M.J.J. Wubben (Maarten)
textabstractSocial dilemmas, or situations in which individual and collective interests collide, elicit strong emotions. But are these emotions socially functional in that they help establish cooperation? Generally, they are, as four empirical chapters showed. In dyadic relations, refusal to return
Jones, Candace; Barrera, Ingrid; Brothers, Shaun; Ring, Robert; Wahlestedt, Claes
Social anxiety is a form of anxiety characterized by continuous fear of one or more social or performance situations. Although multiple treatment modalities (cognitive behavioral therapy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors/selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines) exist for social anxiety, they are effective for only 60% to 70% of patients. Thus, researchers have looked for other candidates for social anxiety treatment. Our review focuses on the peptide oxytocin as a...
Lucia Maria COŞTIUG
Full Text Available The article presents the opinion according to which today we can speak rather of a relative character of ownership, while the social function of it is ever more present and the rights of the owner are subject to multiple legal requirements and limited in order to meet general interests of the community.
McDonald, Jennifer; Badger, Terry A
1. The social function needs of persons with schizophrenia are similar to those of all individuals and include typical social roles, integration and contacts, and intimacy and sexual function. 2. Social function is essential to QOL, and aspects of social function are determinants of mental health and mental health outcomes. 3. Although intimacy and sexual function is found to be an important aspect of social function and QOL, health care workers neglect to discuss these issues with patients with schizophrenia. 4. Education, support, counseling, adequate transportation, safe environments, and treatment plans that include appropriate activities are important treatment interventions.
Lewis, Charlie; Koyasu, Masuo; Oh, Seungmi; Ogawa, Ayako; Short, Benjamin; Huang, Zhao
Much of the evidence from the West has shown links between children's developing self-control (executive function), their social experiences, and their social understanding (Carpendale & Lewis, 2006, chapters 5 and 6), across a range of cultures including China. This chapter describes four studies conducted in three Oriental cultures, suggesting that the relationships among social interaction, executive function, and social understanding are different in these cultures, implying that social and executive skills are underpinned by key cultural processes.
Lee, David L.
Managing social dynamics is a critical aspect of creating a positive learning environment in classrooms. In this paper three key interrelated ideas, reinforcement, function, and motivating operations, are discussed with relation to managing social behavior.
Kupferberg, Aleksandra; Bicks, Lucy; Hasler, Gregor
Depression is associated with social risk factors, social impairments and poor social functioning. This paper gives an overview of these social aspects using the NIMH Research and Domain Criteria 'Systems for Social Processes' as a framework. In particular, it describes the bio-psycho-social interplay regarding impaired affiliation and attachment (social anhedonia, hyper-sensitivity to social rejection, competition avoidance, increased altruistic punishment), impaired social communication (impaired emotion recognition, diminished cooperativeness), impaired social perception (reduced empathy, theory-of-mind deficits) and their impact on social networks and the use of social media. It describes these dysfunctional social processes at the behavioural, neuroanatomical, neurochemical and genetic levels, and with respect to animal models of social stress. We discuss the diagnostic specificity of these social deficit constructs for depression and in relation to depression severity. Since social factors are importantly involved in the pathogenesis and the consequences of depression, such research will likely contribute to better diagnostic assessments and concepts, treatments and preventative strategies both at the diagnostic and transdiagnostic level. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Gardner, Andrew; Cotton, Sue M; Allott, Kelly; Filia, Kate M; Hester, Robert; Killackey, Eóin
People with psychosis are at risk of social exclusion. Research is needed in this area due to the lack of direct measurement of social inclusion, which becomes salient in adolescence and is relevant to first-episode psychosis (FEP; the onset of which typically occurs during or shortly after adolescence). Social inclusion may be impacted by impaired social cognition and social functioning, which are related features observed in psychosis. The aim of this study was to explore interrelationship(s) between social cognition, social functioning and social inclusion in FEP while controlling for symptomatology (positive, negative and depressive symptoms) and demographic characteristics. A series of cross-sectional hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to examine whether: social cognition (theory of mind, emotion recognition) predicted social functioning; social functioning predicted social inclusion, and whether social functioning mediated the relationship between social cognition and social inclusion in people aged 15 to 25 (M = 20.49, SD = 2.41) with FEP (N = 146). Age, sex, premorbid IQ, positive and negative psychotic symptoms and depression were control variables. Poor facial emotion recognition (β = -.22, P social functioning. Role-specific social functioning (ie, current employment) predicted greater social inclusion (β = .17, P social inclusion (β = -.43, P Social functioning did not mediate the relationship between social cognition and inclusion. Psychotic symptoms were unrelated to social inclusion. Employment and depression may influence social inclusion somewhat independently of psychotic symptomatology in FEP. Inferences should be viewed with caution given this study did not involve longitudinal data. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Neuhaus, Emily; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Bernier, Raphael
Although autism is defined by deficits in three areas of functioning (social, communicative, and behavioral), impairments in social interest and restricted behavioral repertoires are central to the disorder. As a result, a detailed understanding of the neurobiological systems subserving social behavior may have implications for prevention, early identification, and intervention for affected families. In this paper, we review a number of potential neurobiological mechanisms--across several levels of analysis--that subserve normative social functioning. These include neural networks, neurotransmitters, and hormone systems. After describing the typical functioning of each system, we review available empirical findings specific to autism. Among the most promising potential mechanisms of social behavioral deficits in autism are those involving neural networks including the amygdala, the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, and the oxytocin system. Particularly compelling are explanatory models that integrate mechanisms across biological systems, such as those linking dopamine and oxytocin with brain regions critical to reward processing. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bodinger, Liron; Hermesh, Haggai; Aizenberg, Dov; Valevski, Avi; Marom, Sofi; Shiloh, Roni; Gothelf, Doron; Zemishlany, Zvi; Weizman, Abraham
Social phobia is a type of performance and interpersonal anxiety disorder and as such may be associated with sexual dysfunction and avoidance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sexual function and behavior in patients with social phobia compared with mentally healthy subjects. Eighty subjects participated in the study: 40 consecutive, drug-free outpatients with social phobia (DSM-IV) attending an anxiety disorders clinic between November 1997 and April 1999 and 40 mentally normal controls. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were used to quantitatively and qualitatively assess sexual function and behavior. Men with social phobia reported mainly moderate impairment in arousal, orgasm, sexual enjoyment, and subjective satisfaction domains. Women with social phobia reported severe impairment in desire, arousal, sexual activity, and subjective satisfaction. In addition, compared with controls, men with social phobia reported significantly more frequent paid sex (p social phobia reported a significant paucity of sexual partners (p social phobia exhibit a wide range of sexual dysfunctions. Men have mainly performance problems, and women have a more pervasive disorder. Patients of both genders show difficulties in sexual interaction. It is important that clinicians be aware of this aspect of social phobia and initiate open discussions of sexual problems with patients.
Frijda, N.H.; Mesquita, B.; Markus, H.R.; Kitayama, S.
(from the chapter) discuss the ways in which the sociocultural environment can be expected to influence the emotional processes, the roles and functions of these processes in social interaction, and the influences of the sociocultural environment upon those roles and functions / discuss the modes of
Gulsum Ozge Doganavsargil Baysal
Full Text Available Purpose: Internalized stigmatization (IS generally has a negative effect on diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and prognosis of diseases. The purpose of this study is to compare patients with bipolar disorder and unipolar depression both are in remission in terms of IS and social functioning (SF, cognitive function and secondly to consider relationship between IS, cognitive functions and SF. Methods: This cross-sectional study is carried out with bipolar (BD and unipolar depression (UD patients in remission, admitted to the psychiatry outpatient clinics of Akdeniz University Hospital. The sample size is estimated as 35 patients. Basic independent variable is the type of disease and dependent variables are; IS, cognitive functions and SF. Performed scales are: The internalized stigma of mental ilness scale, the social functioning scale and for the assesment of cognitive functions: Wisconsin card sorting, stroop test, test of verbal memory process. Results.Concerning the results there was negative corelation between IS and SF scores in all groups. There was only significant relationship between verbal memory and IS in UD patients. There was not any significant relationship between IS and cognitive function in BD patients. Conclusion: This study indicates that in terms of cognitive functions, patients with unipolar depression are effected as much as the patients with bipolar disorder also manifesting the inverse relation between IS and SF, however cognitive functions were relevant to IS only in UD patients. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 390-402
Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Arnon-Ribenfeld, Nitzan; Kravetz, Shlomo; Roe, David
Previous studies have shown that deficits in social cognition mediate the association between neuro-cognition and functional outcome. Based on these findings, the current study presents an examination of the mediating role of social cognition and includes two different outcomes: social functioning assessed by objective observer and social quality of life assessed by subjective self-report. Instruments measuring different aspects of social cognition, cognitive ability, social functioning and social quality of life were administered to 131 participants who had a diagnosis of a serious mental illness. Results showed that emotion recognition and attributional bias were significant mediators such that cognitive assessment was positively related to both, which in turn, were negatively related to SQoL. While one interpretation of the data suggests that deficits in emotion recognition may serve as a possible defense mechanism, future studies should re-assess this idea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ordoñana, Juan R; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cella, David; Mosing, Miriam; Oliveira, Joao R; Patrick, Donald L; Veenhoven, Ruut; Wagner, Gert G; Sprangers, Mirjam A G
To describe the major findings in the literature regarding associations between biological and genetic factors and social functioning, paying special attention to: (1) heritability studies on social functioning and related concepts; (2) hypothesized biological pathways and genetic variants that could be involved in social functioning, and (3) the implications of these results for quality-of-life research. A search of Web of Science and PubMed databases was conducted using combinations of the following keywords: genetics, twins, heritability, social functioning, social adjustment, social interaction, and social dysfunction. Variability in the definitions and measures of social functioning was extensive. Moderate to high heritability was reported for social functioning and related concepts, including prosocial behavior, loneliness, and extraversion. Disorders characterized by impairments in social functioning also show substantial heritability. Genetic variants hypothesized to be involved in social functioning are related to the network of brain structures and processes that are known to affect social cognition and behavior. Better knowledge and understanding about the impact of genetic factors on social functioning is needed to help us to attain a more comprehensive view of health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) and will ultimately enhance our ability to identify those patients who are vulnerable to poor social functioning.
Chudleigh, Catherine; Naismith, Sharon L; Blaszczynski, Alex; Hermens, Daniel F; Hodge, M Antoinette Redoblado; Hickie, Ian B
The study aims to compare social functioning in young people considered to be at risk of psychosis with those meeting criteria for first episode psychosis (FEP) and controls, and to determine the association between social functioning and positive and negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety. This study examined social functioning in 20 individuals at risk of psychosis, 20 FEP patients and 20 healthy controls. Social functioning was measured using the Social Functioning Scale and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale. Psychiatric variables were also measured using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Brief Social Phobia Scale, and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. At-risk individuals had comparable social deficits to the FEP group, and both patient groups had significantly poorer social functioning than controls. Importantly, social functioning was most strongly associated with depressive and social anxiety symptoms and to a lesser extent with positive symptoms. However, negative symptoms did not appear to relate to social functioning. Social functioning impairments precede the onset of full-threshold psychosis and may therefore be a significant marker for the illness. Additionally, associated psychiatric symptoms such as depression and social anxiety may provide an avenue for early interventions of social functioning deficits in psychosis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Wu, Bei; Scogin, Forrest
Investigating the relation between social isolation and cognitive function will allow us to identify components to incorporate into cognitive interventions. Data were collected from 267 Appalachian older adults (M = 78.5, range 70-94 years). Overall cognitive functioning and specific cognitive domains were assessed from data of a self-assembled neuropsychological battery of frequently used tasks. Social isolation, social disconnectedness, and perceived isolation were measured from the Lubben Social Network scale-6. Results indicated a significant positive association between all predictor variables (e.g., social isolation, social disconnectedness, and perceived isolation) and outcome variables (e.g., overall cognitive function, memory, executive functioning, attention, and language abilities). Perceived isolation accounted for nearly double the amount of variance in overall cognitive functioning than social disconnectedness (10.2% vs. 5.7%). Findings suggest that social isolation is associated with poorer overall cognitive functioning and this remains true across varied cognitive domains. © The Author(s) 2012.
Paque, Kristel; Goossens, Katrien; Elseviers, Monique; Van Bogaert, Peter; Dilles, Tinne
This paper examines recently admitted nursing home residents' practical autonomy, their remaining social environment and their social functioning. In a cross-sectional design, 391 newly admitted residents of 67 nursing homes participated. All respondents were ≥65 years old, had mini-mental state examination ≥18 and were living in the nursing home for at least 1 month. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and validated measuring tools. The mean age was 84, 64% were female, 23% had a partner, 80% children, 75% grandchildren and 59% siblings. The mean social functioning score was 3/9 (or 33%) and the autonomy and importance of autonomy score 6/9 (or 67%). More autonomy was observed when residents could perform activities of daily living more independently, and cognitive functioning, quality of life and social functioning were high. Residents with depressive feelings scored lower on autonomy and social functioning compared to those without depressive feelings. Having siblings and the frequency of visits positively correlated with social functioning. In turn, social functioning correlated positively with quality of life. Moreover, a higher score on social functioning lowered the probability of depression. Autonomy or self-determination and maintaining remaining social relationships were considered to be important by the new residents. The remaining social environment, social functioning, quality of life, autonomy and depressive feelings influenced each other, but the cause--effect relation was not clear.
Lewis, Timothy J.; Sugai, George
This introduction to and overview of a special issue on social behavior assessment within schools discusses the impact of function-based methodologies on assessment and intervention practices in identification and remediation of challenging social behaviors. (JDD)
Eslami, Ali; Jahshan, Carol; Cadenhead, Kristin S.
Predictors of social functioning deficits were assessed in 22 individuals “at risk” for psychosis. Disorganized symptoms and executive functioning predicted social functioning at follow-up. Early intervention efforts that focus on social and cognitive skills are indicated in this vulnerable population.
Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Glyn; Wiles, Nicola; Thompson, Andrew; Evans, Jonathan
Both adolescent psychotic experiences and poor social functioning precede psychotic disorder; however, whether poor social functioning is also a risk factor for rather than a consequence of adolescent psychotic experiences is not clear. We investigate this question as well as whether deterioration in social functioning confers the strongest risk of psychotic experiences and whether theory of mind ability mediates any association, in a large community sample. Measures of social functioning (peer problems and prosocial behaviour) at ages 7 and 11 and theory of mind ability and psychotic experiences at age 12 were collected in a large community sample (n = 3,592). The association between social functioning and psychotic experiences was examined using logistic regression models at each age and any additional impact of deterioration in social functioning between ages 7 and 11. The potential role of theory of mind as a mediator was also investigated. Peer problems at both ages were independently associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 (7 years OR 1.11 95 % CI 1.03, 1.20), (11 years OR 1.13 95 % CI 1.05, 1.22). Theory of mind ability did not mediate this association. The association was not restricted to those with deteriorating social functioning (interaction term; p = 0.49). Poor childhood social functioning precedes adolescent psychotic experiences. There was no evidence that those with deteriorating social functioning were at greatest risk.
Saris, I M J; Aghajani, M; van der Werff, S J A; van der Wee, N J A; Penninx, B W J H
Adaptive social functioning is severely impeded in depressive and anxiety disorders, even after remission. However, a comprehensive overview is still lacking. Using data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), behavioural (network size, social activities, social support) and affective (loneliness, affiliation, perceived social disability) indicators of social functioning were analyzed in patients with anxiety (N = 540), depressive (N = 393), comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders ('comorbid', N = 748), remitted participants (N = 621), and healthy control subjects (N = 650). Analyses revealed an increasing trend of social dysfunction among patient groups, in patients with comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders, showing the most severe impairments, followed by depressed and anxious patients (P's social functioning indicators). Affective indicators showed the largest effect sizes (Cohen's d range from 0.13 to 1.76). We also found impairments in social functioning among remitted patients. Furthermore, perceived social disability among patients was predictive of still having a depressive and/or anxiety diagnosis 2 years later (P social functioning are impaired in patients with anxiety or depressive disorders and most in patients with comorbid disorders. After remission of affective psychopathology, residual impairments tend to remain, while social dysfunction in patients seems predictive of future psychopathology. © 2017The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Farrell, Michelle; Langrehr, Kimberly J.
This study examined the stress-buffering role of social support on indicators of psychosocial functioning among a combined and split sample of ethnically diverse college students. Although high social support significantly moderated 2 relationships in the combined sample, high and low levels of social support significantly reduced the effect of…
Louise B. Glenthøj
Conclusion: Significant impairments in social cognition and social skills were found in UHR patients. The patients' social cognitive function was associated with overall functioning and social skills. Negative symptoms appear to play an important role for functioning. Research is needed to investigate how the relations between social cognition, social skills and functioning develop from the UHR state to the stage of manifest illness. Research into how deficits in social cognition and social skills can be ameliorated in UHR patients is warranted.
D V Stanis
Full Text Available The article demonstrates that realization of social functions in corporate governance increases the corporate competitiveness as the basis to economy development. It marks out several important social functions of modern Russian corporations. It's stressed that institution of corporation regulates not only moral basis of business ethics but also influences behavior norms that structure interactions in society.
Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Kim, Jungmeen; Rogosch, Fred A.
Child maltreatment increases the risk for impaired social functioning and cortisol regulation. However, the longitudinal interplay among these factors is still unclear. This study aimed to shed light on the effect of maltreatment on social functioning and cortisol regulation over time. The sample consisted of 236 children (mean age 7.64 years, SD…
Ybarra, Oscar; Burnstein, Eugene; Winkielman, Piotr; Keller, Matthew C; Manis, Melvin; Chan, Emily; Rodriguez, Joel
Social interaction is a central feature of people's life and engages a variety of cognitive resources. Thus, social interaction should facilitate general cognitive functioning. Previous studies suggest such a link, but they used special populations (e.g., elderly with cognitive impairment), measured social interaction indirectly (e.g., via marital status), and only assessed effects of extended interaction in correlational designs. Here the relation between mental functioning and direct indicators of social interaction was examined in a younger and healthier population. Study 1 using survey methodology found a positive relationship between social interaction, assessed via amount of actual social contact, and cognitive functioning in people from three age groups including younger adults. Study 2 using an experimental design found that a small amount of social interaction (10 min) can facilitate cognitive performance. The findings are discussed in the context of the benefits social relationships have for so many aspects of people's lives.
Rilling, James K; Chen, Xiangchuan; Chen, Xu; Haroon, Ebrahim
Oxytocin (OT) modulates social behavior in primates and many other vertebrate species. Studies in non-primate animals have demonstrated that, in addition to influencing activity within individual brain areas, OT influences functional connectivity across networks of areas involved in social behavior. Previously, we used fMRI to image brain function in human subjects during a dyadic social interaction task following administration of either intranasal oxytocin (INOT) or placebo, and analyzed the data with a standard general linear model. Here, we conduct an extensive re-analysis of these data to explore how OT modulates functional connectivity across a neural network that animal studies implicate in social behavior. OT induced widespread increases in functional connectivity in response to positive social interactions among men and widespread decreases in functional connectivity in response to negative social interactions among women. Nucleus basalis of Meynert, an important regulator of selective attention and motivation with a particularly high density of OT receptors, had the largest number of OT-modulated connections. Regions known to receive mesolimbic dopamine projections such as the nucleus accumbens and lateral septum were also hubs for OT effects on functional connectivity. Our results suggest that the neural mechanism by which OT influences primate social cognition may include changes in patterns of activity across neural networks that regulate social behavior in other animals. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hatashita-Wong, Michi; Smith, Thomas E; Silverstein, Steven M; Hull, James W; Willson, Deborah F
This study examined the relationships between symptoms, cognitive functioning, and social skill deficits in schizophrenia. Few studies have incorporated measures of cognitive functioning and symptoms in predictive models for social problem solving. For our study, 44 participants were recruited from consecutive outpatient admissions. Neuropsychological tests were given to assess cognitive function, and social problem solving was assessed using structured vignettes designed to evoke the participant's ability to generate, evaluate, and apply solutions to social problems. A sequential model-fitting method of analysis was used to incorporate social problem solving, symptom presentation, and cognitive impairment into linear regression models. Predictor variables were drawn from demographic, cognitive, and symptom domains. Because this method of analysis was exploratory and not intended as hierarchical modelling, no a priori hypotheses were proposed. Participants with higher scores on tests of cognitive flexibility were better able to generate accurate, appropriate, and relevant responses to the social problem-solving vignettes. The results suggest that cognitive flexibility is a potentially important mediating factor in social problem-solving competence. While other factors are related to social problem-solving skill, this study supports the importance of cognition and understanding how it relates to the complex and multifaceted nature of social functioning.
Cornblatt, Barbara A; Carrión, Ricardo E; Addington, Jean; Seidman, Larry; Walker, Elaine F; Cannon, Tyronne D; Cadenhead, Kristin S; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Tsuang, Ming T; Woods, Scott W; Heinssen, Robert; Lencz, Todd
Risk for psychosis is currently defined primarily on the basis of attenuated positive symptoms (APS), with no inclusion of the functional deficits characteristic of schizophrenia. Impaired social and role functioning have been of interest for reflecting poor outcome but far less is known about the developmental impact of these deficits as vulnerability or risk factors. Age-appropriate social and role functioning were prospectively assessed in 100 individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis included in the 8-site North American Prodromal Longitudinal Study database. A nested case-control design was used to compare changes in social and role functioning in 26 individuals converting to psychosis shortly after baseline assessment and 24 converting over a year later. Individuals in each converter subgroup were directly matched to a non-converter at the same site, controlling for time to conversion, age, gender, and severity of baseline symptoms. At baseline, CHR subjects who later became psychotic were significantly more likely to be impaired socially than matched non-converters. Onset of psychosis did not further disrupt social difficulties. Role functioning showed some of the same trends, but the overall pattern was not as consistent as for the social domain. Controlling for neurocognition did not change the pattern of group differences. Early impaired social functioning appears to be a risk factor for psychosis and, added to APS, could potentially contribute to accurate identification of CHR individuals and provide a new direction for early intervention to reduce long-term disability.
von Hippel, Courtney; Henry, Julie D; Terrett, Gill; Mercuri, Kimberly; McAlear, Karen; Rendell, Peter G
People with a history of substance abuse are subject to widespread stigmatization. It seems likely that this societal disapproval will result in feelings of stereotype threat, or the belief that one is the target of demeaning stereotypes. If so, stereotype threat has the potential to contribute to functional difficulties including poor social outcomes. Eighty drug users on opioid substitution therapy and 84 demographically matched controls completed measures of mental health and social function. The opioid substitution therapy group were additionally asked to complete a measure that focused on their feelings of stereotype threat in relation to their drug use history. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to establish the magnitude and specificity of the relationship between stereotype threat and social functioning. Relative to controls, the opioid substitution therapy group reported higher levels of negative affect and schizotypy, and poorer social functioning, with all three of these indices significantly correlated with their feelings of stereotype threat. The results also showed that stereotype threat contributed significant unique variance to social functioning in the opioid substitution therapy group, even after taking into account other background, clinical, and mental health variables. Social functioning is an important aspect of recovery, yet these data indicate that people with a history of drug abuse who believe they are the target of stereotypical attitudes have poorer social functioning. This relationship holds after controlling for the impact of other variables on social functioning, including mental health. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Concerns about being stereotyped can shape the social experiences of opioid substitution therapy patients. Opioid substitution therapy patients who feel negatively stereotyped experience greater social function deficits, and this
van Velzen, CJM
Four groups of patients with social phobia (SP) were compared with regard to psychopathologic characteristics, personality traits, and social and occupational functioning. Fifteen persons with discrete social phobia without any personality disorder (DSP), 28 persons with generalized social phobia
Tyson, Katherine E.; Cruess, Dean G.
Both high-functioning autism (HFA) and social phobia (SP) involve profound social interaction deficits. Although these disorders share some similar symptoms, they are conceptualized as distinct. Because both HFA and SP are defined behaviorally, the degree of overlap between the two disorders may result in misinterpretation of symptoms. However,…
According to attachment theory, the establishment of an attachment bond to a caregiver not only provides the infant with protection from danger, but also many other resources presumably beneficial to the child’s general psychological development. Although there is substantial empirical support for a link between attachment security and social functioning in childhood and adolescence, less is known about whether childhood attachment contributes to social functioning beyond adolescence. Similar...
Hari, Riitta; Henriksson, Linda; Malinen, Sanna; Parkkonen, Lauri
People are embedded in social interaction that shapes their brains throughout lifetime. Instead of emerging from lower-level cognitive functions, social interaction could be the default mode via which humans communicate with their environment. Should this hypothesis be true, it would have profound implications on how we think about brain functions and how we dissect and simulate them. We suggest that the research on the brain basis of social cognition and interaction should move from passive spectator science to studies including engaged participants and simultaneous recordings from the brains of the interacting persons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wong, Jaclyn S; Hsieh, Ning
Health limitations can change older adults' social relationships and social engagement. Yet, researchers rarely examine how the disability of one's spouse might affect one's social relationships, even though such life strains are often experienced as a couple. This study investigates the association between functional and cognitive limitations and social experience in a dyadic context. We use actor-partner interdependence models to analyze the partner data from 953 heterosexual couples in Wave II (2010-2011) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. One spouse's functional and cognitive health is associated with the other's relationship quality, but the pattern varies by gender. Husbands' functional limitations are associated with lower marital support and higher marital strain in wives, but wives' functional limitations are related to lower family and friendship strain in husbands. Husbands' cognitive impairment also predicts higher family and friend support in wives. Findings support a gendered dyadic relationship between health and social life and highlight women's caregiver role and better connection with family and friends. There are also differences between experiencing cognitive and physical limitations in couples. Finally, mild health impairment sometimes shows stronger effects on social relationships than severe impairment, suggesting adaptation to health transition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Franks, P; Campbell, T L; Shields, C G
The associations between social relationships and health have been examined using two major research traditions. Using a social epidemiological approach, much research has shown the beneficial effect of social supports on health and health behaviors. Family interaction research, which has grown out of a more clinical tradition, has shown the complex effects of family functioning on health, particularly mental health. No studies have examined the relative power of these two approaches in explicating the connections between social relationships and health. We hypothesized that social relationships (social support and family functioning) would exert direct and indirect (through depressive symptoms) effects on health behaviors. We also hypothesized that the effects of social relationships on health would be more powerfully explicated by family functioning than by social support. We mailed a pilot survey to a random sample of patients attending a family practice center, including questions on depressive symptoms, cardiovascular health behaviors, demographics, social support using the ISEL scale, and family functioning using the FEICS scale. FEICS is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess family emotional involvement and criticism, the media elements of family expressed emotion. Eighty-three useable responses were obtained. Regression analyses and structural modelling showed both direct and indirect statistically significant paths from social relationships to health behaviors. Family criticism was directly associated (standardized coefficient = 0.29) with depressive symptoms, and family emotional involvement was directly associated with both depressive symptoms (coefficient = 0.35) and healthy cardiovascular behaviors (coefficient = 0.32). The results support the primacy of family functioning factors in understanding the associations among social relationships, mental health, and health behaviors. The contrasting relationships between emotional involvement and
Full Text Available AimThe present study aim to investigate the contributing role of daily living functioning and social engagement in enhancing wellness and various dimensions of wellness in older adults.MethodA correlational research was designed. Socio-demographic data was collected. Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Lubben Social Network Scale, and Perceived Wellness Survey were administered on a sample of 112 participants, including 56 men and 56 women.ResultsA correlation analysis found positive correlations between daily living functioning, social engagement and wellness of older adults. The results of regression analysis concluded that both the daily living functioning and social engagement predicted wellness and domains of wellness as well.ConclusionThe obtained results indicate that older adults who are self-reliant lead a more satisfied life in old age and demonstrate to be more adjusted to the effects of aging.
Aguirre, Fabian; Sergi, Mark J; Levy, Cynthia A
The present study is the first to examine emotional intelligence in persons with schizotypy. Over 2100 undergraduates were screened for schizotypy with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Version. Forty participants identified as persons with high schizotypy and 56 participants identified as persons with low schizotypy completed assessments of emotional intelligence (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), social functioning (Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report), verbal episodic (secondary) memory (California Verbal Learning Test), and executive functioning (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Persons high in schizotypy were impaired in overall emotional intelligence and two aspects of emotional intelligence, the ability to perceive emotions and the ability to manage emotions. Persons high in schizotypy were also impaired in three aspects of social functioning: peer relationships, family relationships, and academic functioning. Group differences in verbal episodic (secondary) memory and executive functioning were not observed. For persons with high schizotypy, overall emotional intelligence and two aspects of emotional intelligence, the ability to perceive emotions and the ability to manage emotions, were associated with peer relationship functioning. Overall emotional intelligence was associated with verbal episodic (secondary) memory, but not executive functioning, in persons with high schizotypy. The current findings suggest that emotional intelligence is impaired in persons with schizotypy and that these impairments affect their social functioning.
Ersöğütçü, Filiz; Karakaş, Sibel Asi
This descriptive study was conducted to examine the levels of social functioning and self-esteem in individuals diagnosed with substance abuse. The study was conducted at the AMATEM (Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment Center) service of a psychiatry clinic in the Elazığ province in eastern Turkey between September 1, 2014 and February 1, 2015. The population is comprised of 249 patients being treated in this clinic, and the sample included 203 patients who comply with the research criteria and agreed to participate in the study. A Socia-Demographic Questionnaire, Coopersmith Self-esteem Scale (CSI) and Social Functioning Scale (SFS) were used for data collection. Percentages, averages, standard deviations and Pearson's correlation were used for data analysis. This study found that the patients' mean sore on the Self-esteem Scale is 50.97±18.01. Their score on the Social Functioning Scale is 115.76±22.41. A significant correlation between the patients' self-esteem and the age of first substance use was detected (p=0.001). A significant correlation was detected between their social functioning and the duration of their substance use (pself-esteem (pself-esteem and social functioning. A significant positive correlation between social functioning and self-esteem was found. It was also found that the age of first substance use and self-esteem are directly correlated. Counseling to increase patients' levels of self-esteem and improve their social functioning is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article explores the constituents, components, and manifestations of the Egyptian social unconscious. Noting that Bion's group basic assumptions are actually based on Klein's individual psychic positions (Paranoid-Schizoid and Depressive; PS-D), and can easily be extrapolated to the social large group, the author assumes that to communities, societies, and cultures the same assumptions may apply to some extent. Moreover, just as groups can move between basic assumption functioning and work functioning, so societies seem to do. Eric Berne's concept of an "individual life script" can also be extended to societies that can have a "social life script." This article is a step toward designing a "social unconscious" map for different countries and cultures that shows where on the PS-D spectrum a certain country is placed, what is a certain culture's "social life script," and how the dynamics of a certain society can be manifested in its people's behavior as either basic assumption or work functioning.
Coplan, Robert J.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Weeks, Murray; Kingsbury, Adam; Kingsbury, Mila; Bullock, Amanda
The primary goals of this study were to test a conceptual model linking social approach and avoidance motivations, socially withdrawn behaviors, and peer difficulties in later childhood and to compare the socioemotional functioning of different subtypes of withdrawn children (shy, unsociable, avoidant). Participants were 367 children, aged 9-12…
Full Text Available The article focused on the results of carried out research of the functional state of the pupils’ organism in a process of educational activity. It has been shown that formative influence of activity is manifested on the different levels of development of socially important functions: the actual developmental zone (priority development of indicators, which have the main significance in the activity and the proximal developmental zone (tendency of activation of the key functions.
Pride, Natalie A; Crawford, Hilda; Payne, Jonathan M; North, Kathryn N
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common single-gene disorder characterised by a diverse range of cutaneous, neurological and neoplastic manifestations. It is well recognised that children with NF1 have poor peer interactions and are at risk for deficits in social skills. Few studies, however, have examined social functioning in adults with NF1. We aimed to determine whether adults with NF1 are at greater risk for impairment in social skills and to identify potential risk factors for social skills deficits. We evaluated social skills in 62 adults with NF1 and 39 controls using self-report and observer-report measures of social behaviour. We demonstrate that adults with NF1 exhibit significantly less prosocial behaviour than controls. This deficit was associated with social processing abilities and was more evident in males. The frequency of antisocial behaviour was comparable between the two groups, however was significantly associated with behavioural regulation in the NF1 group. These findings suggest that poor social skills in individuals with NF1 are due to deficits in prosocial behaviour, rather than an increase in antisocial behaviour. This will aid the design of interventions aimed at improving social skills in individuals with NF1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Erdeniz, Burak; Serin, Emin; İbadi, Yelda; Taş, Cumhur
Schizophrenia is a complex disorder in which abnormalities in brain connectivity and social functioning play a central role. The aim of this study is to explore small-world network properties, and understand their relationship with social functioning and social cognition in the context of schizophrenia, by testing functional connectivity differences in network properties and its relation to clinical behavioral measures. Resting-state fMRI time series data were acquired from 23 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 23 healthy volunteers. The results revealed that patients with schizophrenia show significantly decreased connectivity between a range of brain regions, particularly involving connections among the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral putamen and left amygdala. Furthermore, topological properties of functional brain networks in patients with schizophrenia were characterized by reduced path length compared to healthy controls; however, no significant difference was found for clustering coefficient, local efficiency or global efficiency. Additionally, we found that nodal efficiency of the amygdala and the putamen were significantly correlated with the independence-performance subscale of social functioning scale (SFC), and Reading the Mind in the Eyes test; however, the correlations do not survive correction for multiple comparison. The current results help to clarify the relationship between social functioning deficits and topological brain measures in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Albrithen, Abdulaziz; Yalli, Nadir
Social work practitioners are important members of the health care team and the hospital sector has been a traditional employer of social workers. Social work practitioners have become increasingly involved in hospital work as a result of the growing recognition of the important link between the biophysical aspects of health and the surrounding psychosocial circumstances, which require multidisciplinary interventions and demand the involvement of specialized social work personnel to deal with such issues. The article has been carried out in order to contribute to the literature by exploring to see if the characteristics and functions of contemporary professional social workers (who practice in the health sector in western Saudi Arabia) are achieving best practice.
Szanto, Katalin; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y; Sahakian, Barbara J; Mulsant, Benoit H; Houck, Patricia R; Reynolds, Charles F; Clark, Luke
: Lack of feeling connected and poor social problem solving have been described in suicide attempters. However, cognitive substrates of this apparent social impairment in suicide attempters remain unknown. One possible deficit, the inability to recognize others' complex emotional states has been observed not only in disorders characterized by prominent social deficits (autism-spectrum disorders and frontotemporal dementia) but also in depression and normal aging. This study assessed the relationship between social emotion recognition, problem solving, social functioning, and attempted suicide in late-life depression. : There were 90 participants: 24 older depressed suicide attempters, 38 nonsuicidal depressed elders, and 28 comparison subjects with no psychiatric history. We compared performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test and measures of social networks, social support, social problem solving, and chronic interpersonal difficulties in these three groups. : Suicide attempters committed significantly more errors in social emotion recognition and showed poorer global cognitive performance than elders with no psychiatric history. Attempters had restricted social networks: they were less likely to talk to their children, had fewer close friends, and did not engage in volunteer activities, compared to nonsuicidal depressed elders and those with no psychiatric history. They also reported a pattern of struggle against others and hostility in relationships, felt a lack of social support, perceived social problems as impossible to resolve, and displayed a careless/impulsive approach to problems. : Suicide attempts in depressed elders were associated with poor social problem solving, constricted social networks, and disruptive interpersonal relationships. Impaired social emotion recognition in the suicide attempter group was related.
Full Text Available Play has an important role in various aspects of children’s development. However, time for free play has declined substantially over the last decades. To date, few studies have focused on the relationship between opportunities for free play and children’s social functioning. The aims of this study are to examine whether children´s free play is related to their social functioning and whether this relationship is mediated by children´s emotional functioning. Seventy-eight children (age, 55- 77 months were tested on their theory of mind and emotion understanding. Parents reported on their children’s time for free play, empathic abilities, social competence and externalizing behaviors. The main findings showed that free play and children’s theory of mind are negatively related to externalizing behaviors. Empathy was strongly related to children’s social competence, but free play and social competence were not associated. Less time for free play is related to more disruptive behaviors in preschool children, however certain emotional functioning skills influence these behaviors independently of the time children have for free play. These outcomes suggest that free play might help to prevent the development of disruptive behaviors, but future studies should further examine the causality of this relationship.
Kelly, Michelle E; Duff, Hollie; Kelly, Sara; McHugh Power, Joanna E; Brennan, Sabina; Lawlor, Brian A; Loughrey, David G
Social relationships, which are contingent on access to social networks, promote engagement in social activities and provide access to social support. These social factors have been shown to positively impact health outcomes. In the current systematic review, we offer a comprehensive overview of the impact of social activities, social networks and social support on the cognitive functioning of healthy older adults (50+) and examine the differential effects of aspects of social relationships on various cognitive domains. We followed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines, and collated data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs), genetic and observational studies. Independent variables of interest included subjective measures of social activities, social networks, and social support, and composite measures of social relationships (CMSR). The primary outcome of interest was cognitive function divided into domains of episodic memory, semantic memory, overall memory ability, working memory, verbal fluency, reasoning, attention, processing speed, visuospatial abilities, overall executive functioning and global cognition. Thirty-nine studies were included in the review; three RCTs, 34 observational studies, and two genetic studies. Evidence suggests a relationship between (1) social activity and global cognition and overall executive functioning, working memory, visuospatial abilities and processing speed but not episodic memory, verbal fluency, reasoning or attention; (2) social networks and global cognition but not episodic memory, attention or processing speed; (3) social support and global cognition and episodic memory but not attention or processing speed; and (4) CMSR and episodic memory and verbal fluency but not global cognition. The results support prior conclusions that there is an association between social relationships and cognitive function but the exact nature of this association remains unclear
Yamano, Mitsuhiko; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi
Research on cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy has thus far focused on memory, language, and general intelligence. Recently, however, the concept of social cognitive function has been proposed in the field of neuropsychology. Social cognitive function refers collectively to the higher cognitive functions that are essential in our social lives, and its representative aspects are facial expression recognition and decision-making. Emotional processing centered around the amygdala is thought to play a key role in the neural mechanism of this function. We conducted a study on the social cognitive function (decision-making) of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, and found that this function is reduced in these patients, and that the right amygdalo-hippocampal complexes play an important role. In order to ensure the best possible treatment for epilepsy patients, it is necessary not only to make an accurate diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment, but also to provide support for enabling a smoother social life from the perspective of social cognitive function. Future research developments in this field are expected to contribute to total management in medical care for epilepsy patients.
Hartung, Freda-Marie; Renner, Britta
The present online-questionnaire study examined two fundamental social behaviors, social curiosity and gossip, and their interrelations in an English (n = 218) and a German sample (n = 152). Analyses showed that both samples believed that they are less gossipy but more curious than their peers. Multidimensional SEM of self and trait conceptions indicated that social curiosity and gossip are related constructs but with different patterns of social functions. Gossip appears to serve predominantly entertainment purposes whereas social curiosity appears to be more driven by a general interest in gathering information about how other people feel, think, and behave and the need to belong. Relationships to other personality traits (N, E, O) provided additional evidence for divergent validity. The needs for gathering and disseminating social information might represent two interlinked but different drives of cultural learning. PMID:23936130
Full Text Available The present online-questionnaire study examined two fundamental social behaviors, social curiosity and gossip, and their interrelations in an English (n = 218 and a German sample (n = 152. Analyses showed that both samples believed that they are less gossipy but more curious than their peers. Multidimensional SEM of self and trait conceptions indicated that social curiosity and gossip are related constructs but with different patterns of social functions. Gossip appears to serve predominantly entertainment purposes whereas social curiosity appears to be more driven by a general interest in gathering information about how other people feel, think, and behave and the need to belong. Relationships to other personality traits (N, E, O provided additional evidence for divergent validity. The needs for gathering and disseminating social information might represent two interlinked but different drives of cultural learning.
Hartung, Freda-Marie; Renner, Britta
The present online-questionnaire study examined two fundamental social behaviors, social curiosity and gossip, and their interrelations in an English (n = 218) and a German sample (n = 152). Analyses showed that both samples believed that they are less gossipy but more curious than their peers. Multidimensional SEM of self and trait conceptions indicated that social curiosity and gossip are related constructs but with different patterns of social functions. Gossip appears to serve predominantly entertainment purposes whereas social curiosity appears to be more driven by a general interest in gathering information about how other people feel, think, and behave and the need to belong. Relationships to other personality traits (N, E, O) provided additional evidence for divergent validity. The needs for gathering and disseminating social information might represent two interlinked but different drives of cultural learning.
The social and scientific debate over functional foods has two focal points: one is the issue of the reliability and trustworthiness of the claims connected with functional foods. You don't have to be a suspicious person to be skeptical vis-à-vis the rather exorbitant claims of most functional
Thaler, Nicholas S; Sutton, Griffin P; Allen, Daniel N
Social cognition is a functionally relevant predictor of capacity in schizophrenia (SZ), though research concerning its value for bipolar disorder (BD) is limited. The current investigation examined the relationship between two social cognitive factors and functional capacity in bipolar disorder. This study included 48 individuals with bipolar disorder (24 with psychotic features) and 30 patients with schizophrenia. Multiple regression controlling for estimated IQ scores was used to assess the predictive value of social cognitive factors on the UCSD Performance-Based Functional Skills Assessment (UPSA). Results found that for the bipolar with psychosis and schizophrenia groups, the social/emotion processing factor predicted the UPSA. The theory of mind factor only predicted the UPSA for the schizophrenia group.. Findings support the clinical utility of evaluating emotion processing in individuals with a history of psychosis. For BD, theory of mind may be better explained by a generalized cognitive deficit. In contrast, social/emotion processing may be linked to distinct neurobiological processes associated with psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Billeke, Pablo; Zamorano, Francisco; Chavez, Mario; Cosmelli, Diego; Aboitiz, Francisco
Solving demanding tasks requires fast and flexible coordination among different brain areas. Everyday examples of this are the social dilemmas in which goals tend to clash, requiring one to weigh alternative courses of action in limited time. In spite of this fact, there are few studies that directly address the dynamics of flexible brain network integration during social interaction. To study the preceding, we carried out EEG recordings while subjects played a repeated version of the Ultimatum Game in both human (social) and computer (non-social) conditions. We found phase synchrony (inter-site-phase-clustering) modulation in alpha band that was specific to the human condition and independent of power modulation. The strength and patterns of the inter-site-phase-clustering of the cortical networks were also modulated, and these modulations were mainly in frontal and parietal regions. Moreover, changes in the individuals’ alpha network structure correlated with the risk of the offers made only in social conditions. This correlation was independent of changes in power and inter-site-phase-clustering strength. Our results indicate that, when subjects believe they are participating in a social interaction, a specific modulation of functional cortical networks in alpha band takes place, suggesting that phase synchrony of alpha oscillations could serve as a mechanism by which different brain areas flexibly interact in order to adapt ongoing behavior in socially demanding contexts. PMID:25286240
Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M; Van Lange, Paul A M
Social interactions are characterized by distinct forms of interdependence, each of which has unique effects on how behavior unfolds within the interaction. Despite this, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that allow people to detect and respond to the nature of interdependence in any given interaction. We propose that interdependence theory provides clues regarding the structure of interdependence in the human ancestral past. In turn, evolutionary psychology offers a framework for understanding the types of information processing mechanisms that could have been shaped under these recurring conditions. We synthesize and extend these two perspectives to introduce a new theory: functional interdependence theory (FIT). FIT can generate testable hypotheses about the function and structure of the psychological mechanisms for inferring interdependence. This new perspective offers insight into how people initiate and maintain cooperative relationships, select social partners and allies, and identify opportunities to signal social motives.
Veiga, Guida; Neto, Carlos; Rieffe, Carolien
Play has an important role in various aspects of children's development. However, time for free play has declined substantially over the last decades. To date, few studies have focused on the relationship between opportunities for free play and children's social functioning. The aims of this study are to examine whether children´s free play is…
Berlanga, Adriana; Sloep, Peter; Brouns, Francis; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Koper, Rob
Berlanga, A. J., Sloep, P., Brouns, F., Van Rosmalen, P., Bitter-Rijpkema, M., & Koper, R. (2007). Functionality for learning networks: lessons learned from social web applications. Proceedings of the ePortfolio 2007 Conference. October, 18-19, 2007, Maastricht, The Netherlands. [See also
Meijer, SA; Sinnema, G; Bijstra, Jan O.; Mellenbergh, GJ; Wolters, W. H. G.
Behavioural, cognitive, and affective aspects of social functioning of 107 children with a chronic illness were studied. The aim of the study was twofold. (I) to describe peer interaction of children with a chronic illness in comparison with normative data of healthy children; (2) to examine whether
This article underscores several themes evident in Yoder, Snell, and Tobias's research; these include the conceptualization of feminism and social justice as inextricably linked, the conceptualization and operationalization of optimal functioning at intrapersonal, interpersonal, and collective levels, and potential connections and disconnections…
N. O. Tkachenko
Full Text Available Pharmacy has always had a special (social value and was sensitive to the new social changes in the society and the state. These changes allow better understand the issues associated with increasing the efficiency of pharmaceutical care to the population. The aim of the work: identify, justify and to summarize the main elements of the social function of pharmacy, as a component of health care system, to further evaluate the properties of the pharmaceutical industry as a system. Materials and methods. To achieve this goal the principle of a systematic approach and the complex of research methods such as structural, functional and parametric analysis, logical knowledge and comparison, ad also generalization have been used. As materials of research, we used the results of fundamental and applied research of national and foreign experts on the issue. Results and discussion. The basic principles of the welfare state and pharmacy as socially oriented sectors of the economy have been determined. We have found that the pharmaceutical industry is an agent, which implements a number of elements of the social function, such as pharmaceutical assistance to the population, the production of social goods (drugs, medical products, medical cosmetics, etc., creating and providing of working places, paying taxes (replenishment of the state budget, the formation and development of human capital, research and innovation activities, charity and sponsorship, environmental protection. Ukraine formally acceded to United Nations document, «Agenda for the XXI Century». This agreement commits our government to implement development and implementation of sustainable development strategies. Its main components are the social responsibility, social integration, an efficient worker and effective owner. Social responsibility acts as a reverse reaction on realization of social policy through the main sectors of the economy. Conclusions. We have summarized the information and
Significant impairments in social functioning frequently occur simultaneously with depressive symptoms. The implications of such impairments extend beyond the depressed individual to their family, friends and society at large. Classical rating scales such as the Hamilton rating scale for depression primarily assess the core symptoms of depression. A range of rating scales are available, both self-reporting and administered by clinician; however, many have been criticised for their unspecified conceptual background and for being complex and time-consuming. While antidepressants in general appear to improve social functioning, no clear advantage for any single class of agent has been reported. Recently, a new self-report rating scale, the Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale, has been developed and used to compare the novel selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, reboxetine, with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. The noradrenergic agent, reboxetine, was shown to be significantly more effective in improving social functioning than the serotonergic agent, fluoxetine. These findings are consistent with previous observations that noradrenaline may preferentially improve vigilance, motivation and self-perception.
Glenthøj, Louise B; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Jepsen, Jens R M; Bak, Nikolaj; Kristensen, Tina D; Wenneberg, Christina; Krakauer, Kristine; Roberts, David L; Nordentoft, Merete
Patients at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis show significant impairments in functioning. It is essential to determine which factors influence functioning, as it may have implications for intervention strategies. This study examined whether social cognitive abilities and clinical symptoms are associated with functioning and social skills. The study included 65 UHR patients and 30 healthy controls. Social cognitive function, social skills, and a broad range of functioning measures were assessed. The UHR patients demonstrated significant decrements on The Awareness of Social Inferences Task total score (p = .046, d = .51), and on the CANTAB emotion recognition task total percent correct (p = .023, d = .54) displaying particular difficulties in negative affect recognition. The patients exhibited significant impairments in social skills measured with the High Risk Social Challenge (p˂.001, d = 1.05). Aspects of emotion recognition were associated with role functioning and social skill performance. The level of attributional bias was associated with overall functioning, and theory of mind ability was associated with self-reported functioning. Negative symptoms were associated with all measures of functioning (p ≤ .05). Significant impairments in social cognition and social skills were found in UHR patients. The patients' social cognitive function was associated with overall functioning and social skills. Negative symptoms appear to play an important role for functioning. Research is needed to investigate how the relations between social cognition, social skills and functioning develop from the UHR state to the stage of manifest illness. Research into how deficits in social cognition and social skills can be ameliorated in UHR patients is warranted.
Makinodan, Manabu; Ikawa, Daisuke; Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Yamashita, Yasunori; Toritsuka, Michihiro; Kimoto, Sohei; Yamauchi, Takahira; Okumura, Kazuki; Komori, Takashi; Fukami, Shin-Ichi; Yoshino, Hiroki; Kanba, Shigenobu; Wanaka, Akio; Kishimoto, Toshifumi
Social isolation is an important factor in the development of psychiatric disorders. It is necessary to develop an effective psychological treatment, such as cognitive rehabilitation, for children who have already suffered from social isolation, such as neglect and social rejection. We used socially isolated mice to validate whether elaborate re-socialization after juvenile social isolation can restore hypomyelination in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the attendant functions manifested in socially isolated mice. While mice who underwent re-socialization with socially isolated mice after juvenile social isolation (Re-IS mice) demonstrated less mPFC activity during exposure to a strange mouse, as well as thinner myelin in the mPFC than controls, mice who underwent re-socialization with socially housed mice after juvenile social isolation (Re-SH mice) caught up with the controls in terms of most mPFC functions, as well as myelination. Moreover, social interaction of Re-IS mice was reduced as compared to controls, but Re-SH mice showed an amount of social interaction comparable to that of controls. These results suggest that the mode of re-socialization after juvenile social isolation has significant effects on myelination in the mPFC and the attendant functions in mice, indicating the importance of appropriate psychosocial intervention after social isolation.
Full Text Available A successful social interaction requires fast, on-line, and active construction of an ever-changing mental-model of another’s person beliefs, expectations, emotions, and desires. It also requires the ability to inhibit inappropriate behaviors, problem-solve, take-turns, and pursue goals in a distraction-rich environment. All these tasks rely on executive functions (EF—working memory, attention/cognitive control, and inhibition. Executive functioning has long been viewed as relatively static. However, starting with recent reports of successful cognitive interventions, this view is changing and now EFs are seen as much more open to both short and long term training, warm-up, and exhaustion effects. Some of the most intriguing evidence comes from research showing how social interaction enhances performance on standard EF tests. Interestingly, the latest research indicates these EF benefits are selectively conferred by certain on-line, dynamic social interactions, which require participants to engage with another person and actively construct the model of their mind. We review this literature and highlight its connection with evolutionary and cultural theories emphasizing links between intelligence and social life.
Stokes, Paul R A; Benecke, Aaf; Puraite, Julita; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Shotbolt, Paul; Reeves, Suzanne J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R; Howes, Oliver; Egerton, Alice
Socially desirable responding (SDR) is a personality trait which reflects either a tendency to present oneself in an overly positive manner to others, consistent with social conformity (impression management (IM)), or the tendency to view one's own behaviour in an overly positive light (self-deceptive enhancement (SDE)). Neurochemical imaging studies report an inverse relationship between SDR and dorsal striatal dopamine D₂/₃ receptor availability. This may reflect an association between SDR and D₂/₃ receptor expression, synaptic dopamine levels or a combination of the two. In this study, we used a [¹⁸F]-DOPA positron emission tomography (PET) image database to investigate whether SDR is associated with presynaptic dopamine function. Striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA uptake, (k(i)(cer), min⁻¹), was determined in two independent healthy participant cohorts (n=27 and 19), by Patlak analysis using a cerebellar reference region. SDR was assessed using the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) Lie scale, and IM and SDE were measured using the Paulhus Deception Scales. No significant associations were detected between Lie, SDE or IM scores and striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA k(i)(cer). These results indicate that presynaptic striatal dopamine function is not associated with social conformity and suggests that social conformity may be associated with striatal D₂/₃ receptor expression rather than with synaptic dopamine levels.
Xu, X J; Wang, L L; Zhou, N
To explore the characteristics of ecological executive function in school-aged children with idiopathic or probably symptomatic epilepsy and examine the effects of executive function on social adaptive function. A total of 51 school-aged children with idiopathic or probably symptomatic epilepsy aged 5-12 years at our hospital and 37 normal ones of the same gender, age and educational level were included. The differences in ecological executive function and social adaptive function were compared between the two groups with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and Child Adaptive Behavior Scale, the Pearson's correlation test and multiple stepwise linear regression were used to explore the impact of executive function on social adaptive function. The scores of school-aged children with idiopathic or probably symptomatic epilepsy in global executive composite (GEC), behavioral regulation index (BRI) and metacognition index (MI) of BRIEF ((62±12), (58±13) and (63±12), respectively) were significantly higher than those of the control group ((47±7), (44±6) and (48±8), respectively))(Pchildren with idiopathic or probably symptomatic epilepsy in adaptive behavior quotient (ADQ), independence, cognition, self-control ((86±22), (32±17), (49±14), (41±16), respectively) were significantly lower than those of the control group ((120±12), (59±14), (59±7) and (68±10), respectively))(Pchildren with idiopathic or probably symptomatic epilepsy. School-aged children with idiopathic or probably symptomatic epilepsy may have significantly ecological executive function impairment and social adaptive function reduction. The aspects of BRI, inhibition and working memory in ecological executive function are significantly related with social adaptive function in school-aged children with epilepsy.
Singh, Darshan; Müller, Christian P; Vicknasingam, Balasingam K; Mansor, Sharif M
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is an indigenous plant known for its traditional medicinal use, and for its addiction potential, in Southeast Asia. In recent years, kratom and its major alkaloid, mitragynine, spread worldwide with largely unknown effects on behavior and mental health. Recent studies show that kratom use can lead to dependence and that mitragynine works as an addictive drug in animal studies. Nevertheless, kratom preparations were also suggested as a less harmful substitute in opiate withdrawal. Potential side-effects of prolonged kratom use, however, are currently unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the social functioning of regular kratom users in Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in three northern states of Peninsular Malaysia investigating 293 regular kratom consumers using the Addiction Severity Index in a snowball sampling technique. Findings showed that regular kratom users do not experience major impairments in their social functioning, despite being dependent on kratom for prolonged periods. Our findings suggest that chronic kratom administration does not significantly impair social functioning of users in a natural context in Malaysia.
Turner, Brianna J; Chapman, Alexander L; Layden, Brianne K
Understanding the functions of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has important implications for the development and refinement of theoretical models and treatments of NSSI. Emotional and social vulnerabilities associated with five common functions of NSSI-emotion relief (ER), feeling generation (FG), self-punishment (SP), interpersonal influence (II), and interpersonal communication (IC)-were investigated to clarify why individuals use this behavior in the service of different purposes. Female participants (n = 162) with a history of NSSI completed online measures of self-injury, emotion regulation strategies and abilities, trait affectivity, social problem-solving styles, and interpersonal problems. ER functions were associated with more intense affectivity, expressive suppression, and limited access to emotion regulation strategies. FG functions were associated with a lack of emotional clarity. Similar to ER functions, SP functions were associated with greater affective intensity and expressive suppression. II functions were negatively associated with expressive suppression and positively associated with domineering/controlling and intrusive/needy interpersonal styles. IC functions were negatively associated with expressive suppression and positively associated with a vindictive or self-centered interpersonal style. These findings highlight the specific affective traits, emotional and social skill deficits, and interpersonal styles that may render a person more likely to engage in NSSI to achieve specific goals. © 2012 The American Association of Suicidology.
Zhang, Fan; Fung, Helene; Kwok, Timothy
The current study aims to investigate the association between subjective social status (SSS) and prospective cognitive functioning of older adults and their spouses, and to explore the potential mediating roles of health habits and physical activities in this association. Using the longitudinal data of 512 pairs of community-dwelling older couples aged 65-91 years (M = 72.2 ± 4.6), we tested the effects of SSS in cognitive functioning using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. SSS was measured by a self-anchoring social ladder, and cognitive functioning was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Socioeconomic status (i.e. education) was tested as a moderator, and physical activity (measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly) as well as health habits (i.e. tobacco and alcohol consumption) were included as potential mediators. A partner effect of SSS was found only in the low-education group, in which the wife's higher level of SSS in the community was associated with the husband's better cognitive functioning in the follow-up. A small proportion of this effect was found to be partially mediated by participation in housework, such that the wife's higher SSS was associated with the husband's increased housework activity, which was related to higher prospective cognitive functioning. By examining the dyadic effects of SSS with a longitudinal design, our findings extended the understanding on how subjective social status influenced older couples' cognitive health, and provided evidence-based insights for future studies on cognitive health in later life.
Kinsella, Elaine L; Ritchie, Timothy D; Igou, Eric R
Declaring and thinking about heroes are common human preoccupations but surprisingly aspects of heroism that reinforce these behaviors are not well-understood. In four thematically consistent studies, we attempt to identify lay perspectives about the psychological functions served by heroes. In Study 1, participants (n = 189) freely generated open-ended descriptions of hero functions, which were then sorted by independent coders into 14 categories (e.g., instill hope, guide others). In Study 2, in an attempt to identify the most important functions associated with heroes, participants (n = 249) rated how each function corresponded with their personal views about heroes. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that a three-factor model of hero functions fit the data well: participants thought that heroes enhanced the lives of others, promoted morals, and protected individuals from threats. In Study 3 (n = 242), participants rated heroes as more likely to fulfill a protecting function than either leaders or role models. In Studies 4A (n = 38) and 4B (n = 102), participants indicated that thinking about a hero (relative to a leader or an acquaintance) during psychological threat fulfilled personal enhancement, moral modeling, and protection needs. In all, these findings provide an empirical basis to spur additional research about the social and psychological functions that heroes offer.
Elaine Louise Kinsella
Full Text Available Declaring and thinking about heroes are common human preoccupations but surprisingly aspects of heroism that reinforce these behaviors are not well understood. In four thematically consistent studies, we attempt to identify lay perspectives about the psychological functions served by heroes. In Study 1, participants (N = 189 freely generated open-ended descriptions of hero functions, which were then sorted by independent coders into 14 categories (e.g., instill hope, guide others. In Study 2, in an attempt to identify the most important functions associated with heroes, participants (N = 249 rated how each function corresponded with their personal views about heroes. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that a three-factor model of hero functions fit the data well: participants thought that heroes enhanced the lives of others, promoted morals, and protected individuals from threats. In Study 3 (N = 242, participants rated heroes as more likely to fulfill a protecting function than either leaders or role models. In Studies 4a (N = 38 and 4b (N = 102, participants indicated that thinking about a hero (relative to a leader or an acquaintance during psychological threat fulfilled personal enhancement, moral modelling, and protection needs. In all, these findings provide an empirical basis to spur additional research about the social and psychological functions that heroes offer.
Novick, Andrew M; Forster, Gina L; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M; Watt, Michael J
Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to repeated social defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experience of social defeat. Given that the dopamine transporter as well as dopamine D1 receptors act as regulators of psychostimulant action, are stress sensitive and undergo changes during adolescence, quantitative autoradiography was used to measure [(3)H]-GBR12935 binding to the dopamine transporter and [(3)H]-SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors, respectively. Our results indicate that social defeat during adolescence led to higher dopamine transporter binding in the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex and higher dopamine D1 receptor binding in the caudate putamen, while other brain regions analyzed were comparable to controls. Thus it appears that social defeat during adolescence causes specific changes to the adult dopamine system, which may contribute to behavioral alterations and increased drug seeking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In travel domains, decision support systems provide support to tourists in the planning of their vacation. In particular, when the number of possible Points of Interest (POI to visit is large, the system should help tourists providing recommendations on the POI that could be more interesting for them. Since traveling is, usually, an activity that involves small groups of people, the system should take simultaneously into account the preferences of each group's member. At the same time, it also should model possible intra-group relationships, which can have an impact in the group decision-making process. In this paper, we model this problem as a multi-agent aggregation of preferences by using weighted social choice functions, whereas such weights are automatically evaluated by analyzing the interactions of the group's members on Online Social Networks.
Schonfeld, I S
In the summer following graduation a sample of 125 female college graduates (mean age = 28) completed Cohen & Wills' ISEL (1985) which includes scales measuring four social support functions: belonging (social companionship), appraisal (availability of confidants), tangible (instrumental), and self-esteem support. In the summer and fall subject status on two outcome scales was ascertained: the Psychophysiologic Symptom Scale and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Reliability of the difference scores suggested that the ISEL scales do not measure entirely different constructs and the ISEL Self-esteem Scale is operationally redundant with the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale and the CES-D. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that the ISEL scales were related to symptoms. By contrast, standard longitudinal and prospective MLR analyses indicated that only the Belonging Scale was significantly related to future symptoms. The issues of confounding support with symptoms and the dimensionality of the subscales were discussed. The study suggests that specific functions of support take on greater importance during major life transitions and that any one supportive behaviour often serves multiple functions.
Schneider, M; Reininghaus, U; van Nierop, M; Janssens, M; Myin-Germeys, I
The ecological validity of retrospective measures of social functioning is currently unknown in patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, patients with a diagnosis of non-affective psychosis were compared with controls on two measures of social functioning: the Social Functioning Scale (SFS) and daily-life measures collected with the Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM). The associations between both measures were examined in each group of participants to test for the ecological validity of the SFS. A total of 126 participants with a non-affective psychotic disorder and 109 controls completed the SFS and a 6-day momentary ESM protocol assessing various aspects of social functioning. Multiple linear and multilevel regression analyses were performed to test for group differences in social functioning level and examine associations between the two assessment techniques. Lower social functioning was observed in patients compared with controls on retrospective and momentary measures. The SFS interpersonal domain (social engagement/withdrawal and interpersonal behaviour dimensions) was associated with the percentage of time spent alone and negative appraisal of social interactions. The SFS activity domain (pro-social and recreational activities dimensions) was negatively associated with time spent in leisure activities. The SFS showed some degree of ecological validity at assessing broad aspects of social functioning. Low scores on the SFS social engagement/withdrawal and interpersonal behaviour dimensions captured social isolation and social avoidance in daily life, but not lack of interest in socializing. Ecological validity of the SFS activity domain was low. ESM offers a rich alternative to classical assessment techniques of social functioning.
Hansen, Åse Marie; Andersen, Lars Louis; Skotte, Jørgen
The objective of the present study is to analyze gender differences and social class gradients in physical functions; and to study whether the social class gradients in physical functions in midlife differed between men and women.......The objective of the present study is to analyze gender differences and social class gradients in physical functions; and to study whether the social class gradients in physical functions in midlife differed between men and women....
Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell; Fox, Kenneth R; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Thompson, Janice L
Physical activity (PA) during childhood often occurs in social contexts. As such, children's ability to develop and maintain friendship groups may be important in understanding their PA. This paper investigates the associations among children's social functioning, and physical activity and whether perceptions of social acceptance mediate any social functioning-PA association. A cross sectional survey in which 652 10-11 year olds self-reported their peer (e.g. difficulties with friends) and conduct (e.g. anger/aggression) problems, prosocial behaviours (e.g. being kind to others) and perceptions of social acceptance. Physical activity was objectively assessed by Actigraph GT1M accelerometers to estimate counts per minute, (CPM) and minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate associations between social functioning and PA. Indirect effects were analysed to explore mediation by social acceptance. Among boys, peer problems were negatively associated with CPM and MVPA and conduct problems were positively associated with CPM and MVPA. Prosocial behaviour was unrelated to PA in boys. Social functioning was not associated with PA among girls. Social acceptance did not mediate the social functioning-PA relationship. Boys' conduct and peer problems were associated positively and negatively respectively with their PA but this relationship was not mediated by perceptions of social acceptance. Future research should study alternative mediators to understand the processes underpinning this relationship.
Raval, Vaishali V.; Raval, Pratiksha H.; Deo, Neeraj
Studies examining the link between parental socialization and child functioning in varying cultural contexts are scarce. Focusing on early adolescents in suburban middle-class families in India, the present study examined interrelations among reports of mothers' socialization goals, socialization behaviors in response to child emotion, child…
Berard, Nathalie; Loutzenhiser, Lynn; Sevigny, Phillip R.; Alfano, Dennis P.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is an aetiologically complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social functioning. Children with ASD display a wide range of social competence and more variability in social domains as compared with either communication or repetitive behaviour domains. There is limited understanding of factors…
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Few authors are involved in home rehabilitation of amputees or their reintegration into the community. It has been remarked that there is a discontinuity between the phases of the amputee rehabilitation in Serbia. The aim of the study was to establish pain characteristics and functional status of amputees two months after the amputation and to determine their social function and the conditions of their habitation. Methods. This prospective observation study involved 38 elderly amputees with unilateral lower limb amputations. The patients were tested at the hospital on discharge and at their homes two months after the amputation. Pain intensity and functional status were measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS and by Functional Independence Measure (FIM. The patients’ social function was assessed using the Social Dysfunction Rating Scale (SDRS and conditions of their habitation by the self-created Scale of Conditions of Habitation (SCH. In statistic analysis we used the Student t test, χ2 test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results. The majority of patients (63% underwent below knee amputation caused by diabetes (89%. A significant number of patients (84%, χ2 = 17.78; p < 0.01 was not visited by a physiotherapist nor an occupational therapist during two months at home. In this period, the majority of the amputees (68% had phantom pain or residual limb pain (21%. Two months after amputation the pain intensity was significantly lower (VAS = 4.07±2.19; 2.34±1.41; p < 0.001, and the functional status significantly better than on discharge (FIM = 75.13±16.52; 87.87±16.48; p < 0.001. The amputees had the average level of social dysfunction (SDRS = 62.00±11.68 and conditions of habitation (SCH = 7.81±1.97. Conclusion. A total 38 elderly amputees with unilateral lower limb amputations achieved significant functional improvement and reduction of pain, in spite of their social dysfunction, the absence of socio-medical support
Adler, Matthew D; Hammitt, James K; Treich, Nicolas
We examine how different welfarist frameworks evaluate the social value of mortality risk reduction. These frameworks include classical, distributively unweighted cost-benefit analysis--i.e., the "value per statistical life" (VSL) approach-and various social welfare functions (SWFs). The SWFs are either utilitarian or prioritarian, applied to policy choice under risk in either an "ex post" or "ex ante" manner. We examine the conditions on individual utility and on the SWF under which these frameworks display sensitivity to wealth and to baseline risk. Moreover, we discuss whether these frameworks satisfy related properties that have received some attention in the literature, namely equal value of risk reduction, preference for risk equity, and catastrophe aversion. We show that the particular manner in which VSL ranks risk-reduction measures is not necessarily shared by other welfarist frameworks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Osseointegrated implants are nowadays a good therapeutic option for patients suffering from transmission or mixed hearing loss. The aims of this study are both to assess audiology benefits for patients with osseointegrated implants and quantify the change in their quality of life. Method: The study included 10 patients who were implanted in our hospital between March 2013 and September 2014. The instrument used to quantify their quality of life was the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI and a questionnaire including three questions: use of implant, postoperative pain and whether they would recommend the operation to other patients. Audiology assessment was performed through tone audiometry and free field speech audiometric testing. Results: The average total benefit score with the Glasgow Benefit Inventory was +58, and the general, social and physical scores were +75, +18 and +29, respectively. The improvement with the implant regarding free-field tonal audiometry at the frequencies of 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz was found to be statistically significant, as was the difference between verbal audiometry before and after implantation. Discussion: Improvements in surgical technique for osseointegrated implants, at present minimally invasive, foregrounds the assessment of functional and social aspects as a measure of their effectiveness. Conclusions: The use of the osseointegrated implant is related to an important improvement in the audiological level, especially in patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss, together with a great change in the quality of life of implanted patients.
Algoe, Sara B; Fredrickson, Barbara L; Gable, Shelly L
Recent theory posits that the emotion of gratitude uniquely functions to build a high-quality relationship between a grateful person and the target of his or her gratitude, that is, the person who performed a kind action (Algoe et al., 2008). Therefore, gratitude is a prime candidate for testing the dyadic question of whether one person's grateful emotion has consequences for the other half of the relational unit, the person who is the target of that gratitude. The current study tests the critical hypothesis that being the target of gratitude forecasts one's relational growth with the person who expresses gratitude. The study employed a novel behavioral task in which members of romantic relationships expressed gratitude to one another in a laboratory paradigm. As predicted, the target's greater perceptions of the expresser's responsiveness after the interaction significantly predicted improvements in relationship quality over 6 months. These effects were independent from perceptions of responsiveness following two other types of relationally important and emotionally evocative social interactions in the lab, suggesting the unique weight that gratitude carries in cultivating social bonds. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.
Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…
Wenner, C. J.; Bianchi, J.; Figueredo, A. J.; Rushton, J. Philippe; Jacobs, W. J.
The present work examined predicted relations among Life History strategies, Executive Functions, socially antagonistic attitudes, socially antagonistic behaviors, and general intelligence. Life History (LH) theory predicts that Executive Functions and socially antagonistic attitudes and behaviors underpin an interrelated and coherent set of…
Farmer, Thomas W.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lee, David L.; Hamm, Jill V.; Lambert, Kerrylin
Research on school social dynamics suggests that antisocial behavior is often supported by peer group processes particularly during late childhood and adolescence. Building from a social interactional framework, this article explores how information on the social functions of aggressive and disruptive behavior may help to guide function-based…
Ge, Shaoqing; Wu, Bei; Bailey, Donald E; Dong, XinQi
Limited research is available on the relationship between social support, social strain, and cognitive function among community-dwelling U.S. Chinese older adults. This study aims to examine the associations between social support/strain and cognitive outcomes. Data were drawn from the Population-Based Study of Chinese Elderly (N = 3,159). Cognitive function was measured by a battery of tests including the East Boston Memory Test, the Digit Span Backwards assessment, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. Social support and strain were measured by the scales drawn from the Health and Retirement study. Multiple regression analyses were conducted. Social support was significantly associated with global cognitive function (β = .11, SE = .02, p function (β = 1.44, SE = .37, p cognitive function (β = .23, SE = .05, p function (β = 2.75, SE = .85, p cognitive function (β = .04, SE = .02, p function (β = .71, SE = .29, p cognitive function (β = .10, SE = .03, p function (β = 1.28, SE = .49, p function (β = 3.59, SE = 1.17, p cognitive outcomes. Future longitudinal studies should be conducted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Bentz, Mette; Jepsen, Jens Richardt Moellegaard; Kjaersdam Telléus, Gry
Background: Young individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) or recovered from AN display impairments of social function. To date, however, it is not clear whether they differ from controls with respect to neurocognitive performance and whether those functions contribute to the compromised social fun...
Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Carter, C Sue
Prior studies have reported associations between plasma oxytocin and vasopressin and markers of social functioning. However, because most human studies have used cross-sectional designs, it is unclear whether plasma oxytocin and vasopressin influences social functioning or whether social functioning modulates the production and peripheral release of these peptides. In order to address this question, we followed individuals who experienced major changes in social functioning subsequent to the migration to a new country. In this study, 59 new international students were recruited shortly after arrival in the host country and reassessed 2 and 5 months later. At each assessment participants provided information on their current social functioning and blood samples for oxytocin and vasopressin analysis. Results indicated that changes in social functioning were not related to changes in plasma oxytocin. Instead, baseline oxytocin predicted changes in social relationship satisfaction, social support, and loneliness over time. In contrast, plasma vasopressin changed as a function of social integration. Baseline vasopressin was not related to changes in social functioning over time. These results emphasize the different roles of plasma oxytocin and vasopressin in responses to changes in social functioning in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pinkham, Amy E; Harvey, Philip D; Penn, David L
Paranoia is a common symptom of schizophrenia that may be related to how individuals process and respond to social stimuli. Previous investigations support a link between increased paranoia and greater social cognitive impairments, but these studies have been limited to single domains of social cognition, and no studies have examined how paranoia may influence functional outcome. Data from 147 individuals with schizophrenia were used to examine whether actively paranoid and non-paranoid individuals with schizophrenia differ in social cognition and functional outcomes. On measures assessing social cognitive bias, paranoid individuals endorsed more hostile and blaming attributions and identified more faces as untrustworthy; however, paranoid and non-paranoid individuals did not differ on emotion recognition and theory of mind tasks assessing social cognitive ability. Likewise, paranoid individuals showed greater impairments in real-world interpersonal relationships and social acceptability as compared to non-paranoid patients, but these differences did not extend to performance based tasks assessing functional capacity and social competence. These findings isolate specific social cognitive disparities between paranoid and non-paranoid subgroups and suggest that paranoia may exacerbate the social dysfunction that is commonly experienced by individuals with schizophrenia.
Avlund, Kirsten; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald
The aims of this article were to describe changes in social relations from ages 75 to 80, and analyze whether changes in social relations are influenced by functional ability at age 75. The study includes data from the NORA follow-up study of 75-80 year-old men and women in Jyväskylä (Finland......, close friends, acquaintances, and neighbors; 2) diversity of social relations (number of types of social contacts); 3) telephone contacts; and 4) social participation. The function of social relations was measured by instrumental social support. Functional ability was measured by tiredness and need......), Göteborg (Sweden) and Glostrup (Denmark). The present analyses include the 743 persons who participated in both studies and who answered the questions about social relations. The structure of social relations was measured by: 1) frequency of contacts with children, grand/greatgrandchildren, relatives...
Full Text Available Rights of property are the main prerequisites for the existence of any political society, as it is an objective necessity for their normal functioning and continuity. Property and right of property are the constituent of autonomous life in the realization of the world of individual or collective goals, without the protection and guarantee of which, it is oft en stated that the respect and enjoyment of the entirety of other constitutional rights cannot be imagined. Rights of property are presented and considered as one of the most important issues of legal and political doctrines, and it represents one of the fundamental issues of national and international policy. The classic liberal property concept has dominated the modern legal and political debates and imagination. The property institution is oft en conceived as a quasi absolute subjective right, a concept that, in the modern era, competes with alternative concepts that have influenced both state policies and modern legal culture and consciousness, the consequences of which are reflected in legal systems. One of the most influential alternative concepts is the social function of property,1 of course in modern legal culture the property is understood as an individual right, limited not only by the rights of others, but also by the public interest. Thus, modern legal thinking, although it regards it as a basic element of the normal functioning of the Rule of Law, the private property institution has given a new emphasis to this right, altering the basis for the attribution of property power by the fact that, the relation of the individual to his/ her personality in a social organization, is considered as substantive to the juridical order, therefore the volume of ownership power may not be more unconditional. The social function cannot be identified with the external limitation of ownership which is reserved to collectivity, but it is presented as an elitist, unifying expression of the
Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Pantic, Maja; Bourlard, Hervé; Pentland, Alex
Social Signal Processing (SSP) aims at the analysis of social behaviour in both Human-Human and Human-Computer interactions. SSP revolves around automatic sensing and interpretation of social signals, complex aggregates of nonverbal behaviours through which individuals express their attitudes
Romer, Natalie; Ravitch, N. Kathryn; Tom, Karalyn; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Wesley, Katherine L.
We investigated gender differences of children and adolescents on positive social and emotional competencies using a new strength-based measure of positive social-emotional attributes and resilience--the Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales (SEARS) cross-informant system. Caregivers, teachers, and students in grades kindergarten through…
Holloway, Jamie M; Long, Toby M; Biasini, Fred
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between gross motor skills and social function in young boys with autism spectrum disorder. Twenty-one children with autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition and the Miller Function and Participation Scales were used to assess gross motor skills. The Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales was used to assess social function. Moderately high correlations were found between overall gross motor and social skills (r = 0.644) and between the core stability motor subtest and overall social skills (r = -0.672). Specific motor impairments in stability, motor accuracy, and object manipulation scores were predictive of social function. This study suggests that motor skills and social function are related in young boys with autism. Implications for physical therapy intervention are also discussed.
Amy E. Pinkham; Philip D. Harvey; David L. Penn
Paranoia is a common symptom of schizophrenia that may be related to how individuals process and respond to social stimuli. Previous investigations support a link between increased paranoia and greater social cognitive impairments, but these studies have been limited to single domains of social cognition, and no studies have examined how paranoia may influence functional outcome. Data from 147 individuals with schizophrenia were used to examine whether actively paranoid and non-paranoid indiv...
Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter
Although the clinical utility of the functional analysis is well established, its social acceptability has received minimal attention. The current study assessed the social acceptability of functional analysis procedures among 10 parents and 3 teachers of children who had recently received functional analyses. Participants completed a 9-item…
Jahja, Rianne; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; de Sonneville, Leo M. J.; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Bosch, Annet M.; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. Estela; Brouwers, Martijn C. G. J.; Hofstede, Floris C.; de Vries, Maaike C.; Janssen, Mirian C. H.; van der Ploeg, Ans T.; Langendonk, Janneke G.; Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.
Early treatment of phenylketonuria (ET-PKU) prevents mental retardation, but many patients still show cognitive and mood problems. In this study, it was investigated whether ET-PKU-patients have specific phenylalanine (Phe-)related problems with respect to social-cognitive functioning and social
Manning, Margaret M; Wainwright, Laurel D
Play and social abilities of a group of children diagnosed with high functioning autism were compared to a second group diagnosed with a variety of developmental language disorders (DLD). The children with autism engaged in fewer acts of high level play. The children with autism also had significantly lower social functioning than the DLD group early in the play session; however, these differences were no longer apparent by the end of the play session. In addition, a significant association existed between play and social functioning regardless of diagnosis. This suggests that play may act as a current indicator of social ability while providing an arena for social skills practice.
Martins-Júnior, P A; Marques, L S; Ramos-Jorge, M L
To determine the association between types of malocclusion and quality of life in children between 8-10 years of age and establish correlations between the severity of the malocclusion and particular bio-psychosocial variables. The sample was made up of 102 schoolchildren aged 8-10 years. Clinical exams were performed using the criteria of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) to determine the presence and severity of malocclusions. The impact on quality of life was assessed using the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10). Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and Spearman's correlation analysis. Malocclusions affected 61% of the children examined. There was a positive correlation between total CPQ8-10 and DAI scores (P = 0.034). The following types of malocclusion had a significant effect on the quality of life of the children: upper anterior irregularity > or = 2 mm, anterior open bite > or = 2 mm and diastema > or = 2 mm. Children with malocclusion experienced a greater negative impact on quality of life in comparison to those without malocclusion. Malocclusions had a negative influence over the quality of life of children between 8-10 years of age. More severe malocclusions had a greater impact with regard to social, emotional and functional aspects.
Jahja, Rianne; van Spronsen, Francjan J; de Sonneville, Leo M J; van der Meere, Jaap J; Bosch, Annet M; Hollak, Carla E M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Brouwers, Martijn C G J; Hofstede, Floris C; de Vries, Maaike C; Janssen, Mirian C H; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Langendonk, Janneke G; Huijbregts, Stephan C J
Early treatment of phenylketonuria (ET-PKU) prevents mental retardation, but many patients still show cognitive and mood problems. In this study, it was investigated whether ET-PKU-patients have specific phenylalanine (Phe-)related problems with respect to social-cognitive functioning and social skills. Ninety five PKU-patients (mean age 21.6 ± 10.2 years) and 95 healthy controls (mean age 19.6 ± 8.7 years) were compared on performance of computerized and paper-and-pencil tasks measuring social-cognitive abilities and on parent- and self-reported social skills, using multivariate analyses of variance, and controlling for general cognitive ability (IQ-estimate). Further comparisons were made between patients using tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4, N = 30) and patients not using BH4. Associations with Phe-levels on the day of testing, during childhood, during adolescence and throughout life were examined. PKU-patients showed poorer social-cognitive functioning and reportedly had poorer social skills than controls (regardless of general cognitive abilities). Quality of social-cognitive functioning was negatively related to recent Phe-levels and Phe-levels between 8 and 12 years for adolescents with PKU. Quality of social skills was negatively related to lifetime phenylalanine levels in adult patients, and specifically to Phe-levels between 0 and 7, and between 8 and 12 years. There were no differences with respect to social outcome measures between the BH4 and non-BH4 groups. PKU-patients have Phe-related difficulties with social-cognitive functioning and social skills. Problems seem to be more evident among adolescents and adults with PKU. High Phe-levels during childhood and early adolescence seem to be of greater influence than current and recent Phe-levels for these patients.
Lenior, M. E.; Dingemans, P. M.; Linszen, D. H.; de Haan, L.; Schene, A. H.
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia implies severe social impairments. Since the treatment of patients with schizophrenia shifted from long-term hospital admissions to community services, research on social functioning has become increasingly important. AIMS: Follow-up assessment of social functioning in
Full Text Available Executive function (EF refers to the ability to execute appropriate actions and to inhibit inappropriate actions for the attainment of a specific goal. Research has shown that this ability develops rapidly during the preschool years. Recently, it has been proposed that research on executive function should consider the importance of social interaction. In this article, recent evidence regarding the early development of executive function and its relation to social interaction has been reviewed. Research consistently showed that social interaction can influence executive function skills in young children. However, the development of executive function may facilitate the cognitive skills that are important for social interaction. Taken together, there might be functional dependency between the development of executive function and social interaction.
Xiang, Yu-Tao; Shum, David; Chiu, Helen F K; Tang, Wai-Kwong; Ungvari, Gabor S
The objective of this study was to explore the influence of socio-demographic and clinical factors and neurocognitive variables (i.e. prospective and retrospective memory, executive functioning, and intelligence) on social functioning in Chinese schizophrenia patients. The study sample comprised 110 Chinese schizophrenia patients. Their clinical condition and social functioning were evaluated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Functional Needs Assessment (FNA), respectively. Three prospective memory (PM) tasks (time-, event-, and activity-based), three tests of executive functioning (the Design Fluency Test [DFT], Tower of London [TOL], and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [WCST]), one test of intelligence (Raven's Progressive Matrices), and two retrospective memory (RM) tasks (the immediate and delayed recall conditions of the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scales-Revised [WMS-R]) were administered to all patients. In correlation analyses higher education and better performance on the WCST (categories completed) and the Logical Memory subtests (delayed and immediate) of the WMS-R are significantly correlated with better social functioning, whereas a lower WCST score (perseverative errors) and more severe negative symptoms are associated with poorer social functioning. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that higher education and a lower WCST score (perseverative errors) independently contribute to better social functioning. Unexpectedly, most socio-demographic and clinical factors do not seem to have a significant impact on social functioning of Chinese schizophrenia patients living in a Chinese society. Negative symptoms and certain cognitive deficits were the main predictors of social functioning and they should be the main targets for antipsychotic treatment and psychosocial interventions to improve social adjustment in Chinese schizophrenia patients.
Cacciotti-Saija, Cristina; Langdon, Robyn; Ward, Philip B; Hickie, Ian B; Guastella, Adam J
Although well established in chronic schizophrenia, the key determinants of functioning remain unknown during the early phase of a psychotic disorder. The aim of this study was to comprehensively examine the social cognitive, basic neurocognitive and clinical predictors of concurrent social functioning and global functioning in an early psychosis sample. This study examined the relationship between social cognition, basic neurocognition and clinical symptoms with concurrent functioning in 51 early psychosis individuals. Assessments included a range of self-report, observational and clinician-rated measures of cognitive, symptom severity and functioning domains. Results revealed a significant association between self-reported social function and lower levels of both social interaction anxiety and negative psychotic symptoms. A significant association was also observed between lower levels of negative psychotic symptoms and observed social functioning. Lastly, results demonstrated a significant association between reduced negative psychotic symptoms and clinician-rated global functioning. Clinical domains such as negative symptoms and social interaction anxiety significantly contribute to an optimal model predicting outcome during the early phase of a psychotic disorder. These clinical features may also provide useful markers of an individual's capacity for social participation. Clinical implications include the need for early targeted intervention to address social anxiety and negative psychotic symptoms to facilitate optimum patient outcome. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Riby, Deborah M.; Hanley, Mary; Kirk, Hannah; Clark, Fiona; Little, Katie; Fleck, Ruth; Janes, Emily; Kelso, Linzi; O'Kane, Fionnuala; Cole-Fletcher, Rachel; Allday, Marianne Hvistendahl; Hocking, Darren; Cornish, Kim; Rodgers, Jacqui
The developmental disorder Williams syndrome (WS) has been associated with an atypical social profile of hyper-sociability and heightened social sensitivity across the developmental spectrum. In addition, previous research suggests that both children and adults with WS have a predisposition towards anxiety. The current research aimed to explore…
Doherty, Brianna Ruth; Patai, Eva Zita; Duta, Mihaela; Nobre, Anna Christina; Scerif, Gaia
Cognitive scientists have long proposed that social stimuli attract visual attention even when task irrelevant, but the consequences of this privileged status for memory are unknown. To address this, we combined computational approaches, eye-tracking methodology, and individual-differences measures. Participants searched for targets in scenes containing social or non-social distractors equated for low-level visual salience. Subsequent memory precision for target locations was tested. Individual differences in autistic traits and social anxiety were also measured. Eye-tracking revealed significantly more attentional capture to social compared to non-social distractors. Critically, memory precision for target locations was poorer for social scenes. This effect was moderated by social anxiety, with anxious individuals remembering target locations better under conditions of social distraction. These findings shed further light onto the privileged attentional status of social stimuli and its functional consequences on memory across individuals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene
The relationship of social networks and social support to the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and hostility) of 159 American Indian women undergoing residential substance abuse treatment at Native American Connections was assessed. Social support and active participation by clients' families during…
BIJSTRA, JO; BOSMA, HA; JACKSON, S
This study discusses the relationship between adolescents' social skills and four indicators of psycho-social functioning, viz. self-esteem, well-being, coping and social support. A total of 660 adolescents, 13-15 years of age, responded to a series of self-report measures which referred to these
Zsolnai, Anikó; Kasik, László
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the social skills that crucially affect children's social behaviour in the school. Our objective was to gather information about the functioning of social skills from middle childhood to early adolescence. The sample consisted of 7-, 9-, and 11-year-old Hungarian students (N = 1398). Based on…
Khodaie, Babak; Lotfinia, Ahmad Ali; Ahmadi, Milad; Lotfinia, Mahmoud; Jafarian, Maryam; Karimzadeh, Fariba; Coulon, Philippe; Gorji, Ali
Social isolation has significant long-term psychological and physiological consequences. Both social isolation and traumatic brain injury (TBI) alter normal brain function and structure. However, the influence of social isolation on recovery from TBI is unclear. This study aims to evaluate if social isolation exacerbates the anatomical and functional deficits after TBI in young rats. Juvenile male rats were divided into four groups; sham operated control with social contacts, sham control with social isolation, TBI with social contacts, and TBI with social isolation. During four weeks after brain injury in juvenile rats, we evaluated the animal behaviors by T-maze and open-field tests, recorded brain activity with electrocorticograms and assessed structural changes by histological procedures in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, CA1, and CA3 areas. Our findings revealed significant memory impairments and hyperactivity conditions in rats with TBI and social isolation compared to the other groups. Histological assessments showed an increase of the mean number of dark neurons, apoptotic cells, and caspase-3 positive cells in all tested areas of the hippocampus in TBI rats with and without social isolation compared to sham rats. Furthermore, social isolation significantly increased the number of dark cells, apoptotic neurons, and caspase-3 positive cells in the hippocampal CA3 region in rats with TBI. This study indicates the harmful effect of social isolation on anatomical and functional deficits induced by TBI in juvenile rats. Prevention of social isolation may improve the outcome of TBI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Teles, Magda C; Almeida, Olinda; Lopes, João S; Oliveira, Rui F
According to the social decision-making (SDM) network hypothesis, SDM is encoded in a network of forebrain and midbrain structures in a distributed and dynamic fashion, such that the expression of a given social behaviour is better reflected by the overall profile of activation across the different loci rather than by the activity of a single node. This proposal has the implicit assumption that SDM relies on integration across brain regions, rather than on regional specialization. Here we tested the occurrence of functional localization and of functional connectivity in the SDM network. For this purpose we used zebrafish to map different social behaviour states into patterns of neuronal activity, as indicated by the expression of the immediate early genes c-fos and egr-1, across the SDM network. The results did not support functional localization, as some loci had similar patterns of activity associated with different social behaviour states, and showed socially driven changes in functional connectivity. Thus, this study provides functional support to the SDM network hypothesis and suggests that the neural context in which a given node of the network is operating (i.e. the state of its interconnected areas) is central to its functional relevance. © 2015 The Author(s).
Berenguer, Carmen; Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Baixauli, Inmaculada; Roselló, Belén
Social difficulties are a key aspect of autism, but the intervening factors are still poorly understood. This study had two objectives: to compare the profile of ToM skills, executive functioning (EF), and pragmatic competence (PC) of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and children with typical development (TD), and analyze their mediator role in social functioning. The participants were 52 children with HFA and 37 children with TD matched on age, intelligence quotient, and expressive vocabulary. Significant differences were found on measures of ToM, both explicit and applied, EF, and PC between children with HFA and TD. Multiple mediation analysis revealed that applied ToM skills and PC mediated the relations between autism symptoms and social functioning. Implications for social cognitive interventions to address these findings are discussed.
Husson, Olga; Zebrack, Bradley J; Aguilar, Christine; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Cole, Steve
The objective of the current study was to examine social functioning among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) within the first 2 years after a cancer diagnosis and compare their scores with population norms and identify trajectories of social functioning over time and its correlates. A multicenter, longitudinal study was conducted among 215 AYA patients with cancer aged 14 to 39 years. A total of 141 patients completed a self-report measure of social functioning within the first 4 months of diagnosis and again at 12 months and 24 months later. AYA patients with cancer were found to have significantly worse social functioning scores around the time of diagnosis (52.0 vs 85.1; Pcancer who had consistently low social functioning were more often off treatment at the time of follow-up, reported more physical symptoms and higher levels of distress at baseline and follow-up, and perceived less social support at baseline compared with the other 3 groups. Although improved over time, social functioning still was found to be compromised 24 months after the primary diagnosis. Nearly one-third of these patients remain at risk of poor social functioning. Reducing physical symptoms and psychological distress and enhancing social support by interventions during the period after treatment may potentially help these young survivors to better reintegrate into society. Cancer 2017;123:2743-51. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Wong, Nina; Beidel, Deborah C.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Sims, Valerie
Recognizing facial affect is essential for effective social functioning. This study examines emotion recognition abilities in children aged 7-13 years with High Functioning Autism (HFA = 19), Social Phobia (SP = 17), or typical development (TD = 21). Findings indicate that all children identified certain emotions more quickly (e.g., happy [less…
Passchier, J.; van den Elzen, M.E.; Versnel, S.L.; Hovius, S.E.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Mathijssen, I.M.
This study evaluates the impact of congenital and acquired facial disfigurement on social functioning in adults and whether this differs from adults without facial disfigurement. Moreover, the predictive value of objective and subjective appearance on social functioning is explored. Fifty-nine
The present study examined the effectiveness of interpersonal group therapy designed to improve self-esteem and social functioning in college students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Participants with documented ADHD diagnoses completed self-report measures of self-esteem and social functioning at the initiation of the study,…
Mikami, Amori Yee; Ransone, Megan L.; Calhoun, Casey D.
Objective: This investigation examined the contribution of anxiety to the social functioning of children with and without ADHD. Method: Participants were 62 children with ADHD (ages 6-10 years and 68% boys) and 62 age- and sex-matched comparison children. Children's social functioning was measured through parent and teacher reports, observations…
Lordo, Danielle N.; Bertolin, Madison; Sudikoff, Eliana L.; Keith, Cierra; Braddock, Barbara; Kaufman, David A. S.
The current study examined the effectiveness of a social skills treatment (PEERS) for improving socio-emotional competencies in a sample of high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Neuropsychological and self- and parent-report measures assessing social, emotional, and behavioral functioning were administered before and after treatment. Following…
Becker, Stephen P; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W; Girio-Herrera, Erin; Vaughn, Aaron J
The present study examined anxiety and depressive symptoms in relation to the social functioning of young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and builds upon prior work by incorporating youths' self-reports of internalizing symptoms and examining distinct anxiety and depression dimensions to increase specificity. Participants were 310 young adolescents (ages 10-14; 71% male, 78% Caucasian) diagnosed with ADHD. Youth provided ratings of anxiety/depression, and parents provided ratings of their own depression. Parents and youth both reported on youths' social skills and perceived social acceptance. Path analyses indicated that above and beyond child demographics, ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptom severity, and parents' own depression, self-reported social anxiety and anhedonia were both associated with lower youth-reported social skills and both parent- and youth-reported social acceptance. Negative self-evaluation was associated with poorer parent-reported social skills. Finally, harm avoidance was positively associated with both youth- and parent-reported social skills. A path analysis using comorbid diagnoses (rather than symptom dimensions) indicated that that having a comorbid disruptive behavior disorder or depression diagnosis (but not a comorbid anxiety diagnosis) was associated with poorer parent-reported social functioning. Results demonstrate that the relation between internalizing symptoms and social functioning among young adolescents with ADHD is nuanced, with social anxiety and anhedonia symptoms associated with lower social skills and social acceptance in contrast to harm avoidance being associated with higher ratings of social skills (and unrelated to social acceptance). In terms of comorbid diagnoses, depression is more clearly related than anxiety to poorer social functioning among young adolescents with ADHD. These results point to the importance of attending to specific facets of anxiety and depression in
Debiec, Jacek; Olsson, Andreas
Learning about potential threats is critical for survival. Learned fear responses are acquired either through direct experiences or indirectly through social transmission. Social fear learning (SFL), also known as vicarious fear learning, is a paradigm successfully used for studying the transmission of threat information between individuals. Animal and human studies have begun to elucidate the behavioral, neural and molecular mechanisms of SFL. Recent research suggests that social learning mechanisms underlie a wide range of adaptive and maladaptive phenomena, from supporting flexible avoidance in dynamic environments to intergenerational transmission of trauma and anxiety disorders. This review discusses recent advances in SFL studies and their implications for basic, social and clinical sciences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sacchetti, Gina M; Lefler, Elizabeth K
ADHD is no longer considered a disorder that children simply outgrow. Adults experience ADHD at high rates (2.5%-5%) and are impaired in multiple life domains, including social impairment. The purpose of this study was to examine emerging adults with varying degrees of ADHD symptomology in respect to social impairment, state and trait anger, romantic relationship satisfaction, and intimate partner violence (IPV). College students, a subset of emerging adults, were recruited to complete measures online. Data were analyzed using a series of multiple regressions. Higher levels of ADHD symptomology in college students were related to increased social impairment and higher levels of state and trait anger, but not romantic relationship satisfaction or rates of IPV. Anger management and social skills training may be beneficial treatment components for this group.
Fransson, Mari; Granqvist, Pehr; Marciszko, Carin; Hagekull, Berit; Bohlin, Gunilla
The aim of the present study (N = 69) was to examine whether middle childhood attachment, measured using the Separation Anxiety Test (Slough, Goyette & Greenberg, 1988), predicts aspects of social functioning (social initiative, prosocial orientation, social anxiety, loneliness) in young adulthood. Insecurity-avoidance at age 8.5 years was, as expected, negatively related to social initiative and prosocial orientation, and was also positively related to social anxiety and loneliness at age 21 years. In addition, insecurity-avoidance contributed to developmental change in social anxiety from middle childhood to young adulthood. Contrary to our expectations, the two security scales were generally unrelated to future social functioning. Taken together, these results extend previous research by showing that insecurity-avoidance is related to social functioning also beyond childhood and adolescence, and that it contributes to developmental change in social functioning over time. The scarcity of prospective links for the attachment security scales points to the need for future studies addressing when and why attachment does not contribute to future social functioning. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Alea, Nicole; Bluck, Susan
In an effort to stimulate and guide empirical work within a functional framework, this paper provides a conceptual model of the social functions of autobiographical memory (AM) across the lifespan. The model delineates the processes and variables involved when AMs are shared to serve social functions. Components of the model include: lifespan contextual influences, the qualitative characteristics of memory (emotionality and level of detail recalled), the speaker's characteristics (age, gender, and personality), the familiarity and similarity of the listener to the speaker, the level of responsiveness during the memory-sharing process, and the nature of the social relationship in which the memory sharing occurs (valence and length of the relationship). These components are shown to influence the type of social function served and/or, the extent to which social functions are served. Directions for future empirical work to substantiate the model and hypotheses derived from the model are provided.
Can, Ganime; Tanrıverdi, Derya
The aim of this descriptive study was to determine social functioning and internalized stigma in individuals with substance use disorder. The study sample consisted of 105 patients diagnosed with substance use disorder according to the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria. A Descriptive Information Form, Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMI) and Social Functioning Scale (SFS) were used for data collection. Average total SFS score of the patients was 103.25±25.09 points, indicating an intermediate level of social functioning. Average total ISMI score of patients was 2.92±0.48 points, reflecting a high level of internalized stigma. A negative significant association was observed between the internalized stigma levels and social functioning of patients. These results suggest that rehabilitation of substance users should include counseling services in order to reduce internal perception of stigma and improve their social functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wolfe, Kelly R.; Walsh, Karin S.; Reynolds, Nina C.; Mitchell, Frances; Reddy, Alyssa T.; Paltin, Iris; Madan-Swain, Avi
Medical advances have resulted in increased survival rates for children with brain tumors. Consequently, issues related to survivorship have become more critical. The use of multimodal treatment, in particular cranial radiation therapy, has been associated with subsequent cognitive decline. Specifically, deficits in executive functions have been reported in survivors of various types of pediatric brain tumor. Survivors are left with difficulties, particularly in self-monitoring, initiation, inhibition, and planning, to name a few. Another domain in which survivors of pediatric brain tumor have been reported to show difficulty is that of social skills. Parents, teachers, and survivors themselves have reported decreased social functioning following treatment. Deficits in executive functions and social skills are likely interrelated in this population, as executive skills are needed to navigate various aspects of social interaction; however, this has yet to be studied empirically. Twenty-four survivors of pediatric brain tumor were assessed using a computerized task of executive functions, as well as paper and pencil measures of social skills and real world executive skills. Social functioning was related to a specific aspect of executive functions, i.e., the survivors’ variability in response time, such that inconsistent responding was associated with better parent-report and survivor-report social skills, independent of intellectual abilities. Additionally, parent-reported real-world global executive abilities predicted parent-reported social skills. The implications of these findings for social skills interventions and future research are discussed. PMID:22420326
Frith, Emily; Loprinzi, Paul D
We evaluated the association between physical activity and cognitive function among a national sample of the broader U.S. adult population, with consideration by social risk. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to identify 2031 older adults, ages 60-85. Social risk was classified by measuring four NHANES variables, namely poverty level, education, minority status, and social living status, which were graded on a scale of 0-4, with higher scores corresponding with higher social risk. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) was used to assess cognitive function. Physical activity was assessed via a validated self-report questionnaire. After adjustments, meeting physical activity guidelines (vs not) was associated with greater cognitive function (β = 3.0, 95% CI [1.5, 4.4], p cognitive function. Meeting physical activity guidelines (vs. not) was not associated with higher cognitive function among those with a social risk score of of 3 (β = -0.01; 95% CI [-6.3, 6.4], p = 0.99) or a social risk score of 4 (β = -6.8, 95% CI [-15.7, 2.0], p = 0.12). In this national sample of older adults, meeting physical activity guidelines, and degree of social risk were independently associated with cognitive function. However, physical activity was not associated with cognitive function among older adults with the highest degree of social risk.
Robinson, Kristen E; Fountain-Zaragoza, Stephanie; Dennis, Maureen; Taylor, H Gerry; Bigler, Erin D; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen
This study examined whether executive function and theory of mind mediate the effects of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on social adjustment, relative to children with orthopedic injury (OI). Participants included 19 children with severe TBI, 41 children with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 57 children with OI. They completed measures of executive function, as well as cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind. Parents provided ratings of children's social adjustment. Children with severe TBI performed more poorly than children with OI on executive function and theory of mind tasks and were rated by parents as having more behavioral symptoms and worse communication and social skills. Executive function and theory of mind were positively correlated with social skills and communication skills, and negatively correlated with behavioral symptoms. In multiple mediator models, theory of mind and executive function were not significant direct predictors of any measure of social adjustment, but mediated the association between injury and adjustment for children with severe TBI. Theory of mind was a significant independent mediator when predicting social skills, but executive function was not. TBI in children, particularly severe injury, is associated with poor social adjustment. The impact of TBI on children's social adjustment is likely mediated by its effects on executive function and theory of mind.
Social media hold enormous potentials as a communication tool for health care due to its interactive nature. However, prior research mainly focused on contingency interactivity of social media, by examining messages sent from health care organizations to audiences, while little is known about functional interactivity, which refers to social media's presence of functions for facilitating communication between users and its interface. That is, how health care organizations use interactive features on social media to communicate with the public. Thus, with a general basis of the functional interactivity framework proposed by Waters et al. (Engaging stakeholders through social networking: how nonprofit organizations are using Facebook. Pub Relat Rev 2009;35:102-106), the current study investigated three aspects of functional interactivity in microblogging, and its subsequent effects. Specifically, this study analyzed 500 Chinese hospitals' profiles on Sina Weibo, the most popular microblogging platform in China. The results showed that the most common functional interactivity feature was organization disclosure, followed by information dissemination, and audience involvement. These interactive features all positively predicted the number of followers. Also, Chinese private hospitals scored significantly higher than public hospitals to use interactive features offered by social media. The findings of this study provide important implications for health care organizations to understand new communicative functions available on social media, incorporate more functions into their profiles and thus provide audiences with greater opportunity to interact with them via social media. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The First Episode Social Functioning Scale (FESFS was designed to measure social functioning of young individuals with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to validate a Chinese version of the FESFS in a sample of young Chinese adults. METHOD: The FESFS was translated to Chinese prior to being administered to 1576 college students. The factor structure, reliability, and validity of the scale were examined. RESULTS: Two items were deleted after item analysis and the internal consistency of the whole scale was .89. A six-factor structure was derived by exploratory factor analysis. The factors were interpersonal, family and friends, school, living skills, intimacy, and balance. Estimates of the structural equation model supported this structure, with Goodness of Fit Chi-Square χ(2 = 1097.53 (p<0.0001, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = 0.058, and the comparative fit index (CFI = 0.93. Scale validity was supported by significant correlations between social functioning factors scores and schizophrenia personality questionnaire (SPQ scores. Individuals with schizotypal personality features presented poorer social functioning than those without schizotypal personality features. CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese revised version of the FESFS was found to have good psychometric properties and could be used in the future to examine social functioning in Chinese college students.
Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Fulford, Daniel; Swendsen, Joel
Research concerning the complex interplay between factors that contribute to poor social functioning in schizophrenia has been hampered by limitations of traditional measures, most notably the ecological validity and accuracy of retrospective self-report and interview measures. Computerized Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMAc) permits the real-time assessment of relationships between daily life experiences, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In the current study, EMAc was used to record daily social interactions, subjective performance appraisals of these interactions (e.g., "I succeeded/failed"; "I was liked/rejected"), and affect in 145 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants completed electronic questionnaires on a personal digital assistant (PDA) four times per day for one week. Time-lagged multilevel modeling of the data revealed that more positive interaction appraisals at any point in a day were associated with greater positive affect which, in turn, was a strong predictor of more social interactions over subsequent hours. Social functioning, therefore, was linked to positive performance beliefs about social interactions that were associated with greater positive affect. The findings suggest a useful treatment target for cognitive behavioral therapy and other psychosocial interventions that can be used to challenge defeatist beliefs and increase positive affect to enhance social functioning in schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier B.V.
N Lordo, Danielle; Bertolin, Madison; L Sudikoff, Eliana; Keith, Cierra; Braddock, Barbara; Kaufman, David A S
The current study examined the effectiveness of a social skills treatment (PEERS) for improving socio-emotional competencies in a sample of high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Neuropsychological and self- and parent-report measures assessing social, emotional, and behavioral functioning were administered before and after treatment. Following social skills treatment, adolescents with ASD exhibited decreased aggression, anxiety, and withdrawal, as well as improvements in emotional responsiveness, adaptability, leadership, and participation in activities of daily living, though no change was found in affect recognition abilities. These findings suggest that PEERS social skills treatment improves particular aspects of emotional, behavioral, and social functioning that may be necessary for developing and maintaining quality peer relationships and remediating social isolation in adolescents with ASD.
Results. Patients' estimates of their own social functioning were not significantly different from examiners' estimates. The impact of clinical variables on social functioning in PD revealed depression to be the strongest association of social functioning in PD on both the patient and the examiner version of the Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale. Conclusions. PD patients appear to be well aware of their social strengths and weaknesses. Depression and motor symptom severity are significant predictors of both self- and examiner reported social functioning in patients with PD. Assessment and treatment of depression in patients with PD may improve social functioning and overall quality of life.
Hensler, Molly; Wolfe, Kelly; Lebensburger, Jeffrey; Nieman, Jilian; Barnes, Margaux; Nolan, William; King, Allison; Madan-Swain, Avi
To explore the relationship between executive function (EF) and social skills in youth with sickle cell disease (SCD). 20 youth with SCD completed objective tests of EF (Tasks of Executive Control; Animal Sorting subtest from the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment-Second Edition), an IQ screener, and paper-and-pencil measures of social skills (Social Skills Improvement System [SSIS]). Primary caregivers completed paper-and-pencil measures of EF (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function) and social skills (SSIS). EF scores from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function related to parent- and child-reported social skills such that EF deficits correlated with poorer overall and domain-specific social skills. Similarly, EF scores from the Animal Sorting test related to child-reported social skills. Worse parent-reported EF predicted worse parent-reported social skills above the variance accounted for by IQ. EF is related to social skills and may be necessary for successful social interaction among youth with SCD. These results provide rationale and guidance for future larger-scale investigations of EF and social skills among children with SCD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Berenguer, Carmen; Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Baixauli, Inmaculada; Roselló, Belén
Social difficulties are a key aspect of autism, but the intervening factors are still poorly understood. This study had two objectives: to compare the profile of ToM skills, executive functioning (EF), and pragmatic competence (PC) of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and children with typical development (TD), and analyze their mediator…
Full Text Available Shiho Ubukata,1,2 Rumi Tanemura,2 Miho Yoshizumi,1 Genichi Sugihara,1 Toshiya Murai,1 Keita Ueda1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 2Department of Rehabilitation Science, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan Abstract: Deficits in social cognition are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, little is known about how such deficits affect functional outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social cognition and functional outcomes in patients with TBI. We studied this relationship in 20 patients with TBI over the course of 1 year post-injury. Patients completed neurocognitive assessments and social cognition tasks. The social cognition tasks included an emotion-perception task and three theory of mind tasks: the Faux Pas test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes (Eyes test, and the Moving-Shapes paradigm. The Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique was used to assess functional outcomes. Compared with our database of normal subjects, patients showed impairments in all social cognition tasks. Multiple regression analysis revealed that theory of mind ability as measured by the Eyes test was the best predictor of the cognitive aspects of functional outcomes. The findings of this pilot study suggest that the degree to which a patient can predict what others are thinking is an important measure that can estimate functional outcomes over 1 year following TBI. Keywords: Eyes test, social emotion perception, social function, social participation, theory of mind
Cassandra L. Brown
Full Text Available Social activity is typically viewed as part of an engaged lifestyle that may help mitigate the deleterious effects of advanced age on cognitive function. As such, social activity has been examined in relation to cognitive abilities later in life. However, longitudinal evidence for this hypothesis thus far remains inconclusive. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between social activity and cognitive function over time using a coordinated data analysis approach across four longitudinal studies. A series of multilevel growth models with social activity included as a covariate is presented. Four domains of cognitive function were assessed: reasoning, memory, fluency, and semantic knowledge. Results suggest that baseline social activity is related to some, but not all, cognitive functions. Baseline social activity levels failed to predict rate of decline in most cognitive abilities. Changes in social activity were not consistently associated with cognitive functioning. Our findings do not provide consistent evidence that changes in social activity correspond to immediate benefits in cognitive functioning, except perhaps for verbal fluency.
Borowski, Sarah K.; Zeman, Janice; Braunstein, Kara
Best friend expected emotion socialization responses were examined as a potential explanation for the link between social anxiety and youths' friendship quality and dysfunctional emotion regulation (ER). A community sample of 202 young adolescents ([X-bar][subscript age] = 12.66; 52.5% girls, 75.7% White) within 101 same-sex, reciprocated best…
David L. Roberts
Full Text Available Efforts to use cognitive remediation in psychosocial intervention for schizophrenia have increasingly incorporated social cognition as a treatment target. A distinction can be made in this work between “broad-based” interventions, which integrate social cognitive training within a multicomponent suite of intervention techniques and “targeted” interventions; which aim to enhance social cognition alone. Targeted interventions have the potential advantage of being more efficient than broad-based interventions; however, they also face difficult challenges. In particular, targeted interventions may be less likely to achieve maintenance and generalization of gains made in treatment. A novel potential solution to this problem is described which draws on the social psychological literature on social cognition.
van der Horst, Ruud; Snijders, Tom; Volker, Beate; Spreen, Marinus; Völker, B.
The major aim of the treatment of forensic psychiatric patients is to reduce risk of future violence by means of a positive change in the factors associated with the offence. In this article, we argue that information on patients' social network patterns and the content of their relationships
Highhouse, Scott; Thornbury, Erin E.; Little, Ian S.
This article examines the self-presentation goals that underlie attraction to organizations. Expanding on Lievens and Highhouse's (2003) instrumental vs. symbolic classification of corporate attributes, a theory of symbolic attraction is presented that posits social-identity consciousness as a moderator of the relation between symbolic inferences…
Todorov, Alexander; Olivola, Christopher Y; Dotsch, Ron|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328554197; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter
Since the early twentieth century, psychologists have known that there is consensus in attributing social and personality characteristics from facial appearance. Recent studies have shown that surprisingly little time and effort are needed to arrive at this consensus. Here we review recent research
Leung, Rachel C; Vogan, Vanessa M; Powell, Tamara L; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Taylor, Margot J
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by socio-communicative impairments. Executive dysfunction may explain some key characteristics of ASD, both social and nonsocial hallmarks. Limited research exists exploring the relations between executive function and social impairment in ASD and few studies have used a comparison control group. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the relations between executive functioning using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF), social impairment as measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and overall autistic symptomology as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in children and adolescents with and without ASD. Seventy children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD and 71 typically developing controls were included in this study. Findings showed that behavioral regulation executive processes (i.e., inhibition, shifting, and emotional control) predicted social function in all children. However, metacognitive executive processes (i.e., initiation, working memory, planning, organization, and monitoring) predicted social function only in children with ASD and not in typically developing children. Our findings suggest a distinct metacognitive executive function-social symptom link in ASD that is not present in the typical population. Understanding components of executive functioning that contribute to the autistic symptomology, particularly in the socio-communicative domain, is crucial for developing effective interventions that target key executive processes as well as underlying behavioral symptoms.
Ashburn, Jr, John R
Introversion and behavioral inhibition are stable individual characteristics associated with an over aroused central nervous system and have been associated with relative executive functioning deficits...
Watanabe, Kumi; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Taeko; Chen, Wencan; Wu, Bailiang; Ito, Sumio; Okumura, Rika; Anme, Tokie
Previous studies have shown that social relationships positively contribute to the functioning of older adults. However, the particular aspects of social relationships that are most predictive remain unknown. Consequently, the current study aimed to clarify what elements of social relationships impacted the maintenance of functioning among older adults. The present study used baseline data collected in 2011, and follow-up surveys were carried out 3 years later. Participants included individuals aged 65 years or older who lived in a suburban community in Japan. A total of 434 participants met inclusion criteria for the study and were included in analysis. The Index of Social Interaction measure consists of five subscales (independence, social curiosity, interaction, participation and feeling of safety), and was used to assess the multiple elements of social relationships. After controlling for age, sex, disease status and mobility in 2011, the results showed that the social curiosity subscale was significantly associated with functional status after 3 years (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02-1.63). Other Index of Social Interaction subscales were non-significant. The current study suggests that interaction with environment and multifaceted social relationships have the strongest impact on functional ability for older adults in Japan. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1522-1526. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.
McMahon, Camilla M.; Solomon, Marjorie
Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham & Elliott, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents reported that social skills were less important. Additionally, adolescents reported that they engaged in social skills more frequently than parents reported them to be engaging in social skills. Parents, but not adolescents, reported...
Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa
To bolster knowledge of determinants of relationship functioning among sexual minorities, the current meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively review evidence for the association between social stigma and relationship functioning as well as examine potential moderators. Thirty-five studies were identified, including 130 effect sizes (39 independent; N = 10,745). Across studies, evidence was found for a small but significant inverse association between social stigma and relationship functioning. Furthermore, this association was moderated by stigma type (with more deleterious associations for internalized relative to perceived stigma) and dimension of relationship functioning (with more deleterious associations for affective relative to cognitive and negative relative to positive). Evidence for demographic moderators (region, sex, race, age) was generally mixed although important limitations related to unique characteristics of study samples are discussed. We conclude by highlighting the importance of social stigma for relationship functioning and point toward directions for future research and policy action. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian
Early malnutritional status has been associated with reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, there are almost no studies on the effect of malnutrition on positive social behavior, and no tests of possible mediating mechanisms. This study tests the hypothesis that poor nutritional status is associated with impaired social functioning in childhood, and that neurocognitive ability mediates this relationship. We assessed 1553 male and female 3-year-olds from a birth cohort on measures of malnutrition, social behavior and verbal and spatial neurocognitive functions. Children with indicators of malnutrition showed impaired social behavior (p malnutrition and degree of social behavior, with increased malnutrition associated with more impaired social behavior. Neurocognitive ability was found to mediate the nutrition–social behavior relationship. The mediation effect of neurocognitive functioning suggests that poor nutrition negatively impacts brain areas that play important roles in developing positive social behavior. Findings suggest that reducing poor nutrition, alternatively promoting good nutrition, may help promote positive social behavior in early childhood during a critical period for social and neurocognitive development, with implications for improving positive health in adulthood. PMID:27133006
Müller, L; Weinert, D
In a natural environment, social abilities of an animal are important for its survival. Particularly, it must recognize its own social rank and the social rank of a conspecific and have a good social memory. While the role of the circadian system for object and spatial recognition and memory is well known, the impact of the social rank and circadian disruptions on social recognition and memory were not investigated so far. In the present study, individual recognition of social rank and social memory performance of Djungarian hamsters revealing different circadian phenotypes were investigated. Wild type (WT) animals show a clear and well-synchronized daily activity rhythm, whereas in arrhythmic (AR) hamsters, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) do not generate a circadian signal. The aim of the study was to investigate putative consequences of these deteriorations in the circadian system for animalś cognitive abilities. Hamsters were bred and kept under standardized housing conditions with food and water ad libitum and a 14l/10 D lighting regimen. Experimental animals were assigned to different groups (WT and AR) according to their activity pattern obtained by means of infrared motion sensors. Before the experiments, the animals were given to develop a dominant-subordinate relationship in a dyadic encounter. Experiment 1 dealt with individual recognition of social rank. Subordinate and dominant hamsters were tested in an open arena for their behavioral responses towards a familiar (known from the agonistic encounters) or an unfamiliar hamster (from another agonistic encounter) which had the same or an opposite social rank. The investigation time depended on the social rank of the WT subject hamster and its familiarity with the stimulus animal. Both subordinate and dominant WT hamsters preferred an unfamiliar subordinate stimulus animal. In contrast, neither subordinate nor dominant AR hamsters preferred any of the stimulus animals. Thus, disruptions in circadian
de Lijster, Jasmijn M; Dieleman, Gwen C; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Dierckx, Bram; Wierenga, Milou; Verhulst, Frank C; Legerstee, Jeroen S
Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent during adolescence. Although literature points out that anxiety symptoms are related to problems in social and academic functioning, the extent of these problems among adolescents with clinical anxiety disorders has not been systematically reviewed before. Electronic databases were searched up to October 2017, with keywords representing anxiety disorders, adolescents, and social or academic functioning. The inclusion criteria were studies with a sample of adolescents (10-19 years) with anxiety disorders that provided data regarding their social or academic functioning. 3431 studies were examined, of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. Adolescents with anxiety disorders had a lower social competence relative to their healthy peers. They reported more negativity within interpersonal relationships, higher levels of loneliness, and victimization. Most adolescents with anxiety disorders felt impaired at school, however, findings of their average school results, compared to peers, were mixed. In addition, they had a higher risk for school refusal and entered higher education less often. Impairments in social and academic functioning differed across type and the number of anxiety disorders. Most studies examined social phobia or anxiety disorders in general and methodological approaches varied widely between studies. This systematic review indicates that adolescents with anxiety disorders experience a range of significant problems in both social and academic functioning. These findings suggest that the assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders in adolescence should focus on improving functioning across domains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jahja, Rianne; van Spronsen, Francinus; de Sonneville, Leonardus; van der Meere, Jacob; Huijbregts, S; Bosch, Annet M.; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. Estela; Brouwers, Martijn C. G. J.; Hofstede, Floris C.; de Vries, Maaike C.; Janssen, Mirian C. H.; van der Ploeg, Ans T.; Langendonk, Janneke G.
OBJECTIVE: Early treatment of phenylketonuria (ET-PKU) prevents mental retardation, but many patients still show cognitive and mood problems. In this study, it was investigated whether ET-PKU-patients have specific phenylalanine (Phe-)related problems with respect to social-cognitive functioning and
Stichter, Janine P; Herzog, Melissa J; Visovsky, Karen; Schmidt, Carla; Randolph, Jena; Schultz, Tia; Gage, Nicholas
Individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger Syndrome (AS) exhibit difficulties in the knowledge or correct performance of social skills. This subgroup's social difficulties appear to be associated with deficits in three social cognition processes: theory of mind, emotion recognition and executive functioning. The current study outlines the development and initial administration of the group-based Social Competence Intervention (SCI), which targeted these deficits using cognitive behavioral principles. Across 27 students age 11-14 with a HFA/AS diagnosis, results indicated significant improvement on parent reports of social skills and executive functioning. Participants evidenced significant growth on direct assessments measuring facial expression recognition, theory of mind and problem solving. SCI appears promising, however, larger samples and application in naturalistic settings are warranted.
Kuusikko, Sanna; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Carter, Alice S.; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David L.; Moilanen, Irma
We examined social anxiety and internalizing symptoms using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C), the Social Anxiety Scale for Children -Revised (SASC-R), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in a sample of fifty-four high-functioning subjects with autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) (M = 11.2 plus or minus 1.7 years)…
Andari, Elissar; Duhamel, Jean-René; Zalla, Tiziana; Herbrecht, Evelyn; Leboyer, Marion; Sirigu, Angela
Social adaptation requires specific cognitive and emotional competences. Individuals with high-functioning autism or with Asperger syndrome cannot understand or engage in social situations despite preserved intellectual abilities. Recently, it has been suggested that oxytocin, a hormone known to promote mother-infant bonds, may be implicated in the social deficit of autism. We investigated the behavioral effects of oxytocin in 13 subjects with autism. In a simulated ball game where participan...
McMahon, Camilla M.; Solomon, Marjorie
Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham and Elliott in The social skills rating system, American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents…
Tanimizu, Toshiyuki; Kenney, Justin W; Okano, Emiko; Kadoma, Kazune; Frankland, Paul W; Kida, Satoshi
Social recognition memory is an essential and basic component of social behavior that is used to discriminate familiar and novel animals/humans. Previous studies have shown the importance of several brain regions for social recognition memories; however, the mechanisms underlying the consolidation of social recognition memory at the molecular and anatomic levels remain unknown. Here, we show a brain network necessary for the generation of social recognition memory in mice. A mouse genetic study showed that cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcription is required for the formation of social recognition memory. Importantly, significant inductions of the CREB target immediate-early genes c-fos and Arc were observed in the hippocampus (CA1 and CA3 regions), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and amygdala (basolateral region) when social recognition memory was generated. Pharmacological experiments using a microinfusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin showed that protein synthesis in these brain regions is required for the consolidation of social recognition memory. These findings suggested that social recognition memory is consolidated through the activation of CREB-mediated gene expression in the hippocampus/mPFC/ACC/amygdala. Network analyses suggested that these four brain regions show functional connectivity with other brain regions and, more importantly, that the hippocampus functions as a hub to integrate brain networks and generate social recognition memory, whereas the ACC and amygdala are important for coordinating brain activity when social interaction is initiated by connecting with other brain regions. We have found that a brain network composed of the hippocampus/mPFC/ACC/amygdala is required for the consolidation of social recognition memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here, we identify brain networks composed of multiple brain regions for the consolidation of social recognition memory. We
Wingbermühle, P.A.M.; Egger, J.I.M.; Verhoeven, W.M.A.; Burgt, C.J.A.M. van der; Kessels, R.P.C.
Background. Noonan syndrome (NS) is a common genetic disorder, characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphia, congenital heart defects and a mildly lowered IQ. Impairments in psychosocial functioning have often been suggested, without, however, systematic investigation in a clinical group. In
Taylor, Sophie Jane; Barker, Lynne Ann; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue
Executive functions and social cognition develop through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood and are important for adaptive goal-oriented behavior (Apperly, Samson, & Humphreys, 2009; Blakemore & Choudhury, 2006). These functions are attributed to frontal networks known to undergo protracted maturation into early adulthood (Barker, Andrade, Morton, Romanowski, & Bowles, 2010; Lebel, Walker, Leemans, Phillips, & Beaulieu, 2008), although social cognition functions are also associated with widely distributed networks. Previously, nonlinear development has been reported around puberty on an emotion match-to-sample task (McGivern, Andersen, Byrd, Mutter, & Reilly, 2002) and for IQ in midadolescence (Ramsden et al., 2011). However, there are currently little data on the typical development of social and executive functions in late adolescence and early adulthood. In a cross-sectional design, 98 participants completed tests of social cognition and executive function, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond & Snaith, 1983), and measures of pubertal development and demographics at ages 17, 18, and 19. Nonlinear age differences for letter fluency and concept formation executive functions were found, with a trough in functional ability in 18-year-olds compared with other groups. There were no age group differences on social cognition measures. Gender accounted for differences on 1 scale of concept formation, 1 dynamic social interaction scale, and 2 empathy scales. The clinical, developmental, and educational implications of these findings are discussed.
Toward a common language for function, disability, and health. Physical therapy 86, 726 (May, 2006). 4. R. D. Tucker-Seeley, S. V. Subramanian, Y...20. Boyle PA, Buchman AS, Wilson RS, et al: Physical activity is asso- ciated with incident disability in community-based older persons. J Am Geriatr ...effects of physical activity on physical functioning, quality of life and depression in older people with dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011
Margaret A Sheridan
Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex (PFC develops from birth through late adolescence. This extended developmental trajectory provides many opportunities for experience to shape the structure and function of the PFC. To date, a few studies have reported links between parental socioeconomic status (SES and prefrontal function in childhood, raising the possibility that aspects of environment associated with SES impact prefrontal function. Considering that behavioral measures of prefrontal function are associated with learning across multiple domains, this is an important area of investigation. In this study, we used fMRI to replicate previous findings, demonstrating an association between parental SES and PFC function during childhood. In addition, we present two hypothetical mechanisms by which SES could come to affect PFC function of this association: language environment and stress reactivity. We measured language use in the home environment and change in salivary cortisol before and after fMRI scanning. Complexity of family language, but not the child's own language use, was associated with both parental SES and PFC activation. Change in salivary cortisol was also associated with both SES and PFC activation. These observed associations emphasize the importance of both enrichment and adversity-reduction interventions in creating good developmental environments for all children.
Wee, Christina C; Davis, Roger B; Huskey, Karen W; Jones, Daniel B; Hamel, Mary B
Obesity is a stigmatizing condition associated with adverse psychosocial consequences. The relative importance of weight stigma in reducing health utility or the value a person places on their current health state is unknown. We conducted a telephone survey of patients with obesity. All were seeking weight loss surgery at two bariatric centers (70 % response rate). We assessed patients' health utility (preference-based quality life measure) via a series of standard gamble scenarios assessing patients' willingness to risk death to lose various amounts of weight or achieve perfect health (range 0 to 1; 0 = death and 1 = most valued health/weight state). Multivariable models assessed associations among quality of life domains from the Short-form 36 (SF-36) and Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-lite (IWQOL-lite) and patients' health utility. Our study sample (n = 574) had a mean body mass index of 46.5 kg/m(2) and a mean health utility of 0.87, reflecting the group's average willingness to accept a 13 % risk of death to achieve their most desired health/weight state; utilities were highly variable, however, with 10 % reporting a utility of 1.00 and 27 % reporting a utility lower than 0.90. Among the IWQOL-lite subscales, Public Distress and Work Life were the only two subscales significantly associated with patients' utility after adjustment for sociodemographic factors. Among the SF-36 subscales, Role Physical, Physical Functioning, and Role Emotional were significantly associated with patients' utility. When the leading subscales on both IWQOL-lite and SF-36 were considered together, Role Physical, Public Distress, and to a lesser degree Role Emotional remained independently associated with patients' health utility. Patients seeking weight loss surgery report health utilities similar to those reported for people living with diabetes or with laryngeal cancer; however, utility values varied widely with more than a quarter of patients willing to accept more than a
Di Tella, Marialaura; Castelli, Lorys; Colonna, Fabrizio; Fusaro, Enrico; Torta, Riccardo; Ardito, Rita B; Adenzato, Mauro
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a syndrome primarily characterised by chronic, widespread musculoskeletal pain. In the aetiology of this syndrome a crucial role is played by complex interactions among biological, genetic, psychological, and socio-cultural factors. Recently, researchers have started to explore emotional functioning in FM, with their attention focused on alexithymia, a personality construct that affects the regulation of a person's own emotions. On the other hand, the detection and experience of emotional signals from other people have only been sparsely investigated in FM syndrome and no studies have investigated the ability to represent other people's mental states (i.e. Theory of Mind, ToM) in these patients. Here we present the first study investigating a large set of social-cognitive abilities, and the possible relationships between these abilities and the performance on executive-function tasks, in a homogenous sample of patients with FM. Forty women with FM and forty-one healthy women matched for education and age were involved in the study. Social cognition was assessed with a set of validated experimental tasks. Measures of executive function were used to test the correlations between this dimension and the social-cognitive profile of patients with FM. Relationships between social-cognitive abilities and demographic, clinical and psychological variables were also investigated. Patients with FM have impairments both in the regulation of their own affect and in the recognition of other's emotions, as well as in representing other people's mental states. No significant correlations were found between social cognition tasks and the subcomponents of the executive function that were analysed. The results show the presence of several impairments in social cognition skills in patients with FM, which are largely independent of both executive function deficits and symptoms of psychological distress. The impairments reported highlight the importance of adequately
Bentz, Mette; Jepsen, Jens Richardt Moellegaard; Pedersen, Tine
PURPOSE: A subgroup of individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) displays social difficulties; however, it is not clear if individuals with comorbid autism spectrum disorders account for these difficulties. METHODS: We compared social function using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule in 43...
Coplan, Robert J.; Ooi, Laura L.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda
The goal of this study was to examine links between observed social participation in the schoolyard and indices of socio-emotional functioning in early adolescence. Participants were children (N = 290) aged 9 to 12 years. Social participation (e.g., solitary play, dyadic interaction, group interaction) was assessed in the schoolyard during recess…
Therapy, any psychosocial impact as well as rehabilitation, neutralizes the causes for patients’ withdrawal from social life. Training of social skills is necessary which teaches patients to return to the situation when they would be able to function properly in their environment.
Imitation is an early skill thought to play a role in social development, leading some to suggest that teaching imitation to children with autism should lead to improvements in social functioning. This study used a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a focused imitation intervention on initiation of joint attention and…
Geurts, H.M.; Begeer, S.; Stockman, L.
The current study explored whether inhibitory control deficits in high functioning autism (HFA) emerged when socially relevant stimuli were used and whether arousal level affected the performance. A Go/NoGo paradigm, with socially relevant stimuli and varying presentation rates, was applied in 18
Mann, Trisha D.; Hund, Alycia M.; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S.; Roman, Zachary J.
The current study specified the extent to which hot and cool aspects of executive functioning predicted academic and social-emotional indicators of school readiness. It was unique in focusing on positive aspects of social-emotional readiness, rather than problem behaviors. One hundred four 3-5-year-old children completed tasks measuring executive…
Fischer, A.H.; Evers, C.
On the basis of Social Role Theory and a social functional view of emotions, we argue that gender differences in anger experiences and expression are related to men’s and women’s relationship context. We hypothesized that women in traditional relationship contexts would express their anger less
Scheeren, Anke M.; Koot, Hans M.; Begeer, Sander
Qualitative differences in social interaction style exist "within" the autism spectrum. In this study we examined whether these differences are associated with (1) the severity of autistic symptoms and comorbid disruptive behavior problems, (2) the child's psycho-social health, and (3) executive functioning and perspective taking skills. The…
Stichter, Janine P.; O'Connor, Karen V.; Herzog, Melissa J.; Lierheimer, Kristin; McGhee, Stephanie D.
Despite frequent reports of academic success, individuals with high functioning autism or Aspergers Syndrome (HFA/AS) often manifest deficits in social abilities. These deficits can lead to daily difficulties, and negative long-term outcomes. Deficits in social competency are evident in this population from an early age, as children with HFA/AS…
Crum, Alia J; Phillips, Damon J; Goyer, J Parker; Akinola, Modupe; Higgins, E Tory
This paper investigates how social influence can alter physiological, psychological, and functional responses to a placebo product and how such responses influence the ultimate endorsement of the product. Participants consumed a product, "AquaCharge Energy Water," falsely-labeled as containing 200 mg of caffeine but which was actually plain spring water, in one of three conditions: a no social influence condition, a disconfirming social influence condition, and a confirming social influence condition. Results demonstrated that the effect of the product labeling on physiological alertness (systolic blood pressure), psychological alertness (self-reported alertness), functional alertness (cognitive interference), and product endorsement was moderated by social influence: participants experienced more subjective, physiological and functional alertness and stronger product endorsement when they consumed the product in the confirming social influence condition than when they consumed the product in the disconfirming social influence condition. These results suggest that social influence can alter subjective, physiological, and functional responses to a faux product, in this case transforming the effects of plain water.
Full Text Available We evaluated the association between physical activity and cognitive function among a national sample of the broader U.S. adult population, with consideration by social risk. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were used to identify 2031 older adults, ages 60-85. Social risk was classified by measuring four NHANES variables, namely poverty level, education, minority status, and social living status, which were graded on a scale of 0-4, with higher scores corresponding with higher social risk. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST was used to assess cognitive function. Physical activity was assessed via a validated self-report questionnaire. After adjustments, meeting physical activity guidelines (vs not was associated with greater cognitive function (β = 3.0, 95% CI [1.5, 4.4], p < 0.001. In this same model, social risk status was also independently associated with cognitive function. Meeting physical activity guidelines (vs. not was not associated with higher cognitive function among those with a social risk score of of 3 (β = -0.01; 95% CI [-6.3, 6.4], p = 0.99 or a social risk score of 4 (β = -6.8, 95% CI [-15.7, 2.0], p = 0.12. In this national sample of older adults, meeting physical activity guidelines, and degree of social risk were independently associated with cognitive function. However, physical activity was not associated with cognitive function among older adults with the highest degree of social risk.
Dutton, Courtney E; Rojas, Sasha M; Badour, Christal L; Wanklyn, Sonya G; Feldner, Matthew T
Social functioning is negatively impacted by the presence of PTSD, while increasing risk of suicidal behavior among individuals with PTSD. However, little research has examined the specific role of social functioning in the association between PTSD and suicidal behavior. Parallel multiple indirect effects analyses were performed to understand the unique indirect effects of four aspects of social functioning. Indirect effects of PTSD on suicidal ideation were significant through three pathways: interpersonal conflict, perceived family support, and interpersonal apprehension. Perceived family support was the only indirect pathway significantly associated with suicide attempt. Findings suggest that social functioning should be assessed and potentially targeted during treatment to help modify the risk for suicidal behavior among individuals with PTSD.
Weckowicz, Thaddeus E.; Janssen, Doug V.
To determine the effect of chronic marihuana smoking on cognitive functions, personality traits, and social values, a group of heavy marihuana smokers was compared with a matched control group. (Author)
de Lijster, Jasmijn M.; Dieleman, Gwen C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Dierckx, Bram; Wierenga, Milou; Verhulst, Frank C.; Legerstee, Jeroen S.
Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent during adolescence. Although literature points out that anxiety symptoms are related to problems in social and academic functioning, the extent of these problems among adolescents with clinical anxiety disorders has not been systematically reviewed before.
Larsen, Ida Unmack; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik
OBJECTIVE: Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in, inter alia, executive functions and social cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective feeling of psychological distress using...... a self-report questionnaire and performances on tests of executive functions and social cognition in a large consecutive cohort of HD patients. METHOD: 50 manifest HD patients were tested in social cognition and executive functions and each answered a self-report questionnaire about current status...... psychological distress was significantly associated with worse performances on social cognitive tests (mean absolute correlation .34) and that there were no significant correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on tests of executive functions. The correlations between perceived...
Jensen, N. K.; Thielen, K.; Andersen, I.
, worries about remaining in employment is one of the main concerns for people with MSP. In addition, the burden of MSP is unevenly distributed across social groups. The aim of this study is to examine social inequality in the association between MSP and functional limitations and reduced work ability among......) will be included as a potential effect modifier of the separate outcomes functional limitations and work ability. Results (preliminary): The association between MSP and functional limitations and reduced workability, respectively, is modified by socioeconomic status. The finding of social inequality confirms...... that the effect of experiencing MSP is higher for people in lower socioeconomic status. Conclusions (preliminary): MSP will, to a higher extent, translate into higher functional limitations and reduced work ability for people with low socioeconomic status. Key messages: •Reductions in social inequality in MSP has...
Javed, Afzal; Charles, Asha
Social cognition has become recognized as an important driver of functional outcomes and overall recovery in patients with schizophrenia, mediating the relationship between neurocognition and social functioning. Since antipsychotic therapy targeting remission of clinical symptoms has been shown to have a limited impact on social cognition, there has been an increasing drive to develop therapeutic strategies to specifically improve social cognition in schizophrenia. We sought to review current evidence relating to social cognition in schizophrenia and its clinical implications, including interventions designed to target the core domains of social cognition (emotion processing, theory of mind, attributional bias, and social perception) as a means of improving functional outcomes and thereby increasing the likelihood of recovery. Relevant articles were identified by conducting a literature search in PubMed using the search terms “schizophrenia” AND “cognition” AND “social functioning,” limited to Title/Abstract, over a time period of the past 10 years. Current evidence demonstrates that schizophrenia is associated with impairments in all four core domains of social cognition, during the pre-first-episode, first-episode, early, and chronic phases of the disease, and that such impairments are important determinants of functional outcome. Interventions targeting the four core domains of social cognition comprise psychosocial approaches (social cognition training programs) and pharmacological therapies. Social cognition training programs targeting multiple and specific core domains of social cognition have shown promise in improving social cognition skills, which, in some cases, has translated into improvements in functional outcomes. Use of some psychosocial interventions has additionally resulted in improvements in clinical symptoms and/or quality of life. Pharmacological therapies, including oxytocin and certain antipsychotics, have yielded more mixed
Full Text Available Social cognition has become recognized as an important driver of functional outcomes and overall recovery in patients with schizophrenia, mediating the relationship between neurocognition and social functioning. Since antipsychotic therapy targeting remission of clinical symptoms has been shown to have a limited impact on social cognition, there has been an increasing drive to develop therapeutic strategies to specifically improve social cognition in schizophrenia. We sought to review current evidence relating to social cognition in schizophrenia and its clinical implications, including interventions designed to target the core domains of social cognition (emotion processing, theory of mind, attributional bias, and social perception as a means of improving functional outcomes and thereby increasing the likelihood of recovery. Relevant articles were identified by conducting a literature search in PubMed using the search terms “schizophrenia” AND “cognition” AND “social functioning,” limited to Title/Abstract, over a time period of the past 10 years. Current evidence demonstrates that schizophrenia is associated with impairments in all four core domains of social cognition, during the pre-first-episode, first-episode, early, and chronic phases of the disease, and that such impairments are important determinants of functional outcome. Interventions targeting the four core domains of social cognition comprise psychosocial approaches (social cognition training programs and pharmacological therapies. Social cognition training programs targeting multiple and specific core domains of social cognition have shown promise in improving social cognition skills, which, in some cases, has translated into improvements in functional outcomes. Use of some psychosocial interventions has additionally resulted in improvements in clinical symptoms and/or quality of life. Pharmacological therapies, including oxytocin and certain antipsychotics, have
Full Text Available Previous research indicates adults with eating disorders (EDs report smaller social networks, and difficulties with social functioning, alongside demonstrating difficulties recognising and regulating emotions in social contexts. Concurrently, those recovered from the illness have discussed the vital role offered by social support and interaction in their recovery. To date, little is known about the social skills and social networks of adolescents with EDs and this study aimed to conduct focus groups to explore the social functioning of 17 inpatients aged 12-17. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and six core themes were identified: group belonging, self-monitoring, social sensitivity, impact of hospitalisation, limited coping strategies and strategies for service provision. Key areas for service provision were: management of anxiety, development and/or maintenance of a social network and development of inter and intrapersonal skills. The most salient finding was that adolescents with EDs reported social difficulties which appeared to persist over and above those typically experienced at this point in the lifespan and therefore a key area for future focus is the development of appropriate coping strategies and solutions to deal with these reported difficulties.
van Lier, Pol A C; Deater-Deckard, Kirby
Children's executive functions, encompassing inhibitory control, working memory and attention are vital for their self-regulation. With the transition to formal schooling, children need to learn to manage their emotions and behavior in a new and complex social environment that with age increases in the intensity of social interactions with peers and teachers. Stronger executive functions skills facilitate children's social development. In addition, new experiences in the social environments of school also may influence executive function development. The focus of this special section is on this potential impact of elementary school social experiences with peers and teacher on the development of children's executive functions. The collection of papers encompass various aspects of peer and teacher social environments, and cover broad as well as specific facets and measures of executive functions including neural responses. The collection of papers sample developmental periods that span preschool through mid-adolescence. In this introduction, we summarize and highlight the main findings of each of the papers, organized around social interactions with peers and interactions with teachers. We conclude our synopsis with implications for future research, and a specific focus on prevention and intervention.
Wu, Qizhu; Chen, Taolin; Lama, Sunima; Cheng, Bochao; Li, Shiguang; Huang, Xiaoqi; Gong, Qiyong
Shyness and social anxiety are correlated to some extent and both are associated with hyper-responsivity to social stimuli in the frontal cortex and limbic system. However to date no studies have investigated whether common structural and functional connectivity differences in the brain may contribute to these traits. We addressed this issue in a cohort of 61 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were first assessed for their levels of shyness (Cheek and Buss Shyness scale) and social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety scale) and trait anxiety. They were then given MRI scans and voxel-based morphometry and seed-based, resting-state functional connectivity analysis investigated correlations with shyness and anxiety scores. Shyness scores were positively correlated with gray matter density in the cerebellum, bilateral superior temporal gyri and parahippocampal gyri and right insula. Functional connectivity correlations with shyness were found between the superior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and the frontal gyri, between the insula and precentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, and between the cerebellum and precuneus. Additional correlations were found for amygdala connectivity with the medial frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, despite the absence of any structural correlation. By contrast no structural or functional connectivity measures correlated with social or trait anxiety. Our findings show that shyness is specifically associated with structural and functional connectivity changes in cortical and limbic regions involved with processing social stimuli. These associations are not found with social or trait anxiety in healthy subjects despite some behavioral correlations with shyness. PMID:23675458
Alina Georgeta AILINCA
Full Text Available At the global level and especially in Europe, current economic and financial crisis has had a major impact on the economy, on the output and especially on the employment and incomes. As it is known in economy, as a natural process, some elements (e.g. progressive tax system can help to counter or to mitigate the adverse evolution of the business cycle and the output fluctuation. Normally, in the recession, the collection of taxes decreases in order to support the private income and the aggregate demand and the unemployment compensation is increased. The fast response of the automatic stabilizers is mostly due to the fact that do not require any modification of the laws and any state discretionary action in order to obtain the necessary results, being usually unnoticed by the general public. Considering that social policy can provide important tools to counter the cyclical development of the economy, this article analyses the social security benefits in report to the GDP evolution, in Europe and in Romania and proposes some solutions for the improvement of the stabilization effect of those instruments.
Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Takase, Kenkichi; Nakajima, Waki; Tada, Hirobumi; Ohya, Daisuke; Sano, Akane; Goto, Takahisa; Hirase, Hajime; Malinow, Roberto; Takahashi, Takuya
Stressful events during early childhood can have a profound lifelong influence on emotional and cognitive behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects neonatal brain circuit formation are poorly understood. Here, we show that neonatal social isolation disrupts molecular, cellular, and circuit developmental processes, leading to behavioral dysfunction. Neonatal isolation prevented long-term potentiation and experience-dependent synaptic trafficking of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors normally occurring during circuit formation in the rodent barrel cortex. This inhibition of AMPA receptor trafficking was mediated by an increase of the stress glucocorticoid hormone and was associated with reduced calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (CaMKII) signaling, resulting in attenuated whisker sensitivity at the cortex. These effects led to defects in whisker-dependent behavior in juvenile animals. These results indicate that neonatal social isolation alters neuronal plasticity mechanisms and perturbs the initial establishment of a normal cortical circuit, which potentially explains the long-lasting behavioral effects of neonatal stress. PMID:22706303
Adenzato, Mauro; Todisco, Patrizia; Ardito, Rita B
The findings of the few studies that have to date investigated the way in which individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) navigate their social environment are somewhat contradictory. We undertook this study to shed new light on the social-cognitive profile of patients with AN, analysing Theory of Mind and emotional functioning. Starting from previous evidence on the role of the amygdala in the neurobiology of AN and in the social cognition, we hypothesise preserved Theory of Mind and impaired emotional functioning in patients with AN. Thirty women diagnosed with AN and thirty-two women matched for education and age were involved in the study. Theory of Mind and emotional functioning were assessed with a set of validated experimental tasks. A measure of perceived social support was also used to test the correlations between this dimension and the social-cognitive profile of AN patients. The performance of patients with AN is significantly worse than that of healthy controls on tasks assessing emotional functioning, whereas patients' performance is comparable to that of healthy controls on the Theory of Mind task. Correlation analyses showed no relationship between scores on any of the social-cognition tasks and either age of onset or duration of illness. A correlation between social support and emotional functioning was found. This latter result seems to suggest a potential role of social support in the treatment and recovery of AN. The pattern of results followed the experimental hypothesis. They may be useful to help us better understand the social-cognitive profile of patients with AN and to contribute to the development of effective interventions based on the ways in which patients with AN actually perceive their social environment.
Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Simonsen, Carmen; Hellvin, Tone; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A
To investigate sex differences in neurocognition and social functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and the possible role of sex as a moderator of this relationship. Participants with schizophrenia (60 women/94 men), bipolar I disorder (55 women/51 men), and healthy controls (158 women/182 men) were assessed with an extensive neuropsychological test battery and a social functioning questionnaire. We found significant main effects of sex for neuropsychological tests (p neuropsychological tests (except attention and working memory). Both clinical groups performed below healthy controls for all neuropsychological tests (except attention). Post hoc comparisons of persons with schizophrenia and healthy controls yielded significant interaction effects (p neuropsychological tests (California Verbal Learning Test II [CVLT-II], Color-Word Interference, and Interference/Switching), with men with schizophrenia being disproportionally disadvantaged compared with their female counterparts. Regression analyses investigating sex as a moderator between neurocognition and social functioning showed that neurocognition predicted social functioning in schizophrenia, whereas sex predicted social functioning in healthy controls. Sex was not a moderator in any of the three groups. This study is the first to find neurocognitive sex differences for bipolar disorder and replicated previous findings for schizophrenia. The data did not support the hypothesis that sex is a moderator between neurocognition and social functioning. Clinical implications include the use of different cognitive remediation strategies based on sex. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Glyn; Mohr, Christine; Herzig, Daniela; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Drake, Richard; Evans, Jonathan
There is some cross-sectional evidence that theory of mind ability is associated with social functioning in those with psychosis but the direction of this relationship is unknown. This study investigates the longitudinal association between both theory of mind and psychotic symptoms and social functioning outcome in first-episode psychosis. Fifty-four people with first-episode psychosis were followed up at 6 and 12 months. Random effects regression models were used to estimate the stability of theory of mind over time and the association between baseline theory of mind and psychotic symptoms and social functioning outcome. Neither baseline theory of mind ability (regression coefficients: Hinting test 1.07 95% CI -0.74, 2.88; Visual Cartoon test -2.91 95% CI -7.32, 1.51) nor baseline symptoms (regression coefficients: positive symptoms -0.04 95% CI -1.24, 1.16; selected negative symptoms -0.15 95% CI -2.63, 2.32) were associated with social functioning outcome. There was evidence that theory of mind ability was stable over time, (regression coefficients: Hinting test 5.92 95% CI -6.66, 8.92; Visual Cartoon test score 0.13 95% CI -0.17, 0.44). Neither baseline theory of mind ability nor psychotic symptoms are associated with social functioning outcome. Further longitudinal work is needed to understand the origin of social functioning deficits in psychosis.
Nestor, Paul G; Nakamura, Motoaki; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Thompson, Elizabeth; Levitt, James J; Choate, Victoria; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W
We examined social cognition in a sample of healthy participants who had prior magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gray matter volume studies of the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) that was parcellated into three regions: gyrus rectus, middle orbital gyrus and lateral orbital gyrus. These subjects also completed a self-report measure of Machiavelli personality traits, along with psychometric tests of social comprehension and declarative episodic memory, all of which we used as proxy measures to examine various features of social cognition. The data pointed to distinct functional-anatomical relationships highlighted by strong correlations of left lateral orbital gyrus and Machiavellian scores and right middle orbital gyrus with social comprehension and declarative episodic memory. In addition, hierarchical regression analyses revealed statistical evidence of a double dissociation between Machiavellian scores and left lateral orbital gyrus on one hand, and social comprehension with right middle orbital gyrus, on the other hand. To our knowledge, these findings are the first to show evidence linking normal variation in OFC subregions and different aspects of social cognition.
Kuiper, Jisca S; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Zuidema, Sytse U; Stolk, Ronald P; Zuidersma, Marij; Smidt, Nynke
OBJECTIVE: Poor social functioning is associated with cognitive decline in older adults. It is unclear whether social functioning is also associated with subjective memory complaints (SMC). We investigated the association between social functioning and incident SMC and SMC recovery. METHODS: A
Amadó, Anna; Serrat, Elisabet; Vallès-Majoral, Eduard
Many studies show a link between social cognition, a set of cognitive and emotional abilities applied to social situations, and executive functions in typical developing children. Children with Down syndrome (DS) show deficits both in social cognition and in some subcomponents of executive functions. However this link has barely been studied in this population. The aim of this study is to investigate the links between social cognition and executive functions among children with DS. We administered a battery of social cognition and executive function tasks (six theory of mind tasks, a test of emotion comprehension, and three executive function tasks) to a group of 30 participants with DS between 4 and 12 years of age. The same tasks were administered to a chronological-age control group and to a control group with the same linguistic development level. Results showed that apart from deficits in social cognition and executive function abilities, children with DS displayed a slight improvement with increasing chronological age and language development in those abilities. Correlational analysis suggested that working memory was the only component that remained constant in the relation patterns of the three groups of participants, being the relation patterns similar among participants with DS and the language development control group. A multiple linear regression showed that working memory explained above 50% of the variability of social cognition in DS participants and in language development control group, whereas in the chronological-age control group this component only explained 31% of the variability. These findings, and specifically the link between working memory and social cognition, are discussed on the basis of their theoretical and practical implications for children with DS. We discuss the possibility to use a working memory training to improve social cognition in this population. PMID:27679588
Eyssel, Friederike; Kuchenbrandt, Dieta
Previous work on social categorization has shown that people often use cues such as a person's gender, age, or ethnicity to categorize and form impressions of others. The present research investigated effects of social category membership on the evaluation of humanoid robots. More specifically, participants rated a humanoid robot that either belonged to their in-group or to a national out-group with regard to anthropomorphism (e.g., mind attribution, warmth), psychological closeness, contact intentions, and design. We predicted that participants would show an in-group bias towards the robot that ostensibly belonged to their in-group--as indicated by its name and location of production. In line with our hypotheses, participants not only rated the in-group robot more favourably--importantly, they also anthropomorphized it more strongly than the out-group robot. Our findings thus document that people even apply social categorization processes and subsequent differential social evaluations to robots. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa
To bolster knowledge of determinants of relationship functioning among sexual minorities, the current meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively review evidence for the association between social stigma and relationship functioning as well as examine potential moderators. Thirty-five studies were identified, including 130 effect sizes (39 independent; N = 10,745). Across studies, evidence was found for a small but significant inverse association between social stigma and relationship functioning. Furthermore, this association was moderated by stigma type (with more deleterious associations for internalized relative to perceived stigma) and dimension of relationship functioning (with more deleterious associations for affective relative to cognitive and negative relative to positive). Evidence for demographic moderators (region, sex, race, age) was generally mixed although important limitations related to unique characteristics of study samples are discussed. We conclude by highlighting the importance of social stigma for relationship functioning and point toward directions for future research and policy action. PMID:26199218
Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H
Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (hf-ASD) - a clinical population who can present with more subtle core deficits, but comparable levels of impairment and secondary difficulties. A systematic review was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Five studies met the pre-specified review inclusion criteria: two quasi-experimental comparative trials and three single-arm interventions. There was a degree of variation in the structure, duration and content of the social skills interventions delivered, as well as several methodological limitations associated with included studies. Nevertheless, narrative analysis tentatively indicates that group social skills interventions may be effective for enhancing social knowledge and understanding, improving social functioning, reducing loneliness and potentially alleviating co-morbid psychiatric symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015.
Executive function (EF) refers to the ability to execute appropriate actions and to inhibit inappropriate actions for the attainment of a specific goal. Research has shown that this ability develops rapidly during the preschool years. Recently, it has been proposed that research on EF should consider the importance of social interaction. In this article, recent evidence regarding the early development of EF and its relation to social interaction has been reviewed. Research consistently showed that social interaction can influence EF skills in young children. However, the development of EF may facilitate the cognitive skills that are important for social interaction. Taken together, there might be functional dependency between the development of EF and social interaction.
Carrión, Ricardo E; Goldberg, Terry E; McLaughlin, Danielle; Auther, Andrea M; Correll, Christoph U; Cornblatt, Barbara A
Cognitive deficits have been well documented in schizophrenia and have been shown to impair quality of life and to compromise everyday functioning. Recent studies of adolescents and young adults at high risk for developing psychosis show that neurocognitive impairments are detectable before the onset of psychotic symptoms. However, it remains unclear how cognitive impairments affect functioning before the onset of psychosis. The authors assessed cognitive impairment in adolescents at clinical high risk for psychosis and examined its impact on social and role functioning. A sample of 127 treatment-seeking patients at clinical high risk for psychosis and a group of 80 healthy comparison subjects were identified and recruited for research in the Recognition and Prevention Program. At baseline, participants were assessed with a comprehensive neurocognitive battery as well as measures of social and role functioning. Relative to healthy comparison subjects, clinical high-risk patients showed significant impairments in the domains of processing speed, verbal memory, executive function, working memory, visuospatial processing, motor speed, sustained attention, and language. Clinical high-risk patients also displayed impaired social and role functioning at baseline. Among patients with attenuated positive symptoms, processing speed was related to social and role functioning at baseline. These findings demonstrate that cognitive and functional impairments are detectable in patients at clinical high risk for psychosis before the onset of psychotic illness and that processing speed appears to be an important cognitive predictor of poor functioning.
McKercher, Bob; Wang, Dan; Park, Eerang
This paper argues that both impacts felt by and attitudes to tourism are a function of place change. Destinations are comprised of three types of place: tourism, non-tourism and shared. It is believed attitudes are generally positive when stasis exists among the three types, but deteriorate during periods of rapid place change. Likewise, impacts are felt when place changes, especially when non-tourism place is transformed into either shared or tourism place. This proposition is tested through...
Liem, Gregory Arief D
Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and social achievement goals in outcome variables relevant to academic (achievement, effort/persistence), social (peer relationship satisfaction, loneliness), and socio-academic (cooperative learning, competitive learning, socially regulated, and self-regulated learning) functioning. A total of 356 Indonesian high-school students (mean age = 16 years; 36% girls) participated in the study. A self-report survey comprising items drawn from pre-existing instruments was administered to measure distinct dimensions of achievement goals and outcomes under focus. Regression analysis was performed to examine additive, interactive, and specialized effects of achievement goals on outcomes. Aligned with the hierarchical model of goal relationships (Wentzel, 2000, Contemp. Educ. Psychol., 25, 105), academic and social achievement goals bore additive effects on most outcomes. Findings also revealed a specialized effect on academic achievement and notable interactive effects on cooperative learning. In general, mastery-approach and performance-approach goals were more adaptive than their avoidance counterparts. The effects of social development goals were positive, whereas those of social demonstration-approach goals were mixed. Contrary to prior findings, social demonstration-avoidance goals did not appear to be inimical for school functioning. Findings underscore the importance of both academic and social achievement goals in day-to-day school functioning and the need to consider the meaning of goals and the coordination of multiple goals from cultural lenses. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Lam, Max; Abdul Rashid, Nur Amirah; Lee, Sara-Ann; Lim, Jeanette; Foussias, George; Fervaha, Gagan; Ruhrman, Stephan; Remington, Gary; Lee, Jimmy
Social amotivation and diminished expression have been reported to underlie negative symptomatology in schizophrenia. In the current study we sought to establish and validate these negative symptom domains in a large cohort of schizophrenia subjects (n=887) and individuals who are deemed to be Ultra-High Risk (UHR) for psychosis. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted on PANSS item domains demonstrate that the dual negative symptom domains exist in schizophrenia and UHR subjects. We further sought to examine if these negative symptom domains were associated with functioning in UHR subjects. Linear regression analyses confirmed that social amotivation predicted functioning in UHR subjects prospectively at 1 year follow up. Results suggest that the association between social amotivation and functioning is generalisable beyond schizophrenia populations to those who are at-risk of developing psychosis. Social amotivation may be an important dimensional clinical construct to be studied across a range of psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
Noonan, M P; Mars, R B; Sallet, J; Dunbar, R I M; Fellows, L K
Social skills rely on a specific set of cognitive processes, raising the possibility that individual differences in social networks are related to differences in specific brain structural and functional networks. Here, we tested this hypothesis with multimodality neuroimaging. With diffusion MRI (DMRI), we showed that differences in structural integrity of particular white matter (WM) tracts, including cingulum bundle, extreme capsule and arcuate fasciculus were associated with an individual's social network size (SNS). A voxel-based morphology analysis demonstrated correlations between gray matter (GM) volume and SNS in limbic and temporal lobe regions. These structural changes co-occured with functional network differences. As a function of SNS, dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed altered resting-state functional connectivity with the default mode network (DMN). Finally, we integrated these three complementary methods, interrogating the relationship between social GM clusters and specific WM and resting-state networks (RSNs). Probabilistic tractography seeded in these GM nodes utilized the SNS-related WM pathways. Further, the spatial and functional overlap between the social GM clusters and the DMN was significantly closer than other control RSNs. These integrative analyses provide convergent evidence of the role of specific circuits in SNS, likely supporting the adaptive behavior necessary for success in extensive social environments. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kircanski, Katharina; Colich, Natalie L; Gotlib, Ian H
Early life stress is associated with poorer social functioning. Attentional biases in response to threat-related cues, linked to both early experience and psychopathology, may explain this association. To date, however, no study has examined attentional biases to fearful facial expressions as a function of early life stress or examined these biases as a potential mediator of the relation between early life stress and social problems. In a sample of 154 children (ages 9-13 years) we examined the associations among interpersonal early life stressors (i.e., birth through age 6 years), attentional biases to emotional facial expressions using a dot-probe task, and social functioning on the Child Behavior Checklist. High levels of early life stress were associated with both greater levels of social problems and an attentional bias away from fearful facial expressions, even after accounting for stressors occurring in later childhood. No biases were found for happy or sad facial expressions as a function of early life stress. Finally, attentional biases to fearful faces mediated the association between early life stress and social problems. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions, evidenced by a bias away from these stimuli, may be a developmental response to early adversity and link the experience of early life stress to poorer social functioning. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; O’Donnell, Megan; Knight, George P.; Roosa, Mark W.; Berkel, Cady; Nair, Rajni
The current study examined how parental ethnic socialization informed adolescents’ ethnic identity development and, in turn, youths’ psychosocial functioning (i.e., mental health, social competence, academic efficacy, externalizing behaviors) among 749 Mexican-origin families. In addition, school ethnic composition was examined as a moderator of these associations. Findings indicated that mothers’ and fathers’ ethnic socialization were significant longitudinal predictors of adolescents’ ethnic identity, although fathers’ ethnic socialization interacted significantly with youths’ school ethnic composition in 5th grade to influence ethnic identity in 7th grade. Furthermore, adolescents’ ethnic identity was significantly associated with increased academic self-efficacy and social competence, and decreased depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors. Findings support theoretical predictions regarding the central role parents play in Mexican-origin adolescents’ normative developmental processes and adjustment and, importantly, underscore the need to consider variability that is introduced into these processes by features of the social context such as school ethnic composition. PMID:24465033
Andari, Elissar; Duhamel, Jean-René; Zalla, Tiziana; Herbrecht, Evelyn; Leboyer, Marion; Sirigu, Angela
Social adaptation requires specific cognitive and emotional competences. Individuals with high-functioning autism or with Asperger syndrome cannot understand or engage in social situations despite preserved intellectual abilities. Recently, it has been suggested that oxytocin, a hormone known to promote mother-infant bonds, may be implicated in the social deficit of autism. We investigated the behavioral effects of oxytocin in 13 subjects with autism. In a simulated ball game where participants interacted with fictitious partners, we found that after oxytocin inhalation, patients exhibited stronger interactions with the most socially cooperative partner and reported enhanced feelings of trust and preference. Also, during free viewing of pictures of faces, oxytocin selectively increased patients' gazing time on the socially informative region of the face, namely the eyes. Thus, under oxytocin, patients respond more strongly to others and exhibit more appropriate social behavior and affect, suggesting a therapeutic potential of oxytocin through its action on a core dimension of autism.
Norlelawati, A Talib; Kartini, Abdullah; Norsidah, Kuzaifah; Ramli, Musa; Wan Azizi, Wan Sulaiman; Tariq, Abdul Razak
The present study investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and psychosocial function and the role of relevant sociodemographic data and antipsychotic use in the prediction of psychosocial function among multiracial schizophrenia outpatients in Malaysia. A total of 223 participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study conducted from December 2010 to April 2011. Psychological symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale whilst the psychosocial function was assessed using the Personal and Social Performance scale. Sociodemographic and treatment variables were gathered through interview or review of the medical records. All dimensions of psychosocial functions were inversely correlated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale sub-domains. Only the disorganization sub-domain significantly predicts all dimensions of psychosocial function. For social data, body mass index and employment status were significant predictors of all dimensions of psychosocial functions. Typical antipsychotics significantly predict social function negatively as compared to sulpiride (β = -0.152, P = 0.028). We found that the relationship between psychological symptoms and psychosocial functions were relatively consistent with the findings from the Caucasian population. Additionally, disorganization was the only significant predictor of all dimensions of psychosocial functions. This further emphasized the importance of cognition in psychosocial function. The roles of sulpiride, body mass index and employment status as predictors of psychosocial function were also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
McMahon, Camilla M.; Solomon, Marjorie
Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham & Elliott, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents reported that social skills were less important. Additionally, adolescents reported that they engaged in social skills more frequently than parents reported them to be engaging in social skills. Parents, but not adolescents, reported a discrepancy between importance and engagement, such that the importance of social skills was rated higher than the frequency of adolescent engagement in social skills. These results suggest that social skills interventions for individuals with ASD may need to target awareness of social skill importance and accurate monitoring of social skill engagement. PMID:26077952
Full Text Available Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocognition with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, respectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most significant positive correlations were found between mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most significant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positively associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental findings suggest that mismatch negativity might efficiently reflect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury.
Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Peris, Tara; Axelson, David; Kowatch, Robert A.; Miklowitz, David J.
Objective: Impaired social functioning is common among youth with bipolar disorder (BD), emerges in multiple settings, and persists over time. However, little is known about factors associated with poor peer and family functioning in the early-onset form of BD. Using a sample of adolescents with BD I or II, we examined which symptoms of BD,…
Palmier-Claus, Jasper; Berry, Katherine; Darrell-Berry, Hannah; Emsley, Richard; Parker, Sophie; Drake, Richard; Bucci, Sandra
Childhood adversity may increase risk of impaired social functioning across the continuum of psychosis. However, the pathways by which adversity dictates functional outcome remain underexplored. This study investigated the association between childhood adversity and social functioning, and the clinical and cognitive mediators of this relationship. Fifty-four clinical (20 chronic, 20 first episode, 14 at ultra-high risk) and 120 non-clinical participants completed standardised questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and tests of theory of mind ability. The authors used multiple group structural equation modelling to fit mediation models allowing for differential relationships between the clinical and non-clinical samples. When examining each pathway separately, depression, paranoia and anxious attachment mediated the effect of childhood adversity on social functioning. In a combined model, depression was the only significant mediating variable with greater adversity predicting lower mood across groups. Childhood adversity did not significantly predict theory of mind ability in any of the models. This is the first study to indicate that childhood adversity acts on social functioning by increasing levels of depression, suggesting a common mechanism across the spectrum of psychosis. Clinical interventions should target low mood in order to improve social functioning at all stages of psychotic disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Netten, Anouk P; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; Soede, Wim; Dirks, Evelien; Korver, Anna M H; Konings, Saskia; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; Dekker, Friedo W; Frijns, Johan H M
Permanent childhood hearing impairment often results in speech and language problems that are already apparent in early childhood. Past studies show a clear link between language skills and the child's social-emotional functioning. The aim of this study was to examine the level of language and communication skills after the introduction of early identification services and their relation with social functioning and behavioral problems in deaf and hard of hearing children. Nationwide cross-sectional observation of a cohort of 85 early identified deaf and hard of hearing preschool children (aged 30-66 months). Parents reported on their child's communicative abilities (MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory III), social functioning and appearance of behavioral problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Receptive and expressive language skills were measured using the Reynell Developmental Language Scale and the Schlichting Expressive Language Test, derived from the child's medical records. Language and communicative abilities of early identified deaf and hard of hearing children are not on a par with hearing peers. Compared to normative scores from hearing children, parents of deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower social functioning and more behavioral problems. Higher communicative abilities were related to better social functioning and less behavioral problems. No relation was found between the degree of hearing loss, age at amplification, uni- or bilateral amplification, mode of communication and social functioning and behavioral problems. These results suggest that improving the communicative abilities of deaf and hard of hearing children could improve their social-emotional functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Klapwijk, Eduard T.; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; Bird, Geoffrey; Viner, Russell M.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne
There is increasing evidence that puberty plays an important role in the structural and functional brain development seen in adolescence, but little is known of the pubertal influence on changes in functional connectivity. We explored how pubertal indicators (salivary concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol and DHEA; pubertal stage; menarcheal status) relate to functional connectivity between components of a mentalising network identified to be engaged in social emotion processing by our prior work, using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. Female adolescents aged 11 to 13 years were scanned whilst silently reading scenarios designed to evoke either social emotions (guilt and embarrassment) or basic emotions (disgust and fear), of which only social compared to basic emotions require the representation of another person’s mental states. Pubertal stage and menarcheal status were used to assign participants to pre/early or mid/late puberty groups. We found increased functional connectivity between the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during social relative to basic emotion processing. Moreover, increasing oestradiol concentrations were associated with increased functional connectivity between the DMPFC and the right TPJ during social relative to basic emotion processing, independent of age. Our analysis of the PPI data by phenotypic pubertal status showed that more advanced puberty stage was associated with enhanced functional connectivity between the DMPFC and the left anterior temporal cortex (ATC) during social relative to basic emotion processing, also independent of age. Our results suggest increased functional maturation of the social brain network with the advancement of puberty in girls. PMID:23998674
Difficulties in appropriate social and communicative behaviors are the most prevalent and core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Although recent intensive research has focused on the neurobiological background of these difficulties, many aspects of them were not yet elucidated. Recent studies have employed multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices as intermediate phenotypes of this behavioral phenotype to link candidate genes with the autistic social difficulty. As MRI indices, functional MRI (fMRI), structural MRI, and MR-spectroscopy have been examined in subjects with autism spectrum disorders. As candidate genes, this mini-review has much interest in oxytocin-receptor genes (OXTR), since recent studies have repeatedly reported their associations with normal variations in social cognition and behavior as well as with their extremes, autistic social dysfunction. Through previous increasing studies, medial prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus and amygdala have repeatedly been revealed as neural correlates of autistic social behavior by MRI multimodalities and their relationship to OXTR. For further development of this research area, this mini-review integrates recent accumulating evidence about human behavioral and neural correlates of OXTR. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Erol, Almila; Delibas, Hakan; Bora, Ozlem; Mete, Levent
It is still unclear whether insight has a direct association with social functioning in schizophrenia, independent of its association with symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of insight and its dimensions with social functioning in schizophrenia. A total of 170 outpatients with schizophrenia were included in this study. All patients were evaluated with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP). Patients with impaired insight and patients with unimpaired insight were compared for PSP score through independent samples t test. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to determine the correlations between study variables. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was used in order to determine the variables that predict social performance. The PSP score of patients with impaired insight was significantly lower than that of patients with unimpaired insight. There were significant correlations between insight dimensions and PSP score. PANSS negative scale score, awareness of achieved effects of medication and awareness of anhedonia/asociality were significant predictors of social performance. Insight has a significant impact on social functioning in schizophrenia, and some, but not all, insight dimensions have direct impact on social performance, independent of their association with symptoms. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI often experience emotional and social difficulties. In general, problems in social emotional functioning can be cognitively explained in terms of Theory of Mind (ToM. In this mini-review, an overview is provided of studies on social-emotional functioning and ToM in preschoolers (average age from 2.3 to 6.2 years with SLI. It is concluded that, similar to school-aged children with SLI, preschoolers with SLI have several social-emotional problems and that both cognitive and affective aspects of ToM are impaired in those children. Based hereon, three possible causal models for the interrelation between language, ToM and social emotional functioning are put forward. It is proposed that future research on the construct and measurement of early ToM, social emotional functioning and language development in preschoolers with SLI is needed to achieve early detection, tailored treatment, and ultimately insight into the pathogenesis of SLI.
Newton, Tamara L
The present paper considers connections between cardiovascular functioning (i.e., disease status and acute stress responses) and social dominance, and its counterpart, social submissiveness, both of which are part of the broader domain of "hierarchical power" [Bugental, D.B., 2000. Acquisition of the algorithms of social life: a domain-based approach. Psychological Bulletin 126, 187-219]. Empirical research on connections between dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in humans is reviewed, as is research on dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular reactivity to, and recovery from, acute stressors. Three general conclusions are established. First, in both cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations, trait and behavioral indicators of dominance have been positively associated with cardiovascular disease severity, incidence, and progression, whereas preliminary evidence from two studies suggests that trait submissiveness may protect against poorer disease outcomes. Second, among men and women, trait dominance is associated with reactivity to and recovery from acute stressors, particularly social challenges. Third, linkages between dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular functioning, especially cardiovascular reactivity, are characterized by gender-specific patterning, and this patterning emerges as a function of social context. Implications for the next generation of research concerning social dominance, gender, and cardiovascular functioning are discussed.
Ma, Yuanxiao; Ma, Haijing; Chen, Xu; Ran, Guangming; Zhang, Xing
People tend to respond to rejection and attack with aggression. The present research examined the modulation role of attachment patterns on provoked aggression following punishment and proposed an executive functioning account of attachment patterns' modulating influence based on the General Aggression Model. Attachment style was measured using the Experiences in Close Relationships inventory. Experiments 1a and b and 2 adopted a social rejection task and assessed subsequent unprovoked and provoked aggression with different attachment patterns. Moreover, Experiment 1b and 2 used a Stroop task to examine whether differences in provoked aggression by attachment patterns are due to the amount of executive functioning following social rejection, or after unprovoked punishment, or even before social rejection. Anxiously attached participants displayed significant more provoked aggression than securely and avoidantly attached participants in provoked aggression following unprovoked punishment in Experiments 1 and 2. Meanwhile, subsequent Stroop tests indicated anxiously attached participants experienced more executive functioning depletion after social rejection and unprovoked aggression. The present findings support the General Aggression Model and suggest that provoked aggression is predicted by attachment patterns in the context of social rejection; different provoked aggression may depend on the degree of executive functioning that individuals preserved in aggressive situations. The current study contributes to our understanding of the importance of the role of attachment patterns in modulating aggressive behavior accompanying unfair social encounters. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fontana, Alan; Rosenheck, Robert
Patients with mental illness often return for further treatment after an initial episode of care. Two processes that may contribute to the return for further treatment are the severity of patients' initial social and clinical status; and/or deterioration in their status over time, regardless of their initial status. This study examined these processes in an administrative database of war zone veterans who had received outpatient treatment from a Veterans Affairs specialized posttraumatic stress disorder program. The results suggest that both initial severity and deterioration of status contribute to return to treatment and involve changes in both social functioning and psychopathology. Determination of the direction of effects between social functioning and psychopathology showed that psychopathology in the form of PTSD, other Axis I disorder or violent behavior generally affected subsequent social functioning, but not vice versa. Psychopathology in the form of alcohol or drug abuse/dependence, however, showed reciprocal effects with social functioning. These results point to the importance of emphasizing interventions that address social dysfunction and that address psychopathology, from the beginning of treatment as a way of maximizing the benefits and minimizing the need for recurrent care.
Zamora-Macorra, Mireya; de Castro, Elga Filipa Amorin; Ávila-Funes, José Alberto; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty Soledad; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa; Shields, Pamela L; Del Campo, Daniel Samano Martin
Social support networks are crucial for the health of older adults; however, personal characteristics and time of life may diminish the protective effect of social support. to determine if the presence of social support networks were associated with cognitive impairment among Mexican adults aged 50 or older and if this relationship was different based on age. This study analyzed data from the National Representation Survey performed in Mexico, Study on Global Ageing (SAGE) wave 1. Cognitive function was evaluated by a standardized test, social support was evaluated through latent class analysis (LCA). The LCA was run to obtain three subgroups of different Social Support Levels (SSL): low, medium, and high. Logistic regression models, stratified by age, were performed to analyze the association between SSL and cognitive function. For respondents ages 71-80 y/o, there was an inverse relationship with cognitive impairment for those with medium (OR 0.23, p=0.020) and high (OR 0.07, p=0.000) SSL in comparison with low SSL. While social support helped to improve cognitive function in older adults aged 71-80, this same association was not observed in adults of other ages. Those younger than 70 y/o may not need such a strong support network as a result of being more self-sufficient. After 80, social networks were not enough to help diminish the negative impact of cognitive impairment. Social support could improve the cognitive function of adults ages 71 and 80; suggesting there could be a window of opportunity to improve cognitive functioning for this group. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Schizophrenic patients have serious impairments in social cognition, which often persists after significant reduction in clinical symptoms. Community-based psychosocial treatments aim to recover social functioning for mentally ill individuals. Our aim was to examine prospective changes in social cognition and functional outcomes in two groups of schizophrenic patients involved in two forms of community-based psychosocial treatments namely case management (CM and community-based club (CC compared to a matched, treatment as usual (TAU group of patients. We hypothesized that CC and CM groups would exhibit better functional and social cognitive outcomes after a 6-month long psychosocial treatment period. Seventy-five patients participated either in CC, CM or TAU. Both CC and CM took part in community-based psychosocial treatment programs including trainings, such as communication and assertiveness trainings. In addition, CC provided group therapeutic treatments and a continuously available day care where patients had the possibility to participate in various social interactions. All participants were in remission, and on maintenance antipsychotic treatment. Participants were assessed on all study variables at two time points: baseline and after 6 months with a battery of questionnaires that examined affective face perception, affective prosody perception, pragmatic language comprehension and ToM. Our results showed that functional outcomes improved significantly in the CC as well as in the CM groups, in contrast to the TAU group. While analyzing summary scores of social cognition, it was found that only the CC group increased its performance in social cognition. In addition, a significant between-group difference in social cognitive function was found after 6 months between the three groups, with the CC group performing best. When investigating associations between changes in social cognition and changes in functional outcomes during a 6-month long
Harpin, V; Mazzone, L; Raynaud, J P; Kahle, J; Hodgkins, P
To compare the long-term self-esteem and social function outcomes of individuals with untreated and treated ADHD across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. A systematic search of 12 databases was performed to identify peer-reviewed, primary research articles, published January 1980 to December 2011, reporting long-term self-esteem and/or social function outcomes (≥2 years; life consequences distinct from symptoms) of individuals with untreated or treated ADHD. Overall, 127 studies reported 150 outcomes. Most outcomes were poorer in individuals with untreated ADHD versus non-ADHD controls (57% [13/23] for self-esteem; 73% [52/71] for social function). A beneficial response to treatment (pharmacological, nonpharmacological, and multimodal treatments) was reported for the majority of self-esteem (89% [8/9]) and social function (77% [17/22]) outcomes. Untreated ADHD was associated with poorer long-term self-esteem and social function outcomes compared with non-ADHD controls. Treatment for ADHD was associated with improvement in outcomes; however, further long-term outcome studies are needed. © The Author(s) 2013.
MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly
The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M age = 4.31 years) were recruited to participate. Comprehensive measures of visual-motor integration skills, object manipulation skills, executive function, and social behaviors were administered in the fall and spring of the preschool year. Our findings indicated that children who had better visual-motor integration skills in the fall had better executive function scores (B = 0.47 [0.20], p gender, Head Start status, and site location, but not after controlling for children's baseline levels of executive function. In addition, children who demonstrated better object manipulation skills in the fall showed significantly stronger social behavior in their classrooms (as rated by teachers) in the spring, including more self-control (B - 0.03 [0.00], p social behavior in the fall and other covariates. Children's visual-motor integration and object manipulation skills in the fall have modest to moderate relations with executive function and social behaviors later in the preschool year. These findings have implications for early learning initiatives and school readiness.
Dahne, Jennifer; Hise, Leanne; Brenner, Misha; Lejuez, C W; MacPherson, Laura
Individuals with social phobia (SP) represent a large group with elevated rates of cigarette smoking and cessation rates lower than that of individuals without psychopathology. For individuals with SP, cigarette smoking may be used to reduce social anxiety in anticipation of and during social situations. However, no study to date has experimentally examined this association. The aim of the current study was to experimentally examine the relationship between cigarette smoking and SP as a function of induced social stress. We recruited daily smokers ages 18-21 who scored in either a clinical or normative range on the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Participants included 54 smokers (42.6% female, 77.8% White, age M(SD)=19.65(1.18), CPSD M(SD)=7.67(4.36), 46.30% high SP) who attended two sessions: one social stress session and one neutral session. Results indicated that high SP smokers experienced significant decreases in negative affect (NA) following smoking a cigarette when experiencing social stress. This effect was specific to high SP smokers under social stress and was not observed among individuals' average in SP or when examining changes in positive affect. For individuals with SP, cigarette smoking may be maintained due to changes in NA associated with smoking specifically in the context of social stress. These results speak to the importance of targeted cessation interventions that address the nature of smoking for individuals with SP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the social skills that crucially affect children's social behaviour in the school. Our objective was to gather information about the functioning of social skills from middle childhood to early adolescence. The sample consisted of 7-, 9- and 11-year-old Hungarian students (N=1398. Based on Stephens’s (1992 list of social skills, a 54-item Likert-type questionnaire (teacher-, parent- and selfreport versions was developed especially for this purpose. The child and the adult versions share the same structure and scale items. The results show no spontaneous development at the level of social skills between the ages of 7 and 11. There was a moderate correlation between the three evaluators’ judgements concerning the level of children’s social skills. All three respondent groups indicated that girls’ social skills were slightly more developed than boys’. Teachers, however, perceived this difference to be twice as large as the other two raters. To sum up our results indicate that for a large percentage of participants, the acquisition of social skills has not been completed at 11 years old. This finding indicates that more attention should be paid to fostering social skills early at school.
Mustoe, Aaryn C; Taylor, Jack H; Birnie, Andrew K; Huffman, Michelle C; French, Jeffrey A
Both gestational cortisol exposure (GCE) and variability in postnatal environments can shape the later-life behavioral and endocrine outcomes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We examined the influence of GCE and social play on HPA functioning in developing marmosets. Maternal urinary cortisol samples were collected across pregnancy to determine GCE for 28 marmoset offspring (19 litters). We administered a social separation stressor to offspring at 6, 12, and 18 months of age, during which we collected urinary cortisol samples and behavioral observations. Increased GCE was associated with increased basal cortisol levels and cortisol reactivity, but the strength of this relationship decreased across age. Increased social play was associated with decreased basal cortisol levels and a marginally greater reduction in cortisol reactivity as offspring aged, regardless of offspring GCE. Thus, GCE is associated with HPA functioning, but socially enriching postnatal environments can alter the effects associated with increased fetal exposure to glucocorticoids. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Qiu, Guo-Hua; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Xintian; Huang, Cuiqin
Traditionally, the genome has been described as the 'book of life'. However, the metaphor of a book may not reflect the dynamic nature of the structure and function of the genome. In the eukaryotic genome, the number of centrally located protein-coding sequences is relatively constant across species, but the amount of noncoding DNA increases considerably with the increase of organismal evolutional complexity. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that the abundant peripheral noncoding DNA protects the genome and the central protein-coding sequences in the eukaryotic genome. Upon comparison with the habitation, sociality and defense mechanisms of a social insect colony, it is found that the genome is similar to a social insect colony in various aspects. A social insect colony may thus be a better metaphor than a book to describe the spatial organization and physical functions of the genome. The potential implications of the metaphor are also discussed.
Pinto, Jayant M; Kern, David W; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Chen, Rachel C; Schumm, L Philip; McClintock, Martha K
Sensory function, a critical component of quality of life, generally declines with age and influences health, physical activity, and social function. Sensory measures collected in Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) survey focused on the personal impact of sensory function in the home environment and included: subjective assessment of vision, hearing, and touch, information on relevant home conditions and social sequelae as well as an improved objective assessment of odor detection. Summary data were generated for each sensory category, stratified by age (62-90 years of age) and gender, with a focus on function in the home setting and the social consequences of sensory decrements in each modality. Among both men and women, older age was associated with self-reported impairment of vision, hearing, and pleasantness of light touch. Compared with women, men reported significantly worse hearing and found light touch less appealing. There were no gender differences for vision. Overall, hearing loss seemed to have a greater impact on social function than did visual impairment. Sensory function declines across age groups, with notable gender differences for hearing and light touch. Further analysis of sensory measures from NSHAP Wave 2 may provide important information on how sensory declines are related to health, social function, quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in this nationally representative sample of older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Wilford, Justin; Buchbinder, David; Fortier, Michelle A; Osann, Kathryn; Shen, Violet; Torno, Lilibeth; Sender, Leonard S; Parsons, Susan K; Wenzel, Lari
Psychosocial sequelae of diagnosis and treatment for childhood brain tumor survivors are significant, yet little is known about their impact on adolescent and young adult (AYA) brain tumor survivors. Interviews were conducted with parents of AYA brain tumor survivors with a focus on social functioning. Semistructured interviews were conducted with English- and Spanish-speaking parents of AYA brain tumor survivors ≥10 years of age who were >2 years postdiagnosis, and analyzed using emergent themes theoretically integrated with a social neuroscience model of social competence. Twenty parents representing 19 survivors with a survivor mean age 15.7 ± 3.3 years and 10.1 ± 4.8 years postdiagnosis were interviewed. Several themes relevant to the social neuroscience social competence model emerged. First, parents' perceptions of their children's impaired social functioning corroborated the model, particularly with regard to poor social adjustment, social withdrawal, impaired social information processing, and developmentally inappropriate peer communication. Second, ongoing physical and emotional sequelae of central nervous system insults were seen by parents as adversely affecting social functioning among survivors. Third, a disrupted family environment and ongoing parent psychosocial distress were experienced as salient features of daily life. We document that the aforementioned framework is useful for understanding the social impact of diagnosis and treatment on AYA brain tumor survivorship. Moreover, the framework highlights areas of intervention that may enhance social functioning for AYA brain tumor survivors.
Kuusikko, Sanna; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Carter, Alice S; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David L; Moilanen, Irma
We examined social anxiety and internalizing symptoms using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C), the Social Anxiety Scale for Children -Revised (SASC-R), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in a sample of fifty-four high-functioning subjects with autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) (M = 11.2 +/- 1.7 years) and 305 community subjects (M = 12.2 +/- 2.2 years). Children and adolescents completed the SPAI-C and SASC-R, and their parents completed the CBCL Internalizing scale. Adolescents with HFA/AS scored higher than the community sample on all measures. Behavioural avoidance and evaluative social anxiety increased by age within the HFA/AS group, whereas behavioural avoidance decreased by age in control participants. Data support that HFA/AS in adolescents may be associated with clinically relevant social anxiety symptoms.
Victor A. Zaikin
Full Text Available The paper studies the methodological aspect of developing social intuitionist approach to moral psychology. The paper reveals the possibility of applying this approach to the study of morality and moral functioning today, emphasizes the representation of issues in moral psychology methodological origins of social psychology, both in Russia and abroad. Social and psychological foundations of social intuitionist approach are described in detail. The research results show that the child perceiving the concept of fairness and variability in the framework of a specific group membership is culturally determined. The matter of special consideration is the theory of the American social psychologist George Haidt. The results of his work and his colleagues’ works are presented herein describing the concept of cultural variable moral intuitions, the findings of empirical studies carried out in the framework of this approach are summarized. The paper reveals the fundamental provisions of the social and intuitionistic theory. The comparative analysis of the social intuitionistic and cognitive approaches in moral psychology is presented. The conclusion that the relativistic understanding of morality is not an obstacle to its study, and the presence of various determinants of moral functioning should be based on further empirical research. The authors conceptualized the current state of social intuitionistic theory of moral functioning, which describes the theoretical and methodological sources of this area (Rawls, 2010; Freud, 2005; Hume, 1996; Hare’s, 1981. As justification for this approach the paper considers the phenomena studied in psychology, social cognition, and those that create the possibility of developing this area, namely affective motivation (Zajonc, 1980, fair-world hypothesis (Lerner, 1965, the objectivity of the illusion (Perkins, Allen, & Hafner , 1983, the phenomenon of «naive realism» (Griffin, & Ross, 1991, group interaction in a
Davidson, Sandra K; Dowrick, Christopher F; Gunn, Jane M
High rates of persistent depression highlight the need to identify the risk factors associated with poor depression outcomes and to provide targeted interventions to people at high risk. Although social relationships have been implicated in depression course, interventions targeting social relationships have been disappointing. Possibly, interventions have targeted the wrong elements of relationships. Alternatively, the statistical association between relationships and depression course is not causal, but due to shared variance with other factors. We investigated whether elements of social relationships predict major depressive episode (MDE) when multiple relevant variables are considered. Data is from a longitudinal study of primary care patients with depressive symptoms. 494 participants completed questionnaires at baseline and a depression measure (PHQ-9) two years later. Baseline measures included functional (i.e. quality) and structural (i.e. quantity) social relationships, depression, neuroticism, chronic illness, alcohol abuse, childhood abuse, partner violence and sociodemographic characteristics. Logistic regression with generalised estimating equations was used to estimate the association between social relationships and MDE. Both functional and structural social relationships predicted MDE in univariate analysis. Only functional social relationships remained significant in multivariate analysis (OR: 0.87; 95%CI: 0.79-0.97; p=0.01). Other unique predictors of MDE were baseline depression severity, neuroticism, childhood sexual abuse and intimate partner violence. We did not assess how a person's position in their depression trajectory influenced the association between social relationships and depression. Interventions targeting relationship quality may be part of a personalised treatment plan for people at high risk due of persistent depression due to poor social relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mitsui, Shinichi; Osako, Yoji; Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai T; Yuri, Kazunari; Li, Yuqing; Yamaguchi, Nozomi
Motopsin is a mosaic serine protease secreted from neuronal cells in various brain regions, including the hippocampus. The loss of motopsin function causes nonsyndromic mental retardation in humans and impairs long-term memory formation in Drosophila. To understand motopsin's function in the mammalian brain, motopsin knockout (KO) mice were generated. Motopsin KO mice did not have significant deficits in memory formation, as tested using the Morris water maze, passive avoidance and Y-maze tests. A social recognition test showed that the motopsin KO mice had the ability to recognize two stimulator mice, suggesting normal social memory. In a social novelty test, motopsin KO mice spent a longer time investigating a familiar mouse than wild-type (WT) mice did. In a resident-intruder test, motopsin KO mice showed prolonged social interaction as compared with WT mice. Consistent with the behavioral deficit, spine density was significantly decreased on apical dendrites, but not on basal dendrites, of hippocampal pyramidal neurons of motopsin KO mice. In contrast, pyramidal neurons at the cingulate cortex showed normal spine density. Spatial learning and social interaction induced the phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in hippocampal neurons of WT mice, whereas the phosphorylation of CREB was markedly decreased in mutant mouse brains. Our results indicate that an extracellular protease, motopsin, preferentially affects social behaviors, and modulates the functions of hippocampal neurons.
Bernstein, Gail A; Bernat, Debra H; Davis, Andrew A; Layne, Ann E
This study investigates symptom presentation and school functioning in a nonclinical sample of children with social phobia (SP). Forty-five children with SP were identified via school-wide screenings and follow-up diagnostic interviews. Analyses examined types and intensity of fears, number of social situations avoided, interpersonal relationships, and classroom functioning. To identify characteristics unique to social phobic children, children with SP (n = 45) were compared to anxious children without SP (n = 56) on the above variables. Comorbidity in children with SP and factors associated with SP severity were also evaluated. Compared to anxious children without SP, children with SP feared and avoided a significantly greater number of social situations. In addition, they were significantly more likely to have trouble with making friends and to prefer being alone rather than with peers. All children with SP met criteria for at least one comorbid disorder. Significant factors explaining child-reported severity of SP were number of social situations avoided and intensity of fears. Greater severity of SP was significantly associated with poorer social skills, poorer leadership skills, greater attention difficulties, and greater learning problems in the classroom. It is important to understand the symptom presentation of SP so that children with SP are identified early and effective interventions are instituted. This is especially critical given the impact of SP on school functioning. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Jung, Joo-Young; Moro, Munehito
This study examines the multi-level functionalities of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011. Based on a conceptual model of multi-level story flows of social media (Jung and Moro, 2012), the study analyses the multiple functionalities that were ascribed to social media by individuals, organisations, and macro-level social systems (government and the mass media) after the earthquake. Based on survey data, a review of Twitter timelines and secondary sources, the authors derive five functionalities of social media: interpersonal communications with others (micro level); channels for local governments; organisations and local media (meso level); channels for mass media (macro level); information sharing and gathering (cross level); and direct channels between micro-/meso- and macro-level agents. The study sheds light on the future potential of social media in disaster situations and suggests how to design an effective communication network to prepare for emergency situations. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.
Poulsen, Tine; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Lund, Rikke; Christensen, Ulla; Vass, Mikkel; Avlund, Kirsten
To analyse if social capital modifies the effect of educational intervention of home visitors on mobility disability. Earlier studies have found that educational intervention of home visitors has a positive effect of older peoples' functional decline, but how social capital might modify this effect is still unknown. We used the Danish Intervention Study on Preventive Home Visits - a prospective cohort study including 2863 75-year-olds and 1171 80-year-olds in 34 Danish municipalities - to analyse the modifying effect of different aspects of social capital on the effect of educational intervention of home visitors on functional decline. The three measures of social capital (bonding, bridging, and linking) were measured at contextual level. Data was analysed with multivariate linear regression model using generalised estimating equations to account for repeated measurements. We found that 80-year-olds living in municipalities with high bonding (B=0.089, p=0.0279) and high linking (B=0.0929; p=0.0217) had significant better mobility disability in average at 3-year follow up if their municipality had received intervention. With the unique design of the Danish Intervention Study on Preventive Home Visits and with theory-based measures of social capital that distinguish between three aspects of social capital with focus on older people, this study contributes to the literature about the role of social capital for interventions on mobility disability.
Rasmussen, Anne S; Habermas, Tilmann
According to theory, autobiographical memory serves three broad functions of overall usage: directive, self, and social. However, there is evidence to suggest that the tripartite model may be better conceptualised in terms of a four-factor model with two social functions. In the present study we examined the two models in Danish and German samples, using the Thinking About Life Experiences Questionnaire (TALE; Bluck, Alea, Habermas, & Rubin, 2005), which measures the overall usage of the three functions generalised across concrete memories. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor model and rejected the theoretical three-factor model in both samples. The results are discussed in relation to cultural differences in overall autobiographical memory usage as well as sharing versus non-sharing aspects of social remembering.
Full Text Available Schizophrenic psychoses are a heterogeneous group of diseases that affect about 1% of the world’s population. The first symptoms of the disease usually manifest between ages 20 and 30. The diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and its subtypes are characterized in detail in ICD-10. Diagnosis is based primarily on the presence of productive symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations occurring for at least one month which cannot be explained in another way. Schizophrenia is a disease which largely affects social functioning of patients, such as occupational performance, family life, interpersonal relationships or housing situation. Apart from the sociological aspect, social lives of schizophrenia sufferers are significantly impoverished due to cognitive impairment associated with improper functioning of NMDA receptors. The study describes a case of a patient suffering from paranoid schizophrenia which sheds light on the social functioning of this group of patients.
Full Text Available The usefulness of group social skills training in Autism Spectrum Disorder therapy has been well established. However, little is known about the group dynamics of this kind of intervention. The current multiple case studies were conducted to demonstrate that, despite of the functioning specifics of participants with ASD, processes associated with the dynamics of the group during group social skills training session may be noticeable. Intervention groups consisted of fifteen adolescents and preadolescents with high functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders aged between 11 to 17 years old divided into three training groups. The social skills training sessions were conducted on a weekly basis. The observation lasted for six months and it included the formation of the group, the period of stability and unexpected changes. After each group session, the therapists filled in a detailed report about the participants’ behavior and interactions between participants. Collected data were carefully analyzed for group dynamic features. It was noticed that adolescents participating in group interventions are susceptible to the influence of the group, take different individual roles and are moderately sensitive to changes in the group structure. The influence of the disorder characteristics on group dynamics was also observed. Although the results show that group dynamics can be observed at a group training for ASD, the need for further structured observation should be emphasized as a current study constituted the first approach to the subject.
This article identifies the nature of functions that social service workers employed by municipal organisations have to perform during a community disaster and subsequent reorganisation at a time of war. The article also explores to what extent the functions of workers change as a result of the transition from a peacetime routine to a war situation. Using focus groups the study assesses the knowledge of social service workers and ordinary citizens who had direct experience of the second Lebanese war in Israel (2006). Eight major functions needed at a time of disaster are distinguished among various employees. The article discusses the significance of these functions, and the need to make changes in the network of functions at a time of disaster.
Chen, Bai Qi Peggy; Parmar, Monica P; Gartshore, Kimberley
Despite early detection of breast cancer and the progress of treatment modalities, metastasis-specific symptoms continue to impact women's functional status and daily living. The aim of this study was to explore the experience of altered functional status and social roles of women with advanced breast cancer. Using qualitative descriptive methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women diagnosed with advanced breast cancer and altered functional status attending a tertiary care cancer centre. Results illustrated the adaptive experience of women living with their illness as they reshaped their social roles to fit with their altered functional status and advanced disease. These findings highlight the opportunity for supportive care nursing interventions to facilitate the behavioural and cognitive transitions that are experienced by women with advanced breast cancer and altered functional status. These results may have implications for women with other advanced chronic diseases, though more research is required.
Lam, Dominic; Schuck, Nikki; Smith, Neil; Farmer, Anne; Checkley, Stuart
It is postulated that depressed patients who engaged in self-focused rumination on their depressive symptoms may experience more hopelessness, more interpersonal distress and poorer social functioning while patients who distract themselves may experience less severe hopelessness and better social functioning. One-hundred and nine outpatients suffering from DSM-IV (APA, 1994) major depressive disorders filled in questionnaires that mapped into their response style to depression, hopelessness and interpersonal style. They were also interviewed for their levels of social functioning. Rumination was associated with higher levels of depression and distraction was associated with lower levels of depression. Furthermore when levels of depression and gender were controlled for, rumination contributed to higher levels of hopelessness and distraction contributed to lower levels of hopelessness. Both rumination and levels of depression contributed significantly to higher levels of interpersonal distress when gender was controlled for. Ruminators were rated to have significantly more severe problems in intimate relationships while distractors were rated to have significantly higher social functioning. Our study suggests the importance of teaching patients techniques to distract themselves. This could prevent patients from getting into a vicious cycle of self-absorption and increased levels of hopelessness, finding it hard to interact with people in their social network and neglecting their intimate relationships.
Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Junfeng; Hong, Yan; Lin, Xiuyun; Stanton, Bonita
While the relationship between perceived social support (PSS) and psychosocial well-being has been well documented in the global literature, existing studies also suggest the existence of multiple domains in definition and measurement of PSS. The current study, utilizing data from 1299 rural children affected by HIV/AIDS in central China, examines the relative importance of PSS functional measures (informational/emotional, material/tangible, affectionate, and social interaction) and PSS structural measures (family/relatives, teachers, friends, and significant others) in predicting psychosocial outcomes including internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and educational resilience. Both functional and structural measures of PSS provided reliable measures of related but unique aspects of PSS. The findings of the current study confirmed the previous results that PSS is highly correlated with children's psychosocial well-being and such correlations vary by functions and sources of the PSS as well as different psychosocial outcomes. The findings in the current study suggested the roles of specific social support functions or resources may need to be assessed in relation to specific psychosocial outcome and the context of children's lives. The strong association between PSS and psychosocial outcomes underscores the importance of adequate social support to alleviate stressful life events and improve psychosocial well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, the study findings call for gender and developmentally appropriate and situation-specific social support for children and families affected by HIV/AIDS.
Ventura, Joseph; Tom, Shelley R; Jetton, Chris; Kern, Robert S
Neurocognition in general, and memory functioning in particular, as well as symptoms have all been shown to be related to social problem solving (SPS) in schizophrenia. However, few studies have directly compared the relative contribution of neurocognition vs. psychiatric symptoms to the components of SPS. Sixty outpatients (aged 21-65) who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered a broad battery of memory tests and assessed for severity of positive and negative symptoms as part of a baseline assessment of a study of psychiatric rehabilitation. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the contribution of memory functioning vs. symptoms on receiving, processing, and sending skill areas of social problem solving ability. An index of verbal learning was the strongest predictor of processing skills whereas negative symptoms were the strongest predictor of sending skills. Positive symptoms were not related to any of the three skill areas of social problem solving. Memory functioning and psychiatric symptoms differentially predict selected areas of social problem solving ability in persons with schizophrenia. Consistent with other reports, positive symptoms were not related to social problem solving. Consideration of both neurocognition and negative symptoms may be important to the development of rehabilitation interventions in this area of functioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Qin; Yang, Zhi-Kai; Sun, Xiu-Mei; Du, Yun; Song, Yi-Fan; Ren, Ye-Ping; Dong, Jie
♦ BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment (CI) is a common phenomenon and predictive of high mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This study aimed to analyze the association of social support and family environment with cognitive function in PD patients. ♦ METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of PD patients from Peking University First Hospital and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. Global cognitive function was measured using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), executive function was measured by the A and B trail-making tests, and other cognitive functions were measured by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Social support was measured with the Social Support Scale developed by Xiaoshuiyuan and family environment was measured with the Chinese Version of the Family Environment Scale (FES-CV). ♦ RESULTS: The prevalence of CI and executive dysfunction among the 173 patients in the study was, respectively, 16.8% and 26.3%. Logistic regression found that higher global social support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09, 1.01 - 1.17, p = 0.027) and subjective social support predicted higher prevalence of CI (OR = 1.13, 1.02 - 1.25, p = 0.022), adjusting for covariates. Analyses of the FES-CV dimensions found that greater independence was significantly associated with better immediate memory and delayed memory. Moreover, higher scores on achievement orientation were significantly associated with poorer language skills. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that social support is negatively associated with the cognitive function of PD patients and that some dimensions of the family environment are significantly associated with several domains of cognitive function. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.
Avlund, Kirsten; Lund, Rikke; Holstein, Bjørn E
) and Glostrup (Denmark). The analyses are performed separately for men and women. Possible selection problems were considered by using three outcome measures: first, functional decline among the survivors (n = 425); second, functional decline, including death, assuming that death is part of a general decline...
Gal, Eynat; Lamash, Liron; Bauminger-Zviely, Nirit; Zancanaro, Massimo; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar
Children with high-functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD) have major difficulties in social communication skills, which may impact their performance and participation in everyday life. The goal of this study was to examine whether the StoryTable, an intervention paradigm based on a collaborative narrative, multitouch tabletop interface, enhanced social interaction for children with HFASD, and to determine whether the acquired abilities were transferred to behaviors during other tasks. Fourteen boys with HFASD, aged 7-12 years, participated in a 3-week, 11-session intervention. Social interactions during two nonintervention tasks were videotaped at three points in time, one prior to the intervention (pre), a second immediately following the intervention (post) and a third three weeks after the intervention (follow-up). The video-recorded files were coded using the Friendship Observation Scale to ascertain the frequencies of positive and negative social interactions and collaborative play. Differences in these behaviors were tested for significance using nonparametric statistical tests. There were significantly higher rates of positive social interactions and collaborative play, and lower rates of negative social interactions following the intervention suggesting generalization of the social skills learned during the intervention. Improvement was maintained when tested three weeks later. These findings provide support for the use of collaborative technology-based interventions within educational settings to enhance social interaction of children with HFASD.
Choque Olsson, Nora; Rautio, Daniel; Asztalos, Jenny; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Bölte, Sven
Systematic reviews show some evidence for the efficacy of group-based social skills group training in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, but more rigorous research is needed to endorse generalizability. In addition, little is known about the perspectives of autistic individuals participating in social skills group training. Using a qualitative approach, the objective of this study was to examine experiences and opinions about social skills group training of children and adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder and their parents following participation in a manualized social skills group training ("KONTAKT"). Within an ongoing randomized controlled clinical trial (NCT01854346) and based on outcome data from the Social Responsiveness Scale, six high responders and five low-to-non-responders to social skills group training and one parent of each child (N = 22) were deep interviewed. Interestingly, both high responders and low-to-non-responders (and their parents) reported improvements in social communication and related skills (e.g. awareness of own difficulties, self-confidence, independence in everyday life) and overall treatment satisfaction, although more positive intervention experiences were expressed by responders. These findings highlight the added value of collecting verbal data in addition to quantitative data in a comprehensive evaluation of social skills group training. © The Author(s) 2016.
Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel; Bach, Dominik; Kanai, Ryota
brain GM) in the volumetric based morphology (VBM) contrast of GM in OFC. OFCGM found to correlate (FWE corrected, P >.05) with Binf, was used as a regressor in the group fMRI contrasts of (a) and (b) to investigate the relationship between structure and activity during conformity.......; b) functional responses reflecting social influence on object value; and c) grey matter volume (GM) the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) – an area not available to functional analysis in our study but clearly involved in social conduct and value learning. Methods: Prior to testing, 28 healthy subjects...
Full Text Available AIMS – This study aims to explore associations between structural and functional aspects of social networks and relationships (here labelled social ties among individuals exhibiting problematic alcohol use and problem gambling, respectively.
Marfeo, Elizabeth E.; Haley, Stephen M.; Jette, Alan M.; Eisen, Susan V.; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M.; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E.; Rasch, Elizabeth K.
Physical and mental impairments represent the two largest health condition categories for which workers receive Social Security disability benefits. Comprehensive assessment of physical and mental impairments should include aspects beyond medical conditions such as a person’s underlying capabilities as well as activity demands relevant to the context of work. The objective of this paper is to describe the initial conceptual stages of developing new measurement instruments of behavioral health and physical functioning relevant for Social Security work disability evaluation purposes. To outline a clear conceptualization of the constructs to be measured, two content models were developed using structured and informal qualitative approaches. We performed a structured literature review focusing on work disability and incorporating aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) as a unifying taxonomy for framework development. Expert interviews provided advice and consultation to enhance face validity of the resulting content models. The content model for work-related behavioral health function identifies five major domains (1) Behavior Control, (2) Basic Interactions, (3) Temperament and Personality, (4) Adaptability, and (5) Workplace Behaviors. The content model describing physical functioning includes three domains (1) Changing and Maintaining Body Position, (2) Whole Body Mobility, and (3) Carrying, Moving and Handling Objects. These content models informed subsequent measurement properties including item development, measurement scale construction, and provided conceptual coherence guiding future empirical inquiry. The proposed measurement approaches show promise to comprehensively and systematically assess physical and behavioral health functioning relevant to work. PMID:23548543
Phalen, Peter L; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Popolo, Raffaele; Lysaker, Paul H
Despite the apparent relevance of persecutory delusions to social relationships, evidence linking these beliefs to social functioning has been inconsistent. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that theory of mind moderates the relationship between persecutory delusions and social functioning. 88 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed concurrently for social functioning, severity of persecutory delusions, and two components of theory of mind: mental state decoding and mental state reasoning. Mental state decoding was assessed using the Eyes Test, mental state reasoning using the Hinting Task, and social functioning assessed with the Social Functioning Scale. Moderation effects were evaluated using linear models and the Johnson-Neyman procedure. Mental state reasoning was found to moderate the relationship between persecutory delusions and social functioning, controlling for overall psychopathology. For participants with reasoning scores in the bottom 78th percentile, persecutory delusions showed a significant negative relationship with social functioning. However, for those participants with mental state reasoning scores in the top 22nd percentile, more severe persecutory delusions were not significantly associated with worse social functioning. Mental state decoding was not a statistically significant moderator. Generalizability is limited as participants were generally men in later phases of illness. Mental state reasoning abilities may buffer the impact of persecutory delusions on social functioning, possibly by helping individuals avoid applying global beliefs of persecution to specific individuals or by allowing for the correction of paranoid inferences. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Manring, Sam; Christian Elledge, L; Swails, Lisette W; Vernberg, Eric M
This study examined whether social preference was a mechanism that explained the relation between proactive and reactive aggression and peer victimization. Participants were 494 children in grades 2-5. Proactive and reactive aggression was assessed via a self-report measure and indices of social preference and peer victimization were assessed via a peer nomination inventory. Data was collected during the fall and spring of two academic years. The relations among aggression, social preference, and peer victimization varied as a function of aggression and gender. For girls, reactive aggression was a significant negative predictor of social preference. Findings also revealed social preference mediated the relation between reactive aggression and peer victimization for girls. This pathway did not hold for boys. There was some evidence that proactive aggression was negatively associated with peer victimization, but only for girls. Findings from the current study suggest social preference may be a key mechanism through which reactive aggression is associated with future victimization for girls. Boys' aggression was not related to subsequent peer victimization. Future research and intervention efforts should consider gender differences and the function of aggression when investigating children's peer victimization experiences.
Lysaker Paul H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has indicated that stable individual differences in personality exist among persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders predating illness onset that are linked to symptoms and self appraised quality of life. Less is known about how closely individual differences in personality are uniquely related to levels of social relationships, a domain of dysfunction in schizophrenia more often linked in the literature with symptoms and neurocognitive deficits. This study tested the hypothesis that trait levels of personality as defined using the five-factor model of personality would be linked to social function in schizophrenia. Methods A self-report measure of the five factor model of personality was gathered along with ratings of social function, symptoms and assessments of neurocognition for 65 participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Results Univariate correlations and stepwise multiple regression indicated that frequency of social interaction was predicted by higher levels of the trait of Agreeableness, fewer negative symptoms, better verbal memory and at the trend level, lesser Neuroticism (R2 = .42, p 2 = .67, p Conclusions Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that person-centered variables such as personality, may account for some of the broad differences seen in outcome in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including social outcomes. One interpretation of the results of this study is that differences in personality combine with symptoms and neurocognitive deficits to affect how persons with schizophrenia are able to form and sustain social connections with others.
Martin, Maryanne; Chapman, Sarah C E
Two possible roles of selective attention in the development and maintenance of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were examined. First, hypervigilance to pain within FGID may exacerbate pain perception and pain-related distress. Second, hypervigilance to socially threatening stimuli could account for the disrupted social functioning reported by patients. Furthermore, stress-related variations in reported symptom severity and functioning impairments may reflect changes in cognitive bias with psychological state. Patterns of selective attention were probed within a sample of putative FGID participants (pFGID). The effect of rumination induction on performance on a modified exogenous cueing task was examined. Thirty-three women with pFGID and 27 matched controls responded to dot probes following pain, social threat and neutral word cues, both before and after rumination (passive self-focused thought), or distraction induction. Reaction times revealed that after rumination but not neutral distraction, pFGID participants showed enhanced attention to social threat words, but not to pain or neutral words. Between-group differences in mood, anxiety or depression could not account for these effects. These results implicate selective attention in social but not pain-related idiosyncrasies in FGID including IBS.
Rukuni, Ruramayi; McHugh, Grace; Majonga, Edith; Kranzer, Katharina; Mujuru, Hilda; Munyati, Shungu; Nathoo, Kusum; Gregson, Celia L; Kuper, Hannah; Ferrand, Rashida A
Increasing numbers of children with HIV are surviving to adolescence and encountering multiple clinical and social consequences of long-standing HIV infection. We aimed to investigate the association between HIV and disability, social functioning and school inclusion among 6- to 16-year-olds in Zimbabwe. HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy from a public-sector HIV clinic and HIV-uninfected children attending primary care clinics in the same catchment area were recruited. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic, social functioning and disability data. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between HIV status and disability and functioning. We recruited 202 HIV-infected and 285 HIV-uninfected children. There was no difference in age and gender between the two groups, but a higher proportion of HIV-infected children were orphaned. The prevalence of any disability was higher in HIV-infected than uninfected children (37.6% vs. 18.5%, P disability to those with HIV but no disabilities. Children with HIV commonly experience disabilities, and this is associated with social and educational exclusion. Rehabilitation and support services are needed to facilitate educational attainment and social participation in this group. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jarrold, William; Mundy, Peter; Gwaltney, Mary; Bailenson, Jeremy; Hatt, Naomi; McIntyre, Nancy; Kim, Kwanguk; Solomon, Marjorie; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain, Lindsay
Impairments in social attention play a major role in autism, but little is known about their role in development after preschool. In this study, a public speaking task was used to study social attention, its moderators, and its association with classroom learning in elementary and secondary students with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). Thirty-seven students with HFASD and 54 age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched peers without symptoms of ASD were assessed in a virtual classroom public speaking paradigm. This paradigm assessed the ability to attend to nine avatar peers seated at a table, while simultaneously answering self-referenced questions. Students with HFASD looked less frequently to avatar peers in the classroom while talking. However, social attention was moderated in the HFASD sample such that students with lower IQ, and/or more symptoms of social anxiety, and/or more attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattentive symptoms, displayed more atypical social attention. Group differences were more pronounced when the classroom contained social avatars versus nonsocial targets. Moreover, measures of social attention rather than nonsocial attention were significantly associated with parent report and objective measures of learning in the classroom. The data in this study support the hypothesis of the Social Attention Model of ASD that social attention disturbance remains part of the school-aged phenotype of autism that is related to syndrome-specific problems in social learning. More research of this kind would likely contribute to advances in the understanding of the development of the spectrum of autism and educational intervention approaches for affected school-aged children. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jamaliah Mohd. Yusof; Rosidah Musa; Sofiah Abd. Rahman
With previous studies that examined the importance of functional store image and CSR, this study is aimed at examining their effects in the self-congruity model in influencing store loyalty. In particular, this study developed and tested a structural model in the context of retailing industry on the self-congruity theory. Whilst much of the self-congruity studies have incorporated functional store image, there has been lack of studies that examined social responsibility i...
Eisenberg, N; Fabes, R A; Karbon, M; Murphy, B C; Wosinski, M; Polazzi, L; Carlo, G; Juhnke, C
The purpose of this study was to examine the relations of a measure of children's dispositional prosocial behavior (i.e., peer nominations) to individual differences in children's negative emotionality, regulation, and social functioning. Children with prosocial reputations tended to be high in constructive social skills (i.e., socially appropriate behavior and constructive coping) and attentional regulation, and low in negative emotionality. The relations of children's negative emotionality to prosocial reputation were moderated by level of dispositional attentional regulation. In addition, the relations of prosocial reputation to constructive social skills and parent-reported negative emotionality (for girls) increased with age. Vagal tone, a marker of physiological regulation, was negatively related to girls' prosocial reputation.
Carey, Rebecca M; Markus, Hazel Rose
Social class shapes relational realities, which in turn situate and structure different selves and their associated psychological tendencies. We first briefly review how higher class contexts tend to foster independent models of self and lower class contexts tend to foster interdependent models of self. We then consider how these independent and interdependent models of self are situated in and adapted to different social class-driven relational realities. We review research demonstrating that in lower social class contexts, social networks tend to be small, dense, homogenous and strongly connected. Ties in these networks provide the bonding capital that is key for survival and that promotes the interdependence between self and other(s). In higher social class contexts, social networks tend to be large, far-reaching, diverse and loosely connected. Ties in these networks provide the bridging capital that is key for achieving personal goals and that promotes an independence of self from other. We conclude that understanding and addressing issues tied to social class and inequality requires understanding the form and function of relationships across class contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Music is pervasive across human cultures and throughout times. Particularly, music serves great importance at social functions. Like many cultures’ use of music, throat singing or khöömei, the most distinguished aspect of Tuva’s music, contributes significantly to social communication, emotional expression, social bonding and religious rituals. Acknowledgment and consideration of current social cognitive findings of music may thus provide a better insight into the nature of throat singing. To date, evidence has indicated that similar to language, music is a fundamental channel of communication, and these two constructs may have common origins in a single communicative system. Moreover, music may modulate neural activity in the brain structures associated with emotions and alter our autonomic responses. In addition to information sharing, music thus has the capacity to convey emotions. This ability may further render music a powerful mechanism to facilitate social bonding and ritual practice, as individuals’ internal states during these social events become synchronized through musical engagement. In conclusion, I suggest that those social cognitive perspectives may point toward new directions for a continuing discourse on our understanding of throat singing.
McQuade, Julia D; Penzel, Taylor E; Silk, Jennifer S; Lee, Kyung Hwa
This study examined whether children with poor executive functioning (EF) evidenced less social and academic impairments, compared to other children, if they demonstrated adaptive parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) regulation during experiences of failure. Participants with and without clinical elevations in ADHD symptoms (N = 61; 9-13 years; 48% male; 85% Caucasian) were administered a battery of EF tests and completed manipulated social and cognitive failure tasks. While participants completed failure tasks, respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity (RSA-R) was measured as an indicator of PNS reactivity. Children's social and academic impairment in daily life was assessed based on parent and teacher report on multiple measures. RSA-R during social failure moderated the association between poor EF and adult-rated social impairment and RSA-R during cognitive failure moderated the association between poor EF and adult-rated academic impairment. Simple effects indicated that poor EF was significantly associated with impairment when children demonstrated RSA activation (increased PNS activity) but not when children demonstrated RSA withdrawal (decreases in PNS activity). Domain-crossed models (e.g., reactivity to social failure predicting academic impairment) were not significant, suggesting that the moderating effect of RSA-R was domain-specific. Results suggest that not all children with poor EF evidence social and academic impairment; RSA withdrawal during experiences of failure may be protective specifically for children with impaired EF skills.
Full Text Available In this Paper we will try to analyze the communication and functioning of tripartities social dialogue, or Economic Social Council in Republic of Macedona in the period of 1997 – 2012 from practical aspect. Also, we would like to reserch the efects, functions and meaning of the tripartities social dilaogue between Government, Trade Union and Assotiation of Employer as a very important assumption for building of a social harmony and industrial peace in every democratic society. In this context, we will try to analyze the impact of internal and external factors of the efective functioning of the tripartities social dialogue, or Economic Social Council. The basic assumption from which we started in our reseraching was that the Economic Social Council can to contrbuted for social dialogue in Republic of Macedonia only if he produced according attitudes of the social parthners in the process of the making decision of Laws from economic-social spheres. As relevant assumptions which will be analized are: national legal framework, representation of the social partners, capacity of bargaining, organization and tehnical condition. As external assumption we will analized only ideology of the government (left or right ideology of the Government.
Markwick, Laura; Smith, Charlene; Mick, Diane
Executive functioning is the ability to plan, strategize, organize, and focus on details. Impaired executive functioning plays a significant role in behavior disturbances. Lack of inhibition, impaired abstract reasoning, thought perseverance, rigidity in routine, and lack of insight disrupt social skills and daily life. Autism and schizophrenia present some similar behaviors, including impaired executive functioning, often resulting in pharmacological management as many healthcare professionals receive limited training in executive functioning. Non-pharmacological tools used in autism for behavior management include functional behavioral analysis and social scripting, which help to identify causes of behavior and teach more appropriate behavioral responses. Described here is an educational program for healthcare workers in a long-term care skilled nursing facility, to help them understand the basis for behaviors in individuals with impaired executive function, to use these same tools for behavioral modification techniques, and to help patients learn more appropriate social skills. Program evaluation suggested the educational program was successful in increasing the staff's knowledge and comfort level in addressing the behavioral issues that arise with this population and staff also reported less use of medication as first-line treatment for behavioral issues.
Tse, Jeanie; Strulovitch, Jack; Tagalakis, Vicki; Meng, Linyan; Fombonne, Eric
The effectiveness of a social skills training group for adolescents with Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism (AS/HFA) was evaluated. Parents of six groups of adolescents (n = 46, 61% male, mean age 14.6) completed questionnaires immediately before and after the 12-week group. Parents and adolescents were surveyed regarding their…
Chen, Xinyin; Cen, Guozhen; Li, Dan; He, Yunfeng
This study examined, in 3 cohorts (1990, 1998, and 2002) of elementary school children (M age10 years), relations between social functioning and adjustment in different phases of the societal transition in China. Data were obtained from multiple sources. The results indicate that sociability-cooperation was associated with peer acceptance and…
Haskett, Mary E.; Armstrong, Jenna Montgomery; Tisdale, Jennifer
The developmental status and social-emotional functioning of young children who are homeless has received inadequate attention in spite of high rates of homelessness among families with young children and the potentially negative impact of homelessness and associated stressors on children's well-being. The aim of this study was to gain…
Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.
This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…
Full Text Available The recent developments in the ICT sector have opened the way to transforming the industrial economy into a digital - based one. The present paper offers a perspective on the impact of the new informational technologies on the society in general and on the organization and functioning of the fiscal and social security systems in Romania in particular.
Oh, Susan Y.; And Others
Relationships between parental overprotection and fifth-graders' self-concept and level of social and school functioning were examined by means of systematic observations of parent-child interactions in the home, parent and child self-reports, teacher and peer ratings, grades, and achievement scores. Subjects were 43 middle-to-upper-middle income…
Johnson, Mark H.; Grossmann, Tobias; Kadosh, Kathrin Cohen
The authors review a viewpoint on human functional brain development, interactive specialization (IS), and its application to the emerging network of cortical regions referred to as the "social brain." They advance the IS view in 2 new ways. First, they extend IS into a domain to which it has not previously been applied--the emergence of social…
Dinomais, M; Gambart, G; Bruneau, A; Bontoux, L; Deries, X; Tessiot, C; Richard, I
The aim of this study was to investigate social functioning quality of life and self-esteem in young people with disabilities taking part in adapted competitive sport. A sample of 496 athletes (mean age 16 years 4 months, range: 9 years to 20 years 9 months) was obtained from the 540 participants (91.8%) involved in a French national championship. The main outcome measurements were a social functioning inventory (PedsQL 4.0 social functioning) and a self-esteem inventory in physical areas (physical self inventory 6 PSI-6). The mean PedsQL SF score was 74.6 (SD: 17.7). Comparisons of PedsQL SF according to gender, age, self mobility and training revealed no significant differences between the groups. PedsQL SF was weakly but significantly correlated with all subscales of the PSI-6 in the total population. PSI-6 scores were significantly different between boys and girls, with better self-esteem for boys on general self-esteem (7.7 vs. 6.9, P=0.018), physical condition (6.8 vs. 6.0, P=0.023) and attractive body subscores (6.5 vs. 5.1, Pself-concept, social functioning quality of life and participation in adapted sport activities require further studies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.
Lin, Yu-Ju; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorders (TD) commonly co-occur. Clarifying the psychiatric comorbidities, executive functions and social adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents of ADHD with and without TD is informative to understand the developmental psychopathology and to identify their specific clinical…
Bal, Elgiz; Yerys, Benjamin E.; Sokoloff, Jennifer L.; Celano, Mark J.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Giedd, Jay N.; Wallace, Gregory L.
Age-related changes in social attribution skills were assessed using the "Triangles Playing Tricks" task in 7-17 year old high functioning children with ASDs (n = 41) and in typically developing (TD) children (n = 58) matched on age, IQ, and sex ratio. Children with ASDs gave responses that received lower intentionality and appropriateness ratings…
Solanto, Mary V.; Pope-Boyd, Sabrina A.; Tryon, Warren W.; Stepak, Brenda
Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the social functioning of children with the Combined (CB) and Predominantly Inattentive (PI) subtypes of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), controlling for comorbidity and medication-status, which may have confounded the results of previous research. Method: Parents and teachers…
Visootsak, Jeannie; Graham, John M., Jr.
Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) was initially described in the context of its endocrinologic and physical features; however, subsequent studies have revealed specific impairments in verbal skills and social functioning. Males with sex chromosomal aneuploidies are known to have variability in their developmental profile with the majority presenting…
Ke, Fengfeng; Im, Tami
Employing the multiple-baseline across-subjects design, the authors examined the implementation and potential effect of a virtual-reality-based social interaction program on the interaction and communication performance of children with high functioning autism. The data were collected via behavior observation and analysis, questionnaires, and…
Gilbert, Sam J.; Burgess, Paul W.
In this article, we discuss the role of rostral prefrontal cortex (approximating Brodmann Area 10) in two domains relevant to education: executive function (particularly prospective memory, our ability to realize delayed intentions) and social cognition (particularly our ability to reflect on our own mental states and the mental states of others).…
Månsson, Kristoffer N T; Salami, Alireza; Carlbring, Per
, and studies of treatment-induced long-term neuroplasticity are rare. Functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (using 3T MRI) was performed in 13 subjects with social anxiety disorder on 3 occasions over 1year. All subjects underwent 9 weeks of Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy...
MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M.; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly
Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Method: Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M[subscript age] = 4.31 years) were…
Kooshiar, Hadi; Yahaya, Nurizan; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Abu Samah, Asnarulkhadi; Sedaghat Jou, Vajiheh
Background This cross-sectional and correlational survey examines the association between different types of living arrangements and life satisfaction in older Malaysians, while taking into account the mediating effects of social support function. Methodology and Findings A total of 1880 of older adults were selected by multistage stratified sampling. Life satisfaction and social support were measured with the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale and Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. The result shows living with children as the commonest type of living arrangement for older adults in peninsular Malaysia. Compared to living alone, living only with a spouse especially and then co-residency with children were both associated with better life satisfaction (psocial support function (psocial support function enhanced the relation between living arrangements and life satisfaction. Conclusion This study revealed that types of living arrangement directly, and indirectly through social support function, play an important role in predicting life satisfaction for older adults in Malaysia. This study makes remarkable contributions to the Convoy model in older Malaysians. PMID:22912806
Koegel, Robert L.
Until recently, and even in many current research circles, social behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (including those with high functioning autism or Asperger disorder) was considered to be unmodifiable. Mundy, Henderson, Inge, and Coman and McGee and Daly shed new light on this concept of intractability, suggesting that…
Floyd, Frank J.; Purcell, Susan E.; Richardson, Shana S.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.
We examined sibling relationships for children and adolescents with intellectual disability and assessed implications for their social functioning. Targets (total N = 212) had either intellectual disability, a chronic illness/physical disability, or no disability. Nontarget siblings reported on relationship quality, sibling interactions were…
Ren, Lixin; Zhang, Xiao; Zhou, Ning; Ng, Mei Lee
Research Findings: This study examined how child negative emotionality interacted with mothers' self-reported parenting in predicting different aspects of social functioning among very young Chinese children. A total of 109 Chinese nursery children in Hong Kong participated with their parents. Maternal supportive and aversive parenting practices…
Arnold, David H.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Marshall, Nastassja A.
This study examined the relationship between social functioning and emergent academic development in a sample of 467 preschool children (M=55.9 months old, SD=3.8). Teachers reported on children's aggression, attention problems, and prosocial skills. Preliteracy, language, and early mathematics skills were assessed with standardized tests. Better…
Ng-Cordell, Elise; Hanley, Mary; Kelly, Alyssa; Riby, Deborah M.
Anxiety is a prevalent mental health issue for individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Relatively little is known about the developmental course of anxiety, or how it links with core features of WS, namely social and executive functioning (EF). In this study, parent-reports of anxiety were compared across a 4-year period (N = 17), and links…
Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G Andrew; Gutman, David A; Kilts, Clinton D
Reciprocation of trust exchanges is central to the development of interpersonal relationships and societal well-being. Understanding how humans make pro-social and self-centered decisions in dyadic interactions and how to predict these choices has been an area of great interest in social neuroscience. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based technology with potential clinical application is the study of resting state brain connectivity. We tested if resting state connectivity may predict choice behavior in a social context. Twenty-nine healthy adults underwent resting state fMRI before performing the Trust Game, a two person monetary exchange game. We assessed the ability of patterns of resting-state functional brain organization, demographic characteristics and a measure of moral development, the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2), to predict individuals' decisions to reciprocate money during the Trust Game. Subjects reciprocated in 74.9% of the trials. Independent component analysis identified canonical resting-state networks. Increased functional connectivity between the salience (bilateral insula/anterior cingulate) and central executive (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex/ posterior parietal cortex) networks significantly predicted the choice to reciprocate pro-social behavior (R(2) = 0.20, p = 0.015). Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that functional connectivity between these two networks (p = 0.002), age (p = 0.007) and DIT-2 personal interest schema score (p = 0.032) significantly predicted reciprocity behavior (R(2) = 0.498, p = 0.001). Intrinsic functional connectivity between neural networks in conjunction with other individual characteristics may be a valuable tool for predicting performance during social interactions. Future replication and temporal extension of these findings may bolster the understanding of decision making in clinical, financial and marketing settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sophie Jane Taylor
Full Text Available Our earlier work suggests that executive functions and social cognition show protracted development into late adolescence and early adulthood (Taylor, Barker, Heavey and McHale, 2013. However, it remains unknown whether these functions develop linearly or non-linearly corresponding to dynamic changes to white matter density at these age ranges. Executive functions are particularly in demand during the transition to independence and autonomy associated with this age range (Ahmed and Miller, 2011. Previous research examining executive function (Romine and Reynolds, 2005 and social cognition (Dumontheil, Apperly and Blakemore, 2010 in late adolescence has utilised a cross sectional design. The current study employed a longitudinal design with 58 participants aged 17, 18 and 19 years completing social cognition and executive function tasks, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark and Tellegen, 1988 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond and Snaith, 1983 at Time 1 with follow up testing 12 to 16 months later. Inhibition, rule detection, strategy generation and planning executive functions and emotion recognition with dynamic stimuli showed longitudinal development between time points. Self-report empathy and emotion recognition functions using visual static and auditory stimuli were stable by age 17 whereas concept formation declined between time points. The protracted development of some functions may reflect continued brain maturation into late adolescence and early adulthood including synaptic pruning (Sowell, Thompson, Tessner and Toga, 2001 and changes to functional connectivity (Stevens, Kiehl, Pearlson and Calhouln, 2007 and/or environmental change. Clinical implications, such as assessing the effectiveness of rehabilitation following Head Injury, are discussed.
Kuiper, Jisca S; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Zuidema, Sytse U; Stolk, Ronald P; Zuidersma, Marij; Smidt, Nynke
Poor social functioning is associated with cognitive decline in older adults. It is unclear whether social functioning is also associated with subjective memory complaints (SMC). We investigated the association between social functioning and incident SMC and SMC recovery. A population-based sample of 8762 older adults (aged ≥65 years) with good objective cognitive functioning at baseline (MMSE ≥26) from the LifeLines Cohort Study were followed for 1.5 years. Self-reported SMC were measured at baseline and after 1.5 years follow-up. Aspects of social functioning included marital status, household composition, social network size, social activity, quality of social relationships, social support, affection, behavioral confirmation, and status. Thirteen percent (513/3963) developed SMC during follow-up (incident SMC). Multivariate logistic regression analyses (adjusted for age, gender, education level, physical activity, alcohol use, smoking status, depression, arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke) showed that participants with better feelings of affection, behavioral confirmation and stable good social support had a lower risk of incident SMC. Thirty-four percent (1632/4799) reported recovery. Participants with good social functioning at baseline on all determinants reported more SMC recovery. People who remained stable in a relationship, stable in good quality of social relationships or increased in quality of social relationships more often report SMC recovery. Good social functioning is associated with less incident SMC and more SMC recovery over a follow-up period of 1.5 years. Albeit future confirmative studies are needed, we argue for targeting also social functioning when designing multidomain interventions to prevent or slow down cognitive decline. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jahja, Rianne; Huijbregts, Stephan C J; de Sonneville, Leo M J; van der Meere, Jaap J; Bosch, Annet M; Hollak, Carla E M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Brouwers, Martijn C G J; Hofstede, Floris C; de Vries, Maaike C; Janssen, Mirian C H; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Langendonk, Janneke G; van Spronsen, Francjan J
This article presents a new Dutch multicenter study ("PKU-COBESO") into cognitive and behavioral sequelae of early and continuously treated Phenylketonuria (PKU) patients. Part of the study sample will consist of young adult PKU patients who have participated in a large neuropsychological study approximately 10 years ago, when they were 7-to-15-year-olds (Huijbregts et al., 2002 ). Their neurocognitive development will be mapped in association with their earlier and continued metabolic history, taking into account possible changes in, for instance, medication. A second part of the sample will consist of PKU patients between the ages of 7 and approximately 40 years (i.e., born in or after 1974, when neonatal screening was introduced in The Netherlands), who have not participated in the earlier neuropsychological study. Again, their cognitive functioning will be related to their metabolic history. With respect to aspects of cognition, there will be an emphasis on executive functioning. The concept of executive functioning will however be extended with further emphasis on the impact of cognitive deficits on the daily lives of PKU patients, aspects of social cognition, social functioning, and behavior/mental health (i.e., COgnition, BEhavior, SOcial functioning: COBESO). In addition to a description of the PKU-COBESO study, some preliminary results with respect to mental health and social functioning will be presented in this article. Thirty adult PKU patients (mean age 27.8, SD 6.4) and 23 PKU patients under the age of 18 years (mean age 11.0, SD 3.3) were compared to 14 (mean age 26.9 years, SD 5.9) and 7 matched controls (mean age 10.5, SD 2.6) respectively, with respect to their scores on the Adult Self-Report or Child Behavior Checklist (measuring mental health problems) and the Social Skills Checklist or Social Skills Rating System (measuring social skills). Whereas there were very few significant group differences (except for mental health problems in the
Schweren, Lizanne; Hoekstra, Pieter; van Lieshout, Marloes; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Hartman, Catharina
Methodological and ethical constraints have hampered studies into long-term lasting outcomes of stimulant treatment in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Lasting effects may be beneficial (i.e. improved functioning even when treatment is temporarily ceased) or detrimental (i.e. worse functioning while off medication), but both hypotheses currently lack empirical support. Here we investigate whether stimulant treatment history predicts long-term development of ADHD symptoms, social-emotional functioning or cognition, measured after medication wash-out. ADHD symptoms, social-emotional functioning and cognitive test performance were measured twice, 6 years apart, in two ADHD groups (stimulant-treated versus not stimulant-treated between baseline and follow-up). Groups were closely matched on baseline clinical and demographic variables (n = 148, 58% male, age = 11.1). A matched healthy control group was included for reference. All but two outcome measures (emotional problems and prosocial behaviour) improved between baseline and follow-up. Improvement over time in the stimulant-treated group did not differ from improvement in the not stimulant-treated group on any outcome measure. Stimulant treatment is not associated with the long-term developmental course of ADHD symptoms, social-emotional functioning, motor control, timing or verbal working memory. Adolescence is characterised by clinical improvement regardless of stimulant treatment during that time. These findings are an important source to inform the scientific and public debate.
Becker, Benjamin; Mihov, Yoan; Scheele, Dirk; Kendrick, Keith M; Feinstein, Justin S; Matusch, Andreas; Aydin, Merve; Reich, Harald; Urbach, Horst; Oros-Peusquens, Ana-Maria; Shah, Nadim J; Kunz, Wolfram S; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Zilles, Karl; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René
The human amygdala plays a crucial role in processing social signals, such as face expressions, particularly fearful ones, and facilitates responses to them in face-sensitive cortical regions. This contributes to social competence and individual amygdala size correlates with that of social networks. While rare patients with focal bilateral amygdala lesion typically show impaired recognition of fearful faces, this deficit is variable, and an intriguing possibility is that other brain regions can compensate to support fear and social signal processing. To investigate the brain's functional compensation of selective bilateral amygdala damage, we performed a series of behavioral, psychophysiological, and functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments in two adult female monozygotic twins (patient 1 and patient 2) with equivalent, extensive bilateral amygdala pathology as a sequela of lipoid proteinosis due to Urbach-Wiethe disease. Patient 1, but not patient 2, showed preserved recognition of fearful faces, intact modulation of acoustic startle responses by fear-eliciting scenes, and a normal-sized social network. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that patient 1 showed potentiated responses to fearful faces in her left premotor cortex face area and bilaterally in the inferior parietal lobule. The premotor cortex face area and inferior parietal lobule are both implicated in the cortical mirror-neuron system, which mediates learning of observed actions and may thereby promote both imitation and empathy. Taken together, our findings suggest that despite the pre-eminent role of the amygdala in processing social information, the cortical mirror-neuron system may sometimes adaptively compensate for its pathology. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zahn, Roland; Moll, Jorge; Paiva, Mirella; Garrido, Griselda; Krueger, Frank; Huey, Edward D; Grafman, Jordan
Social values are composed of social concepts (e.g., "generosity") and context-dependent moral sentiments (e.g., "pride"). The neural basis of this intricate cognitive architecture has not been investigated thus far. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects imagined their own actions toward another person (self-agency) which either conformed or were counter to a social value and were associated with pride or guilt, respectively. Imagined actions of another person toward the subjects (other-agency) in accordance with or counter to a value were associated with gratitude or indignation/anger. As hypothesized, superior anterior temporal lobe (aTL) activity increased with conceptual detail in all conditions. During self-agency, activity in the anterior ventromedial prefrontal cortex correlated with pride and guilt, whereas activity in the subgenual cingulate solely correlated with guilt. In contrast, indignation/anger activated lateral orbitofrontal-insular cortices. Pride and gratitude additionally evoked mesolimbic and basal forebrain activations. Our results demonstrate that social values emerge from coactivation of stable abstract social conceptual representations in the superior aTL and context-dependent moral sentiments encoded in fronto-mesolimbic regions. This neural architecture may provide the basis of our ability to communicate about the meaning of social values across cultural contexts without limiting our flexibility to adapt their emotional interpretation.
Podogrodzka-Niell, Magdalena; Tyszkowska, Magdalena
Persons with mental disorders often experience stigmatization. There is a number of social factors that may affect the process of recovery and at the same time, in certain circumstances, could be a source of stigma. Mentally ill may find strength in themselves to fight against the disease or the opposite - can internalize the negative attitudes of the society and become self-stigmatized. The patient's family, on the one hand, is often the only source of social support, on the other hand, can experience a destructive influence of courtesy-stigma. Mentally ill have to face social reluctance which is reinforced by stereotypical media coverage of mental disorders. The social network of patients is poor and often limited to a family system. Negative views about persons diagnosed with mental illness are most visible in the labour market. Patients experience many types of discrimination at work,have lower employment rates and lower mean wages than healthy ones. Structural discrimination is a form of stigma which is revealed in underfunded and inefficient system of mental health care. All the social factors mentioned above are necessary for recovery (positive stimulation of functioning), but can also increase stigma and become a significant barrier in the recovery of psychiatric patients. This paper highlights the complex and ambiguous nature of the relationship between social factors and the recovery of the mentally ill basing on the data from the literature.
Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Hultman, Christina M; Friis, Svein; Andreassen, Ole A
This study examined social problem-solving performance in high-functioning schizophrenia (n=26) and its relation to neurocognition. Ten healthy controls were used as a comparison group. Social problem-solving was assessed with the Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (AIPSS) method. The schizophrenia group was outperformed by healthy controls on all AIPSS measures, reaching statistical significance for sending skills. Exploration of the internal relationship between different aspects of social problem-solving showed that identification of an interpersonal problem (a receiving skill) was not correlated with formulating solutions to the problem (processing skills) or successfully role-playing solutions (interpersonal sending skills). Non-verbal performance in the role-play (an interpersonal sending skill) was not significantly correlated with identification of an interpersonal problem or the generation of solutions. This suggests a dissociation of social problem-solving processes. Social problem-solving was significantly associated with psychomotor speed, verbal learning, semantic fluency and cognitive flexibility. Clinical implications are that remediation of social problem-solving skills should focus on role-playing (nonverbal) interpersonal behaviors, rather than on verbally analyzing an interpersonal problem and clarifying alternative solutions.
Federico, Francesca; Marotta, Andrea; Martella, Diana; Casagrande, Maria
According to the attention network approach, attention is best understood in terms of three functionally and neuroanatomically distinct networks - alerting, orienting, and executive attention. Recent findings showed that social information influences the efficiency of these networks in adults. Using some social and non-social variants of the Attentional Network Test (ANT), this study was aimed to evaluate the development of the three attention networks in childhood, also assessing the development of the ability to manage social or non-social conflicting information. Sixty-six children (three groups of 6, 8, and 10 years of age) performed three variants of the original ANT, using fish, schematic, or real faces looking to the left or right as target and flanker stimuli. Results showed an improvement from 6 to 8 and 10 years of age in reaction time (RT) and accuracy, together with an improvement of executive control and a decrement in alerting. These developmental changes were not unique to social stimuli, and no differences were observed between social and no-social variants of the ANT. However, independently from the age of the children, a real face positively affected the executive control (as indexed by RTs) as compared to both a schematic face and a fish. Findings of this study suggest that attentional networks are still developing from 6 to 10 years of age and underline the importance of face information in modulating the efficiency of executive control. Statement of contribution What is already known? Younger children made more errors and slower reaction times (RTs) than older children, in line with the majority of the past selective attention studies. Younger children showed both greater conflict and alerting effect than older children. The prediction that younger children would display larger interference effects than older children was supported. What does this study add? Extending the findings observed in adults and children, independently from their age
Lunde Nielsen, Espen
of social coexistence that has ‘a function that is separate from their practical use’ (Jorn 1954). A London dry cleaner serves as testing ground, employing critical spatial practices and creative writing as research tools. The dry cleaner does not simply clean clothes, but is a social vertex and physical...... interface through which (non-)events unfold, trajectories thickens and people of the neighbourhood coexists as familiar strangers (Milgram 2010; Paulos and Goodman 2004) through events in real-time and deposits over time. It is a semi-public space and an implosion of the external neighbourhood, partly...
Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Haley, Stephen M; Jette, Alan M; Eisen, Susan V; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E; Rasch, Elizabeth K
Physical and mental impairments represent the 2 largest health condition categories for which workers receive Social Security disability benefits. Comprehensive assessment of physical and mental impairments should include aspects beyond medical conditions such as a person's underlying capabilities as well as activity demands relevant to the context of work. The objective of this article is to describe the initial conceptual stages of developing new measurement instruments of behavioral health and physical functioning relevant for Social Security work disability evaluation purposes. To outline a clear conceptualization of the constructs to be measured, 2 content models were developed using structured and informal qualitative approaches. We performed a structured literature review focusing on work disability and incorporating aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a unifying taxonomy for framework development. Expert interviews provided advice and consultation to enhance face validity of the resulting content models. The content model for work-related behavioral health function identifies 5 major domains: (1) behavior control, (2) basic interactions, (3) temperament and personality, (4) adaptability, and (5) workplace behaviors. The content model describing physical functioning includes 3 domains: (1) changing and maintaining body position, (2) whole-body mobility, and (3) carrying, moving, and handling objects. These content models informed subsequent measurement properties including item development and measurement scale construction, and provided conceptual coherence guiding future empirical inquiry. The proposed measurement approaches show promise to comprehensively and systematically assess physical and behavioral health functioning relevant to work. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chan, Raymond C. K.; Hu, Zhou-yi; Cui, Ji-fang; Wang, Ya; McAlonan, Grainne M.
The present study aimed to examine social attribution in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS). A sample of 20 boys (9 with HFA and 11 with AS) and 20 age-matched controls were recruited for this study. All participated in two tasks measuring social attribution ability, the conventional Social Attribution Task…
Pijnenborg, G.H M; Withaar, F.K.; Evans, J.J; van den Bosch, R.J.; Timmerman, M.E.; Brouwer, W.H.
The objective of this study was to examine the unique contribution of social cognition to the prediction of community functioning and to explore the relevance of social cognition for clinical practice. Forty-six schizophrenia patients and 53 healthy controls were assessed with tests of social
Mahmood, Zanjbeel; Burton, Cynthia Z; Vella, Lea; Twamley, Elizabeth W
Neuropsychological abilities may underlie successful performance of everyday functioning and social skills. We aimed to determine the strongest neuropsychological predictors of performance-based functional capacity and social skills performance across the spectrum of severe mental illness (SMI). Unemployed outpatients with SMI (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression; n = 151) were administered neuropsychological (expanded MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery), functional capacity (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief; UPSA-B), and social skills (Social Skills Performance Assessment; SSPA) assessments. Bivariate correlations between neuropsychological performance and UPSA-B and SSPA total scores showed that most neuropsychological tests were significantly associated with each performance-based measure. Forward entry stepwise regression analyses were conducted entering education, diagnosis, symptom severity, and neuropsychological performance as predictors of functional capacity and social skills. Diagnosis, working memory, sustained attention, and category and letter fluency emerged as significant predictors of functional capacity, in a model that explained 43% of the variance. Negative symptoms, sustained attention, and letter fluency were significant predictors of social skill performance, in a model explaining 35% of the variance. Functional capacity is positively associated with neuropsychological functioning, but diagnosis remains strongly influential, with mood disorder participants outperforming those with psychosis. Social skill performance appears to be positively associated with sustained attention and verbal fluency regardless of diagnosis; however, negative symptom severity strongly predicts social skills performance. Improving neuropsychological functioning may improve psychosocial functioning in people with SMI. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Social intelligence is the ability to understand others and the social context effectively and thus to interact with people successfully. Research has suggested that the theory of mind (ToM) and executive function may play important roles in explaining social intelligence. The specific aim of the present study was to test with structural equation modeling (SEM) the hypothesis that performance on ToM tasks is more associated with social intelligence in the elderly than is performance on executive functions. One hundred and seventy-seven participants (age 56-96) completed ToM, executive function, and other basic cognition tasks, and were rated with social intelligence scales. The SEM results showed that ToM and executive function were strongly correlated (0.54); however, only the path coefficient from ToM to social intelligence, and not from executive function, was significant (0.37). ToM performance, but not executive function, was strongly correlated with social intelligence among elderly individuals. ToM and executive function might play different roles in social behavior during normal aging; however, based on the present results, it is possible that ToM might play an important role in social intelligence.
Bowen, Kimberly S; Uchino, Bert N; Birmingham, Wendy; Carlisle, McKenzie; Smith, Timothy W; Light, Kathleen C
Social support is a reliable predictor of cardiovascular health. According to the buffering hypothesis, stress is 1 mechanism by which support is able to affect physiological processes. However, most of the experimental evidence for the hypothesis comes from laboratory studies. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) protocols examine participants in their natural environment, where they are more likely to encounter personally relevant real-world stressors. Furthermore, prior work shows that examining support by its specific functional components reveals additional independent links to health. The current study aimed to examine the stress-buffering effects of functional social support on ABP. One hundred eighty-eight participants completed a 1-day ABP assessment along with measures of functional social support and both global perceived stress and momentary stress at time of reading. RESULTS indicated main effects for both stress measures. Global support, emotional, tangible, and informational support only moderated the effects of momentary stress, but not global stress, in predicting ABP. Informational support was the most consistent stress-buffering predictor of ABP, predicting both ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The predicted values in ABP for informational support achieved health-relevant differences, emphasizing the value of examining functional support beyond global support alone. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Jona R Iffland
Full Text Available Deficits in social functioning are a core symptom of schizophrenia and an important criterion for evaluating the success of treatment. However, there is little agreement regarding its measurement. A common, often cited instrument for assessing self-reported social functioning is the Social Functioning Scale (SFS. The study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the German translation. 101 patients suffering from schizophrenia (SZ and 101 matched controls (C (60 male / 41 female, 35.8 years in both groups completed the German version. In addition, demographic, clinical, and functional data were collected. Internal consistency was investigated calculating Cronbach's alpha for SFS full scale (α: .81 and all subscales (α: .59-.88. Significant bivariate correlation coefficients were found between all subscales as well as between all subscales and full scale (p <.01. For the total sample, principal component analysis gave evidence to prefer a single-factor solution (eigenvalue ≥ 1 accounting for 48.5 % of the variance. For the subsamples, a two-component solution (SZ; 57.0 % and a three-component solution (C; 65.6 % fitted best, respectively. For SZ and C, significant associations were found between SFS and external criteria. The main factor "group" emerged as being significant. C showed higher values on both subscales and full scale. The sensitivity of the SFS was examined using discriminant analysis. 86.5% of the participants could be categorized correctly to their actual group. The German translation of the SFS turned out to be a reliable and valid questionnaire comparable to the original English version. This is in line with Spanish and Norwegian translations of the SFS. Concluding, the German version of the SFS is well suited to become a useful and practicable instrument for the assessment of social functioning in both clinical practice and research. It accomplishes commonly used external assessment scales.
Full Text Available Background: The amygdala plays a key role in emotional hyperreactivity in response to social threat in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FCN of the left and right amygdala with various brain regions and functional lateralization in patients with SAD.Methods: A total of 36 patients with SAD and 42 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at rest. Using the left and right amygdala as seed regions, we compared the strength of the rs-FCN in the patient and control groups. Furthermore, we investigated group differences in the hemispheric asymmetry of the functional connectivity maps of the left and right amygdala.Results: Compared with healthy controls, the rs-FCN between the left amygdala and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was reduced in patients with SAD, whereas left amygdala connectivity with the fusiform gyrus, anterior insula, supramarginal gyrus, and precuneus was increased or positively deflected in the patient group. Additionally, the strength rs-FCN between the left amygdala and anterior insula was positively associated with the severity of the fear of negative evaluation in patients with SAD (r = 0.338, p = 0.044. The rs-FCN between the right amygdala and medial frontal gyrus was decreased in patients with SAD compared with healthy controls, whereas connectivity with the parahippocampal gyrus was greater in the patient group than in the control group. The hemispheric asymmetry patterns in the anterior insula, intraparietal sulcus (IPS, and inferior frontal gyrus of the patient group were opposite those of the control group, and functional lateralization of the connectivity between the amygdala and the IPS was associated with the severity of social anxiety symptoms (r = 0.365, p = 0.037.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that in addition to impaired fronto-amygdala communication, the functional lateralization of amygdala function
Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una visión general de la historia del jazz en Chile que destaca la función social de esta música y el cambio que tuvo a través del tiempo. Estos cambios se relacionaron con diferentes valoraciones de la práctica jazzística local. En un principio el jazz fue música popular masiva. Posteriormente fue valorado estéticamente por un segmento de élite, quienes eran profesionales en áreas no musicales y en muchos casos eran instrumentistas aficionados. En una tercera etapa, músicos profesionales asumieron la práctica del jazz como una plataforma para fusionar el lenguaje jazzístico con recursos tomados de la música tradicional chilena. Este tránsito del jazz en Chile está cruzado por factores socioeconómicos y estéticos, que se analizan en el trabajo.The article presents an overview of the history of jazz in Chile on the basis of the social function of jazz and the changes it has underwent over the years in terms of the valúes it has represented for Chilean society. Initially jazz was considered as mass popular music. Afterwards it was valued in aesthetic terms by a group belonging to the élite of Chilean society. Many of them belonged to non-music professions and in some cases were amateur musicians. Most recently professional musicians took up jazz as the basis for combining the jazz style with elements belonging to traditional music of Chile. This process in Chile is also influenced by social, economic and aesthetic aspects which are explored in this article.
Tsuji, Thomas; Kline, Emily; Sorensen, Holger J.
Social functioning deficits are a core component of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and may emerge years prior to the onset of diagnosable illness. The current study prospectively examines the relation between teacher-rated childhood social dysfunction and later mental illness among participants...... who were at genetic high-risk for schizophrenia and controls (n=244). The teacher-rated social functioning scale significantly predicted psychiatric outcomes (schizophrenia-spectrum vs. other psychiatric disorder vs. no mental illness). Poor premorbid social functioning appears to constitute a marker...
Owens, Gina; Granader, Yael; Humphrey, Ayla; Baron-Cohen, Simon
LEGO[R] therapy and the Social Use of Language Programme (SULP) were evaluated as social skills interventions for 6-11 year olds with high functioning autism and Asperger Syndrome. Children were matched on CA, IQ, and autistic symptoms before being randomly assigned to LEGO or SULP. Therapy occurred for 1 h/week over 18 weeks. A no-intervention…
Montoya, Estrella R; Bos, Peter A
Millions of women worldwide use oral contraceptives ('the pill'; OCs), often starting at a pubertal age when their brains are in a crucial developmental stage. Research into the social-emotional effects of OCs is of utmost importance. In this review, we provide an overview of studies that have emerged over the past decade investigating how OCs, and their main ingredients estradiol (E) and progesterone (P), influence social-emotional behaviors and underlying brain functions. Based on this overview, we present a heuristic model that postulates that OCs modulate core social-emotional behaviors and brain systems. Research domains and challenges for the future, as well as implications, are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lahera, Guillermo; Ruiz, Alicia; Brañas, Antía; Vicens, María; Orozco, Arantxa
Previous studies have linked processing speed with social cognition and functioning of patients with schizophrenia. A discriminant analysis is needed to determine the different components of this neuropsychological construct. This paper analyzes the impact of processing speed, reaction time and sustained attention on social functioning. 98 outpatients between 18 and 65 with DSM-5 diagnosis of schizophrenia, with a period of 3 months of clinical stability, were recruited. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected, and the following variables were measured: processing speed (Trail Making Test [TMT], symbol coding [BACS], verbal fluency), simple and elective reaction time, sustained attention, recognition of facial emotions and global functioning. Processing speed (measured only through the BACS), sustained attention (CPT) and elective reaction time (but not simple) were associated with functioning. Recognizing facial emotions (FEIT) correlated significantly with scores on measures of processing speed (BACS, Animals, TMT), sustained attention (CPT) and reaction time. The linear regression model showed a significant relationship between functioning, emotion recognition (P=.015) and processing speed (P=.029). A deficit in processing speed and facial emotion recognition are associated with worse global functioning in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Macintosh, Kathleen; Dissanayake, Cheryl
The social skills and problem behaviours of children with high-functioning autism and Asperger's Disorder were compared using parent and teacher reports on the Social Skills Rating System. The participants were 20 children with high-functioning autism, 19 children with Asperger's Disorder, and 17 typically developing children, matched on…
Settipani, Cara A.; Kendall, Philip C.
Social functioning was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form for children with anxiety disorders who participated in a randomized clinical trial (N = 161, aged 7-14). Significant relationships were found between severity of children's principal anxiety disorder and most measures of social functioning, such that poorer…
Orinstein, Alyssa J.; Suh, Joyce; Porter, Kaitlyn; De Yoe, Kaitlin A.; Tyson, Katherine E.; Troyb, Eva; Barton, Marianne L.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Stevens, Michael C.; Fein, Deborah A.
Youth who lose their ASD diagnosis may have subtle social and communication difficulties. We examined social and communication functioning in 44 high-functioning autism (HFA), 34 optimal outcome (OO) and 34 typically developing (TD) youth. Results indicated that OO participants had no autism communication symptoms, no pragmatic language deficits,…
Full Text Available The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for one week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants’ momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the Attachment Style Interview and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social networks play a key role in caring for older adults. A better understanding of the characteristics of different social networks types (TSNs in a given community provides useful information for designing policies to care for this age group. Therefore this study has three objectives: 1 To derive the TSNs among older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security; 2 To describe the main characteristics of the older adults in each TSN, including the instrumental and economic support they receive and their satisfaction with the network; 3 To determine the association between functional dependency and the type of social network. Methods Secondary data analysis of the 2006 Survey of Autonomy and Dependency (N = 3,348. The TSNs were identified using the structural approach and cluster analysis. The association between functional dependency and the TSNs was evaluated with Poisson regression with robust variance analysis in which socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and medical history covariates were included. Results We identified five TSNs: diverse with community participation (12.1%, diverse without community participation (44.3%; widowed (32.0%; nonfriends-restricted (7.6%; nonfamily-restricted (4.0%. Older adults belonging to widowed and restricted networks showed a higher proportion of dependency, negative self-rated health and depression. Older adults with functional dependency more likely belonged to a widowed network (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.1. Conclusion The derived TSNs were similar to those described in developed countries. However, we identified the existence of a diverse network without community participation and a widowed network that have not been previously described. These TSNs and restricted networks represent a potential unmet need of social security affiliates.
Pillemer, Sarah; Holtzer, Roee; Blumen, Helena M
Poor social networks and decreased levels of social support are associated with worse mood, health, and cognition in younger and older adults. Yet, we know very little about the brain substrates associated with social networks and social support, particularly in older adults. This study examined functional brain substrates associated with social networks using the Social Network Index (SNI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Resting-state fMRI data from 28 non-demented older adults were analyzed with independent components analyses. As expected, four established resting-state networks-previously linked to motor, vision, speech, and other language functions-correlated with the quality (SNI-1: total number of high-contact roles of a respondent) and quantity (SNI-2: total number of individuals in a respondent's social network) of social networks: a sensorimotor, a visual, a vestibular/insular, and a left frontoparietal network. Moreover, SNI-1 was associated with greater functional connectivity in the lateral prefrontal regions of the left frontoparietal network, while SNI-2 was associated with greater functional connectivity in the medial prefrontal regions of this network. Thus, lateral prefrontal regions may be particularly linked to the quality of social networks while medial prefrontal regions may be particularly linked to the quantity of social networks.
This monograph broaches about the conflict existing between the social Constitution of 1988, in relation to what is disposed in the Article 5, XXIII and XXIV, entrenchment clause of immediate application that determines the social function of property in Brazil, and articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, that stipulate the monopoly of ores containing nuclear elements, i.e., those containing the chemical elements uranium, thorium, and plutonium in economically exploitable amounts. Initially, the work deals with legal definitions for nuclear ore, nuclear policy of some countries, the economical concepts of the social function of property and the negative aspects related to the maintenance of the nuclear ore in the state monopole regime in confrontation with the economic and social interest also expressed in the Constitutional Valance of 1988. Finally, it is presented an actualized compilation of nuclear laws related to the Brazilian nuclear policy and a glossary of terms used in the nuclear policy conducted by the Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Agency (CNEN). (author)
Ehrlich, Katherine B; Dykas, Matthew J; Cassidy, Jude
Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents' experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents' experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and their mothers and fathers participated in semistructured discussions about areas of parent-adolescent conflict in the laboratory. In addition, adolescents reported about conflict in their best friendships, and peers reported about adolescents' social acceptance and behavior in social settings. Parent-adolescent conflict was associated with peer-reported aggression and delinquency, and friendship conflict was associated with delinquency and prosocial behavior. In addition, significant Parent-Adolescent Conflict × Friend-Adolescent Conflict interactions revealed that parent-adolescent conflict was associated with poor social functioning only when conflict with best friends was also high. The findings suggest that consideration of conflict across relationships may yield insight into the specific contexts in which conflict is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Education is the most significant factor of socialization. Education is the largest sector of modern industry. The socialization functions in education can be defined as availability for work and an ability to make decisions independently so that the individual in his later life period could perform his social roles and integrate in social structures with specific role types. The aim of the publication is to find out what functional significance vocational education learners give to education. The quantitative research method was applied, surveying the respondent groups that comprised 503 vocational education learners from Riga, Liepaja, Daugavpils and Jelgava. According to the research results, most vocational education learners consider that it is necessary to study to get the desired job and be well prepared for the future job, to get a diploma and prestige in society, to ensure better financial situation and personal development, to have a better understanding of global events, to gain respect from friends and acquaintances, to be useful for society and to work abroad. The discussion section of the publication emphasizes that special attention should be paid to the factor that learners in their future vision prefer to work abroad. This can be explained by the current situation of the labour market and considerably high unemployment rate in Latvia.
Johanna M. Jarcho
Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder typically begins in adolescence, a sensitive period for brain development, when increased complexity and salience of peer relationships requires novel forms of social learning. Disordered social learning in adolescence may explain how brain dysfunction promotes social anxiety. Socially anxious adolescents (n = 15 and adults (n = 19 and non-anxious adolescents (n = 24 and adults (n = 32 predicted, then received, social feedback from high and low-value peers while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. A surprise recall task assessed memory biases for feedback. Neural correlates of social evaluation prediction errors (PEs were assessed by comparing engagement to expected and unexpected positive and negative feedback. For socially anxious adolescents, but not adults or healthy participants of either age group, PEs elicited heightened striatal activity and negative fronto-striatal functional connectivity. This occurred selectively to unexpected positive feedback from high-value peers and corresponded with impaired memory for social feedback. While impaired memory also occurred in socially-anxious adults, this impairment was unrelated to brain-based PE activity. Thus, social anxiety in adolescence may relate to altered neural correlates of PEs that contribute to impaired learning about social feedback. Small samples necessitate replication. Nevertheless, results suggest that the relationship between learning and fronto-striatal function may attenuate as development progresses.
Full Text Available The poison gland and Dufour’s gland are the two glands associated with the sting apparatus in female Apocrita (Hymenoptera. While the poison gland usually functions as an integral part of the venom delivery system, the Dufour’s gland has been found to differ in its function in various hymenopteran groups. Like all exocrine glands, the function of the Dufour’s gland is to secrete chemicals, but the nature and function of the secretions varies in different taxa. Functions of the Dufour’s gland secretions range from serving as a component of material used in nest building, larval food, and pheromones involved in communicative functions that are important for both solitary and social species. This review summarizes the different functions reported for the Dufour’s gland in hymenopterans, illustrating how the Dufour’s gland secretions can be adapted to give rise to various functions in response to different challenges posed by the ways of life followed by different taxa. Aspects of development, structure, chemistry and the evolution of different functions are also touched upon briefly.
Sabrina Nunes Garcia
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impairment of social and emotional functions, body image and future perspective in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapeutic treatment. This is a longitudinal research conducted from October 2012 to October 2013 at the chemotherapy unit of a private institution of Oncology located in Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Sociodemographic and clinical questionnaires were applied, Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 e Quality of Life Questionnaire – Breast Cancer Module, to 48 women subjected for the first time to chemotherapy, in three different stages of the treatment. Analysis with Friedman`s, Spearman and Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric tests was performed. Changes were observed in social function and body image, which compromised quality of life significantly. Results can subsidize the planning of and adjustments to the care provided to these women by considering the perception about the impact of therapy on QL and their perspectives.
Stivanin, Luciene; Carnio, Maria Silvia
the purpose of this study was to describe a language stimulation program, including teacher training and practical activities in the classroom, and investigate the effectiveness of this action on the social functioning and behavioral problems of elementary school children. 136 children from six classrooms of a public school and their teachers participated in this research. Of these, half were given the language stimulation program: 16 hours of training for teachers and 9 meetings in the classroom with activities for students. The activities involved instruction for the use of language reflection and practice with the narrative structure. Teachers filled out questionnaires about the social skills and behavior problems of their students before and after the program. there was no statistically significant difference between the research groups pre- and post- program in terms of assertiveness/ social resourcefulness (1st and 5th grades) and cooperation/affection (1st and 3rd grades). In the research groups, children of the 3rd grade, different from the 1st and the 5th grade, showed more evolution in their self-control abilities, which may be related to the lower frequency of externalizing problems in this group. the language program had positive effects on social assertiveness/resourcefulness skills and social cooperation/affection.
Babkirk, Sarah; Luehring-Jones, Peter; Dennis-Tiwary, Tracy A
The use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) as a form of social interaction has become increasingly prevalent, yet few studies examine individual differences that may shed light on implications of CMC for adjustment. The current study examined neurocognitive individual differences associated with preferences to use technology in relation to social-emotional outcomes. In Study 1 (N = 91), a self-report measure, the Social Media Communication Questionnaire (SMCQ), was evaluated as an assessment of preferences for communicating positive and negative emotions on a scale ranging from purely via CMC to purely face-to-face. In Study 2, SMCQ preferences were examined in relation to event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with early emotional attention capture and reactivity (the frontal N1) and later sustained emotional processing and regulation (the late positive potential (LPP)). Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded while 22 participants passively viewed emotional and neutral pictures and completed an emotion regulation task with instructions to increase, decrease, or maintain their emotional responses. A greater preference for CMC was associated with reduced size of and satisfaction with social support, greater early (N1) attention capture by emotional stimuli, and reduced LPP amplitudes to unpleasant stimuli in the increase emotion regulatory task. These findings are discussed in the context of possible emotion- and social-regulatory functions of CMC.
Cox, Simon R; Bak, Thomas H; Allerhand, Michael; Redmond, Paul; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; MacPherson, Sarah E
The influence of bilingualism on cognitive functioning is currently a topic of intense scientific debate. The strongest evidence for a cognitive benefit of bilingualism has been demonstrated in executive functions. However, the causal direction of the relationship remains unclear: does learning other languages improve executive functions or are people with better executive abilities more likely to become bilingual? To address this, we examined 90 male participants of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936; 26 were bilingual, 64 monolingual. All participants underwent an intelligence test at age 11 years and were assessed on a wide range of executive and social cognition tasks at age 74. The only notable differences between both groups were found for the Simon Effect (which indexes stimulus-response conflict resolution; β=-.518, p=0.025) and a trend effect for the Faux Pas task (a measure of complex theory of mind; ToM, β=0.432, p=0.060). Controlling for the influence of childhood intelligence, parental and own social class significantly attenuated the bilingual advantage on the Faux Pas test (β=0.058, p=0.816), whereas the Simon task advantage remained (β=-.589, p=0.049). We find some weak evidence that the relationship between bilingualism and cognitive functions may be selective and bi-directional. Pre-existing cognitive and social class differences from childhood may influence both ToM ability in older age and the likelihood of learning another language; yet, bilingualism does not appear to independently contribute to Faux Pas score. Conversely, learning a second language is related to better conflict processing, irrespective of initial childhood ability or social class. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Fischer, D.J.; Epstein, J.B.; Yao, Y.; Wilkie, D.J.
Purpose Oral conditions are established complications in terminally-ill cancer patients. Yet despite significant morbidity, the characteristics and impact of oral conditions in these patients are poorly documented. The study objective was to characterize oral conditions in terminally-ill cancer patients to determine the presence, severity, and the functional and social impact of these oral conditions. Methods This was an observational clinical study including terminally-ill cancer patients (2.5–3 week life expectancy). Data were obtained via the Oral Problems Scale (OPS) that measures the presence of subjective xerostomia, orofacial pain, taste change, and the functional/social impact of oral conditions and a demographic questionnaire. A standardized oral examination was used to assess objective salivary hypofunction, fungal infection, mucosal erythema, and ulceration. Regression analysis and t test investigated the associations between measures. Results Of 104 participants, most were ≥50 years of age, female, and high-school educated; 45% were African American, 43% Caucasian, and 37% married. Oral conditions frequencies were: salivary hypofunction (98%), mucosal erythema (50%), ulceration (20%), fungal infection (36%), and other oral problems (46%). Xerostomia, taste change, and orofacial pain all had significant functional impact; poral ulcerations had significantly more orofacial pain with a social impact than patients without ulcers (p=.003). Erythema was significantly associated with fungal infection and with mucosal ulceration (pOral conditions significantly affect functional and social activities in terminally-ill cancer patients. Identification and management of oral conditions in these patients should therefore be an important clinical consideration. PMID:24232310
BENEFITS OF STUDY ....................................14 E. SOCIAL-FUNCTIONAL NETWORK DESCRIPTION .....................16 1. A Representative...data to maintain appropriate classification levels) of cocaine produced each month by the Colombian sources to the U.S. homeland, netting the...Tactical interdiction-centric operational approaches have improved over the years due to previous studies and research, but these approaches rely upon one
Full Text Available The recent research and technology development in medical genomics has raised new issues that are profoundly different from those encountered in traditional clinical research for which informed consent was developed. Global initiatives for international collaboration and public participation in genomics research now face an increasing demand for new forms of informed consent which reflect local contexts. This article analyzes informed consent forms (ICFs for genomic research formulated by four selected research programs and institutes in East Asia – the Medical Genome Science Program in Japan, Universiti Sains Malaysia Human Research Ethics Committee in Malaysia, and the Taiwan Biobank and the Taipei Medical University- Joint Institutional Review Board in Taiwan. The comparative text analysis highlights East Asian contexts as distinct from other regions by identifying communicative and social functions of consent forms. The communicative functions include re-contact options and offering interactive support for research participants, and setting opportunities for family or community engagement in the consent process. This implies that informed consent cannot be validated solely with the completion of a consent form at the initial stage of the research, and informed consent templates can facilitate interactions between researchers and participants through (even before and after the research process. The social functions consist of informing participants of possible social risks that include genetic discrimination, sample and data sharing, and highlighting the role of ethics committees. Although international ethics harmonization and the subsequent coordination of consent forms may be necessary to maintain the quality and consistency of consent process for data-intensive international research, it is also worth paying more attention to the local values and different settings that exist where research participants are situated for research in
Yoshizawa, Go; Sasongko, Teguh H; Ho, Chih-Hsing; Kato, Kazuto
The recent research and technology development in medical genomics has raised new issues that are profoundly different from those encountered in traditional clinical research for which informed consent was developed. Global initiatives for international collaboration and public participation in genomics research now face an increasing demand for new forms of informed consent which reflect local contexts. This article analyzes informed consent forms (ICFs) for genomic research formulated by four selected research programs and institutes in East Asia - the Medical Genome Science Program in Japan, Universiti Sains Malaysia Human Research Ethics Committee in Malaysia, and the Taiwan Biobank and the Taipei Medical University- Joint Institutional Review Board in Taiwan. The comparative text analysis highlights East Asian contexts as distinct from other regions by identifying communicative and social functions of consent forms. The communicative functions include re-contact options and offering interactive support for research participants, and setting opportunities for family or community engagement in the consent process. This implies that informed consent cannot be validated solely with the completion of a consent form at the initial stage of the research, and informed consent templates can facilitate interactions between researchers and participants through (even before and after) the research process. The social functions consist of informing participants of possible social risks that include genetic discrimination, sample and data sharing, and highlighting the role of ethics committees. Although international ethics harmonization and the subsequent coordination of consent forms may be necessary to maintain the quality and consistency of consent process for data-intensive international research, it is also worth paying more attention to the local values and different settings that exist where research participants are situated for research in medical genomics. More
Experimental data about brain function accumulate faster than does our understanding of how the brain works. To tackle some general principles at the grain level of behavior, I start from the omnipresent brain-environment connection that forces regularities of the physical world to shape the brain. Based on top-down processing, added by sparse sensory information, people are able to form individual "caricature worlds," which are similar enough to be shared among other people and which allow quick and purposeful reactions to abrupt changes. Temporal dynamics and social interaction in natural environments serve as further essential organizing principles of human brain function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shawn E. Christ
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication. It has been postulated that such difficulties are related to disruptions in underlying cognitive processes such as executive function. The present study examined potential changes in executive function performance associated with participation in the Social Competence Intervention (SCI program, a short-term intervention designed to improve social competence in adolescents with ASD. Laboratory behavioral performance measures were used to separately evaluate potential intervention-related changes in individual executive function component processes (i.e., working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility in a sample of 22 adolescents with ASD both before and after intervention. For comparison purposes, a demographically matched sample of 14 individuals without ASD was assessed at identical time intervals. Intervention-related improvements were observed on the working memory task, with gains evident in spatial working memory and, to a slightly lesser degree, verbal working memory. Significant improvements were also found for a working memory-related aspect of the task switching test (i.e., mixing costs. Taken together, these findings provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that participation in the SCI program is accompanied by changes in underlying neurocognitive processes such as working memory.
Shankar, Aparna; McMunn, Anne; Demakakos, Panayotes; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew
The present analysis aimed to examine the associations of isolation and loneliness, individually as well as simultaneously, with 2 measures of functional status (gait speed and difficulties in activities of daily living) in older adults over a 6-year period using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, and to assess if these associations differ by SES. Loneliness was measured using the short form of the Revised UCLA scale, and an index of social isolation was computed incorporating marital status; frequency of contact with friends, family, and children; and participation in social activities. Measures of functional status were assessed identically at baseline and 6 years later for 3070 participants (mean age 69 years). Wealth was used as an indicator of SES. In fully and mutually adjusted models, social isolation and loneliness were found to be associated with a decrease in gait speed at follow-up, with stronger effects among more disadvantaged individuals. Loneliness was associated with an increase in difficulties with activities of daily living. Isolation and loneliness were adversely associated with different aspects of functional status. Interventions to reduce isolation and loneliness may be particularly beneficial for individuals in disadvantaged groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Jahn, Danielle R; Bennett, Melanie E; Park, Stephanie G; Gur, Raquel E; Horan, William P; Kring, Ann M; Blanchard, Jack J
Findings regarding the protective effect of social role functioning on suicide ideation in individuals with schizophrenia have been mixed. One reason for such inconsistencies in the literature may be that individuals with prominent negative symptoms of schizophrenia may not experience a desire for social closeness, and therefore social role functioning may not influence suicide risk in these individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the moderating effects of self-reported desire for social closeness and interviewer-rated negative symptoms on the relationship between social role functioning and suicide ideation. Our sample consisted of 162 individuals who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders; all participants completed self-report questionnaires and clinician-administered interviews, and moderation hypotheses were tested with a non-parametric procedure. The results indicated that motivation and pleasure-related negative symptoms moderated the relationship between social role functioning and suicide ideation; self-reported desire for social closeness and negative symptoms related to expression did not have such a moderating effect. Specifically, better social role functioning was associated with less suicide ideation only in those individuals who had low motivation and pleasure-related negative symptoms; no significant relationship was observed between social role functioning and suicide ideation among those with elevated motivation and pleasure-related negative symptoms. These findings suggest that assessing for negative symptoms and social role functioning may inform suicide risk assessments in individuals with schizophrenia, and improving social role functioning may reduce suicide ideation among those with few motivation and pleasure-related negative symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Settipani, Cara A; Kendall, Philip C
Social functioning was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form for children with anxiety disorders who participated in a randomized clinical trial (N = 161, aged 7-14). Significant relationships were found between severity of children's principal anxiety disorder and most measures of social functioning, such that poorer social functioning was associated with more severe anxiety. Among youth who received cognitive-behavioral therapy (n = 111), significant associations were found between parent-reported social competence and both absence of principal anxiety disorder and lower anxiety severity at posttreatment and 1-year follow-up, controlling for the severity of the child's principal anxiety disorder at pretreatment. Findings support a relationship between anxiety severity and social difficulties, and suggest the importance of social competence for a favorable treatment response.
Siegrist, Karin; Millier, Aurelie; Amri, Ikbal; Aballéa, Samuel; Toumi, Mondher
The lack of social contacts may be an important element in the presumed vicious circle aggravating, or at least stabilising negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. A European 2-year cohort study collected negative symptom scores, psychosocial functioning scores, objective social contact frequency scores and quality of life scores every 6 months. Bivariate analyses, correlation analyses, multivariate regressions and random effects regressions were conducted to describe relations between social contact and outcomes of interest and to gain a better understanding of this relation over time. Using data from 1208 patients with schizophrenia, a link between social contact frequency and negative symptom scores, functioning and quality of life at baseline was established. Regression models confirmed the significant association between social contact and negative symptoms as well as psychosocial functioning. This study aimed at demonstrating the importance of social contact for deficient behavioural aspects of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Corcoran, C M; Kimhy, D; Parrilla-Escobar, M A; Cressman, V L; Stanford, A D; Thompson, J; David, S Ben; Crumbley, A; Schobel, S; Moore, H; Malaspina, D
Social dysfunction is a hallmark symptom of schizophrenia which commonly precedes the onset of psychosis. It is unclear if social symptoms in clinical high-risk patients reflect depressive symptoms or are a manifestation of negative symptoms. We compared social function scores on the Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report between 56 young people (aged 13-27 years) at clinical high risk for psychosis and 22 healthy controls. The cases were also assessed for depressive and 'prodromal' symptoms (subthreshold positive, negative, disorganized and general symptoms). Poor social function was related to both depressive and negative symptoms, as well as to disorganized and general symptoms. The symptoms were highly intercorrelated but linear regression analysis demonstrated that poor social function was primarily explained by negative symptoms within this cohort, particularly in ethnic minority patients. Although this study demonstrated a relationship between social dysfunction and depressive symptoms in clinical high-risk cases, this association was primarily explained by the relationship of each of these to negative symptoms. In individuals at heightened risk for psychosis, affective changes may be related to a progressive decrease in social interaction and loss of reinforcement of social behaviors. These findings have relevance for potential treatment strategies for social dysfunction in schizophrenia and its risk states and predict that antidepressant drugs, cognitive behavioral therapy and/or social skills training may be effective.
Lalonde, Gabrielle; Bernier, Annie; Beaudoin, Cindy; Gravel, Jocelyn; Beauchamp, Miriam H
The young brain is particularly vulnerable to injury due to inherent physiological and developmental factors, and even mild forms of traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can sometimes result in cognitive and behavioural difficulties. Despite the high prevalence of paediatric mTBI, little is known of its impact on children's social functioning. Parent-child relationships represent the centre of young children's social environments and are therefore ideal contexts for studying the potential effects of mTBI on children's social functioning. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of parent-child interactions after mTBI using observational assessment methods and parental report. The sample included 130 children (18-60 months at recruitment) divided into three groups: children with uncomplicated mTBI (n = 47), children with orthopaedic injury (OI, n = 27), and non-injured children (NI, n = 56). The quality of parent-child interactions was assessed 6 months post-injury using the Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) scale, an observational measure which focuses on the dyadic nature of parent-child exchanges, and the Parental Stress Index questionnaire (Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction (PCDI) domain). Significant differences with medium effect sizes were found between the mTBI group and the NI group on the MRO, but not between the OI group and the other two groups. PCDI scores did not differ across groups, suggesting that observational measures may be more sensitive to changes in parent-child interactions after TBI. The current findings have implications for children's post-injury social development and highlight the importance of monitoring social outcomes even after minor head injuries. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Lange, Jens; Crusius, Jan
Envy stems from a social comparison with a superior standard. Its 2 distinct forms are directed at changing this situation in different ways, either by becoming as successful as the envied person (in benign envy) or by lowering the envied person's advantage (in malicious envy). In essence, envy is thus a social phenomenon. Nevertheless, most previous research has focused on its underlying intrapersonal processes, overlooking envy's interpersonal core. In contrast, we show in 6 studies (N = 1,513) that envy and pride are intertwined in a social-functional relationship. Envy and pride often co-occur (Study 1) and pride displays enhance envious feelings (Studies 2 and 3). Specifically, authentic (success attributed to effort) and hubristic pride (success attributed to talent) modulate envious intentions and behavior toward their benign and malicious form (Study 2 to 6). This effect is mediated via liking, perceived prestige, and perceived dominance (Study 4). In accordance with a social-functional approach, the effects emerge only when authentic and hubristic pride are expressed by the superior person and not when the respective information about the superior person's feelings is simply available in the environment (Study 5). These effects are present when participants recall envy situations (Study 1), when they imagine being in a competitive situation (Studies 3, 4, and 5), or when envy is elicited in situ (Studies 2 and 6). Our findings show the value of studying envy as a social phenomenon and open up numerous avenues for research on envy at the interpersonal and intergroup level. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Ammerman, Robert T; Putnam, Frank W; Altaye, Mekibib; Teeters, Angelique R; Stevens, Jack; Van Ginkel, Judith B
Depression is prevalent in mothers receiving home visiting. Little is known about the impact of treatment on associated features of maternal depression in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a novel, adapted treatment for depressed mothers in home visiting on psychological distress and social functioning. In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT) was developed to treat depressed mothers in home visiting. A randomized clinical trial design was used in which subjects were 93 new mothers in a home visiting program. Mothers with major depressive disorder identified at 3 months postpartum were randomized into IH-CBT and ongoing home visiting (n = 47) or standard home visiting (SHV; n = 46) in which they received home visitation alone and could obtain treatment in the community. Measures of psychological distress, social support, and social network were measured at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and three-month follow-up. Clinical features of depression and home visiting parameters were examined as potential moderators. Subjects receiving IH-CBT reported decreased psychological distress at post-treatment (ES = 0.77) and follow-up (ES = 0.73). Examination of types of psychological distress indicated broad improvements at both time points. Those receiving IH-CBT reported increased social support over time relative to those in the SHV condition. Effect sizes were modest at post-treatment (ES = 0.38) but increased at follow-up (ES = 0.65). Improvements were seen in affiliative and belonginess aspects of social support, in contrast to tangible support which was statistically non-significant. Findings were not moderated by clinical features of depression or home visiting parameters. No group differences were found in size of and involvement with social networks. IH-CBT is effective in reducing psychological distress and improving perceived social support in depressed mothers receiving home visiting. To the extent that mothers are better
G. S. Armashova-Telnik
Full Text Available In today's economic conditions, characterized by a high degree of instability and uncertainty as the conditions for the functioning of economic entities, as well as political and economic conditions in general, in the management structure of the economy it is advisable to proceed from the position of the key concepts of management, optimally adapted to the real situation. In this context, it is necessary to use scientific innovation to improve the economic growth of economic entities through the effective functioning of the enterprise social infrastructure models. Lineup social infrastructure systems involves various models of a number of features of structure. In this regard, according to the strategic objectives of a business entity, on its socio-economic targets need to use all the resource capacity of the organization to achieve its objectives by means of integration in the social infrastructure system model that focuses on the efficient use of human resources in the process of increasing the economic performance of the company. So, guided by a number of basic principles of the successful implementation of social infrastructure mechanisms of enterprises, structure of the economy with a view to long-term effective operation, it is necessary to take into account the value of the vectors of the organizational culture of polarization in the motivation of personnel, which could be one of the levers of growth of efficiency of functioning of the enterprise, a powerful strategic tool to target all units and individual subjects for the organization, mobilize the initiative of employees and ensure productive interaction of subjects in the format “business-to-employee” rather than substantially predetermine the competitiveness and success of the organization in the long run.
Wang, Y H; Huang, F Y; Zheng, Y; Shi, G S; Wang, L; Liao, S S
Objective: To examine the association between social isolation and cognitive function among the elderly living in the communities of Daqing city. Methods: A total of 981 community residents aged 60 years or over, were surveyed with a questionnaire. Both Lubben Social Network Scale-6 (LSNS-6) and Montreal Congnitive Assessment (MoCA) Changsha Versions were used to respectively screen the status of social isolation and cognitive function, on these elderly. Results: The average age was 71 years old for the 981 study participants. 10.60 % (104/981) of the participants were assessed as having the status of social isolation, 9.48 % (93/981) as having marginal family ties and 13.97 % (137/981) as having marginal friendship ties. Results from the multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that participants with higher scores of LSNS-6 presenting better cognitive function score, with a partial regression coefficient as 0.10 ( P social isolation (20.38±5.54) were significantly lower than the ones without social isolation (22.10±5.01) and the difference was statistically significant ( P Social isolation was significantly related to the domain scores on visuo-spatial constructional executive functions ( P =0.02), naming ( P =0.03), language ( P =0.01) and delayed memory functions ( P social isolation was mainly caused by the lack of friendship ties and associated with cognitive function and among the elderly in Daqing city, Heilongjiang province.
Jørgensen, Terese Sara Høj; Lund, Rikke; Siersma, Volkert Dirk
It is well established that socioeconomic position (SEP) and social relations impact physical function and mortality in old age. Due to differential vulnerability, few social relations may lead to greater decline in physical function and mortality among older people with low compared to high SEP....... The aim was to investigate whether older people with few social relations experience greater decline in physical function and mortality when also subject to low financial assets? The study population included 4060 older people aged 75 or 80 years at baseline in 1998–1999. Social relations at baseline...... and physical function at baseline and after 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 years were obtained from questionnaires. Financial assets at baseline and mortality during 10 years of follow-up were obtained from registers. Analyses of the associations between financial assets combined with social relations and decline...
Dean S Carson
Full Text Available Brain arginine vasopressin (AVP critically regulates normative social behavior in mammals, and experimental disruption of the AVP signaling pathway produces social impairments in rodent models. We therefore hypothesized that AVP signaling deficits may contribute to social impairments in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Since blood measures (which are far easier to obtain than brain measures of AVP are most meaningful if they are related to brain AVP activity, Study 1 tested the relationship between AVP concentrations in concomitantly collected blood and CSF samples from children and adults (N = 28 undergoing clinical procedures. Study 2 tested whether blood AVP concentrations: 1 differed between children with ASD (N = 57, their ASD discordant siblings (N = 47, and neurotypical controls (N = 55; and 2 predicted social functioning (using the NEPSY-II Theory of Mind and Affect Recognition tasks and the Social Responsiveness Scale in this large, well-characterized child cohort. Blood AVP concentrations significantly and positively predicted CSF AVP concentrations (F1,26 = 7.17, r = 0.46, p = 0.0127 in Study 1. In Study 2, blood AVP concentrations did not differ between groups or by sex, but significantly and positively predicted Theory of Mind performance, specifically in children with ASD, but not in non-ASD children (F1,144 = 5.83, p = 0.017. Blood AVP concentrations can be used: 1 as a surrogate for brain AVP activity in humans; and 2 as a robust biomarker of theory of mind ability in children with ASD. These findings also suggest that AVP biology may be a promising therapeutic target by which to improve social cognition in individuals with ASD.
Couture, Shannon M; Granholm, Eric L; Fish, Scott C
Problems in real-world functioning are pervasive in schizophrenia and much recent effort has been devoted to uncovering factors which contribute to poor functioning. The goal of this study was to examine the role of four such factors: social cognition (theory of mind), neurocognition, negative symptoms, and functional capacity (social competence). 178 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed measures of theory of mind, neurocognition, negative symptoms, social competence, and self-reported functioning. Path models sought to determine the relationships among these variables. Theory of mind as indexed by the Hinting Task partially mediated the relationship between neurocognition and social competence, and negative symptoms and social competence demonstrated significant direct paths with self-reported functioning. Study results suggest theory of mind serves as an important mediator in addition to previously investigated social cognitive domains of emotional and social perception. The current study also highlights the need to determine variables which mediate the relationship between functional capacity and real-world functioning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD, schizophrenic patients (SKZ and healthy controls (HC. The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, it includes stabilized schizophrenic patients (n = 30, euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18 and healthy controls (n = 18. Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however the differences did not influence the results. Bipolar patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to schizophrenic patients, even in ecological tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p
Devine, Rory T; White, Naomi; Ensor, Rosie; Hughes, Claire
The vast majority of studies on theory of mind (ToM) have focused on the preschool years. Extending the developmental scope of ToM research presents opportunities to both reassess theoretical accounts of ToM and test its predictive utility. The twin aims of this longitudinal study were to examine developmental relations between ToM, executive function (EF), and teacher-rated social competence in middle childhood. One hundred thirty-seven children (69 males) were followed across a 4-year period spanning middle childhood (M ages at Waves 1 and 2 = 6.05, SD = .35, and 10.81, SD = .35, respectively). Individual differences in ToM were moderately stable across middle childhood. Although there were concurrent associations between ToM and EF at both time points, there were no longitudinal links between these constructs. In contrast, there were concurrent and longitudinal links between ToM and teacher-rated social competence, such that individual differences in ToM predicted later social competence at school. These results are discussed in light of competing theories about the links between ToM and EF and the importance of individual differences in ToM for children's social lives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Latkin, Carl A; Smith, M Kumi; Ha, Tran Viet; Mo, Tran Thi; Zelaya, Carla; Sripaipan, Teerada; Le Minh, Nguyen; Quan, Vu Minh; Go, Vivian F
Support from social network members may help to facilitate access to HIV medical care, especially in low resourced communities. As part of a randomized clinical trial of a community-level stigma and risk reduction intervention in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam for people living with HIV who inject drugs (PWID), 341 participants were administered a baseline social network inventory. Network predictors of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation at the 6-month follow-up were assessed. The social networks of PWID were sparse. Few participants who reported injectors in their networks also reported family members, whereas those who did not have injectors were more likely to report family members and network members providing emotional support and medical advice. In multivariate models, having at least one network member who provided medical advice predicted ART initiation at 6 months (OR 2.74, CI 1.20-6.28). These results suggest the importance of functional social support and network support mobilization for ART initiation among PWID.
Full Text Available Ryoko Nakagawa,1 Takashi Ohnishi,1 Hisanori Kobayashi,1 Akihide Wakamatsu,2 Ai Tanimura,3 Kazuo Morita,3 Toshio Yamaoka,3 Hideo Usui,3 Yoshimasa Ogawa,3 Akiko Fujino,3 Kazutake Yoshizawa11Evidence Generation Department, Medical Affairs Division, 2Medical Affairs Strategy Department, Medical Affairs Division, 3Drug Safety Surveillance Department, Japan Safety and Surveillance Division, Janssen Pharmaceutical K.K., Tokyo, JapanBackground: Social functioning is an important outcome for patients with schizophrenia. To evaluate the effects of paliperidone extended-release (PAL-ER on social function, symptomatology, and safety in the routine clinical practice, we conducted a 1-year post-marketing surveillance study of PAL-ER. We also explored relationships between symptomatic improvement and socially functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia.Patients and methods: Patients with an established diagnosis of schizophrenia were allowed flexible 3–12 mg/day dosing during the surveillance. Patients were assessed on social functioning using the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS and on symptomatology using the Clinical Global Impression–Schizophrenia scale. All adverse events (AEs were also collected.Results: A total of 1,429 patients were enrolled in the surveillance study, of whom 1,405 were evaluable for safety and 1,142 were evaluable for efficacy. The treatment discontinuation rate for any reason during the observation period was 34.66%. Significant improvements were observed on both Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale and Clinical Global Impression–Schizophrenia scale during the observation period. The percentage of patients with socially functional remission (SOFAS ≥61 also increased significantly. A significant association between early improvements in positive symptoms, sex, severity of negative symptoms at baseline, and socially functional remission was observed. A total of 33.52% of patients
Wood, Adrienne; Martin, Jared; Niedenthal, Paula
Recent work has identified the physical features of smiles that accomplish three tasks fundamental to human social living: rewarding behavior, establishing and managing affiliative bonds, and negotiating social status. The current work extends the social functional account to laughter. Participants (N = 762) rated the degree to which reward, affiliation, or dominance (between-subjects) was conveyed by 400 laughter samples acquired from a commercial sound effects website. Inclusion of a fourth rating dimension, spontaneity, allowed us to situate the current approach in the context of existing laughter research, which emphasizes the distinction between spontaneous and volitional laughter. We used 11 acoustic properties extracted from the laugh samples to predict participants' ratings. Actor sex moderated, and sometimes even reversed, the relation between acoustics and participants' judgments. Spontaneous laughter appears to serve the reward function in the current framework, as similar acoustic properties guided perceiver judgments of spontaneity and reward: reduced voicing and increased pitch, increased duration for female actors, and increased pitch slope, center of gravity, first formant, and noisiness for male actors. Affiliation ratings diverged from reward in their sex-dependent relationship to intensity and, for females, reduced pitch range and raised second formant. Dominance displayed the most distinct pattern of acoustic predictors, including increased pitch range, reduced second formant in females, and decreased pitch variability in males. We relate the current findings to existing findings on laughter and human and non-human vocalizations, concluding laughter can signal much more that felt or faked amusement.
Bal, Elgiz; Yerys, Benjamin E; Sokoloff, Jennifer L; Celano, Mark J; Kenworthy, Lauren; Giedd, Jay N; Wallace, Gregory L
Age-related changes in social attribution skills were assessed using the "Triangles Playing Tricks" task in 7-17 year old high functioning children with ASDs (n=41) and in typically developing (TD) children (n=58) matched on age, IQ, and sex ratio. Children with ASDs gave responses that received lower intentionality and appropriateness ratings than did TD children in both the goal-directed and theory of mind (ToM) conditions. Results remained unchanged when the effects of verbal output (i.e., number of clause produced) and verbal IQ were included as covariates in the analyses. Whereas age was highly associated with ToM performance in the TD children, this relationship was not as strong among children with ASDs. These results indicate not only a diminished tendency among high functioning children with ASDs to attribute social meaning and intentionality to ambiguous visual displays of interactive forms but also an aberrant developmental trajectory. That is, children with ASDs may fall further behind their typically developing peers in social attribution abilities as they get older.
Moos, Rudolf H; Brennan, Penny L; Schutte, Kathleen K; Moos, Bernice S
This study focuses on the health, family, and social functioning of spouses of late-life remitted and continuing problem drinkers, and on predictors of spouses' alcohol-related functioning and depressive symptoms. Three groups of spouses were compared at baseline and a 10-year follow-up: (a) spouses (n = 73) of older adults who had no drinking problems at baseline or follow-up, (b) spouses (n = 25) of older adults who had drinking problems at baseline but not follow-up, and (c) spouses (n = 69) of older adults who had drinking problems at both baseline and follow-up. At each contact point, spouses completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol-related, health, family, and social functioning. At baseline, compared with spouses of problem-free individuals, spouses of older adults whose drinking problems later remitted reported more alcohol consumption, poorer health, more depressive symptoms, and less involvement in domestic tasks and social and religious activities. At the 10-year follow-up, spouses of remitted problem drinkers were comparable to spouses of problem-free individuals, but spouses of continuing problem drinkers consumed more alcohol, incurred more alcohol-related consequences, and had friends who approved more of drinking. Overall, spouses whose friends approved more of drinking and whose partners consumed more alcohol and had drinking problems were likely to consume more alcohol and to have drinking problems themselves. Spouses of older adults whose late-life drinking problems remit can attain normal functioning; however, spouses of older adults with continuing late-life drinking problems experience some ongoing deficits.
Moos, Rudolf H.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Bernice S.
Objective: This study focuses on the health, family, and social functioning of spouses of late-life remitted and continuing problem drinkers, and on predictors of spouses' alcohol-related functioning and depressive symptoms. Method: Three groups of spouses were compared at baseline and a 10-year follow-up: (a) spouses (n = 73) of older adults who had no drinking problems at baseline or follow-up, (b) spouses (n = 25) of older adults who had drinking problems at baseline but not follow-up, and (c) spouses (n = 69) of older adults who had drinking problems at both baseline and follow-up. At each contact point, spouses completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol-related, health, family, and social functioning. Results: At baseline, compared with spouses of problem-free individuals, spouses of older adults whose drinking problems later remitted reported more alcohol consumption, poorer health, more depressive symptoms, and less involvement in domestic tasks and social and religious activities. At the 10-year follow-up, spouses of remitted problem drinkers were comparable to spouses of problem-free individuals, but spouses of continuing problem drinkers consumed more alcohol, incurred more alcohol-related consequences, and had friends who approved more of drinking. Overall, spouses whose friends approved more of drinking and whose partners consumed more alcohol and had drinking problems were likely to consume more alcohol and to have drinking problems themselves. Conclusions: Spouses of older adults whose late-life drinking problems remit can attain normal functioning; however, spouses of older adults with continuing late-life drinking problems experience some ongoing deficits. PMID:20553658
Full Text Available Purpose: The diagnosis of cancer and its treatment can make patients psychologically distressed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of psychological distress and social functioning in cancer patients and to assess the association of these parameters with the quality of life (QOL experienced by the patient. Patients and Methods: All cancer patients attending palliative care clinic who can understand and speak English or Tamil language were taken into the study. An interview technique with a questionnaire is used for data collection after informed consent. The questionnaire consisted of four sections, namely, demographic variables, general health questionnaire, WHO QOL-BREF, and SCARF social functioning index. All questionnaires were translated into the Tamil Language and were evaluated by the experts for content validity. Results: The median scores obtained are psychological distress = 44 (11–98, WHO QOL = 64 (36–117, and social function = 51 (29–79. Out of 251 patients, 30% had severe psychological distress, 25.6% had poor QOL, and 23.2% were with severely affected social function. Skilled laborers had better scores compared to unskilled laborers (P < 0.05. Family size (<2 children had a positive impact on the QOL (P = 0.008. Patients from urban locales had better social functioning than rural counterpart (P = 0.047, but no difference was observed in distress level or QOL. Increased growth hormone distress score of the patients had a negative impact on both QOL (r = −0.522 and social function (r = −0.244. QOL correlated positively with social function (r = +0.247. Conclusion: Psychosocial stress associated with cancer and its treatment can impact the QOL and social functioning of the patient and needs to be addressed along with the cancer-directed therapy. Decreasing the symptom burden and distress level by palliative care intervention might improve the QOL and social function.
Karunanithi, Gunaseelan; Sagar, Rapole Pragna; Joy, Aswin; Vedasoundaram, Parthasarathy
The diagnosis of cancer and its treatment can make patients psychologically distressed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of psychological distress and social functioning in cancer patients and to assess the association of these parameters with the quality of life (QOL) experienced by the patient. All cancer patients attending palliative care clinic who can understand and speak English or Tamil language were taken into the study. An interview technique with a questionnaire is used for data collection after informed consent. The questionnaire consisted of four sections, namely, demographic variables, general health questionnaire, WHO QOL-BREF, and SCARF social functioning index. All questionnaires were translated into the Tamil Language and were evaluated by the experts for content validity. The median scores obtained are psychological distress = 44 (11-98), WHO QOL = 64 (36-117), and social function = 51 (29-79). Out of 251 patients, 30% had severe psychological distress, 25.6% had poor QOL, and 23.2% were with severely affected social function. Skilled laborers had better scores compared to unskilled laborers ( P < 0.05). Family size (<2 children) had a positive impact on the QOL ( P = 0.008). Patients from urban locales had better social functioning than rural counterpart ( P = 0.047), but no difference was observed in distress level or QOL. Increased growth hormone distress score of the patients had a negative impact on both QOL ( r = -0.522) and social function ( r = -0.244). QOL correlated positively with social function ( r = +0.247). Psychosocial stress associated with cancer and its treatment can impact the QOL and social functioning of the patient and needs to be addressed along with the cancer-directed therapy. Decreasing the symptom burden and distress level by palliative care intervention might improve the QOL and social function.
Thurman Angela John
Full Text Available Abstract Background An important developmental task is to learn to recognize another person as a source of information and to utilize this information as a method of learning about the surrounding world. This socially guided form of learning, referred to as social referencing, is critical for the development of children’s understanding of other people, themselves and their surrounding world. In the present project, the regulatory function of social referencing was examined in two genetic disorders that are characterized by differing patterns of socio-cognitive development: Down syndrome (DS and Williams syndrome (WS. Methods Participants were 20 children with DS and 20 children with WS aged 42 to 71 months, matched on chronological age and gender. Each child participated in four studies: one study in which we examined performance in a social referencing paradigm and three studies in which we considered performance on tasks designed to tap each of three component abilities (initiating eye contact, gaze following and emotional responsivity important for success in social referencing. Results The majority of children in both groups demonstrated positive behavioral responses regarding the stimulus in the Social Referencing task when the adult communicated a joyful message but did not regulate their own behavior in accordance with the adult’s expression of fear. Between-group differences were observed in both conditions, with most differences indicating more advanced socio-communicative competence for children with DS than for children with WS even though the overall intellectual abilities and receptive language abilities of the children with WS were significantly higher than were those of the children with DS. The results of follow-up studies indicated that children with DS were more likely to initiate eye contact (unsolicited and to follow another person’s gaze in triadic situations than were children with WS. Neither group regulated their
Litzelman, Kristin; Kent, Erin E; Rowland, Julia H
Social and family factors can influence the health outcomes and quality of life of informal caregivers. Little is known about the distribution and correlates of such factors for caregivers of cancer patients. This study sought to fill this gap with data from the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance consortium. Lung and colorectal cancer patients nominated an informal caregiver to participate in a caregiving survey. Caregivers reported their sociodemographic and caregiving characteristics, social stress, relationship quality with the patient, and family functioning. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlations were used to assess the distribution of caregivers' social factors. Multivariable linear regressions assessed the independent correlates of each social factor. Most caregivers reported low to moderate levels of social stress and good relationship quality and family functioning. In multivariable analyses, older age was associated with less social stress and better family functioning but worse relationship quality, with effect sizes (Cohen's d) up to 0.40 (P quality but worse family functioning (effect sizes ≤ 0.16, P quality. Finally, social factors were important independent correlates of one another. The results indicate the importance of personal and caregiving-related characteristics and the broader family context to social factors. Future work is needed to better understand these pathways and assess whether interventions targeting social factors can improve health or quality-of-life outcomes for informal cancer caregivers. Cancer 2016;122:278-286. © 2015 American Cancer Society. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
The study reported in this article examined the relationship between psychosocial functioning and tendency to forgive, social support, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of terror survivors (N = 108). Structural equation modeling was used to examine whether PTSD symptoms mediated the association between tendency to forgive, social support, and psychosocial functioning. The findings demonstrated that the association between tendency to forgive and psychosocial functioning was mediated exclusively by PTSD symptoms, whereas the association between social support and psychosocial functioning was partially mediated by PTSD symptoms. The study reinforces the importance of addressing trauma survivors' psychosocial functioning as an emotional state associated with tendency to forgive, social support, and PTSD symptoms. In addition, the findings suggest that when treating trauma survivors, therapists should be aware of PTSD not only as an emotional consequence of trauma, but also as a mediator of numerous emotional and cognitive coping mechanisms.
Veltro, Franco; Mazza, Monica; Vendittelli, Nicola; Alberti, Mirella; Casacchia, Massimo; Roncone, Rita
Social cognition and Problem Solving (PS) impairments are common characteristics in patients with schizophrenia. Experimental neuropsychological findings support the hypothesis that schizophrenia is characterized by a broad range of heterogeneous cognitive impairments. Since that time Problem Solving Training has been employed as a core strategy in a wide variety of therapeutic settings. Renewed interest in cognitive functioning, including social Problem Solving skills and social cognition in schizophrenia, has led us to reconsider the potential value of metacognitive strategy as a rehabilitation strategy. The present study reports the results obtained by 24 persons with schizophrenia who were randomly assigned to one of two training session groups: Cognitive-Emotional Rehabilitation (REC) vs Problem Solving Training (PST). Both treatments were administered to small groups composed of subjects suffering from schizophrenic disorders over a 12 months period: primary measures of clinical, social outcomes and secondary measures of cognitive and Problem Solving functions were conducted at 0, and 12 months. Results showed that both training methods were found to be effective in psychopathological measures and in social functioning. On cognitive function improvements were specific to the rehabilitative approach. PST are mainly improved capacities for planning and memory, while the REC improved measures such as social cognition Theory of mind and emotion recognition. The results confirmed that it is no necessary to divide the rehabilitation training in treatments directed to specific domains. The conceptualization and applicability of PST and REC its implications for persons with schizophrenia, and future studies in this research area have also been discussed.
Cederbaum, Julie A; Wilcox, Sherrie L; Sullivan, Kathrine; Lucas, Carrie; Schuyler, Ashley
Although many service members successfully cope with exposure to stress and traumatic experiences, others have symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety; contextual factors may account for the variability in outcomes from these experiences. This work sought to understand mechanisms through which social support influences the mental health of service members and whether dyadic functioning mediates this relationship. We collected cross-sectional data as part of a larger study conducted in 2013; 321 military personnel who had at least 1 deployment were included in these analyses. Surveys were completed online; we collected data on demographic characteristics, social support, mental health measures (depression, PTSD, and anxiety), and dyadic functioning. We performed process modeling through mediation analysis. The direct effects of social support on the mental health of military personnel were limited; however, across all types of support networks, greater social support was significantly associated with better dyadic functioning. Dyadic functioning mediated the relationships between social support and depression/PTSD only when social support came from nonmilitary friends or family; dyadic functioning mediated social support and anxiety only when support came from family. We found no indirect effects of support from military peers or military leaders. Findings here highlight the need to continue to explore ways in which social support, particularly from family and nonmilitary-connected peers, can bolster healthy intimate partner relationships and, in turn, improve the well-being of military service members who are deployed.
Wilcox, Sherrie L.; Sullivan, Kathrine; Lucas, Carrie; Schuyler, Ashley
Objectives: Although many service members successfully cope with exposure to stress and traumatic experiences, others have symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety; contextual factors may account for the variability in outcomes from these experiences. This work sought to understand mechanisms through which social support influences the mental health of service members and whether dyadic functioning mediates this relationship. Methods: We collected cross-sectional data as part of a larger study conducted in 2013; 321 military personnel who had at least 1 deployment were included in these analyses. Surveys were completed online; we collected data on demographic characteristics, social support, mental health measures (depression, PTSD, and anxiety), and dyadic functioning. We performed process modeling through mediation analysis. Results: The direct effects of social support on the mental health of military personnel were limited; however, across all types of support networks, greater social support was significantly associated with better dyadic functioning. Dyadic functioning mediated the relationships between social support and depression/PTSD only when social support came from nonmilitary friends or family; dyadic functioning mediated social support and anxiety only when support came from family. We found no indirect effects of support from military peers or military leaders. Conclusion: Findings here highlight the need to continue to explore ways in which social support, particularly from family and nonmilitary-connected peers, can bolster healthy intimate partner relationships and, in turn, improve the well-being of military service members who are deployed. PMID:28005474
Manly, Tom; Murphy, Fionnuala C
Brain injury is a major cause of long-term disability. Executive and social cognition sequelae are associated with poor outcome. This review examines recent evidence on the efficacy of rehabilitation in these areas. Accumulating evidence shows that interventions that work with patients on developing insight and strategies to offset executive impairments can produce significant benefits. Training of specific capacities, such as working memory, holds some promise, but more needs to be known about effect generalization. Evidence on social cognition rehabilitation following brain injury is sparse. Although there are some encouraging early results, more information on the clinical significance of change for everyday function is required. Rehabilitation in these areas is inherently difficult but vital if outcomes are to improve. Significant gains have been reported, and further work applying appropriate methods is urgently required.
Campbell, L. E.; McCabe, K. L.; Melville, J. L.; Strutt, P. A.; Schall, U.
Background: Social difficulties are often noted among people with intellectual disabilities. Children and adults with 22q.11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) often have poorer social competence as well as poorer performance on measures of executive and social-cognitive skills compared with typically developing young people. However, the relationship…
Shi, Chuan; He, Yi; Cheung, Eric F C; Yu, Xin; Chan, Raymond C K
Psychiatrists pay more attention to the social functioning outcome of schizophrenia nowadays. How to evaluate the real world function among schizophrenia is a challenging task due to culture difference, there is no such kind of instrument in terms of the Chinese setting. This study aimed to report the validation of an ecologically valid performance-based everyday functioning assessment for schizophrenia, namely the Beijing Performance-based Functional Ecological Test (BJ-PERFECT). Fifty community-dwelling adults with schizophrenia and 37 healthy controls were recruited. Fifteen of the healthy controls were re-tested one week later. All participants were administered the University of California, San Diego, Performance-based Skill Assessment-Brief version (UPSA-B) and the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). The finalized assessment included three subdomains: transportation, financial management and work ability. The test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities were good. The total score significantly correlated with the UPSA-B. The performance of individuals with schizophrenia was significantly more impaired than healthy controls, especially in the domain of work ability. Among individuals with schizophrenia, functional outcome was influenced by premorbid functioning, negative symptoms and neurocognition such as processing speed, visual learning and attention/vigilance. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sheridan, Ann J; Drennan, Jonathan; Coughlan, Barbara; O'Keeffe, Donal; Frazer, Kate; Kemple, Mary; Alexander, Denise; Howlin, Frances; Fahy, Anne; Kow, Veronica; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard
This randomised controlled trial examined if for people with enduring mental illness, being supported to socialise leads to improved social functioning, increased self-esteem and extended social networks; a reduction in social isolation, social, emotional and family loneliness and a reduction in illness symptoms, namely depression. A prospective randomised controlled trial was undertaken from November 2007 to September 2011. Service users with a diagnosis of enduring mental illness (>18 years) were invited to participate. Participants were randomly allocated to intervention or control group conditions in a 1:1 ratio. Intervention group participants were matched with a volunteer partner, asked to engage in social/leisure activities for 2 hours weekly over a 9-month period, and received a €20 stipend monthly. Control group participants received a €20 monthly stipend and were asked to engage in a weekly social/leisure activity. Social functioning, the primary outcome, was measured using the Social Functioning Scale (SFS) at three time points (baseline, midpoint and endpoint). In all, 107 people completed this study. There were no significant differences between control and intervention groups at the commencement of the intervention on demographic characteristics or the main outcome measures of interest. Overall social functioning positively changed throughout the three time points from a mean of 99·7 (standard deviation (SD) = 15.1) at baseline, to a mean of 106.0 (SD = 27.0) at the endpoint for the control group, and from a mean of 100·4 (SD = 15.0) at Time 1 for the intervention group, to a mean of 104.1 (SD = 23.4) at the endpoint for the intervention group. The intervention showed no statistical differences between the control and intervention groups on primary or secondary outcome measures. The stipend and the stipend plus volunteer partner led to an increase in recreational social functioning; a decrease in levels of social loneliness, in depression and in
Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen
The framework for understanding effortful listening (FUEL) draws on psychological theories of cognition and motivation. In the present article, theories of social-cognitive psychology are related to the FUEL. Listening effort is defined in our consensus as the deliberate allocation of mental resources to overcome obstacles in goal pursuit when carrying out a task that involves listening. Listening effort depends not only on hearing difficulties and task demands but also on the listener's motivation to expend mental effort in challenging situations. Listeners' cost/benefit evaluations involve appraisals of listening demands, their own capacity, and the importance of listening goals. Social psychological factors can affect a listener's actual and self-perceived auditory and cognitive abilities, especially when those abilities may be insufficient to readily meet listening demands. Whether or not listeners experience stress depends not only on how demanding a situation is relative to their actual abilities but also on how they appraise their capacity to meet those demands. The self-perception or appraisal of one's abilities can be lowered by poor self-efficacy or negative stereotypes. Stress may affect performance in a given situation and chronic stress can have deleterious effects on many aspects of health, including auditory and cognitive functioning. Social support can offset demands and mitigate stress; however, the burden of providing support may stress the significant other. Some listeners cope by avoiding challenging situations and withdrawing from social participation. Extending the FUEL using social-cognitive psychological theories may provide valuable insights into how effortful listening could be reduced by adopting health-promoting approaches to rehabilitation.
Hooper, Stephen R.; Gerson, Arlene C.; Johnson, Rebecca J.; Mendley, Susan R.; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lande, Marc B.; Matheson, Matthew B.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Morgenstern, Bruce; Warady, Bradley A.; Furth, Susan L.
Objective The negative impact of End Stage Kidney Disease on cognitive function in children is well established, but no studies have examined the neurocognitive, social-behavioral, and adaptive behavior skills of preschool children with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods Participants included 124 preschool children with mild to moderate CKD, ages 12-68 months (median=3.7 years), and an associated mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 50.0 ml/min per 1.73m2. In addition to level of function and percent of participants scoring≥1SD below the test mean, regression models examined the associations between biomarkers of CKD (GFR, anemia, hypertension, seizures, abnormal birth history), and Developmental Level/IQ, attention regulation, and parent ratings of executive functions, social-behavior, and adaptive behaviors. Results Median scores for all measures were in the average range; however, 27% were deemed at-risk for a Developmental Level/IQpreschool children with mild to moderate CKD, but the need for ongoing developmental surveillance in this population remains warranted, particularly for those with abnormal birth histories, seizures, and heightened disease severity. PMID:26890559
Di Rezze, Briano; Rosenbaum, Peter; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Stratford, Paul; Cousins, Martha; Camden, Chantal; Law, Mary
Impairments in social communication are the hallmark of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Operationalizing 'severity' in ASD has been challenging; thus, stratifying by functioning has not been possible. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of the Autism Classification System of Functioning: Social Communication (ACSF:SC) and to evaluate its consistency within and between parent and professional ratings. (1) ACSF:SC development based on focus groups and surveys involving parents, educators, and clinicians familiar with preschoolers with ASD; and (2) evaluation of the intra- and interrater agreement of the ACSF:SC using weighted kappa (кw ). Seventy-six participants were involved in the development process. Core characteristics of social communication were ascertained: communicative intent; communicative skills and reciprocity; and impact of environment. Five ACSF:SC levels were created and content-validated across participants. Best capacity and typical performance agreement ratings varied as follows: intrarater agreement on 41 children was кw =0.61 to 0.69 for parents, and кw =0.71 to 0.95 for professionals; interrater agreement between professionals was кw =0.47 to 0.61, and between parents and professionals was кw =0.33 to 0.53. Perspectives from parents and professionals informed ACSF:SC development, providing common descriptions of the levels of everyday communicative abilities of children with ASD to complement the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Rater agreement demonstrates that the ACSF:SC can be used with acceptable consistency compared with other functional classification systems. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.
James, Alison V; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Vohs, Jenifer; Minor, Kyle S; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Buck, Kelly D; George, Sunita; Lysaker, Paul H
Both dysfunctional self-appraisal and metacognitive deficits, or impairments in the ability to form complex and integrated ideas about oneself and others, may contribute to social deficits in schizophrenia. Little is known, however, about how they interact with each other. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that both higher metacognition and more positive self-appraisal are necessary for increased social functioning. Concurrent assessments of self-appraisal, metacognition, and social functioning were gathered from 66 adults with schizophrenia in a non-acute phase of disorder. Three forms of self-appraisal were used: self-esteem, hope and self-efficacy. Metacognition was assessed using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated, and social functioning with the Quality of Life Scale. Measures of psychopathology, neurocognition and social cognition were also gathered for use as potential covariates. A single index of self-appraisal was generated from subjecting the assessments of self-appraisal to a principal components analysis. Linear regression analyses revealed that after controlling for severity of psychopathology, metacognition moderated the effect of the self-appraisal factor score upon social functioning. A median split of metacognition and the self-appraisal index yielded four groups. ANCOVA analyses revealed that participants with higher levels of metacognition and more positive self-appraisal had greater capacities for social relatedness than all other participants, regardless of levels of positive and negative symptoms. Correlational analyses revealed that metacognition but not self-appraisal was related to the frequencies of social contact independent of the effects of psychopathology. Assessments of social cognition and neurocognition were not significantly linked with social dysfunction. Greater social functioning is made possible by a combination of both more positive self-appraisals and greater metacognitive capacity. Individuals with
Frank, Ellen; Soreca, Isabella; Swartz, Holly A; Fagiolini, Andrea M; Mallinger, Alan G; Thase, Michael E; Grochocinski, Victoria J; Houck, Patricia R; Kupfer, David J
Recent studies demonstrate the poor psychosocial outcomes associated with bipolar disorder. Occupational functioning, a key indicator of psychosocial disability, is often severely affected by the disorder. The authors describe the effect of acute treatment with interpersonal and social rhythm therapy on occupational functioning over a period of approximately 2.5 years. Patients with bipolar I disorder were randomly assigned to receive either acute and maintenance interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, acute and maintenance intensive clinical management, acute interpersonal and social rhythm therapy and maintenance intensive clinical management, or acute intensive clinical management and maintenance interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, all with appropriate pharmacotherapy. Occupational functioning was measured with the UCLA Social Attainment Scale at baseline, at the end of acute treatment, and after 1 and 2 years of maintenance treatment. The main effect of treatment did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance; however, the authors observed a significant time by initial treatment interaction. Participants initially assigned to interpersonal and social rhythm therapy showed more rapid improvement in occupational functioning than those initially assigned to intensive clinical management, primarily accounted for by greater improvement in occupational functioning during the acute treatment phase. At the end of 2 years of maintenance treatment, there were no differences between the treatment groups. A gender effect was also observed, with women who initially received interpersonal and social rhythm therapy showing more marked and rapid improvement. There was no effect of maintenance treatment assignment on occupational functioning outcomes. In this study, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, with its emphasis on amelioration of interpersonal and role functioning, improved occupational functioning significantly more rapidly than did a
Esther Prieto Jiménez
Especially the mission to educate to our minors and young people falls, directly, on two essential pillars: the family and the school. Although in the family the essential figure that is going to carry out educative and social the workings is the parents; in the case of the school, the subject key of formation is the teaching staff. In order to be able to analyze the situation that the educational ones are living at present, it is precise that we realise an approach to the essential functions...
Usher, Lauren V.; Burrows, Catherine A.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Henderson, Heather A.
Children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) display heterogeneity in social competence, which may be particularly evident during interactions with unfamiliar peers. The goal of this study was to examine predictors of social competence variability during an unfamiliar peer interaction. Thirty-nine participants with HFA and 39 age-, gender- and IQ-matched comparison participants were observed during dyadic laboratory interactions and detailed behavioral coding revealed three social competence dimensions: social initiative, social reciprocity, and social self-monitoring. Participants with HFA displayed higher social initiative but lower reciprocity than comparison participants. For participants with HFA, theory of mind was positively associated with observed initiative. For COM participants, social anxiety was negatively associated with reciprocity. However, for HFA participants, there was a quadratic relation between parent-reported social anxiety and observed reciprocity, demonstrating that low and high levels of anxiety were associated with low reciprocity. Results demonstrated the utility of our behavioral coding scheme as a valid assessment of social competence for children and adolescents with and without HFA. The curvilinear association between social anxiety and reciprocity highlights the importance of examining nonlinear relations in individuals with HFA, and emphasizes that discrete profiles of social anxiety in individuals with HFA may necessitate different treatment options. PMID:26161136
Wolstencroft, J; Robinson, L; Srinivasan, R; Kerry, E; Mandy, W; Skuse, D
Group social skills interventions (GSSIs) are a commonly offered treatment for children with high functioning ASD. We critically evaluated GSSI randomised controlled trials for those aged 6-25 years. Our meta-analysis of outcomes emphasised internal validity, thus was restricted to trials that used the parent-report social responsiveness scale (SRS) or the social skills rating system (SSRS). Large positive effect sizes were found for the SRS total score, plus the social communication and restricted interests and repetitive behaviours subscales. The SSRS social skills subscale improved with moderate effect size. Moderator analysis of the SRS showed that GSSIs that include parent-groups, and are of greater duration or intensity, obtained larger effect sizes. We recommend future trials distinguish gains in children's social knowledge from social performance.
Braxton, John M.
In this article, I assert that the work of colleges and universities forms a social action system. I array the critical positions represented in this issue according to the four functional imperatives of social action systems: adaptation, goal attainment, integration, and pattern maintenance. I discuss the role of normative structures for these…
Manning, Joshua; Reynolds, Gretchen; Saygin, Zeynep M; Hofmann, Stefan G; Pollack, Mark; Gabrieli, John D E; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan
We investigated differences in the intrinsic functional brain organization (functional connectivity) of the human reward system between healthy control participants and patients with social anxiety disorder. Functional connectivity was measured in the resting-state via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 53 patients with social anxiety disorder and 33 healthy control participants underwent a 6-minute resting-state fMRI scan. Functional connectivity of the reward system was analyzed by calculating whole-brain temporal correlations with a bilateral nucleus accumbens seed and a ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed. Patients with social anxiety disorder, relative to the control group, had (1) decreased functional connectivity between the nucleus accumbens seed and other regions associated with reward, including ventromedial prefrontal cortex; (2) decreased functional connectivity between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed and lateral prefrontal regions, including the anterior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices; and (3) increased functional connectivity between both the nucleus accumbens seed and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed with more posterior brain regions, including anterior cingulate cortex. Social anxiety disorder appears to be associated with widespread differences in the functional connectivity of the reward system, including markedly decreased functional connectivity between reward regions and between reward regions and lateral prefrontal cortices, and markedly increased functional connectivity between reward regions and posterior brain regions.
Houston, J Brian; Hawthorne, Joshua; Perreault, Mildred F; Park, Eun Hae; Goldstein Hode, Marlo; Halliwell, Michael R; Turner McGowen, Sarah E; Davis, Rachel; Vaid, Shivani; McElderry, Jonathan A; Griffith, Stanford A
A comprehensive review of online, official, and scientific literature was carried out in 2012-13 to develop a framework of disaster social media. This framework can be used to facilitate the creation of disaster social media tools, the formulation of disaster social media implementation processes, and the scientific study of disaster social media effects. Disaster social media users in the framework include communities, government, individuals, organisations, and media outlets. Fifteen distinct disaster social media uses were identified, ranging from preparing and receiving disaster preparedness information and warnings and signalling and detecting disasters prior to an event to (re)connecting community members following a disaster. The framework illustrates that a variety of entities may utilise and produce disaster social media content. Consequently, disaster social media use can be conceptualised as occurring at a number of levels, even within the same disaster. Suggestions are provided on how the proposed framework can inform future disaster social media development and research. © 2014 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.
Kim, Bum Jung; Nakaoka, Susan; Underwood, Charna
Research has demonstrated a relationship between social support, cognitive function, and depression among older adults, yet fewer studies have explored this association with Japanese American elders. This study aims to examine depression and describe its relationship with social support, cognitive function, and socioeconomic condition among Japanese American elders. A cross-sectional study of 205 Japanese American elders was conducted in Honolulu and Los Angeles County. A hierarchical regression model was used with depression as a dependent variable and with independent variables such as social support, cognitive function, and socioeconomic status. The study found that social support and cognitive function were significantly associated with depression for Japanese American elders. Also age and education were significantly associated with depression. Based on the findings, the study indicates the importance of developing preventive strategies to reduce the depression issue using culturally tailored programs to the study population.
Berger, Hans J. C.; And Others
This prospective study of 17 high-functioning residentially treated adolescents with autism found that cognitive shifting, as measured by card sorting tests, was the only significant factor in predicting progress in social understanding. (Author/JDD)
Dodell-Feder, David; Delisi, Lynn E; Hooker, Christine I
Unaffected first-degree relatives of individuals with schizophrenia (i.e., those at familial high-risk [FHR]), demonstrate social dysfunction qualitatively similar though less severe than that of their affected relatives. These social difficulties may be the consequence of genetically conferred disruption to aspects of the default mode network (DMN), such as the dMPFC subsystem, which overlaps with the network of brain regions recruited during social cognitive processes. In the present study, we investigate this possibility, testing DMN connectivity and its relationship to social functioning in FHR using resting-state fMRI. Twenty FHR individuals and 17 controls underwent fMRI during a resting-state scan. Hypothesis-driven functional connectivity analyses examined ROI-to-ROI correlations between the DMN's hubs, and regions of the dMPFC subsystem and MTL subsystem. Connectivity values were examined in relationship to a measure of social functioning and empathy/perspective-taking. Results demonstrate that FHR exhibit reduced connectivity specifically within the dMPFC subsystem of the DMN. Certain ROI-to-ROI correlations predicted aspects of social functioning and empathy/perspective-taking across all participants. Together, the data indicate that disruption to the dMPFC subsystem of the DMN may be associated with familial risk for schizophrenia, and that these intrinsic connections may carry measurable consequences for social functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fu, Chang; Li, Zhen; Mao, Zongfu
Participation in social activities is one of important factors for older adults' health. The present study aims to examine the cross-sectional association between social activities and cognitive function among Chinese elderly. A total of 8966 individuals aged 60 and older from the 2015 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were obtained for this study. Telephone interviews of cognitive status, episodic memory, and visuospatial abilities were assessed by questionnaire. We used the sum of all three of the above measures to represent the respondent's cognitive status as a whole. Types and frequencies of participation in social groups were used to measure social activities. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between social activities and cognitive function. After adjustment for demographics, smoking, drinking, depression, hypertension, diabetes, basic activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and self-rated health, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that interaction with friends, participating in hobby groups, and sports groups were associated with better cognitive function among both men and women ( p social activities and cognitive function among Chinese elderly. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine the effects of social activities on cognitive function.
Levan, Ashley; Black, Garrett; Mietchen, Jonathan; Baxter, Leslie; Brock Kirwan, C; Gale, Shawn D
Cognitive and social outcomes may be negatively affected in children with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that executive function would mediate the association between right frontal pole cortical thickness and problematic social behaviors. Child participants with a history of TBI were recruited from inpatient admissions for long-term follow-up (n = 23; average age = 12.8, average time post-injury =3.2 years). Three measures of executive function, the Trail Making Test, verbal fluency test, and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test-Second edition (CPT-II), were administered to each participant while caregivers completed the Childhood Behavior Checklist (CBCL). All participants underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging following cognitive testing. Regression analysis demonstrated right frontal pole cortical thickness significantly predicted social problems. Measures of executive functioning also significantly predicted social problems; however, the mediation model testing whether executive function mediated the relationship between cortical thickness and social problems was not statistically significant. Right frontal pole cortical thickness and omission errors on the CPT-II predicted Social Problems on the CBCL. Results did not indicate that the association between cortical thickness and social problems was mediated by executive function.
Evelyn eVera-Estay; Evelyn eVera-Estay; Anne G Seni; Caroline eChampagne; Miriam H Beauchamp; Miriam H Beauchamp
Moral reasoning (MR) is a sociocognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Whereas past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning, theory of mind, empathy, and affect recognition, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of the relative ...
Vera-Estay, Evelyn; Seni, Anne G.; Champagne, Caroline; Beauchamp, Miriam H.
Moral reasoning (MR) is a socio-cognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning (EF), theory of mind (ToM), empathy, and affect recognition. However, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of ...
Bretschger, Lukas; Pattakou, Aimilia
The paper analyzes the effects of varying climate impacts on the social cost of carbon and economic growth. We use polynomial damage functions in a model of an endogenously growing two-sector economy. The framework includes nonrenewable natural resources which cause greenhouse gas emissions; pollution stock harms capital and reduces economic growth. We find a big effect of the selected damage function on the social cost of carbon and a significant impact on the growth rate. In our calibration...
Esther Prieto Jiménez
Full Text Available Especially the mission to educate to our minors and young people falls, directly, on two essential pillars: the family and the school. Although in the family the essential figure that is going to carry out educative and social the workings is the parents; in the case of the school, the subject key of formation is the teaching staff. In order to be able to analyze the situation that the educational ones are living at present, it is precise that we realise an approach to the essential functions that is to ful- fils and that it develops at present, as well as similarly it is precise that we pay a special attention to those factors that of a way or another one are conditioning the educa- tional practice and bursting in into the good development of the formation.But we do not have to forget that the educational one is not a mere transmitter of knowledge, but also that is a strong socializing agent and who, through its teaching, transmits a series of values that are going to pierce, directly or indirectly, in the forma- tion of youngest. Key words: Education, Professors, Socialization, Values, Educational practice.
José Sols Lucia
Full Text Available In the convulsive historical context of El Salvador (Central America during the 1970s and 1980s, characterized by popular uprisings against the postcolonial socioeconomic system, the ten year Salvadorean civil war and the mass murder of civilians, Ignacio Ellacuría rethinks the University’s social function based on his experience as Head of the Department of Philosophy and, then, as Rector of the Central American University (UCA in El Salvador. His conception of the university, and in particular of universities of Christian inspiration, is that of an institution devoted to an in-depth analysis of historical reality ―in terms of the human habitat as well as the social, economic and political reality― and the transformation of this reality towards a future society respectful of the dignity of every human being. In this sense, the university, understood in the broadest sense ―teaching, research and social mobility―, represents the theoretical moment of historical liberation movements. However, to fulfill this goal the university contribution should not only be academic but should, also, be firmly rooted in reality, and not external to the political framework or merely a place for subversive unrest.
Zorza, Juan Pablo; Marino, Julián; Acosta Mesas, Alberto
This study examined the relationship between executive functions (EFs) and school performance in primary and secondary school students aged 8 to 13 years (N = 146, M = 10.4, 45.8% girls). EFs were evaluated using the Trail Making Test (TMT), Verbal Fluency (VF), and the Stroop Test. Students' GPAs and teachers' assessment of academic skills were used to measure school performance. To evaluate the students' social behavior, participants were asked to rate all their classmates' prosocial behavior and nominate three students with whom they preferred to do school activities; teachers also provided evaluations of students' social skills. EF measures explained 41% (p = .003, f 2 = .694) of variability in school performance and 29% (p = .005, f 2 = .401) of variance in social behavior in primary school students. The predictive power of EFs was found to be lower for secondary school students, although the TMT showed significant prediction and explained 13% (p = .004, f 2 = .149) of variance in school performance and 15% (p = .008, f 2 = .176) in peer ratings of prosocial behavior. This paper discusses the relevance of EFs in the school environment and their different predictive power in primary and secondary school students.
Smokowski, Paul R; Rose, Roderick A; Evans, Caroline B R; Barbee, James; Cotter, Katie L; Bower, Meredith
Teen Court is a prevention program aimed at diverting first time juvenile offenders from the traditional juvenile justice system and reintegrating them into the community. Few studies have examined if Teen Court impacts adolescent functioning. We examined how Teen Court participation impacted psychosocial functioning, social relationships, and school experiences in a sample of 392 rural Teen Court participants relative to two comparison samples, one from the same county as Teen Court (n = 4276) and one from a neighboring county (n = 3584). We found that Teen Court has the potential to decrease internalizing symptoms, externalizing behavior, violent behavior, parent-adolescent conflict, and delinquent friends, and increase self-esteem and school satisfaction.
Madsen, Helle Karkov; Nordholm, Dorte; Krakauer, Kristine
history of psychiatric disorders. Results: All UHR subjects met the criteria of at least 1 axis I diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and met on average four diagnoses (both axis I and II), mostly within the areas of depression, anxiety......Aim: To make a thorough characterization of the co-morbidity, psychopathology and demographics in the first Danish ultra high-risk (UHR) sample. Method: Forty-two UHR subjects went through comprehensive interviews assessing their psychopathology, psychiatric disorders, substance use and family...... and substance abuse. A total of 48% had schizotypal personality disorder and 19% had borderline personality disorder. Level of functioning was low with a mean score on the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale corresponding to "major impairment in several areas," and mean scores in the Global...
Van Liew, Charles; Gluhm, Shea; Goldstein, Jody; Cronan, Terry A; Corey-Bloom, Jody
Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric dysfunction. In HD, the inability to solve problems successfully affects not only disease coping, but also interpersonal relationships, judgment, and independent living. The aim of the present study was to examine social problem-solving (SPS) in well-characterized HD and at-risk (AR) individuals and to examine its unique and conjoint effects with motor, cognitive, and psychiatric states on functional ratings. Sixty-three participants, 31 HD and 32 gene-positive AR, were included in the study. Participants completed the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised: Long (SPSI-R:L), a 52-item, reliable, standardized measure of SPS. Items are aggregated under five scales (Positive, Negative, and Rational Problem-Solving; Impulsivity/Carelessness and Avoidance Styles). Participants also completed the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale functional, behavioral, and cognitive assessments, as well as additional neuropsychological examinations and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R). A structural equation model was used to examine the effects of motor, cognitive, psychiatric, and SPS states on functionality. The multifactor structural model fit well descriptively. Cognitive and motor states uniquely and significantly predicted function in HD; however, neither psychiatric nor SPS states did. SPS was, however, significantly related to motor, cognitive, and psychiatric states, suggesting that it may bridge the correlative gap between psychiatric and cognitive states in HD. SPS may be worth assessing in conjunction with the standard gamut of clinical assessments in HD. Suggestions for future research and implications for patients, families, caregivers, and clinicians are discussed.
Lepistö, Sari; Ellonen, Noora; Helminen, Mika; Paavilainen, Eija
To describe the family health, functioning, social support and child maltreatment risk and associations between them in families expecting a baby. Finland was one of the first countries in banning corporal punishment against children over 30 years ago. Despite of this, studies have shown that parents physically abuse their children. In addition, professionals struggle in intervention of this phenomenon. Abusive parents should be recognised and helped before actual violent behaviour. A follow-up case-control study, with a supportive intervention in the case group (families with a heightened risk) in maternity and child welfare clinics. The baseline results of families are described here. Child maltreatment risk in families expecting a baby was measured by Child Abuse Potential Inventory. The health and functioning was measured by Family Health, Functioning and Social Support Scale. Data included 380 families. A total of 78 families had increased risk for child maltreatment. Heightened risk was associated with partners' age, mothers' education, partners' father's mental health problems, mothers' worry about partners' drinking and mothers' difficulties in talking about the family's problems. Risk was associated with family functioning and health. Families with risk received a less support from maternity clinics. Families with child maltreatment risk and related factors were found. This knowledge can be applied for supporting families both during pregnancy and after the baby is born. Professionals working with families in maternity clinics need tools to recognise families with risk and aid a discussion with them about the family life situation. The Child Abuse Potential, as a part of evaluating the family life situation, seems to prove a useful tool in identifying families at risk. The results offer a valid and useful tool for recognising families with risk and provide knowledge about high-risk family situations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
El Gharbi, I; Chhoumi, M; Mechri, A
The concept of symptomatic and functional remission represents an important challenge in the care of the mentally ill, particularly in patients with schizophrenia. Operational criteria for symptomatic remission in schizophrenia have been proposed by Andreasen et al. (2005). Over the last decade, these criteria have been widely validated; however few studies have been conducted outside developed countries. Moreover, the association of symptomatic remission with functional outcome has not yet been established in developing countries including Tunisia, as there may be variability in the social and familial environment. To determine the frequency and associated factors of symptomatic remission in a sample of Tunisian out-patients with schizophrenia and to explore the relationship between symptomatic remission and some indicators of social functioning. A cross-sectional study was carried-out on 115 out-patients with schizophrenia (87 males, 28 females, mean age=37.56±10.2 years) in the psychiatry department of the university hospital in Monastir (Tunisia). Nearly all of the patients (98.26%) had been hospitalized at least once in a psychiatric unit. The last hospitalization dated back to 39 months on average (range=6 months to 16 years). Symptomatic remission was assessed by the eight core items of the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS). These are the items P1 "Delusions"; P3 "Hallucinatory behavior" and G9 "Unusual thought content" for the positive dimension, the items P2 "Conceptual disorganization" and G5 "Mannerism and disorders of posture" for the disorganization dimension and the items N1 "Blunted affect", N4 "Social withdrawal" and N6 "Lack of spontaneity and flow of conversation" for the negative dimension. A score of mild or less on all eight-core symptoms constitutes symptomatic remission. This symptom level should have been maintained for six months. The social functioning was assessed by the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale
Nishihara, Reiko; Inui, Fujio; Kato, Kenji; Tomizawa, Rie; Hayakawa, Kazuo
Social role function is the capacity to maintain interpersonal relationships and is essential for being independent in the community. Limitations in social role function often coexist with depressive symptoms, suggesting a possible common mechanistic basis. We investigated whether the observed association between these traits is mainly a result of genetic or environmental influences. In 2008, a questionnaire was sent to 745 male twins aged 65 years and older. Our sample included 397 male twins. The number of monozygotic twins was 302, and dizygotic was 95. Among the twin pairs for whom data were available for both twins, 75 twin pairs (150 individuals) were monozygotic and 28 pairs (56 individuals) were dizygotic. Social role function was assessed using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 15-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale. Relative importance of genes and environments for the phenotypes was calculated using structural equation analyses. Our results show that genetic influence was the major contributor to the relationship between social role function and depressive symptoms, and non-shared environmental influence was important for overall variation in each trait. We concluded that focusing on a non-shared environment is an essential approach for maintaining social role function and psychological well-being. It is suggested that treatments specific to depressive symptoms are more effective than indirect intervention targeting social role function. © 2011 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2011 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.
Smith, David V; Clithero, John A; Boltuck, Sarah E; Huettel, Scott A
According to many studies, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) encodes the subjective value of disparate rewards on a common scale. Yet, a host of other reward factors-likely represented outside of VMPFC-must be integrated to construct such signals for valuation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tested whether the interactions between posterior VMPFC and functionally connected brain regions predict subjective value. During fMRI scanning, participants rated the attractiveness of unfamiliar faces. We found that activation in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior VMPFC and caudate increased with higher attractiveness ratings. Using data from a post-scan task in which participants spent money to view attractive faces, we quantified each individual's subjective value for attractiveness. We found that connectivity between posterior VMPFC and regions frequently modulated by social information-including the temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) and middle temporal gyrus-was correlated with individual differences in subjective value. Crucially, these additional regions explained unique variation in subjective value beyond that extracted from value regions alone. These findings indicate not only that posterior VMPFC interacts with additional brain regions during valuation, but also that these additional regions carry information employed to construct the subjective value for social reward. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Holtedahl, Robin; Veiersted, Kaj Bo
The aim of this study was to analyse social and functional consequences of work accidents in a group of workers' compensation claimants who had been referred from the National Insurance Administration for a medicolegal assessment. The injured workers were evaluated on average 3 years after their accidents. Their medical records were analysed, and each injury was scored according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Participants completed the Short Form Questionnaire (SF-36). Factors relating to outcome on SF-36 were analysed using univariate and multivariate methods. 191 claimants returned the SF-36 (62%), 83% of the respondents had an AIS score of less than two, 33% reported working full time. Compared to population-based norms, the respondents reported significantly reduced health on all eight scales of SF-36. Better health and function was mainly associated with a higher level of education and more serious injuries. The extent of social support in the workplace after the accident was only partly related to outcome. The importance of psychosocial factors when making injury assessments in a medicolegal setting is highlighted.
Through cooperative interactions, bacteria can build multicellular communities. To ensure that productive interactions occur, bacteria must recognize their neighbours and respond accordingly. Molecular recognition between cells is thus a fundamental behaviour, and in bacteria important discoveries have been made. This MicroReview focuses on a recently described recognition system in myxobacteria that is governed by a polymorphic cell surface receptor called TraA. TraA regulates outer membrane exchange (OME), whereby myxobacterial cells transiently fuse their OMs to efficiently transfer proteins and lipids between cells. Unlike other transport systems, OME is rather indiscriminate in what OM goods are transferred. In contrast, the recognition of partnering cells is discriminatory and only occurs between cells that bear identical or closely related TraA proteins. Therefore TraA functions in kin recognition and, in turn, OME helps regulate social interactions between myxobacteria. Here, I discuss and speculate on the social and evolutionary implications of OME and suggest it helps to guide their transition from free-living cells into coherent and functional populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Craig, Francesco; Fanizza, Isabella; Russo, Luigi; Lucarelli, Elisabetta; Alessandro, Lorenzo; Pasca, Maria Grazia; Trabacca, Antonio
The aim of this study was to classify children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) according to Autism Classification System of Functioning: Social Communication (ACSF:SC) criteria, in order to investigate the association between social communication ability, ASD severity, adaptive functioning, cognitive abilities and psychoeducational profile. The severity of social communication impairment was specified through Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th edition (DSM-5) and ACSF:SC tool. The ADOS-2, Vineland-II and PEP-3 were administered to all participants. We found a positive correlation between DSM-5 levels and ACSF:SC-Typical Performance (r = 0.35; P = 0.007) and ACSF:SC-Capacity (r = 0.31; P = 0.01) levels. Children included in the five levels of ACSF:SC (Typical Performance and Capacity) showed statistically significant differences in ADOS-2 (Social Affect), Vineland-II (Communication and Socialization), and PEP-3 (Communication, motor skills, maladaptive behavior) scores. The results of this study indicate that ACSF:SC provide a better understanding of functional profile of children with ASD based on the social communication abilities. Children with greater severity of social communication showed more difficulty in adaptive behavior and psychoeducational profiles. In conclusion, the ACSF:SC could help clinicians and therapists not only to understand the strength and weakness of preschool children with ASD but also to devise specific treatment in order to promote their social integration. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1249-1258. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ayaz, Ayşe Burcu; Karkucak, Mutlu; Ayaz, Muhammed; Gokce, Sebla; Kayan, Esengul; Güler, Elif Erol; Güngen, Belma Doğan; Kuşcu, Tugba Didem; Ocakoğlu, Gökhan; Yakut, Tahsin
To investigate relationships between the polymorphisms and social functioning of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), according to the polymorphism of three oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genes (rs53576, rs13316193, and and rs2268493). A total of 198 children-studying in the same primary and secondary school and matched in terms of age and gender (99 ADHD, 99 control)-were included in this study. The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version was administered to establish the clinical diagnosis. The Social Reciprocity Scale (SRS) was applied to evaluate social functioning. The total genomic DNA was isolated from buccal mucosa samples. No significant differences were determined between the ADHD and control groups in terms of rs2268493, rs13316193, and rs53576 genotype distribution (P = 0.078, P = 0.330, and P = 0.149, respectively). However, the control group T allele frequency in the OXTR Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) rs2268493 was significantly higher than the ADHD group (P = 0.024). Compared to the control group, the ADHD group had a higher score on the SRS scale (SRS total; Z = -21,135, P difference existed in the SRS scale scores between the children with the T/T genotype and the C allele in the ADHD group (SRS total; Z = -0.543, P = 0.587). The allele distribution of the OXTR gene SNP rs2268493 was significantly different in the ADHD group, compared to the control group. This observation is important in understanding the underlying biological infrastructure in ADHD and developing treatment modalities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Matheson, S L; Kariuki, M; Green, M J; Dean, K; Harris, F; Tzoumakis, S; Tarren-Sweeney, M; Brinkman, S; Chilvers, M; Sprague, T; Carr, V J; Laurens, K R
Childhood maltreatment and a family history of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) are each associated with social-emotional dysfunction in childhood. Both are also strong risk factors for adult SSDs, and social-emotional dysfunction in childhood may be an antecedent of these disorders. We used data from a large Australian population cohort to determine the independent and moderating effects of maltreatment and parental SSDs on early childhood social-emotional functioning. The New South Wales Child Development Study combines intergenerational multi-agency data using record linkage methods. Multiple measures of social-emotional functioning (social competency, prosocial/helping behaviour, anxious/fearful behaviour; aggressive behaviour, and hyperactivity/inattention) on 69 116 kindergarten children (age ~5 years) were linked with government records of child maltreatment and parental presentations to health services for SSD. Multivariable analyses investigated the association between maltreatment and social-emotional functioning, adjusting for demographic variables and parental SSD history, in the population sample and in sub-cohorts exposed and not exposed to parental SSD history. We also examined the association of parental SSD history and social-emotional functioning, adjusting for demographic variables and maltreatment. Medium-sized associations were identified between maltreatment and poor social competency, aggressive behaviour and hyperactivity/inattention; small associations were revealed between maltreatment and poor prosocial/helping and anxious/fearful behaviours. These associations did not differ greatly when adjusted for parental SSD, and were greater in magnitude among children with no history of parental SSD. Small associations between parental SSD and poor social-emotional functioning remained after adjusting for demographic variables and maltreatment. Childhood maltreatment and history of parental SSD are associated independently with poor early
Wiefferink, Carin H; Rieffe, Carolien; Ketelaar, Lizet; Frijns, Johan H M
The purpose of the present study was to compare children with a cochlear implant and normal hearing children on aspects of emotion regulation (emotion expression and coping strategies) and social functioning (social competence and externalizing behaviors) and the relation between emotion regulation and social functioning. Participants were 69 children with cochlear implants (CI children) and 67 normal hearing children (NH children) aged 1.5-5 years. Parents answered questionnaires about their children's language skills, social functioning, and emotion regulation. Children also completed simple tasks to measure their emotion regulation abilities. Cochlear implant children had fewer adequate emotion regulation strategies and were less socially competent than normal hearing children. The parents of cochlear implant children did not report fewer externalizing behaviors than those of normal hearing children. While social competence in normal hearing children was strongly related to emotion regulation, cochlear implant children regulated their emotions in ways that were unrelated with social competence. On the other hand, emotion regulation explained externalizing behaviors better in cochlear implant children than in normal hearing children. While better language skills were related to higher social competence in both groups, they were related to fewer externalizing behaviors only in cochlear implant children. Our results indicate that cochlear implant children have less adequate emotion-regulation strategies and less social competence than normal hearing children. Since they received their implants relatively recently, they might eventually catch up with their hearing peers. Longitudinal studies should further explore the development of emotion regulation and social functioning in cochlear implant children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Arnold, Andrew J; Woo-VonHoogenstyn, Nicholas; Bellugi, Ursula
Compromised social-perceptual ability has been proposed to contribute to social dysfunction in neurodevelopmental disorders. While such impairments have been identified in Williams syndrome (WS), little is known about emotion processing in auditory and multisensory contexts. Employing a multidimensional approach, individuals with WS and typical development (TD) were tested for emotion identification across fearful, happy, and angry multisensory and unisensory face and voice stimuli. Autonomic responses were monitored in response to unimodal emotion. The WS group was administered an inventory of social functioning. Behaviorally, individuals with WS relative to TD demonstrated impaired processing of unimodal vocalizations and emotionally incongruent audiovisual compounds, reflecting a generalized deficit in social-auditory processing in WS. The TD group outperformed their counterparts with WS in identifying negative (fearful and angry) emotion, with similar between-group performance with happy stimuli. Mirroring this pattern, electrodermal activity (EDA) responses to the emotional content of the stimuli indicated that whereas those with WS showed the highest arousal to happy, and lowest arousal to fearful stimuli, the TD participants demonstrated the contrasting pattern. In WS, more normal social functioning was related to higher autonomic arousal to facial expressions. Implications for underlying neural architecture and emotional functions are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Masechaba Mahloli L Mokhathi-Mbhele
Full Text Available This study explored Sesotho personal names with clause complex feature as authentic social discourse using systemic functional linguistics (SFL theory to describe them. It used a systemic form-meaning approach to map and interpret Sesotho names structures as enacted messages. The intent was to complement the current syntax and semantics specific formalist approach to onomastic interpretation. The purpose was to reflect a systemic interface of lexico-grammar and social activity by describing these names as contextual lexico-grammatical properties. In this interface modality, noted as negotiated attitudes of awarders, was incorporated. Data was collected from national examinations pass lists, admission and employment roll lists from Public, Private, Tertiary, Orphanage institutions. Other data was identified in Telephone directories and Media. The results revealed that name –surname or surname-name pairs as well as some single names bear the structure and functions of clause complexes and exchange information as statements, demands and commands, as questions and as exclamations and these are Halliday’s Mood types as well as their speech roles - declaratives, imperatives, exclamative and interrogatives depending on the awarder’s evaluation. This form-meaning system is justified as a requirement for the expansion of grammar and its relation to other linguistics disciplines as it has features required for functional language found in discourse particularly because Basotho skillfully create discourse using personal names. The article extends SFL-Onomastica relation and literature and opens ways for the grammar of Sesotho to deepen its roots in SFL as it bears lexico-grammatical properties.
Hu, Jiehui; Qi, Song; Becker, Benjamin; Luo, Lizhu; Gao, Shan; Gong, Qiyong; Hurlemann, René; Kendrick, Keith M
In male Caucasian subjects, learning is facilitated by receipt of social compared with non-social feedback, and the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) facilitates this effect. In this study, we have first shown a cultural difference in that male Chinese subjects actually perform significantly worse in the same reinforcement associated learning task with social (emotional faces) compared with non-social feedback. Nevertheless, in two independent double-blind placebo (PLC) controlled between-subject design experiments we found OXT still selectively facilitated learning with social feedback. Similar to Caucasian subjects this OXT effect was strongest with feedback using female rather than male faces. One experiment performed in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that during the response, but not feedback phase of the task, OXT selectively increased activity in the amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and putamen during the social feedback condition, and functional connectivity between the amygdala and insula and caudate. Therefore, OXT may be increasing the salience and reward value of anticipated social feedback. In the PLC group, response times and state anxiety scores during social feedback were associated with signal changes in these same regions but not in the OXT group. OXT may therefore have also facilitated learning by reducing anxiety in the social feedback condition. Overall our results provide the first evidence for cultural differences in social facilitation of learning per se, but a similar selective enhancement of learning with social feedback under OXT. This effect of OXT may be associated with enhanced responses and functional connectivity in emotional memory and reward processing regions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bellido-Zanin, Gloria; Pérez-San-Gregorio, María Ángeles; Martín-Rodríguez, Agustín; Vázquez-Morejón, Antonio J
Previous studies have tried to determine the factors causing greater use of health resources by patients with mental disorders. These studies have essentially focused on socio-economic variables. Nevertheless, many other variables, such as social functioning, have not yet been explored. This study aims to assess the effect of social functioning on mental health service use in a sample of patients with severe mental disorder (schizophrenia, other psychotic disorders or bipolar affective disorder) in an area of Spain. The Social Functioning Scale (SFS) was administered to 172 family members of patients with a severe mental disorder who were receiving care at a community mental health unit. Analysis of bivariate logistic regression identified specific areas as predictors of the use of mental health resources over a 12-month follow-up period. The overall social functioning score predicted need for hospital admissions. In addition, interpersonal behaviour had a major role in the number of outpatient visits, while social isolation significantly predicted the need for hospitalization. These results point out the necessity for including psychosocial variables, such as social functioning in current mental health resource use models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ochoa, Susana; Martínez-Zambrano, Francisco; Garcia-Franco, Mar; Vilamala, Sonia; Ribas, Maria; Arenas, Oti; Garcia-Morales, Esther; Álvarez, Irene; Escartin, Gemma; Villellas, Raul; Escandell, Maria Jose; Martínez-Raves, Mónica; López-Arias, Elisabeth; Cunyat, Christian; Haro, Josep Maria
Self-stigma specifically in people with schizophrenia has been little studied. The aims of the present study were to validate a new instrument for the assessment of self-stigma (SSQ) and to assess the relationship between self-stigma and social functioning in people with schizophrenia. A sample of 76 people with schizophrenia was assessed at two moments in time with the SSQ, the PDD (stigma), two scales of social functioning (LSP, SFS), and a scale of general functioning (GAF). The results indicated that SSQ presented good psychometric properties, with Cronbach's alpha ranging between 0.75 and 0.901. The stability of the instrument was between 0.836 and 0.402. Three factors were found in the factor analysis (social discrimination, perceived capabilities, concealment of the disease), explaining 62.66% of the total variance. A relationship was found between self-stigma and social functioning in people with schizophrenia, especially in relation to social contact. In conclusion, the SSQ seems to be a valid and reliable questionnaire for the assessment of self-stigma in people with schizophrenia, and interventions should be designed to cope with self-stigma in order to improve the social functioning of people who suffer schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Minne, Elizabeth Portman; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret
The key features of Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) include marked and sustained impairment in social interactions. A multi-session, small group program was developed to increase social perception based on the assumption perceptual or interpretive problems underlying these social difficulties. Additionally, the group format espoused a play therapy orientation and the use of sociodramatic play was the primary therapeutic modality used. Qualitative analyses of the data resulted in an explanation of the key changes in social interactions that took place through the course of the intervention. Although each participant's experience in this group was unique, all children in this program demonstrated improvements in their social interactions, as they experienced development both emotionally and behaviorally. Findings suggest that, despite their rigid interests and behavior patterns, the social limitations of these children improved when provided with the necessary environmental resources.
Ratto, Allison B; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Rupp, Betty M; Mesibov, Gary B; Penn, David L
This study piloted a role play assessment of conversational skills for adolescents and young adults with high-functioning autism/Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS). Participants completed two semi-structured role plays, in which social context was manipulated by changing the confederate's level of interest in the conversation. Participants' social behavior was rated via a behavioral coding system, and performance was compared across contexts and groups. An interaction effect was found for several items, whereby control participants showed significant change across context, while participants with HFA/AS showed little or no change. Total change across contexts was significantly correlated with related social constructs and significantly predicted ASD. The findings are discussed in terms of the potential utility of the CASS in the evaluation of social skill.
Lipscombe, Belinda; Boyd, Roslyn N; Coleman, Andrea; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; Whittingham, Koa
Children diagnosed with neurodevelopmental conditions such as cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk of experiencing restrictions in social activities negatively impacting their subsequent social functioning. Research has identified motor and communication ability as being unique determinants of social function capabilities in children with CP, to date, no research has investigated whether communication is a mediator of the relationship between motor ability and social functioning. To investigate whether early communication ability at 24 months corrected age (ca.) mediates the relationship between early motor ability at 24 months ca. and later social development at 60 months ca. in a cohort of children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP). A cohort of 71 children (43 male) diagnosed with CP (GMFCS I=24, 33.8%, II=9, 12.7%, III=12, 16.9%, IV=10, 14.1%, V=16, 22.5%) were assessed at 24 and 60 months ca. Assessments included the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Communication and Symbolic Behaviour Scales-Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Infant-Toddler Checklist and the Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). A mediation model was examined using bootstrapping. Early communication skills mediated the relationship between early motor abilities and later social functioning, b=0.24 (95% CI=0.08-0.43 and the mediation model was significant, F (2, 68)=32.77, pcommunication ability partially mediates the relationship between early motor ability and later social function in children with CP. This demonstrates the important role of early communication in ongoing social development. Early identification of communication delay and enriched language exposure is crucial in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joireman, J.A.; Kuhlman, D.M.; van Lange, P.A.M.; Doi, T.; Shelley, G.P.
The present study examines how individuals with different social value orientations (i.e. prosocial, individualistic, and competitive) construe the rationality, morality, and power of choices in four distinct interdependence structures which systematically differ in the motives that could underlie
Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is characterized by social dysfunction. Even though executive dysfunction has been recognized as important in understanding ASD, the findings are inconsistent. This might be due to different definitions of executive function (EF, which part of EF that has been studied, structured vs. unstructured tasks, inclusion of different moderators (age, IQ, sex and different diagnostic categories within the spectrum. The main finding is that people with ASD have more EF difficulties than normal controls and more difficulties on open-end tasks than on structured cognitive tasks. Since some EF difficulties may not be observable in a laboratory setting, informant measures might have higher ecological validity than neuropsychological tests. Evidence suggests that executive dysfunctions are associated with social impairments, but few studies have investigated the details of this relationship, and it remains unclear what types of EF deficits are relevant for the social problems of individuals with ASD. Here we investigated which EF domains were associated with various domains of social function on parent-rated measures. A total of 86 children and adolescents with a diagnosis of ASD were included and tested for general cognitive abilities. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS. Multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations between SRS scores and age, sex, total IQ and the BRIEF indexes. The Metacognition Index from the BRIEF added significantly to the prediction of the SRS total score and the subscales Social Communication, Social Motivation and Autistic Mannerisms. The findings suggest that metacognitive aspects of EF are of particular importance for social abilities in children and adolescents with ASD. Earlier research has shown that typically developing (TD children have a different relationship between EF and social function than
Goldberg, Melissa C; Allman, Melissa J; Hagopian, Louis P; Triggs, Mandy M; Frank-Crawford, Michelle A; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Denckla, Martha B; DeLeon, Iser G
One of the key diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder includes impairments in social interactions. This study compared the extent to which boys with high-functioning autism and typically developing boys "value" engaging in activities with a parent or alone. Two different assessments that can empirically determine the relative reinforcing value of social and non-social stimuli were employed: paired-choice preference assessments and progressive-ratio schedules. There were no significant differences between boys with high-functioning autism and typically developing boys on either measure. Moreover, there was a strong correspondence in performance across these two measures for participants in each group. These results suggest that the relative reinforcing value of engaging in activities with a primary caregiver is not diminished for children with autism spectrum disorder.
Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Leung, Edward M F; Chan, Trista Wai Sze
This study examined the associations between social network types and peak expiratory flow (PEF), and whether these associations were mediated by social and physical activities and mood. Nine hundred twenty-four community-dwelling Chinese older adults, who were classified into five network types (diverse, friend-focused, family-focused, distant family, and restricted), provided data on demographics, social and physical activities, mood, smoking, chronic diseases, and instrumental activities of daily living. PEF and biological covariates, including blood lipids and glucose, blood pressure, and height and weight, were assessed. Two measures of PEF were analyzed: the raw reading in L/min and the reading expressed as percentage of predicted normal value on the basis of age, sex, and height. Diverse, friend-focused, and distant family networks were hypothesized to have better PEF values compared with restricted networks, through higher physical and/or social activities. No relative advantage was predicted for family-focused networks because such networks tend to be associated with lower physical activity. Older adults with diverse, friend-focused, and distant family networks had significantly better PEF measures than those with restricted networks. The associations between diverse network and PEF measures were partially mediated by physical exercise and socializing activity. The associations between friend-focused network and PEF measures were partially mediated by socializing activity. No significant PEF differences between family-focused and restricted networks were found. Findings suggest that social network types are associated with PEF in older adults, and that network-type differences in physical and socializing activity is partly responsible for this relationship. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Goldberg, Melissa C.; Allman, Melissa J.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Triggs, Mandy M.; Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Denckla, Martha B.; DeLeon, Iser G.
One of the key diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder includes impairments in social interactions. This study compared the extent to which boys with high-functioning autism and typically developing boys "value" engaging in activities with a parent or alone. Two different assessments that can empirically determine the relative…
Background Changes to sexual wellbeing are acknowledged to be a long-term negative consequence of cancer and cancer treatment. These changes can have a negative effect on psychological well-being, quality of life and couple relationships. Whilst previous conclusions are based on univariate analysis, multivariate research can facilitate examination of the complex interaction between sexual function and psycho-social variables such as psychological wellbeing, quality of life, and relationship satisfaction and communication in the context of cancer, the aim of the present study. Method Six hundred and fifty seven people with cancer (535 women, 122 men) and 148 partners (87 women, 61 men), across a range of sexual and non-sexual cancers, completed a survey consisting of standardized measures of sexual functioning, depression and anxiety, quality of life, relationship satisfaction, dyadic sexual communication, and self-silencing, as well as ratings of the importance of sex to life and relationships. Results Men and women participants, reported reductions in sexual functioning after cancer across cancer type, for both people with cancer and partners. Multiple regression analysis examined psycho-social predictors of sexual functioning. Physical quality of life was a predictor for men and women with cancer, and for male partners. Dyadic sexual communication was a predictor for women with cancer, and for men and women partners. Mental quality of life and depression were also predictors for women with cancer, and the lower self-sacrifice subscale of self-silencing a predictor for men with cancer. Conclusion These results suggest that information and supportive interventions developed to alleviate sexual difficulties and facilitate sexual renegotiation should be offered to men and women with both sexual and non-sexual cancers, rather than primarily focused on individuals with sexual and reproductive cancers, as is the case currently. It is also important to include partners
Schutt, Russell K; Seidman, Larry J; Caplan, Brina; Martsinkiv, Anna; Goldfinger, Stephen M
To test the influence of neurocognitive functioning on community functioning among formerly homeless persons with serious mental illness and to determine whether that influence varies with social context, independent of individual characteristics. In metropolitan Boston, 112 persons in Department of Mental Health shelters were administered a neuropsychological test battery and other measures and then randomly assigned to empowerment-oriented group homes or independent apartments, as part of a longitudinal study of the effects of housing on multiple outcomes. Subjects' case managers completed Rosen's 5-dimensional Life Skills Inventory at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months and subjects reported on their social contacts at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Subject characteristics are controlled in the analysis. Three dimensions of neurocognitive functioning--executive function, verbal declarative memory, and vigilance--each predicted community functioning. Better executive function predicted improved self-care and less turbulent behavior among persons living alone, better memory predicted more positive social contacts for those living in a group home, and higher levels of vigilance predicted improved communication in both housing types. Neurocognition predicts community functioning among homeless persons with severe mental illness, but in a way that varies with the social context in which community functioning occurs.
Macintosh, Kathleen; Dissanayake, Cheryl
A comparative observational study was undertaken of the spontaneous social interactions of children with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder. The sample comprised 20 children with high-functioning autism, 19 children with Asperger's disorder and 17 typically developing children matched on chronological age and overall mental age. A…
d'Orsi, Eleonora; Xavier, André Junqueira; Ramos, Luiz Roberto
To identify risk factors for functional capacity loss in elderly people. Epidoso (Epidemiology of the Elderly) cohort study with elderly people living in São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil). A total of 326 participants in the first interview (1991-1992) who were independent or had mild dependence (one or two activities of daily living) were selected. Those who presented functional loss in the second (1994-1995) or third interviews (1998-1999) were compared to those who did not present it. The incidence of functional loss was calculated according to sociodemographic variables, life habits, cognitive status, morbidity, hospitalization, self-rated health, tooth loss, social support and leisure activities. Crude and adjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were estimated through bivariate and multiple analyses with Poisson regression. The criterion for the inclusion of the variables in the model was p 0.10. The incidence of functional loss was 17.8% (13.6; 21.9). The risk factors in the final model were: age group 70-74 years RR=1.9 (0.9;3.9); age group 75-79 years RR=2.8 (1.4;5.5); age group 80 years or older RR=5.4 (3.0;9.6); score in the mini-mental state examination work RR=0.3 (0.1;1.0); monthly relationship with friends RR=0.5 (0.3;0.8); watching TV RR=0.5 (0.3;0.9); and handcrafting RR=0.7 (0.4;1.0). The prevention of functional loss should include adequate control of chronic diseases, like hypertension, asthma and diabetes, as well as cognitive stimulation. Work, leisure and relationships with friends should be valued due to their protective effect.
Liu, Yan-Hong; Chen, Lin; Su, Yun-Ai; Fang, Yi-Ru; Srisurapanont, Manit; Hong, Jin Pyo; Hatim, Ahmad; Chua, Hong Choon; Bautista, Dianne; Si, Tian-Mei
Background: Early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) (EOD) is often particularly malignant due to its special clinical features, accompanying impaired social function, protracted recovery time, and frequent recurrence. This study aimed to observe the effects of age onset on clinical characteristics and social function in MDD patients in Asia. Methods: In total, 547 out-patients aged 18–65 years who were from 13 study sites in five Asian countries were included. These patients had MDD diagnose according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria. Clinical features and social function were assessed using Symptom Checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Quality of life was assessed by a 36-item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36). Analyses were performed using a continuous or dichotomous (cut-off: 30 years) age-of-onset indicator. Results: Early-onset MDD (EOD, <30 years) was associated with longer illness (P = 0.003), unmarried status (P < 0.001), higher neuroticism (P ≤ 0.002) based on the SCL-90-R, and more limited social function and mental health (P = 0.006, P = 0.007) based on the SF-36 and SDS. The impairment of social function and clinical severity were more prominent at in-patients with younger onset ages. Special clinical features and more impaired social function and quality of life were associated with EOD, as in western studies. Conclusions: EOD often follows higher levels of neuroticism. Age of onset of MDD may be a predictor of clinical features and impaired social function, allowing earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25758278
Yan-Hong Liu; Lin Chen; Yun-Ai Su; Yi-Ru Fang; Manit Srisurapanont; Jin Pyo Hong; Ahmad Hatim
Background:Early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) (EOD) is often particularly malignant due to its special clinical features,accompanying impaired social function,protracted recovery time,and frequent recurrence.This study aimed to observe the effects of age onset on clinical characteristics and social function in MDD patients in Asia.Methods:In total,547 out-patients aged 18-65 years who were from 13 study sites in five Asian countries were included.These patients had MDD diagnose according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,4th Edition criteria.Clinical features and social function were assessed using Symptom Checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS).Quality of life was assessed by a 36-item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36).Analyses were performed using a continuous or dichotomous (cut-off:30 years)age-of-onset indicator.Results:Early-onset MDD (EOD,＜30 years) was associated with longer illness (P =0.003),unmarried status (P ＜ 0.001),higher neuroticism (P ≤ 0.002) based on the SCL-90-R,and more limited social function and mental health (P =0.006,P =0.007) based on the SF-36 and SDS.The impairment of social function and clinical severity were more prominent at in-patients with younger onset ages.Special clinical features and more impaired social function and quality of life were associated with EOD,as in western studies.Conclusions:EOD often follows higher levels of neuroticism.Age of onset of MDD may be a predictor of clinical features and impaired social function,allowing earlier diagnosis and treatment.
Wang, Yi; Shi, Hai-Song; Liu, Wen-Hua; Xie, Dong-Jie; Geng, Fu-Lei; Yan, Chao; Wang, Ya; Xiao, Ya-Hui; So, Suzanne H W; Chiu, Chui-De; Leung, Patrick W L; Cheung, Eric F C; Gooding, Diane C; Chan, Raymond C K
Schizotypy is a set of personality traits that convey liability to develop schizophrenia. Studying schizotypy in healthy individuals may facilitate the understanding of the psychopathological processes underlying schizophrenia. The present study aimed to examine the developmental trajectories of schizotypy over time using a longitudinal study design. The Chapman Scales for Psychosis Proneness were administered to 1541 college students at baseline, and subsequently at six-monthly intervals up to 18months. Latent class growth analysis was conducted to track the different trajectories. In addition, self-reported scales were used to measure idea of reference, emotional experiences and expression, stress and coping, as well as social functioning. We identified four latent classes with distinct trajectories: "nonschizotypy" group (LC1), "stable high schizotypy" group (LC3), "high reactive schizotypy" group (LC2) and "low reactive schizotypy" group (LC4). These findings suggest that there may be distinct developmental trajectories for schizotypy. Two groups may be of particular interest: the "stable high schizotypy" group that displayed the worst clinical and functioning outcomes on almost all measures and the "high reactive schizotypy" group characterized by a relatively rapid decline in functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thames, April D; Kuhn, Taylor P; Mahmood, Zanjbeel; Bilder, Robert M; Williamson, Timothy J; Singer, Elyse J; Arentoft, Alyssa
The purpose of the current study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of social adversity (SA) and HIV infection on subcortical shape alterations and cognitive functions. Participants included HIV+ (n = 70) and HIV- (n = 23) individuals who underwent MRI, neurocognitive and clinical assessment, in addition to completing questionnaires from which responses were used to create an SA score. Bilateral amygdalae and hippocampi were extracted from T1-weighted images. Parametric statistical analyses were used to compare the radial distance of the structure surface to a median curve to determine the presence of localized shape differences as a function of HIV, SA and their interaction. Next, multiple regression was used to examine the interactive association between HIV and SA with cognitive performance data. An HIV*SA interactive effect was found on the shape of the right amygdala and left hippocampus. Specifically, HIV-infected participants (but not HIV-uninfected controls) who evidenced higher levels of SA displayed an inward deformation of the surface consistent with reduced volume of these structures. We found interactive effects of HIV and SA on learning/memory performance. These results suggest that HIV+ individuals may be more vulnerable to neurological and cognitive changes in the hippocampus and amygdala as a function of SA than HIV- individuals, and that SA indicators of childhood SES and perceived racial discrimination are important components of adversity that are associated with cognitive performance.
Myruski, Sarah; Gulyayeva, Olga; Birk, Samantha; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Buss, Kristin A; Dennis-Tiwary, Tracy A
Mobile device use has become increasingly prevalent, yet its impact on infant development remains largely unknown. When parents use mobile devices in front of infants, the parent is physically present but most likely distracted and unresponsive. Research using the classic Still Face Paradigm (SFP) suggests that parental withdrawal and unresponsiveness may have negative consequences for children's social-emotional development. In the present study, 50 infants aged 7.20 to 23.60 months (M = 15.40, SD = 4.74) and their mothers completed a modified SFP. The SFP consisted of three phases: free play (FP; parent and infant play and interact), still face (SF; parent withdraws attention and becomes unresponsive), and reunion (RU; parent resumes normal interaction). The modified SFP incorporated mobile device use in the SF phase. Parents reported on their typical mobile device use and infant temperament. Consistent with the standard SFP, infants showed more negative affect and less positive affect during SF versus FP. Infants also showed more toy engagement and more engagement with mother during FP versus SF and RU. Infants showed the most social bids during SF and more room exploration in SF than RU. More frequent reported mobile device use was associated with less room exploration and positive affect during SF, and less recovery (i.e., engagement with mother, room exploration positive affect) during RU, even when controlling for individual differences in temperament. Findings suggest that the SFP represents a promising theoretical framework for understanding the impact of parent's mobile device use on infant social-emotional functioning and parent-infant interactions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rilling, James K; Glenn, Andrea L; Jairam, Meeta R; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Goldsmith, David R; Elfenbein, Hanie A; Lilienfeld, Scott O
Psychopathy is a disorder involving a failure to experience many emotions that are necessary for appropriate social behavior. In this study, we probed the behavioral, emotional, and neural correlates of psychopathic traits within the context of a dyadic social interaction. Thirty subjects were imaged with functional magnetic resonance imaging while playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game with human confederates who were outside the scanner. Subjects also completed two self-report psychopathy questionnaires. Subjects scoring higher on psychopathy, particularly males, defected more often and were less likely to continue cooperating after establishing mutual cooperation with a partner. Further, they experienced more outcomes in which their cooperation was not reciprocated (cooperate-defect outcome). After such outcomes, subjects scoring high in psychopathy showed less amygdala activation, suggesting weaker aversive conditioning to those outcomes. Compared with low-psychopathy subjects, subjects higher in psychopathy also showed weaker activation within orbitofrontal cortex when choosing to cooperate and showed weaker activation within dorsolateral prefrontal and rostral anterior cingulate cortex when choosing to defect. These findings suggest that whereas subjects scoring low on psychopathy have emotional biases toward cooperation that can only be overcome with effortful cognitive control, subjects scoring high on psychopathy have an opposing bias toward defection that likewise can only be overcome with cognitive effort.
Van Nieuwenhuijzen, M; Van Rest, M M; Embregts, P J C M; Vriens, A; Oostermeijer, S; Van Bokhoven, I; Matthys, W
One tradition in research for explaining aggression and antisocial behavior has focused on social information processing (SIP). Aggression and antisocial behavior have also been studied from the perspective of executive functions (EFs), the higher-order cognitive abilities that affect other cognitive processes, such as social cognitive processes. The main goal of the present study is to provide insight into the relation between EFs and SIP in adolescents with severe behavior problems. Because of the hierarchical relation between EFs and SIP, we examined EFs as predictors of SIP. We hypothesized that, first, focused attention predicts encoding and interpretation, second, inhibition predicts interpretation, response generation, evaluation, and selection, and third, working memory predicts response generation and selection. The participants consisted of 94 respondents living in residential facilities aged 12-20 years, all showing behavior problems in the clinical range according to care staff. EFs were assessed using subtests from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Test battery. Focused attention was measured by the Flanker task, inhibition by the GoNoGo task, and working memory by the Visual Spatial Sequencing task. SIP was measured by video vignettes and a structured interview. The results indicate that positive evaluation of aggressive responses is predicted by impaired inhibition and selection of aggressive responses by a combination of impaired focused attention and inhibition. It is concluded that different components of EFs as higher-order cognitive abilities affect SIP.
Full Text Available The art of narrative stems from the art of rhetoric and modes of persuasion and in this meaning is understood not just as a form of entertainment but also as a tool of communication. Any narrative communicates and conveys a message. Narrative is an important aspect of culture and as a ubiquitous component of human communication is conveyed by different works of art (literature, music, painting, sculpture, and illustrates events, emotions, phenomena and occurrences. Narrative as a form of communication involves its participants, a teller and a receiver of the message. The relation and the distance between the participants of the narrative communication process may have a different configuration and presents different effect of closeness and distance in narrative. In this meaning narrative is not just the art of telling stories, but it serves various functions, it communicates information, expresses emotions and personal events, transmits morals and cultural knowledge, provides entertainment and also helps in many ways to depict thoughts and feelings, along with disclosing the beauty of language. Narrative knowledge and narrative perception of social and cultural processes, is one of the most natural ways for a human being to acquire and organize their knowledge about the world. The ability to create narratives leads to a better understanding of the surrounding reality, and significantly influences the interpretation of social and cultural relationships.
Murata, Chiyoe; Saito, Tami; Tsuji, Taishi; Saito, Masashige; Kondo, Katsunori
In Asian nations, family ties are considered important. However, it is not clear what happens among older people with no such ties. To investigate the association, we used longitudinal data from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES) project. Functionally independent older people at baseline ( N = 14,088) in 10 municipalities were followed from 2003 to 2013. Social ties were assessed by asking about their social support exchange with family, relatives, friends, or neighbors. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to investigate the association between social ties and the onset of functional disability adjusting for age, health status, and living arrangement. We found that social ties with co-residing family members, and those with friends or neighbors, independently protected functional health with hazard ratios of 0.81 and 0.85 among men. Among women, ties with friend or neighbors had a stronger effect on health compared to their male counterparts with a hazard ratio of 0.89. The fact that social ties with friends or neighbors are associated with a lower risk of functional decline, independent of family support, serves to underscore the importance of promoting social ties, especially among those lacking family ties.
Cheng, Grand H-L; Chan, Angelique; Lo, June C
Aging is accompanied by cognitive decline that is escalated in older adults reporting extreme sleep duration. Social relationships can influence health outcomes and thus may qualify the association between sleep duration and cognitive function. The present study examines the moderating effects of marital status, household size, and social network with friends and relatives on the sleep-cognition association among older adults. Data (N = 4,169) came from the Social Isolation, Health, and Lifestyles Survey, a nationally representative survey of community-dwelling older Singaporeans (≥ 60 years). Sleep duration and social relationships were self-reported. Cognitive function was assessed with the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Regression analysis revealed that the inverted U-shaped association between sleep duration and cognitive function was less profound among older adults who were married (vs. unmarried) and those who had stronger (vs. weaker) social networks. In contrast, it was more prominent among individuals who had more (vs. fewer) household members. Being married and having stronger social networks may buffer against the negative cognitive impact of extreme sleep duration. But larger household size might imply more stress for older persons, and therefore strengthen the sleep duration-cognitive function association. We discuss the potential biological underpinnings and the policy implications of the findings. Although our findings are based on a large sample, replication studies using objective measures of sleep duration and other cognitive measures are needed.
Julia S. Navoloka
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the identification and consideration of the function of hashtags in the social network Instagram. Together with the media component, the hashtag-text is an advertising creolized text, which is a full-fledged information tool, and serves to attract the attention of the target audience. Most hashtag-texts are devoted to advertising goods and services for women. This is due to the fact that women are more likely to believe in advertising and therefore respond more often to it. To transfer important and relevant information in such advertising, a minimum amount of language material is used, often represented by hybrid hashtag texts, which allows the audience to adequately perceive information.
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social impairments. The first objective of this study was to analyze social cognition deficits of children with ADHD, high-functioning ASD (HFASD, and typical development (TD in their performance on explicit and applied measures of theory of mind (ToM. The second objective was to investigate the relationships between executive functions and social cognition in HFASD and ADHD. One hundred and twenty-six 7- to 11-year old children, 52 with HFASD, 35 with ADHD, and 39 with TD, performed the NEPSY-II social perception subtests. Parents estimated their children's ToM skills using the Theory of Mind Inventory (ToMI. Teacher-reported data from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF were also obtained. The HFASD and ADHD groups showed worse performance on the verbal ToM task than the TD group, and only the performance of the HFASD group was significantly lower than the TD group on the contextual ToM task. Parents also estimated that the HFASD group had more difficulties on the applied ToM than the ADHD and TD groups. Furthermore, there is a different executive function-theory of mind link in the HFASD and ADHD groups: behavioral regulation processes such as inhibition and emotional control are more associated with social cognition in children with ADHD, whereas metacognitive processes such as initiation and planning have a strong association with social cognition in children with HFASD. These findings have implications for understanding social perception deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders, highlighting the need for early intervention.
Roantree, Christina F.; Kennedy, Craig H.
We analyzed the inappropriate social interactions of 3 students with Asperger's syndrome whose behavior was maintained by social positive reinforcement. We tested whether inappropriate social behavior was sensitive to social positive reinforcement contingencies and whether such contingencies could be reversed to increase the probability of…
Channon, Shelley; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Waller, Denise; Healey, Louise; Robertson, Mary M.
Although associations between social cognition involving theory of mind and non-social executive skills have frequently been reported, dissociations in performance have also been found. The present study was designed to examine social and non-social cognition in uncomplicated Tourette Syndrome (TS). Adult TS participants without comorbid diagnoses…
Kane, Jeremy C.; Hall, Brian J.; Bolton, Paul; Murray, Laura K.; Ahmed, Ahmed Mohammed Amin; Bass, Judith K.
Ability to function in tasks and activities is an important aspect of daily living. There are factors that increase the risk for impaired functioning, such as experiences of domestic violence (DV) and other trauma types, and factors that provide a buffer to existing risks and allow the individual to continue and build functioning, such as access to social resources. This cross-sectional study investigated the direct effects of DV and access to social resources (perceived social support, social integration, and frequency of social contact), as well as their potential interactive effects, on daily functioning among 894 male and female trauma survivors who attended primary care clinics in Kurdistan, Iraq in 2009 and 2010. Experiencing DV was not associated with functioning for males (p=.15) or females (p=.60), suggesting that in the context of a trauma-affected sample, the experience of DV may not significantly increase the risk for functional impairment. Greater amounts of social integration were associated with less functional impairment among males (p<.01) and females (p<.05); social integration was associated with less functional impairment among males only (p<.01); and frequency of social contact was associated with less functional impairment among females only (p<.05), indicating that the association between social resource type and functioning differed by gender. Standardized beta coefficients indicated that social resources had a stronger effect on functioning among men compared to women. Among males who experienced DV, social integration was the only social resource associated with less functional impairment (p<.01); among male trauma survivors who did not experience DV, social support was the only resource associated with less functional impairment (p<.01). Further investigation into the association of social resources with functioning and how these differ by gender and DV exposure is warranted to inform intervention strategies for survivors of DV and other
Wade, Shari L; Zhang, Nanhua; Yeates, Keith Owen; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H Gerry
Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to impairments in behavior and academic performance. However, the long-term effects of early childhood TBI on functioning across settings remain poorly understood. To examine the long-term functional outcomes of early childhood TBI relative to early childhood orthopedic injuries (OIs). We also examine the moderating role of the social environment as defined by parent report and observational measures of family functioning, parenting practices, and home environment. A prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study conducted at each child's home, school, and hospital, including 3 children's hospitals and 1 general hospital in the Midwest. Patients were enrolled in the initial study between January 2003 and October 2006. Follow-ups were completed between January 2010 and April 2015. Fifty-eight children who sustained a TBI (67% of original enrolled cohort) and 72 children who sustained an OI (61% of the original enrolled cohort) were prospectively followed up from shortly after injury (between the ages of 3 and 7 years at enrollment) to an average of 6.7 years after injury, with assessments occurring at multiple points. Long-term functional outcomes in everyday settings, as assessed through the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS). Of the 130 children included, the median age for those with OIs was 11.72 years and 11.97, 12.21, and 11.72 years for those with complicated mild, moderate, and severe TBIs, respectively. Children with moderate and severe TBI were rated as having more functional impairments in multiple domains than those with OIs (P authoritarian (mean CAFAS of 56.45, 41.80, 54.90, and 17.12 for severe TBI, moderate TBI, complicated mild TBI, and OI, respectively, with significant difference between severe TBI and OI [difference = 39.33; P parenting or with fewer home resources (mean CAFAS of 69.57, 47.45, 49.00, and 23.81 for severe TBI, moderate TBI, complicated mild TBI, and OI
Yeates, Giles; Rowberry, Michelle; Dunne, Stephen; Goshawk, Michelle; Mahadevan, Mythreyi; Tyerman, Ruth; Salter, Mandy; Hillier, Martin; Berry, Alister; Tyerman, Andy
Social cognition and executive functioning difficulties following acquired brain injury have been linked to negative employment outcomes, such as demotion and loss of vocational roles. These are very counter-intuitive and challenging difficulties for other employees and work supervisors who have little or no brain injury knowledge, whose perceptions of play a key role in their responses to these difficulties and the final outcome of such problems for vocational status. This study aimed to study the relationship between social cognition and executive functioning difficulties and the perceptions of work supervisors' appraisal of survivor interpersonal behaviour and social skills in the workplace. The performance of 73 survivors of acquired brain injury (47% TBI, 38% CVA, 15% other ABI type; 73% male; mean age 45.44 years, range 19-64 years; mean time since injury 6.36 years, range 10.5-31.33 years), currently in a vocational rehabilitation placement) on neuropsychological tests of executive functioning and social cognition was measured. Informant ratings on the Social Skills Factor subscale from the Work Personality Profile (WPP, Bolton & Roessler, 1986) were used as the primary outcome measure, a vocational functioning questionnaire assessing social and presentational aspects of workplace behaviour. The raters were non-clinical workplace informants acting in a supervisory role (supervisory placement providers and job coaches). Correlational analysis identified significant associations between the WPP and survivor goal-orientated planning and implementation, mentalising ability, recognition of positive and negative emotions, and recognition of simple sarcasm (all significant at p executive functioning explained 32 % of the variance in the WPP ratings (F (2, 52) = 12.15, p executive functioning and social cognition difficulties for the perceptions and appraisal of work colleagues, consistent with other studies that have identified negative vocational outcomes
Granholm, Eric; Holden, Jason; Link, Peter C; McQuaid, John R
Identifying treatments to improve functioning and reduce negative symptoms in consumers with schizophrenia is of high public health significance. In this randomized clinical trial, participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 149) were randomly assigned to cognitive behavioral social skills training (CBSST) or an active goal-focused supportive contact (GFSC) control condition. CBSST combined cognitive behavior therapy with social skills training and problem-solving training to improve functioning and negative symptoms. GFSC was weekly supportive group therapy focused on setting and achieving functioning goals. Blind raters assessed functioning (primary outcome: Independent Living Skills Survey [ILSS]), CBSST skill knowledge, positive and negative symptoms, depression, and defeatist performance attitudes. In mixed-effects regression models in intent-to-treat analyses, CBSST skill knowledge, functioning, amotivation/asociality negative symptoms, and defeatist performance attitudes improved significantly more in CBSST relative to GFSC. In both treatment groups, comparable improvements were also found for positive symptoms and a performance-based measure of social competence. The results suggest CBSST is an effective treatment to improve functioning and experiential negative symptoms in consumers with schizophrenia, and both CBSST and supportive group therapy actively focused on setting and achieving functioning goals can improve social competence and reduce positive symptoms.
Hellerstein, David J; Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Kallio; Stewart, Jonathan W; McGrath, Patrick J; Keller, Samantha; Peterson, Bradley S; Chen, Ying
To determine efficacy of continued treatment with the serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on symptom reduction and functional improvement in outpatients with dysthymia. Fifty outpatients with DSM-IV-TR diagnosed dysthymia who had participated in a 10 week double-blind, placebo-controlled study of duloxetine received open treatment for three months. Nineteen duloxetine responders continued duloxetine, 24 patients initially treated with placebo started open duloxetine treatment, and 7 duloxetine non-responders were treated with desvenlafaxine or bupropion, selected by clinician choice. Patients continuing duloxetine maintained symptom improvement, 84% meeting response and 63% remission criteria at week 22. Patients initially treated with placebo showed similarly high levels of response (83%) and remission (62%) at week 22, and most duloxetine non-responders subsequently responded to other antidepressants. Duloxetine-continuation patients improved modestly between weeks 10 and 22 on measures of social and cognitive functioning and temperament. Despite this improvement concurrently across several functional domains, 66.7% of patients continuing duloxetine remained in the impaired range of functioning according to the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS). Continued duloxetine treatment appears to be effective in maintaining symptom response in dysthymic disorder, and has positive effects on social functioning. However, the majority of patients do not show normalization of functioning, even when controlling for remission status. Additional treatments should be considered to target residual impairments in social functioning in mood remitted patients with persistent depressive disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping
This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety.
Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Eack, Shaun M.
Scientific Abstract Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face substantial challenges accomplishing basic tasks associated with daily living, which are exacerbated by their broad and pervasive difficulties with social interactions. These challenges put people with ASD at increased risk for psychophysiological distress, which likely factors heavily into social functioning for adults with ASD, as suggested by a growing literature on stress in children that indicates that children with ASD have differential responses to stress than healthy children. We hypothesized that adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n=38) would experience more stress than healthy volunteers (n=37) and that there would be an inverse relationship between stress and social functioning in individuals with ASD. Baseline, semi-structured interview data from a randomized-controlled trial of two treatments for adults with ASD were used to assess differences in stress between adults with ASD and healthy volunteers and to assess the relationship between stress response and social functioning in adults with ASD. Findings indicate that adults with ASD experience greater perceived and interviewer-observed stress than did healthy volunteers and that stress is significantly related to social functioning in adults with ASD. These findings highlight the role of stress in adult functioning and outcomes and suggest the need to develop and assess treatments designed to target stress and coping in adults with ASD. PMID:25524571
Grau, Norma; Rubio-Abadal, Elena; Usall, Judith; Barajas, Ana; Butjosa, Anna; Dolz, Montserrat; Baños, Iris; Sánchez, Bernardo; Rodríguez, Maria José; Peláez, Trinidad; Sammut, Stephanie; Carlson, Janina; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Ochoa, Susana
The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between psycho-social functioning and symptoms, cognitive function, and premorbid adjustment, in patients with a first-episode psychosis. Clinical data were obtained from 90 patients, who were assessed with the Disability Assessment Scale (DAS-sv), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS-S) and with a battery of cognitive tests including Trail Making Tests A and B (TMTA- B), Continous Performance Test (CPT), some subscales of the Wechler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), and the Verbal Learning Test España-Complutense (TAVEC). The results of the study suggest that psycho-social functioning in first-episode psychosis is significantly related to: positive, negative, excitative, affective and disorganized symptoms, social premorbid adjustment, cognitive flexibility, working memory, short term and long term memory. Of these, those which best explained psycho-social functioning are the positive and excitative symptoms, premorbid adjustment, flexibility and memory. These findings highlight the importance early intervention on cognitive and clinical variables to help provide a better psycho-social functioning in people with a first-episode of psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whedon, Margaret; Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha A
Parasympathetic nervous system functioning in infancy may serve a foundational role in the development of cognitive and socioemotional skills (Calkins, 2007). In this study (N = 297), we investigated the potential indirect effects of cardiac vagal regulation in infancy on children's executive functioning and social competence in preschool via expressive and receptive language in toddlerhood. Vagal regulation was assessed at 10 months during two attention conditions (social, nonsocial) via task-related changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). A path analysis revealed that decreased RSA from baseline in the nonsocial condition and increased RSA in the social condition were related to larger vocabularies in toddlerhood. Additionally, children's vocabulary sizes were positively related to their executive function and social competence in preschool. Indirect effects from vagal regulation in both contexts to both 4-year outcomes were significant, suggesting that early advances in language may represent a mechanism through which biological functioning in infancy impacts social and cognitive functioning in childhood. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ni, Pengsheng; McDonough, Christine M; Jette, Alan M; Bogusz, Kara; Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Brandt, Diane E; Meterko, Mark; Haley, Stephen M; Chan, Leighton
To develop and test an instrument to assess physical function for Social Security Administration (SSA) disability programs, the SSA-Physical Function (SSA-PF) instrument. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were used to (1) create a calibrated item bank for each of the factors identified in prior factor analyses, (2) assess the fit of the items within each scale, (3) develop separate computer-adaptive testing (CAT) instruments for each scale, and (4) conduct initial psychometric testing. Cross-sectional data collection; IRT analyses; CAT simulation. Telephone and Internet survey. Two samples: SSA claimants (n=1017) and adults from the U.S. general population (n=999). None. Model fit statistics, correlation, and reliability coefficients. IRT analyses resulted in 5 unidimensional SSA-PF scales: Changing & Maintaining Body Position, Whole Body Mobility, Upper Body Function, Upper Extremity Fine Motor, and Wheelchair Mobility for a total of 102 items. High CAT accuracy was demonstrated by strong correlations between simulated CAT scores and those from the full item banks. On comparing the simulated CATs with the full item banks, very little loss of reliability or precision was noted, except at the lower and upper ranges of each scale. No difference in response patterns by age or sex was noted. The distributions of claimant scores were shifted to the lower end of each scale compared with those of a sample of U.S. adults. The SSA-PF instrument contributes important new methodology for measuring the physical function of adults applying to the SSA disability programs. Initial evaluation revealed that the SSA-PF instrument achieved considerable breadth of coverage in each content domain and demonstrated noteworthy psychometric properties. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Functional MRI is based on the very intuitive principle that neuronal activity leads to locally increased energy demand, which can be measured due to the different magnetic properties of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Interdisciplinary research and development in MR physics, engineering, bioinformatics and neuroscience have made fMRI an indispensible research tool for all domains of cognitive science. Besides basic research, fMRI has become a gold standard diagnostic method for clinical applications, as well. The main goal of the present doctoral thesis was to contribute to the understanding of the neural mechanisms of social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients. SAD is a disabling psychiatric conditions that impairs social interactions and acts as a major risk factor for depression and addiction. To this end, an fMRI study has been conducted on a population of SAD patients and healthy controls to highlight functional aberrations within the emotion regulation network. Failed adaptation towards social stressors, such as emotional faces, is a characterizing symptom of SAD. And indeed, in this study, which involved an emotion discrimination task, group differences in neural habituation of SAD patients were found in the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), two central nodes of the emotion regulation network. To highlight the causal neurobiological mechanisms, the same data were analyzed using dynamic causal modeling (DCM). In this study, a difference in effective connectivity between the OFC and the amygdala was found. In healthy subjects, the OFC showed to down-regulate amygdalar activation, which corresponds to the conception of cognitive top-down control over affective influences. In SAD patients, however, a positive effective connectivity from OFC to amygdala was found, indicating a positive feedback loop between these regions. This finding, thus, nurtures a neurobiological model that could explain the decreased inhibition of affective stimuli by cognitive
Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of social intelligence and its characteristics in children of primary school age with impaired mental functions. The concept and main features, including speech, are discussed, delays of mental development, the importance of detained development for social intelligence and speech behavior are also considered. Also, the concept of speech behavior is analyzed, the author defines the phenomenon, describes its specific features, which are distinguish its structure, and consist of six components: verbal, emotional, motivational, ethical (moral, prognostic, semantic (cognitive. Particular attention is paid to the position of social intelligence in the structure of speech behavior of children of primary school age with a impaired mental functions. Indicators of social intelligence were analyzed from the point of view of speech behavior of children with different rates of mental development and compared with its components at a qualitative level. The study used both author's and well-known techniques.
McElhaney, Kathleen B.; Antonishak, Jill; Allen, Joseph P.
This study examined the dual roles of adolescents’ perceptions of social acceptance and sociometric popularity in predicting relative changes over time in adolescents’ social functioning. Observational, self-report, and peer report data were obtained from 164 adolescents who were interviewed at age 13 years and then again at age 14 years, as well as their same-sex close friends. Adolescents who felt positively about their own social standing fared well over time, regardless of their level of sociometric popularity. Further, low popularity was particularly problematic for adolescents who failed to see themselves as fitting in. Results suggest that during adolescence, when it becomes increasingly possible for teens to choose their own social niches, it is possible to be socially successful without being broadly popular. PMID:18489423
Full Text Available This study examines the association between family function and self-esteem of Chinese university students with grandparenting experience, and explores the moderating effects of social support in this link. Two thousand five hundred thirty university students (1372 males and 1158 females from a Chinese university completed the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Rosenberg’s Self-esteem Scale, and the Family Assessment Device (FAD. Six hundred and forty-five (25.69% students reported grandparenting experience and they reported lower scores on self-esteem and social support than the students raised only by their parents. The grandparenting group scored higher on such dimensions of family functioning as Communication, Role, Affective Involvement, Affective Responsiveness, and General Family Function (GF than their counterpart group. For both groups, self-esteem scores were positively correlated with social support scores, while negatively correlated with FAD all sub-scale scores. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that for the students with grandparenting experience the social support moderated the relationship between GF and self-esteem. When students reported a high level of social support, those with low GF score reported higher scores in self-esteem than those with low self-esteem. However, in case of low social support, there were no differences in self-esteem between groups with high and low GF scores. These findings suggest that social support plays a positive role to relieve the adverse impact of poor family function on self-esteem of the adolescents with grandparenting experience. In addition, the significance and limitations of the results will be discussed.
Shi, Jingyu; Wang, Lu; Yao, Yuhong; Su, Na; Zhao, Xudong; Zhan, Chenyu
This study examines the association between family function and self-esteem of Chinese university students with grandparenting experience, and explores the moderating effects of social support in this link. Two thousand five hundred thirty university students (1372 males and 1158 females) from a Chinese university completed the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, and the Family Assessment Device (FAD). Six hundred and forty-five (25.69%) students reported grandparenting experience and they reported lower scores on self-esteem and social support than the students raised only by their parents. The grandparenting group scored higher on such dimensions of family functioning as Communication, Role, Affective Involvement, Affective Responsiveness, and General Family Function (GF) than their counterpart group. For both groups, self-esteem scores were positively correlated with social support scores, while negatively correlated with FAD all sub-scale scores. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that for the students with grandparenting experience the social support moderated the relationship between GF and self-esteem. When students reported a high level of social support, those with low GF score reported higher scores in self-esteem than those with low self-esteem. However, in case of low social support, there were no differences in self-esteem between groups with high and low GF scores. These findings suggest that social support plays a positive role to relieve the adverse impact of poor family function on self-esteem of the adolescents with grandparenting experience. In addition, the significance and limitations of the results will be discussed.
Jingyu Shi; Lu Wang; Yuhong Yao; Na Su; Xudong Zhao; Xudong Zhao; Xudong Zhao; Chenyu Zhan
This study examines the association between family function and self-esteem of Chinese university students with grandparenting experience, and explores the moderating effects of social support in this link. Two thousand five hundred thirty university students (1372 males and 1158 females) from a Chinese university completed the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Rosenberg’s Self-esteem Scale, and the Family Assessment Device (FAD). Six hundred and forty-five (25.69%) students reported grandp...
Shi, Jingyu; Wang, Lu; Yao, Yuhong; Su, Na; Zhao, Xudong; Zhan, Chenyu
This study examines the association between family function and self-esteem of Chinese university students with grandparenting experience, and explores the moderating effects of social support in this link. Two thousand five hundred thirty university students (1372 males and 1158 females) from a Chinese university completed the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Rosenberg’s Self-esteem Scale, and the Family Assessment Device (FAD). Six hundred and forty-five (25.69%) students reported grandparenting experience and they reported lower scores on self-esteem and social support than the students raised only by their parents. The grandparenting group scored higher on such dimensions of family functioning as Communication, Role, Affective Involvement, Affective Responsiveness, and General Family Function (GF) than their counterpart group. For both groups, self-esteem scores were positively correlated with social support scores, while negatively correlated with FAD all sub-scale scores. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that for the students with grandparenting experience the social support moderated the relationship between GF and self-esteem. When students reported a high level of social support, those with low GF score reported higher scores in self-esteem than those with low self-esteem. However, in case of low social support, there were no differences in self-esteem between groups with high and low GF scores. These findings suggest that social support plays a positive role to relieve the adverse impact of poor family function on self-esteem of the adolescents with grandparenting experience. In addition, the significance and limitations of the results will be discussed. PMID:28611720
Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Neumann, Dirk; Grichanik, Mark; Arnold, Andrew J.; Lai, Philip; Trauner, Doris; Bellugi, Ursula
Williams syndrome (WS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with atypical social-emotional functioning. Affective visual stimuli were used to assess autonomic reactivity and emotion identification, and the social responsiveness scale was used to determine the level social functioning in children with WS and ASD contrasted with typical…
Rowe, Anna D; Fitness, Julie
The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom) were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame) mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement.
Anna D. Rowe
Full Text Available The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement.
Correia, Rut; Navarrete, Gorka
Higher education (HE) faces the challenge of responding to an increasing diversity. In this context, more attention is being paid to teachers and teaching skills positively related to students learning. Beyond the knowledges identified as key components of an effective teacher, teachers also need to be capable of unraveling what their students think and believe, and how they accommodate the new information. More importantly, teachers need to be able to adapt their own teaching to their audience's needs. In learners, social cognition (SC) has been related to a better receptivity to the different teacher-student interactions. Since these interactions are bidirectional, SC could also help to explain teachers' receptiveness to the information available in feedback situations. However, little is known about how SC is related to teacher development, and therefore teaching effectiveness, in HE. In addition, executive functions (EFs), closely related to SC, could play a key role in the ability to self-regulate their own teaching to better answering their students emerging needs. Although there is wide evidence regarding the association of EFs to performance in high demanding settings, as far as we know, there are no studies exploring the relationship between teachers' EFs and teaching effectiveness in HE. Establishing a positive association between teaching effectiveness and these socio-cognitive functions could be a promising first step in designing professional development programs that promote HE academics' ability to understand and care about students thoughts and emotions, to eventually adapt their teaching to their students needs for a better learning.
Full Text Available The paper describes the results of a study of functions of argumentation in solving conflicting situations of social interaction, with the participation of younger students (III and IV grade, middle school students (V and VII grade and high school students (X classes, 211 students overall. The starting point of the research was the idea that distress occurring in a contradictory situation, does not relieve externally, but requires a structural analysis of the situation and a decision from the subject. The hypothesis of the study was the assumption that the argument used by the subject in a situation, can have opposite functions: a real change in the situation or a formal removal of contradictions in order to reduce stress. The author notes that overcoming the contradictions is linked inevitably to the need to clarify the rules of interaction between the parties, and this in turn puts the subject under certain psychological risk (the risk of criticism, disapproval or punishment, the risk of loss of secondary benefits of ambiguous situation, etc. that impede productive action in a contradictory situation.
The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom) were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame) mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement. PMID:29461487
Tobia, Michael J; Hayashi, Koby; Ballard, Grey; Gotlib, Ian H; Waugh, Christian E
Exposure to acute stress induces multiple emotional responses, each with their own unique temporal dynamics. Dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) measures the temporal variability of network synchrony and captures individual differences in network neurodynamics. This study investigated the relationship between dFC and individual differences in emotions induced by an acute psychosocial stressor. Sixteen healthy adult women underwent fMRI scanning during a social evaluative threat (SET) task, and retrospectively completed questionnaires that assessed individual differences in subjectively experienced positive and negative emotions about stress and stress relief during the task. Group dFC was decomposed with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) into 10 components, each with a temporal signature, spatial network of functionally connected regions, and vector of participant loadings that captures individual differences in dFC. Participant loadings of two networks were positively correlated with stress-related emotions, indicating the existence of networks for positive and negative emotions. The emotion-related networks involved the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and amygdala, among other distributed brain regions, and time signatures for these emotion-related networks were uncorrelated. These findings demonstrate that individual differences in stress-induced positive and negative emotions are each uniquely associated with large-scale brain networks, and suggest that dFC is a mechanism that generates individual differences in the emotional components of the stress response. Hum Brain Mapp 38:6185-6205, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lehtonen, Annukka; Howie, Emma; Trump, Dorothy; Huson, Susan M
This systematic review aimed to pull together the findings from research into behavioural systems and attention in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and to identify areas that need further study. Relevant papers were identified through searches of electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE) and manual searches through reference lists. In total, 5746 articles were identified and 57 met the inclusion criteria. The data were synthesized using the narrative approach, as the studies varied considerably in terms of participants and measures. The results of the review showed that intelligence, academic skills, visuospatial skills, social competence, and attention are impaired in children with NF1. Evidence of deficits in memory, motor functioning, language, and executive functions was less clear. Research has made marked progress in outlining the behavioural phenotype of NF1. However, although the general areas of impairment are becoming better known, the exact nature of the impairment is still not understood in many areas of behaviour. Care needs to be taken with the way in which behavioural constructs are defined and measured, and the variability of problems in NF1 is a particular challenge. Nevertheless, research is steadily moving towards comprehensive understanding of behaviour in children with NF1. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.
Burklund, Lisa J; Craske, Michelle G; Taylor, Shelley E; Lieberman, Matthew D
Social phobia (SP) has been associated with amygdala hyperreactivity to fear-relevant stimuli. However, little is known about the neural basis of SP individuals' capacity to downregulate their responses to such stimuli and how such regulation varies as a function of comorbid depression and anxiety. We completed an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study wherein SP participants without comorbidity (n = 30), with comorbid depression (n = 18) and with comorbid anxiety (n = 19) and healthy controls (n = 15) were scanned while completing an affect labeling emotion regulation task. Individuals with SP as a whole exhibited a reversal of the pattern observed in healthy controls in that they showed upregulation of amygdala activity during affect labeling. However, subsequent analyses revealed a more complex picture based on comorbidity type. Although none of the SP subgroups showed the normative pattern of amygdala downregulation, it was those with comorbid depression specifically who showed significant upregulation. Effects could not be attributed to differences in task performance, amygdala reactivity or right ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (RVLPFC) engagement, but may stem from dysfunctional communication between amygdala and RVLPFC. Furthermore, the particularly altered emotion regulation seen in those with comorbid depression could not be fully explained by symptom severity or state anxiety. Results reveal altered emotion regulation in SP, especially when comorbid with depression. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hajek, André; Brettschneider, Christian; Mallon, Tina; van der Leeden, Carolin; Mamone, Silke; Wiese, Birgitt; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Fuchs, Angela; Pentzek, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Stein, Janine; Bickel, Horst; Weeg, Dagmar; Heser, Kathrin; Wagner, Michael; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin; Luck, Tobias; König, Hans-Helmut
to investigate how social support affects functional impairment (FI) in late life in a longitudinal approach. in a multicenter prospective cohort study, subjects in old age (≥75 years at baseline) were interviewed every 1.5 years. Social support was quantified in the follow-up (FU) Waves 2 and 4 (FU Wave 2: n = 2,349; FU Wave 4: n = 1,484). FI was assessed by using the Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale. fixed effects regressions showed that a decrease in social support is associated with FI in the total sample and in both sexes. The effect on FI was most pronounced with the dimension social integration, whereas changes in practical support only affected FI in the total sample and changes in emotional support only affected FI in men. our findings emphasise the importance of social support for functional status in late life. Thus, strengthening social support in old age might be effective in maintaining functional abilities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com
Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Florin, Agnès
This study adds to the body of research examining the links between two components of cognitive self-regulation (inhibitory control and verbal working memory) and social functioning (social integration, social problem solving, and prosocial skills) and focuses on children's sex as a moderator of the association between cognitive self-regulation and social functioning. The participants (N = 131) were French schoolchildren followed from kindergarten (Mage = 68.36 months, SD = 3.33 months) through Grade 1. Using hierarchical regression analyses, three major findings were revealed: (1) inhibitory control was a better predictor than verbal working memory of prosocial skills assessed by peers using the sociometric technique as well as by teachers using questionnaires, after controlling for sex, mother's education, and verbal and non-verbal IQ; (2) the prosocial skills assessed by teachers in kindergarten contributed more to explaining the prosocial skills and peer acceptance assessed in Grade 1 than cognitive self-regulation; and (3) sex did not moderate the relationship between cognitive self-regulation and social functioning. These results suggest that developing strong cognitive self-regulation, especially inhibitory control and prosocial skills, in young children schooled in France could be beneficial for their social development. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Sharifian, Neika; O'Brien, Erica L
The impact of social support on the relationship between stress and well-being remains somewhat inconclusive, with work suggesting either null, buffering, or amplification effects. The current study investigated the conditions in which perceived social support is likely to act as a buffer or amplifier by considering individual differences in self-perceptions of aging. Using data from two subsamples of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (graduates: 70-74 years, siblings: 40-92 years), we examined how perceived social support (emotional versus instrumental) and self-perceptions of aging (SPA) moderated the effect of functional limitations on depressive symptoms (DS). Although emotional support positively predicted DS, its effects did not depend on SPA. Instrumental support was associated with both increases and decreases in well-being that were dependent upon SPA. Functional limitations predicted more DS at both low and high levels of instrumental support when SPA were negative. However, when SPA were positive, low levels of social support were found to decrease depressive symptoms, and high levels were found to increase depressive symptoms. The impact of social social may enhance or deteriorate well-being, depending on how it interacts with self-evaluative beliefs. Findings offer insights as to the boundary conditions associated with the (positive) effects of social support and SPA, and highlight the need for continued research on the mechanisms associated these effects.
Owens, Gina; Granader, Yael; Humphrey, Ayla; Baron-Cohen, Simon
LEGO therapy and the Social Use of Language Programme (SULP) were evaluated as social skills interventions for 6-11 year olds with high functioning autism and Asperger Syndrome. Children were matched on CA, IQ, and autistic symptoms before being randomly assigned to LEGO or SULP. Therapy occurred for 1 h/week over 18 weeks. A no-intervention control group was also assessed. Results showed that the LEGO therapy group improved more than the other groups on autism-specific social interaction scores (Gilliam Autism Rating Scale). Maladaptive behaviour decreased significantly more in the LEGO and SULP groups compared to the control group. There was a non-significant trend for SULP and LEGO groups to improve more than the no-intervention group in communication and socialisation skills.
Full Text Available Liliana Dell’Osso,1 Marianna Abelli,1 Stefano Pini,1 Marina Carlini,1 Barbara Carpita,1 Elisabetta Macchi,2 Federica Gorrasi,2 Francesco Mengali,1 Rosalba Tognetti,2 Gabriele Massimetti1 1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Psychiatry, 2Prorectorate to Students Affairs and Right to Education, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Social anxiety disorder is a common condition often associated with severe impairment in educational career. The aim of this paper was to evaluate prevalence rates and correlates of mild, moderate, and severe forms of social anxiety spectrum in a large sample of university students. Overall, 717 university students were assessed with the Social Anxiety Spectrum Self-Report questionnaire. Using two cut-off scores, 61.4% of subjects were classified as low scorers, 10% as medium scorers, and 28.6% as high scorers. Both high and medium scorers reported fears related to social situations. Interpersonal sensitivity and specific phobias were more common among women with low scores. Childhood/adolescence social anxiety features were more common among males with medium scores. Behavioral inhibition was more common among males with high scores. Functional impairment was severe among high scorers and, to a lesser extent, among medium scorers. Social anxiety spectrum is largely represented among university students. Future studies should investigate whether sufferers of social phobia underachieve or end their professional objectives prematurely. Keywords: social anxiety spectrum, behavioral inhibition, gender, subthreshold, self-rating, DSM-5
Full Text Available Topic of the article is problem how to understand Parsons’ theory of the social system properly as a product of structural functionalism. In other words question amounts to the method of theory building and thus on the role of main Parsons pattern variables elaborated in the works of Carnegy Project: The Social System (1951, Values, Motives and Structure of Action (1951, and Working Papers in the Theory of Action (1953. Author is about to maintain that crucial conceptual clusters as a basis of Parsons theory building are: under the rubric of theory of action: four pattern variables - universalism-particularism, affectivity-neutrality, performance- quality, specificity-diffuseness; under the rubric of system theory: AGIL scheme - namely adaptation, goal-attainment, integration, and latency or pattern maintenance. Conceptual row needed for synthesis of both is provided with: value-rolenorm- collectivity, along the three general problem of any system: structure and inner dynamic, change and hierarchy and control. Its synthesis is demonstrated on the all three levels of personality system, social system and system of culture. Thus is shortly demonstrated how is possible, on strikingly systematic way to build whole conceptual scheme or Parsons’ system theory. Within this demonstration special attention has been paid to the methodological sense of four pattern variables. Originality of the given interpretation of Parsons is demonstrated: 1 by showing of the methodological role of pattern variables in the theory building; 2 by showing the connection between these variables and four ideal types of action in Max Weber. Thus follows that four variables are very core of Parsons theory of action, and this is demonstrated by the elaborated parallelism between Weber’s and Parsons’ concepts. This insight affords the argument that Parsons theory of action is profoundly Weberian, based on highly original reinterpretation of concepts of action and unique
James, Ricky; Naughton, Declan P; Petróczi, Andrea
Substances with performance enhancing properties appear on a continuum, ranging from prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED) through dietary supplements to functional foods (FF). Anti-doping messages designed to dissuade athletes from using PEDs have been typically based on moralising sport competition and/or employing scare campaigns with focus on the negative consequences. Campaigns offering comparable and acceptable alternatives are nonexistent, nor are athletes helped in finding these for themselves. It is timely that social marketing strategies for anti-doping prevention and intervention incorporate media messages that complement the existing approaches by promoting comparable and acceptable alternatives to doping. To facilitate this process, the aim of this study was to ascertain whether a single exposure knowledge-based information intervention led to increased knowledge and subsequently result in changes in beliefs and automatic associations regarding performance enhancements. In a repeated measure design, 115 male recreational gym users were recruited and provided with a brief information pamphlet on nitrite/nitrate and erythropoietin as a comparison. Measures of knowledge, beliefs and automatic associations were taken before and after the intervention with at least 24 hours between the two assessments. The psychological tests included explicit measures of beliefs and cognitive attitudes toward FF and PED using a self-reported questionnaire and computerised assessments of automatic associations using the modified and shortened version of the Implicit Association Test. The information based intervention significantly increased knowledge (p social marketing campaigns for drug free sport should follow appropriate market segmentation and use targeted messages via promoting the natural form as opposed to the purified form of the main active ingredient.
Cruwys, Tegan; Leverington, Carly T; Sheldon, Anne M
Fat talk is a form of self-degrading, thin-ideal endorsing communication that occurs within female friendship groups. Previous studies have suggested negative associations with wellbeing, but have been predominantly correlational and based on self-report. This study aimed to assess the causal relationship between fat talk and the correlates of disordered eating (thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and dieting intentions) by experimentally manipulating fat talk in existing friendship groups and measuring naturalistic expression of fat talk and its effects. Participants were 85 women aged 17-25 who completed the experiment in friendship pairs. They were randomly assigned to a condition in which their friend expressed fat talk, positive body talk, or neutral talk. This study found evidence of a causal link between listening to friends fat talk and increased correlates of disordered eating. The negative effects of listening to fat talk were fully mediated by fat talk expression. This study also revealed a social function of fat talk, whereby participants rated their friends more positively when they were perceived to behave consistently with group norms, either pro- or anti-fat talk. Positive body talk showed none of the negative effects of fat talk, and was considered socially acceptable regardless of existing friendship group norms. These findings indicate that fat talk is a mechanism through which the thin ideal is transmitted between individuals. Interventions at the level of the friendship group to challenge norms and communication styles may break the link between societal risk factors and individual risk of eating disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substances with performance enhancing properties appear on a continuum, ranging from prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED through dietary supplements to functional foods (FF. Anti-doping messages designed to dissuade athletes from using PEDs have been typically based on moralising sport competition and/or employing scare campaigns with focus on the negative consequences. Campaigns offering comparable and acceptable alternatives are nonexistent, nor are athletes helped in finding these for themselves. It is timely that social marketing strategies for anti-doping prevention and intervention incorporate media messages that complement the existing approaches by promoting comparable and acceptable alternatives to doping. To facilitate this process, the aim of this study was to ascertain whether a single exposure knowledge-based information intervention led to increased knowledge and subsequently result in changes in beliefs and automatic associations regarding performance enhancements. Methods In a repeated measure design, 115 male recreational gym users were recruited and provided with a brief information pamphlet on nitrite/nitrate and erythropoietin as a comparison. Measures of knowledge, beliefs and automatic associations were taken before and after the intervention with at least 24 hours between the two assessments. The psychological tests included explicit measures of beliefs and cognitive attitudes toward FF and PED using a self-reported questionnaire and computerised assessments of automatic associations using the modified and shortened version of the Implicit Association Test. Results The information based intervention significantly increased knowledge (p p p Conclusion Evidence was found that even a single exposure to a persuasive positive message can lead to belief change and can create new or alter existing associations - but only in the specific domain. Interventions to change outcome expectations in a positive
Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Satpute, Ajay
Understanding how a human brain creates a human mind ultimately depends on mapping psychological categories and concepts to physical measurements of neural response. Although it has long been assumed that emotional, social, and cognitive phenomena are realized in the operations of separate brain regions or brain networks, we demonstrate that it is possible to understand the body of neuroimaging evidence using a framework that relies on domain general, distributed structure-function mappings. We review current research in affective and social neuroscience and argue that the emerging science of large-scale intrinsic brain networks provides a coherent framework for a domain-general functional architecture of the human brain. PMID:23352202
Vangkilde, A; Jepsen, J M R; Schmock, H
-related symptoms. The aims of this study were to conduct a comprehensive investigation of social impairments at three different levels (function, skill, and cognition) and their interrelationship and to determine to what degree the social impairments correlate to subclinical levels of negative and positive...... symptoms, respectively, in a young cohort of 22q11.2DS not diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: The level of social impairment was addressed using questionnaires and objective measures of social functioning (The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System), skills (Social Responsiveness Scale), and cognition....... Association between social impairment and negative and positive symptoms levels was examined in cases only. RESULTS: Subjects with 22q11.2DS were highly impaired in social function, social skills, and social cognition (p ≤ 6.2 × 10(-9)) relative to control peers and presented with more negative (p = 5.8 × 10...
Maud, Catherine; Ryan, Joanne; McIntosh, Jennifer E; Olsson, Craig A
The neuropeptide Oxytocin (OXT) plays a central role in birthing, mother-infant bonding and a broad range of related social behaviours in mammals. More recently, interest has extended to epigenetic programming of genes involved in oxytocinergic neurotransmission. This review brings together early findings in a rapidly developing field of research, examining relationships between DNA methylation (DNAm) of the Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR) and social and emotional behaviour in human populations. A systematic search across Web of Knowledge/Science, Scopus, Medline and EMBASE captured all published studies prior to June 2017 examining the association between OXTR DNAm and human social and emotional outcomes. Search terms included 'oxytocin gene' or 'oxytocin receptor gene' and 'epigenetics' or 'DNA methylation'. Any article with a focus on social and emotional functioning was then identified from this set by manual review. Nineteen studies met eligibility criteria. There was considerable heterogeneity of study populations, tissue samples, instrumentation, measurement, and OXTR site foci. Only three studies examined functional consequences of OXTR DNAm on gene expression and protein synthesis. Increases in OXTR DNAm were associated with callous-unemotional traits in youth, social cognitive deficits in Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), rigid thinking in anorexia nervosa, affect regulation problems, and problems with facial and emotional recognition. In contrast, reductions in DNAm were associated with perinatal stress, postnatal depression, social anxiety and autism in children. Consistent with an emerging field of inquiry, there is not yet sufficient evidence to draw conclusions about the role of OXTR DNAm in human social and emotional behaviour. However, taken together, findings point to increased OXTR DNAm in general impairments in social, cognitive and emotional functioning, and decreased OXTR DNAm in specific patterns of impairment related to mood and anxiety
Full Text Available Moral reasoning (MR is a sociocognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Whereas past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning, theory of mind, empathy, and affect recognition, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of the relative and combined contribution of these skills to MR. Furthermore, few studies have addressed the putative links between these factors in childhood, a period during which these skills are in maturation. The aim of this study was to explore what factors predict moral maturity in typically developing children (n=76, 47.4% males, M = 9.2, SD = 1.67 years, explore the potential moderating and mediating role of executive functions and social cognition in the relationship between age and MR maturity, and identify the specific contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, executive functioning and social cognition, using an innovative visual MR assessment tool (So-Moral. The results indicate that MR maturity was correlated with age, executive functioning (inhibition, verbal fluency, and attentional control and social cognition (theory of mind and affect recognition. Neither EF nor social cognition moderated the effect of age on MR maturity. However, verbal fluency and third-order false beliefs had a moderating role in this link. MR maturity in children was predicted by three variables from each of the three domains: age, verbal fluency and third order theory of mind. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underpinnings of MR during childhood, suggesting that MR is not reducible to general developmental factors such as age, but that higher order skills such executive functioning and social cognition also contribute to moral maturity. The findings have
Kloos, Bret; Shah, Seema
This paper seeks to advance mental health-housing research regarding which factors of housing and neighborhood environments are critical for adaptive functioning, health, and recovery for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). Housing and neighborhood environments are particularly important for persons with SMI because of the prevalence of poor housing conditions among this population. Most mental health-housing research has been limited by a focus on problems in environments and functioning. The paper seeks to expand the mental health-housing research agenda to consider protective factors that promote community integration and adaptive functioning. We provide an account of how social ecology theory transformed a research program, from examining individual risk factors to investigating the functioning of persons in the contexts of their housing and neighborhood experiences. The resulting housing environment framework-physical aspects of housing and neighborhoods, social environment of neighborhoods, and interpersonal relationships tied to housing-allows for identification of opportunities for health promotion and facilitation of participation in community-based settings. This program of research draws upon several methods to understand the social experience of persons with SMI living in community settings-survey research, qualitative interviews, Geographic Information Systems, participatory research, and visual ethnography. In this paper, we present how social ecology theory was instrumental in the development of new housing environment measures, the selection of appropriate research methods, and framing research questions that are building a new empirical base of knowledge about promoting adaptive functioning, health, and recovery for persons with SMI living in community settings.
Donovan, Elizabeth; Mehringer, Stacey; Zeltzer, Lonnie K
Migraines dramatically affect adolescents' quality of life. One area of particular importance is the impact of migraines on adolescents' social functioning. To understand the impact of migraines on adolescents' social functioning from multiple informants, we performed semistructured interviews with adolescents who have migraines, their caregivers, and clinicians who treat adolescents who have migraines. Three major themes related to social functioning were identified from the adolescent interviews: The need to be alone; lack of support from siblings; and the feeling of not being understood by others. The caregiver interviews yielded three main themes related to family functioning: that plans can change quickly; that family life revolves around helping the child with the migraine; and parents' feelings of inadequacy in helping their child. There were two main themes derived from the clinician interviews related to perception of family functioning: the importance of parental involvement; and the role of adolescents' school and social lives in migraine prevention. There are a number of unmet needs among adolescents with recurrent migraine and their families. Interviews with adolescents, caregivers, and clinicians suggest a number of areas for intervention. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H.
Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with…
Sheets, Raymond L., Jr.; Mohr, Jonathan J.
In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which perceived social support was associated with depression, life satisfaction, and internalized binegativity in a sample of 210 bisexual young adult college students. Two types of social support (general and sexuality specific) and 2 sources of social support (family and friends) were…
Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Baumgardner, Thomas; Freund, Lisa S.; Reiss, Allan L.
Social behaviors among girls (ages 6-16) with fragile X (n=8) or Turner syndrome (n=9) were examined to address the role of family environment versus biological determinants of social dysfunction. Compared to their sisters, subjects had lower IQS and higher rating of social and attention problems. (Author/CR)
To integrate the social effects of emotions which have been described in the literature into Niklas Luhmann’s theory of autopoietic social systems, it is necessary to explain how emotions, which according to Luhmann are psychic phenomena, can become relevant in the social sphere even if no
Peerenboom, L; Collard, R M; Naarding, P; Comijs, H C
We investigated the association between old age depression and emotional and social loneliness. A cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO). A total of 341 participants diagnosed with a depressive disorder, and 125 non-depressed participants were included. Depression diagnosis was confirmed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Emotional and social loneliness were assessed using the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. Socio-demographic variables, social support variables, depression characteristics (Inventory of Depressive Symptoms), cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Examination) and personality factors (the NEO- Five Factor Inventory and the Pearlin Mastery Scale) were considered as possible explanatory factors or confounders. (Multiple) logistic regression analyses were performed. Depression was strongly associated with emotional loneliness, but not with social loneliness. A higher sense of neuroticism and lower sense of mastery were the most important explanatory factors. Also, we found several other explanatory and confounding factors in the association of depression and emotional loneliness; a lower sense of extraversion and higher severity of depression. We performed a cross-sectional observational study. Therefore we cannot add evidence in regard to causation; whether depression leads to loneliness or vice versa. Depression in older persons is strongly associated with emotional loneliness but not with social loneliness. Several personality traits and the severity of depression are important in regard to the association of depression and emotional loneliness. It is important to develop interventions in which both can be treated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wade, Shari L.; Zhang, Nanhua; Yeates, Keith Owen; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry
IMPORTANCE Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to impairments in behavior and academic performance. However, the long-term effects of early childhood TBI on fun