SN Ia rate data to a linear function of redshift, and find r L = [(0.49 +0.15 -0.14 )+(0.91 +0.85 -0.81 ) x z] SNuB h 2 . A comparison of the radial distribution of SNe in cluster to field early-type galaxies shows possible evidence for an enhancement of the SN rate in the cores of cluster early-type galaxies. With an observation of at most three hostless, intra-cluster SNe Ia, we estimate the fraction of cluster SNe that are hostless to be (9.4 +8.3 -5.1 )%.

  5. Constraining the role of anoxygenic phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria in deposition of BIFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, A.; Posth, N. R.; Hegler, F.; Wartha, E.; Huelin, S.

    2007-12-01

    Banded Iron Formations (BIFs) are Precambrian sedimentary deposits of alternating iron oxide and silica mineral layers. Their presence in the rock record ca.3.8-2.2 Ga makes them particularly intriguing formations for the debate over when oxygen became dominant on Earth. The mechanism(s) of BIF deposition is still unclear; suggestions including both abiotic and biotic processes. We are interested in constraining one of these proposed mechanisms; the direct biological oxidation of Fe(II) via anoxygenic Fe(II)-oxidizing autophototrophs. In order to find the limitations of photoferrotrophic BIF deposition, we take a holistic approach, investigating the oxidation of Fe(II) by modern Fe(II)-oxidizing phototrophs, the precipitation of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, and the fate of the cell-mineral aggregates in the water column and at the basin floor. Specifically, physiology experiments with Fe(II)-oxidizing phototrophs under various conditions of light intensity, pH, Fe(II) concentration and temperature allow us to determine the environmental limits of such organisms. We carry out precipitation experiments to characterize the sedimentation rates, aggregate size and composition in order to resolve the effect of reactions in the water column. Finally, we simulate the diagenetic fate of these aggregates on the basin floor by placing them in gold capsules under T and P conditions relevant for the Transvaal Supergroup BIFs of South Africa. Recently, we have developed a tank simulating the Archean ocean in which the strains grow in continuous culture and collect the aggregates formed under various geochemical conditions. We aim to model the extent of and limitations to photoferrotrophs in BIF deposition. This information will help constrain whether biotic processes were dominant in the Archean ocean and will offer insight to the evolution of the early biogeosphere.

  6. Objectives and methodology of Romanian SEPHAR II Survey. Project for comparing the prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors in two East-European countries: Romania and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorobantu, Maria; Tautu, Oana-Florentina; Darabont, Roxana; Ghiorghe, Silviu; Badila, Elisabeta; Dana, Minca; Dobreanu, Minodora; Baila, Ilarie; Rutkowski, Marcin; Zdrojewski, Tomasz

    2015-08-12

    Comparing results of representative surveys conducted in different East-European countries could contribute to a better understanding and management of cardiovascular risk factors, offering grounds for the development of health policies addressing the special needs of this high cardiovascular risk region of Europe. The aim of this paper was to describe the methodology on which the comparison between the Romanian survey SEPHAR II and the Polish survey NATPOL 2011 results is based. SEPHAR II, like NATPOL 2011, is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a representative sample of the adult Romanian population (18 to 80 years) and encompasses two visits with the following components: completing the study questionnaire, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and collection of blood and urine samples. From a total of 2223 subjects found at 2860 visited addresses, 2044 subjects gave written consent but only 1975 subjects had eligible data for the analysis, accounting for a response rate of 69.06%. Additionally we excluded 11 subjects who were 80 years of age (NATPOL 2011 included adult subjects up to 79 years). Therefore, the sample size included in the statistical analysis is 1964. It has similar age groups and gender structure as the Romanian population aged 18-79 years from the last census available at the moment of conducting the survey (weight adjustments for epidemiological analyses range from 0.48 to 8.7). Sharing many similarities, the results of SEPHAR II and NATPOL 2011 surveys can be compared by a proper statistical method offering crucial information regarding cardiovascular risk factors in a high-cardiovascular risk European region.

  7. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF 3C RADIO SOURCES WITH z < 0.3. II. COMPLETING THE SNAPSHOT SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Tremblay, G. R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Harris, D. E.; O' Dea, C. P. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kharb, P.; Axon, D. [Department of Physics, Rochester Institute of Technology, Carlson Center for Imaging Science 76-3144, 84 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Balmaverde, B.; Capetti, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Baum, S. A. [Carlson Center for Imaging Science 76-3144, 84 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Chiaberge, M.; Macchetto, F. D.; Sparks, W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martine Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gilli, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Giovannini, G. [INAF-Istituto di Radioastronomia di Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Grandi, P.; Torresi, E. [INAF-IASF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e fisica Cosmica di Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Risaliti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    We report on the second round of Chandra observations of the 3C snapshot survey developed to observe the complete sample of 3C radio sources with z < 0.3 for 8 ks each. In the first paper, we illustrated the basic data reduction and analysis procedures performed for the 30 sources of the 3C sample observed during Chandra Cycle 9, while here we present the data for the remaining 27 sources observed during Cycle 12. We measured the X-ray intensity of the nuclei and of any radio hot spots and jet features with associated X-ray emission. X-ray fluxes in three energy bands, i.e., soft, medium, and hard, for all the sources analyzed are also reported. For the stronger nuclei, we also applied the standard spectral analysis, which provides the best-fit values of the X-ray spectral index and absorbing column density. In addition, a detailed analysis of bright X-ray nuclei that could be affected by pile-up has been performed. X-ray emission was detected for all the nuclei of the radio sources in our sample except for 3C 319. Among the current sample, there are two compact steep spectrum radio sources, two broad-line radio galaxies, and one wide angle tail radio galaxy, 3C 89, hosted in a cluster of galaxies clearly visible in our Chandra snapshot observation. In addition, we also detected soft X-ray emission arising from the galaxy cluster surrounding 3C 196.1. Finally, X-ray emission from hot spots has been found in three FR II radio sources and, in the case of 3C 459, we also report the detection of X-ray emission associated with the eastern radio lobe as well as X-ray emission cospatial with radio jets in 3C 29 and 3C 402.

  8. The three isoforms of the light-harvesting complex II Spectroscopic features, trimer formation, and functional roles

    CERN Document Server

    Standfuss, Jorg

    2004-01-01

    The major light-harvesting complex (LHC-II) of higher plants plays a crucial role in capturing light energy for photosynthesis and in regulating the flow of energy within the photosynthetic apparatus. Native LHC-II isolated from plant tissue consists of three isoforms, Lhcb1, Lhcb2, and Lhcb3, which form homo- and heterotrimers. All three isoforms are highly conserved among different species, suggesting distinct functional roles. We produced the three LHC-II isoforms by heterologous expression of the polypeptide in Escherichia coli and in vitro refolding with purified pigments. Although Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 are very similar in polypeptide sequence and pigment content, Lhcb3 is clearly different because it lacks an N-terminal phosphorylation site and has a higher chlorophyll a/b ratio, suggesting the absence of one chlorophyll b. Low temperature absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of the pure isoforms revealed small but significant differences in pigment organization. The oligomeric state of the pure isofo...

  9. Dual role for myosin II in GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulcher, F. Kent; Smith, Bethany T.; Russ, Misty; Patel, Yashomati M.

    2008-01-01

    Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake requires the activation of several signaling pathways to mediate the translocation and fusion of GLUT4 vesicles to the plasma membrane. Our previous studies demonstrated that GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake is a myosin II-dependent process in adipocytes. The experiments described in this report are the first to show a dual role for the myosin IIA isoform specifically in regulating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. We demonstrate that inhibition of MLCK but not RhoK results in impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Furthermore, our studies show that insulin specifically stimulates the phosphorylation of the RLC associated with the myosin IIA isoform via MLCK. In time course experiments, we determined that GLUT4 translocates to the plasma membrane prior to myosin IIA recruitment. We further show that recruitment of myosin IIA to the plasma membrane requires that myosin IIA be activated via phosphorylation of the RLC by MLCK. Our findings also reveal that myosin II is required for proper GLUT4-vesicle fusion at the plasma membrane. We show that once at the plasma membrane, myosin II is involved in regulating the intrinsic activity of GLUT4 after insulin stimulation. Collectively, our results are the first to reveal that myosin IIA plays a critical role in mediating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-LI adipocytes, via both GLUT4 vesicle fusion at the plasma membrane and GLUT4 activity

  10. Novel roles for metallothionein-I + II (MT-I + II) in defense responses, neurogenesis, and tissue restoration after traumatic brain injury: insights from global gene expression profiling in wild-type and MT-I + II knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Cáceres, Mario; Borup, Rehannah

    2006-01-01

    of the somatosensorial cortex and killed at 0, 1, 4, 8, and 16 days postlesion (dpl) using Affymetrix genechips/oligonucleotide arrays interrogating approximately 10,000 different murine genes (MG_U74Av2). Hierarchical clustering analysis of these genes readily shows an orderly pattern of gene responses at specific...... and opened new avenues that were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Data in KO, MT-I-overexpressing, and MT-II-injected mice strongly suggest a role of these proteins in postlesional activation of neural stem cells....

  11. WW II "guinea pigs" played crucial role in refining plastic surgery in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Wilton, P

    1998-01-01

    When WW II started, Canada had only 4 plastic surgeons. One of them, Dr. Ross Tilley, would treat hundreds of Allied airmen whose bodies needed massive reconstruction because of war injuries. These men became known as the guinea pigs, and Tilley would bring the lessons he learned on them back to Canada.

  12. Transarterial Embolization of Type II Endoleaks after EVAR: The Role of Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller-Wille, René; Wohlgemuth, Walter A.; Heiss, Peter; Wiggermann, Philipp; Güntner, Oliver; Schreyer, Andreas G.; Hoffstetter, Patrick; Stroszczynski, Christian; Zorger, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of transarterial endoleak embolization using the liquid embolic agent ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx). Methods: Over a 7-year period eleven patients (6 women, 5 men; mean age 68 years, range 37–83 years) underwent transarterial embolization of a type II endoleak after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair using the liquid embolic agent Onyx. Two patients (18 %) had a simple type II endoleak with only one artery in communication with the aneurysm sac, whereas 9 patients (82 %) had a complex type II endoleak with multiple communicating vessels. We retrospectively analyzed the technical and clinical success of transarterial type II endoleak embolization with Onyx. Complete embolization of the nidus was defined as technical success. Embolization was considered clinically successful when volume of the aneurysm sac was stable or decreased on follow-up CT scans. Result: Mean follow-up time was 26.0 (range 6–50) months. Clinical success was achieved in 8 of 11 patients (73 %). Transarterial nidus embolization with Onyx was technically successful in 6 of 11 patients (55 %). In three cases the nidus was embolized without direct catheterization from a more distal access through the network of collateral vessels. Conclusion: Onyx is a favorable embolic agent for transarterial endoleak embolization. To achieve the best clinical results, complete occlusion of the nidus is mandatory

  13. Sales and marketing's partnership role in class A MRP II (material requirements planning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, J R; Lerner, W

    1994-08-01

    As the material and requirements planning (MRP) II process has evolved, many companies have discovered that the process is greatly enhanced when the entire business participates. The sales and operations planning process is the forum for the businesswide decisions concerning sales, production, and inventory. Sales and marketing must be integral parts of these decision-making activities.

  14. Transarterial Embolization of Type II Endoleaks after EVAR: The Role of Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Wille, Rene, E-mail: rene.mueller-wille@ukr.de; Wohlgemuth, Walter A., E-mail: walter.wohlgemuth@ukr.de; Heiss, Peter, E-mail: peter.heiss@ukr.de; Wiggermann, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.wiggermann@ukr.de; Guentner, Oliver, E-mail: oliverguentner@yahoo.de; Schreyer, Andreas G., E-mail: andreas.schreyer@ukr.de; Hoffstetter, Patrick, E-mail: p.hoffstetter@asklepios.com; Stroszczynski, Christian, E-mail: christian.stros@ukr.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Zorger, Niels, E-mail: niels.zorger@barmherzige-regensburg.de [Krankenhaus Barmherzige Brueder Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of transarterial endoleak embolization using the liquid embolic agent ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx). Methods: Over a 7-year period eleven patients (6 women, 5 men; mean age 68 years, range 37-83 years) underwent transarterial embolization of a type II endoleak after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair using the liquid embolic agent Onyx. Two patients (18 %) had a simple type II endoleak with only one artery in communication with the aneurysm sac, whereas 9 patients (82 %) had a complex type II endoleak with multiple communicating vessels. We retrospectively analyzed the technical and clinical success of transarterial type II endoleak embolization with Onyx. Complete embolization of the nidus was defined as technical success. Embolization was considered clinically successful when volume of the aneurysm sac was stable or decreased on follow-up CT scans. Result: Mean follow-up time was 26.0 (range 6-50) months. Clinical success was achieved in 8 of 11 patients (73 %). Transarterial nidus embolization with Onyx was technically successful in 6 of 11 patients (55 %). In three cases the nidus was embolized without direct catheterization from a more distal access through the network of collateral vessels. Conclusion: Onyx is a favorable embolic agent for transarterial endoleak embolization. To achieve the best clinical results, complete occlusion of the nidus is mandatory.

  15. THE HETDEX PILOT SURVEY. IV. THE EVOLUTION OF [O II] EMITTING GALAXIES FROM z ∼ 0.5 TO z ∼ 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Schneider, Donald P.; Zeimann, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the luminosities and equivalent widths of the 284 z 2 pilot survey for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). By combining emission-line fluxes obtained from the Mitchell spectrograph on the McDonald 2.7 m telescope with deep broadband photometry from archival data, we derive each galaxy's dereddened [O II] λ3727 luminosity and calculate its total star formation rate. We show that over the last ∼5 Gyr of cosmic time, there has been substantial evolution in the [O II] emission-line luminosity function, with L* decreasing by ∼0.6 ± 0.2 dex in the observed function, and by ∼0.9 ± 0.2 dex in the dereddened relation. Accompanying this decline is a significant shift in the distribution of [O II] equivalent widths, with the fraction of high equivalent-width emitters declining dramatically with time. Overall, the data imply that the relative intensity of star formation within galaxies has decreased over the past ∼5 Gyr, and that the star formation rate density of the universe has declined by a factor of ∼2.5 between z ∼ 0.5 and z ∼ 0. These observations represent the first [O II]-based star formation rate density measurements in this redshift range, and foreshadow the advancements which will be generated by the main HETDEX survey.

  16. Impact of Providing Information to Parents in Texas about the Role of Algebra II in College Admission. REL 2018-290

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Ginger; Mellor, Lynn

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the impact of providing parents with an informational brochure about the role of algebra II in college access on students' grade 11 algebra II completion rates in Texas. One hundred nine schools, covering all 20 Educational Service Center regions in Texas, participated in the study. Parents in the 54 treatment schools were…

  17. The Importance of the Maternal/Self-Role Satisfaction for Reducing Anxiety: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Japanese Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Riho; Arimoto, Azusa; Naruse, Takashi; Nagata, Satoko; Murashima, Sachiyo

    Women who rear children have two types of roles: the maternal role and the self-role. Previous studies have suggested that maternal role satisfaction is related to anxiety, but the importance of self-role satisfaction in promoting the health of mothers has received less attention. The changing roles of women in society, especially in urban areas, have altered mothers' views of child-rearing. Our primary focus was on the relationship between maternal/self-role satisfaction and anxiety in mothers. To examine this, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using self-administered questionnaires that were distributed in 2011 to 2,342 mothers attending the 18-month health checkup of their children, in 7 cities of the Tokyo metropolitan area. A total of 881 responded (effective response rate = 38.0%). Multiple regression analysis revealed that maternal role satisfaction and self-role satisfaction were both significantly and negatively associated with anxiety. Thus, self-role satisfaction should be considered alongside maternal role satisfaction in evaluating and reducing anxiety. Health care professionals in community settings should conduct comprehensive assessments of maternal role satisfaction and self-role satisfaction.

  18. Societal Planning: Identifying a New Role for the Transport Planner-Part II: Planning Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khisty, C. Jotin; Leleur, Steen

    1997-01-01

    The paper seeks to formulate planning guidelines based on Habermas's theory of communicative action. Specifically, this has led to the formulation of a set of four planning validity claims concerned to four types of planning guidelines concerning adequacy, dependency, suitability and adaptability......-a-vis the planning validity claims. Among other things the contingency of this process is outlined. It is concluded (part I & II) that transport planners can conveniently utilize the guidelines in their professional practice, tailored to their particular settings....

  19. Moche Geopolitical Networks and the Dynamic Role of Licapa II, Chicama Valley, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Koons, Michele Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines Moche (A.D. 300-900) sociopolitical organization in northern Peru at the previously unexplored site of Licapa II, a mid-sized ceremonial center in the Chicama Valley. Moche’s distinct archaeological signatures, chiefly, ceramics and architecture, have long been seen as emblematic of an ethnic and political reality and defined as evidence for the first South American state although recent scholarship has begun to view Moche as a more complex mosaic of interacting set...

  20. Second Stage (S-II) Plays Key Role in Apollo missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    This photograph of the Saturn V Second Stage (S-II) clearly shows the cluster of five powerful J-2 engines needed to boost the Apollo spacecraft into earth orbit following first stage separation. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  1. Are physicians aware of their role in tobacco control? A conference-based survey in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravara, Sofia B; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Aguiar, Pedro; Calheiros, Jose M

    2014-09-20

    The crucial role of physicians in tobacco control (TC) is widely recognized. In 2008, Portugal implemented a non-comprehensive smoke-free policy (SFP). In 2009, a conference-survey was carried out to explore Portuguese physicians' engagement in tobacco control, by evaluating the following: 1) attendance at TC training and awareness of training needs; 2) participation in TC activities; 3) attitudes and beliefs regarding SFPs. Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted during two major national medical conferences targeting GPs, hospitalists, and students/recent graduates. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were performed. Response rate was 63.7% (605/950). Of the 605 participants, 58.3% were GPs, 32.4% hospitalists, 9.3% others; 62.6% were female; mean age was 39.0 ± 12.9 years. Smoking prevalence was 29.2% (95% CI: 23.3-35.1) in males; 15.8% (95% CI: 12.1-19.5) in females, p health, awareness of SFP benefits and TC law was limited, p outdoors bans in healthcare/schools settings and smoking restrictions in the home/car, p outdoors and private settings. The findings suggest that Portuguese physicians are not aware of their role in tobacco control. Poor engagement of physicians in TC may contribute to the current lack of comprehensive policies in Portugal and Europe and undermine social norm change. Medical and professional continuing education on tobacco control should be made top priorities.

  2. The role of haptic feedback in laparoscopic training using the LapMentor II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkini, Mohamad W; Doarn, Charles R; Kiehl, Nicholai; Broderick, Timothy J; Donovan, James F; Gaitonde, Krishnanath

    2010-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has become the standard of care for many surgical diseases. Haptic (tactile) feedback (HFB) is considered an important component of laparoscopic surgery. Virtual reality simulation (VRS) is an alternative method to teach surgical skills to surgeons in training. Newer VRS trainers such as the Simbionix Lap Mentor II provide significantly improved tactile feedback. However, VRSs are expensive and adding HFB software adds an estimated cost of $30,000 to the commercial price. The HFB provided by the Lap Mentor II has not been validated by an independent party. We used the Simbionix Lap Mentor II in this study to demonstrate the effect of adding an HFB mechanism in the VRS trainer. The study was approved by the University of Cincinnati Institutional Review Board. Twenty laparoscopically novice medical students were enrolled. Each student was asked to perform three different tasks on the Lap Mentor II and repeat each one five times. The chosen tasks demanded significant amount of traction and counter traction. The first task was to pull leaking tubes enough and clip them. The second task was stretching a jelly plate enough to see its attachments to the floor and cut these attachments. In the third task, the trainee had to separate the gallbladder from its bed on the liver. The students were randomized into two groups to perform the tasks with and without HFB. We used accuracy, speed, and economy of movement as scales to compare the performance between the two groups. The participants also completed a simple questionnaire that highlighted age, sex, and experiences in videogame usage. The two groups were comparable in age, sex, and videogame playing. No differences in the accuracy, the economy, and the speed of hand movement were noticed. In fact, adding HFB to the Lap Mentor II simulator did not contribute to any improvement in the performance of the trainees. Interestingly, we found that videogame expert players tend to have faster and more economic

  3. Measurements of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae at Redshift z < ~0.3 from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Smith, Mathew; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /Portsmouth U.; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bender, Ralf; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ.; Castander, Francisco; /Barcelona, IEEC; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; /UC, Berkeley; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Galbany, Lluis; /Barcelona, IFAE; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.

    2010-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The adopted sample of supernovae (SNe) includes 516 SNe Ia at redshift z {approx}< 0.3, of which 270 (52%) are spectroscopically identified as SNe Ia. The remaining 246 SNe Ia were identified through their light curves; 113 of these objects have spectroscopic redshifts from spectra of their host galaxy, and 133 have photometric redshifts estimated from the SN light curves. Based on consideration of 87 spectroscopically confirmed non-Ia SNe discovered by the SDSS-II SN Survey, we estimate that 2.04{sub -0.95}{sup +1.61}% of the photometric SNe Ia may be misidentified. The sample of SNe Ia used in this measurement represents an order of magnitude increase in the statistics for SN Ia rate measurements in the redshift range covered by the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. If we assume a SN Ia rate that is constant at low redshift (z < 0.15), then the SN observations can be used to infer a value of the SN rate of r{sub V} = (2.69{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.34+0.21}) x 10{sup -5} SNe yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} (H{sub 0}/(70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1})){sup 3} at a mean redshift of {approx} 0.12, based on 79 SNe Ia of which 72 are spectroscopically confirmed. However, the large sample of SNe Ia included in this study allows us to place constraints on the redshift dependence of the SN Ia rate based on the SDSS-II Supernova Survey data alone. Fitting a power-law model of the SN rate evolution, r{sub V} (z) = A{sub p} x ((1+z)/(1+z{sub 0})){sup {nu}}, over the redshift range 0.0 < z < 0.3 with z{sub 0} = 0.21, results in A{sub p} = (3.43{sub -0.15}{sup +0.15}) x 10{sup -5} SNe yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} (H{sub 0}/(70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1})){sup 3} and {nu} = 2.04{sub -0.89}{sup +0.90}.

  4. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. II. Spectroscopic redshifts and comparisons to color selections of high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, H.; Bacon, R.; Brinchmann, J.; Richard, J.; Contini, T.; Conseil, S.; Hamer, S.; Akhlaghi, M.; Bouché, N.; Clément, B.; Desprez, G.; Drake, A. B.; Hashimoto, T.; Leclercq, F.; Maseda, M.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Paalvast, M.; Tresse, L.; Ventou, E.; Kollatschny, W.; Boogaard, L. A.; Finley, H.; Marino, R. A.; Schaye, J.; Wisotzki, L.

    2017-11-01

    We have conducted a two-layered spectroscopic survey (1' × 1' ultra deep and 3' × 3' deep regions) in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE). The combination of a large field of view, high sensitivity, and wide wavelength coverage provides an order of magnitude improvement in spectroscopically confirmed redshifts in the HUDF; i.e., 1206 secure spectroscopic redshifts for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) continuum selected objects, which corresponds to 15% of the total (7904). The redshift distribution extends well beyond z> 3 and to HST/F775W magnitudes as faint as ≈ 30 mag (AB, 1σ). In addition, 132 secure redshifts were obtained for sources with no HST counterparts that were discovered in the MUSE data cubes by a blind search for emission-line features. In total, we present 1338 high quality redshifts, which is a factor of eight increase compared with the previously known spectroscopic redshifts in the same field. We assessed redshifts mainly with the spectral features [O II] at zcolor selection (dropout) diagrams of high-z galaxies. The selection condition for F336W dropouts successfully captures ≈ 80% of the targeted z 2.7 galaxies. However, for higher redshift selections (F435W, F606W, and F775W dropouts), the success rates decrease to ≈ 20-40%. We empirically redefine the selection boundaries to make an attempt to improve them to ≈ 60%. The revised boundaries allow bluer colors that capture Lyα emitters with high Lyα equivalent widths falling in the broadbands used for the color-color selection. Along with this paper, we release the redshift and line flux catalog. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program IDs 094.A-0289(B), 095.A-0010(A), 096.A-0045(A) and 096.A-0045(B).MUSE Ultra Deep Field redshift catalogs (Full Table A.1) are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  5. Angiotensin II, hypertension and angiotensin II receptor antagonism: Roles in the behavioural and brain pathology of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiesmann, M.; Roelofs, M.; Lugt, R. Van Der; Heerschap, A.; Kiliaan, A.J.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2017-01-01

    Elevated angiotensin II causes hypertension and contributes to Alzheimer's disease by affecting cerebral blood flow. Angiotensin II receptor blockers may provide candidates to reduce (vascular) risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. We studied effects of two months of angiotensin II-induced

  6. A cross-sectional survey on consequences of nurses' burnout: moderating role of organizational politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Ufuk; Basim, Nejat

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether perceptions of organizational politics (defined as self-serving behaviours at the expense of others) influence the prospective associations between nurses' burnout and its consequences, namely, intention to quit and neglect of work. Researchers have previously investigated relationships between nurses' burnout, intention to quit, neglect of work and perceptions of organizational politics in different research models and from different perspectives. As far as we know, no studies have considered whether nurses' perceptions of organizational politics moderate the influence of burnout. A cross-sectional survey using self-report questionnaires. Data were collected by questionnaire from a sample of 456 nurses from six private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey in March 2015. Four different previously designed scales were used to measure research variables (burnout, intention to quit, neglect of work and perceptions of organizational politics). Following confirmatory validity and reliability analyses of data collection instruments, descriptive statistics for each research variable were analysed. Structural regression models were created to assess relationships among variables. Burnout resulted in intention to quit and neglect. Intention to quit partially mediated the association between burnout and neglect. Burnout gave rise to intention to quit slightly more strongly in nurses who had greater perceptions of organizational politics. This study uncovers and emphasizes the moderating role of perceptions of organizational politics in consequences of burnout. This may help hospital managers and nurses to improve costs, efficiency, satisfaction and productivity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Protective role of quercetin against copper(II)-induced oxidative stress: A spectroscopic, theoretical and DNA damage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomova, Klaudia; Lawson, Michael; Drostinova, Lenka; Lauro, Peter; Poprac, Patrik; Brezova, Vlasta; Michalik, Martin; Lukes, Vladimir; Valko, Marian

    2017-12-01

    The radical scavenging and metal chelating properties of flavonoids indicate that they may play a protective role in diseases with perturbed metal homeostasis such as Alzheimer's disease. In this work we investigated the effect of the coordination of quercetin to copper(II) in view of the formation of ROS in Cu-catalyzed Fenton reaction. ABTS and DPPH assays confirmed that the copper(II)-quercetin complex exhibits a stronger radical scavenging activity than does quercetin alone. EPR spin trapping experiments have shown that chelation of quercetin to copper significantly suppressed the formation of hydroxyl radicals in the Cu(II)-Fenton reaction. DNA damage experiments revealed a protective effect for quercetin, but only at higher stoichiometric ratios of quercetin relative to copper. DNA protective effect of quercetin against ROS attack was described by two mechanisms. The first mechanism lies in suppressed formation of ROS due to the decreased catalytic action of copper in the Fenton reaction, as a consequence of its chelation and direct scavenging of ROS by free quercetin. Since the Cu-quercetin complex intercalates into DNA, the second mechanism was attributed to a suppressed intercalating ability of the Cu-quercetin complex due to the mildly intercalating free quercetin into DNA, thus creating a protective wall against stronger intercalators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. What role for social sciences in socio-hydrology? Results from an online survey among hydrologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Roman; Barthel, Roland; Stauffacher, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The necessity of a more integrated approach in hydrological research has been highlighted by the IAHS scientific decade 2013-2022 "Panta Rhei", dedicated to foster multi-disciplinary research activities on changes in hydrology and society (Montanari, Young et al. 2013). On a similar note, the concept of Socio-Hydrology (Sivapalan, Savenije et al. 2012) suggests a much deeper involvement of hydrologists in socio-economic questions. Despite this general consensus, it remains unclear how such interdisciplinary approaches should be carried out and, in particular, which roles hydrological sciences (HS) and social sciences and the humanities (SSH) should assume. In order to evaluate the opinion of HS on the mutual contributions of HS and SSH to the process of integration, an online survey was prepared by the authors and announced through the newsletters of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS). Two sets of questions offered a choice of potential contributions to interdisciplinary processes of HS and SSH respectively. A third group of questions asked for the status of integration of HS and SSH and if improvements are needed. Finally, participants were asked to rank different options to foster or improve cooperation between natural and social scientists. 141 questionnaires could be used for further analysis. As expected the background of most participants is hydrology, but many also mention more than one discipline. Most participants have their main place of work in Europe. The answers were analysed using Factor and Cluster analysis to reveal potential patterns in the data. The main results from the survey can be summarized like this: The majority of respondents agrees that SSH is not well integrated into hydrological research as yet and most participants see a need for better cooperation. Expectations from hydrologists who should do what in integrative work, reveal that some roles are

  9. Does circadian disruption play a role in the metabolic-hormonal link to delayed lactogenesis II?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjie eFu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding improves maternal and child health. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months, with continued breastfeeding for at least one year. However, in the US, only 18.8% of infants are exclusively breastfed until six months of age. For mothers who initiate breastfeeding, the early postpartum period sets the stage for sustained breastfeeding. Mothers who experience breastfeeding problems in the early postpartum period are more likely to discontinue breastfeeding within two weeks. A major risk factor for shorter breastfeeding duration is delayed lactogenesis II (i.e. onset of milk coming in more than 72 h postpartum. Recent studies report a metabolic-hormonal link to delayed lactogenesis II. This is not surprising because around the time of birth the mother’s entire metabolism changes to direct nutrients to mammary glands. Circadian and metabolic systems are closely linked, and our rodent studies suggest circadian clocks coordinate hormonal and metabolic changes to support lactation. Molecular and environmental disruption of the circadian system decreases a dam’s ability to initiate lactation and negatively impacts milk production. Circadian and metabolic systems evolved to be functional and adaptive when lifestyles and environmental exposures were quite different from modern times. We now have artificial lights, longer work days, and increases in shift work. Disruption in the circadian system due to shift work, jet lag, sleep disorders and other modern life style choices are associated with metabolic disorders, obesity, and impaired reproduction. We hypothesize delayed lactogenesis II is related to disruption of the mother’s circadian system. Here we review literature that supports this hypothesis, and describe interventions that may help to increase breastfeeding success.

  10. Role of Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Stage II Thymoma After Complete Tumor Resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yidong; Feng Qinfu; Lu Haizhen; Mao Yousheng; Zhou Zongmei; Ou Guangfei; Wang Mei; Zhao Jun; Zhang Hongxing; Xiao Zefen; Chen Dongfu; Liang Jun; Zhai Yirui; Wang Luhua; He Jie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether patients with Masaoka stage II thymoma benefit from adjuvant radiation therapy after complete tumor resection. Methods and Materials: A total of 107 patients with stage II thymoma who underwent complete resection of their tumors between September 1964 and October 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. Sixty-six patients were treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, and 41 patients received surgery alone. Results: Eight patients (7.5%) had a relapse of their disease, including two patients (4.5%) who had surgery alone, and 6 patients (9.5%) who had adjuvant radiation therapy. Disease-free survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 92.3% and 82.6%, respectively, for the surgery-plus-radiation group, and 97.6% and 93.1%, respectively, for the group that underwent surgery alone (p = 0.265). Disease-specific survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 96.4% and 89.3%, respectively, for the surgery-plus-radiation group and 97.5% and 97.5% for the surgery group (p = 0.973). On univariate analysis, patients with type B3 thymomas had the lowest disease-free survival rates among all subtypes (p = 0.001), and patients with large thymomas (>7 cm) had lower disease-specific survival rates than those with small tumors (<7 cm) (p = 0.017). On multivariate analysis, histological type (type B3) thymoma was a significant independent prognostic factor. Conclusions: Adjuvant radiotherapy after complete tumor resection for patients with stage II thymoma did not significantly reduce recurrence rates or improve survival rates. Histological type (type B3) thymoma was a significant independent prognostic factor. Further investigation should be carried out using a multicenter randomized or controlled study.

  11. OTELO SURVEY: DEEP BVRI BROADBAND PHOTOMETRY OF THE GROTH STRIP. II. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF X-RAY EMITTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povic, M.; Perez GarcIa, A. M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Castaneda, H.; Lorenzo, M. Fernandez; Lara-Lopez, M. A.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Cepa, J.; Alfaro, E.; Gallego, J.; Gonzalez-Serrano, J. I.; Gonzalez, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    The Groth field is one of the sky regions that will be targeted by the OSIRIS Tunable Filter Emission Line Object survey in the optical 820 nm and 920 nm atmospheric windows. In the present paper, public Chandra X-ray data with total exposure time of 200 ks are analyzed and combined with optical broadband data of the Groth field, in order to study a set of optical structural parameters of the X-ray emitters and its relation with X-ray properties. To this aim, we processed the raw, public X-ray data using the Chandra Interactive Analysis of Observations, and determined and analyzed different structural parameters, in order to produce a morphological classification of X-ray sources. We present the morphology of 340 X-ray emitters with optical counterpart detected. Objects have been classified by X-ray type using a diagnostic diagram relating X-ray-to-optical ratio (X/O) to hardness ratio. We did not find any clear correlation between X-ray and morphological types. We analyzed the angular clustering of X-ray sources with optical counterpart using two-point correlation functions. A significant positive angular clustering was obtained from a preliminary analysis of four subsamples of the X-ray sources catalog. The clustering signal of the optically extended counterparts is similar to that of strongly clustered populations like red and very red galaxies, suggesting that the environment plays an important role in active galactic nuclei phenomena. Finally, we combined optical structural parameters with other X-ray and optical properties, and we confirmed an anticorrelation between the X/O ratio and the Abraham concentration index, which might suggest that early-type galaxies have lower Eddington rates than those of late-type galaxies.

  12. The Segue K giant survey. II. A catalog of distance determinations for the Segue K giants in the galactic halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Xiang-Xiang; Rix, Hans-Walter; Ma, Zhibo; Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul; Beers, Timothy C.; Ivans, Inese I.; Jacobson, Heather R.; Johnson, Jennifer; Lee, Young Sun; Lucatello, Sara; Rockosi, Constance M.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Yanny, Brian; Zhao, Gang; Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We present an online catalog of distance determinations for 6036 K giants, most of which are members of the Milky Way's stellar halo. Their medium-resolution spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration are used to derive metallicities and rough gravity estimates, along with radial velocities. Distance moduli are derived from a comparison of each star's apparent magnitude with the absolute magnitude of empirically calibrated color-luminosity fiducials, at the observed (g – r) 0 color and spectroscopic [Fe/H]. We employ a probabilistic approach that makes it straightforward to properly propagate the errors in metallicities, magnitudes, and colors into distance uncertainties. We also fold in prior information about the giant-branch luminosity function and the different metallicity distributions of the SEGUE K-giant targeting sub-categories. We show that the metallicity prior plays a small role in the distance estimates, but that neglecting the luminosity prior could lead to a systematic distance modulus bias of up to 0.25 mag, compared to the case of using the luminosity prior. We find a median distance precision of 16%, with distance estimates most precise for the least metal-poor stars near the tip of the red giant branch. The precision and accuracy of our distance estimates are validated with observations of globular and open clusters. The stars in our catalog are up to 125 kpc from the Galactic center, with 283 stars beyond 50 kpc, forming the largest available spectroscopic sample of distant tracers in the Galactic halo.

  13. Role of integrin-linked kinase in vascular smooth muscle cells: Regulation by statins and angiotensin II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Erik B.; Clever, Yvonne P.; Wassmann, Sven; Werner, Nikos; Boehm, Michael; Nickenig, Georg

    2006-01-01

    Our goal was to characterize the role of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), which play a crucial role in atherogenesis. Transfection of VSMC with wild-type and dominant-negative ILK cDNA constructs revealed that ILK mediates migration and proliferation of VSMC but has no effect on VSMC survival. The pro-atherogenic mediator angiotensin II increases ILK protein expression and kinase activity while statin treatment down-regulates ILK in VSMC. Functionally, ILK is necessary for angiotensin II-mediated VSMC migration and proliferation. In VSMC transduced with dominant-negative ILK, statins mediate an additive inhibition of VSMC migration and proliferation, while transfection with wild-type ILK is sufficient to overcome the inhibitory effects of statin treatment on VSMC migration and proliferation. In vivo, ILK is expressed in VSMC of aortic sections from wild-type mice where it is down-regulated following statin treatment and up-regulated following induction of atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice. These data identify ILK as a novel target in VSMC for anti-atherosclerotic therapy

  14. The Role Of Grenelle II In Corporate Social Responsibility Integrated Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw Wolniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is in the paper, the analysis of the Grenelle II act from Corporate Social Responsibility reporting point of view. France has long been an important global champion of corporate sustainability reporting. While this trend has advanced the integration of CSR into business practices, the increasing number of regulations has also made it more complicated and costly for international companies to create reports that fulfill the differing requirements of each foreign law. The Grenelle 2 law adopted in July 2010, implements the Grenelle 1 goals. It sets specific objectives, strategic, incentives and regulations. This Act aims at forcing companies to progress in reporting their environmental and social information: there is no sanction (such as fines, requirements are on a “comply or explain” basis and the implementation is progressive. The main advantage of such an Grenelle II Act is a beginning and will have to be rewritten and improved, taking into account the international movement – is to shift minds regarding CSR. CSR and extra-financial information has nothing to do with communication anymore: it is clearly a strategic and management process, facilitated by the reporting process.

  15. Achilles tendon and plantar fascia in recently diagnosed type II diabetes: role of body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Michele; Schiavone, Cosima; Di Carlo, Luigi; Salini, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    Previous research has shown that plantar fascia and Achilles tendon thickness is increased in diabetes. The aims of present study were to assess whether tendon changes can occur in the early stages of the disease and to evaluate the extent of the influence of body mass index (BMI). The study population included 51 recent-onset type II diabetic subjects, who were free from diabetic complications, divided according to BMI into three groups (normal weight, overweight, and obese). Eighteen non-diabetic, normal-weight subjects served as controls. Plantar fascia and Achilles tendon thickness was measured by means of sonography. The groups were well balanced for age and sex. In all the diabetic subjects, plantar fascia and Achilles tendon thickness was increased compared to the controls (p plantar fascia thickness and BMI values (r = 0.749, p plantar fascia and Achilles tendon thickness is increased in the early stages of type II diabetes and that BMI is related more to plantar fascia than Achilles tendon thickness. Further longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate whether these early changes can overload the metatarsal heads and increase the stress transmitted to plantar soft tissues, thus representing an additional risk factor for foot ulcer development.

  16. Evaluation of keratoconus in Asians: role of Orbscan II and Tomey TMS-2 corneal topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Li; Wei, Rui Hua; Chan, Wing Kwong; Tan, Donald T H

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate the corneal topographic patterns of Asian patients with keratoconus (KC). Prospective observational case-control study. Institutional. A total of 116 patients (both eyes included) with KC were recruited. The control group consisted of 70 laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) candidates with myopia. Patients with previous ocular surgery and trauma were excluded. Corneal topography was performed using the Tomey KC screening system (Topographic Modeling System, software version 2.4.2J, Tomey Corp, Nagoya, Japan) and Orbscan II corneal topography system (Bausch & Lomb Surgical, Orbtek Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA). Videokeratographic variables were analyzed and the eyes were grouped into KC, KC suspect, and control groups. The corneal topographic patterns of 196 eyes were analyzed. The topographic patterns displayed by Tomey (TMS-2N) and Orbscan II were similar. The majority of eyes with KC (71.2%) and KC suspect (70%) had asymmetric bowtie patterns. Thirteen indices of TMS-2N were analyzed and the means of the indices were found to be significantly higher in eyes in the KC group than the KC suspect group (P TMS-2N.

  17. Heat-induced reorganization of the structure of photosystem II membranes: role of oxygen evolving complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busheva, Mira; Tzonova, Iren; Stoitchkova, Katerina; Andreeva, Atanaska

    2012-12-05

    The sensitivity of the green plants' photosystem II (PSII) to high temperatures is investigated in PSII enriched membranes and in membranes, from which the oxygen evolving complex is removed. Using steady-state 77 K fluorescence and resonance Raman spectroscopy we analyze the interdependency between the temperature-driven changes in structure and energy distribution in the PSII supercomplex. The results show that the heat treatment induces different reduction of the 77 K fluorescence emission in both types of investigated membranes: (i) an additional considerable decrease of the overall fluorescence emission in Tris-washed membranes as compared to the native membranes; (ii) a transition point at 42°C(,) observed only in native membranes; (iii) a sharp reduction of the PSII core fluorescence in Tris-washed membranes at temperatures higher than 50°C; (iv) a 3 nm red-shift of F700 band's maximum in Tris-washed membranes already at 20°C and its further shift by 1 nm at temperature increase. Both treatments intensified their action by increasing the aggregation and dissociation of the peripheral light harvesting complexes. The oxygen-evolving complex, in addition to its main function to produce O(2), increases the thermal stability of PSII core by strengthening the connection between the core and the peripheral antenna proteins and by keeping their structural integrity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Cameron A, Arizona, detail area. Volume II A. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II A contains appendices for: stacked profiles; geologic histograms; geochemical histograms; speed and altitude histograms; geologic statistical tables; geochemical statistical tables; magnetic and ancillary profiles; and test line data

  19. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Monument Valley B, Utah, detail area. Volume II A. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II A contains appendices for: stacked profiles; geologic histograms; geochemical histograms; speed and altitude histograms; geologic statistical tables; geochemical statistical tables; magnetic and ancillary profiles; and test line data

  20. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Monument Valley B, Utah, detail area. Volume II B. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II B contains appendices for: flight line maps; geology maps; explanation of geologic legend; flight line/geology maps; radiometric contour maps; magnetic contour maps; and geochemical factor analysis maps

  1. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Monument Valley A, Utah, detail area. Volume II B. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II B contains appendices for: flight line maps; geology maps; explanation of geologic legend; flight line/geology maps; radiometric contour maps; magnetic contour maps; multi-variant analysis maps; and geochemical factor analysis maps

  2. Role of the operator in nuclear power plants as determined from a survey of the North American nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spelt, P.F.

    1993-01-01

    Results of an empirical survey, one of the first to deal with the Role of the Operator in nuclear power plants in North America, are presented. The survey showed that the theoretical match between operators' responsibility and control (written definition of ''role'') is not supported by the numerical evaluations of these two concepts. Across a dimension from existing to advanced reactors, there is increasingly a shift from hands-on manipulation and readout-by-readout information integration by the operators to a role in which the operator is a passive monitor whose primary task is to give permissives to the automated control system. There is a decreasing degree of control for operators, while responsibility remains high. Decreased control coupled with high responsibility may create shift operating staff problems

  3. A study on the role adjustment between central and local government II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuk, D. I.; Ahn, S. K.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this research is to construct new system and feasible action plans by seeking solutions for more effective redistribution of the nuclear regulatory roles between central and local governments. From 1995 on, since local autonomy system has been reimplemented in Korea, it is imperative to develop reformative alternatives for the decentralization of powers between central and local governments. The core devolution is to redistribute administrative roles and functions which have been centralized, toward both self-governing bodies and communities including NGO. The level of devolution in nuclear regulatory system depends on how to redistribute nuclear related roles and functions among central/local government with KINS. Therefore, it is very important to examine general principles criteria and type of domestic/foreign role adjustment for effective/rational/democratic nuclear regulation. Based on previous model and system proposed, role adjustment action plans are reviewed taking account of the nuclear environmental changes in the localization era. In the long run, the result of this research will be expected to utilize the optimal and democratic regulatory system in Korea

  4. A study on the role adjustment between central and local government II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuk, D. I. [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, S. K. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The goal of this research is to construct new system and feasible action plans by seeking solutions for more effective redistribution of the nuclear regulatory roles between central and local governments. From 1995 on, since local autonomy system has been reimplemented in Korea, it is imperative to develop reformative alternatives for the decentralization of powers between central and local governments. The core devolution is to redistribute administrative roles and functions which have been centralized, toward both self-governing bodies and communities including NGO. The level of devolution in nuclear regulatory system depends on how to redistribute nuclear related roles and functions among central/local government with KINS. Therefore, it is very important to examine general principles criteria and type of domestic/foreign role adjustment for effective/rational/democratic nuclear regulation. Based on previous model and system proposed, role adjustment action plans are reviewed taking account of the nuclear environmental changes in the localization era. In the long run, the result of this research will be expected to utilize the optimal and democratic regulatory system in Korea.

  5. Cardiovascular prevention guidelines in daily practice: a comparison of EUROASPIRE I, II, and III surveys in eight European countries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kotseva, Kornelia

    2009-03-14

    The first and second EUROASPIRE surveys showed high rates of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease. The third EUROASPIRE survey was done in 2006-07 in 22 countries to see whether preventive cardiology had improved and if the Joint European Societies\\' recommendations on cardiovascular disease prevention are being followed in clinical practice.

  6. Spitzer sage survey of the large magellanic cloud. II. Evolved stars and infrared color-magnitude diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, R. D.; Mould, J. R.; Olsen, K. A.; Frogel, J. A.; Meixner, M.; Markwick-Kemper, F.; Indebetouw, R.; Whitney, B.; Meade, M.; Babler, B.; Churchwell, E. B.; Gordon, K.; Engelbracht, C.; For, B. -Q.; Misselt, K.; Vijh, U.; Leitherer, C.; Volk, K.; Points, S.; Reach, W.; Hora, J. L.; Bernard, J. -P.; Boulanger, F.; Bracker, S.; Cohen, M.; Fukui, Y.; Gallagher, J.; Gorjian, V.; Harris, J.; Kelly, D.; Kawamura, A.; Latter, W. B.; Madden, S.; Mizuno, A.; Mizuno, N.; Oey, M. S.; Onishi, T.; Paladini, R.; Panagia, N.; Perez-Gonzalez, P.; Shibai, H.; Sato, S.; Smith, L.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Tielens, A.G.G.M; Ueta, T.; Van Dyk, S.; Zaritsky, D.; Werner, M.J.

    Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) are presented for the Spitzer SAGE (Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution) survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). IRAC and MIPS 24 mu m epoch 1 data are presented. These data represent the deepest, widest mid-infrared CMDs of their kind ever produced in

  7. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic detail survey, Lost Creek, Washington area. Volume II. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    Maps and the data from the aerial surveys are included in this report. The purposes of the surveys were to acquire and compile geologic and other information in order to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the USA

  8. The role of technology in reducing health care costs. Phase II and phase III.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cilke, John F.; Parks, Raymond C.; Funkhouser, Donald Ray; Tebo, Michael A.; Murphy, Martin D.; Hightower, Marion Michael; Gallagher, Linda K.; Craft, Richard Layne, II; Garcia, Rudy John

    2004-04-01

    In Phase I of this project, reported in SAND97-1922, Sandia National Laboratories applied a systems approach to identifying innovative biomedical technologies with the potential to reduce U.S. health care delivery costs while maintaining care quality. The effort provided roadmaps for the development and integration of technology to meet perceived care delivery requirements and an economic analysis model for development of care pathway costs for two conditions: coronary artery disease (CAD) and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Phases II and III of this project, which are presented in this report, were directed at detailing the parameters of telemedicine that influence care delivery costs and quality. These results were used to identify and field test the communication, interoperability, and security capabilities needed for cost-effective, secure, and reliable health care via telemedicine.

  9. Complexin II plays a positive role in Ca2+-triggered exocytosis by facilitating vesicle priming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Haijiang; Reim, Kerstin; Varoqueaux, Frederique

    2008-01-01

    SNARE-mediated exocytosis is a multistage process central to synaptic transmission and hormone release. Complexins (CPXs) are small proteins that bind very rapidly and with a high affinity to the SNARE core complex, where they have been proposed recently to inhibit exocytosis by clamping the comp......SNARE-mediated exocytosis is a multistage process central to synaptic transmission and hormone release. Complexins (CPXs) are small proteins that bind very rapidly and with a high affinity to the SNARE core complex, where they have been proposed recently to inhibit exocytosis by clamping......), while showing no change in the kinetics of fusion pore dilation or morphological vesicle docking. Overexpression of WT CPX II-but not of SNARE-binding-deficient mutants-restores the size of the the releasable pools in knockout cells, and in WT cells it markedly enlarges them. Our results show that CPXs...

  10. THE TYPE II SUPERNOVA RATE IN z {approx} 0.1 GALAXY CLUSTERS FROM THE MULTI-EPOCH NEARBY CLUSTER SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, M. L.; Sand, D. J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Bildfell, C. J.; Pritchet, C. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Zaritsky, D.; Just, D. W.; Herbert-Fort, S. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hoekstra, H. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Sivanandam, S. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 50 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Foley, R. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We present seven spectroscopically confirmed Type II cluster supernovae (SNe II) discovered in the Multi-Epoch Nearby Cluster Survey, a supernova survey targeting 57 low-redshift 0.05 < z < 0.15 galaxy clusters with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We find the rate of Type II supernovae within R{sub 200} of z {approx} 0.1 galaxy clusters to be 0.026{sup +0.085}{sub -0.018}(stat){sup +0.003}{sub -0.001}(sys) SNuM. Surprisingly, one SN II is in a red-sequence host galaxy that shows no clear evidence of recent star formation (SF). This is unambiguous evidence in support of ongoing, low-level SF in at least some cluster elliptical galaxies, and illustrates that galaxies that appear to be quiescent cannot be assumed to host only Type Ia SNe. Based on this single SN II we make the first measurement of the SN II rate in red-sequence galaxies, and find it to be 0.007{sup +0.014}{sub -0.007}(stat){sup +0.009}{sub -0.001}(sys) SNuM. We also make the first derivation of cluster specific star formation rates (sSFR) from cluster SN II rates. We find that for all galaxy types the sSFR is 5.1{sup +15.8}{sub -3.1}(stat) {+-} 0.9(sys) M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} (10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }){sup -1}, and for red-sequence galaxies only it is 2.0{sup +4.2}{sub -0.9}(stat) {+-} 0.4(sys) M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} (10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }){sup -1}. These values agree with SFRs measured from infrared and ultraviolet photometry, and H{alpha} emission from optical spectroscopy. Additionally, we use the SFR derived from our SNII rate to show that although a small fraction of cluster Type Ia SNe may originate in the young stellar population and experience a short delay time, these results do not preclude the use of cluster SN Ia rates to derive the late-time delay time distribution for SNe Ia.

  11. The role of RNA-polymerase II transcription in embryonic nucleologenesis by bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovalská, Mária; Petrovicová, Ida; Strejcek, Frantisek

    2010-01-01

    The early stages of embryonic development are maternally driven. As development proceeds, maternally inherited informational molecules decay, and embryogenesis becomes dependent on de novo synthesized RNAs of embryonic genome. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of de novo tra...

  12. Photoprotection in the antenna complexes of photosystem II : Role of individual xanthophylls in chlorophyll triplet quenching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mozzo, Milena; Dall'Osto, Luca; Hienerwadel, Rainer; Bassi, Roberto; Croce, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    In this work the photoprotective role of all xanthophylls in LHCII, Lhcb4, and Lhcb5 is investigated by laser-induced Triplet-minus-Singlet (TmS) spectroscopy. The comparison of native LHCII trimeric complexes with different carotenoid composition shows that the xanthophylls in sites V1 and N1 do

  13. Photoprotection in the antenna complexes of photosystem II - Role of individual xanthophylls in chlorophyll triplet quenching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mozzo, Milena; Dall'Osto, Luca; Hienerwadel, Rainer; Bassi, Roberto; Croce, Roberta; Osto, Luca Dall’

    2008-01-01

    In this work the photoprotective role of all xanthophylls in LHCII, Lhcb4, and Lhcb5 is investigated by laser-induced Triplet-minus-Singlet (TmS) spectroscopy. The comparison of native LHCII trimeric complexes with different carotenoid composition shows that the xanthophylls in sites V1 and N1 do

  14. The Associated Absorption Features in Quasar Spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. Mg II Absorption Doublets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Huang, Wei-Rong; Pang, Ting-Ting; Huang, Hong-Yan; Pan, Da-Sheng; Yao, Min; Nong, Wei-Jing; Lu, Mei-Mei

    2018-03-01

    Using the SDSS spectra of quasars included in the DR7Q or DR12Q catalogs, we search for Mg II λλ2796, 2803 narrow absorption doublets in the spectra data around Mg II λ2798 emission lines. We obtain 17,316 Mg II doublets, within the redshift range of 0.3299 ≤ z abs ≤ 2.5663. We find that a velocity offset of υ r 6000 km s‑1. If associated Mg II absorbers are defined by υ r present at least one associated Mg II system with {W}{{r}}λ 2796≥slant 0.2 \\mathringA . The fraction of associated Mg II systems with high-velocity outflows correlates with the average luminosities of their central quasars, indicating a relationship between outflows and the quasar feedback power. The υ r distribution of the outflow Mg II absorbers is peaked at 1023 km s‑1, which is smaller than the corresponding value of the outflow C IV absorbers. The redshift number density evolution of absorbers (dn/dz) limited by υ r > ‑3000 km s‑1 differs from that of absorbers constrained by υ r > 2000 km s‑1. Absorbers limited by υ r > 2000 km s‑1 and higher values exhibit profiles similar to dn/dz. In addition, the dn/dz is smaller when absorbers are constrained with larger υ r . The distributions of equivalent widths, and the ratio of {W}rλ 2796/{W}rλ 2803, are the same for associated and intervening systems, and independent of quasar luminosity.

  15. THE SECOND SURVEY OF THE MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD BY NANTEN. II. STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Akiko; Mizuno, Yoji; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Onishi, Toshikazu; Fukui, Yasuo; Fillipovic, Miroslav D.; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Kim, Sungeun; Mizuno, Akira

    2009-01-01

    We studied star formation activities in the molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We have utilized the second catalog of 272 molecular clouds obtained by NANTEN to compare the cloud distribution with signatures of massive star formation including stellar clusters, and optical and radio H II regions. We find that the molecular clouds are classified into three types according to the activities of massive star formation: Type I shows no signature of massive star formation; Type II is associated with relatively small H II region(s); and Type III with both H II region(s) and young stellar cluster(s). The radio continuum sources were used to confirm that Type I giant molecular clouds (GMCs) do not host optically hidden H II regions. These signatures of massive star formation show a good spatial correlation with the molecular clouds in the sense that they are located within ∼100 pc of the molecular clouds. Among possible ideas to explain the GMC types, we favor that the types indicate an evolutionary sequence; i.e., the youngest phase is Type I, followed by Type II, and the last phase is Type III, where the most active star formation takes place leading to cloud dispersal. The number of the three types of GMCs should be proportional to the timescale of each evolutionary stage if a steady state of massive star and cluster formation is a good approximation. By adopting the timescale of the youngest stellar clusters, 10 Myr, we roughly estimate the timescales of Types I, II, and III to be 6 Myr, 13 Myr, and 7 Myr, respectively, corresponding to a lifetime of 20-30 Myr for the GMCs with a mass above the completeness limit, 5 x 10 4 M sun .

  16. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey; Brushy Basin detail survey: Price/Salina national topographic map sheets, Utah. Volume III. Area II: graphic data, Section I-II. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This volume contains all of the graphic data for Area II which consists of map lines 1660 to 3400 and 5360 to 5780, and tie lines 6100, 6120, and 6160. Due to the large map scale of the presented data (1:62,500), this sub-section was divided into eleven 7-1/2 min quadrant sheets

  17. An Impurity Emission Survey in the near UV and Visible Spectral Ranges of Electron Cyclotron Heated (ECH) Plasma in the TJ-II Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.

    2001-01-01

    We report on a near-ultraviolet and visible spectroscopic survey (220-600 nm) of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heated plasmas created in the TJ-II stellarator, with central electron temperatures up to 2 keV and central electron densities up to 1.7 x 10 ''19 m''-3. Approximately 1200 lines from thirteen elements have been identified. The purpose of the work is to identify the principal impurities and spectral lines present in TJ-II plasmas, as well as their possible origin to search for transitions from highly ionised ions. This work will act as a base for identifying suitable transitions for following the evolution of impurities under different operating regimens and multiplet systems for line polarisation studies. It is intended to use the database creates as a spectral line reference for comparing spectra under different operating and plasma heating regimes. (Author)

  18. The role of vitamins in the diet of the elderly II. Water-soluble vitamins

    OpenAIRE

    Csapó J.; Albert Cs.; Prokisch J.

    2017-01-01

    Following a presentation of humans’ water-soluble vitamin requirements, the authors will discuss in detail the role these vitamins play in human organism and outline those major biochemical processes that are negatively affected in the body in case of vitamin deficiency. They point out that in the elderly population of developed countries cases of water-soluble vitamin deficiency are extremely rare and they are due to the lack of dietary vitamin, but mostly to the vitamin being released from ...

  19. OBSERVATIONS OF Mg II ABSORPTION NEAR z ∼ 1 GALAXIES SELECTED FROM THE DEEP2 REDSHIFT SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovegrove, Elizabeth; Simcoe, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    We study the frequency of Mg II absorption in the outer halos of galaxies at z = 0.6-1.4 (with median z = 0.87), using new spectra obtained of 10 background quasars with galaxy impact parameters of b r = 0.15-1.0 A, though not all absorbers correlate with DEEP galaxies. We find five unique absorbers within Δv = 500 km s -1 and b r > 1.0 A, consistent with other samples of galaxy-selected Mg II systems. We speculate that Mg II systems with 0.3 r r are more likely to reflect the more recent star-forming history of their associated galaxies.

  20. Gemini NIFS survey of feeding and feedback processes in nearby active galaxies - II. The sample and surface mass density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Riffel, R.; Davies, R.; Bianchin, M.; Diniz, M. R.; Schönell, A. J.; Burtscher, L.; Crenshaw, M.; Fischer, T. C.; Dahmer-Hahn, L. G.; Dametto, N. Z.; Rosario, D.

    2018-02-01

    We present and characterize a sample of 20 nearby Seyfert galaxies selected for having BAT 14-195 keV luminosities LX ≥ 1041.5 erg s-1, redshift z ≤ 0.015, being accessible for observations with the Gemini Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) and showing extended [O III]λ5007 emission. Our goal is to study Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) feeding and feedback processes from near-infrared integral-field spectra, which include both ionized (H II) and hot molecular (H2) emission. This sample is complemented by other nine Seyfert galaxies previously observed with NIFS. We show that the host galaxy properties (absolute magnitudes MB, MH, central stellar velocity dispersion and axial ratio) show a similar distribution to those of the 69 BAT AGN. For the 20 galaxies already observed, we present surface mass density (Σ) profiles for H II and H2 in their inner ˜500 pc, showing that H II emission presents a steeper radial gradient than H2. This can be attributed to the different excitation mechanisms: ionization by AGN radiation for H II and heating by X-rays for H2. The mean surface mass densities are in the range (0.2 ≤ ΣH II ≤ 35.9) M⊙ pc-2, and (0.2 ≤ ΣH2 ≤ 13.9)× 10-3 M⊙ pc-2, while the ratios between the H II and H2 masses range between ˜200 and 8000. The sample presented here will be used in future papers to map AGN gas excitation and kinematics, providing a census of the mass inflow and outflow rates and power as well as their relation with the AGN luminosity.

  1. Getting to the Source: a Survey of Quantitative Data Sources Available to the Everyday Librarian: Part II: Data Sources from Specific Library Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Goddard

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a two-part article that provides a survey of data sources which are likely to be immediately available to the typical practitioner who wishes to engage in statistical analysis of collections and services within his or her own library. Part I outlines the data elements which can be extracted from web server logs, and discusses web log analysis tools. Part II looks at logs, reports, and data sources from proxy servers, resource vendors, link resolvers, federated search engines, institutional repositories, electronic reference services, and the integrated library system.

  2. Two roles of thylakoid lipids in modifying the activity of herbicides which inhibit photosystem II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupatt, C.C. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Thylakoid lipids may modify the activity of herbicides which inhibit electron transport at the Q/sub B/ protein of photosystem II in two ways: (1) lipids can act as a hydrophobic barrier to a binding site localized close to the loculus of the membrane, and (2) changes in lipid composition can reduce the ability of inhibitors to block electron transport, possibly due to a change in the conformation of the Q/sub B/ protein. The herbicide binding site was localized close to the locular side of the thylakoid membrane by determining the activity of a number of substituted phenylurea and s-triazine herbicides in inverted and non-inverted thylakoids. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis showed that inversion of thylakoids reduced the requirement of molecular lipophilicity deemed necessary for phenylurea activity in non-inverted membranes, whereas s-triazines exhibited no differences in the lipophilicity requirement in thylakoid membranes of either orientation. The binding affinity of 14 C-diuron was reduced in bicarbonate-depleted thylakoids relative to reconstituted or control membranes, as is the case with atrazine binding. These observations support a model of the herbicide binding site containing both common and herbicide family specific binding domains. Thylakoids isolated either from detached lambs quarters (Chenopodium album L.) leaves, treated with SAN 6706, or from soybean (Glycine max L.), with norflurazon or pyrazon applied preemergence, exhibited decreased susceptibility to atrazine. The ability of lipid-modifying treatments to decrease the atrazine susceptibility of field-grown soybeans was also investigated

  3. Role of type II protein arginine methyltransferase 5 in the regulation of Circadian Per1 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungtae Na

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks are the endogenous oscillators that regulate rhythmic physiological and behavioral changes to correspond to daily light-dark cycles. Molecular dissections have revealed that transcriptional feedback loops of the circadian clock genes drive the molecular oscillation, in which PER/CRY complexes inhibit the transcriptional activity of the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer to constitute a negative feedback loop. In this study, we identified the type II protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5 as an interacting molecule of CRY1. Although the Prmt5 gene was constitutively expressed, increased interaction of PRMT5 with CRY1 was observed when the Per1 gene was repressed both in synchronized mouse liver and NIH3T3 cells. Moreover, rhythmic recruitment of PRMT5 and CRY1 to the Per1 gene promoter was found to be associated with an increased level of histone H4R3 dimethylation and Per1 gene repression. Consistently, decreased histone H4R3 dimethylation and altered rhythmic Per1 gene expression were observed in Prmt5-depleted cells. Taken together, these findings provide an insight into the link between histone arginine methylation by PRMT5 and transcriptional regulation of the circadian Per1 gene.

  4. THE GLOBAL EVOLUTION OF GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS. II. THE ROLE OF ACCRETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Matzner, Christopher D.; McKee, Christopher F.

    2011-01-01

    We present virial models for the global evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Focusing on the presence of an accretion flow and accounting for the amount of mass, momentum, and energy supplied by accretion and star formation feedback, we are able to follow the growth, evolution, and dispersal of individual GMCs. Our model clouds reproduce the scaling relations observed in both galactic and extragalactic clouds. We find that accretion and star formation contribute roughly equal amounts of turbulent kinetic energy over the lifetime of the cloud. Clouds attain virial equilibrium and grow in such a way as to maintain roughly constant surface densities, with typical surface densities of order 50-200 M sun pc -2 , in good agreement with observations of GMCs in the Milky Way and nearby external galaxies. We find that as clouds grow, their velocity dispersion and radius must also increase, implying that the linewidth-size relation constitutes an age sequence. Lastly, we compare our models to observations of GMCs and associated young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud and find good agreement between our model clouds and the observed relationship between H II regions, young star clusters, and GMCs.

  5. The din of gunfire: Rethinking the role of sound in World War II newsreels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masha Shpolberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available French film historian Laurent Véray has famously called World War I ‘the first media war of the twentieth century’. Newsreels, which first appeared in 1910, brought the war to movie theaters across Europe and the U.S., screening combat for those on the ‘home front’. However, while the audience could see the action it could not hear it – sometimes only live music would accompany the movements of the troops. The arrival of sound newsreels in 1929 radically transformed moviegoers’ experiences of the news, and, by necessity, of armed conflict. Drawing on examples of World War II newsreels from British Pathé’s archive that was recently made available online, this article seeks to delineate the logic governing the combination of voice-over commentary, music, sound effects, and field-recorded sound, and argues that it can be traced directly to the treatment of sound in the ‘Great War’ fiction films of the preceding decade.

  6. Hypertension, Diabetes Type II, and Their Association: Role of Arterial Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulyan, Harold; Lieber, Ari; Safar, Michel E

    2016-01-01

    In patients with both hypertension and type II diabetes, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) increases linearly with age, while that of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) declines curvilinearly as early as age 45, all suggesting the development of increased arterial stiffness. Increased stiffness is an important, independent, and significant risk predictor in subjects with hypertension and diabetes. In patients with both diseases, stiffness assessed at the same mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly higher in diabetic patients. Arterial stiffness is related to age, heart rate (HR), and MAP, but in diabetic patients, it also related to diabetes duration and insulin treatment (IT). In the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), diabetes also acts on the small arteries through capillary rarefaction to reduce the effective length of the arterial tree, increases the reflected pulse wave and thus the pulse pressure (PP). These studies indicate that diabetes and hypertension additively contribute to increased pulsatility and suggest that any means to reduce stiffness would be beneficial in these conditions. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. On the role of cavitation in particle collection in flotation - A critical review. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.A.; Xu, Z.H.; Finch, J.A.; Masliyah, J.H.; Chow, R.S. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    Research in applying hydrodynamic cavitation to recovery of natural resources during the last decade is reviewed. The existence and formation of tiny bubbles or gas nuclei (diameter from microns down to nano sizes) in natural water were verified from both direct and in-direct measurements, providing a foundation for applying hydrodynamic cavitation to flotation systems. The interactions between tiny bubbles and fine particles in aqueous slurry were analysed. Tiny bubbles generated by hydrodynamic cavitation increased contact angle of solids and hence attachment force, bridge fine particles to form aggregates, minimize slime coating, remove oxidation layers on particle surfaces, and in hence reduce reagents consumption. Experiments revealed that the energy dissipation levels for cavity formation in a flowing liquid could be much lower than predicted, depending on the content of dissolved gases, presence of free gas nuclei and design of cavitation tubes. Application of hydrodynamic cavitation to fine and coarse particle flotation, high intensity conditioning, oil agglomeration of fine coal, and oil sands processing has confirmed the role of tiny bubbles formed by cavitation in improving recovery efficiency. Increased flotation kinetics by hydrodynamic cavitation could be attributed to a dual role: some collapsing cavity bubbles serving to break interfacial layers on particle surfaces while other cavity bubbles attaching to those freshly exposed mineral surfaces. The role of water vapor and other gases within cavity bubbles in particle-bubble attachment remains to be explored. Incorporating hydrodynamic cavitation into flotation systems to take advantage of its unique features is expected to develop the next generation of flotation machines.

  8. On the need and use of models to explore the role of economic confidence:a survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprigg, James A.; Paez, Paul J. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Hand, Michael S. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-04-01

    Empirical studies suggest that consumption is more sensitive to current income than suggested under the permanent income hypothesis, which raises questions regarding expectations for future income, risk aversion, and the role of economic confidence measures. This report surveys a body of fundamental economic literature as well as burgeoning computational modeling methods to support efforts to better anticipate cascading economic responses to terrorist threats and attacks. This is a three part survey to support the incorporation of models of economic confidence into agent-based microeconomic simulations. We first review broad underlying economic principles related to this topic. We then review the economic principle of confidence and related empirical studies. Finally, we provide a brief survey of efforts and publications related to agent-based economic simulation.

  9. Wild dogma II: The role and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. ALLEN, Richard M. ENGEMAN, Lee R. ALLEN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies of Allen (2011 and Allen et al. (2011 recently examined the methodology underpinning claims that dingoes provide net benefits to biodiversity by suppressing foxes and cats. They found most studies to have design flaws and/or observational methods that preclude valid interpretations from the data, describing most of the current literature as ‘wild dogma’. In this short supplement, we briefly highlight the roles and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia. We discuss nomenclature, and the influence that unreliable science can have on policy and practice changes related to apex predator management [Current Zoology 57 (6: 737–740, 2011].

  10. The role of brand loyalty and social media in e-commerce interfaces: survey results and implications for user interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Rigas, Dimitrios; Hussain, Hammad

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the role of brand loyalty and social media in e-commerce interfaces. A survey consisting of 118 respondents was contacted to address the questions relating to online shopping and brand loyalty. Link between the frequency of access and time spent on an e-commerce user interface, and brand loyalty, gender and age profile differences, and the role of social media to branding and on-line shopping was analyzed. It was found that online loyalty differs from offline loyalty and l...

  11. Adding the s-Process Element Cerium to the APOGEE Survey: Identification and Characterization of Ce II Lines in the H-band Spectral Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Hasselquist, Sten; Souto, Diogo; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Frinchaboy, Peter; García-Hernández, D. Anibal; Holtzman, Jon; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Jőnsson, Henrik; Majewski, Steven R.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Nidever, David; Pinsonneault, Mark; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Zamora, Olga; Zasowski, Gail; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.

    2017-08-01

    Nine Ce II lines have been identified and characterized within the spectral window observed by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey (between λ1.51 and 1.69 μm). At solar metallicities, cerium is an element that is produced predominantly as a result of the slow capture of neutrons (the s-process) during asymptotic giant branch stellar evolution. The Ce II lines were identified using a combination of a high-resolution (R=λ /δ λ ={{100,000}}) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) spectrum of α Boo and an APOGEE spectrum (R = 22,400) of a metal-poor, but s-process enriched, red giant (2M16011638-1201525). Laboratory oscillator strengths are not available for these lines. Astrophysical gf-values were derived using α Boo as a standard star, with the absolute cerium abundance in α Boo set by using optical Ce II lines that have precise published laboratory gf-values. The near-infrared Ce II lines identified here are also analyzed, as consistency checks, in a small number of bright red giants using archival FTS spectra, as well as a small sample of APOGEE red giants, including two members of the open cluster NGC 6819, two field stars, and seven metal-poor N- and Al-rich stars. The conclusion is that this set of Ce II lines can be detected and analyzed in a large fraction of the APOGEE red giant sample and will be useful for probing chemical evolution of the s-process products in various populations of the Milky Way.

  12. Elastase-2, a Tissue Alternative Pathway for Angiotensin II Generation, Plays a Role in Circulatory Sympathovagal Balance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becari, Christiane; Durand, Marina T; Guimaraes, Alessander O; Lataro, Renata M; Prado, Cibele M; de Oliveira, Mauro; Candido, Sarai C O; Pais, Paloma; Ribeiro, Mauricio S; Bader, Michael; Pesquero, Joao B; Salgado, Maria C O; Salgado, Helio C

    2017-01-01

    In vitro and ex vivo experiments indicate that elastase-2 (ELA-2), a chymotrypsin-serine protease elastase family member 2A, is an alternative pathway for angiotensin II (Ang II) generation. However, the role played by ELA-2 in vivo is unclear. We examined ELA-2 knockout (ELA-2KO) mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice and determined whether ELA-2 played a role in hemodynamics [arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR)], cardiocirculatory sympathovagal balance and baroreflex sensitivity. The variability of systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and pulse interval (PI) for evaluating autonomic modulation was examined for time and frequency domains (spectral analysis), whereas a symbolic analysis was also used to evaluate PI variability. In addition, baroreflex sensitivity was examined using the sequence method. Cardiac function was evaluated echocardiographically under anesthesia. The AP was normal whereas the HR was reduced in ELA-2KO mice (425 ± 17 vs. 512 ± 13 bpm from WT). SAP variability and baroreflex sensitivity were similar in both strains. The LF power from the PI spectrum (33.6 ± 5 vs. 51.8 ± 4.8 nu from WT) and the LF/HF ratio (0.60 ± 0.1 vs. 1.45 ± 0.3 from WT) were reduced, whereas the HF power was increased (66.4 ± 5 vs. 48.2 ± 4.8 nu from WT) in ELA-2KO mice, indicating a shift toward parasympathetic modulation of HR. Echocardiographic examination showed normal fractional shortening and an ejection fraction in ELA-2KO mice; however, the cardiac output, stroke volume, and ventricular size were reduced. These findings provide the first evidence that ELA-2 acts on the sympathovagal balance of the heart, as expressed by the reduced sympathetic modulation of HR in ELA-2KO mice.

  13. Achilles tendinopathy in elderly subjects with type II diabetes: the role of sport activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Michele; Salini, Vincenzo; Schiavone, Cosima

    2016-04-01

    Exercise is an important therapeutic tool in the management of diabetes in older people. Aim of this study was to assess the relationship among type II diabetes, sport, overweight, and symptomatic Achilles tendinopathy in elderly subjects. Thirty-eight patients suffering from Achilles tendinopathy and thirty-eight controls were enrolled. The prevalence of diabetes and sport practice as well as BMI and Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) values were registered. An ultrasound evaluation of Achilles tendon was performed. Patients showed an increased prevalence of diabetes (42 vs. 13.1 %, p = 0.004), and practice of sport (60.5 vs. 28.9 %, p = 0.0001), and higher BMI values (26.8 ± 3 vs. 24.8 ± 2.3, p = 0.001). Sonographic abnormalities, being diagnostic criteria, were present in all the patients with Achilles tendinopathy, but signs of degeneration were also found in 36.8 % of asymptomatic controls. Symptomatic subjects with diabetes, compared to those without, showed a higher prevalence of severe degeneration (75 vs. 36.3 %, p = 0.01). HbA1c values were significantly lower in sport practitioners, both diabetics and non-diabetics. Moreover, patients practicing sport showed a trend towards lower BMI values, compared to the sedentary counterpart. Sport practice in elderly diabetics provides relevant metabolic advantages, reducing HbA1c and BMI. However, some sport activities (e.g., speed walking, jogging or tennis) can expose to the risk of Achilles tendinopathy. So, sport practice should be encouraged, but practitioners should follow individual training programs and be submitted to periodic sonographic controls.

  14. Role of Postmastectomy Radiation After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Stage II-III Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowble, Barbara L.; Einck, John P.; Kim, Danny N.; McCloskey, Susan; Mayadev, Jyoti; Yashar, Catheryn; Chen, Steven L.; Hwang, E. Shelley

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify a cohort of women treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy for whom postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) may be omitted according to the projected risk of local-regional failure (LRF). Methods and Materials: Seven breast cancer physicians from University of California cancer centers created 14 hypothetical clinical case scenarios, identified, reviewed, and abstracted the available literature (MEDLINE and Cochrane databases), and formulated evidence tables with endpoints of LRF, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Using the American College of Radiology appropriateness criteria methodology, appropriateness ratings for postmastectomy radiation were assigned for each scenario. Finally, an overall summary risk assessment table was developed. Results: Of 24 sources identified, 23 were retrospective studies from single institutions. Consensus on the appropriateness rating, defined as 80% agreement in a category, was achieved for 86% of the cases. Distinct LRF risk categories emerged. Clinical stage II (T1-2N0-1) patients, aged >40 years, estrogen receptor-positive subtype, with pathologic complete response or 0-3 positive nodes without lymphovascular invasion or extracapsular extension, were identified as having ≤10% risk of LRF without radiation. Limited data support stage IIIA patients with pathologic complete response as being low risk. Conclusions: In the absence of randomized trial results, existing data can be used to guide the use of PMRT in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy setting. Using available studies to inform appropriateness ratings for clinical scenarios, we found a high concordance of treatment recommendations for PMRT and were able to identify a cohort of women with a low risk of LRF without radiation. These low-risk patients will form the basis for future planned studies within University of California Athena Breast Health Network.

  15. Boosting the Bugle Boy: The Role of Music in American Patriotism During World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany L. Roberts

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on the morning of December 7, 1941, they little realized what a formidable foe they had aroused. An enraged America immediately declared war on Japan. As a result, Germany declared war on America. Now facing enemies on both fronts, America mobilized her troops for action and prepared weapons of mass destruction. The unity experienced by the American people during this time had never been and would never be matched. Both soldiers and civilians launched themselves into the war effort. This great national endeavor called for anthems of reflection and encouragement. While they continued to sing national favorites such as "The Star-Spangled Banner" and "America the Beautiful," contemporary musicians wrote pieces that directly pertained to the country’s present trials and triumphs. New works remembering Pearl Harbor, praising the soldiers and comforting the sweethearts saturated the airwaves and were featured in performance venues. Music gave a tangibility and expression to the deeply felt emotional turmoil of the American people. They identified with and drew comfort from the subject matters it explored. Musicians such as Artie Shaw, Glenn Miller and the Andrews Sisters took tours entertaining troops at home and abroad, giving them courage and strength for the daunting fight they faced. When victory was finally achieved for the Allies on September 2, 1945, the people again turned to music as an outlet for their jubilant celebrations. Thus, music played a significant part in boosting American patriotism and troop support throughout the entirety of World War II.

  16. Revisiting Primary Care's Critical Role in Achieving Health Equity: Pisacano Scholars' Reflections from Starfield Summit II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Brian; Coutinho, Anastasia J; Doohan, Noemi; Jimenez, Jonathan; Martin, Sara; Romano, Max; Wohler, Diana; DeVoe, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    The second Starfield Summit was held in Portland, Oregon, in April 2017. The Summit addressed the role of primary care in advancing health equity by focusing on 4 key domains: social determinants of health in primary care, vulnerable populations, economics and policy, and social accountability. Invited participants represented an interdisciplinary group of primary care clinicians, researchers, educators, policymakers, community leaders, and trainees. The Pisacano Leadership Foundation was one of the Summit sponsors and held its annual leadership symposium in conjunction with the Summit, enabling several Pisacano Scholars to attend the Summit. After the Summit, a small group of current and former Pisacano Scholars formed a writing group to highlight key themes and implications for action discussed at the Summit. The Summit resonated as a call to action for primary care to move beyond identifying existing health inequities and toward the development of interventions that advance health equity, through education, research, and enhanced community partnerships. In doing so, the Summit aimed to build on the foundational work of Dr. Starfield, challenging us to explore the significant role of primary care in truly achieving health equity. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  17. GIER: A Danish computer from 1961 with a role in the modern revolution of astronomy - II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høg, Erik

    2018-04-01

    A Danish computer, GIER, from 1961 played a vital role in the development of a new method for astrometric measurement. This method, photon counting astrometry, ultimately led to two satellites with a significant role in the modern revolution of astronomy. A GIER was installed at the Hamburg Observatory in 1964 where it was used to implement the entirely new method for the measurement of stellar positions by means of a meridian circle, at that time the fundamental instrument of astrometry. An expedition to Perth in Western Australia with the instrument and the computer was a success. This method was also implemented in space in the first ever astrometric satellite Hipparcos launched by ESA in 1989. The Hipparcos results published in 1997 revolutionized astrometry with an impact in all branches of astronomy from the solar system and stellar structure to cosmic distances and the dynamics of the Milky Way. In turn, the results paved the way for a successor, the one million times more powerful Gaia astrometry satellite launched by ESA in 2013. Preparations for a Gaia successor in twenty years are making progress.

  18. The Role of Th17 in Neuroimmune Disorders: Target for CAM Therapy. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristo Vojdani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Decades of research went into understanding the role that Th1 autoreactive T-cells play in neuroinflammation. Here we describe another effector population, the IL-17-producing T-helper lineage (Th17, which drives the inflammatory process. Through the recruitment of inflammatory infiltration neutrophils and the activation of matrix metalloproteinases, IL-17, a cytokine secreted by Th17 cells, contributes to blood-brain barrier breakdown and the subsequent attraction of macrophages and monocytes into the nervous system. The entry of cells along with the local production of inflammatory cytokines leads to myelin and axonal damage. This activation of the inflammatory response system is induced by different pathogenic factors, such as gut bacterial endotoxins resulting in progressive neurodegeneration by Th17 cells. Through the understanding of the role of bacterial endotoxins and other pathogenic factors in the induction of autoimmune diseases by Th17 cells, CAM practitioners will be able to design CAM therapies targeting IL-17 activity. Targeted therapy can restore the integrity of the intestinal and blood-brain barriers using probiotics, N-acetyl-cysteine, α-lipoic acid, resveratrol and others for their patients with autoimmunities, in particular those with neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.

  19. THE SPRINGBOKS IN EAST AFRICA: THE ROLE OF 1 SA SURVEY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steenkamp Fonseca R

    the SA Air Force (SAAF), mapped large parts of the war zone and provided essential ... Egyptian Sudan in the west, to the Indian Ocean, British Somaliland, the Gulf of. Aden ... mapping and survey methods in the United States and Europe.

  20. The LAMOST survey of background quasars in the vicinity of the Andromeda and Triangulum galaxies. II. Results from the commissioning observations and the pilot surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Zhi-Ying; Bai, Zhong-Rui; Chen, Jian-Jun; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Du, Bing; Jia, Lei; Lei, Ya-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Huang, Yang; Zhang, Hui-Hua; Yan, Lin; Chu, Jia-Ru; Chu, Yao-Quan; Hu, Hong-Zhuan; Cui, Xiang-Qun; Hou, Yong-Hui; Hu, Zhong-Wen; Jiang, Fang-Hua

    2013-01-01

    We present new quasars discovered in the vicinity of the Andromeda and Triangulum galaxies with the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope, also named the Guoshoujing Telescope, during the 2010 and 2011 observational seasons. Quasar candidates are selected based on the available Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Kitt Peak National Observatory 4 m telescope, Xuyi Schmidt Telescope Photometric Survey optical, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer near-infrared photometric data. We present 509 new quasars discovered in a stripe of ∼135 deg 2 from M31 to M33 along the Giant Stellar Stream in the 2011 pilot survey data sets, and also 17 new quasars discovered in an area of ∼100 deg 2 that covers the central region and the southeastern halo of M31 in the 2010 commissioning data sets. These 526 new quasars have i magnitudes ranging from 15.5 to 20.0, redshifts from 0.1 to 3.2. They represent a significant increase of the number of identified quasars in the vicinity of M31 and M33. There are now 26, 62, and 139 known quasars in this region of the sky with i magnitudes brighter than 17.0, 17.5, and 18.0, respectively, of which 5, 20, and 75 are newly discovered. These bright quasars provide an invaluable collection with which to probe the kinematics and chemistry of the interstellar/intergalactic medium in the Local Group of galaxies. A total of 93 quasars are now known with locations within 2.°5 of M31, of which 73 are newly discovered. Tens of quasars are now known to be located behind the Giant Stellar Stream, and hundreds are behind the extended halo and its associated substructures of M31. The much enlarged sample of known quasars in the vicinity of M31 and M33 can potentially be utilized to construct a perfect astrometric reference frame to measure the minute proper motions (PMs) of M31 and M33, along with the PMs of substructures associated with the Local Group of galaxies. Those PMs are some of the most fundamental properties of the Local Group.

  1. SIMULATIONS OF WIDE-FIELD WEAK-LENSING SURVEYS. II. COVARIANCE MATRIX OF REAL-SPACE CORRELATION FUNCTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masanori; Matsubara, Takahiko; Takada, Masahiro; Hamana, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Using 1000 ray-tracing simulations for a Λ-dominated cold dark model in Sato et al., we study the covariance matrix of cosmic shear correlation functions, which is the standard statistics used in previous measurements. The shear correlation function of a particular separation angle is affected by Fourier modes over a wide range of multipoles, even beyond a survey area, which complicates the analysis of the covariance matrix. To overcome such obstacles we first construct Gaussian shear simulations from the 1000 realizations and then use the Gaussian simulations to disentangle the Gaussian covariance contribution to the covariance matrix we measured from the original simulations. We found that an analytical formula of Gaussian covariance overestimates the covariance amplitudes due to an effect of the finite survey area. Furthermore, the clean separation of the Gaussian covariance allows us to examine the non-Gaussian covariance contributions as a function of separation angles and source redshifts. For upcoming surveys with typical source redshifts of z s = 0.6 and 1.0, the non-Gaussian contribution to the diagonal covariance components at 1 arcmin scales is greater than the Gaussian contribution by a factor of 20 and 10, respectively. Predictions based on the halo model qualitatively well reproduce the simulation results, however show a sizable disagreement in the covariance amplitudes. By combining these simulation results we develop a fitting formula to the covariance matrix for a survey with arbitrary area coverage, taking into account effects of the finiteness of survey area on the Gaussian covariance.

  2. The role of the archaeologist in C-14 age measurement. Appendix II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    A C-14 date may be considered to exist in two forms: (a) the 'conventional age' as reported by C-14 laboratories and/or published in the journal Radiocarbon, and (b) the so-called 'corrected age' derived after recourse to half-life changes and calibration curves or tables. While a great deal of advice has been presented to the archaeologist on how he should best correct and interpret the basic conventional C-14 date the importance of his role in ensuring its validity has been largely neglected. This article would hope to clarify where and why the archaeologist can assist in the practical aspects of dating and in so doing also answer such familiar questions as: which sample material is most suited to the production of a valid C-14 date; how much material is required; how are samples best collected, recorded, stored and transported. (author)

  3. Adjuvant radiotherapy and its role in the treatment of stage II lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, T.J.; Greenberger, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Lung carcinoma remains an enormous clinical challenge for all health care personnel involved in the care of these patients. Those patients with unresected primary lung carcinoma are ultimately referred for radiation therapy in order to control local regional disease. It is important to recognize the great gains in longevity have not materialized with the addition of adjuvant therapy. However, a very real benefit in the quality of life for most patients with carcinoma of the lung can be achieved with the judicious and thoughtful application of sophisticated radiation therapy, for a small but significant portion of the population, a cure will result from this treatment. This chapter reviews the role of radiation therapy as an adjuvant to definitive surgical treatment

  4. Role of shear stress in nitric oxide-dependent modulation of renal angiotensin II vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endlich, K; Muller, C; Barthelmebs, M; Helwig, J J

    1999-08-01

    1. Renal vasoconstriction in response to angiotensin II (ANGII) is known to be modulated by nitric oxide (NO). Since shear stress stimulates the release of a variety of vasoactive compounds from endothelial cells, we studied the impact of shear stress on the haemodynamic effect of ANGII in isolated perfused kidneys of rats under control conditions and during NO synthase inhibition with L-NAME (100 microM). 2. Kidneys were perfused in the presence of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor (10 microM indomethacin) with Tyrode's solution of relative viscosity zeta=1 (low viscosity perfusate, LVP) or, in order to augment shear stress, with Tyrode's solution containing 7% Ficoll 70 of relative viscosity zeta=2 (high viscosity perfusate, HVP). 3. Vascular conductance was 3.5+/-0.4 fold larger in HVP as compared with LVP kidneys, associated with an augmentation of overall wall shear stress by 37+/-5%. During NO inhibition, vascular conductance was only 2.5+/-0.2 fold elevated in HVP vs LVP kidneys, demonstrating shear stress-induced vasodilatation by NO and non-NO/non-prostanoid compound(s). 4. ANGII (10 - 100 pM) constricted the vasculature in LVP kidneys, but was without effect in HVP kidneys. During NO inhibition, in contrast, ANGII vasoconstriction was potentiated in HVP as compared with LVP kidneys. 5. The potentiation of ANGII vasoconstriction during NO inhibition has been shown to be mediated by endothelium-derived P450 metabolites and to be sensitive to AT2 receptor blockade in our earlier studies. Accordingly, in HVP kidneys, increasing concentrations of the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319 (5 and 500 nM) gradually abolished the potentiation of ANGII vasoconstriction during NO inhibition, but did not affect vasoconstriction in response to ANGII in LVP kidneys. 6. Our results demonstrate, that augmentation of shear stress by increasing perfusate viscosity induces vasodilatation in the rat kidney, which is partially mediated by NO. Elevated levels of shear stress attenuate

  5. A Survey for Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Around M31. II. The Newly Discovered Dwarf Andromeda VI

    OpenAIRE

    Armandroff, Taft E.; Jacoby, George H.; Davies, James E.

    1999-01-01

    We present B-, V-, and I-band images, as well as an H alpha image, of And VI. This is the second newly identified dwarf spheroidal (dSph) companion to M31 found using a digital filtering technique applied to the second Palomar Sky Survey for which 1550 square degrees now have been surveyed. And VI was confirmed to be a nearby dSph galaxy when it resolved into stars easily with a short 4-m V-band exposure. Sub-arcsec images taken at the Kitt Peak WIYN 3.5-m telescope provided (I,V-I) and (V,B-...

  6. Domestic violence and immigration status among Latina mothers in the child welfare system: findings from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being II (NSCAW II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonnaya, Ijeoma Nwabuzor; Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Kohl, Patricia L

    2015-01-01

    Many children involved with the child welfare system witness parental domestic violence. The association between children's domestic violence exposure and child welfare involvement may be influenced by certain socio-cultural factors; however, minimal research has examined this relationship. The current study compares domestic violence experiences and case outcomes among Latinas who are legal immigrants (n=39), unauthorized immigrants (n=77), naturalized citizens (n=30), and US-born citizen mothers (n=383) reported for child maltreatment. This analysis used data from the second round of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Mothers were asked about whether they experienced domestic violence during the past year. In addition, data were collected to assess if (a) domestic violence was the primary abuse type reported and, if so, (b) the maltreatment allegation was substantiated. Results show that naturalized citizens, legal residents, and unauthorized immigrants did not differ from US-born citizens in self-reports of domestic violence; approximately 33% of mothers reported experiences of domestic violence within the past year. Yet, unauthorized immigrants were 3.76 times more likely than US-born citizens to have cases with allegations of domestic violence as the primary abuse type. Despite higher rates of alleged domestic violence, unauthorized citizens were not more likely than US-born citizens to have these cases substantiated for domestic violence (F(2.26, 153.99)=0.709, p=.510). Findings highlight that domestic violence is not accurately accounted for in families with unauthorized immigrant mothers. We recommend child welfare workers are trained to properly assess and fulfill the needs of immigrant families, particularly as it relates to domestic violence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Striking hematological abnormalities in patients with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II): a potential role of pericentrin in hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Sule; Alanay, Yasemin; Cetin, Mualla; Boduroglu, Koray; Utine, Eda; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Huber, Celine; Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Kilic, Esra; Simsek Kiper, Ozlem Pelin; Gumruk, Fatma

    2014-02-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is a rare primordial dwarfism that is similar to Seckel syndrome. Seckel syndrome is known to be associated with various hematological abnormalities; however, hematological findings in MOPD II patients have not been previously reported. The present study aimed to describe the hematological findings in a series of eight patients with MOPD II from a single center. The study included eight patients with MOPD II that were analyzed via molecular testing, and physical and laboratory examinations. Molecular testing showed that seven of the eight patients had pericentrin (PCNT) gene mutations. Hematological evaluation showed that 7 (87.5%) patients had thrombocytosis, 6 (75%) had leukocytosis, 5 (62.5%) had both leukocytosis and thrombocytosis, and 2 (25%) had anemia. We report leukocytosis and thrombocytosis as a common hematologic abnormality in patients with MOPD II. The present findings may improve our understanding of the potential function of the PCNT gene in hematopoietic cell proliferation and differentiation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Survey on problems in developing technologies for the global environment issues (Version II); Chikyu kankyo mondai gijutsu kaihatsu kadai chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-07-01

    This paper describes a survey on problems in developing technologies for the global environment issues. Technological development of means to reduce generation of environmental issues and substitutive means for non-generation thereof is being moved forward specifically in the Sunshine Project and the Moonlight Project. The Chemical Technology Research Institute assumes that it has a responsibility to positively contribute to developing a technological system that matches the substance circulation mechanism of the earth from the fields of chemistry. Therefore, the Institute has organized working groups that have been identifying problems from their expertise standpoints and have been extracting study assignments. Subsequent to the Version I, the Version II has been compiled. The Version II takes up the simulation of global warming mechanisms, behavior of gases dissolved in oceans, and possibility of fixing CO2 in oceans. With respect to fluorocarbons, the Version II describes development of substitutive substances, their stability, combustion method as a destruction technique, and destruction by means of super criticality. Regarding CO2, the version introduces technologies to re-use CO2 as a resource by means of membrane separation, storage, and contact hydrogenation. The volume also dwells on CO2 reduction by using photo-chemical and electrochemical reactions, CO2 reduction and photo-synthesis by using semiconductors as photo catalysts and electrodes. (NEDO)

  9. The role of vitamins in the diet of the elderly II. Water-soluble vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó J.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Following a presentation of humans’ water-soluble vitamin requirements, the authors will discuss in detail the role these vitamins play in human organism and outline those major biochemical processes that are negatively affected in the body in case of vitamin deficiency. They point out that in the elderly population of developed countries cases of water-soluble vitamin deficiency are extremely rare and they are due to the lack of dietary vitamin, but mostly to the vitamin being released from its bindings, the difficulty of free vitamin absorption, gastrointestinal problems, medication, and often alcoholism. Among water-soluble vitamins, B12 is the only one with a sufficient storage level in the body, capable of preventing deficiency symptoms for a long period of time in cases of vitamin-deficient nutrition. Each type of vitamin is dealt with separately in discussing the beneficial outcomes of their overconsumption regarding health, while the authors of the article also present cases with contradictory results. Daily requirements are set forth for every water-soluble vitamin and information is provided on the types of nutrients that help us to the water-soluble vitamins essential for the organism.

  10. Behavioural therapy in the treatment of obesity (II): role of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, Marta; Pérez de Heredia, F

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is the consequence of an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, food intake being affected by multiple factors -psychological, social, work-related, etc. This revision discusses the role of diet in the behavioural treatment (BT) of obesity, which faces multiple approaches and focuses on patients' behaviour rather than their mere energy intake. Recent literature has been revised that deals with the health benefits of Mediterranean diet in order to assess its suitability for obesity treatment based on BT. BT helps patients to develop skills and techniques in order to adopt proper habits and attain their healthiest weight. Patients learn to establish realistic goals, both as regards weight and behaviour, and to evaluate their progress in modifying eating and exercising habits. The application of the Mediterranean diet in obesity treatment presents various advantages which are based on the principles of this diet -wide variety of food, high carbohydrate content, or high satiating capacity, which prevents specific hunger and ketogenesis-, and has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing body weight. BT based on the Mediterranean diet is a useful tool for obesity treatment. The Mediterranean diet provides the patients with a diet established on widely recognised nutritional benefits, suitable to their social and daily life, and that can be easily followed in the long term, according to the objectives of BT. For these reasons, Mediterranean diet-based BT helps to prolong both the treatment and maintenance periods and therefore contributes to a more stable weight loss.

  11. Role of blink reflex in diagnosis of subclinical cranial neuropathy in diabetic mellitus type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazem, Shakouri S; Behzad, Davoudi

    2006-05-01

    Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is one of the late complications of diabetes mellitus. Cranial nerves III, VII, and V are among the most commonly affected in diabetic patients. Traditional electrodiagnosis (Edx) studies are a useful method for diagnosis of PN and symptomatic cranial neuropathy, and may not be useful for detecting subclinical involvement of cranial nerves. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the role of blink reflex (BR) for early diagnosis of cranial neuropathy in diabetic patients with PN. A prospective study was performed on NIDDM patients with PN. One hundred eighty-eight subjects were included in our study in which 142 acted as healthy subjects and 46 as diabetic patients. Patients were excluded with prior history of cranial nerve lesions, stroke, or any other disease with polyneuropathy or drug-induced neuropathy. Routine nerve conduction studies were performed, and only patients with PN were included in this study. Abnormalities were found in 54.4% of patients. R1, IR2, and CR2 were prolonged relative to the healthy group. Statistically there was no significant difference in R/D ratio of patients (P=0.201). Also, there was a positive correlation between R1, IR2, and CR2 latencies with duration of diabetes and severity of polyneuropathy, but not for R/D. The greatest correlation was shown in R1 latency (69.9% abnormality). BR is a noninvasive and very useful method for the evaluation and diagnosis of subclinical cranial nerve involvement in diabetic patients.

  12. Industry Wage Surveys: Banking and Life Insurance, December 1976. Part I--Banking. Part II--Life Insurance. Bulletin 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Carl

    This report presents the results of a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to determine wages and related benefits in (1) the banking industry and (2) for employees in home offices and regional head offices of life insurance carriers. Part 1 discusses banking industry characteristics and presents data for tellers and selected…

  13. The SUrvey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts – II. New FRB discoveries and their follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhandari, S.; Keane, E.F.; Barr, E.D.; Jameson, A.; Petroff, E.; Johnston, S.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N.D.R.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Caleb, M.; Eatough, R.P.; Flynn, C.; Green, J.A.; Jankowski, F.; Kramer, M.; Krishnan, V Venkatraman; Morello, V.; Possenti, A.; Stappers, B.; Tiburzi, C.; van Straten, W.; Andreoni, I.; Butterley, T.; Chandra, P.; Cooke, J.; Corongiu, A.; Coward, D.M.; Dhillon, V.S.; Dodson, R.; Hardy, L.K.; Howell, E.J.; Jaroenjittichai, P.; Klotz, A.; Littlefair, S.P.; Marsh, T.R.; Mickaliger, M.; Muxlow, T.; Perrodin, D.; Pritchard, D.; Sawangwit, U.; Terai, T.; Tominaga, N.; Torne, P.; Totani, T.; Trois, A.; Turpin, D.; Niino, Y.; Wilson, R.W.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Basa, S.; Belhorma, B.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brânzas, H.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Díaz, A.F.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schussler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzocca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of four Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) in the ongoing SUrvey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts at the Parkes Radio Telescope: FRBs 150610, 151206, 151230 and 160102. Our real-time discoveries have enabled us to conduct extensive, rapid multimessenger follow-up at 12 major

  14. A CFH12k lensing survey of X-ray luminous galaxy clusters - II. Weak lensing analysis and global correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardeau, S.; Soucail, G.; Kneib, J.-P.; Czoske, O.; Ebeling, H.; Hudelot, P.; Smail, I.; Smith, G. P.

    Aims. We present a wide-field multi-color survey of a homogeneous sample of eleven clusters of galaxies for which we measure total masses and mass distributions from weak lensing. This sample, spanning a small range in both X-ray luminosity and redshift, is ideally suited to determining the

  15. Human Trafficking in the United States. Part II. Survey of U.S. Government Web Resources for Publications and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigabutra-Roberts, Anchalee

    2012-01-01

    This second part of a two-part series is a survey of U.S. government web resources on human trafficking in the United States, particularly of the online publications and data included on agencies' websites. Overall, the goal is to provide an introduction, an overview, and a guide on this topic for library staff to use in their research and…

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Main-belt asteroids polarimetric survey. II. (Gil-Hutton+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Canada-Assandri, M.

    2012-01-01

    Results for the objects observed during the polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids. The observations were carried out during different observing runs between May 2004 and November 2009 at the 2.15m telescope of the CASLEO, San Juan, Argentina, using the Torino and CASPROF polarimeters. (3 data files).

  17. The sloan lens acs survey. II. Stellar populations and internal structure of early-type lens galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treu, Tommaso; Koopmans, Léon V.; Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2006-01-01

    We use HST images to derive effective radii and effective surface brightnesses of 15 early-type (E+S0) lens galaxies identified by the SLACS Survey. Our measurements are combined with stellar velocity dispersions from the SDSS database to investigate for the first time the distribution of lens

  18. Photoprotection in the antenna complexes of photosystem II: role of individual xanthophylls in chlorophyll triplet quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzo, Milena; Dall'Osto, Luca; Hienerwadel, Rainer; Bassi, Roberto; Croce, Roberta

    2008-03-07

    In this work the photoprotective role of all xanthophylls in LHCII, Lhcb4, and Lhcb5 is investigated by laser-induced Triplet-minus-Singlet (TmS) spectroscopy. The comparison of native LHCII trimeric complexes with different carotenoid composition shows that the xanthophylls in sites V1 and N1 do not directly contribute to the chlorophyll triplet quenching. The largest part of the triplets is quenched by the lutein bound in site L1, which is located in close proximity to the chlorophylls responsible for the low energy state of the complex. The lutein in the L2 site is also active in triplet quenching, and it shows a longer triplet lifetime than the lutein in the L1 site. This lifetime difference depends on the occupancy of the N1 binding site, where neoxanthin acts as an oxygen barrier, limiting the access of O(2) to the inner domain of the Lhc complex, thereby strongly contributing to the photostability. The carotenoid triplet decay of monomeric Lhcb1, Lhcb4, and Lhcb5 is mono-exponential, with shorter lifetimes than observed for trimeric LHCII, suggesting that their inner domains are more accessible for O(2). As for trimeric LHCII, only the xanthophylls in sites L1 and L2 are active in triplet quenching. Although the chlorophyll to carotenoid triplet transfer is efficient (95%) in all complexes, it is not perfect, leaving 5% of the chlorophyll triplets unquenched. This effect appears to be intrinsically related to the molecular organization of the Lhcb proteins.

  19. Roles and challenges of the health information management educator: a national HIM faculty survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Shannon H; Tesch, Linde; Hart-Hester, Susan; Dixon-Lee, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Health information technology initiatives created the framework for a national health information infrastructure that concomitantly fostered a need to build intellectual capacity within our current and future health information management (HIM) work force. Results from the 2008 HIM Educator Survey are discussed. Developed for voluntary electronic participation, the survey comprised a series of questions about educators' professional interests and responsibilities. Summary data from the 402 respondents are provided and highlight areas such as academic rank, teaching status, salary range, levels of interest in various issues, and use of virtual learning tools. Data from this survey provide insights into the concerns and challenges many HIM educators face in today's training institutions and suggest implications for future directions in work force training and professional development within the HIM field.

  20. Predicting health plan member retention from satisfaction surveys: the moderating role of intention and complaint voicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, John W

    2008-01-01

    Many health plans have tried to increase member retention by improving their scores on customer satisfaction surveys. However, prior research has demonstrated weak relationships between member satisfaction and retention, suggesting that other variables are needed to understand how satisfaction impacts member retention. In a longitudinal study 4,806 health plan members who completed satisfaction surveys were re-assessed three years later; we compared measures of satisfaction, intention, and complaining behavior from voluntary disenrollees and retained members. The relationship between satisfaction and retention was moderated by members' intentions to disenroll. The findings suggest that health plans can enhance the predictive validity of their satisfaction surveys by including measures of both satisfaction and intentions.

  1. The Role of Web Interviews as Part of a National Travel Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose — The paper is analysing the effect of adding a web survey to a traditional telephone-based national travel survey by asking the respondents to check in on the web and answer the questions there (Computer Assisted Web Interview, CAWI). If they are not participating by web they are as usual...... called by telephone (Computer Assisted Telephone Interview, CATI). Design/methodology/approach — Multivariate regression analyses are used to analyse the difference in response rates by the two media and to analyse if respondents’ answering by the two media have different travel patterns. Findings...... — The analyses show that web interviews are saving money, even though a more intensive post-processing is necessary. The analyses seem to show that the CAWI is resulting in a more careful answering which results in more trips reported. A CAWI is increasing the participation of children in the survey...

  2. The role of respondents’ comfort for variance in stated choice surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emang, Diana; Lundhede, Thomas; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2017-01-01

    they complete surveys correlates with the error variance in stated choice models of their responses. Comfort-related variables are included in the scale functions of the scaled multinomial logit models. The hypothesis was that higher comfort reduces error variance in answers, as revealed by a higher scale...... parameter and vice versa. Information on, e.g., sleep and time since eating (higher comfort) correlated with scale heterogeneity, and produced lower error variance when controlled for in the model. That respondents’ comfort may influence choice behavior suggests that knowledge of the respondents’ activity......Preference elicitation among outdoor recreational users is subject to measurement errors that depend, in part, on survey planning. This study uses data from a choice experiment survey on recreational SCUBA diving to investigate whether self-reported information on respondents’ comfort when...

  3. Disentangling the role of seed bank and dispersal in plant metapopulation dynamics using patch occupancy surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, F; Pradel, R; Choquet, R; Fréville, H; Cheptou, P-O

    2017-10-01

    In plants, the presence of a seed bank challenges the application of classical metapopulation models to aboveground presence surveys; ignoring seed bank leads to overestimated extinction and colonization rates. In this article, we explore the possibility to detect seed bank using hidden Markov models in the analysis of aboveground patch occupancy surveys of an annual plant with limited dispersal. Patch occupancy data were generated by simulation under two metapopulation sizes (N = 200 and N = 1,000 patches) and different metapopulation scenarios, each scenario being a combination of the presence/absence of a 1-yr seed bank and the presence/absence of limited dispersal in a circular 1-dimension configuration of patches. In addition, because local conditions often vary among patches in natural metapopulations, we simulated patch occupancy data with heterogeneous germination rate and patch disturbance. Seed bank is not observable from aboveground patch occupancy surveys, hence hidden Markov models were designed to account for uncertainty in patch occupancy. We explored their ability to retrieve the correct scenario. For 10 yr surveys and metapopulation sizes of N = 200 or 1,000 patches, the correct metapopulation scenario was detected at a rate close to 100%, whatever the underlying scenario considered. For smaller, more realistic, survey duration, the length for a reliable detection of the correct scenario depends on the metapopulation size: 3 yr for N = 1,000 and 6 yr for N = 200 are enough. Our method remained powerful to disentangle seed bank from dispersal in the presence of patch heterogeneity affecting either seed germination or patch extinction. Our work shows that seed bank and limited dispersal generate different signatures on aboveground patch occupancy surveys. Therefore, our method provides a powerful tool to infer metapopulation dynamics in a wide range of species with an undetectable life form. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Role of Surgery in Stages II and III Pediatric Abdominal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A 5-Years Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amany M; Sayd, Heba A; Hamza, Hesham M; Salem, Mohamed A

    2011-03-29

    Abdominal Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are the most common extra nodal presentation of pediatric NHL. Our aim is to assess the role of surgery as a risk factor and to evaluate the impact of risk-adjusted systemic chemotherapy on survival of patients with stages II and III disease. This study included 35 pediatric patients with abdominal NHL treated over five years at South Egypt Cancer Institute (SECI), Assiut University, between January 2005 and January 2010. The data of every patient included: Age, sex, and presentation, staging work up to determine extent of the disease and the type of resection performed, histopathological examination, details of chemotherapy, disease free survival and overall survival. The study included 25 boys and 10 girls with a median age of six years (range: 2.5:15). Thirty patients (86%) presented with abdominal pain, 23 patients (66%) presented with abdominal mass and distention, 13 patients (34%) presented with weight loss, and intestinal obstruction occurred in six patients (17%). The ileo-cecal region and abdominal lymph nodes were the commonest sites (48.5%, 21% respectively). Burkitt's lymphoma was the most common histological type in 29 patients (83%). Ten (28.5%) stage II (group A) and 25 (71.5%) stage III (group B). Complete resections were performed in 10 (28.5%), debulking in 6 (17%) and imaging guided biopsy in 19 (54%). A11 patients received systemic chemotherapy. The median follow up duration was 63 months (range 51-78 months). The parameters that significantly affect the overall survival were stage at presentation complete resection for localized disease. In conclusion, the extent of disease at presentation is the most important prognostic factor in pediatric abdominal NHL. Surgery is restricted to defined situations such as; abdominal emergencies, diagnostic biopsy and total tumor extirpation in localized disease. Chemotherapy is the cornerstone in the management of pediatric abdominal NHL.

  5. Role of Surgery in Stages II and III Pediatric Abdominal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A 5-Years Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Salem

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL are the most common extra nodal presentation of pediatric NHL. Our aim is to assess the role of surgery as a risk factor and to evaluate the impact of risk-adjusted systemic chemotherapy on survival of patients with stages II and III disease. This study included 35 pediatric patients with abdominal NHL treated over five years at South Egypt Cancer Institute (SECI, Assiut University, between January 2005 and January 2010. The data of every patient included: Age, sex, and presentation, staging work up to determine extent of the disease and the type of resection performed, histopathological examination, details of chemotherapy, disease free survival and overall survival. The study included 25 boys and 10 girls with a median age of six years (range: 2.5:15. Thirty patients (86% presented with abdominal pain, 23 patients (66% presented with abdominal mass and distention, 13 patients (34% presented with weight loss, and intestinal obstruction occurred in six patients (17%. The ileo-cecal region and abdominal lymph nodes were the commonest sites (48.5%, 21% respectively. Burkitt's lymphoma was the most common histological type in 29 patients (83%. Ten (28.5% stage II (group A and 25 (71.5% stage III (group B. Complete resections were performed in 10 (28.5%, debulking in 6 (17% and imaging guided biopsy in 19 (54%. A11 patients received systemic chemotherapy. The median follow up duration was 63 months (range 51-78 months. The parameters that significantly affect the overall survival were stage at presentation complete resection for localized disease. In conclusion, the extent of disease at presentation is the most important prognostic factor in pediatric abdominal NHL. Surgery is restricted to defined situations such as; abdominal emergencies, diagnostic biopsy and total tumor extirpation in localized disease. Chemotherapy is the cornerstone in the management of pediatric abdominal NHL.

  6. Emergence of dengue virus 4 genotype II in Guangzhou, China, 2010: Survey and molecular epidemiology of one community outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Qin-Long

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The re-emergence of dengue virus 4 (DENV-4 has become a public health concern in South America, Southeast Asia and South Asia. However, it has not been known to have caused a local outbreak in China for the past 20 years. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the epidemiology of one local community outbreak caused by DENV-4 in Guangzhou city, China, in 2010; and to determine the molecular characteristics of the genotype II virus involved. Case presentations During September and October of 2010, one imported case, a Guangzhou resident who travelled back from Thailand, resulted in 18 secondary autochthonous cases in Guangzhou City, with an incidence rate of 5.53 per 10,000 residents. In indigenous cases, 14 serum samples tested positive for IgM against DENV and 7 for IgG from a total of 15 submitted serum samples, accompanied by 5 DENV-4 isolates. With identical envelope gene nucleotide sequences, the two isolates (D10168-GZ from the imported index case and Guangzhou 10660 from the first isolate in the autochthonous cases were grouped into DENV-4 genotype II after comparison to 32 previous DENV-4 isolates from GenBank that originated from different areas. Conclusions Based on epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses, the outbreak, which was absent for 20 years after the DENV-4 genotype I outbreak in 1990, was confirmed as DENV-4 genotype II and initially traced to the imported index case, a Guangzhou resident who travelled back from Thailand.

  7. Bases conceptuales y metodológicas de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud II, México 1994 Conceptual and methodological basis of the National Health Survey II, Mexico, 1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las bases conceptuales y metodológicas de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud II (ENSA-II, que integra avances de la investigación multidisciplinaria en salud pública, tanto en el terreno conceptual como en el metodológico, que se han dado en nuestro país últimamente. Su diseño se concentró particularmente en las condiciones del acceso, la calidad y los costos de los servicios de atención a la salud, tanto a nivel ambulatorio como hospitalario. Se incluyen detalles de su marco conceptual, así como los aspectos relacionados con el procesamiento y análisis. La cobertura geográfica fue hecha para cinco regiones; se visitaron 12 615 viviendas a escala nacional, y se recabó información sobre 61 524 individuos. La tasa global de respuesta fue de 96.7%, tanto para los hogares como para los utilizadores identificados de servicios de salud. La conclusión general apunta hacia la incorporación del enfoque de la población al proceso de planeación y asignación de recursos para la atención a la salud.The conceptual and methodological basis of the National Health Survey II (NHS-II are described and recent advances in multidisciplinary public health research in Mexico, both conceptual and methodological, are synthesized. The design of the NHS-II concentrated on the study of the access, quality of care and health attention expenses in ambulatory and hospitalization services. Details on the conceptual framework related with the analysis and processing of data are also included. Five geographic regions were covered; 12 615 households at national level were visited and information on 61524 individuals was gathered. The overall response rate was 96.7% both for households and for identified health service users. The general conclusion emphasizes the need to incorporate the population perspective to the planning and allocation of health resources.

  8. Role of pp60(c-src) and p(44/42) MAPK in ANG II-induced contraction of rat tonic gastrointestinal smooth muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Rajinder N; Fan, Ya-Ping; Rattan, Satish

    2002-08-01

    We examined the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (p(44/42) MAPK) in ANG II-induced contraction of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and internal anal sphincter (IAS) smooth muscles. Studies were performed in the isolated smooth muscles and cells (SMC). ANG II-induced changes in the levels of phosphorylation of different signal transduction and effector proteins were determined before and after selective inhibitors. ANG II-induced contraction of the rat LES and IAS SMC was inhibited by genistein, PD-98059 [a specific inhibitor of MAPK kinases (MEK 1/2)], herbimycin A (a pp60(c-src) inhibitor), and antibodies to pp60(c-src) and p(120) ras GTPase-activating protein (p(120) rasGAP). ANG II-induced contraction of the tonic smooth muscles was accompanied by an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of p(120) rasGAP. These were attenuated by genistein but not by PD-98059. ANG II-induced increase in phosphorylations of p(44/42) MAPKs and caldesmon was attenuated by both genistein and PD-98059. We conclude that pp60(c-src) and p(44/42) MAPKs play an important role in ANG II-induced contraction of LES and IAS smooth muscles.

  9. Massive open star clusters using the VVV survey. II. Discovery of six clusters with Wolf-Rayet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chené, A.-N.; Borissova, J.; Bonatto, C.; Majaess, D. J.; Baume, G.; Clarke, J. R. A.; Kurtev, R.; Schnurr, O.; Bouret, J.-C.; Catelan, M.; Emerson, J. P.; Feinstein, C.; Geisler, D.; de Grijs, R.; Hervé, A.; Ivanov, V. D.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Lucas, P.; Mahy, L.; Martins, F.; Mauro, F.; Minniti, D.; Moni Bidin, C.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The ESO Public Survey "VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea" (VVV) provides deep multi-epoch infrared observations for an unprecedented 562 sq. degrees of the Galactic bulge, and adjacent regions of the disk. Nearly 150 new open clusters and cluster candidates have been discovered in this survey. Aims: This is the second in a series of papers about young, massive open clusters observed using the VVV survey. We present the first study of six recently discovered clusters. These clusters contain at least one newly discovered Wolf-Rayet (WR) star. Methods: Following the methodology presented in the first paper of the series, wide-field, deep JHKs VVV observations, combined with new infrared spectroscopy, are employed to constrain fundamental parameters for a subset of clusters. Results: We find that the six studied stellar groups are real young (2-7 Myr) and massive (between 0.8 and 2.2 × 103 M⊙) clusters. They are highly obscured (AV ~ 5-24 mag) and compact (1-2 pc). In addition to WR stars, two of the six clusters also contain at least one red supergiant star, and one of these two clusters also contains a blue supergiant. We claim the discovery of 8 new WR stars, and 3 stars showing WR-like emission lines which could be classified WR or OIf. Preliminary analysis provides initial masses of ~30-50 M⊙ for the WR stars. Finally, we discuss the spiral structure of the Galaxy using the six new clusters as tracers, together with the previously studied VVV clusters. Based on observations with ISAAC, VLT, ESO (programme 087.D-0341A), New Technology Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory (programme 087.D-0490A) and with the Clay telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory (programme CN2011A-086). Also based on data from the VVV survey (programme 172.B-2002).

  10. The Role of VET in Alcohol and Other Drugs Workforce Development: Survey Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidd, Ken; Carne, Amanda; Roche, Ann

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of vocational education and training qualifications as a workforce development strategy in the community services and health industries, a case study was undertaken of the alcohol and other drug sector. The project comprised of two parts: (1) An online survey to gain an understanding of employer's perceptions of and…

  11. THE SPRINGBOKS IN EAST AFRICA: THE ROLE OF 1 SA SURVEY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steenkamp Fonseca R

    largely unmapped, and one of the SAEC units, 1 SA Survey Company (initially .... August moved into The Gables in Sclaters Road, which would become their ...... programme on a scale of 1 : 250 000 of a belt of approximately 250 km wide.

  12. The Einstein@Home Gamma-ray Pulsar Survey. II. Source Selection, Spectral Analysis, and Multiwavelength Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Clark, C. J.; Pletsch, H. J.; Guillemot, L.; Johnson, T. J.; Torne, P.; Champion, D. J.; Deneva, J.; Ray, P. S.; Salvetti, D.; Kramer, M.; Aulbert, C.; Beer, C.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bock, O.; Camilo, F.; Cognard, I.; Cuéllar, A.; Eggenstein, H. B.; Fehrmann, H.; Ferrara, E. C.; Kerr, M.; Machenschalk, B.; Ransom, S. M.; Sanpa-Arsa, S.; Wood, K.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the analysis of 13 gamma-ray pulsars discovered in the Einstein@Home blind search survey using Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) Pass 8 data. The 13 new gamma-ray pulsars were discovered by searching 118 unassociated LAT sources from the third LAT source catalog (3FGL), selected using the Gaussian Mixture Model machine-learning algorithm on the basis of their gamma-ray emission properties being suggestive of pulsar magnetospheric emission. The new gamma-ray pulsars have pulse profiles and spectral properties similar to those of previously detected young gamma-ray pulsars. Follow-up radio observations have revealed faint radio pulsations from two of the newly discovered pulsars and enabled us to derive upper limits on the radio emission from the others, demonstrating that they are likely radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars. We also present results from modeling the gamma-ray pulse profiles and radio profiles, if available, using different geometric emission models of pulsars. The high discovery rate of this survey, despite the increasing difficulty of blind pulsar searches in gamma rays, suggests that new systematic surveys such as presented in this article should be continued when new LAT source catalogs become available.

  13. The role of hospital payments in the adoption of new medical technologies: an international survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Corinna; Drummond, Michael; Torbica, Aleksandra; Callea, Giuditta; Mateus, Ceu

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of prospective payment systems in the adoption of new medical technologies across different countries. A literature review was conducted to provide background for the study and guide development of a survey instrument. The survey was disseminated to hospital payment systems experts in 15 jurisdictions. Fifty-one surveys were disseminated, with 34 returned. The surveys returned covered 14 of the 15 jurisdictions invited to participate. The majority (71%) of countries update the patient classification system and/or payment tariffs on an annual basis to try to account for new technologies. Use of short-term separate or supplementary payments for new technologies occurs in 79% of countries to ensure adequate funding and facilitate adoption. A minority (43%) of countries use evidence of therapeutic benefit and/or costs to determine or update payment tariffs, although it is somewhat more common in establishing short-term payments. The main barrier to using evidence is uncertain or unavailable clinical evidence. Almost three-fourths of respondents believed diagnosis-related group systems incentivize or deter technology adoption, depending on the particular circumstances. Improvements are needed, such as enhanced strategies for evidence generation and linking evidence of value to payments, national and international collaboration and training to improve existing practice, and flexible timelines for short-term payments. Importantly, additional research is needed to understand how different payment policies impact technology uptake as well as quality of care and costs.

  14. The Role of Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in the Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction in Uncontrolled Type II Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, B; Sathasivasubramanian, S

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the salivary gland dysfunction in patients with uncontrolled type II diabetes using salivary gland scintigraphy and then to compare these ratios with quantitative whole salivary secretion rates. Using a gamma camera (siemens-diacam) equipped with a low energy all-purpose collimator, 32 uncontrolled type II diabetic patients and 30 normal healthy patients were studied by injecting a radio isotope (technetium 99m pertechnetate) about 5 mCi was injected intravenously in to anticubital vein and the activity was measured for the 1(st), 20(th) and 40(th) min. At 20 min after injection, vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and continued until the end of the study period (40 min). Before scintigraphy, salivary sampling was carried out in both diabetic and normal individuals in a quiet room, saliva was allowed to accumulate and was expectorated into the collecting vessel approximately once a minute for 15 min and the volume was recorded as Unstimulated salivary flow rate and after 5 min break vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and the patient was asked to expectorate the saliva in the collecting vessel for 5 min. The expectorated volume was recorded as stimulated salivary flow rate. The mean of the measurements of scintigraphic ratio and salivary secretion rates were compared using the paired Student's t-test. The scintigraphic mean uptake and excretory ratio (ER) and the salivary flow rates were correlated. The result shows that there was a significant correlation between salivary flow rate and scintigraphic uptake and ER. However, statistically significant result could not be derived as it may be due to smaller sample size and marginal difference in the scintigraphic values between the groups. Salivary gland scintigraphy plays a significant role in the evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction. However, its role as an independent investigative procedure in the evaluation of

  15. The Role of Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in the Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction in Uncontrolled Type II Diabetic Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthilkumar, B.; Sathasivasubramanian, S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the salivary gland dysfunction in patients with uncontrolled type II diabetes using salivary gland scintigraphy and then to compare these ratios with quantitative whole salivary secretion rates. Using a gamma camera (siemens-diacam) equipped with a low energy all-purpose collimator, 32 uncontrolled type II diabetic patients and 30 normal healthy patients were studied by injecting a radio isotope (technetium 99m pertechnetate) about 5 mCi was injected intravenously in to anticubital vein and the activity was measured for the 1 st , 20 th and 40 th min. At 20 min after injection, vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and continued until the end of the study period (40 min). Before scintigraphy, salivary sampling was carried out in both diabetic and normal individuals in a quiet room, saliva was allowed to accumulate and was expectorated into the collecting vessel approximately once a minute for 15 min and the volume was recorded as Unstimulated salivary flow rate and after 5 min break vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and the patient was asked to expectorate the saliva in the collecting vessel for 5 min. The expectorated volume was recorded as stimulated salivary flow rate. The mean of the measurements of scintigraphic ratio and salivary secretion rates were compared using the paired Student's t-test. The scintigraphic mean uptake and excretory ratio (ER) and the salivary flow rates were correlated. The result shows that there was a significant correlation between salivary flow rate and scintigraphic uptake and ER. However, statistically significant result could not be derived as it may be due to smaller sample size and marginal difference in the scintigraphic values between the groups. Salivary gland scintigraphy plays a significant role in the evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction. However, its role as an independent investigative procedure in the evaluation

  16. Roles of molecular layer interneurons in sensory information processing in mouse cerebellar cortex Crus II in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ping Chu

    Full Text Available Cerebellar cortical molecular layer interneurons (MLIs play essential roles in sensory information processing by the cerebellar cortex. However, recent experimental and modeling results are questioning traditional roles for molecular layer inhibition in the cerebellum.Synaptic responses of MLIs and Purkinje cells (PCs, evoked by air-puff stimulation of the ipsilateral whisker pad were recorded from cerebellar cortex Crus II in urethane-anesthetized ICR mice by in vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recording techniques. Under current-clamp (I = 0, air-puff stimuli were found to primarily produce inhibition in PCs. In MLIs, this stimulus evoked spike firing regardless of whether they made basket-type synaptic connections or not. However, MLIs not making basket-type synaptic connections had higher rates of background activity and also generated spontaneous spike-lets. Under voltage-clamp conditions, excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs were recorded in MLIs, although the predominant response of recorded PCs was an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP. The latencies of EPSCs were similar for all MLIs, but the time course and amplitude of EPSCs varied with depth in the molecular layer. The highest amplitude, shortest duration EPSCs were recorded from MLIs deep in the molecular layer, which also made basket-type synaptic connections. Comparing MLI to PC responses, time to peak of PC IPSP was significantly slower than MLI recorded EPSCs. Blocking GABA(A receptors uncovered larger EPSCs in PCs whose time to peak, half-width and 10-90% rising time were also significantly slower than in MLIs. Biocytin labeling indicated that the MLIs (but not PCs are dye-coupled.These findings indicate that tactile face stimulation evokes rapid excitation in MLIs and inhibition occurring at later latencies in PCs in mouse cerebellar cortex Crus II. These results support previous suggestions that the lack of parallel fiber driven PC activity is due to the effect

  17. Survey on Public Awareness On AIDS- Role Of Government And Non Government Agencies In A Rural South Indian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balagnesh G

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of Public awareness on AIDS in a rural community and to what extent the government and non-government agencies have played their role in creating the awareness? Objectives: (i To study the public awareness on AIDS in a rural community (ii To Study role of government and non-government agencies in creating the awareness on AIDS. Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: Rural area under S. V. Medical College Triputi (AP Participants: 100 males (15-45 yrs and 100 females (15-45 yrs. Study variables: Awareness on AIDS, Government and non-government agencies. Statistical Analysis: Percentages Results: Most of the persons interviewed had minimal knowledge on AIDS. Quite a large section of the ‘ study population was ignorant over the safety offered by condoms in preventing AIDS. Doordarshan and Newspaper agencies played much role in creation the awareness on AIDS, while the non-government agencies like Lions’ Club, Rotary Club. Indian Junior Chamber etc. played no role in creating the awareness on AIDS in the study area. Recommendations: Government health sector should take more responsibility in educating the people and creating adequate awareness on AIDS. Non-government agencies should involve themselves in creating awareness on AIDS.

  18. Electron transfer and atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and structural Fe(III) in clays. Role in U and Hg(II) transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Michelle [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    During this project, we investigated Fe electron transfer and atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and structural Fe(III) in clay minerals. We used selective chemical extractions, enriched Fe isotope tracer experiments, computational molecular modeling, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Our findings indicate that structural Fe(III) in clay minerals is reduced by aqueous Fe(II) and that electron transfer occurs when Fe(II) is sorbed to either basal planes and edge OH-groups of clay mineral. Findings from highly enriched isotope experiments suggest that up to 30 % of the Fe atoms in the structure of some clay minerals exhanges with aqueous Fe(II). First principles calculations using a small polaron hopping approach suggest surprisingly fast electron mobility at room temperature in a nontronite clay mineral and are consistent with temperature dependent Mössbauer data Fast electron mobility suggests that electrons may be able to conduct through the mineral fast enough to enable exchange of Fe between the aqueous phase and clay mineral structure. over the time periods we observed. Our findings suggest that Fe in clay minerals is not as stable as previously thought.

  19. Polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids. II. Results for 58 B- and C-type objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañada-Assandri, M.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: We present results of a polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids at Complejo Astronómico el Leoncito (CASLEO), San Juan, Argentina. The aims of this survey are to increase the database of asteroid polarimetry, to estimate diversity in polarimetric properties of asteroids that belong to different taxonomic classes, and to search for objects that exhibit anomalous polarimetric properties. Methods: The data were obtained with the Torino and CASPROF polarimeters at the 2.15m telescope. The Torino polarimeter is an instrument that allows simultaneous measurement of polarization in five different bands, and the CASPROF polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation. Results: The survey began in 2003, and up to 2009 data on a sample of more than 170 asteroids were obtained. In this paper the results for 58 B- and C-type objects are presented, most of them polarimetrically observed for the first time. Using these data we find phase-polarization curves and polarimetric parameters for these taxonomic classes. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.Tables 1 and 2 are available in electronic form at CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/539/A115

  20. A role for nuclear translocation of tripeptidyl-peptidase II in reactive oxygen species-dependent DNA damage responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preta, Giulio; Klark, Rainier de [Center for Molecular Medicine (CMM), Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Glas, Rickard, E-mail: rickard.glas@ki.se [Center for Molecular Medicine (CMM), Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-11-27

    Responses to DNA damage are influenced by cellular metabolism through the continuous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), of which most are by-products of mitochondrial respiration. ROS have a strong influence on signaling pathways during responses to DNA damage, by relatively unclear mechanisms. Previous reports have shown conflicting data on a possible role for tripeptidyl-peptidase II (TPPII), a large cytosolic peptidase, within the DNA damage response. Here we show that TPPII translocated into the nucleus in a p160-ROCK-dependent fashion in response to {gamma}-irradiation, and that nuclear expression of TPPII was present in most {gamma}-irradiated transformed cell lines. We used a panel of nine cell lines of diverse tissue origin, including four lymphoma cell lines (T, B and Hodgkins lymphoma), a melanoma, a sarcoma, a colon and two breast carcinomas, where seven out of nine cell lines showed nuclear TPPII expression after {gamma}-irradiation. Further, this required cellular production of ROS; treatment with either N-acetyl-Cysteine (anti-oxidant) or Rotenone (inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration) inhibited nuclear accumulation of TPPII. The local density of cells was important for nuclear accumulation of TPPII at early time-points following {gamma}-irradiation (at 1-4 h), indicating a bystander effect. Further, we showed that the peptide-based inhibitor Z-Gly-Leu-Ala-OH, but not its analogue Z-Gly-(D)-Leu-Ala-OH, excluded TPPII from the nucleus. This correlated with reduced nuclear expression of p53 as well as caspase-3 and -9 activation in {gamma}-irradiated lymphoma cells. Our data suggest a role for TPPII in ROS-dependent DNA damage responses, through alteration of its localization from the cytosol into the nucleus.

  1. A different role of angiotensin II type 1a receptor in the development and hypertrophy of plantaris muscle in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Ogawa, Masahito; Watanabe, Ryo; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-02-01

    The role of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors in muscle development and hypertrophy remains unclear. This study was designed to reveal the effects that a loss of AT1 receptors has on skeletal muscle development and hypertrophy in mice. Eight-week-old male AT1a receptor knockout (AT1a(-/-)) mice were used for this experiment. The plantaris muscle to body weight ratio, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, and number of muscle fibers of AT1a(-/-) mice was significantly greater than wild type (WT) mice in the non-intervention condition. Next, the functional overload (OL) model was used to induce plantaris muscle hypertrophy by surgically removing the two triceps muscles consisting of the calf, soleus, and gastrocnemius muscles in mice. After 14 days of OL intervention, the plantaris muscle weight, the amount of fiber, and the fiber area increased. However, the magnitude of the increment of plantaris weight was not different between the two strains. Agtr1a mRNA expression did not change after OL in WT muscle. Actually, the Agt mRNA expression level of WT-OL was lower than WT-Control (C) muscle. An atrophy-related gene, atrogin-1 mRNA expression levels of AT1a(-/-)-C, WT-OL, and AT1a(-/-)-OL muscle were lower than that of WT-C muscle. Our findings suggest that AT1 receptor contributes to plantaris muscle development via atrogin-1 in mice.

  2. The role of the Zn(II binding domain in the mechanism of E. coli DNA topoisomerase I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tse-Dinh Yuk-Ching

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I binds three Zn(II with three tetracysteine motifs which, together with the 14 kDa C-terminal region, form a 30 kDa DNA binding domain (ZD domain. The 67 kDa N-terminal domain (Top67 has the active site tyrosine for DNA cleavage but cannot relax negatively supercoiled DNA. We analyzed the role of the ZD domain in the enzyme mechanism. Results Addition of purified ZD domain to Top67 partially restored the relaxation activity, demonstrating that covalent linkage between the two domains is not necessary for removal of negative supercoils from DNA. The two domains had similar affinities to ssDNA. However, only Top67 could bind dsDNA with high affinity. DNA cleavage assays showed that the Top67 had the same sequence and structure selectivity for DNA cleavage as the intact enzyme. DNA rejoining also did not require the presence of the ZD domain. Conclusions We propose that during relaxation of negatively supercoiled DNA, Top67 by itself can position the active site tyrosine near the junction of double-stranded and single-stranded DNA for cleavage. However, the interaction of the ZD domain with the passing single-strand of DNA, coupled with enzyme conformational change, is needed for removal of negative supercoils.

  3. Assessment of visual disability using the WHO disability assessment scale (WHO-DAS-II): role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, H E; Mourad, H

    2009-10-01

    To study the role of gender in coping with disability in young visually impaired students attending two schools for blindness. The WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS II), 36-Item Interviewer Administered translated Arabic version was used. It evaluates six domains of everyday living in the last 30 days. These domains are: understanding and communicating, getting around, self care, getting along with people, household activities and participation in society. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 200 students who represented the target population of the study. Binary logistic regression analysis of the scores of the six domains revealed that in all of the domains except getting along with people and coping with school activities, females significantly faced more difficulties in coping with daily life activities than did their male counterparts. Increasing age significantly increased difficulties in coping with school activities. Genetic causes of blindness were associated with increased difficulties. Females face more difficulties in coping with visual disability. Genetic counselling is needed to decrease the prevalence of visual disability. Girls with blindness need additional inputs to help cope with blindness. Early intervention facilitates dealing with school activities of the visually impaired.

  4. Photometric redshifts for the next generation of deep radio continuum surveys - II. Gaussian processes and hybrid estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kenneth J.; Jarvis, Matt J.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Röttgering, Huub J. A.

    2018-04-01

    Building on the first paper in this series (Duncan et al. 2018), we present a study investigating the performance of Gaussian process photometric redshift (photo-z) estimates for galaxies and active galactic nuclei detected in deep radio continuum surveys. A Gaussian process redshift code is used to produce photo-z estimates targeting specific subsets of both the AGN population - infrared, X-ray and optically selected AGN - and the general galaxy population. The new estimates for the AGN population are found to perform significantly better at z > 1 than the template-based photo-z estimates presented in our previous study. Our new photo-z estimates are then combined with template estimates through hierarchical Bayesian combination to produce a hybrid consensus estimate that outperforms both of the individual methods across all source types. Photo-z estimates for radio sources that are X-ray sources or optical/IR AGN are significantly improved in comparison to previous template-only estimates - with outlier fractions and robust scatter reduced by up to a factor of ˜4. The ability of our method to combine the strengths of the two input photo-z techniques and the large improvements we observe illustrate its potential for enabling future exploitation of deep radio continuum surveys for both the study of galaxy and black hole co-evolution and for cosmological studies.

  5. The Canada-France deep fields survey-II: Lyman-break galaxies and galaxy clustering at z ~ 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucaud, S.; McCracken, H. J.; Le Fèvre, O.; Arnouts, S.; Brodwin, M.; Lilly, S. J.; Crampton, D.; Mellier, Y.

    2003-10-01

    We present a large sample of z ~ 3 U-band dropout galaxies extracted from the Canada-France deep fields survey (CFDF). Our catalogue covers an effective area of ~ 1700 arcmin2 divided between three large, contiguous fields separated widely on the sky. To IAB=24.5, the survey contains 1294 Lyman-break candidates, in agreement with previous measurements by other authors, after appropriate incompleteness corrections have been applied to our data. Based on comparisons with spectroscopic observations and simulations, we estimate that our sample of Lyman-break galaxies is contaminated by stars and interlopers (lower-redshift galaxies) at no more than { ~ } 30%. We find that omega (theta ) is well fitted by a power-law of fixed slope, gamma =1.8, even at small (theta University of Hawaii, and at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and Mayall 4-meter Telescopes, divisions of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, which are operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  6. [Roles and competences of nurses with postgraduate master degree in nursing science in everyday practice. Multicentre descriptive survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dante, Angelo; Occoffer, Elisa Maria; Miniussi, Claudia; Margetic, Helga; Palese, Alvisa; Saiani, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Roles and competences of nurses with postgraduate master degree in nursing science in everyday practice. Multicentre descriptive survey. Few information are available on the role and activities of Italian nurses with Laurea Magistrale (postgraduate master degree in nursing science). To describe the implementation of the advanced competences acquired after Laurea Magistrale by nurses, as well as changes in their professional career. A multicenter descriptive study on 7 consecutive cohorts (from 2004/2005 to 2011/2012) of nurses of 3 universities of northern Italy was conducted. Data on managerial, teaching, research and clinical competences and changes in the professional role were collected with semi-structured questionnaires. 232/285 graduates completed the questionnaire; 216 (88.8%) used their managerial competences, 178 (76.7%) educational competences, 122 (52.6%) clinical competences and 115 (49.5%) research competences. Eigthy graduates (34.4%) changed their professional roles, occupying managerial positions (from 89 to 212, +123, 14.5%) and in the education field (from 33 to 44 +11, 4.8%) while the number of nurses with a clinical role decreased (from 110 to 65, -45, -19.4%). The role changes occured mainly after three years from graduation (p = 0.006) with significant differences across areas (p = 0.018). Until recently the main field of occupation of Laureati magistrali was in management but the changing needs of the organizations require a major focus on the clinical competences. The characteristics of contexts that favour or prevent the implementation of the new compentences and the upgrade of the roles should be studied.

  7. Phase II Characterization Survey of the USNS Bridge (T-AOE 10), Military Sealift Fleet Support Command, Naval Station, Norfolk, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALTIC, NICK A

    2012-08-30

    In March 2011, the USNS Bridge was deployed off northeastern Honshu, Japan with the carrier USS Ronald Reagan to assist with relief efforts after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. During that time, the Bridge was exposed to air-borne radioactive materials leaking from the damaged Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. The proximity of the Bridge to the air-borne impacted area resulted in the contamination of the ship’s air-handling systems and the associated components, as well as potential contamination of other ship surfaces due to either direct intake/deposition or inadvertent spread from crew/operational activities. Preliminary surveys in the weeks after the event confirmed low-level contamination within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ductwork and systems, and engine and other auxiliary air intake systems. Some partial decontamination was performed at that time. In response to the airborne contamination event, Military Sealift Fleet Support Command (MSFSC) contracted Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under provisions of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to assess the radiological condition of the Bridge. Phase I identified contamination within the CPS filters, ventilation systems, miscellaneous equipment, and other suspect locations that could not accessed at that time (ORAU 2011b). Because the Bridge was underway during the characterization, all the potentially impacted systems/spaces could not be investigated. As a result, MSFSC contracted with ORAU to perform Phase II of the characterization, specifically to survey systems/spaces previously inaccessible. During Phase II of the characterization, the ship was in port to perform routine maintenance operations, allowing access to the previously inaccessible systems/spaces.

  8. Expression of EMAP-II in the rat dental follicle and its potential role in tooth eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dawen; Wise, Gary E.

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II (EMAP-II) is an inflammatory cytokine with chemotactic activity. Because the dental follicle (DF) recruits mononuclear cells (osteoclast precursors) to promote the osteoclastogenesis needed for tooth eruption, it was the aim of this study to determine if EMAP-II may contribute to this recruitment. Using a DNA microarray, EMAP-II was found to be highly expressed in vivo in the DFs of day 1 to day 11 postnatal rats, with its expression elevated at days 1 and 3. Using a siRNA to knock down EMAP-II expression also resulted in a reduction in expression of CSF-1 and MCP-1 in the DF cells. Addition of EMAP-II protein to the DF cells partially restored the expression of CSF-1 and MCP-1. In chemotaxis assays using either conditioned medium of the DF cells with anti-EMAP-II antibody added or conditioned medium of DF cells with EMAP-II knocked down by siRNA, migration indexes of bone marrow mononuclear cells were significantly reduced. These results suggest that EMAP-II is another chemotactic molecule in the dental follicle involved in recruitment of mononuclear cells, and that EMAP-II may exert its chemotactic function directly by recruiting mononuclear cells and indirectly by enhancing the expression of other chemotactic molecules (CSF-1 and MCP-1). PMID:18705801

  9. Role of angiotensin II and vasopressin receptors within the supraoptic nucleus in water and sodium intake induced by the injection of angiotensin II into the medial septal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes V.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of the injection into the supraoptic nucleus (SON of non-peptide AT1- and AT2-angiotensin II (ANG II receptor antagonists, DuP753 and PD123319, as well as of the arginine-vasopressin (AVP receptor antagonist d(CH25-Tyr(Me-AVP, on water and 3% NaCl intake induced by the injection of ANG II into the medial septal area (MSA. The effects on water or 3% NaCl intake were assessed in 30-h water-deprived or in 20-h water-deprived furosemide-treated adult male rats, respectively. The drugs were injected in 0.5 ml over 30-60 s. Controls were injected with a similar volume of 0.15 M NaCl. Antagonists were injected at doses of 20, 80 and 180 nmol. Water and sodium intake was measured over a 2-h period. Previous administration of the AT1 receptor antagonist DuP753 into the SON decreased water (65%, N = 10, P<0.01 and sodium intake (81%, N = 8, P<0.01 induced by the injection of ANG II (10 nmol into the MSA. Neither of these responses was significantly changed by injection of the AT2-receptor antagonist PD123319 into the SON. On the other hand, while there was a decrease in water intake (45%, N = 9, P<0.01, ANG II-induced sodium intake was significantly increased (70%, N = 8, P<0.01 following injection of the V1-type vasopressin antagonist d(CH25-Tyr(Me-AVP into the SON. These results suggest that both AT1 and V1 receptors within the SON may be involved in water and sodium intake induced by the activation of ANG II receptors within the MSA. Furthermore, they do not support the involvement of MSA AT2 receptors in the mediation of these responses.

  10. PROBING THE PHYSICS OF NARROW LINE REGIONS IN ACTIVE GALAXIES. II. THE SIDING SPRING SOUTHERN SEYFERT SPECTROSCOPIC SNAPSHOT SURVEY (S7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopita, Michael A.; Davies, Rebecca; Kewley, Lisa; Hampton, Elise; Sutherland, Ralph [RSAA, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Shastri, Prajval; Kharb, Preeti; Jose, Jessy; Bhatt, Harish; Ramya, S. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala 2 B Block, Bangalore 560034 (India); Scharwächter, Julia [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UMR 8112, 61 Avenue de l’Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Jin, Chichuan [Qian Xuesen Laboratory for Space Technology, Beijing (China); Banfield, Julie [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW, 1710 Australia (Australia); Zaw, Ingyin [New York University (Abu Dhabi), 70 Washington Square South, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Juneau, Stéphanie [CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); James, Bethan [Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Srivastava, Shweta, E-mail: Michael.Dopita@anu.edu.au [Astronomy and Astrophysics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India)

    2015-03-15

    Here we describe the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7) and present results on 64 galaxies drawn from the first data release. The S7 uses the Wide Field Spectrograph mounted on the ANU 2.3 m telescope located at the Siding Spring Observatory to deliver an integral field of 38 × 25 arcsec at a spectral resolution of R = 7000 in the red (530–710 nm), and R = 3000 in the blue (340–560 nm). From these data cubes we have extracted the narrow-line region spectra from a 4 arcsec aperture centered on the nucleus. We also determine the Hβ and [O iii] λ5007 fluxes in the narrow lines, the nuclear reddening, the reddening-corrected relative intensities of the observed emission lines, and the Hβ and [O iii] λ5007 luminosities determined from spectra for which the stellar continuum has been removed. We present a set of images of the galaxies in [O iii] λ5007, [N ii] λ6584, and Hα, which serve to delineate the spatial extent of the extended narrow-line region and also to reveal the structure and morphology of the surrounding H ii regions. Finally, we provide a preliminary discussion of those Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies that display coronal emission lines in order to explore the origin of these lines.

  11. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey - OTÁP2014. II. Energy and macronutrient intake of the Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkadi Nagy, Eszter; Bakacs, Márta; Illés, Éva; Nagy, Barbara; Varga, Anita; Kis, Orsolya; Schreiberné Molnár, Erzsébet; Martos, Éva

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess and monitor the dietary habits and nutrient intake of Hungarian adults. Three-day dietary records were used for dietary assessment, the sample was representative for the Hungarian population aged ≥18ys by gender and age. The mean proportion of energy from fat was higher (men: 38 energy%, women: 37 energy%), that from carbohydrates was lower (men: 45 energy%, women: 47 energy%) than recommended, the protein intake is adequate. Unfavorable change compared to the previous survey in 2009 was the increase of fat and saturated fatty acid energy percent in women, the decrease in fruit and vegetable consumption, which explains the decreased fiber intake. An increasing trend in added sugar energy percent in each age groups of both genders was observed compared to 2009. Interventions focusing on the promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption and decreasing of saturated fat and added sugar intake are needed. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(15), 587-597.

  12. Profiling Occupant Behaviour in Danish Dwellings using Time Use Survey Data - Part II: Time-related Factors and Occupancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmes, V.M.; Li, R.; Andersen, R.K.

    2018-01-01

    Occupant behaviour has been shown to be one of the key driving factors of uncertainty in prediction of energy consumption in buildings. Building occupants affect building energy use directly and indirectly by interacting with building energy systems such as adjusting temperature set...... occupant profiles for prediction of energy use to reduce the gap between predicted and real building energy consumptions. In this study, we exploit diary-based Danish Time Use Surveys for understanding and modelling occupant behaviour in the residential sector in Denmark. This paper is a continuation......-points, switching lights on/off, using electrical devices and opening/closing windows. Furthermore, building inhabitants’ daily activity profiles clearly shape the timing of energy demand in households. Modelling energy-related human activities throughout the day, therefore, is crucial to defining more realistic...

  13. THE GOULD’S BELT DISTANCES SURVEY (GOBELINS). II. DISTANCES AND STRUCTURE TOWARD THE ORION MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Loinard, Laurent; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Morelia 58089 (Mexico); Mioduszewski, Amy J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Domenici Science Operations Center, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Torres, Rosa M. [Centro Universitario de Tonalá, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Nuevo Perifrico No. 555, Ejido San José, Tatepozco, C.P. 48525, Tonalá, Jalisco, México (Mexico); Galli, Phillip A. B. [Université Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000, Grenoble (France); Boden, Andrew F. [Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Briceño, Cesar [Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Tobin, John J., E-mail: mkounkel@umich.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We present the results of the Gould’s Belt Distances Survey of young star-forming regions toward the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex. We detected 36 young stellar objects (YSOs) with the Very Large Baseline Array, 27 of which have been observed in at least three epochs over the course of two years. At least half of these YSOs belong to multiple systems. We obtained parallax and proper motions toward these stars to study the structure and kinematics of the Complex. We measured a distance of 388 ± 5 pc toward the Orion Nebula Cluster, 428 ± 10 pc toward the southern portion L1641, 388 ± 10 pc toward NGC 2068, and roughly ∼420 pc toward NGC 2024. Finally, we observed a strong degree of plasma radio scattering toward λ Ori.

  14. OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE DIFFERENTIAL SPECKLE SURVEY INSTRUMENT. II. HIPPARCOS STARS OBSERVED IN 2010 JANUARY AND JUNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horch, Elliott P.; Gomez, Shamilia C.; Anderson, Lisa M.; Sherry, William H.; Howell, Steve B.; Ciardi, David R.; Van Altena, William F.

    2011-01-01

    The results of 497 speckle observations of Hipparcos stars and selected other targets are presented. Of these, 367 were resolved into components and 130 were unresolved. The data were obtained using the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument at the WIYN 3.5 m Telescope. (The WIYN Observatory is a joint facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories.) Since the first paper in this series, the instrument has been upgraded so that it now uses two electron-multiplying CCD cameras. The measurement precision obtained when comparing to ephemeris positions of binaries with very well known orbits is approximately 1-2 mas in separation and better than 0. 0 6 in position angle. Differential photometry is found to be in very good agreement with Hipparcos measures in cases where the comparison is most relevant. We derive preliminary orbits for two systems.

  15. Molecular-cloud-scale Chemical Composition. II. Mapping Spectral Line Survey toward W3(OH) in the 3 mm Band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yuri [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Harada, Nanase [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Shimonishi, Takashi [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramakiazaaoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Sakai, Nami [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aikawa, Yuri [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kawamura, Akiko [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-10-10

    To study a molecular-cloud-scale chemical composition, we conducted a mapping spectral line survey toward the Galactic molecular cloud W3(OH), which is one of the most active star-forming regions in the Perseus arm. We conducted our survey through the use of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope, and observed the area of 16′ × 16′, which corresponds to 9.0 pc × 9.0 pc. The observed frequency ranges are 87–91, 96–103, and 108–112 GHz. We prepared the spectrum averaged over the observed area, in which eight molecular species (CCH, HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, CS, SO, C{sup 18}O, and {sup 13}CO) are identified. On the other hand, the spectrum of the W3(OH) hot core observed at a 0.17 pc resolution shows the lines of various molecules such as OCS, H{sub 2}CS CH{sub 3}CCH, and CH{sub 3}CN in addition to the above species. In the spatially averaged spectrum, emission of the species concentrated just around the star-forming core, such as CH{sub 3}OH and HC{sub 3}N, is fainter than in the hot core spectrum, whereas emission of the species widely extended over the cloud such as CCH is relatively brighter. We classified the observed area into five subregions according to the integrated intensity of {sup 13}CO, and evaluated the contribution to the averaged spectrum from each subregion. The CCH, HCN, HCO{sup +}, and CS lines can be seen even in the spectrum of the subregion with the lowest {sup 13}CO integrated intensity range (<10 K km s{sup −1}). Thus, the contributions of the spatially extended emission is confirmed to be dominant in the spatially averaged spectrum.

  16. Role of radiotherapy in grade II and III meningiomas; Place de la radiotherapie dans les meningiomes de grades II et III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouni, K.; Hassouni, K.; Kebdani, T.; Elkacemi, H.; Benjaafer, N.; Elgueddari, B. [Institut national d' oncologie, Rabat (Morocco)

    2010-10-15

    Grade II and III meningiomas are rare tumours. They are not much studied and raise problems when taking them into care due to their aggressiveness and relapses. Based on 19 cases observed between 2000 and 2007, the authors report and discuss epidemiologic, clinic, and above all therapeutic and evolutional aspects. They state that radiotherapy is to be performed whatever the quality of the exeresis is, in order to reduce relapse risks. Short communication

  17. The role of mental budgeting in healthy financial behavior : A survey among self-employed entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, I.M.; van Raaij, W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Self-employed entrepreneurs (without personnel) manage their business and household finances at the same time. Both domains tend to interact with each other. In this study, it is studied whether and how self-employed entrepreneurs manage their finances. More specifically, the role of mental

  18. Spectroscopic survey of Kepler stars - II. FIES/NOT observations of A- and F-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczura, E.; Polińska, M.; Murphy, S. J.; Smalley, B.; Kołaczkowski, Z.; Jessen-Hansen, J.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Lykke, J. M.; Triviño Hage, A.; Michalska, G.

    2017-09-01

    We have analysed high-resolution spectra of 28 A and 22 F stars in the Kepler field, observed using the Fibre-Fed Échelle Spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. We provide spectral types, atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances for 50 stars. Balmer, Fe I and Fe II lines were used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities and microturbulent velocities. We determined chemical abundances and projected rotational velocities using a spectrum synthesis technique. Effective temperatures calculated by spectral energy distribution fitting are in good agreement with those determined from the spectral line analysis. The stars analysed include chemically peculiar stars of the Am and λ Boo types, as well as stars with approximately solar chemical abundances. The wide distribution of projected rotational velocity, vsin I, is typical for A and F stars. The microturbulence velocities obtained are typical for stars in the observed temperature and surface gravity ranges. Moreover, we affirm the results of Niemczura et al. that Am stars do not have systematically higher microturbulent velocities than normal stars of the same temperature.

  19. Potential Role of Nitrite for Abiotic Fe(II) Oxidation and Cell Encrustation during Nitrate Reduction by Denitrifying Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueglein, Nicole; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Floetenmeyer, Matthias; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Obst, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms have been observed to oxidize Fe(II) at neutral pH under anoxic and microoxic conditions. While most of the mixotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria become encrusted with Fe(III)-rich minerals, photoautotrophic and microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers avoid cell encrustation. The Fe(II) oxidation mechanisms and the reasons for encrustation remain largely unresolved. Here we used cultivation-based methods and electron microscopy to compare two previously described nitrate-reducing Fe(II) oxidizers ( Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1 and Pseudogulbenkiania sp. strain 2002) and two heterotrophic nitrate reducers (Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 19367 and P. denitrificans Pd 1222). All four strains oxidized ∼8 mM Fe(II) within 5 days in the presence of 5 mM acetate and accumulated nitrite (maximum concentrations of 0.8 to 1.0 mM) in the culture media. Iron(III) minerals, mainly goethite, formed and precipitated extracellularly in close proximity to the cell surface. Interestingly, mineral formation was also observed within the periplasm and cytoplasm; intracellular mineralization is expected to be physiologically disadvantageous, yet acetate consumption continued to be observed even at an advanced stage of Fe(II) oxidation. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were detected by lectin staining with fluorescence microscopy, particularly in the presence of Fe(II), suggesting that EPS production is a response to Fe(II) toxicity or a strategy to decrease encrustation. Based on the data presented here, we propose a nitrite-driven, indirect mechanism of cell encrustation whereby nitrite forms during heterotrophic denitrification and abiotically oxidizes Fe(II). This work adds to the known assemblage of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria in nature and complicates our ability to delineate microbial Fe(II) oxidation in ancient microbes preserved as fossils in the geological record. PMID:24271182

  20. A survey of role stress, coping and health in Australian and New Zealand hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Esther M L; Bidewell, John W; Huntington, Annette D; Daly, John; Johnson, Amanda; Wilson, Helen; Lambert, Vicki A; Lambert, Clinton E

    2007-11-01

    Previous research has identified international and cultural differences in nurses' workplace stress and coping responses. We hypothesised an association between problem-focused coping and improved health, emotion-focused coping with reduced health, and more frequent workplace stress with reduced health. Test the above hypotheses with Australian and New Zealand nurses, and compare Australian and New Zealand nurses' experience of workplace stress, coping and health status. Three hundred and twenty-eight New South Wales (NSW) and 190 New Zealand (NZ) volunteer acute care hospital nurses (response rate 41%) from randomly sampled nurses. Postal survey consisting of a demographic questionnaire, the Nursing Stress Scale, the WAYS of Coping Questionnaire and the SF-36 Health Survey Version 2. Consistent with hypotheses, more frequent workplace stress predicted lower physical and mental health. Problem-focused coping was associated with better mental health. Emotion-focused coping was associated with reduced mental health. Contrary to hypotheses, coping styles did not predict physical health. NSW and NZ scored effectively the same on sources of workplace stress, stress coping methods, and physical and mental health when controlling for relevant variables. Results suggest mental health benefits for nurses who use problem-solving to cope with stress by addressing the external source of the stress, rather than emotion-focused coping in which nurses try to control or manage their internal response to stress. Cultural similarities and similar hospital environments could account for equivalent findings for NSW and NZ.

  1. Catalytic role of Cu(II) in the reduction of Cr(VI) by citric acid under an irradiation of simulated solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Jing; Lan, Yeqing

    2015-05-01

    The catalytic role of Cu(II) in the reduction of Cr(VI) by citric acid with simulated solar light was investigated. The results demonstrated that Cu(II) could significantly accelerate Cr(VI) reduction and the reaction obeyed to pseudo zero-order kinetics with respect to Cr(VI). The removal of Cr(VI) was related to the initial concentrations of Cu(II), citric acid, and the types of organic acids. The optimal removal of Cr(VI) was achieved at pH 4, and the rates of Cu(II) photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) by organic acids were in the order: tartaric acid (two α-OH groups, two -COOH groups)>citric acid (one α-OH group, three -COOH groups)>malic acid (one α-OH group, two -COOH groups)>lactic acid (one α-OH group, one -COOH group)≫succinic acid (two -COOH groups), suggesting that the number of α-OH was the key factor for the reaction, followed by the number of -COOH. The formation of Cu(II)-citric acid complex could generate Cu(I) and radicals through a pathway of metal-ligand-electron transfer, promoting the reduction of Cr(VI). This study is helpful to fully understanding the conversion of Cr(VI) in the existence of both organic acids and Cu(II) with solar light in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Feasibility study for an airborne high-sensitivity gamma-ray survey of Alaska. Phase II (final) report: 1976--1979 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This study constitutes a determination of the extent to which it is feasible to use airborne, high-sensitivity gamma spectrometer systems for uranium reconnaissance in the State of Alaska, and specification of a preliminary plan for surveying the entire state of the 1975--1979 time frame. Phase I included the design of a program to survey the highest priority areas in 1975 using available aircraft and spectrometer equipment. This has now resulted in a contract for 10,305 flight line miles to cover about 11 of the 1:250,000 scale quadrangles using a DC-3 aircraft with an average 6.25 x 25 mile grid of flight line. Phase II includes the design of alternative programs to cover the remaining 128 quadrangles using either a DC-3 and a Bell 205A helicopter or a Helio Stallion STOL aircraft and a Bell 205A helicopter during 1976-1979. The 1976-1979 time frame allows some time for possible new system developments in both airborne gamma-ray spectrometers and in ancillary equipment, and these are outlined. (auth)

  3. Using threshold regression to analyze survival data from complex surveys: With application to mortality linked NHANES III Phase II genetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Xiao, Tao; Liao, Dandan; Lee, Mei-Ling Ting

    2018-03-30

    The Cox proportional hazards (PH) model is a common statistical technique used for analyzing time-to-event data. The assumption of PH, however, is not always appropriate in real applications. In cases where the assumption is not tenable, threshold regression (TR) and other survival methods, which do not require the PH assumption, are available and widely used. These alternative methods generally assume that the study data constitute simple random samples. In particular, TR has not been studied in the setting of complex surveys that involve (1) differential selection probabilities of study subjects and (2) intracluster correlations induced by multistage cluster sampling. In this paper, we extend TR procedures to account for complex sampling designs. The pseudo-maximum likelihood estimation technique is applied to estimate the TR model parameters. Computationally efficient Taylor linearization variance estimators that consider both the intracluster correlation and the differential selection probabilities are developed. The proposed methods are evaluated by using simulation experiments with various complex designs and illustrated empirically by using mortality-linked Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Phase II genetic data. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Thermodynamic Stability of Ice II and Its Hydrogen-Disordered Counterpart: Role of Zero-Point Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Masakazu; Yagasaki, Takuma; Tanaka, Hideki

    2016-03-03

    We investigate why no hydrogen-disordered form of ice II has been found in nature despite the fact that most of hydrogen-ordered ices have hydrogen-disordered counterparts. The thermodynamic stability of a set of hydrogen-ordered ice II variants relative to ice II is evaluated theoretically. It is found that ice II is more stable than the disordered variants so generated as to satisfy the simple ice rule due to the lower zero-point energy as well as the pair interaction energy. The residual entropy of the disordered ice II phase gradually compensates the unfavorable free energy with increasing temperature. The crossover, however, occurs at a high temperature well above the melting point of ice III. Consequently, the hydrogen-disordered phase does not exist in nature. The thermodynamic stability of partially hydrogen-disordered ices is also scrutinized by examining the free-energy components of several variants obtained by systematic inversion of OH directions in ice II. The potential energy of one variant is lower than that of the ice II structure, but its Gibbs free energy is slightly higher than that of ice II due to the zero-point energy. The slight difference in the thermodynamic stability leaves the possibility of the partial hydrogen-disorder in real ice II.

  5. The Emerging Role of Social Work in Primary Health Care: A Survey of Social Workers in Ontario Family Health Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Rachelle; McMillan, Colleen; Ambrose-Miller, Wayne; McKee, Ryan; Brown, Judith Belle

    2018-05-01

    Primary health care systems are increasingly integrating interprofessional team-based approaches to care delivery. As members of these interprofessional primary health care teams, it is important for social workers to explore our experiences of integration into these newly emerging teams to help strengthen patient care. Despite the expansion of social work within primary health care settings, few studies have examined the integration of social work's role into this expanding area of the health care system. A survey was conducted with Canadian social work practitioners who were employed within Family Health Teams (FHTs), an interprofessional model of primary health care in Ontario emerging from a period of health care reform. One hundred and twenty-eight (N = 128) respondents completed the online survey. Key barriers to social work integration in FHTs included difficulties associated with a medical model environment, confusion about social work role, and organizational barriers. Facilitators for integration of social work in FHTs included adequate education and competencies, collaborative engagement, and organizational structures.

  6. Assistant practitioners (APs) perceptions of their developing role and practice in radiography: Results from a national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart-Lord, Adele; McLaren, Susan M.; Ballinger, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: In 2000, the NHS Plan set out the government's plans for investment and reform across the NHS. Through the introduction of a new workforce at assistant practitioner (AP) level the Department of Health intended to implement new ways in which to deliver a more efficient service. At the time, little published information existed on the integration of these assistants into the contemporary radiography workforce. Publications were limited to experiences gained by various individual departments ranging in their perception of the role and education of APs. Further research was suggested to track the continuing implementation of the 4-tier structure, establish the precise nature and scope of the roles across Trusts and determine their impact on workload and patient care. Aim: To establish the number and employment locality of APs in radiography professions in England, and to explore their scope of applied practice. Method and materials: The study was conducted over three phases and employed a mixed methods design to address the aims and objectives. Phase I was a scoping exercise performed prior to data collection in which n = 226 radiography sites were identified for contact across England. Phase II utilized a questionnaire as data collection tool to investigate the role of APs in radiography and explore how their roles were integrated into the radiography workforce in England. Results from phase III of the study which utilized semi-structured qualitative interviews are not included in this paper. Conclusion and discussion: Key findings depict the nature and variety of roles and responsibilities undertaken by APs in radiography. This study was the first of its kind to identify the integration of APs in radiography across a sizable geographical region. There were mixed responses to the question asking APs if they were required to perform duties outside their scope of practice. Questionnaire data revealed that a high numbers of APs were working in areas under

  7. The VISTA Carina Nebula Survey. II. Spatial distribution of the infrared-excess-selected young stellar population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, P.; Preibisch, T.; Ratzka, T.; Roccatagliata, V.; Petr-Gotzens, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    We performed a deep wide-field (6.76 sq. deg) near-infrared survey with the VISTA telescope that covers the entire extent of the Carina nebula complex (CNC). The point-source catalog created from these data contains around four million individual objects down to masses of 0.1 M⊙. We present a statistical study of the large-scale spatial distribution and an investigation of the clustering properties of infrared-excesses objects, which are used to trace disk-bearing young stellar objects (YSOs). A selection based on a near-infrared (J-H) versus (H-Ks) color-color diagram shows an almost uniform distribution over the entire observed area. We interpret this as a result of the very high degree of background contamination that arises from the Carina Nebula's location close to the Galactic plane. Complementing the VISTA near-infrared catalog with Spitzer IRAC mid-infrared photometry improves the situation of the background contamination considerably. We find that a (J-H) versus (Ks- [4.5]) color-color diagram is well suited to tracing the population of YSO-candidates (cYSOs) by their infrared excess. We identify 8781 sources with strong infrared excess, which we consider as cYSOs. This sample is used to investigate the spatial distribution of the cYSOs with a nearest-neighbor analysis. The surface density distribution of cYSOs agrees well with the shape of the clouds as seen in our Herschel far-infrared survey. The strong decline in the surface density of excess sources outside the area of the clouds supports the hypothesis that our excess-selected sample consists predominantly of cYSOs with a low level of background contamination. This analysis allows us to identify 14 groups of cYSOs outside the central area.Our results suggest that the total population of cYSOs in the CNC comprises about 164 000 objects, with a substantial fraction (~35%) located in the northern, still not well studied parts. Our cluster analysis suggests that roughly half of the cYSOs constitute a

  8. Role of epidermal growth factor receptor and endoplasmic reticulum stress in vascular remodeling induced by angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Takehiko; Kawai, Tatsuo; Forrester, Steven J; Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Yamato; Elliott, Katherine J; Tilley, Douglas G; Davisson, Robin L; Park, Joon-Young; Eguchi, Satoru

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms by which angiotensin II (AngII) elevates blood pressure and enhances end-organ damage seem to be distinct. However, the signal transduction cascade by which AngII specifically mediates vascular remodeling such as medial hypertrophy and perivascular fibrosis remains incomplete. We have previously shown that AngII-induced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation is mediated by disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 17 (ADAM17), and that this signaling is required for vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy but not for contractile signaling in response to AngII. Recent studies have implicated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in hypertension. Interestingly, EGFR is capable of inducing ER stress. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that activation of EGFR and ER stress are critical components required for vascular remodeling but not hypertension induced by AngII. Mice were infused with AngII for 2 weeks with or without treatment of EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib, or ER chaperone, 4-phenylbutyrate. AngII infusion induced vascular medial hypertrophy in the heart, kidney and aorta, and perivascular fibrosis in heart and kidney, cardiac hypertrophy, and hypertension. Treatment with erlotinib as well as 4-phenylbutyrate attenuated vascular remodeling and cardiac hypertrophy but not hypertension. In addition, AngII infusion enhanced ADAM17 expression, EGFR activation, and ER/oxidative stress in the vasculature, which were diminished in both erlotinib-treated and 4-phenylbutyrate-treated mice. ADAM17 induction and EGFR activation by AngII in vascular cells were also prevented by inhibition of EGFR or ER stress. In conclusion, AngII induces vascular remodeling by EGFR activation and ER stress via a signaling mechanism involving ADAM17 induction independent of hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. A survey for assessment of the role of pharmacist in community pharmacy services

    OpenAIRE

    H Sharma; D Jindal; M Aqil; M S Alam; S Karim; P Kapur

    2009-01-01

    Objective : To assess the role of a pharmacist in a community setting and the consumer′s perception in the National Capital Region. Setting : The study was conducted in the National Capital Region of India during the year 2003 - 2004. Materials and Methods : Four pharmacies were selected for this study, which were not attached to any hospital or clinic. Seventy-seven consumers, who visited these pharmacies during the study period, were selected for this study and interviewed just after they v...

  10. Predictors of perceiving smoking cessation counselling as a midwife's role: a survey of Dutch midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Martijntje J; de Vries, Hein; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Kok, Gerjo

    2005-02-01

    Smoking during pregnancy can have many serious consequences. As the usual providers of pregnancy care in the Netherlands, midwives could serve as effective counsellors to pregnant women about cigarette smoking. The aim of the present study was to identify relevant factors that hamper or promote the provision of effective smoking cessation advice and counselling. Questionnaires were mailed to midwives; 237 (64.4%) were returned. Questions were asked about advantages and disadvantages of giving smoking cessation advice, perceived health benefits for mother and child, smoking behaviour and normative beliefs of colleagues, self-efficacy and role definition of midwives with regard to giving smoking cessation advice. Midwives who have a more positive role definition regarding giving smoking cessation advice are more convinced of the advantages of giving advice, the advantages of quitting for their clients and perceive more support from their colleagues with regard to giving advice. In general, midwives were motivated to provide their clients with smoking cessation advice. They were less comfortable with guiding women through the cessation process. Therefore, effective materials and training should be developed to facilitate and stimulate midwives in their role as effective counsellors.

  11. A Joint Sea Beam/SeaMARC II Survey of the East Pacific Rise and Its Flanks 7 deg 50 min-10 deg 30 min N, to Establish a Geologic Acoustic Natural Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-15

    of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island , Narragansett, R.I. 02882, A. Shor and C. Nishimura, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, University of Hawaii...across the Clipperton and the absence of intra-transform spreading, and opening across the Siqueiros with sustained intra-transform spreading. An...Ma. Future work will focus on the significant task of combining this survey with three 1987 SeaMARC II surveys of the Clipperton transform, the 9°N

  12. Engineering survey planning for the alignment of a particle accelerator: part II. Design of a reference network and measurement strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira Leão, Rodrigo; Raffaelo Baldo, Crhistian; Collucci da Costa Reis, Maria Luisa; Alves Trabanco, Jorge Luiz

    2018-03-01

    The building blocks of particle accelerators are magnets responsible for keeping beams of charged particles at a desired trajectory. Magnets are commonly grouped in support structures named girders, which are mounted on vertical and horizontal stages. The performance of this type of machine is highly dependent on the relative alignment between its main components. The length of particle accelerators ranges from small machines to large-scale national or international facilities, with typical lengths of hundreds of meters to a few kilometers. This relatively large volume together with micrometric positioning tolerances make the alignment activity a classical large-scale dimensional metrology problem. The alignment concept relies on networks of fixed monuments installed on the building structure to which all accelerator components are referred. In this work, the Sirius accelerator is taken as a case study, and an alignment network is optimized via computational methods in terms of geometry, densification, and surveying procedure. Laser trackers are employed to guide the installation and measure the girders’ positions, using the optimized network as a reference and applying the metric developed in part I of this paper. Simulations demonstrate the feasibility of aligning the 220 girders of the Sirius synchrotron to better than 0.080 mm, at a coverage probability of 95%.

  13. The Fornax Cluster VLT Spectroscopic Survey II - Planetary Nebulae kinematics within 200 kpc of the cluster core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiniello, C.; Napolitano, N. R.; Arnaboldi, M.; Tortora, C.; Coccato, L.; Capaccioli, M.; Gerhard, O.; Iodice, E.; Spavone, M.; Cantiello, M.; Peletier, R.; Paolillo, M.; Schipani, P.

    2018-06-01

    We present the largest and most spatially extended planetary nebulae (PNe) catalogue ever obtained for the Fornax cluster. We measured velocities of 1452 PNe out to 200 kpc in the cluster core using a counter-dispersed slitless spectroscopic technique with data from FORS2 on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). With such an extended spatial coverage, we can study separately the stellar haloes of some of the cluster main galaxies and the intracluster light. In this second paper of the Fornax Cluster VLT Spectroscopic Survey, we identify and classify the emission-line sources, describe the method to select PNe, and calculate their coordinates and velocities from the dispersed slitless images. From the PN 2D velocity map, we identify stellar streams that are possibly tracing the gravitational interaction of NGC 1399 with NGC 1404 and NGC 1387. We also present the velocity dispersion profile out to ˜200 kpc radii, which shows signatures of a superposition of the bright central galaxy and the cluster potential, with the latter clearly dominating the regions outside R ˜ 1000 arcsec (˜100 kpc).

  14. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II. The IRAS faint source survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.; Conrow, T.P.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1990-01-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling. 105 refs

  15. High-Redshift Quasars Found in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data. II. The Spring Equatorial Stripe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Xiaohui; Strauss, Michael A.; Schneider, Donald P.; Gunn, James E.; Lupton, Robert H.; Anderson, Scott F.; Voges, Wolfgang; Margon, Bruce; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the second paper in a series aimed at finding high-redshift quasars from five-color (u ' g ' r ' i ' z ' ) imaging data taken along the Celestial Equator by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) during its commissioning phase. In this paper, we present 22 high-redshift quasars (z>3.6) discovered from ∼250 deg2 of data in the spring Equatorial Stripe, plus photometry for two previously known high-redshift quasars in the same region of the sky. Our success rate in identifying high-redshift quasars is 68%. Five of the newly discovered quasars have redshifts higher than 4.6 (z=4.62, 4.69, 4.70, 4.92, and 5.03). All the quasars have i * B 0 =0.5). Several of the quasars show unusual emission and absorption features in their spectra, including an object at z=4.62 without detectable emission lines, and a broad absorption line (BAL) quasar at z=4.92. (c) (c) 2000. The American Astronomical Society

  16. The role of the North American Breeding Bird Survey in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Marie-Anne R.; Francis, Charles M.; Campbell, Kate J.; Downes, Constance M.; Smith, Adam C.; Pardieck, Keith L.

    2017-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) was established in 1966 in response to a lack of quantitative data on changes in the populations of many bird species at a continental scale, especially songbirds. The BBS now provides the most reliable regional and continental trends and annual indices of abundance available for >500 bird species. This paper reviews some of the ways in which BBS data have contributed to bird conservation in North America over the past 50 yr, and highlights future program enhancement opportunities. BBS data have contributed to the listing of species under the Canadian Species at Risk Act and, in a few cases, have informed species assessments under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. By raising awareness of population changes, the BBS has helped to motivate bird conservation efforts through the creation of Partners in Flight. BBS data have been used to determine priority species and locations for conservation action at regional and national scales through Bird Conservation Region strategies and Joint Ventures. Data from the BBS have provided the quantitative foundation for North American State of the Birds reports, and have informed the public with regard to environmental health through multiple indicators, such as the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Report on the Environment. BBS data have been analyzed with other data (e.g., environmental, land cover, and demographic) to evaluate potential drivers of population change, which have then informed conservation actions. In a few cases, BBS data have contributed to the evaluation of management actions, including informing the management of Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa), and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Improving geographic coverage in northern Canada and in Mexico, improving the analytical approaches required to integrate data from other sources and to address variation in detectability, and

  17. Role of major histocompatibility complex class II in resistance of mice to naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patricia W.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    Genetics plays a substantial role in host resistance in many host-parasite interactions. We examined the prevalence of naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata in a number of mouse strains housed in a non-barrier facility. These mice, which included cross-bred and congenic, inbred strains on various genetic backgrounds, differ in the loci for the immune function genes--major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), and solute carrier family 11, member 1 (Slc11a1)--which allowed comparisons of the impact of these genes on resistance to pinworm infection. Male and female mice of various ages were sampled over an 18-month period; infection was determined by use of the cellophane tape test. Results indicated that mice that were MHCII+/+ had a significantly lower prevalence of infection than did mice that were MHCII-/-. Differences were not seen between male and female mice. Although MHCII+/+ mice had an age-associated decrease in infection prevalence, such decrease was not seen in MHCII-/- mice. In contrast, infection prevalence in mice with the normal Tlr4 gene (Tlr4(LPS-n/LPS-n)) gene did not differ significantly compared with that in mice that were homozygous for either the point mutation (Tlr4(LPS-d/LPS-d)) or deletion (Tlr4(LPS-del/LPS-del)) of that gene. Likewise, the presence (Sle11a1r/r) or absence (Slc11a1s/s) of functional alleles for Slc11a1 had no effect on the prevalence of infection with S. obvelata. In conclusion, presence of MHCII, but not Tlr4 or Slc11a1 significantly influences prevalence of naturally acquired infection with S. obvelata. These data justify further comprehensive analyses of the immune components that are involved in pinworm resistance.

  18. Positive Factors Influencing the Advancement of Women to the Role of Head Athletic Trainer in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions II and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M

    2016-07-01

    Research suggests that women do not pursue leadership positions in athletic training due to a variety of reasons, including family challenges, organizational constraints, and reluctance to hold the position. The literature has been focused on the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting, limiting our full understanding. To examine factors that help women as they worked toward the position of head athletic trainer. Qualitative study. Divisions II and III. Seventy-seven women who were employed as head athletic trainers at the Division II or III level participated in our study. Participants were 38 ± 9 (range = 24-57) years old and had an average of 14 ± 8 (range = 1-33) years of athletic training experience. We conducted online interviews. Participants journaled their reflections to a series of open-ended questions pertaining to their experiences as head athletic trainers. Data were analyzed using a general inductive approach. Credibility was secured by peer review and researcher triangulation. Three organizational facilitators emerged from the data, workplace atmosphere, mentors, and past work experiences. These organizational factors were directly tied to aspects within the athletic trainer's employment setting that allowed her to enter the role. One individual-level facilitator was found: personal attributes that were described as helpful for women in transitioning to the role of the head athletic trainer. Participants discussed being leaders and persisting toward their career goals. Women working in Divisions II and III experience similar facilitators to assuming the role of head athletic trainer as those working in the Division I setting. Divisions II and III were viewed as more favorable for women seeking the role of head athletic trainer, but like those in the role in the Division I setting, women must have leadership skills.

  19. WHITE DWARF-RED DWARF SYSTEMS RESOLVED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE. II. FULL SNAPSHOT SURVEY RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farihi, J.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, S.

    2010-01-01

    Results are presented for a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys high-resolution imaging campaign of 90 white dwarfs with known or suspected low-mass stellar and substellar companions. Of the 72 targets that remain candidate and confirmed white dwarfs with near-infrared excess, 43 are spatially resolved into two or more components, and a total of 12 systems are potentially triples. For 68 systems where a comparison is possible, 50% have significant photometric distance mismatches between their white dwarf and M dwarf components, suggesting that white dwarf parameters derived spectroscopically are often biased due to the cool companion. Interestingly, 9 of the 30 binaries known to have emission lines are found to be visual pairs and hence widely separated, indicating an intrinsically active cool star and not irradiation from the white dwarf. There is a possible, slight deficit of earlier spectral types (bluer colors) among the spatially unresolved companions, exactly the opposite of expectations if significant mass is transferred to the companion during the common envelope phase. Using the best available distance estimates, the low-mass companions to white dwarfs exhibit a bimodal distribution in projected separation. This result supports the hypothesis that during the giant phases of the white dwarf progenitor, any unevolved companions either migrate inward to short periods of hours to days, or outward to periods of hundreds to thousands of years. No intermediate projected separations of a few to several AU are found among these pairs. However, a few double M dwarfs (within triples) are spatially resolved in this range, empirically demonstrating that such separations were readily detectable among the binaries with white dwarfs. A straightforward and testable prediction emerges: all spatially unresolved, low-mass stellar and substellar companions to white dwarfs should be in short-period orbits. This result has implications for substellar companion and

  20. THE VLA NASCENT DISK AND MULTIPLICITY SURVEY OF PERSEUS PROTOSTARS (VANDAM). II. MULTIPLICITY OF PROTOSTARS IN THE PERSEUS MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, John J.; Harris, Robert J. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands); Looney, Leslie W.; Segura-Cox, Dominique [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Chandler, Claire J.; Perez, Laura [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dunham, Michael M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, MS 78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sadavoy, Sarah I. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Melis, Carl [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kratter, Kaitlin, E-mail: tobin@strw.leidenuniv.nl [University of Arizona, Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    We present a multiplicity study of all known protostars (94) in the Perseus molecular cloud from a Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array survey at Ka-band (8 mm and 1 cm) and C-band (4 and 6.6 cm). The observed sample has a bolometric luminosity range between 0.1 L{sub ⊙} and ∼33 L{sub ⊙}, with a median of 0.7 L{sub ⊙}. This multiplicity study is based on the Ka-band data, having a best resolution of ∼0.″065 (15 au) and separations out to ∼43″ (10,000 au) can be probed. The overall multiplicity fraction (MF) is found to be 0.40 ± 0.06 and the companion star fraction (CSF) is 0.71 ± 0.06. The MF and CSF of the Class 0 protostars are 0.57 ± 0.09 and 1.2 ± 0.2, and the MF and CSF of Class I protostars are both 0.23 ± 0.08. The distribution of companion separations appears bi-modal, with a peak at ∼75 au and another peak at ∼3000 au. Turbulent fragmentation is likely the dominant mechanism on >1000 au scales and disk fragmentation is likely to be the dominant mechanism on <200 au scales. Toward three Class 0 sources we find companions separated by <30 au. These systems have the smallest separations of currently known Class 0 protostellar binary systems. Moreover, these close systems are embedded within larger (50–400 au) structures and may be candidates for ongoing disk fragmentation.

  1. The SUrvey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts - II. New FRB discoveries and their follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, S.; Keane, E. F.; Barr, E. D.; Jameson, A.; Petroff, E.; Johnston, S.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Caleb, M.; Eatough, R. P.; Flynn, C.; Green, J. A.; Jankowski, F.; Kramer, M.; Krishnan, V. Venkatraman; Morello, V.; Possenti, A.; Stappers, B.; Tiburzi, C.; van Straten, W.; Andreoni, I.; Butterley, T.; Chandra, P.; Cooke, J.; Corongiu, A.; Coward, D. M.; Dhillon, V. S.; Dodson, R.; Hardy, L. K.; Howell, E. J.; Jaroenjittichai, P.; Klotz, A.; Littlefair, S. P.; Marsh, T. R.; Mickaliger, M.; Muxlow, T.; Perrodin, D.; Pritchard, T.; Sawangwit, U.; Terai, T.; Tominaga, N.; Torne, P.; Totani, T.; Trois, A.; Turpin, D.; Niino, Y.; Wilson, R. W.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Belhorma, B.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brânzaş, H.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Moursli, R. Cherkaoui El; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Díaz, A. F.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Palma, I. Di; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Bojaddaini, I. El; Khayati, N. El; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Gregoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pǎvǎlaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzocca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2018-04-01

    We report the discovery of four Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) in the ongoing SUrvey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts at the Parkes Radio Telescope: FRBs 150610, 151206, 151230 and 160102. Our real-time discoveries have enabled us to conduct extensive, rapid multimessenger follow-up at 12 major facilities sensitive to radio, optical, X-ray, gamma-ray photons and neutrinos on time-scales ranging from an hour to a few months post-burst. No counterparts to the FRBs were found and we provide upper limits on afterglow luminosities. None of the FRBs were seen to repeat. Formal fits to all FRBs show hints of scattering while their intrinsic widths are unresolved in time. FRB 151206 is at low Galactic latitude, FRB 151230 shows a sharp spectral cut-off, and FRB 160102 has the highest dispersion measure (DM = 2596.1 ± 0.3 pc cm-3) detected to date. Three of the FRBs have high dispersion measures (DM > 1500 pc cm-3), favouring a scenario where the DM is dominated by contributions from the intergalactic medium. The slope of the Parkes FRB source counts distribution with fluences >2 Jy ms is α =-2.2^{+0.6}_{-1.2} and still consistent with a Euclidean distribution (α = -3/2). We also find that the all-sky rate is 1.7^{+1.5}_{-0.9}× 10^3FRBs/(4π sr)/day above {˜ }2{ }{Jy}{ }{ms} and there is currently no strong evidence for a latitude-dependent FRB sky rate.

  2. Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants, Stage II Protection of concrete - State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Ylva (CBI, Boraas (Sweden)); Henriksson, Gunilla (SP, Boraas (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    A pilot study on the degradation and corrosion of concrete in biological treatment plants was conducted in 2009/2010 in a Waste Refinery Project WR-27 'Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants'. The results showed that the concrete does not have sufficient resistance in the current aggressive plant environment. Furthermore, it is stated that some form of surface protection system is needed to ensure the good performance of concrete constructions, and that the system must withstand the aggressive environment and the traffic that occurs on site. Consequently, a new study was proposed in order to develop specifications for surface protection of concrete in aggressive food waste environments. Results from that study are presented in this report. The report includes various types of waterproofing/protection coating for concrete in biological treatment plants. A number of proposals from the industry are presented in the light of results from project WR-27, i.e., the materials must, among other things, withstand the aggressive leachate from waste food at temperatures up to 70 deg C, and some degree of wear. Some systems are compared in terms of technical material properties as reported by the manufacturer. It turns out that different testing methods were used, and the test results are thus generally not directly comparable. A proposal for a test program has been developed, focusing on chemical resistance and wear resistance. A test solution corresponding to leachate is specified. Laboratory tests for verification of the proposed methodology and future requirements are proposed, as well as test sites and follow-up in the field

  3. Genomic survey, gene expression analysis and structural modeling suggest diverse roles of DNA methyltransferases in legumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Garg

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases, namely Methyltransferase (MET, Chromomethylase (CMT and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM, which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2 subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes.

  4. Accidental poisoning in childhood: a multicentre survey. 2. The role of packaging in accidents involving medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, H M; Guest, K; Murray, V S; Volans, G N

    1987-07-01

    To assess the effectiveness of child-resistant closures (CRCs) and unit dose packaging in preventing childhood poisoning with medications, a survey by 14 hospitals of accidental suspected poisoning in children under 5-years-old, was compared with a survey of a representative sample of households with children under 5 living in the catchment areas of the hospitals. Nine hundred and thirty-eight medications thought to have been ingested by 877 children were compared with 5827 medications found in households with children. The relationship between availability of packs or medications in the home and their involvement in accidents was quantified by means of an Accident Association Index (AAI). A low AAI indicated that the involvement of a pack or medication was less than expected from availability and therefore safe. A high AAI indicated that involvement was greater than expected and therefore unsafe. Medications involved in suspected poisoning were most frequently packed in containers without CRCs (63%) or transparent blisters (20%); both had high AAIs. CRCs, strips, sachets and opaque blisters had low AAIs. Analgesics, expectorants and gastrointestinal medications, had low AAIs, while oral contraceptives, hypnotics, sedative/tranquillizers, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, anti-emetics, and anti-infectives had high AAIs. Prescription medications were more frequently involved in accidents than over-the-counter (OTC) medications and had a higher AAI. Comparison of the AAIs of different kinds of medication in each of their various pack types showed that safe packaging reduced the risk from medications which had a high average AAI. Only 40% of medications were in their normal storage place at the time of the accident. Medicine and bathroom cabinets, and kitchen cupboards and drawers were the safest places to store medications. Handbags, fridges, and shelves or ledges in the bathroom were the most unsafe places. No pack had a low AAI when stored on open shelves

  5. A role of copper(II) ions in the enhancement of visible and near-infrared lanthanide(III) luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseeva, Svetlana V.; Golovach, Iurii P.; Liasotskyi, Valerii S.; Antonovich, Valery P.; Petoud, Stéphane; Meshkova, Svetlana B.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the existing optical methods for Cu II detection rely on a “turn-off” approach using visible lanthanide(III) luminescence. In this work we present an innovative molecular systems where the podands bis(2-hydrazinocarbonylphenyl) ethers of ethylene glycol (L1) and diethylene glycol (L2) have been designed, synthesised and tested with an ultimate goal to create a "turn-on" lanthanide(III)-based molecular probe for the specific detection of Cu II ions based on both visible (Tb III , Eu III ) and near-infrared (Nd III , Yb III ) emission. Quantum yields of the characteristic Ln III emission signals increases by at least two-orders of magnitude upon addition of Cu II into water/acetonitrile (9/1) solutions of LnL (L=L1, L2) complexes. A detailed investigation of ligand-centred photophysical properties of water/acetonitrile (9/1) solutions of CuL, GdL and GdCuL complexes revealed that the presence of Cu II ions does not significantly affect the energy positions of the singlet (32,260 cm −1 ) and triplet (25,640–25,970 cm −1 ) states, but partially or fully eliminates the singlet state quenching through an electron transfer mechanism. This effect increases the probability of intersystem crossing leading to enhanced triplet-to-singlet emission ratio and to longer triplet state lifetimes. The redox activity of hydrazine moieties and their ability to reduce Cu II to Cu I has been indicated by a qualitative assay with neocuproine. Finally, the probe demonstrates a good selectivity towards Cu II over other transition metal ions: the addition of divalent Zn II , Cd II , Pd II , Ni II , Co II or trivalent Fe III , Ga III , In III ion salts into solutions of TbL either does not affect emission intensity or increases it to a maximum of 2–3 times, while, under similar experimental conditions, the presence of Cu II results in a 20- to 30-times lanthanide luminescence enhancement. This new strategy results in a versatile and selective optical platform for the

  6. A role of copper(II) ions in the enhancement of visible and near-infrared lanthanide(III) luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseeva, Svetlana V., E-mail: svetlana.eliseeva@cnrs-orleans.fr [Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire CNRS UPR 4301, Rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Le Studium, Loire Valley Institute for Advanced Studies, 1 Rue Dupanloup, 45000 Orléans (France); Golovach, Iurii P.; Liasotskyi, Valerii S. [I.I.Mechnikov Odessa National University, 2 Dvoryanska street, 65082 Odessa (Ukraine); Antonovich, Valery P. [A.V. Bogatsky Physico-Chemical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 86 Lustdorfskaya doroga, 65080 Odessa (Ukraine); Petoud, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.petoud@inserm.fr [Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire CNRS UPR 4301, Rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Meshkova, Svetlana B., E-mail: s_meshkova@ukr.net [A.V. Bogatsky Physico-Chemical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 86 Lustdorfskaya doroga, 65080 Odessa (Ukraine)

    2016-03-15

    Most of the existing optical methods for Cu{sup II} detection rely on a “turn-off” approach using visible lanthanide(III) luminescence. In this work we present an innovative molecular systems where the podands bis(2-hydrazinocarbonylphenyl) ethers of ethylene glycol (L1) and diethylene glycol (L2) have been designed, synthesised and tested with an ultimate goal to create a 'turn-on' lanthanide(III)-based molecular probe for the specific detection of Cu{sup II} ions based on both visible (Tb{sup III}, Eu{sup III}) and near-infrared (Nd{sup III}, Yb{sup III}) emission. Quantum yields of the characteristic Ln{sup III} emission signals increases by at least two-orders of magnitude upon addition of Cu{sup II} into water/acetonitrile (9/1) solutions of LnL (L=L1, L2) complexes. A detailed investigation of ligand-centred photophysical properties of water/acetonitrile (9/1) solutions of CuL, GdL and GdCuL complexes revealed that the presence of Cu{sup II} ions does not significantly affect the energy positions of the singlet (32,260 cm{sup −1}) and triplet (25,640–25,970 cm{sup −1}) states, but partially or fully eliminates the singlet state quenching through an electron transfer mechanism. This effect increases the probability of intersystem crossing leading to enhanced triplet-to-singlet emission ratio and to longer triplet state lifetimes. The redox activity of hydrazine moieties and their ability to reduce Cu{sup II} to Cu{sup I} has been indicated by a qualitative assay with neocuproine. Finally, the probe demonstrates a good selectivity towards Cu{sup II} over other transition metal ions: the addition of divalent Zn{sup II}, Cd{sup II}, Pd{sup II}, Ni{sup II}, Co{sup II} or trivalent Fe{sup III}, Ga{sup III}, In{sup III} ion salts into solutions of TbL either does not affect emission intensity or increases it to a maximum of 2–3 times, while, under similar experimental conditions, the presence of Cu{sup II} results in a 20- to 30-times

  7. THE POSSIBLE ROLE OF CORONAL STREAMERS AS MAGNETICALLY CLOSED STRUCTURES IN SHOCK-INDUCED ENERGETIC ELECTRONS AND METRIC TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Xiangliang; Chen, Yao; Feng, Shiwei; Wang, Bing; Du, Guohui [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Guo, Fan [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Li, Gang, E-mail: yaochen@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    Two solar type II radio bursts, separated by ∼24 hr in time, are examined together. Both events are associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) erupting from the same active region (NOAA 11176) beneath a well-observed helmet streamer. We find that the type II emissions in both events ended once the CME/shock fronts passed the white-light streamer tip, which is presumably the magnetic cusp of the streamer. This leads us to conjecture that the closed magnetic arcades of the streamer may play a role in electron acceleration and type II excitation at coronal shocks. To examine such a conjecture, we conduct a test-particle simulation for electron dynamics within a large-scale partially closed streamer magnetic configuration swept by a coronal shock. We find that the closed field lines play the role of an electron trap via which the electrons are sent back to the shock front multiple times and therefore accelerated to high energies by the shock. Electrons with an initial energy of 300 eV can be accelerated to tens of keV concentrating at the loop apex close to the shock front with a counter-streaming distribution at most locations. These electrons are energetic enough to excite Langmuir waves and radio bursts. Considering the fact that most solar eruptions originate from closed field regions, we suggest that the scenario may be important for the generation of more metric type IIs. This study also provides an explanation of the general ending frequencies of metric type IIs at or above 20-30 MHz and the disconnection issue between metric and interplanetary type IIs.

  8. Roles for common MLL/COMPASS subunits and the 19S proteasome in regulating CIITA pIV and MHC class II gene expression and promoter methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koues, Olivia I; Mehta, Ninad T; Truax, Agnieszka D; Dudley, R Kyle; Brooks, Jeanne K; Greer, Susanna F

    2010-02-04

    Studies indicate that the 19S proteasome contributes to chromatin reorganization, independent of the role the proteasome plays in protein degradation. We have previously shown that components of the 19S proteasome are crucial for regulating inducible histone activation events in mammalian cells. The 19S ATPase Sug1 binds to histone-remodeling enzymes, and in the absence of Sug1, a subset of activating epigenetic modifications including histone H3 acetylation, H3 lysine 4 trimethylation and H3 arginine 17 dimethylation are inhibited at cytokine-inducible major histocompatibilty complex (MHC)-II and class II transactivator (CIITA) promoters, implicating Sug1 in events required to initiate mammalian transcription. Our previous studies indicate that H3 lysine 4 trimethylation at cytokine-inducible MHC-II and CIITA promoters is dependent on proteolytic-independent functions of 19S ATPases. In this report, we show that multiple common subunits of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL)/complex of proteins associated with Set I (COMPASS) complexes bind to the inducible MHC-II and CIITA promoters; that overexpressing a single common MLL/COMPASS subunit significantly enhances promoter activity and MHC-II HLA-DRA expression; and that these common subunits are important for H3 lysine 4 trimethylation at MHC-II and CIITA promoters. In addition, we show that H3 lysine 27 trimethylation, which is inversely correlated with H3 lysine 4 trimethylation, is significantly elevated in the presence of diminished 19S ATPase Sug1. Taken together, these experiments suggest that the 19S proteasome plays a crucial role in the initial reorganization of events enabling the relaxation of the repressive chromatin structure surrounding inducible promoters.

  9. Roles for common MLL/COMPASS subunits and the 19S proteasome in regulating CIITA pIV and MHC class II gene expression and promoter methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koues Olivia I

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies indicate that the 19S proteasome contributes to chromatin reorganization, independent of the role the proteasome plays in protein degradation. We have previously shown that components of the 19S proteasome are crucial for regulating inducible histone activation events in mammalian cells. The 19S ATPase Sug1 binds to histone-remodeling enzymes, and in the absence of Sug1, a subset of activating epigenetic modifications including histone H3 acetylation, H3 lysine 4 trimethylation and H3 arginine 17 dimethylation are inhibited at cytokine-inducible major histocompatibilty complex (MHC-II and class II transactivator (CIITA promoters, implicating Sug1 in events required to initiate mammalian transcription. Results Our previous studies indicate that H3 lysine 4 trimethylation at cytokine-inducible MHC-II and CIITA promoters is dependent on proteolytic-independent functions of 19S ATPases. In this report, we show that multiple common subunits of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL/complex of proteins associated with Set I (COMPASS complexes bind to the inducible MHC-II and CIITA promoters; that overexpressing a single common MLL/COMPASS subunit significantly enhances promoter activity and MHC-II HLA-DRA expression; and that these common subunits are important for H3 lysine 4 trimethylation at MHC-II and CIITA promoters. In addition, we show that H3 lysine 27 trimethylation, which is inversely correlated with H3 lysine 4 trimethylation, is significantly elevated in the presence of diminished 19S ATPase Sug1. Conclusion Taken together, these experiments suggest that the 19S proteasome plays a crucial role in the initial reorganization of events enabling the relaxation of the repressive chromatin structure surrounding inducible promoters.

  10. Apical Periodontitis and Endodontic Treatment in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus: Comparative Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadi, Leena

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients compared with nondiabetic patients and to examine the effect of glycemic control on the prevalence of AP. Radiographs of a group of DM patients were compared with those of a matched nondiabetic group to identify AP. The diabetic group was subdivided according to the level of glycemic control into two subgroups: A well-controlled DM and a poorly controlled DM. The periapical index score was used to assess the periapical status. All groups were compared in regard to the presence of AP lesions, the number of end-odontically treated teeth (ET), and the percentage of failure of endodontically treated teeth (AP/ET ratio). Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0, Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used for all the analyses; p ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The prevalence of AP was higher in diabetic group than in the nondiabetic group (13.5 vs 11.9% respectively). Diabetic group had more teeth with endodontic treatment ET compared with nondiabetic group (4.18 vs 1.82% respectively); this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001) along with higher AP/ET ratio (27.7 vs 19.3 respectively). The poorly controlled DM group had a higher prevalence of AP lesions compared with the well-controlled DM group (18.29 vs 9.21 respectively). This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001); they also had a higher percentage of ET (5.55 vs 3.13% respectively) and AP/ ET ratio (32.0 vs 21.8% respectively). This survey demonstrates a higher prevalence of AP in DM patients compared with nondiabetic group, with an increased prevalence of persistent chronic AP. Compared with a well-controlled diabetic group, a poor glycemic control may be associated with a higher prevalence of AP and increased rate of endodontic failures. Counseling diabetic patients, particularly those with poor glycemic control, about the risk of

  11. Enhancing the role of nutrition professionals in weight management: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Bandara, Sachini; Bennett, Wendy; Cooper, Lisa A; Gudzune, Kimberly A

    2015-02-01

    (1) To determine the nonphysician health profession perceived as best qualified to provide weight management. (2) To examine nutrition professionals' current practice characteristics and perceived challenges and solutions for obesity care. (3) To examine the association between nutrition professionals' quality of training and self-efficacy in weight management. A 2014 national cross-sectional online survey of 500 U.S. nonphysician health professionals (100 from each: nutrition, nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, pharmacy) was analyzed. Nutrition professionals most commonly self-identified as the most qualified group to help patients lose weight (92%), sentiments supported by other health professionals (57%). The most often cited challenge was lack of patient adherence (87%). Among nutrition professionals, 77% reported receiving high-quality training in weight loss counseling. Nutrition professionals who reported high-quality training were significantly more likely to report confidence (95% vs. 48%) and success (74 vs. 50%) in helping obese patients lose weight (Pweight management counseling to obese patients. Yet nutrition professionals' receipt of high-quality weight management training appears critical to their success in helping patients lose weight. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  12. The role of appeals to tradition in origin food marketing. A survey among Polish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Paweł

    2015-08-01

    The frequency of the use of tradition in marketing is growing. Appealing to tradition reflects the need to have reference points, trust and stability. The perceived authenticity of a product is strongly connected with its origin, which is expressed by the factors of time (history), place (area), socialisation (local community) and naturalness (raw materials). The paper aims to examine consumer attitudes, preferences and behaviours regarding origin food in Poland. We carried out a survey in a representative sample of 1000 Polish consumers. According to our respondents, the characteristics differentiating origin food from conventional food include links with tradition as well as sensory and health properties. Referring to the typology proposed by van der Meulen, traditionality and territoriality are the most important characteristics of origin food. The perceived authenticity of origin products depends to the largest extent on such factors as: natural taste, product quality, sale in the region of origin and labelling. The most important determinants of origin food selection include: traditional recipe, taste, and product uniqueness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. International survey of occupational health nurses' roles in multidisciplinary teamwork in occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Bonnie; Kono, Keiko; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Peurala, Marjatta; Radford, Jennifer; Staun, Julie

    2014-07-01

    Access to occupational health services for primary prevention and control of work-related injuries and illnesses by the global workforce is limited (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013). From the WHO survey of 121 (61%) participating countries, only one-third of the responding countries provided occupational health services to more than 30% of their workers (2013). How services are provided in these countries is dependent on legal requirements and regulations, population, workforce characteristics, and culture, as well as an understanding of the impact of workplace hazards and worker health needs. Around the world, many occupational health services are provided by occupational health nurses independently or in collaboration with other disciplines' professionals. These services may be health protection, health promotion, or both, and are designed to reduce health risks, support productivity, improve workers' quality of life, and be cost-effective. Rantanen (2004) stated that basic occupational health services must increase rather than decline, especially as work becomes more complex; workforces become more dynamic and mobile, creating new models of work-places; and jobs become more precarious and temporary. To better understand occupational health services provided by occupational health nurses globally and how decisions are made to provide these services, this study examined the scope of services provided by a sample of participating occupational health nurses from various countries. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. The role of 3-D interactive visualization in blind surveys of H I in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzo, D.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Roerdink, J. B. T. M.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Ramatsoku, M.; Verheijen, M. A. W.

    2015-09-01

    Upcoming H I surveys will deliver large datasets, and automated processing using the full 3-D information (two positional dimensions and one spectral dimension) to find and characterize H I objects is imperative. In this context, visualization is an essential tool for enabling qualitative and quantitative human control on an automated source finding and analysis pipeline. We discuss how Visual Analytics, the combination of automated data processing and human reasoning, creativity and intuition, supported by interactive visualization, enables flexible and fast interaction with the 3-D data, helping the astronomer to deal with the analysis of complex sources. 3-D visualization, coupled to modeling, provides additional capabilities helping the discovery and analysis of subtle structures in the 3-D domain. The requirements for a fully interactive visualization tool are: coupled 1-D/2-D/3-D visualization, quantitative and comparative capabilities, combined with supervised semi-automated analysis. Moreover, the source code must have the following characteristics for enabling collaborative work: open, modular, well documented, and well maintained. We review four state of-the-art, 3-D visualization packages assessing their capabilities and feasibility for use in the case of 3-D astronomical data.

  15. Use of the internet as a resource for consumer health information: results of the second osteopathic survey of health care in America (OSTEOSURV-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardone, J C; Smith-Barbaro, P; Coleridge, S T

    2001-01-01

    The Internet offers consumers unparalleled opportunities to acquire health information. The emergence of the Internet, rather than more-traditional sources, for obtaining health information is worthy of ongoing surveillance, including identification of the factors associated with using the Internet for this purpose. To measure the prevalence of Internet use as a mechanism for obtaining health information in the United States; to compare such Internet use with newspapers or magazines, radio, and television; and to identify sociodemographic factors associated with using the Internet for acquiring health information. Data were acquired from the Second Osteopathic Survey of Health Care in America (OSTEOSURV-II), a national telephone survey using random-digit dialing within the United States during 2000. The target population consisted of adult, noninstitutionalized, household members. As part of the survey, data were collected on: facility with the Internet, sources of health information, and sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with acquiring health information on the Internet. A total of 499 (64% response rate) respondents participated in the survey. With the exception of an overrepresentation of women (66%), respondents were generally similar to national referents. Fifty percent of respondents either strongly agreed or agreed that they felt comfortable using the Internet as a health information resource. The prevalence rates of using the health information sources were: newspapers or magazines, 69%; radio, 30%; television, 56%; and the Internet, 32%. After adjusting for potential confounders, older respondents were more likely than younger respondents to use newspapers or magazines and television to acquire health information, but less likely to use the Internet. Higher education was associated with greater use of newspapers or magazines and the Internet as health information sources. Internet use was lower

  16. Role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in angiotensin II regulation of norepinephrine neuromodulation in brain neurons of the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Raizada, M K

    1999-04-01

    Chronic stimulation of norepinephrine (NE) neuromodulation by angiotensin II (Ang II) involves activation of the Ras-Raf-MAP kinase signal transduction pathway in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat brain neurons. This pathway is only partially responsible for this heightened action of Ang II in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) brain neurons. In this study, we demonstrate that the MAP kinase-independent signaling pathway in the SHR neuron involves activation of PI3-kinase and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt). Ang II stimulated PI3-kinase activity in both WKY and SHR brain neurons and was accompanied by its translocation from the cytoplasmic to the nuclear compartment. Although the magnitude of stimulation by Ang II was comparable, the stimulation was more persistent in the SHR neuron compared with the WKY rat neuron. Inhibition of PI3-kinase had no significant effect in the WKY rat neuron. However, it caused a 40-50% attenuation of the Ang II-induced increase in norepinephrine transporter (NET) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNAs and [3H]-NE uptake in the SHR neuron. In contrast, inhibition of MAP kinase completely attenuated Ang II stimulation of NET and TH mRNA levels in the WKY rat neuron, whereas it caused only a 45% decrease in the SHR neuron. However, an additive attenuation was observed when both kinases of the SHR neurons were inhibited. Ang II also stimulated PKB/Akt activity in both WKY and SHR neurons. This stimulation was 30% higher and lasted longer in the SHR neuron compared with the WKY rat neuron. In conclusion, these observations demonstrate an exclusive involvement of PI3-kinase-PKB-dependent signaling pathway in a heightened NE neuromodulatory action of Ang II in the SHR neuron. Thus, this study offers an excellent potential for the development of new therapies for the treatment of centrally mediated hypertension.

  17. Icariside II induces apoptosis in U937 acute myeloid leukemia cells: role of inactivation of STAT3-related signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hun Kang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to determine anti-cancer effect of Icariside II purified from the root of Epimedium koreanum Nakai on human acute myeloid leukemia (AML cell line U937. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Icariside II blocked the growth U937 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In this anti-proliferation process, this herb compound rendered the cells susceptible to apoptosis, manifested by enhanced accumulation of sub-G1 cell population and increased the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL-positive cells. Icariside II was able to activate caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in a time-dependent manner. Concurrently, the anti-apoptotic proteins, such as bcl-x(L and survivin in U937 cells, were downregulated by Icariside II. In addition, Icariside II could inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation and function and subsequently suppress the activation of Janus activated kinase 2 (JAK2, the upstream activators of STAT3, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Icariside II also enhanced the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP SH2 domain-containing phosphatase (SHP-1, and the addition of sodium pervanadate (a PTP inhibitor prevented Icariside II-induced apoptosis as well as STAT3 inactivation in STAT3 positive U937 cells. Furthermore, silencing SHP-1 using its specific siRNA significantly blocked STAT3 inactivation and apoptosis induced by Icariside II in U937 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrated that via targeting STAT3-related signaling, Icariside II sensitizes U937 cells to apoptosis and perhaps serves as a potent chemotherapeutic agent for AML.

  18. The Middle East: Its role in world oil. A survey of the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radetski, M.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of the Middle East oil resource base is exceptional, in quantitative as well as economic terms. A review is presented of this resource base, and the economic and political factors associated with it. In 1990 oil from the Middle East accounted for 27% of world output, and accounts for 65% of proven world oil reserves. The viability of OPEC's role in controlling market prices is discussed, and it is proposed that high prices such as those in the early 1980s are unlikely to re-occur, and that control of capacity to keep prices above competitive levels but not high enough to induce large scale expansion outside the region is the rational course of action. Political instability in the Middle East and its destabilizing impact on oil supply is discussed. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Breast and ovarian cancers: a survey and possible roles for the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoneda, Atsuko; Lendorf, Maria E; Couchman, John R

    2012-01-01

    . Occurrence of breast and ovarian cancer is high in older women. Common known risk factors of developing these cancers in addition to age are not having children or having children at a later age, the use of hormone replacement therapy, and mutations in certain genes. In addition, women with a history......Tumor markers are widely used in pathology not only for diagnostic purposes but also to assess the prognosis and to predict the treatment of the tumor. Because tumor marker levels may change over time, it is important to get a better understanding of the molecular changes during tumor progression...... of breast cancer may also develop ovarian cancer. Here, the authors review the different tumor markers of breast and ovarian carcinoma and discuss the expression, mutations, and possible roles of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans during tumorigenesis of these carcinomas. The focus is on two groups...

  20. Gender Difference in Renal Blood Flow Response to Angiotensin II Administration after Ischemia/Reperfusion in Rats: The Role of AT2 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Maryam; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is one of the major causes of kidney failure, and it may interact with renin angiotensin system while angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 receptor (AT2R) expression is gender dependent. We examined the role of AT2R blockade on vascular response to Ang II after I/R in rats. Methods. Male and female rats were subjected to 30 min renal ischemia followed by reperfusion. Two groups of rats received either vehicle or AT2R antagonist, PD123319. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), and renal blood flow (RBF) responses were assessed during graded Ang II (100, 300, and 1000 ng/kg/min, i.v.) infusion at controlled renal perfusion pressure (RPP). Results. Vehicle or antagonist did not alter MAP, RPP, and RBF levels significantly; however, 30 min after reperfusion, RBF decreased insignificantly in female treated with PD123319 (P = 0.07). Ang II reduced RBF and increased renal vascular resistance (RVR) in a dose-related fashion (P dose renal I/R injury appears to be sexually dimorphic. PD123319 infusion promotes these hemodynamic responses in female more than in male rats.

  1. Sex differences in the enhanced responsiveness to acute angiotensin II in growth-restricted rats: role of fasudil, a Rho kinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Norma B; Royals, Thomas P; Alexander, Barbara T

    2013-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that Rho kinase contributes to the enhanced pressor response to acute angiotensin II in intact male growth-restricted and gonadectomized female growth-restricted rats. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal function were determined in conscious animals pretreated with enalapril (250 mg/l in drinking water) for 1 wk to block the endogenous renin-angiotensin system and normalize blood pressure (baseline). Blood pressure and renal hemodynamics did not differ at baseline. Acute Ang II (100 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)) induced a greater increase in MAP and renal vascular resistance and enhanced reduction in glomerular filtration rate in intact male growth-restricted rats compared with intact male controls (P back to baseline in male growth-restricted rats, and yet glomerular filtration rate remained significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Thus, these data suggest a role for enhanced renal sensitivity to acute Ang II in the developmental programming of hypertension in male growth-restricted rats. However, inhibition of Rho kinase had no effect on the basal or enhanced increase in blood pressure induced by acute Ang II in the gonadectomized female growth-restricted rat. Therefore, these studies suggest that Rho kinase inhibition exerts a sex-specific effect on blood pressure sensitivity to acute Ang II in growth-restricted rats.

  2. A spectroscopic survey of the youngest field stars in the solar neighborhood . II. The optically faint sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, A.; Guillout, P.; Klutsch, A.; Ferrero, R. Freire; Marilli, E.; Biazzo, K.; Gandolfi, D.; Montes, D.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Star formation in the solar neighborhood is mainly traced by young stars in open clusters, associations, and in the field, which can be identified, for example, by their X-ray emission. The determination of stellar parameters for the optical counterparts of X-ray sources is crucial for a full characterization of these stars. Aims: This work extends the spectroscopic study of the RasTyc sample, obtained by the cross-correlation of the Tycho and ROSAT All-Sky Survey catalogs, to stars fainter than V = 9.5 mag and aims to identify sparse populations of young stars in the solar neighborhood. Methods: We acquired 625 high-resolution spectra for 443 presumably young stars with four different instruments in the northern hemisphere. The radial and rotational velocity (vsini) of our targets were measured by means of the cross-correlation technique, which is also helpful to discover single-lined (SB1), double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2), and multiple systems. We used the code ROTFIT to perform an MK spectral classification and to determine the atmospheric parameters (Teff, logg, [Fe/H]) and vsini of the single stars and SB1 systems. For these objects, we used the spectral subtraction of slowly rotating templates to measure the equivalent widths of the Hα and Li I 6708 Å lines, which enabled us to derive their chromospheric activity level and lithium abundance. We made use of Gaia DR1 parallaxes and proper motions to locate the targets in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram and to compute the space velocity components of the youngest objects. Results: We find a remarkable percentage (at least 35%) of binaries and multiple systems. On the basis of the lithium abundance, the sample of single stars and SB1 systems appears to be mostly ( 60%) composed of stars younger than the members of the UMa cluster. The remaining sources are in the age range between the UMa and Hyades clusters ( 20%) or older ( 20%). In total, we identify 42 very young (PMS-like) stars

  3. Role of ethnicity in social anxiety disorder: A cross-sectional survey among health science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Philip De; Suliman, Sharain; Seedat, Soraya

    2014-07-16

    To investigate the influence of ethnicity in social anxiety disorder (SAD), and the relationship with symptom severity, depression and substance use or abuse, in health sciences' students . This was a cross-sectional survey of 112 1(st), 2(nd) and 3(rd) year students from the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences at Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa. The self-reported Social Anxiety Spectrum questionnaire was used to assess for SAD. The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) was adapted to a version called the E-SPIN (Ethnic-SPIN) in order to evaluate the effects of ethnicity. Two sub-questions per stem question were included to assess whether SAD symptoms in social interactions were ethnicity dependent. Substance use was assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Drug Use Disorders Identification Test, and depression with the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Of 112 students who completed the E-SPIN questionnaire, 54.4% (n = 61) met criteria for SAD, with significantly more females than males meeting criteria. Ethnicity had a significant effect on SAD symptomatology, but there was no effect of ethnicity on the rates of drug and alcohol abuse in students with and without SAD. Overall significantly more students with SAD met criteria for depression compared with students without the disorder. Among university students, SAD is prevalent regardless of whether interactions are with individuals of the same or different ethnic group. However, ethnicity may be an important determinant of social anxiety for some ethnic groups. SAD was significantly associated with major depression but not significantly associated with drug or alcohol abuse.

  4. Novel mechanism of cardiac protection by valsartan: synergetic roles of TGF-β1 and HIF-1α in Ang II-mediated fibrosis after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xizhong; Wei, Hongchao; Wang, Dacheng

    2015-08-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is a known factor in angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated cardiac fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI). Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (Hif-1α) was recently demonstrated to involve in the tissue fibrosis and influenced by Ang II. However, whether Hif-1α contributed to the Ang II-mediated cardiac fibrosis after MI, and whether interaction or synergetic roles between Hif-1α and TGF-β pathways existed in the process was unclear. In vitro, cardiac cells were incubated under hypoxia or Ang II to mimic ischaemia. In vivo, valsartan was intravenously injected into Sprague-Dawley rats with MI daily for 1 week; saline and hydralazine (another anti-hypertensive agent like valsartan) was used as control. The fibrosis-related proteins were detected by Western blotting. Cardiac structure and function were assessed with multimodality methods. We demonstrated in vitro that hypoxia would induce the up-regulation of Ang II, TGF-β/Smad and Hif-1α, which further induced collagen accumulation. By blocking with valsartan, a blocker of Ang II type I (AT1) receptor, we confirmed that the up-regulation of TGF-β/Smad and Hif-1α was through the Ang II-mediated pathway. By administering TGF-β or dimethyloxalylglycine, we determined that both TGF-β/Smad and Hif-1α contributed to Ang II-mediated collagen accumulation and a synergetic effect between them was observed. Consistent with in vitro results, valsartan significantly attenuated the expression of TGF-β/Smad, Hif-1α and fibrosis-related protein in rats after MI. Heart function, infarcted size, wall thickness as well as myocardial vascularization of ischaemic hearts were also significantly improved by valsartan compared with saline and hydralazine. Our study may provide novel insights into the mechanisms of Ang II-induced cardiac fibrosis as well as into the cardiac protection of valsartan. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and

  5. Barriers to the Role of the Head Athletic Trainer for Women in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II and III Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M

    2016-07-01

    Very few women assume the role of head athletic trainer (AT). Reasons for this disparity include discrimination, motherhood, and a lack of interest in the position. However, data suggest that more women seek the head AT position in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II and III settings. To examine the barriers female ATs face as they transition to the role of head AT. Qualitative study. Divisions II and III. In total, 77 female ATs participated in our study. Our participants (38 ± 9 years old) were employed as head ATs at the Division II or III level. We conducted online interviews with all participants. They journaled their reflections to a series of open-ended questions pertaining to their experiences as head ATs. Data were analyzed following a general inductive approach. Credibility was secured by peer review and researcher triangulation. Organizational and personal factors emerged as the 2 major themes that described challenges for women assuming the role of the head AT. Organizational barriers were defined by gender stereotyping and the "good old boys" network. Personal influences included a lack of leadership aspirations, motherhood and family, and a lack of mentors. Female ATs working in Divisions II or III experienced similar barriers to assuming the role of the head AT as those working in the Division I setting. Stereotyping still exists within collegiate athletics, which limits the number of women in higher-ranking positions; however, a lack of desire to assume a higher position and the desire to balance work and home inhibit some women from moving up.

  6. Motivations to play specifically predict excessive involvement in massively multiplayer online role-playing games: evidence from an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetta Dauriat, Francesca; Zermatten, Ariane; Billieux, Joël; Thorens, Gabriel; Bondolfi, Guido; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have linked massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) with possible problematic usage or internet addiction. The main goal of the present study was to assess links between motivations to play in MMORPGs and addictive involvement in such types of games. A total of 696 gamers responded to an online survey. Five distinct motivations to play were identified in gamers: achievement, socializing, immersion, relaxing and escaping. Multiple regression analysis revealed that addictive MMORPG use patterns are predicted by achievement, escapism and socializing motives. Gender was also a significant predictor of problematic involvement in MMORPGs. Moreover, addictive MMORPG use positively correlated with the weekly time devoted to playing MMORPGs. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A national survey of pain clinics within the United Kingdom and Ireland focusing on the multidisciplinary team and the incorporation of the extended nursing role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailainathan, Pungavi; Humble, Stephen; Dawson, Helen; Cameron, Fiona; Gokani, Shyam; Lidder, Gursimren

    2018-02-01

    Inconsistencies in the availability and quality of pain service provision have been noted nationally, as have lengthy waiting times for appointments and lack of awareness of the Pain Clinic role. The 2013 NHS England report stated that specialist pain services must offer multispecialty and multidisciplinary pain clinics. This national survey of multidisciplinary pain service provision in the United Kingdom and Ireland provides a snapshot of pain service provision in order to review and highlight what variations exist in multidisciplinary team (MDT) provision and working patterns. A common perception among clinicians is that financial pressures have led to alternate ways of staff utilisation with variable degrees of success. The survey included 143 pain clinics, focusing principally on MDT working patterns, MDT composition and adoption of the extended role. The results identified that the majority of Pain Clinics utilise the MDT approach. However, provision of critical components such as regular MDT meetings is highly variable as is the composition of the MDT itself and also working patterns of the individual clinicians. The survey reports the successful use of the extended roles for specialist nurses in follow up clinics. In contrast, the survey highlights that a large proportion of clinicians surveyed have reservations about both the effectiveness and the safety of utilising specialist nurses in the extended role to see new referrals of complex pain patients to pain clinics. This survey underlines the essential requirement for incorporation of greater MDT working locally and nationally and allocation of appropriate resources to facilitate this.

  8. Performance of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter in Run II and its role in the measurement of the Higgs boson properties

    CERN Document Server

    Organtini, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The characterisation of the Higgs boson discovered in 2012 around 125 GeV, and confirmed with the data collected in Run II, requires the precise determination of its mass, width and couplings. The electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment (CMS) is crucial for measurements in the highest resolution channels, $H\\to \\gamma \\gamma$ and $H\\to 4$ leptons. In particular the energy resolution, the scale uncertainty and the position resolution for electrons and photons are required to be as good as possible.During Run II the LHC is continuously operating with 25 ns bunch spacing and increasing instantaneous luminosity. The calorimeter reconstruction algorithm has been adapted to cope with increasing levels of pile-up and the calibration and monitoring strategy have been optimised to maintain the excellent performance of the CMS ECAL throughout Run II. We show first performance results from the Run II data taking periods, achieved through energy calibrations using physics events, with...

  9. A novel role for myosin II in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimle, Paul A.; Kent Fulcher, F.; Patel, Yashomati M.

    2005-01-01

    Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake requires the activation of several signaling pathways to mediate the translocation and fusion of GLUT4 vesicles from an intracellular pool to the plasma membrane. The studies presented here show that inhibition of myosin II activity impairs GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake but not GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. We also show that adipocytes express both myosin IIA and IIB isoforms, and that myosin IIA is recruited to the plasma membrane upon insulin stimulation. Taken together, the data presented here represent the first demonstration that GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake is a myosin II-dependent process in adipocytes. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that myosin II is activated upon insulin stimulation and recruited to the cell cortex to facilitate GLUT4 fusion with the plasma membrane. The identification of myosin II as a key component of GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake represents an important advance in our understanding of the mechanisms regulating glucose homeostasis

  10. Role of the private sector in childbirth care: cross-sectional survey evidence from 57 low- and middle-income countries using Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benova, Lenka; Macleod, David; Footman, Katharine; Cavallaro, Francesca; Lynch, Caroline A; Campbell, Oona M R

    2015-12-01

    Maternal mortality rates have decreased globally but remain off track for Millennium Development Goals. Good-quality delivery care is one recognised strategy to address this gap. This study examines the role of the private (non-public) sector in providing delivery care and compares the equity and quality of the sectors. The most recent Demographic and Health Survey (2000-2013) for 57 countries was used to analyse delivery care for most recent birth among >330 000 women. Wealth quintiles were used for equity analysis; skilled birth attendant (SBA) and Caesarean section rates served as proxies for quality of care in cross-sectoral comparisons. The proportion of women who used appropriate delivery care (non-facility with a SBA or facility-based births) varied across regions (49-84%), but wealth-related inequalities were seen in both sectors in all regions. One-fifth of all deliveries occurred in the private sector. Overall, 36% of deliveries with appropriate care occurred in the private sector, ranging from 9% to 46% across regions. The presence of a SBA was comparable between sectors (≥93%) in all regions. In every region, Caesarean section rate was higher in the private compared to public sector. The private sector provided between 13% (Latin America) and 66% (Asia) of Caesarean section deliveries. This study is the most comprehensive assessment to date of coverage, equity and quality indicators of delivery care by sector. The private sector provided a substantial proportion of delivery care in low- and middle-income countries. Further research is necessary to better understand this heterogeneous group of providers and their potential to equitably increase the coverage of good-quality intrapartum care. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. North Carolina Geological Survey's role in siting a low-level radioactive (LLRW) waste disposal facility in North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, J.C.; Wooten, R.M.; Farrell, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Southeast Compact Commission in 1986 selected North Carolina to host the Southeast's LLRW disposal facility for the next twenty years. The North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) for six years has played a major role in the State's efforts by contributing to legislation and administrative code, policy, technical oversight and surveillance and regulation as a member of the State's regulatory team. Future activities include recommendation of the adequacy of characterization and site performance pursuant to federal code, state general statutes and administrative code, and review of a license application. Staff must be prepared to present testimony and professional conclusions in court. The NCGS provides technical advice to the Division of Radiation Protection (DRP), the regulatory agency which will grant or deny a LLRW license. The NCGS has not participated in screening the state for potential sites to minimize bias. The LLRW Management Authority, a separate state agency siting the LLRW facility, hired a contractor to characterize potential sites and to write a license application. Organizational relationships enable the NCGS to assist the DRP in its regulatory role without conflict of interest. Disposal facilities must be sited to ensure safe disposal of LLRW. By law, the siting of a LLRW disposal facility is primarily a geological, rather than an engineering, effort. Federal and State statutes indicate a site must be licensable on its own merits. Engineered barriers cannot make a site licensable. The project is 3 years behind schedule and millions of dollars over budget. This indicates the uncertainty and complexity inherent in siting such as facility, the outcome of which cannot be predicted until site characterization is complete, the license application reviewed and the performance assessment evaluated. State geological surveys are uniquely qualified to overview siting of LLRW facilities because of technical expertise and experience in the state's geology

  12. Fostering New Roles for Librarians: Skills Set for Repository Managers — Results of a Survey in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cassella

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The open access movement in scholarly communication has grown considerably over the last ten years and it has driven an increase in the number of institutional repositories (IRs. New professional roles and skills had to be developed to secure effective IR management. Collection developmente expertise and metadata curation are regarded as strategic roles for repositories and therefore it is only logical for the library and information community to take on the responsibility for managing these digital archives. However, it has become clear that traditional librarian skills do not suffice anymore to run successful repositories. A richer set of skills is needed, including management and communication skills, technical skills, and expertise with regard to access rights and preservation of digital content. Referring to the work carried out by the SHERPA Project in the UK with regard to the skills set for repository staff, the authors performed a survey among repository managers in Italy to assess the educational and professional background of the repository managers and the skills set required to implement successful institutional repositories. The survey findings show that the professional profile of the repository manager is a multiform and complex one. It requires cross-functional and highly specialised competencies. Italian repository managers are of the opinion that the skills required to promote the repository within the institution and those required to deal with copyright issues as the most essential skills repository managers should acquire and be trained for. Collection development and metadata expertise, familiarity with project management and expertise in repository workflow design are also highly rated. Technical skills are needed to deal with interoperability standards and protocols. In Italy academic curricula do not meet the repository managers’ educational needs. Academic programmes should be developed to include communication

  13. Role of autogenic relaxation in management of diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in type II diabetes mellitus patients

    OpenAIRE

    Manish K. Verma; D. A. Biswas; Shambhavi Tripathi; N. S. Verma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a very common complication of Type II diabetes mellitus patients. Early detection and treatment of CAN is necessary for reduction of mortality and morbidity in type II diabetes patients. Methods: The study included 120 diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy both male and female, with more than 5 years duration of disease. Age group of the study subjects was between 30 and ndash; 70 years. All the 120 diabet...

  14. The Role of Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in the Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction in Uncontrolled Type II Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumar, B.; Sathasivasubramanian, S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the salivary gland dysfunction in patients with uncontrolled type II diabetes using salivary gland scintigraphy and then to compare these ratios with quantitative whole salivary secretion rates. Using a gamma camera (siemens-diacam) equipped with a low energy all-purpose collimator, 32 uncontrolled type II diabetic patients and 30 normal healthy patients were studied by injecting a radio isotope (technetium 99m pertechnetate) about 5 mCi was inject...

  15. Prevalence surveys as part of a strategic plan to prevent healthcare associated infections. The experience of the University Hospital "Federico II" of Naples, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montella, E; Triassi, M; Bellopede, R; Reis, W; Palladino, R; Di Silverio, P

    2014-01-01

    The care-associated infections (HAI) are the most serious complication associated with medical care. They are the cause of diseases for patients and economic damage to public health. The University "Federico II" of Naples decided to monitor the HAI, repeating the prevalence survey conducted earlier in 2011 in order to analyze the phenomenon of infection and to evaluate the possible correlation with risk factors. The Survey was conducted according to ECDC criteria. Considered that the study carried out in 2011 was conducted following the same methodology, to compare the results of the year 2012 the prevalence rates of both years were standardized. For the year 2012, the number of patients enrolled in the study and stratification of patients by age and sex were similar to data collected in 2011. It was very interesting to find the prevalence of HAI standardized reduced in 2012 compared to 2011. As a matter of fact, in fact, that the standardized prevalence of HAI for the year 2012 was 3.1%, one percentage point lower than in 2011 (4.4%). The practical training and direct regarded as the most appropriate approach in order to make health professionals aware in the field of health care-associated infections, as well as the system of selfcontrol peripheral for the correct application of the procedures, as well as epidemiological surveillance active, measured through rates of incidence, at the same time allow the monitoring of the phenomenon is infectious and the application of corrective measures that prevent its onset. The choice to make again an epidemiological study of prevalence with the same methodology ensures, in fact, two advantages: the comparability of the data, both at intra-company both at regional, national and international evaluation of the effectiveness of corrective actions.

  16. Survey on the role of brown hares (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778 as carriers of zoonotic dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Mancianti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of dermatophytes and keratinophilic fungi was investigated by hair-brush technique on the coat of 986 apparently healthy brown hares (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778 caught in 9 restocking and capture zones in Central Italy. Overall, 7.5% hair samples gave positive results. Trichophyton terrestre (2.1%, Chrysosporium sp, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton gloriae and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (0.6% each, Trichophyton erinacei and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (0.4% each, Chrysosporium asperatum (0.3%, Arthroderma sp and Microsporum canis (0.1% each were identified in cultures with single isolates, whereas Chrysosporium sp/T. mentagrophytes (0.3%, Chrysosporium sp/T. terrestre and M. gypseum/T. terrestre (0.2% each, Chrysosporium tropicum/T. terrestre, M. canis/T. terrestre and T. ajelloi/T. terrestre (0.1% each were identified in cultures with mixed isolates. T. erinacei and M. canis have not previously been isolated from hares. M. canis, T. erinacei and T. mentagrophytes were the most clinically important dermatophytes found. Altogether, they were isolated only from 1.5% hair samples. Thus, it is concluded that brown hares may play a limited epidemiological role as carriers of zoonotic dermatophytes. Nevertheless, this should be taken into consideration as many people may be exposed to zoonotic agents from brown hares during hunting and trapping activities.

  17. Niche construction within riparian corridors. Part II: The unexplored role of positive intraspecific interactions in Salicaceae species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corenblit, Dov; Garófano-Gómez, Virginia; González, Eduardo; Hortobágyi, Borbála; Julien, Frédéric; Lambs, Luc; Otto, Thierry; Roussel, Erwan; Steiger, Johannes; Tabacchi, Eric; Till-Bottraud, Irène

    2018-03-01

    Within riparian corridors, Salicaceae trees and shrubs affect hydrogeomorphic processes and lead to the formation of wooded fluvial landforms. These trees form dense stands and enhance plant anchorage, as grouped plants are less prone to be uprooted than free-standing individuals. This also enhances their role as ecosystem engineers through the trapping of sediment, organic matter, and nutrients. The landform formation caused by these wooded biogeomorphic landforms probably represents a positive niche construction, which ultimately leads, through facilitative processes, to an improved capacity of the individual trees to survive, exploit resources, and reach sexual maturity in the interval between destructive floods. The facilitative effects of riparian vegetation are well established; however, the nature and intensity of biotic interactions among trees of the same species forming dense woody stands and constructing the niche remain unclear. Our hypothesis is that the niche construction process also comprises more direct intraspecific interactions, such as cooperation or altruism. Our aim in this paper is to propose an original theoretical framework for positive intraspecific interactions among riparian Salicaceae species operating from establishment to sexual maturity. Within this framework, we speculate that (i) positive intraspecific interactions among trees are maximized in dynamic river reaches; (ii) during establishment, intraspecific facilitation (or helping) occurs among trees and this leads to the maintenance of a dense stand that improves survival and growth because saplings protect each other from shear stress and scour; (iii) in addition to the improved capacity to trap mineral and organic matter, individuals that constitute the dense stand can cooperate to mutually support a mycorrhizal network that will connect plants, soil, and groundwater and influence nutrient transfer, cycling, and storage within the shared constructed niche; (iv) during post

  18. Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism in women: roles of apoC-II and apoC-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Esther M; Chan, Dick C; Hodson, Leanne; Adiels, Martin; Boren, Jan; Karpe, Fredrik; Fielding, Barbara A; Watts, Gerald F; Barrett, P Hugh R

    2016-08-01

    Experimental data suggest that apolipoprotein (apo) C-II and C-III regulate triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) metabolism, but there are limited studies in humans. We investigated the metabolic associations of TRLs with apoC-II and apoC-III concentrations and kinetics in women. The kinetics of plasma apoC-II, apoC-III and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apoB-100 and triglycerides were measured in the postabsorptive state using stable isotopic techniques and compartmental modelling in 60 women with wide-ranging body mass index (19·5-32·9 kg/m(2) ). Plasma apoC-II and apoC-III concentrations were positively associated with the concentrations of plasma triglycerides, VLDL1 - and VLDL2 -apoB-100 and triglyceride (all P triglyceride concentration and VLDL1 triglyceride PR, while apoC-II fractional catabolic rate (FCR) was positively associated with VLDL1 triglyceride FCR (all P triglyceride kinetics. ApoC-III PR, but not FCR, was positively associated with VLDL1 triglyceride, and VLDL2 -apoB-100 and triglyceride concentrations (all P triglyceride kinetics. In multivariable analysis, including homoeostasis model assessment score, menopausal status and obesity, apoC-II concentration was significantly associated with plasma triglyceride, VLDL1 -apoB-100 and VLDL1 triglyceride concentrations and PR. Using the same multivariable analysis, apoC-III was significantly associated with plasma triglyceride and VLDL1 - and VLDL2 -apoB-100 and triglyceride concentrations and FCR. In women, plasma apoC-II and apoC-III concentrations are regulated by their respective PR and are significant, independent determinants of the kinetics and plasma concentrations of TRLs. © 2016 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  19. Incomplete knowledge--unclarified roles in sex education: results of a national survey about human papillomavirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, E; Dergez, T; Bozsa, S; Gocze, K; Rebek-Nagy, G; Kricskovics, A; Kiss, I; Ember, I; Gocze, P

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections both in male and female adults in Hungary. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was completed by 785 college students and parents between January and May, 2009. The results were analysed by gender and age. Participants' knowledge about HPV and HPV-associated conditions was relatively incomplete. One-third of the respondents had never heard about HPV prior to the survey. Almost half of the respondents (42%) thought that the only sexual way of spreading HPV was vaginal intercourse, while the role of skin-to-skin contact was disregarded (6%). More than one-third of the participants (38%) believed that condoms give full protection from HPV infection. Encouragingly, the majority of respondents (64%) were open to further information about sexually transmitted diseases. The most trusted sources of information were health professionals. When talking about children, parents attributed the major role in delivering information about sexually transmitted diseases to schools. Primary prevention through carefully planned educational programmes may further raise the awareness about HPV-associated conditions, thus reducing the comparatively high mortality of cervical carcinoma in Hungary. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Survey and Explain the role of Sensemaking in Successful Strategy Implementation in Iran’s Automotive Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Farhad Hosseini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is not a dominant model that could explain key factors of sensemaking of strategy implementation and interactions between them. The purpose of this study is designing and explaining the role of sensemaking in successful strategy implementation along with a combination of factors which influence implementation sensemaking. This study surveyed the factors influencing sensemaking of successful strategy implementation in top Iran’s automotive companies. This is a qualitative research that uses grounded theory to obtain insight about the role of sensemaking in successful implementation through in-depth interviews with 22 individuals (Managers, Assistant Directors and Academic Professors and used gathered data to design a model of sensemaking in successful strategy implementation. Based on open and axial coding, 21 effective variables were conceptualized and classified in seven major categories then final model was designed. This theory explains factors that affect the sensemaking of successful strategy implementation and how these factors interact with each other. Sensemaking in Successful implementation of strategies depends on Sensemaking Context, Key Executers, Discourse Context, Intervening Conditions and Collective Sensemaking. Sensemaking Context cause sensemaking and sensegiving of key executers and key executers itself along with Discourse Context and Intervening Conditions lead to collective sensemaking. The consequence of model is sensemaking of successful strategy implementation that consists of maintaining and recording the meaning and its strengthening, collective effort, continuous strategy implementation and operational excellence of the organization.

  1. Role of Private Sector in Providing Tuberculosis Care: Evidence from a Population-based Survey in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Indrajit

    2011-01-01

    In India, a large segment of the population seeks health care services from individual or institutional private health-care providers for health care. We analyzed a nationally representative data to identify the role of private providers in delivering health care for patients with tuberculosis. The primary data source for the present analysis was the 60(th) round of the National Sample Survey. Distribution frequencies were used to analyze the distribution of key sociodemographic variables and multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the association between these variables and healthcare seeking behavior. A sample of 2203 respondents who had received ambulatory care for tuberculosis, and 4568 respondents who had received inpatient treatment were analyzed. About half of the respondents had attended private facilities for TB care. Sociodemographic variables such as paediatric age group, females, higher level of education, and economic groups were associated with attendance at private sector. Dissatisfaction with services in government facilities was cited as the main reason for preferring private facilities. Private providers play an important role in providing health care services to a large proportion of patients with tuberculosis. There is a need for innovative measures to increase participation of the private sector in the national TB control program and to improve the quality of services in government facilities.

  2. Role of private sector in providing tuberculosis care: Evidence from a population-based survey in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajit Hazarika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, a large segment of the population seeks health care services from individual or institutional private health-care providers for health care. We analyzed a nationally representative data to identify the role of private providers in delivering health care for patients with tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The primary data source for the present analysis was the 60 th round of the National Sample Survey. Distribution frequencies were used to analyze the distribution of key sociodemographic variables and multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the association between these variables and healthcare seeking behavior. Results: A sample of 2203 respondents who had received ambulatory care for tuberculosis, and 4568 respondents who had received inpatient treatment were analyzed. About half of the respondents had attended private facilities for TB care. Sociodemographic variables such as paediatric age group, females, higher level of education, and economic groups were associated with attendance at private sector. Dissatisfaction with services in government facilities was cited as the main reason for preferring private facilities. Conclusions: Private providers play an important role in providing health care services to a large proportion of patients with tuberculosis. There is a need for innovative measures to increase participation of the private sector in the national TB control program and to improve the quality of services in government facilities.

  3. Barriers and Opportunities to Advancing Women in Leadership Roles in Vector Control: Perspectives from a Stakeholder Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Mary H; Barrett, Erika; Bernard, Guyah; Toko, Eunice N; Agawo, Maurice; Okello, Amanda M; Gunn, Jayleen K L; Ernst, Kacey C

    2018-05-01

    Increasing the active participation of professional women in vector control (VC) activities may help promote greater gender equity in the workplace and reduce the burden of vector-borne diseases. This stakeholder survey examined the current roles and perspective of professionals employed in the VC sector in Kenya, Indonesia, India, and other countries. The largest barriers that women face in pursuing leadership roles in the VC sector include lack of awareness of career opportunities, limitations based on cultural norms, and the belief that VC is men's work. These barriers could be addressed through improving education and recruitment campaigns, as well as supporting higher education and mentoring programs. Females were almost six times more likely to be encouraged to pursue leadership positions in their organization compared with male respondents (odds ratio = 5.9, P > 0.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 29.42). These findings suggest that once women are recruited into the VC workforce, they face minimal discrimination and have increased leadership opportunities.

  4. Conflict between work and family roles and satisfaction among nurses in different shift systems in Croatia: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunić, Ana; Gregov, Ljiljana

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perception of conflict between work and family roles and job, family, and life satisfaction among nurses in Croatia. One hundred and twenty-nine nurses (married mothers) working in hospitals in Zadar, Šibenik, and Split were divided in four groups according to their worktime schedule. The participants completed a survey, which included a set of sociodemographic-type questions, questions about the level and allocation of family responsibilities between spouses, and scales measuring the perceived negative effects of worktime, psychological demands of the work, work-family conflict, and semantic differential scales for measuring the affective and cognitive-evaluative component of job, family, and life satisfaction. This was the first study in Croatia to deal with work-family conflict among nurses or workers with different shift systems.The results of this study indicate that nurses working morning shifts only experienced less conflict between work and family than other groups of nurses, who worked the morning, afternoon, and the night shift. The cognitive-evaluative component of job satisfaction was the highest among morning shift nurses and the lowest in nurses who worked 12-hour shifts, while the affective component of life satisfaction was the lowest in nurses working irregular and backward rotated shifts. These results confirm that shiftwork makes the work-family role conflict even worse. They also support the view that the type of shift rotation matters.

  5. A survey for assessment of the role of pharmacist in community pharmacy services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To assess the role of a pharmacist in a community setting and the consumer′s perception in the National Capital Region. Setting : The study was conducted in the National Capital Region of India during the year 2003 - 2004. Materials and Methods : Four pharmacies were selected for this study, which were not attached to any hospital or clinic. Seventy-seven consumers, who visited these pharmacies during the study period, were selected for this study and interviewed just after they visited the pharmacy. Results : A total of 77 consumers in the age group of 11 to 72 years were included in the present study, of which 66.2% were males and 33.8% were females. It was observed that 46.7% of the consumers came for prescription medicines and 23.4% for over-the-counter medicines. Close to the general physicians′ clinics and proximity to home were the most important reasons given for visiting a particular pharmacy. A majority of the consumers (n = 56, 72.7% rated the advice given by the pharmacist as very useful, only one (1.3% rated it as not useful at all and two (2.6% consumers did not respond. Among the consumer groups 31 (40.3% thought that the pharmacist had a good balance between health and business matters, 35.7% were of the opinion that the pharmacist was more concerned with making money, while 5.2% supported that the pharmacist was also interested in the health of his / her customers. The pharmacists were ranked at the top by 28 (36.4% consumers, and favored pharmacy as the most convenient place to get advice about staying healthy. Conclusion : Most of the consumers in the present study were of the opinion that a pharmacist is concerned with the health of the consumers, although he / she was also interested in making money. Many respondents were unaware about the difference between a pharmacist and a doctor, most of them considered the pharmacist to be a doctor and this was the main problem in concluding that the pharmacy was the

  6. SURVEYING THE AGENTS OF GALAXY EVOLUTION IN THE TIDALLY STRIPPED, LOW METALLICITY SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD (SAGE-SMC). II. COOL EVOLVED STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Meixner, Margaret; Gordon, Karl D.; Shiao, Bernie; Srinivasan, Sundar; Van Loon, Jacco Th.; McDonald, Iain; Kemper, F.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Block, Miwa; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Misselt, Karl; Babler, Brian; Bracker, Steve; Meade, Marilyn; Whitney, Barbara; Hora, Joe; Robitaille, Thomas; Indebetouw, Remy; Sewilo, Marta

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the infrared (IR) properties of cool, evolved stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), including the red giant branch (RGB) stars and the dust-producing red supergiant (RSG) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars using observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy program entitled 'Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally Stripped, Low Metallicity SMC', or SAGE-SMC. The survey includes, for the first time, full spatial coverage of the SMC bar, wing, and tail regions at IR wavelengths (3.6-160 μm). We identify evolved stars using a combination of near-IR and mid-IR photometry and point out a new feature in the mid-IR color-magnitude diagram that may be due to particularly dusty O-rich AGB stars. We find that the RSG and AGB stars each contribute ∼20% of the global SMC flux (extended + point-source) at 3.6 μm, which emphasizes the importance of both stellar types to the integrated flux of distant metal-poor galaxies. The equivalent SAGE survey of the higher-metallicity Large Magellanic Cloud (SAGE-LMC) allows us to explore the influence of metallicity on dust production. We find that the SMC RSG stars are less likely to produce a large amount of dust (as indicated by the [3.6] - [8] color). There is a higher fraction of carbon-rich stars in the SMC, and these stars appear to reach colors as red as their LMC counterparts, indicating that C-rich dust forms efficiently in both galaxies. A preliminary estimate of the dust production in AGB and RSG stars reveals that the extreme C-rich AGB stars dominate the dust input in both galaxies, and that the O-rich stars may play a larger role in the LMC than in the SMC.

  7. Role of VI/II ratio on the growth of ZnO nanostructures using chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgessa, Z.N., E-mail: zelalem.urgessa@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Oluwafemi, O.S. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha Campus, Private Bag XI, 5117 (South Africa); Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper the growth process and morphological evolution of ZnO nanostructures were investigated in a series of experiments using chemical bath deposition. The experimental results indicate that the morphological evolution depends on the reaction conditions, particularly on OH{sup -} to Zn{sup 2+} ratio (which directly affects the pH). For low VI/II ratios, quasi-spherical nanoparticles of an average diameter 30 nm are obtained, whereas for larger VI/II ratios, nanorods with an average diameter less than 100 nm are produced, which indicates that by systematically controlling the VI/II ratio, it is possible to produce different shapes and sizes of ZnO nanostructures. A possible mechanism for the nanostructural change of the as-synthesized ZnO from particle to rod was elucidated based on the relative densities of H{sup +} and OH{sup -} in the solution.

  8. Role of VI/II ratio on the growth of ZnO nanostructures using chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urgessa, Z.N.; Oluwafemi, O.S.; Botha, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the growth process and morphological evolution of ZnO nanostructures were investigated in a series of experiments using chemical bath deposition. The experimental results indicate that the morphological evolution depends on the reaction conditions, particularly on OH − to Zn 2+ ratio (which directly affects the pH). For low VI/II ratios, quasi-spherical nanoparticles of an average diameter 30 nm are obtained, whereas for larger VI/II ratios, nanorods with an average diameter less than 100 nm are produced, which indicates that by systematically controlling the VI/II ratio, it is possible to produce different shapes and sizes of ZnO nanostructures. A possible mechanism for the nanostructural change of the as-synthesized ZnO from particle to rod was elucidated based on the relative densities of H + and OH − in the solution.

  9. Role of pressure in angiotensin II-induced renal injury: chronic servo-control of renal perfusion pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takefumi; Cowley, Allen W

    2004-04-01

    Renal perfusion pressure was servo-controlled chronically in rats to quantify the relative contribution of elevated arterial pressure versus angiotensin II (Ang II) on the induction of renal injury in Ang II-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats fed a 4% salt diet were administered Ang II for 14 days (25 ng/kg per minute IV; saline only for sham rats), and the renal perfusion pressure to the left kidney was continuously servo-controlled to maintain a normal pressure in that kidney throughout the period of hypertension. An aortic occluder was implanted around the aorta between the two renal arteries and carotid and femoral arterial pressure were measured continuously throughout the experiment to determine uncontrolled and controlled renal perfusion pressure, respectively. Renal perfusion pressure of uncontrolled, controlled, and sham kidneys over the period of Ang II or saline infusion averaged 152.6+/-7.0, 117.4+/-3.5, and 110.7+/-2.2 mm Hg, respectively. The high-pressure uncontrolled kidneys exhibited tubular necrosis and interstitial fibrosis, especially prominent in the outer medullary region. Regional glomerular sclerosis and interlobular artery injury were also pronounced. Controlled kidneys were significantly protected from interlobular artery injury, juxtamedullary glomeruli injury, tubular necrosis, and interstitial fibrosis as determined by comparing the level of injury. Glomerular injury was not prevented in the outer cortex. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and active NF-kappaB proteins determined by immunohistochemistry were colocalized in the uncontrolled kidney in regions of interstitial fibrosis. We conclude that the preferential juxtamedullary injury found in Ang II hypertension is largely induced by pressure and is probably mediated through the TGF-beta and NF-kappaB pathway.

  10. The role of the national general medical journal: surveys of which journals UK clinicians read to inform their clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Teresa H; Hanney, Stephen; Buxton, Martin J

    2008-12-01

    For biomedical research findings to contribute toward health gains they must reach clinicians. Academic journals have historically been considered important information sources. Birken and Parkin found seven journals to most consistently contain the best pediatric evidence and, of these seven, four were general medical journals. We surveyed clinicians in three UK medical specialties (psychiatry, surgery and pediatrics), asking which journals they read and which they considered important to inform their clinical practice. The readership of general medical journals, in comparison to specialty and sub-specialty journals, is widespread across the three UK medical specialties, although the importance of general medical journals varies widely. The BMJ is the most prominent general medical journal in terms of readership and importance but a dominant specialty or sub-specialty journal was usually more important for most groups. The Lancet is less widely read and less important, although more academics than non-academics consider it important. Overall, key general medical journals play an important role. Journal availability and cost, particularly in relation to membership for UK clinicians, and the position of academics and non-academics have to be considered in any analysis. Three of the four general medical journals containing the best pediatric evidence were found to be widely read by UK pediatricians and two UK-based general medical journals, the BMJ and The Lancet, were also considered important in our survey. Further investigation of the reasons for the importance of a journal and studies that would allow international comparisons would provide greater input to the discussion.

  11. Functional role of the cytoplasmic tail domain of the major envelope fusion protein of group II baculoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, G.; Pan, M.; Westenberg, M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    F proteins from baculovirus nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) group II members are the major budded virus (BV) viral envelope fusion proteins. They undergo furin-like proteolysis processing in order to be functional. F proteins from different baculovirus species have a long cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD),

  12. Different Roles Of Class-I And Class-II Clostridium-histolyticum Collagenase In Rat Pancreatic-islet Isolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, G. H. J.; Vos-Scheperkeuter, Greetje; Lin, Hun-Chi; van Schilfaarde, R

    Crude Clostridium histolyticum collagenase was purified by gel filtration and fractionated by anion exchange chromatography into class I with high collagen digestion activity (CDA) and low FALGPA (2-furanacryloyl-L-leucylglycyl-L-prolyI-L-alanine )hydrolysis activity (FHA), class II with low CDA and

  13. Perioxidases play important roles in abscisic acid (ABA)-simulating photosystem II (PSII) thermostabilty of apple tree rootstock leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brestic, M.; Shao, H. B.; Ferus, P.; Malbeck, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 71 (2011), s. 15891-15900 ISSN 1684-5315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Photosystem II thermostability * antioxidant activity * phytohormones Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.573, year: 2010

  14. ROLE OF IRON (II, III) HYDROXYCARBONATE GREEN RUST IN ARSENIC REMEDIATION USING ZEROVALENT IRON IN COLUMN TESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined corrosion products of zerovalent iron (Peerless iron) that was used in three column tests for removing arsenic under dynamic flow conditions with and without added phosphate and silicate. Iron(II, III) hydroxycarbonate and magnetite were major iron corrosion products...

  15. Cyanobacterial photosystem II at 2.9-A resolution and the role of quinones, lipids, channels and chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guskov, Albert; Kern, Jan; Gabdulkhakov, Azat; Broser, Matthias; Zouni, Athina; Saenger, Wolfram

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large homodimeric protein-cofactor complex located in the photosynthetic thylakoid membrane that acts as light-driven water:plastoquinone oxidoreductase. The crystal structure of PSII from Thermosynechococcus elongatus at 2.9-A resolution allowed the unambiguous assignment

  16. Determining Possible Professionals and Respective Roles and Responsibilities for a Model Comprehensive Elder Abuse Intervention: A Delphi Consensus Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Du Mont

    Full Text Available We have undertaken a multi-phase, multi-method program of research to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive hospital-based nurse examiner elder abuse intervention that addresses the complex functional, social, forensic, and medical needs of older women and men. In this study, we determined the importance of possible participating professionals and respective roles and responsibilities within the intervention.Using a modified Delphi methodology, recommended professionals and their associated roles and responsibilities were generated from a systematic scoping review of relevant scholarly and grey literatures. These items were reviewed, new items added for review, and rated/re-rated for their importance to the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale by an expert panel during a one day in-person meeting. Items that did not achieve consensus were subsequently re-rated in an online survey.Those items that achieved a mean Likert rating of 4+ (rated important to very important, and an interquartile range<1 in the first or second round, and/or for which 80% of ratings were 4+ in the second round were retained for the model elder abuse intervention.Twenty-two of 31 recommended professionals and 192 of 229 recommended roles and responsibilities rated were retained for our model elder abuse intervention. Retained professionals were: public guardian and trustee (mean rating = 4.88, geriatrician (4.87, police officer (4.87, GEM (geriatric emergency management nurse (4.80, GEM social worker (4.78, community health worker (4.76, social worker/counsellor (4.74, family physician in community (4.71, paramedic (4.65, financial worker (4.59, lawyer (4.59, pharmacist (4.59, emergency physician (4.57, geriatric psychiatrist (4.33, occupational therapist (4.29, family physician in hospital (4.28, Crown prosecutor (4.24, neuropsychologist (4.24, bioethicist (4.18, caregiver advocate (4.18, victim support worker (4.18, and respite care worker (4.12.A large and

  17. Determining Possible Professionals and Respective Roles and Responsibilities for a Model Comprehensive Elder Abuse Intervention: A Delphi Consensus Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mont, Janice; Kosa, Daisy; Macdonald, Sheila; Elliot, Shannon; Yaffe, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective We have undertaken a multi-phase, multi-method program of research to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive hospital-based nurse examiner elder abuse intervention that addresses the complex functional, social, forensic, and medical needs of older women and men. In this study, we determined the importance of possible participating professionals and respective roles and responsibilities within the intervention. Methods Using a modified Delphi methodology, recommended professionals and their associated roles and responsibilities were generated from a systematic scoping review of relevant scholarly and grey literatures. These items were reviewed, new items added for review, and rated/re-rated for their importance to the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale by an expert panel during a one day in-person meeting. Items that did not achieve consensus were subsequently re-rated in an online survey. Analysis Those items that achieved a mean Likert rating of 4+ (rated important to very important), and an interquartile rangeelder abuse intervention. Results Twenty-two of 31 recommended professionals and 192 of 229 recommended roles and responsibilities rated were retained for our model elder abuse intervention. Retained professionals were: public guardian and trustee (mean rating = 4.88), geriatrician (4.87), police officer (4.87), GEM (geriatric emergency management) nurse (4.80), GEM social worker (4.78), community health worker (4.76), social worker/counsellor (4.74), family physician in community (4.71), paramedic (4.65), financial worker (4.59), lawyer (4.59), pharmacist (4.59), emergency physician (4.57), geriatric psychiatrist (4.33), occupational therapist (4.29), family physician in hospital (4.28), Crown prosecutor (4.24), neuropsychologist (4.24), bioethicist (4.18), caregiver advocate (4.18), victim support worker (4.18), and respite care worker (4.12). Conclusion A large and diverse group of multidisciplinary, intersectoral collaborators was

  18. Temporal changes in cardiac oxidative stress, inflammation and remodeling induced by exercise in hypertension: Role for local angiotensin II reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião D Silva

    Full Text Available Exercise training reduces renin-angiotensin system (RAS activation, decreases plasma and tissue oxidative stress and inflammation in hypertension. However, the temporal nature of these phenomena in response to exercise is unknown. We sought to determine in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and age-matched WKY controls the weekly effects of training on blood pressure (BP, plasma and left ventricle (LV Ang II and Ang-(1-7 content (HPLC, LV oxidative stress (DHE staining, gene and protein expression (qPCR and WB of pro-inflammatory cytokines, antioxidant enzymes and their consequence on hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling. SHR and WKY were submitted to aerobic training (T or maintained sedentary (S for 8 weeks; measurements were made at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8. Hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy was accompanied by acute plasma Ang II increase with amplified responses during the late phase of LV hypertrophy. Similar pattern was observed for oxidative stress markers, TNF alpha and interleukin-1β, associated with cardiomyocytes' diameter enlargement and collagen deposition. SHR-T exhibited prompt and marked decrease in LV Ang II content (T1 vs T4 in WKY-T, normalized oxidative stress (T2, augmented antioxidant defense (T4 and reduced both collagen deposition and inflammatory profile (T8, without changing cardiomyocytes' diameter and LV hypertrophy. These changes were accompanied by decreased plasma Ang II content (T2-T4 and reduced BP (T8. SHR-T and WKY-T showed parallel increases in LV and plasma Ang-(1-7 content. Our data indicate that early training-induced downregulation of LV ACE-AngII-AT1 receptor axis is a crucial mechanism to reduce oxidative/pro-inflammatory profile and improve antioxidant defense in SHR-T, showing in addition this effect precedes plasma RAS deactivation.

  19. Pro-ACT II: integrating utilization management, discharge planning, and nursing case management into the outcomes manager role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, J L; Bueno, M; Royal, N; Kendall-Sengin, K

    1997-02-01

    Building on redesign efforts that created case management, clinical care technicians, support service hosts, and pharmacy technician roles, this redesign focused on integrating case management, utilization management, and discharge planning functions into a new outcomes manager role. The authors describe the process of developing and implementing the new role and outline specific actions that eliminated redundancy and inefficiency. Results of the evaluation of the project are reviewed, including full-time equivalent and salary savings and employee and physician satisfaction improvements.

  20. The Role of Integrated Indicators in Exhibiting Business Contribution to Sustainable Development: a Survey of Sustainability Reporting Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Azcárate

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pag. THE ROLE OF INTEGRATED INDICATORS IN EXHIBITING BUSINESS CONTRIBUTION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A SURVEY OF SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING INITIATIVESEL PAPEL DE LOS INDICADORES INTEGRADOS EN LA CONTRIBUCIÓN EMPRESARIAL AL DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE: UN ESTUDIO DE LAS INICIATIVAS PARA EL REPORTING DE SOSTENIBILIDADEl papel de los indicadores integrados en la contribución empresarial al desarrollo sostenible: un estudio de las iniciativas para el reporting de sostenibilidadThis paper aims to analyse the role of integrated indicators included in sustainability reporting initiatives in exhibiting business contribution to Sustainable Development.Content analysis of five core initiatives has been carried out to identify strong or weak sustainability arguments within the whole set of indicators. According to the findings, the analyzed initiatives raise a collection of integrated indicators that suggest managerial capture of the concept of Sustainable Development.El presente trabajo aborda el estudio de los indicadores integrados como elemento central para conseguir que las memorias de sostenibilidad cumplan el objetivo de mostrar la contribución que una organización realiza a la consecución del Desarrollo Sostenible. Para ello se ha realizado un análisis de contenido de cinco de las principales iniciativas internacionales que las empresas pueden utilizar como guía para elaborar sus memorias de sostenibilidad con el objetivo de identificar los indicadores integrados que proponen y evidenciar cuál es la visión de la sostenibilidad que en ellos subyace. Los resultados muestran que las iniciativas analizadas plantean un conjunto de indicadores integrados que favorece que las organizaciones puedan capturar el concepto de Desarrollo Sostenible.

  1. Ten-Year Changes in the Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Physical Activity among Polish Adults Aged 20 to 74 Years. Results of the National Multicenter Health Surveys WOBASZ (2003-2005) and WOBASZ II (2013-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Pikala, Małgorzata; Bielecki, Wojciech; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Rębowska, Ewa; Kozakiewicz, Krystyna; Pająk, Andrzej; Piwoński, Jerzy; Tykarski, Andrzej; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Drygas, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate ten-year changes in physical activity (PA) patterns and sociodemographic determinants among adult residents of Poland. The study comprised two independent samples of randomly selected adults aged 20-74 years participating in the National Multicentre Health Survey WOBASZ (2003-2005; n = 14572) and WOBASZ II (2013-2014; n = 5694). In both surveys the measurements were performed by six academic centers in all 16 voivodships of Poland (108 measurement points in each survey). Sociodemographic data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire in both surveys. Physical activity was assessed in three domains: leisure-time, occupational and commuting physical activity. Leisure-time PA changed substantially between the surveys (p<0.001). The prevalence of subjects being active on most days of week fell in both genders in the years 2003-2014 (37.4% vs 27.3% in men); 32.7% vs 28.3% in women. None or occasional activity increased from 49.6% to 56.8% in men, while remained stable in women (55.2% vs 54.9%). In both WOBASZ surveys the likelihood of physical inactivity was higher in less educated individuals, smokers and those living in large agglomerations (p<0.01). No significant changes were observed in occupational activity in men between the surveys, while in women percentage of sedentary work increased from 43.4% to % 49.4% (p<0.01). Commuting PA decreased significantly in both genders (p<0.001). About 79.3% of men and 71.3% of women reported no active commuting in the WOBASZ II survey. The observed unfavourable changes in PA emphasize the need for novel intervention concepts in order to reverse this direction. Further detailed monitoring of PA patterns in Poland is of particular importance.

  2. Ten-Year Changes in the Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Physical Activity among Polish Adults Aged 20 to 74 Years. Results of the National Multicenter Health Surveys WOBASZ (2003-2005 and WOBASZ II (2013-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kwaśniewska

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate ten-year changes in physical activity (PA patterns and sociodemographic determinants among adult residents of Poland.The study comprised two independent samples of randomly selected adults aged 20-74 years participating in the National Multicentre Health Survey WOBASZ (2003-2005; n = 14572 and WOBASZ II (2013-2014; n = 5694. In both surveys the measurements were performed by six academic centers in all 16 voivodships of Poland (108 measurement points in each survey. Sociodemographic data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire in both surveys. Physical activity was assessed in three domains: leisure-time, occupational and commuting physical activity.Leisure-time PA changed substantially between the surveys (p<0.001. The prevalence of subjects being active on most days of week fell in both genders in the years 2003-2014 (37.4% vs 27.3% in men; 32.7% vs 28.3% in women. None or occasional activity increased from 49.6% to 56.8% in men, while remained stable in women (55.2% vs 54.9%. In both WOBASZ surveys the likelihood of physical inactivity was higher in less educated individuals, smokers and those living in large agglomerations (p<0.01. No significant changes were observed in occupational activity in men between the surveys, while in women percentage of sedentary work increased from 43.4% to % 49.4% (p<0.01. Commuting PA decreased significantly in both genders (p<0.001. About 79.3% of men and 71.3% of women reported no active commuting in the WOBASZ II survey.The observed unfavourable changes in PA emphasize the need for novel intervention concepts in order to reverse this direction. Further detailed monitoring of PA patterns in Poland is of particular importance.

  3. Type Ia Supernova Properties as a Function of the Distance to the Host Galaxy in the SDSS-II SN Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbany, Lluis [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Barcelona (Spain); et al.

    2012-08-20

    We use type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the SDSS-II SN Survey to search for dependencies between SN Ia properties and the projected distance to the host galaxy center, using the distance as a proxy for local galaxy properties (local star-formation rate, local metallicity, etc.). The sample consists of almost 200 spectroscopically or photometrically confirmed SNe Ia at redshifts below 0.25. The sample is split into two groups depending on the morphology of the host galaxy. We fit light-curves using both MLCS2k2 and SALT2, and determine color (AV, c) and light-curve shape (delta, x1) parameters for each SN Ia, as well as its residual in the Hubble diagram. We then correlate these parameters with both the physical and the normalized distances to the center of the host galaxy and look for trends in the mean values and scatters of these parameters with increasing distance. The most significant (at the 4-sigma level) finding is that the average fitted AV from MLCS2k2 and c from SALT2 decrease with the projected distance for SNe Ia in spiral galaxies. We also find indications that SNe in elliptical galaxies tend to have narrower light-curves if they explode at larger distances, although this may be due to selection effects in our sample. We do not find strong correlations between the residuals of the distance moduli with respect to the Hubble flow and the galactocentric distances, which indicates a limited correlation between SN magnitudes after standardization and local host metallicity.

  4. The role of cyclothymia in atypical depression: toward a data-based reconceptualization of the borderline-bipolar II connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugi, Giulio; Toni, Cristina; Travierso, Maria Chiara; Akiskal, Hagop S

    2003-01-01

    Recent data, including our own, indicate significant overlap between atypical depression and bipolar II. Furthermore, the affective fluctuations of patients with these disorders are difficult to separate, on clinical grounds, from cyclothymic temperamental and borderline personality disorders. The present analyses are part of an ongoing Pisa-San Diego investigation to examine whether interpersonal sensitivity, mood reactivity and cyclothymic mood swings constitute a common diathesis underlying the atypical depression-bipolar II-borderline personality constructs. We examined in a semi-structured format 107 consecutive patients who met criteria for major depressive episode with DSM-IV atypical features. Patients were further evaluated on the basis of the Atypical Depression Diagnostic Scale (ADDS), the Hopkins Symptoms Check-list (HSCL-90), and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), coupled with its modified form for reverse vegetative features as well as Axis I and SCID-II evaluated Axis II comorbidity, and cyclothymic dispositions ('APA Review', American Psychiatric Press, Washington DC, 1992). Seventy-eight percent of atypical depressives met criteria for bipolar spectrum-principally bipolar II-disorder. Forty-five patients who met the criteria for cyclothymic temperament, compared with the 62 who did not, were indistinguishable on demographic, familial and clinical features, but were significantly higher in lifetime comorbidity for panic disorder with agoraphobia, alcohol abuse, bulimia nervosa, as well as borderline and dependent personality disorders. Cyclothymic atypical depressives also scored higher on the ADDS items of maximum reactivity of mood, interpersonal sensitivity, functional impairment, avoidance of relationships, other rejection avoidance, and on the interpersonal sensitivity, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism of the HSCL-90 factors. The total number of cyclothymic traits was significantly correlated with 'maximum

  5. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  6. The actual role of general practice in the Dutch health-care system: results of the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellevis, F.G.; Westert, G.P.; Bakker, D.H. de

    2005-01-01

    A second Dutch National Survey of General Practice was carried out in 2001 with the aim of providing actual information about the role of general practice in the Dutch health-care system for researchers and policy makers. Data were collected on different levels (patients, general practitioners,

  7. Nephrin expression is reduced in human diabetic nephropathy: evidence for a distinct role for glycated albumin and angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doublier, Sophie; Salvidio, Gennaro; Lupia, Enrico; Ruotsalainen, Vesa; Verzola, Daniela; Deferrari, Giacomo; Camussi, Giovanni

    2003-04-01

    We studied the distribution of nephrin in renal biopsies from 17 patients with diabetes and nephrotic syndrome (7 type 1 and 10 type 2 diabetes), 6 patients with diabetes and microalbuminuria (1 type 1 and 5 type 2 diabetes), and 10 normal subjects. Nephrin expression was semiquantitatively evaluated by measuring immunofluorescence intensity by digital image analysis. We found an extensive reduction of nephrin staining in both type 1 (67 +/- 9%; P < 0.001) and type 2 (65 +/- 10%; P < 0.001) diabetic patients with diabetes and nephrotic syndrome when compared with control subjects. The pattern of staining shifted from punctate/linear distribution to granular. In patients with microalbuminuria, the staining pattern of nephrin also showed granular distribution and reduction intensity of 69% in the patient with type 1 diabetes and of 62 +/- 4% (P < 0.001) in the patients with type 2 diabetes. In vitro studies on human cultured podocytes demonstrated that glycated albumin and angiotensin II reduced nephrin expression. Glycated albumin inhibited nephrin synthesis through the engagement of receptor for advanced glycation end products, whereas angiotensin II acted on cytoskeleton redistribution, inducing the shedding of nephrin. This study indicates that the alteration in nephrin expression is an early event in proteinuric patients with diabetes and suggests that glycated albumin and angiotensin II contribute to nephrin downregulation.

  8. Roles of the TRAPP-II Complex and the Exocyst in Membrane Deposition during Fission Yeast Cytokinesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cleavage-furrow tip adjacent to the actomyosin contractile ring is believed to be the predominant site for plasma-membrane insertion through exocyst-tethered vesicles during cytokinesis. Here we found that most secretory vesicles are delivered by myosin-V on linear actin cables in fission yeast cytokinesis. Surprisingly, by tracking individual exocytic and endocytic events, we found that vesicles with new membrane are deposited to the cleavage furrow relatively evenly during contractile-ring constriction, but the rim of the cleavage furrow is the main site for endocytosis. Fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane requires vesicle tethers. Our data suggest that the transport particle protein II (TRAPP-II complex and Rab11 GTPase Ypt3 help to tether secretory vesicles or tubulovesicular structures along the cleavage furrow while the exocyst tethers vesicles at the rim of the division plane. We conclude that the exocyst and TRAPP-II complex have distinct localizations at the division site, but both are important for membrane expansion and exocytosis during cytokinesis.

  9. Water-the Nation's Fundamental Climate Issue A White Paper on the U.S. Geological Survey Role and Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Harry F.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Kiang, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Of all the potential threats posed by climatic variability and change, those associated with water resources are arguably the most consequential for both society and the environment (Waggoner, 1990). Climatic effects on agriculture, aquatic ecosystems, energy, and industry are strongly influenced by climatic effects on water. Thus, understanding changes in the distribution, quantity and quality of, and demand for water in response to climate variability and change is essential to planning for and adapting to future climatic conditions. A central role of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with respect to climate is to document environmental changes currently underway and to develop improved capabilities to predict future changes. Indeed, a centerpiece of the USGS role is a new Climate Effects Network of monitoring sites. Measuring the climatic effects on water is an essential component of such a network (along with corresponding effects on terrestrial ecosystems). The USGS needs to be unambiguous in communicating with its customers and stakeholders, and with officials at the Department of the Interior, that although modeling future impacts of climate change is important, there is no more critical role for the USGS in climate change science than that of measuring and describing the changes that are currently underway. One of the best statements of that mission comes from a short paper by Ralph Keeling (2008) that describes the inspiration and the challenges faced by David Keeling in operating the all-important Mauna Loa Observatory over a period of more than four decades. Ralph Keeling stated: 'The only way to figure out what is happening to our planet is to measure it, and this means tracking changes decade after decade and poring over the records.' There are three key ideas that are important to the USGS in the above-mentioned sentence. First, to understand what is happening requires measurement. While models are a tool for learning and testing our understanding

  10. Role of Sexuality in Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID): A Cross-Sectional Internet-Based Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Rianne M; van der Wal, Sija J; Vulink, Nienke C; Denys, Damiaan

    2017-08-01

    ascertainment bias because subjects were collected through the internet and in English, which excluded those who spoke other languages or subjects without an internet connection. The present study provides preliminary evidence for a subpopulation or distinct group of individuals with BIID based on the presence of S-BIID. Blom RM, van der Wal SJ, Vulink NC, Denys D. Role of Sexuality in Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID): A Cross-Sectional Internet-Based Survey Study. J Sex Med 2017;14:1028-1035. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tyrosine411 and Arginine410 of Human Serum Albumin Play an Important Role in the Binding of Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate to Site II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokida, Taisuke; Yamasaki, Keishi; Okamoto, Yuko; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Ishiguro, Takako; Maruyama, Toru; Seo, Hakaru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2016-06-01

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB) has many pharmacological activities; therefore extending its clinical use to the treatment of a wider variety of diseases would be desirable. However, our knowledge of the binding of PB to plasma proteins is not extensive. To address this issue in more detail, we characterized the protein binding of PB. Binding experiments showed that PB mainly binds to human serum albumin (HSA) in plasma. PB was also found to bind to a single site on HSA, which was identified as site II by fluorescent probe displacement experiment. Furthermore, an appropriate alkyl chain length and a carboxylic group in the PB structure were required for PB binding to HSA, suggesting that hydrophobic (and van der Waals) and electrostatic interactions are involved as binding modes. The contributions of hydrogen bonding and/or van der Waals interactions were also indicated by thermodynamic analyses. Tyrosine411 and arginine410 were identified as being involved in the binding of PB to site II, based on binding experiments using chemically modified- and mutant-HSA preparations. In conclusion, the available evidence indicates that PB binds to site II of HSA with assistance by multiple forces and that tyrosine411 and arginine410 both play important roles in this phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. HIF-1α and GLUT-1 Expression in Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia, Type I and II Endometrial Carcinoma: A Potential Role in Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Wahed, Moshira Mohammed Abdel; Kassem, Hend Abdou

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α (HIF-1α) is one of the major adaptive responses to hypoxia, regulating the activity of glucose transporter -1 (GLUT-1), responsible for glucose uptake. Aim To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of both HIF-1α and GLUT-1 in type I and II endometrial carcinoma and their correlation with the available clinicopathologic variables in each type. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was conducted on archival blocks diagnosed from pathology department between April 2010 and August 2014 included 9 cases of atypical hyperplasia and 67 cases of endometrial carcinoma. Evaluation of both HIF-1α and GLUT-1 expression using standard immunohistochemical techniques performed on cut sections from selected paraffin embedded blocks. Statistical Analysis Descriptive analysis of the variables and statistical significances were calculated by non-parametric chi-square test using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 12.0 (SPSS). Results HIF-1α was expressed in epithelial (88.9%, 52.2%, 61.2% and 50%) and stromal (33.3%, 74.6%. 71.4% and 83.3%) components of hyperplasia, total cases of EC, type I and II EC, respectively. GLUT-1 was expressed in the epithelial component of 88.9%, 98.5%, 98% and 100% of hyperplasia, total EC cases, type I and II EC, respectively. The necrosis related pattern of epithelial HIF-1α expression was in favour of type II (p=0.018) and grade III (p=0.038). HIF-1α H-score was associated with high apoptosis in both type I and total cases of EC (p=0.04). GLUT-1 H-score was negatively correlated with apoptotic count (p=0.04) and associated with high grade (p=0.003) and advanced stage in total EC (p=0.004). GLUT-1 H-score was correlated with the pattern of HIF-1α staining in all cases of EC (p= 0.04). Conclusion The role of HIF-1α in epithelial cells may differ from that of stromal cells in EC; however they augment the expression of each other supporting the crosstalk between them. The

  13. [Role of angiotensin II receptor type 2 in predicting biochemical recurrence in the treatment of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibichyan, M B; Kogan, M I; Chernogubova, E A; Pavlenko, I A; Matishov, D G

    2016-12-01

    To identify markers for predicting aggressive forms of prostate cancer. The study retrospectively evaluated expression of angiotensin II type 2 receptors (AT2-R) in prostate needle biopsy tissue from patients with and without biochemical recurrence after combined hormone and radiation therapy. The study findings showed that low expression of AT2-R in prostate tissue was associated with a high risk of biochemical recurrence. The data on the nature of AT2-R expression in prostate tissue of prostate cancer patients may be considered as a tool for predicting biochemical recurrence after combined hormone and radiation therapy. The test has a sensitivity of 87.5% and specificity of 85.71%.

  14. Expression and role of the angiotensin II AT2 receptor in human prostate tissue: in search of a new therapeutic option for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Marie-Odile; Battista, Marie-Claude; Nikjouitavabi, Fatemeh; Carmel, Maude; Barres, Véronique; Doueik, Alexandre A; Fazli, Ladan; Gleave, Martin; Sabbagh, Robert; Gallo-Payet, Nicole

    2013-07-01

    Evidence shows that angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockers may be associated with improved outcome in prostate cancer patients. It has been proposed that part of this effect could be due to angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) activation, the only active angiotensin II receptor in this situation. This study aimed to characterize the localization and expression of AT2R in prostate tissues and to assess its role on cell morphology and number in prostatic epithelial cells in primary culture. AT2R and its AT2R-interacting protein (ATIP) expression were assessed on non-tumoral and tumoral human prostate using tissue microarray immunohistochemistry, binding assay, and Western blotting. AT2R effect on cell number was measured in primary cultures of epithelial cells from non-tumoral human prostate. AT2R was localized at the level of the acinar epithelial layer and its expression decreased in cancers with a Gleason score 6 or higher. In contrast, ATIP expression increased with cancer progression. Treatment of primary cell cultures from non-tumoral prostate tissues with C21/M024, a selective AT2R agonist, alone or in co-incubation with losartan, an AT1R antagonist, significantly decreased cell number compared to untreated cells. AT2R and ATIP are present in non-tumoral human prostate tissues and differentially regulated according to Gleason score. The decrease in non-tumoral prostate cell number upon selective AT2R stimulation suggests that AT2R may have a protective role against prostate cancer development. Treatment with a selective AT2R agonist could represent a new approach for prostate cancer prevention or for patients on active surveillance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Emotional job demands and the role of matching job resources: a cross-sectional survey study among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Jan; Le Blanc, Pascale M; Peeters, Maria C W; Noordam, Hanneke

    2008-10-01

    Research on emotional labour in health care work has not yet revealed under what conditions emotional job demands have an impact on employee health and well-being. There is a need for more theory to unveil the black box of emotional labour processes. To test the moderating role of matching (i.e. emotional) and non-matching (i.e. cognitive) job resources in the relation between emotional job demands and employee health/well-being (i.e. emotional exhaustion, employee creativity, and work motivation). A cross-sectional survey with anonymous questionnaires was conducted. A large organization for residential elderly care with eight locations in an urban area in the Netherlands. Questionnaires were distributed to 1259 health care workers, of which 826 people returned the questionnaire (66% response rate). In addition to descriptive statistics, multivariate multiple regression analysis (LISREL 8.54) with cross-validation was conducted. Findings showed that emotional job resources moderated the relation between emotional job demands and health/well-being outcomes. Firstly, emotional job resources were able to moderate the relation between emotional job demands and emotional exhaustion. Secondly, both emotional job resources and, to a lesser extent, cognitive job resources were able to moderate the relation between emotional job demands and positive well-being outcomes (i.e. employee creativity and work motivation). Finally, cross-validation showed that parameter estimates did not vary across subsamples. Job resources could compensate for resources lost through meeting the requirements of emotional job demands, thereby reducing stress-reactions and increasing well-being. Providing health care workers with more, preferably matching, job resources could make emotional job demands less stressful, and even stimulating and challenging. Future longitudinal studies should investigate the interplay of emotional job demands and (matching) job resources more profoundly.

  16. The role of librarians in teaching evidence-based medicine to pediatric residents: a survey of pediatric residency program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykan, Rachel; Jacobson, Robert M

    2017-10-01

    The research sought to identify the general use of medical librarians in pediatric residency training, to define the role of medical librarians in teaching evidence-based medicine (EBM) to pediatric residents, and to describe strategies and curricula for teaching EBM used in pediatric residency training programs. We sent a 13-question web-based survey through the Association of Pediatric Program Directors to 200 pediatric residency program directors between August and December 2015. A total of 91 (46%) pediatric residency program directors responded. Most (76%) programs had formal EBM curricula, and more than 75% of curricula addressed question formation, searching, assessment of validity, generalizability, quantitative importance, statistical significance, and applicability. The venues for teaching EBM that program directors perceived to be most effective included journal clubs (84%), conferences (44%), and morning report (36%). While 80% of programs utilized medical librarians, most of these librarians assisted with scholarly or research projects (74%), addressed clinical questions (62%), and taught on any topic not necessarily EBM (58%). Only 17% of program directors stated that librarians were involved in teaching EBM on a regular basis. The use of a librarian was not associated with having an EBM curriculum but was significantly associated with the size of the program. Smaller programs were more likely to utilize librarians (100%) than were medium (71%) or large programs (75%). While most pediatric residency programs have an EBM curriculum and engage medical librarians in various ways, librarians' expertise in teaching EBM is underutilized. Programs should work to better integrate librarians' expertise, both in the didactic and clinical teaching of EBM.

  17. The Role of Artificial Intelligence in Diagnostic Radiology: A Survey at a Single Radiology Residency Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mesa, Fernando; Alvarez, Edilberto; Arheart, Kris

    2018-02-21

    Advances in artificial intelligence applied to diagnostic radiology are predicted to have a major impact on this medical specialty. With the goal of establishing a baseline upon which to build educational activities on this topic, a survey was conducted among trainees and attending radiologists at a single residency program. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed. Comparisons of categorical data between groups (trainees and attending radiologists) were made using Pearson χ 2 analysis or an exact analysis when required. Comparisons were made using the Wilcoxon rank sum test when the data were not normally distributed. An α level of 0.05 was used. The overall response rate was 66% (69 of 104). Thirty-six percent of participants (n = 25) reported not having read a scientific medical article on the topic of artificial intelligence during the past 12 months. Twenty-nine percent of respondents (n = 12) reported using artificial intelligence tools during their daily work. Trainees were more likely to express doubts on whether they would have pursued diagnostic radiology as a career had they known of the potential impact artificial intelligence is predicted to have on the specialty (P = .0254) and were also more likely to plan to learn about the topic (P = .0401). Radiologists lack exposure to current scientific medical articles on artificial intelligence. Trainees are concerned by the implications artificial intelligence may have on their jobs and desire to learn about the topic. There is a need to develop educational resources to help radiologists assume an active role in guiding and facilitating the development and implementation of artificial intelligence tools in diagnostic radiology. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of ultrasound in controlling the liquid-liquid phase separation and nucleation of vanillin polymorphs I and II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimaladevi, P.; Supriya, S.; Srinivasan, K.

    2018-02-01

    The influence of ultrasound on liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) and polymorphism of vanillin in aqueous solution has been investigated for the first time by varying the ultrasonic parameters such as power, pulse rate and insonation time at ambient condition. Results reveal that the application of ultrasound controls the impact of LLPS and accelerates the nucleation of vanillin within a short period at lower levels of ultrasonic process parameters, and also enhances the quality of the nucleated crystals. Moreover, the application of ultrasound induces the nucleation of rare and metastable polymorph of vanillin Form II in aqueous solution. But, at higher levels of power, pulse rate and insonation time, the rate of LLPS is found increased and the quality of the crystals becomes deteriorated. Morphology of the nucleated polymorphs were identified through optical microscopy and confirmed by optical goniometry. The internal structure and thermal stability of the grown stable Form I and metastable Form II of vanillin were confirmed through powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. Further, results suggest that the ultrasound has profound effect in controlling the LLPS and nucleation of vanillin polymorphs in aqueous solution.

  19. Exposure of UK industrial plumbers to asbestos, Part II: Awareness and responses of plumbers to working with asbestos during a survey in parallel with personal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Delphine; Burdett, Garry

    2007-03-01

    Throughout the European Union, millions tonnes of asbestos were used in the manufacture of products for building and for industrial installations. Today, in the UK, it is estimated that over half a million non-domestic premises alone have asbestos-containing materials in them and it is recognized that those working in building maintenance trades continue to be at significant risk. In part II, the awareness of UK plumbers to when they are working with asbestos was investigated and compared with the monitored levels reported in part I. The plumbers were issued by post with passive samplers, activity logs to monitor a working week and a questionnaire. The activity logs were used to assess whether maintenance workers were knowingly or unknowingly exposed to airborne asbestos fibres during a course of a working week. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on their: age, employment status, current and past perception of the frequency which they work with asbestos and knowledge of the precautions that should be taken to limit exposure and risk. Approximately 20% of workers reported on the sample log that they had worked with asbestos. There was a high correlation (93%) between the sampling log replies that they were knowingly working with asbestos and measured asbestos on the passive sampler. However, some 60% of the samples had >5 microm long asbestos structures found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis suggesting that the plumbers were aware of about only one-third of their contacts with asbestos materials throughout the week. This increased to just over one half of the plumbers being aware of their contact based on the results for phase contrast microscopy (PCM) countable asbestos fibres. The results from the questionnaire found that over half of the plumbers replying thought that they disturb asbestos only once a year and 90% of them thought they would work with asbestos for<10 h year-1. Their expectations and awareness of work with

  20. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. Volume II. New Mexico-Carlsbad NI 31-11 Quadrangle. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Nation Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, a rotary-wing high sensitivity radiometric and magnetic survey was flown covering the Carlsbad Quadrangle of the State of New Mexico. The area surveyed consisted of approximately 1732 line miles. The survey was flown with a Sikorsky S58T helicopter equipped with a high sensitivity gamma ray spectrometer which was calibrated at the DOE calibration facilities at Walker Field in Grand Junction, Colorado, and the Dynamic Test Range at Lake Mead, Arizona. Instrumentation and data reduction methods are presented in Volume I of this report. The reduced data is presented in the form of stacked profiles, standard deviation anomaly plots, histogram plots and microfiche listings. The results of the geologic interpretation of the radiometric data together with the profiles, anomaly maps and histograms are presented in this Volume II final report

  1. Hα3: an Hα imaging survey of HI selected galaxies from ALFALFA. II. Star formation properties of galaxies in the Virgo cluster and surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, G.; Fumagalli, M.; Fossati, M.; Galardo, V.; Grossetti, F.; Boselli, A.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.

    2013-05-01

    Context. We present the analysis of Hα3, an Hα narrow-band imaging follow-up survey of 409 galaxies selected from the HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA) in the Local Supercluster, including the Virgo cluster, in the region 11h advantage of Hα3, which provides the complete census of the recent massive star formation rate (SFR) in HI-rich galaxies in the local Universe and of ancillary optical data from SDSS we explore the relations between the stellar mass, the HI mass, and the current, massive SFR of nearby galaxies in the Virgo cluster. We compare these with those of isolated galaxies in the Local Supercluster, and we investigate the role of the environment in shaping the star formation properties of galaxies at the present cosmological epoch. Methods: By using the Hα hydrogen recombination line as a tracer of recent star formation, we investigated the relationships between atomic neutral gas and newly formed stars in different environments (cluster and field), for many morphological types (spirals and dwarfs), and over a wide range of stellar masses (107.5 to 1011.5 M⊙). To quantify the degree of environmental perturbation, we adopted an updated calibration of the HI deficiency parameter which we used to divide the sample into three classes: unperturbed galaxies (DefHI ≤ 0.3), perturbed galaxies (0.3 model. Once considered as a whole, the Virgo cluster is effective in removing neutral hydrogen from galaxies, and this perturbation is strong enough to appreciably reduce the SFR of its entire galaxy population. Conclusions: An estimate of the present infall rate of 300-400 galaxies per Gyr in the Virgo cluster is obtained from the number of existing HI-rich late-type systems, assuming 200-300 Myr as the time scale for HI ablation. If the infall process has been acting at a constant rate, this would imply that the Virgo cluster has formed approximately 2 Gyr ago, consistently with the idea that Virgo is in a young state of dynamical evolution. Based

  2. Part 1: The influence of personal and situational predictors on nurses' aspirations to management roles: preliminary findings of a national survey of Canadian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschinger, Heather K Spence; Wong, Carol A; MacDonald-Rencz, Sandra; Burkoski, Vanessa; Cummings, Greta; D'Amour, Danielle; Grinspun, Doris; Gurnham, Mary-Ellen; Huckstep, Sherri; Leiter, Michael; Perkin, Karen; MacPhee, Maura; Matthews, Sue; O'Brien-Pallas, Linda; Ritchie, Judith; Ruffolo, Maurio; Vincent, Leslie; Wilk, Piotr; Almost, Joan; Purdy, Nancy; Daniels, Frieda; Grau, Ashley

    2013-03-01

    To examine the influence of personal and situational factors on direct-care nurses' interests in pursuing nursing management roles. Nursing managers are ageing and nurses do not appear to be interested in nursing management roles, raising concerns about a nursing leadership shortage in the next decade. Little research has focused on factors influencing nurses' career aspirations to nursing management roles. A national survey of nurses from nine Canadian provinces was conducted (n = 1241). Multiple regression was used to test a model of personal and situational predictors of nurses' career aspirations to management roles. Twenty-four per cent of nurses expressed interest in pursuing nursing management roles. Personal and situational factors explained 60.2% of nurses' aspirations to management roles. Age, educational preparation, feasibility of further education, leadership self-efficacy, career motivation, and opportunity to motivate others were the strongest predictors of aspirations for management roles. Personal factors were more strongly associated with career aspirations than situational factors. There is a steady decline in interest in management roles with increasing age. Nursing leadership training to develop leadership self-efficacy (particularly for younger nurses) and organizational support for pursuing advanced education may encourage nurses to pursue nursing management roles. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Astronomical Surveys and Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaelian Areg M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent all-sky and large-area astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum, from γ-rays to radio waves, are reviewed, including such as Fermi-GLAST and INTEGRAL in γ-ray, ROSAT, XMM and Chandra in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS I and POSS II-based catalogues (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC in the optical range, 2MASS in NIR, WISE and AKARI IRC in MIR, IRAS and AKARI FIS in FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio range, and many others, as well as the most important surveys giving optical images (DSS I and II, SDSS, etc., proper motions (Tycho, USNO, Gaia, variability (GCVS, NSVS, ASAS, Catalina, Pan-STARRS, and spectroscopic data (FBS, SBS, Case, HQS, HES, SDSS, CALIFA, GAMA. An overall understanding of the coverage along the whole wavelength range and comparisons between various surveys are given: galaxy redshift surveys, QSO/AGN, radio, Galactic structure, and Dark Energy surveys. Astronomy has entered the Big Data era, with Astrophysical Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics playing an important role in using and analyzing big data for new discoveries.

  4. Role of rational surfaces on fluctuations and transport in the plasma edge of the TJ-II stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, M.A.; Hidalgo, C.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown that transport barriers in toroidal magnetically confined plasmas tend to be linked to regions of unique magnetic topology such as the location of a minimum in the safety factor, rational surfaces or the boundary between closed and open flux surfaces. In the absence of E x B sheared flows, fluctuations are expected to show maximum amplitude near rational surfaces, and plasma confinement might tend to deteriorate. On the other hand, if the generation of E x B sheared flows were linked to low order rational surfaces, these would be beneficial to confinement. Experimental evidence of E x B sheared flows linked to rational surfaces has been obtained in the plasma edge region of the TJ-II stellarator. (author)

  5. The role of Slr0151, a tetratricopeptide repeat protein from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, during Photosystem II assembly and repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eRast

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The assembly and repair of photosystem II (PSII is facilitated by a variety of assembly factors. Among those, the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR protein Slr0151 from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis has previously been assigned a repair function under high light conditions (Yang et al., 2014, J. Integr. Plant Biol. 56, 1136-50. Here, we show that inactivation of Slr0151 affects thylakoid membrane ultrastructure even under normal light conditions. Moreover, the level and localization of Slr0151 are affected in a variety of PSII-related mutants. In particular, the data suggest a close functional relationship between Slr0151 and Sll0933, which interacts with Ycf48 during PSII assembly and is homologous to PAM68 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed a punctate distribution of Slr0151 within several different membrane types in Synechocystis cells.

  6. The Role of Formal and Informal Forces in Shaping Consumption and Implications for Sustainable Society: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Mont

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Looking at consumption from a societal perspective, we can see that purchasing and behavior decisions are influenced by many factors, not the least which are what the people around us and in the media are doing. Other factors include economic influences, the marketing of products and technological innovations, and regulations governing consumption. This article, Part II, argues that in order to understand consumption, we need to move beyond the dominant (economic understanding of consumers and consumer behavior, and think about the origins of our preferences, needs, and desires. A thorough understanding of consumption is informed by the contributions of sociologists, psychologists, anthropologists, and behavioral scientists, who study the socio-cultural, social, and psychological contexts in which consumer behavior is embedded. These disciplines offer rich and complex explanations of human behavior, which in turn illuminate the discussion on how consumer behavior can be made more sustainable.

  7. Role of 3d electrons in formation of ionic-covalent bonds in II-VI based ternary compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawniczak-Jablonska, K.; Iwanowski, R.J.; Perera, R.C.C.

    1997-01-01

    In the II-VI compounds doped with transition metals (diluted magnetic semiconductors) a substitution of cation by the introduced magnetic ion leads to hybridization of its 3d states with the sp states of the host semiconductor. The degree of hybridization of the 3d states and its interaction with the host material band states has been a subject of numerous discussions. Inner shell absorption spectroscopy provides very useful means of electronic structure analysis in a wide variety of systems. Due to its selectivity for atomic species and the selection rules for electron transitions, the soft X-ray absorption technique offers quite unique opportunity to measure directly the site-selective local density of the unoccupied d states in the compounds studied. Results are reported for ZnS compounds with Mn, Fe, Co or Ni substitutions for Zn

  8. The Role of Character in the Hiring Process: A Pilot Study Survey of College Seniors' Potential Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael; Proemmel, Elizabeth; McDivitt, Sarah; Evens, Jennifer; Gibbs, Lew

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed 31 prospective employers (65% response rate) regarding their views on character as part of the employment selection process. The results showed character qualities superordinate, relative to skills that prospective employees bring to potential jobs. We discuss survey results in light of business educators' responsibility for helping…

  9. A Survey of the Role of Thermodynamics and Transport Properties in Chemical Engineering University Education in Europe and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Peter; Aim, Karel; Dohrn, Ralf; Elliott, J. Richard; Jackson, George; Jaubert, Jean-Noel; Macedo, Eugenia A.; Pokki, Juha-Pekka; Reczey, Kati; Victorov, Alexey; Zilnik, Ljudmila Fele; Economou, Ioannis G.

    2010-01-01

    A survey on the teaching of thermodynamics and transport phenomena in chemical engineering curricula in European and US Universities was performed and results are presented here. Overall, 136 universities and colleges responded to the survey, out of which 81 from Europe and 55 from the USA. In most of the institutions responding at least two…

  10. THE BOSS EMISSION-LINE LENS SURVEY. II. INVESTIGATING MASS-DENSITY PROFILE EVOLUTION IN THE SLACS+BELLS STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENS SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Shu Yiping; Arneson, Ryan A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wake, David A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Connolly, Natalia [Department of Physics, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Maraston, Claudia [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: bolton@astro.utah.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We present an analysis of the evolution of the central mass-density profile of massive elliptical galaxies from the SLACS and BELLS strong gravitational lens samples over the redshift interval z Almost-Equal-To 0.1-0.6, based on the combination of strong-lensing aperture mass and stellar velocity-dispersion constraints. We find a significant trend toward steeper mass profiles (parameterized by the power-law density model with {rho}{proportional_to}r {sup -{gamma}}) at later cosmic times, with magnitude d < {gamma} > /dz = -0.60 {+-} 0.15. We show that the combined lens-galaxy sample is consistent with a non-evolving distribution of stellar velocity dispersions. Considering possible additional dependence of <{gamma} > on lens-galaxy stellar mass, effective radius, and Sersic index, we find marginal evidence for shallower mass profiles at higher masses and larger sizes, but with a significance that is subdominant to the redshift dependence. Using the results of published Monte Carlo simulations of spectroscopic lens surveys, we verify that our mass-profile evolution result cannot be explained by lensing selection biases as a function of redshift. Interpreted as a true evolutionary signal, our result suggests that major dry mergers involving off-axis trajectories play a significant role in the evolution of the average mass-density structure of massive early-type galaxies over the past 6 Gyr. We also consider an alternative non-evolutionary hypothesis based on variations in the strong-lensing measurement aperture with redshift, which would imply the detection of an 'inflection zone' marking the transition between the baryon-dominated and dark-matter halo-dominated regions of the lens galaxies. Further observations of the combined SLACS+BELLS sample can constrain this picture more precisely, and enable a more detailed investigation of the multivariate dependences of galaxy mass structure across cosmic time.

  11. Role of NSO compounds during primary cracking of a Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, F.; Lorant, F.; Lewan, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to follow the generation of NSO compounds during the artificial maturation of an immature Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite in order to determine the different sources of the petroleum potential during primary cracking. Experiments were carried out in closed system pyrolysis in the temperature range from 225 to 350 ??C. Two types of NSOs were recovered: one is soluble in n-pentane and the second in dichloromethane. A kinetic scheme was optimised including both kerogen and NSO cracking. It was validated by complementary experiments carried out on isolated asphaltenes generated from the Type II kerogen and on the total n-pentane and DCM extracts generated from the Type III lignite. Results show that kerogen and lignite first decompose into DCM NSOs with minor generation of hydrocarbons. Then, the main source of petroleum potential originates from secondary cracking of both DCM and n-pentane NSOs through successive decomposition reactions. These results confirm the model proposed by Tissot [Tissot, B., 1969. Premie??res donne??es sur les me??canismes et la cine??tique de la formation du pe??trole dans les bassins se??dimentaires. Simulation d'un sche??ma re??actionnel sur ordinateur. Oil and Gas Science and Technology 24, 470-501] in which the main source of hydrocarbons is not the insoluble organic matter, but the NSO fraction. As secondary cracking of the NSOs largely overlaps that of the kerogen, it was demonstrated that bulk kinetics in open system is a result of both kerogen and NSO cracking. Thus, another kinetic scheme for primary cracking in open system was built as a combination of kerogen and NSO cracking. This new kinetic scheme accounts for both the rate and amounts of hydrocarbons generated in a closed pyrolysis system. Thus, the concept of successive steps for hydrocarbon generation is valid for the two types of pyrolysis system and, for the first time, a common kinetic scheme is available for extrapolating results to natural

  12. Acute care nurse practitioners in trauma care: results of a role survey and implications for the future of health care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noffsinger, Dana L

    2014-01-01

    The role of acute care nurse practitioners (ACNPs) in trauma care has evolved over time. A survey was performed with the aim of describing the role across the United States. There were 68 respondents who depicted the typical trauma ACNP as being a 42-year-old woman who works full-time at a level I American College of Surgeons verified trauma center. Trauma ACNPs typically practice with 80% of their time for clinical care and are based on a trauma and acute care surgery service. They are acute care certified and hold several advanced certifications to supplement their nursing license.

  13. The actual role of general practice in the Dutch health-care system: results of the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Schellevis, F.G.; Westert, G.P.; Bakker, D.H. de

    2005-01-01

    A second Dutch National Survey of General Practice was carried out in 2001 with the aim of providing actual information about the role of general practice in the Dutch health-care system for researchers and policy makers. Data were collected on different levels (patients, general practitioners, practices) and included morbidity (self-report and presented to general practitioners), diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, doctor-patient communication, and background characteristics. Compared ...

  14. HCV Proteins and Immunoglobulin Variable Gene (IgV Subfamilies in HCV-Induced Type II Mixed Cryoglobulinemia: A Concurrent Pathogenetic Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sautto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII is well established, but the role played by distinct HCV proteins and by specific components of the anti-HCV humoral immune response remains to be clearly defined. It is widely accepted that HCV drives the expansion of few B-cell clones expressing a restricted pool of selected immunoglobulin variable (IgV gene subfamilies frequently endowed with rheumatoid factor (RF activity. Moreover, the same IgV subfamilies are frequently observed in HCV-transformed malignant B-cell clones occasionally complicating MCII. In this paper, we analyze both the humoral and viral counterparts at the basis of cryoglobulins production in HCV-induced MCII, with particular attention reserved to the single IgV subfamilies most frequently involved.

  15. HCV proteins and immunoglobulin variable gene (IgV) subfamilies in HCV-induced type II mixed cryoglobulinemia: a concurrent pathogenetic role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautto, Giuseppe; Mancini, Nicasio; Solforosi, Laura; Diotti, Roberta A; Clementi, Massimo; Burioni, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII) is well established, but the role played by distinct HCV proteins and by specific components of the anti-HCV humoral immune response remains to be clearly defined. It is widely accepted that HCV drives the expansion of few B-cell clones expressing a restricted pool of selected immunoglobulin variable (IgV) gene subfamilies frequently endowed with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity. Moreover, the same IgV subfamilies are frequently observed in HCV-transformed malignant B-cell clones occasionally complicating MCII. In this paper, we analyze both the humoral and viral counterparts at the basis of cryoglobulins production in HCV-induced MCII, with particular attention reserved to the single IgV subfamilies most frequently involved.

  16. The role of CD4+ T cells in cell-mediated immunity to LCMV: studies in MHC class I and class II deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Marker, O; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    1994-01-01

    Parameters of the virus-specific T-cell response were analysed in order to dissect the contribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to cell-mediated immunity to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. In MHC class II deficient mice, initial T-cell responsiveness was not impaired, but virus clearance...... was delayed, and virus-specific Td activity declined more rapidly. Furthermore, class I restricted Tc memory appeared to be impaired in these mice. To directly evaluate the role of CD4+ cells in virus clearance and T-cell mediated inflammation, MHC class I deficient mice were also studied. No virus...... exudate. This low-grade response was associated with some degree of virus control as organ titres were lower in these animals than in matched T-cell deficient nu/nu mice or class I deficient mice treated with anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody. This confirms that CD4+ cells are not needed to induce a virus...

  17. First Results from the Dense Extragalactic GBT+ARGUS Survey (DEGAS): A Direct, Quantitative Test of the Role of Gas Density in Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepley, Amanda; Bigiel, Frank; Bolatto, Alberto; Church, Sarah; Cleary, Kieran; Frayer, David; Gallagher, Molly; Gundersen, Joshua; Harris, Andrew; Hughes, Annie; Jimenez-Donaire, Maria Jesus; Kessler, Sarah; Lee, Cheoljong; Leroy, Adam; Li, Jialu; Donovan Meyer, Jennifer; Rosolowsky, Erik; Sandstrom, Karin; Schinnener, Eva; Schruba, Andreas; Sieth, Matt; Usero, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Gas density plays a central role in all modern theories of star formation. A key test of these theories involves quantifying the resolved gas density distribution and its relationship to star formation within a wide range of galactic environments. Until recently, this experiment has been difficult to perform owing to the faint nature of key molecular gas tracers like HCN and HCO+, but the superior sensitivity of modern millimeter instruments like ALMA and the IRAM 30m make these types of experiments feasible. In particular, the sensitivity and resolution provided by large aperture of the GBT combined with fast mapping speeds made possible by its new 16-pixel, 3mm focal plane array (Argus) make the GBT an almost-ideal instrument for this type of study. The Dense Extragalactic GBT+Argus Survey (DEGAS) will leverage these capabilities to perform the largest, resolved survey of molecular gas tracers in nearby galaxies, ultimately mapping a suite of four molecular gas tracers in the inner 2’ by 2’ of 36 nearby galaxies. When complete in 2020, DEGAS will be the largest resolved survey of dense molecular gas tracers in nearby galaxies. This talk will present early results from the first observations for this Green Bank Telescope large survey and highlight some exciting future possibilities for this survey.

  18. Role of the cerebellum in reaching movements in humans. II. A neural model of the intermediate cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweighofer, N; Spoelstra, J; Arbib, M A; Kawato, M

    1998-01-01

    The cerebellum is essential for the control of multijoint movements; when the cerebellum is lesioned, the performance error is more than the summed errors produced by single joints. In the companion paper (Schweighofer et al., 1998), a functional anatomical model for visually guided arm movement was proposed. The model comprised a basic feedforward/feedback controller with realistic transmission delays and was connected to a two-link, six-muscle, planar arm. In the present study, we examined the role of the cerebellum in reaching movements by embedding a novel, detailed cerebellar neural network in this functional control model. We could derive realistic cerebellar inputs and the role of the cerebellum in learning to control the arm was assessed. This cerebellar network learned the part of the inverse dynamics of the arm not provided by the basic feedforward/feedback controller. Despite realistically low inferior olive firing rates and noisy mossy fibre inputs, the model could reduce the error between intended and planned movements. The responses of the different cell groups were comparable to those of biological cell groups. In particular, the modelled Purkinje cells exhibited directional tuning after learning and the parallel fibres, due to their length, provide Purkinje cells with the input required for this coordination task. The inferior olive responses contained two different components; the earlier response, locked to movement onset, was always present and the later response disappeared after learning. These results support the theory that the cerebellum is involved in motor learning.

  19. Extending the mirror neuron system model, II: what did I just do? A new role for mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaiuto, James; Arbib, Michael A

    2010-04-01

    A mirror system is active both when an animal executes a class of actions (self-actions) and when it sees another execute an action of that class. Much attention has been given to the possible roles of mirror systems in responding to the actions of others but there has been little attention paid to their role in self-actions. In the companion article (Bonaiuto et al. Biol Cybern 96:9-38, 2007) we presented MNS2, an extension of the Mirror Neuron System model of the monkey mirror system trained to recognize the external appearance of its own actions as a basis for recognizing the actions of other animals when they perform similar actions. Here we further extend the study of the mirror system by introducing the novel hypotheses that a mirror system may additionally help in monitoring the success of a self-action and may also be activated by recognition of one's own apparent actions as well as efference copy from one's intended actions. The framework for this computational demonstration is a model of action sequencing, called augmented competitive queuing, in which action choice is based on the desirability of executable actions. We show how this "what did I just do?" function of mirror neurons can contribute to the learning of both executability and desirability which in certain cases supports rapid reorganization of motor programs in the face of disruptions.

  20. The role of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and calcineurin in TNF-α-induced myocardial hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gui-Jun; Wang, Hong-Xin; Yao, Yu-Sheng; Guo, Lian-Yi; Liu, Pei

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin (CaN) are involved in myocardial hypertrophy induced by tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The cardiomyocytes of neonatal Wistar rats (1-2 days old) were cultured and stimulated by TNF-α (100 µg/L), and Ca 2+ signal transduction was blocked by several antagonists, including BAPTA (4 µM), KN-93 (0.2 µM) and cyclosporin A (CsA, 0.2 µM). Protein content, protein synthesis, cardiomyocyte volumes, [Ca 2+ ] i transients, CaMKIIδ B and CaN were evaluated by the Lowry method, [ 3 H]-leucine incorporation, a computerized image analysis system, a Till imaging system, and Western blot analysis, respectively. TNF-α induced a significant increase in protein content in a dose-dependent manner from 10 µg/L (53.56 µg protein/well) to 100 µg/L (72.18 µg protein/well), and in a time-dependent manner from 12 h (37.42 µg protein/well) to 72 h (42.81 µg protein/well). TNF-α (100 µg/L) significantly increased the amplitude of spontaneous [Ca 2+ ] i transients, the total protein content, cell size, and [ 3 H]-leucine incorporation in cultured cardiomyocytes, which was abolished by 4 µM BAPTA, an intracellular Ca 2+ chelator. The increases in protein content, cell size and [ 3 H]-leucine incorporation were abolished by 0.2 µM KN-93 or 0.2 µM CsA. TNF-α increased the expression of CaMKIIδ B by 35.21% and that of CaN by 22.22% compared to control. These effects were abolished by 4 µM BAPTA, which itself had no effect. These results suggest that TNF-α induces increases in [Ca 2+ ] i , CaMKIIδ B and CaN and promotes cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Ca 2+ /CaMKII- and CaN-dependent signaling pathways are involved in myocardial hypertrophy induced by TNF-α

  1. A search for pre-main sequence stars in the high-latitude molecular clouds. II - A survey of the Einstein database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillault, Jean-Pierre; Magnani, Loris

    1990-01-01

    The preliminary results are reported of a survey of every EINSTEIN image which overlaps any high-latitude molecular cloud in a search for X-ray emitting pre-main sequence stars. This survey, together with complementary KPNO and IRAS data, will allow the determination of how prevalent low mass star formation is in these clouds in general and, particularly, in the translucent molecular clouds.

  2. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey; Brushy Basin detail survey: Price/Salina national topographic map sheets, Utah. Volume III. Area II: graphic data, Section III-IX Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This volume contains all of the graphic data for Area II, which include map lines 1660 to 3400 and 5360 to 5780 and tie lines 6100, 6120, and 6160. Due to the large map scale of the data presented (1:62,500), this area was further subdivided into eleven 7-1/2 min quadrant sheets. It should be noted that TL6100 resides in both Areas II and III. The graphic data for TL6100 are presented in Volume IV - Area III - Graphic Data of this report

  3. Diuron treatment reveals the different roles of two cyclic electron transfer pathways in photosystem II in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yujian; Chen, Si; Fan, Xiaoji; Song, Hao; Li, Xingxing; Xu, Jiahui; Qian, Haifeng

    2017-04-01

    Three ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana, ecotype Columbia (Wild type, Wt) and two mutants (pgr5 and ndf4), were used to evaluate the effects of diuron on photosynthetic activity of A. thaliana. It was found that diuron adversely affected the fresh weight and chlorophyll content of the plants. Chlorophyll fluorescence studies determined that the pgr5 mutant was more sensitive to diuron than Wt and the ndf4 mutant. Gene expression analysis revealed different roles for the two cyclic electron transfer (CET) pathways, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH) and proton gradient regulation (PGR5) pathways, in the plant after diuron treatment. For example, a gene in the NDH pathway, lhca5, was activated in the low dose (LD) group in the pgr5 mutant, but was down-regulated in the moderate dose (MD) group, along with two other NDH-related genes (ppl2 and ndhH). In the PGR5 pathway, the pgr5 gene was functional under conditions of increased stress (MD group), and was up-regulated to a greater extent in the ndf4 mutant than that in the Wt and pgr5 mutant. Our results suggest that the PGR5 pathway in plants is more important than the NDH pathway during resistance to environmental stress. Deficiencies in the PGR5 pathway could not be counteracted by the NDH pathway, but deficiencies in the NDH pathway could be overcome by stimulating PGR5. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention of demoralization in prolonged bicultural conflict and interaction: the role of cultural receptors II - genesis of hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, John M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this article is to show that bicultural hybridization for the prevention of demoralization is anchored on the discovery of certain thematic areas (cultural receptors) in which social roles or cultural mandates are missing, unclear, ambiguous or congruent. The specific setting is the history of Goa, a former Portuguese territory on the western coast of India. Both published and unpublished sources of information were studied. Education, occupation and income, the three dimensions of social class, were less dominant than other aspects of the Hindu caste system, such as birth into a group viewed as a caste, observance of marriage circles, regulations of kinship and inheritance, and identification with a location. These other aspects were preserved as much as possible. The result was the conversion of the caste system into a system more akin to social class. Other examples of cultural receptors were found. A key step in the adaptation to acculturative stress is the discovery of cultural receptors in both cultures and the development of meaningful interconnections among those receptors. Psychotherapy attempts the restoration of morale. To be effective, therapists should consider the hierarchical organization of symbols and sentiments in the patient's culture.

  5. Basolateral K+ channels in airway epithelia. II. Role in Cl- secretion and evidence for two types of K+ channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, J.D.; Welsh, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    We previously described a Ca2(+)-activated K+ channel (KCLIC) in airway epithelial cells. To determine whether the KCLIC channel is a basolateral membrane channel and to understand its role in Cl- secretion, we studied airway epithelial cells grown on permeable supports. When cells were stimulated with A23187, charybdotoxin (ChTX) inhibited Cl- secretion and 86Rb efflux at the same concentrations, indicating that the KCLIC channel is required for Ca2(+)-stimulated Cl- secretion. We also investigated the function of K+ channels in adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate-stimulated secretion. Addition of isoproterenol caused a biphasic increase in Cl- secretion; the time course of the transient component correlated with the time course of the isoproterenol-induced increase in Ca2+ concentration [( Ca2+]c). ChTX inhibited the transient component, but not the prolonged component of secretion; Ba2+ inhibited the sustained component. These results suggest that when cells are grown on permeable supports isoproterenol-induced secretion depends on activation of two types of K+ channel: the KCLIC channel that is stimulated initially and a ChTX-insensitive K+ channel that is stimulated during sustained secretion. This conclusion was supported by measurement of 86Rb efflux from cell monolayers

  6. [Role of specialized care services of the national health service in the framework for the prevention of occupational risks (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Fernández, M

    Since 1986, the Government of Navarra has taken over the functions of security and health as part of the health 'area', with a broad conception of health, avoiding separating the citizen from the worker. In 1993, the Instituto Navarro de Salud Laboral created, under the direction of the departments of Health and Labor, combined diverse functions and resources, integrating preexisting structures into a technical department to be responsible for the overall health care of workers. The structure is based on two coordinated pillars, security and hygiene at work and occupational health. As more specifically to do with health, we describe the systems of epidemiological information and vigilance and programs for occupational disabilities, health activities in industry and investigation of diseases. The Unidades de Salud Laboral link the workplace with the public health service. The occupational health plan o