WorldWideScience

Sample records for role required materials

  1. Sales and marketing's partnership role in class A MRP II (material requirements planning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, J R; Lerner, W

    1994-08-01

    As the material and requirements planning (MRP) II process has evolved, many companies have discovered that the process is greatly enhanced when the entire business participates. The sales and operations planning process is the forum for the businesswide decisions concerning sales, production, and inventory. Sales and marketing must be integral parts of these decision-making activities.

  2. Material requirements planning: a better way to plan material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, S

    1990-08-01

    MRP systems can benefit hospitals in their management of material. Systems provide the means to schedule surgical procedures, calculate material requirements, release orders, plan future capacity requirements, and release and track work orders. MRP can be a powerful tool if properly implemented. All it takes is individuals dedicated to maintaining the discipline and data integrity required to make MRP successful.

  3. Refinement of boards' role required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbdenstock, R J

    1987-01-01

    The governing board's role in health care is not changing, but new competitive forces necessitate a refinement of the board's approach to fulfilling its role. In a free-standing, community, not-for-profit hospital, the board functions as though it were the "owner." Although it does not truly own the facility in the legal sense, the board does have legal, fiduciary, and financial responsibilities conferred on it by the state. In a religious-sponsored facility, the board fulfills these same obligations on behalf of the sponsoring institute, subject to the institute's reserved powers. In multi-institutional systems, the hospital board's power and authority depend on the role granted it by the system. Boards in all types of facilities are currently faced with the following challenges: Fulfilling their basic responsibilities, such as legal requirements, financial duties, and obligations for the quality of care. Encouraging management and the board itself to "think strategically" in attacking new competitive market forces while protecting the organization's traditional mission and values. Assessing recommended strategies in light of consequences if constituencies think the organization is abandoning its commitments. Boards can take several steps to match their mode of operation with the challenges of the new environment. Boards must rededicate themselves to the hospital's mission. Trustees must expand their understanding of health care trends and issues and their effect on the organization. Boards must evaluate and help strengthen management's performance, rather than acting as a "watchdog" in an adversarial position. Boards must think strategically, rather than focusing solely on operational details. Boards must evaluate the methods they use for conducting business.

  4. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  5. Requirements for materials of dispersion fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlov, A.G.; Kashtanov, A.I.; Volkov, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements for materials of dispersion fuel elements are considered. The necessity of structural and fissile materials compatibility at maximum permissible operation temperatures and temperatures arising in a fuel element during manufacture is pointed out. The fuel element structural material must be ductile, possess high mechanical strength minimum neutron absorption cross section, sufficient heat conductivity, good corrosion resistance in a coolant and radiation resistance. The fissile material must have high fissile isotope concentration, radiation resistance, high thermal conductivity, certain porosity high melting temperature must not change the composition under irradiation

  6. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited

  7. Phase change materials in energy sector - applications and material requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuta, Marta; Wójcik, Tadeusz M.

    2015-05-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) have been applying in many areas. One of them is energy field. PCMs are interesting for the energy sector because their use enables thermal stabilization and storage of large amount of heat. It is major issue for safety of electronic devices, thermal control of buildings and vehicles, solar power and many others energy domains. This paper contains preliminary results of research on solid-solid phase change materials designed for thermal stabilisation of electronic devices.

  8. Materials and fabrication requirements for APWR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothby, R.M.; Hippsley, C.A.; Gorton, O.K.; Garwood, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Materials specifications for advanced pressurized water-cooled reactor (APWR) systems are generally based on existing designs, with improved materials and fabrication procedures being developed to counter known degradation effects. In this paper, materials ageing and degradation mechanisms in PWR primary circuit pressure boundary components (i.e. the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs), coolant piping, coolant pump casing, pressurizer, and steam generators) are reviewed. Important degradation mechanisms include irradiation embrittlement of the RPV, thermal ageing embrittlement of ferritic (e.g. the pressurizer) and cast austenitic (e.g. coolant pump casing and pipe elbows) steel components and environmentally assisted cracking of steam generator tubing and CRDM penetrations. Improved materials specifications and component design and fabrication issues affecting the integrity of the pressure boundary are discussed in the light of these materials problems. Improved fabrication procedures adopted for Sizewell B, such as the utilization of ring forgings to eliminate axial welds in the RPV and steam generator shells and the use of one-piece castings for coolant pump casings, provide a benchmark against which other APWR designs may be judged. (author)

  9. MATERIALS REQUIREMENTS FOR THERMIONIC ENERGY CONVERSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R. C.; Skeen, C. H.

    1963-03-15

    The fundamentals of the thermionic energy conversion and its potential applications are reviewed. Materials problems associated with thermionic emitters are considered in relation to the following: work function; emissivity; vaporization; thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties; chemical stability; permeation; and stability under nuclear radiation. Cesium purity and materials suitable for collectors, electrical leads, support structures, insulators, and seals are also discussed. Experimental work on problems involved is reviewed. It is concluded that significant developments have occurred recently in all areas of thermionic energy conversion. (40 references) (A.G.W.)

  10. Material requirements planning using uncertain data

    OpenAIRE

    Ramonas, Martynas

    2007-01-01

    Last decennials in many companies information like strategical reservoir bursted into preponderant positions. Strategical information systems which withstand competition hold information place like this and help to survive for companies. First integrated IS which upstarted to computerize the planning of companies activities, are material recourse planning systems (MRP). It helps for company to solve the serious problems. Strategical information systems change the aims, processes of business, ...

  11. Spreadsheet Decision Support Model for Training Exercise Material Requirements Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tringali, Arthur

    1997-01-01

    ... associated with military training exercises. The model combines the business practice of Material Requirements Planning and the commercial spreadsheet software capabilities of Lotus 1-2-3 to calculate the requirements for food, consumable...

  12. Cost of quality assurance in radiotherapy: human and material requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudrelier, V.; Garcia, R.; Chauvet, B.; Bourhis, J.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, three new important laws were passed concerning radiotherapy services. The first two concerns the internal and external quality control of linear accelerators and the last concerns the role of the medical physicist, whose presence was made mandatory during the whole length of the treatments. These laws, which aim to improve the quality and the security of treatments, represent an increase in price that we have calculated, and which prevents them being implemented, as a joint study realised by the SFRO and the SFPM has shown. The cost of quality in radiotherapy requires investment in material and manpower and improvement in availability of the accelerators which entails a complete reorganization of the services. Cost analysis is included. The difficulties in implementing these laws have also been evaluated and this evaluation already enables us to propose certain elements enabling us to go forward to globally improve the quality and security in radiotherapy. (author)

  13. Source and special nuclear material sealing and labeling requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.N.

    1978-04-01

    Purpose of this document is to define requirements for the use of tamper-indicating seals and identifying labels on SS Material containers at Rockwell Hanford Operations. The requirements defined in this document are applicable to all Rockwell Hanford Operation employees involved in handling, processing, packaging, transferring, shipping, receiving or storing SS Material

  14. The contribution of material control to meeting performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) is in the process of implementing a set of performance requirements for material control and accountability (MC ampersand A). These graded requirements set a uniform level of performance for similar materials at various facilities with respect to the threat of an insider adversary stealing special nuclear material (SNM). These requirements are phrased in terms of detecting the theft of a goal quantity of SNM within a specified time period and with a probability greater than or equal to a specified value and include defense in-depth requirements

  15. The changing role of nuclear materials accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear materials accounting and accounting systems at what have been DOE Production sites are evolving into management decision support tools. As the sites are moving into the mode of making decisions on how to disposition complex and varied nuclear material holdings, the need for complete and many times different information has never been greater. The artificial boundaries that have historically been established between what belongs in the classic material control and accountability (MC and A) records versus what goes into the financial, radiological control, waste, or decommissioning and decontamination records are being challenged. In addition, the tools historically used to put material into different categories such as scrap codes, composition codes, etc. have been found to be inadequate for the information needs of today. In order to be cost effective and even, more importantly to effectively manage -our inventories, the new information systems the authors design have to have the flexibility to serve many needs. In addition, those tasked with the responsibility of managing the inventories must also expand beyond the same artificial boundaries. This paper addresses some of the things occurring at the Savannah River Site to support the changing role of nuclear materials accounting

  16. Materials technology for fusion - Current status and future requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.E.; Bloom, E.E.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Smith, D.L.; Stevenson, R.D.; Wolfer, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The general status of the materials research and development activities currently under way in support of controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors in the United States is reviewed. In the area of magnetic confinement configurations, attention is given to development programs for first wall materials, which are at various stages for possible austenitic stainless steels, high-strength Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, reactive and refractory metal alloys, specially designed long-range ordered and rapidly solidified alloys, and ferritic/martensitic steels, and for tritium breeding materials, electrical insulators, ceramics, and coolants. The development of materials for inertial confinement reactors is also surveyed in relation to the protection scheme employed for the first wall and the effects of pulsed neutron irradiation. Finally, the materials requirements and selection procedures for the ETF/INTOR and Starfire tokamak reactor designs are examined. Needs for the expansion of research on nonfirst-wall materials and inertial confinement fusion reactor material requirements are pointed out

  17. Spreadsheet Decision Support Model for Training Exercise Material Requirements Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tringali, Arthur

    1997-01-01

    This thesis focuses on developing a spreadsheet decision support model that can be used by combat engineer platoon and company commanders in determining the material requirements and estimated costs...

  18. Implications of fusion power plant studies for materials requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Ian; Ward, David; Dudarev, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the key requirements for fusion materials, as these have emerged from studies of commercial fusion power plants. The objective of the international fusion programme is the creation of power stations that will have very attractive safety and environmental features and viable economics. Fusion power plant studies have shown that these objectives may be achieved without requiring extreme advances in materials. But it is required that existing candidate materials perform at least as well as envisaged in the environment of fusion neutrons, heat fluxes and particle fluxes. The development of advanced materials would bring further benefits. The work required entails the investigation of many intellectually exciting physics issues of great scientific interest, and of wider application than fusion. In addition to giving an overview, selected aspects of the science, of particular physics interest, are illustrated

  19. Energy, material and land requirement of a fusion plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, Liselotte; Hamacher, T.; Cabal, H.

    2001-01-01

    The energy and material necessary to construct a power plant and the land covered by the plant are indicators for the ‘consumption’ of environment by a certain technology. Based on current knowledge, estimations show that the material necessary to construct a fusion plant will exceed the material...... requirement of a fission plant by a factor of two. The material requirement for a fusion plant is roughly 2000 t/MW and little less than 1000 t/MW for a fission plant. The land requirement for a fusion plant is roughly 300 m2/MW and the land requirement for a fission plant is a little less than 200 m2/MW...... less ‘environment’ for the construction than renewable technologies, especially wind and solar....

  20. Network-Based Material Requirements Planning (NBMRP) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Network-Based Material Requirements Planning (NBMRP) in Product Development Project. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... To address the problems, this study evaluated the existing material planning practice, and formulated a NBMRP model out of the variables of the existing MRP and ...

  1. 14 CFR 221.195 - Requirement for filing printed material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement for filing printed material... filing printed material. (a) Any tariff, or revision thereto, filed in paper format which accompanies... supporting paper tariff, except as authorized by the Department. (b) Any printed justifications, or other...

  2. Life Science Research Facility materials management requirements and concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C.

    1986-01-01

    The Advanced Programs Office at NASA Ames Research Center has defined hypothetical experiments for a 90-day mission on Space Station to allow analysis of the materials necessary to conduct the experiments and to assess the impact on waste processing of recyclable materials and storage requirements of samples to be returned to earth for analysis as well as of nonrecyclable materials. The materials include the specimens themselves, the food, water, and gases necessary to maintain them, the expendables necessary to conduct the experiments, and the metabolic products of the specimens. This study defines the volumes, flow rates, and states of these materials. Process concepts for materials handling will include a cage cleaner, trash compactor, biological stabilizer, and various recycling devices.

  3. Materials requirements for liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.W.; Horton, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    Materials requirements for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) are quite varied with requisite applications ranging from ex-reactor components such as piping, pumps, steam generators and heat exchangers to in-reactor components such as heavy section reactor vessels, core structurals, fuel pin cladding and subassembly flow ducts. Requirements for ex-reactor component materials include: good high temperature tensile, creep and fatigue properties; compatibility with high temperature flowing sodium; resistance to wear, stress corrosion cracking, and crack propagation; and good weldability. Requirements for in-reactor components include most of those cited above for ex-reactor components as supplemented by the following: resistance to radiation embrittlement, swelling and radiation enhanced creep; good neutronics; compatibility with fuel and fission product materials; and resistance to mass transfer via flowing sodium. Extensive programs are currently in place in a number of national laboratories and industrial contractors to address the materials requirements for LMFBRs. These programs are focused on meeting the near term requirements of early LMFBRs such as the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor as well as the longer term requirements of larger near-commercial and fully-commercial reactors

  4. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described

  5. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described.

  6. Material requirements for the High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Joseph R.; Hecht, Ralph J.; Johnson, Andrew M.

    1993-01-01

    Under NASA-sponsored High Speed Research (HSR) programs, the materials and processing requirements have been identified for overcoming the environmental and economic barriers of the next generation High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) propulsion system. The long (2 to 5 hours) supersonic cruise portion of the HSCT cycle will place additional durability requirements on all hot section engine components. Low emissions combustor designs will require high temperature ceramic matrix composite liners to meet an emission goal of less than 5g NO(x) per Kg fuel burned. Large axisymmetric and two-dimensional exhaust nozzle designs are now under development to meet or exceed FAR 36 Stage III noise requirements, and will require lightweight, high temperature metallic, intermetallic, and ceramic matrix composites to reduce nozzle weight and meet structural and acoustic component performance goals. This paper describes and discusses the turbomachinery, combustor, and exhaust nozzle requirements of the High Speed Civil Transport propulsion system.

  7. Packaging configurations and handling requirements for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The basic safety concepts for radioactive material are that the package is the primary protection for the public, that the protection afforded by the package should be proportional to the hazard and that the package must be proved by performance. These principles are contained in Department of Energy (DOE), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations which classify hazards of various radioactive materials and link packaging requirements to the physical form and quantities being shipped. Packaging requirements are reflected in performance standards to guarantee that shipments of low hazard quantities will survive the rigors of normal transportation and that shipments of high hazard quantities will survive extreme severity transportation accidents. Administrative controls provide for segregation of radioactive material from people and other sensitive or hazardous material. They also provide the necessary information function to control the total amounts in a conveyance and to assure that appropriate emergency response activities be started in case of accidents or other emergencies. Radioactive materials shipped in conjunction with the nuclear reactor programs include, ores, concentrates, gaseous diffusion feedstocks, enriched and depleted uranium, fresh fuel, spent fuel, high level wastes, low level wastes and transuranic wastes. Each material is packaged and shipped in accordance with regulations and all hazard classes, quantity limits and packaging types are called into use. From the minimal requirements needed to ship the low hazard uranium ores or concentrates to the very stringent requirements in packaging and moving high level wastes or spent fuel, the regulatory system provides a means for carrying out transportation of radioactive material which assures low and controlled risk to the public

  8. Public Relations: Roles, Entry Requirements and Professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Dwi Cahaya Putra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper attempts to describe that there is a chance for non-Public Relations graduates to work as or at the Public Relations industry. Studies have shown that Public Relations practitioners are mostly from generalist background (not Public Relations and even come into the job by chance. A Public Relations is a very sociable person, possess a mix of functional, managerial and negotiating abilities as well as analytical and well-developed communication and understand people and human psychology. With working roles of Expert Prescriber, Communication Facilitator, Problem Solving Facilitator and Communication Technician, a Public Relations needs to be well prepared by learning foreign language, joining personality improvement course, developing networking and understanding computer and communication technology. Areas of where a Public relations works are in-house (organization/company, consultancy and freelance practitioner having various titles showing their main function in the organization such as public affairs, event manager, community relations manager, marketing communication executive, employee relations manager, corporate communications manager, media coordinator. As there is an increased challenge of Public Relations’s professionalism, a true practitioner is best prepared by educational institutions with lecturers having sound education and practice combined with extensive link-and -match research and industrial-practical placement for the graduates.

  9. Requirements applied in Cuba to the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouevedo Garcia, J.R.; Lopez Forteza, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to comment the supplementary requirements imposed by the Competent Authority to the operations of the main importing/delivering enterprise of unsealed sources for approvals and administration since the establishment, in 1987, of the legal framework on transport of radioactive materials. The paper summarizes the achieved results in this field in over 11 years operation. (author)

  10. Research Perspectives for Material Requirements Planning Systems. Paper No. 434.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, W. L.; Whybark, D. Clay

    Material requirements planning (MRP) systems are described as management tools for planning and controlling production operations. A wide variety of industries and production organizations are credited as reporting significant operating improvements in such areas as inventory control, production scheduling, delivery performance, and production…

  11. Safety assessment requirements for onsite transfers of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opperman, E.K.; Jackson, E.J.; Eggers, A.G.

    1992-05-01

    This document contains the requirements for developing a safety assessment document for an onsite package containing radioactive material. It also provides format and content guidance to establish uniformity in the safety assessment documentation and to ensure completeness of the information provided

  12. Radioactive material package test standards and performance requirements - public perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Rawl, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses issues related to the public perception of the regulatory test standards and performance requirements for packaging and transporting radioactive material. Specifically, it addresses the adequacy of the package performance standards and testing for Type B packages, which are those packages designed for transporting the most hazardous quantities and forms of radioactive material. Type B packages are designed to withstand accident conditions in transport. To improve public perception, the public needs to better understand: (a) the regulatory standards and requirements themselves, (b) the extensive history underlying their development, and (c) the soundness of the technical foundation. The public needs to be fully informed on studies, tests, and analyses that have been carried out worldwide and form the basis of the regulatory standards and requirements. This paper provides specific information aimed at improving the public perception of packages test standards

  13. Development of the material selection practice - a study exploring articulation of material requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Hasling, Karen Marie

    2014-01-01

    indicates that students focus on technical requirements when using the matrix and justifying their selection of materials. This is surprising since the students attend an arts and crafts oriented design school and are encouraged and guided to consider non-technical requirements, as part of the course where...... the matrix is introduced. A possible reason for the undesired behavior could be that students are allowed very freely to define their own matrices, having only little guidance to which requirements to use. A more formal procedure for making the material matrices is therefore proposed. The procedure requires...

  14. Report of the Material Control and Material Accounting Task Force: the role of material control and material accounting in the safeguards program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    Results are presented of NRC Task Force investigations to identify the functions of a safeguards program in relation to the NRC safeguards objective, define the role and objectives of material control and material accounting systems within that program, develop goals for material control and material accounting based on those roles and objectives, assess current material control and material accounting requirements and performance levels in the light of the goals, and recommend future actions needed to attain the proposed goals. It was found that the major contribution of material accounting to the safeguards program is in support of the assurance function. It also can make secondary contributions to the prevention and response functions. In the important area of loss detection, a response measure, it is felt that limitations inherent in material accounting for some fuel cycle operations limit its ability to operate as a primary detection system to detect a five formula kilogram loss with high assurance (defined by the Task Force as a probability of detection of 90 percent or more) and that, in those cases, material accounting can act only in a backup role. Physical security and material control must make the primary contributions to the prevention and detection of theft, so that safeguards do not rely primarily for detection capabilities on material accounting. There are several areas of accounting that require more emphasis than is offered by the current regulatory base. These areas include: timely shipper-receiver difference analysis and reconciliation; a demand physical inventory capability; improved loss localization;discard measurement verification; timely recovery of scrap; improved measurement and record systems; and limits on cumulative inventory differences and shipper-receiver differences. An increased NRC capability for monitoring and analyzing licensee accounting data and more timely and detailed submittals of data to NRC by licensees are recommended

  15. Determination of material irradiation parameters. Required accuracies and available methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerles, J.M.; Mas, P.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, the author reports some main methods to determine the nuclear parameters of material irradiation in testing reactor (nuclear power, burn-up, fluxes, fluences, ...). The different methods (theoretical or experimental) are reviewed: neutronics measurements and calculations, gamma scanning, thermal balance, ... The required accuracies are reviewed: they are of 3-5% on flux, fluences, nuclear power, burn-up, conversion factor, ... These required accuracies are compared with the real accuracies available which are at the present time of order of 5-20% on these parameters

  16. Material control and accounting requirements for uranium enrichment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has defined material control and accounting (MC and A) requirement for low-enriched uranium enrichment plants licensed under 10 CFR parts 40 and 70. Following detailed assessment of potential safeguards issues relevant to these facilities, a new MC and A rule was developed. The primary safeguards considerations are detection of the loss of special nuclear material, detection of clandestine production of special nuclear material of low strategic significance for unauthorized use or distribution, and detection of unauthorized production of uranium enriched to ≥10 wt % U-235. The primary safeguards concerns identified were the large absolute limit of error associated with the material balance closing, the inability to shutdown some uranium enrichment technologies to perform a cleanout inventory of the process system, and the flexibility of some of these technologies to produce higher enrichments. Unauthorized production scenarios were identified for some technologies that could circumvent the detection of the production and removal of 5 kilograms of U-235 as high-enriched uranium through conventional material control and accounting programs. Safeguards techniques, including the use of production and process control information, measurements, and technical surveillance, were identified to compensate for these concerns

  17. ANALYSIS OF MPC ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR ADDITION OF FILLER MATERIALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. Wallin

    1996-01-01

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) in response to a request received via a QAP-3-12 Design Input Data Request (Ref. 5.1) from WAST Design (formerly MRSMPC Design). The request is to provide: Specific MPC access requirements for the addition of filler materials at the MGDS (i.e., location and size of access required). The objective of this analysis is to provide a response to the foregoing request. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a documented record of the basis for the response. The response is stated in Section 8 herein. The response is based upon requirements from an MGDS perspective

  18. Regulatory requirements for the transport of radioactive materials in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, R. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Canada is a major producer and shipper of radioactive material. Each year more than a million packages are transported in Canada. The safety record with the transport of RAM in Canada has historically been excellent. There have never been any serious injuries, overexposure or fatality or environmental consequences attributable to the radioactive nature of such material being transported or being involved in a transport accident. In Canada, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the prime agency of the federal government entrusted with regulating all activities related to the use of nuclear energy and nuclear substances including the packaging and transport of nuclear substances. The mission of the CNSC is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security of the person and the environment and to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The division of responsibility for the regulation of transport of radioactive material has been split between Transport Canada and the CNSC. The governing Transport Canada's regulations are Transport of Dangerous Goods (TDG) Regulations and the CNSC regulations are Packaging and Transport of Nuclear Substances Regulations (PTNSR). Canada has actively participated in the development of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material since 1960. As an IAEA member state, Canada generally follows the requirements of IAEA regulations with few deviations. The Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) strongly supports Canada's international obligations to ensure safe packaging, transport, storage and disposal of nuclear substances, prescribed equipment and prescribed information. Prescribed equipment and prescribed information are defined in the CNSC General Nuclear Safety and Control Regulations. This paper presents the current CNSC regulatory requirements and initiatives taken by the CNSC to improve its effectiveness and

  19. Regulatory requirements for the transport of radioactive materials in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, R.

    2004-01-01

    Canada is a major producer and shipper of radioactive material. Each year more than a million packages are transported in Canada. The safety record with the transport of RAM in Canada has historically been excellent. There have never been any serious injuries, overexposure or fatality or environmental consequences attributable to the radioactive nature of such material being transported or being involved in a transport accident. In Canada, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the prime agency of the federal government entrusted with regulating all activities related to the use of nuclear energy and nuclear substances including the packaging and transport of nuclear substances. The mission of the CNSC is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security of the person and the environment and to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The division of responsibility for the regulation of transport of radioactive material has been split between Transport Canada and the CNSC. The governing Transport Canada's regulations are Transport of Dangerous Goods (TDG) Regulations and the CNSC regulations are Packaging and Transport of Nuclear Substances Regulations (PTNSR). Canada has actively participated in the development of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material since 1960. As an IAEA member state, Canada generally follows the requirements of IAEA regulations with few deviations. The Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) strongly supports Canada's international obligations to ensure safe packaging, transport, storage and disposal of nuclear substances, prescribed equipment and prescribed information. Prescribed equipment and prescribed information are defined in the CNSC General Nuclear Safety and Control Regulations. This paper presents the current CNSC regulatory requirements and initiatives taken by the CNSC to improve its effectiveness and efficiency

  20. Regulatory Requirements to Combat Illicit Trafficking of Hazardous Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; Zakaria, Kh.M.

    2011-01-01

    Since more than a decade illicit Trafficking of hazardous ( CBRNE), materials ( chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive ) has been identified as a key threat in national, regional, inter regional and international strategies. An Effective response to hazardous materials (CBRNE) risk and threat were realized to require a very high level of cooperation and coordination between various governments and their responsible organizations and authorities of regional and international partner. While improper policy of actions may easily be exploited by non- state members to (CBRNE) trafficking which may lead to develop weapon of mass destruction (WMD). Such strategy are of paramount important between all levels of the states and among regional agreements through comprehensive tailored assistance packages (e.g. export control, illicit trafficking of hazardous materials, redirection of scientist, emergency planning, crisis response safety and security culture. Capacity building, action plans and instruments for stability are necessary actions for efficient combating against illicit trafficking of hazardous materials. Regarding the needs of assessment phase, assistance must be based on data collection, analysis and prioritization of implanting the regulatory controls. Several activities have to be conducted to reduce CBRNE threat. The one- by- one approach, covering either nuclear and radioactive or chemical or biological materials has to be implanted on the country basis performance to mitigate CBRNE hazardous risk. On several consequent phases of intervention dealing with CBRNE risk mitigation the country has to establish a network of local, regional and international capabilities. Such network is setting up the mechanism for the country needs identifications, the guidelines for data collection, for data platform maintenance and update, the data assessment and the competent and operative organizations. This network will be to strengthen the long - term

  1. Safety requirements and feedback of commonly used material handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Different types of cranes, hoists, chain pulley blocks are the most commonly used material handling equipment in industry along with attachments like chains, wire rope slings, d-shackles, etc. These equipment are used at work for transferring loads from one place to another and attachments are used for anchoring, fixing or supporting the load. Selection of the correct equipment, identification of the equipment planning of material handling operation, examination/testing of the equipment, education and training of the persons engaged in operation of the material handling equipment can reduce the risks to safety of people in workplace. Different safety systems like boom angle indicator, overload tripping device, limit switches, etc. should be available in the cranes for their safe use. Safety requirement for safe operation of material handling equipment with emphasis on different cranes and attachments particularly wire rope slings and chain slings have been brought out in this paper. An attempt has also been made to bring out common nature of deficiencies observed during regulatory inspection carried out by AERB. (author)

  2. Impact of proposed financial assurance requirements on nuclear materials licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Scott, M.J.; Mullen, M.F.; Nicholls, A.K.; Smith, S.A.

    1987-09-01

    The NRC is considering a possible rulemaking that would require certain nuclear materials licensees to demonstrate financial ability to clean up accidental releases of radioactive materials. The rulemaking would potentially affect approximately 16,350 NRC and Agreement State licensees. This report was prepared for NRC by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide background information and analysis for the potential rulemaking. Specific topics examined in the report include: (1) characteristics of potentially affected licensees, (2) the availability and cost of various financial assurance mechanisms, (3) the financial impacts for licensees (including licensees classified as small businesses) of providing $2M of assurance per licensee and a sliding amount of assurance tied to risk, (4) the cost of administering a financial assurance rule, and (5) overall benefits and costs. Tabular information on past material licensee accidents and cleanup efforts is also included. The financial occurrence mechanism that appears to be most suitable for providing the desired financial assurance is one or more newly formed captive insurance companies. Potential benefits of the rulemaking include reduced need for taxpayer-funded cleanup of accidental releases, reduces administrative time to secure such funds, and the possibility of more cleanup with correspondingly reduced occupational and public exposure to radioactive materials

  3. Borehole sealing literature review of performance requirements and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccinin, D.; Hooton, R.D.

    1985-02-01

    To ensure the safe disposal of nuclear wastes, all potential pathways for radionuclide release to the biosphere must be effectively sealed. This report presents a summary of the literature up to August 1982 and outlines the placement, mechanical property and durability-stability requirements for borehole sealing. An outline of the materials that have been considered for possible use in borehole sealing is also included. Cement grouts are recommended for further study since it is indicated in the literature that cement grouts offer the best opportunity of effectively sealing boreholes employing present technology. However, new and less well known materials should also be researched to ensure that the best possible borehole plugging system is developed. 78 refs

  4. Requirements and new materials for fusion laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokowski, S.E.; Weber, M.J.; Saroyan, R.A.; Hagen, W.F.

    1977-10-01

    Higher focusable power in neodymium glass fusion lasers can be obtained through the use of new materials with lower nonlinear index (n 2 ) and better energy storage capabilities than the presently employed silicate glass. Silicate, phosphate, fluorophosphate, and beryllium fluoride glasses are discussed in terms of fusion laser requirements, particularly those for the proposed Nova laser. Examples of the variation in spectroscopic and optical properties obtainable with compositional changes are given. Results of a system evaluation of potential laser materials show that fluorophosphate glasses have many of the desired properties for use in Nova. These glasses are now being cast in large sizes (30-cm diameter) and will be tested in prototype amplifiers in 1978

  5. Requirements and new materials for fusion laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokowski, S.E.; Weber, M.J.; Saroyan, R.A.; Hagen, W.F.

    1977-10-01

    Higher focusable power in neodymium glass fusion lasers can be obtained through the use of new materials with lower nonlinear index (n/sub 2/) and better energy storage capabilities than the presently employed silicate glass. Silicate, phosphate, fluorophosphate, and beryllium fluoride glasses are discussed in terms of fusion laser requirements, particularly those for the proposed Nova laser. Examples of the variation in spectroscopic and optical properties obtainable with compositional changes are given. Results of a system evaluation of potential laser materials show that fluorophosphate glasses have many of the desired properties for use in Nova. These glasses are now being cast in large sizes (30-cm diameter) and will be tested in prototype amplifiers in 1978.

  6. The role of topology in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Avadh

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the most important advances in the class of topological materials and discusses the topological characterization, modeling and metrology of materials. Further, it addresses currently emerging characterization techniques such as optical and acoustic, vibrational spectroscopy (Brillouin, infrared, Raman), electronic, magnetic, fluorescence correlation imaging, laser lithography, small angle X-ray and neutron scattering and other techniques, including site-selective nanoprobes. The book analyzes the topological aspects to identify and quantify these effects in terms of topology metrics. The topological materials are ubiquitous and range from (i) de novo nanoscale allotropes of carbons in various forms such as nanotubes, nanorings, nanohorns, nanowalls, peapods, graphene, etc. to (ii) metallo-organic frameworks, (iii) helical gold nanotubes, (iv) Möbius conjugated polymers, (v) block co-polymers, (vi) supramolecular assemblies, to (vii) a variety of biological and soft-matter systems, e.g. foa...

  7. Quality assurance requirements for packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, R.F.; MacDonald, C.E.; Doda, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the new quality assurance regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. These regulations became effective on October 18, 1977. Background information concerning these regulations and packaging and transportation history is included. The quality assurance program is described with indications of how it is composed of general (administrative) provisions which must meet the 18 quality assurance criteria and be approved by the NRC; specific provisions which appear in the DOT and NRC regulations and in the individual package design approval; and other specific procedures which are not required by regulations but which are necessary for the proper control of quality. The quality assurance program is to be developed using a graded approach for the application of pertinent criteria and optimizing the required degree of safety and control efforts involved in achieving this level of safety. The licensee-user is responsible for all phases of quality assurance for packaging activities including: design, manufacture, test, use, maintenance and repair. The package design phase is considered to be particularly important in producing adequate safety in operational activities concerning packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

  8. Dose requirements for microbial decontamination of botanical materials by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razem, D.; Katusin-Razem, Branka

    2002-01-01

    Microbial contamination levels and corresponding resistivities to irradiation (expressed as dose required for the first 90% reduction, D first 9 0% r ed ) were analyzed in a number of various botanical materials. The following generalizations could be made: total aerobic plate count is the most informative measure of contamination; the probability of contamination depends on available surface of the material and processing history: flowers and leaves usually contain more contamination than fruits and seeds, while crude herbs contain more than extracts; liquid extracts are more contaminated than dry ones. At the same time, resistivity to irradiation increases approximately in the reverse order of contamination level on going from flowers and leaves, to fruits and seeds, to liquid and dry extracts. The two quantities, probability of contamination and D first 9 0% r ed being inversely related, the treatment dose needed to reduce initial contamination to tolerable level amounts to between 4 and 30 kGy under a typical scenario, and between 8 and 40 kGy under the worst-case scenario for the whole range of raw materials and botanical products

  9. Functional requirements document for measuring emissions of airborne radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Alvarez, J.L.; Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.C.; McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1994-11-01

    This document states the general functional requirements for systems and procedures for measuring emissions of airborne radioactive materials from facilities administered by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The following issues are addressed in this document: lg-bullet definition of the program objectives lg-bullet selection of the overall approach to collecting the samples lg-bullet sampling equipment design lg-bullet sampling equipment maintenance and quality assurance issues. The following issues are not addressed in this document: lg-bullet air sampling in work areas or containments lg-bullet selection of specific on-line sample monitoring instrumentation lg-bullet analyzing collected samples lg-bullet reporting and interpreting results. The document provides equipment design guidance that is performance based rather than prescriptive. Locations from which samples are obtained should exhibit mixing of the contaminants with the airstream and acceptable air flow characteristics. Sample collection equipment and effluent and sample flow elements should meet defined performance standards. Quality control and assurance requirements specific to sample collection, equipment inspection, and calibration are presented. Key sample collection performance requirements are summarized in Section 5.4. The intent of this document is to assist WHC in demonstrating a high quality of air emission measurements with verified system performance based on documented system design, testing, inspection, and maintenance

  10. Reponsive and Open Learning Environments (ROLE: Requirements, Evaluation and Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effie Lai-Chong Law

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Coordinating requirements engineering (RE and evaluation studies across heterogeneous technology-enhanced learning (TEL environments is deemed challenging, because each of them is situated in a specific organizational, technical and socio-cultural context. We have dealt with such challenges in the project of ROLE (http://www.role-project.eu/ in which five test-beds are involved in deploying and evaluating Personal Learning Environments (PLEs. They include Higher Education Institutions (HEIs and global enterprises in and beyond Europe, representing a range of values and assumptions. While the diversity provides fertile grounds for validating our research ideas, it poses many challenges for conducting comparison studies. In the paper, we first provide an overview of the ROLE project, focusing on its missions and aims. Next we present a Web2.0-inspired RE approach called Social Requirements Engineering (SRE. Then we depict our initial attempts to evaluate the ROLE framework and report some preliminary findings. One major outcome is that the technology adoption process must work on the basis of existing LMS, extending them with the ROLE functionality rather than embracing LMS functionality in ROLE.

  11. Carnot cycle for magnetic materials: The role of hysteresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasso, Carlo P.; Basso, Vittorio; LoBue, Martino; Bertotti, Giorgio

    2006-01-01

    The role of hysteresis in a refrigeration thermodynamic cycle involving ferromagnetic materials is discussed. A model allowing to calculate magnetization, entropy and entropy production in systems with hysteresis is used to compute a non-ideal Carnot cycle performed on a ferromagnetic material

  12. Active materials for automotive adaptive forward lighting Part 1: system requirements vs. material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Andrew C.; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy L.

    2011-04-01

    Adaptive Frontlighting Systems (AFS in GM usage) improve visibility by automatically optimizing the beam pattern to accommodate road, driving and environmental conditions. By moving, modifying, and/or adding light during nighttime, inclement weather, or in sharp turns, the driver is presented with dynamic illumination not possible with static lighting systems The objective of this GM-HRL collaborative research project was to assess the potential of active materials to decrease the cost, mass, and packaging volume of current electric stepper-motor AFS designs. Solid-state active material actuators, if proved suitable for this application, could be less expensive than electric motors and have lower part count, reduced size and weight, and lower acoustic and EMF noise1. This paper documents Part 1 of the collaborative study, assessing technically mature, commercially available active materials for use as actuators. Candidate materials should reduce cost and improve AFS capabilities, such as increased angular velocity on swivel. Additional benefits to AFS resulting from active materials actuators were to be identified as well such as lower part count. In addition, several notional approaches to AFS were documented to illustrate the potential function, which is developed more fully in Part 2. Part 1 was successful in verifying the feasibility of using two active materials for AFS: shape memory alloys, and piezoelectrics. In particular, this demonstration showed that all application requirements including those on actuation speed, force, and cyclic stability to effect manipulation of the filament assembly and/or the reflector could be met by piezoelectrics (as ultrasonic motors) and SMA wire actuators.

  13. Perspective: Role of structure prediction in materials discovery and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Needs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Materials informatics owes much to bioinformatics and the Materials Genome Initiative has been inspired by the Human Genome Project. But there is more to bioinformatics than genomes, and the same is true for materials informatics. Here we describe the rapidly expanding role of searching for structures of materials using first-principles electronic-structure methods. Structure searching has played an important part in unraveling structures of dense hydrogen and in identifying the record-high-temperature superconducting component in hydrogen sulfide at high pressures. We suggest that first-principles structure searching has already demonstrated its ability to determine structures of a wide range of materials and that it will play a central and increasing part in materials discovery and design.

  14. A Cost Control Policy for Material Requirements Planning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is sometimes difficult to predict that a particular material will be out of stock at a particular time. This uncertainty can be avoided by deriving a probability distribution of stock-out. Let us assume that the stock-out of material occur only at the end of a certain period, say t. This paper derives a probability distribution theory of ...

  15. 49 CFR 178.358-2 - Materials of construction and other requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials of construction and other requirements... Materials of construction and other requirements. (a) Phenolic foam insulation must be fire resistant and... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  16. 49 CFR 178.356-2 - Materials of construction and other requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials of construction and other requirements... Materials of construction and other requirements. (a) Phenolic foam insulation must be fire-resistant and... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  17. Role of measurements in material control and accountability (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, T.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical techniques are widely used for verification and accountancy of nuclear materials. Nuclear Material (NM) inventories are based on sampling followed by Destructive Analysis. Destructive Analyses range from traditional chemical techniques to recent implementations of radiometric methods. These techniques are performed to quantify the amount of nuclear material (elemental assay and isotopic composition) present in a specific item, container, or in some cases facility and resolving shipper-receiver differences. Analytical techniques used for the MC and A of nuclear material normally require more attention than that for process control because the largest contribution to Material Unaccounted For is in measurement uncertainty. Therefore analytical techniques selected for material control and accountability are highly precise and they comply with accepted 'International Target Values 2010'. (author)

  18. Materialism and life satisfaction: the role of religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakrachakarn, Varapa; Moschis, George P; Ong, Fon Sim; Shannon, Randall

    2015-04-01

    This study examines the role of religion and religiosity in the relationship between materialism and life satisfaction. The findings suggests that religion may be a key factor in understanding differences in findings of previous studies regarding the inverserelationship found in the vast majority of previous studies. Based on a large-scale study in Malaysia—a country comprised of several religious subcultures (mainly Muslims, Buddhists, and Hindus), the findings suggest that the influence of religiosity on materialism and life satisfaction is stronger among Malays than among Chinese and Indians, and life satisfaction partially mediates the relationship between religiosity and materialism. The paper discusses implications for theory development and further research.

  19. Transport of radioactive materials and equipment. Requirements. (Provisional)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This standard is aimed at establishing the procedures that must be followed when transporting radioactive materials and equipment in Venezuelan Territory. The ''Consejo Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Industria Nuclear'' is responsible for their fulfillment and control

  20. Packaging requirements and procedures for the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Canadian regulations on the transportation of radioactive materials are based on those formulated by the IAEA. A synopsis of these regulations is presented, and the background to certain key provisions is explained. (LL)

  1. Requirements' Role in Mobilizing and Enabling Design Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Mark

    Requirements play a critical role in a design conversation of systems and products. Product and system design exists at the crossroads of problems, solutions and requirements. Requirements contextualize problems and solutions, pointing the way to feasible outcomes. These are captured with models and detailed specifications. Still, stakeholders need to be able to understand one-another using shared design representations in order to mobilize bias and transform knowledge towards legitimized, desired results. Many modern modeling languages, including UML, as well as detailed, logic-based specifications are beyond the comprehension of key stakeholders. Hence, they inhibit, rather than promote design conversation. Improved design boundary objects (DBO), especially design requirements boundary objects (DRBO), need to be created and refined to improve the communications between principals. Four key features of design boundary objects that improve and promote design conversation are discussed in detail. A systems analysis and design case study is presented which demonstrates these features in action. It describes how a small team of analysts worked with key stakeholders to mobilize and guide a complex system design discussion towards an unexpected, yet desired outcome within a short time frame.

  2. Role of ion simulation in CTR materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolfi, F.V. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of ion simulation in the U.S. fusion power development program, evaluates various ion and neutron simulation techniques, emphasizes the need for quantitative correlation between ion and high-energy neutron radiation damage, and outlines the essential features of ion/neutron simulation experiments on candidate first-wall materials

  3. PEM fuel cell bipolar plate material requirements for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R.L.; Stroh, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Cost effective bipolar plates are currently under development to help make proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells commercially viable. Bipolar plates separate individual cells of the fuel cell stack, and thus must supply strength, be electrically conductive, provide for thermal control of the fuel stack, be a non-porous materials separating hydrogen and oxygen feed streams, be corrosion resistant, provide gas distribution for the feed streams and meet fuel stack cost targets. Candidate materials include conductive polymers and metal plates with corrosion resistant coatings. Possible metals include aluminium, titanium, iron/stainless steel and nickel.

  4. The Role of Photovoltaics in Energy Requirements in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, I.A.; Haq, N.U.; Nasir, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this review article global energy issue is discussed with specific reference to Pakistan. The energy consumption and supply from different sources like oil, gas, electricity, nuclear power, bio gas and especially from renewables is taken into account. Also discussed some suggestions for the energy requirements. Focus is given to the production of renewable energy sources like technology of photovoltaics in which solar power is converted into electricity. Solar cell is discussed including its two basic types inorganic solar cell and organic solar cell, its way of functioning, process of fabrication etc is also discussed. Organic or polymeric solar cell is discussed in detail. keeping in view the financial condition and requirement of energy for our country suggestions are given for low cost and simple processing of organic solar cells. It is also suggested that availability of all the materials required for the development of organic solar cells should be guaranteed. Interest should be developed at the university and other research organization level of Pakistan to do work on polymeric solar cells for increasing their efficiencies so that they can be practically utilized. (author)

  5. REQUIREMENTS FOR DRILLING CUTTINGS AND EARTH-BASED BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chertes Konstantin L'vovich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the problem of utilization of drilling cuttings by means of scavenging, is researched. The product received could be used for the restoration of lands disturbed during construction and economic activities. When assessing technogenic formations, the binary approach was used, as a system of two components. The purpose of the study is to assess the state and possibility of utilizing drilling cuttings as raw materials in order to produce technogenic building materials; to study the effect of the degree of homogeneity of initial mixtures based on drilling cuttings, on kinetics of their hardening which leads to obtaining final products for various applications . As a result of research, relations of hardening and subsequent strengthening of slurry-cement mixtures were obtained; the plan of the process area for treatment of drilling cuttings is presented on the spot of demolished drilling pit.

  6. 40 CFR 261.6 - Requirements for recyclable materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., following its original use, for any purpose (including the purpose for which the oil was originally used...)) for purpose of recovery is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR part 262, subpart H, if it is subject... recycling process itself is exempt from regulation except as provided in § 261.6(d).) (2) Owners or...

  7. Requirements for the transport of surplus fissile materials in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the requirements and issues associated with the transportation of surplus fissile materials in the United States. The paper describes the materials that will be transported, the permissible modes of transport for these materials, and the safety and security requirements for each mode of transport. The paper also identifies transportation issues associated with these requirements, including the differences in requirements corresponding to who owns the material and whether the transport is on-site or off-site. Finally, the paper provides a discussion that suggests that by adopting the spent fuel standard and stored weapon standard proposed by the National Academy of Sciences, the requirements for transportation become straightforward

  8. Semiconductive Nanostructures - Materials for Spinelectronics: New Data Bank Requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paata J Kervalishvili

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscience, the interdisciplinary science that draws on physics, chemistry, biology, and computational mathematics, is still in its infancy. Control and manipulation on a nanometric scale allow the fabrication of nanostructures, the properties of which are mainly determined by quantum mechanics and differ considerably from that of the common crystalline state. Nanostructures constructed from inorganic solids such as semiconductors have new electronic and optical properties because of their size and quantization effects [1, 2]. The quantization effects reflect the fundamental characteristics of structures as soon as their size falls below a certain limit. An example of the simplest nanostructure is the quantum dot formed from the energy well of certain semiconductor materials with 5-10nm thickness sandwiched between other semiconductors with normal properties. Quantum dots, for example, have led to important novel technology for lasers, optical sensors, and other electronic devices. The application of nanolayers to data storage, switching, lighting, and other devices can lead to substantially new hardware, for example, energy cells, and eventually to the quantum-based internet. Nanoscience and nanotechnology encompass the development of nano-spinelectronics, spinelectronics materials production, and nano-spinelectronic measuring devices and technologies. Nano-spinelectronics, based on usage of magnetic semiconductors, represents a new and emerging area of science and engineering of the 21st century. It is a primary example of the creation and enhancement of new materials and devices for information technologies, operating with charge and spin degrees of freedom of carriers, free from present-day limitations. This new multi-disciplinary direction of science and technology is very much in need of support from new data banks, which will function as a source of new ideas and approaches.

  9. The changing role of Material Control and Accountability at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    As Westinghouse Savannah River Company has been faced with the challenge of better meeting DOE needs with reduced budgets and manpower, the Materials Control and Accountability (MC ampersand A) organization has taken a hard look at its roles and responsibilities. A MC ampersand A program is composed of many functions that can not only meet safeguards needs, but can be used by several organizations across the site to meet their needs as well. These functions include nuclear material measurements, tracking, accounting, and inventory control. The infrastructure in place to provide these functions for accountable nuclear materials requires only a few adjustments to expand to other areas of nuclear materials accounting and control. By integrating several organizations' requirements, the MC ampersand A section can allow line organizations to reduce their costs and rely on the section to better service their needs. On the reverse side, MC ampersand A has completed several cost reduction measures that will allow it to expand its role with no increased costs. The roles and responsibilities of the nuclear material control and accountability program should be expanded. The program's existing information infrastructure, and knowledge and experience in nuclear material measurements and safeguards can be built upon to meet the needs of new areas such as waste management and decommissioning and decontamination while continuing to support the existing processing. and storage efforts of current facilities

  10. 46 CFR 160.023-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements. 160.023-3 Section 160.023-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Combination... requirements. (a) The materials, construction, workmanship, general and detail requirements shall conform to...

  11. Special requirements for bolting material for nuclear and other special applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A specification that provides special requirements for bolting material for use in nuclear and other special applications is presented. The requirements of the specification are supplemental to the requirements of the basic material specifications and they include tempering, welding, elimination of surface defects, certification and identification, quality assurance and various examination methods

  12. Basic fracture toughness requirements for ferritic materials of nuclear class pressure retaining equipment in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Dong; Yao Weida

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, theory basis on cold brittleness and anti-brittle fracture design of ferritic materials are introduced summarily and fracture toughness requirements for ferritic materials in ASME code for nuclear safety class pressure retaining equipment in NPP are summarized and evaluated. The results show that notch impact toughness requirements for materials relate to nuclear safety class of materials so as to ensure that brittle fracture of retaining pressure boundary in NPP can not occur. (authors)

  13. The Role of Extraterrestrial Materials in the Origin of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    It has been well established for some time now that C-rich organic materials are relatively common in a number of environments in space. This is known through the telescopic detection of these materials using spectroscopy techniques in the infrared and sub-millimeter wavelength ranges and through the identification of organics in extraterrestrial materials. Extraterrestrial materials in which organics have been found include collected meteorites and interplanetary dust particles, and samples returned by NASA spacecraft from comets. These organics are produced by a variety of astrochemical processes. Despite their abiotic origins, these organic materials of are considerable interest to astrobiology for several reasons. First, organic materials of any composition are important as a means of delivering the elements C, H, O, and N to the surfaces of newly formed planets, and these elements are likely critical to the origin and subsequent evolution of life (certainly for life as we know it). In addition, it is clear that at least a portion of the organics found in space are in the form of molecules that play important roles in modern biology - for example, molecules like amino acids, amphiphiles, quinones, etc. Thus, the delivery of extraterrestrial organics to planetary surfaces brings not only bulk C, H, O, and N, but also molecular complexity in forms that are potentially useful for the origin and early evolution of life. This suggests that the production and delivery of cosmic organic compounds may have played key roles in the origin of life on Earth and, by extension, on other planets in the universe.

  14. MRP II (material requirements planning): one year later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, W L; Norman, R L

    1994-08-01

    This article addresses the continued need for the behavior change process that must be managed long after materiel requirements planning (MRP II) implementation. Mason & Hanger, Pantex Plant is the final assembly and dismantlement facility for all United States nuclear weapons. On October 1, 1990, Mason & Hanger implemented a full production cutover to MRP II. One year later, following class A certification, the MRP II implementation team is still actively managing the change process through education and training programs and overall continuous improvement initiatives. Actual behavior change problems are identified together with the proven solutions implemented in a government-owned, contractor-operated facility environment. Performance measurements ranging from senior management planning to shop floor accomplishments and cost variance reports are shown as normal management tools used to identify target improvement areas.

  15. Development of an improved radiological basis and revised requirements for the transport of LSA/SCO materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, I.L.S.; Lange, F.; Hoermann, E.; Carr, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material specify a range of package requirements that are dependent upon the activity and properties of the radioactive material being transported. For example, Type A packages can be used for the transport of material with an activity of up to one A1 of special form material and one A2 of other material. The A1 and A2 values are determined for over 350 radionuclides using the Q system in the advisory material. This system models the following pathways in the event of a severe accident: External photon dose; External beta dose; Inhalation dose; Skin and ingestion dose due to contamination transfer; Submersion dose. Industrial packages can be used for the transport of low specific activity (LSA) material and surface contaminated objects (SCO) and the particular requirements for these types of materials are derived from a simplistic radiological model that is often referred to as the 10 mg inhalation model. This is because it is based on the assumption that, in a dusty environment, an individual would inhale no more than 10 mg in such a situation, although there is limited reliable information to justify this assumption. Furthermore, there are deficiencies in the specification of some of the material requirements for LSA/SCO material in the IAEA Transport Regulations. Consequently, this can cause some difficulties for operators in complying with the regulations and to competent authorities in their compliance assurance role. Particular areas of difficulty include: It can be difficult to distinguish between LSA-type material and SCO-type; It is difficult to distinguish surface contamination from activity within the object, and between fixed and nonfixed contamination; In order to demonstrate compliance with SCO requirements, measurements of both accessible and nonaccessible contamination are required, although it is not clear how compliance with the inaccessible contamination limit can be measured if it cannot

  16. Order acceptance in food processing systems with random raw material requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, Onur A.; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Wijngaard, Jacob; Tarim, S. Armagan

    This study considers a food production system that processes a single perishable raw material into several products having stochastic demands. In order to process an order, the amount of raw material delivery from storage needs to meet the raw material requirement of the order. However, the amount

  17. 75 FR 10973 - Hazardous Materials: Risk-Based Adjustment of Transportation Security Plan Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... (explosive) material; (3) More than 1 L (1.06 qt.) per package of a material poisonous by inhalation in... controlled; and 6.1 materials poisonous by inhalation. We also proposed to require security plans for any... happens very rapidly, and in the process, the propane combines readily with air to form fuel air mixtures...

  18. 46 CFR 160.037-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals § 160.037-3 Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements. (a...

  19. 48 CFR 52.225-10 - Notice of Buy American Act Requirement-Construction Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirement-Construction Materials. 52.225-10 Section 52.225-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.225-10 Notice of Buy American Act Requirement—Construction Materials. As prescribed... Materials (FEB 2009) (a) Definitions. “Commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) item,” “construction...

  20. Critical and precious materials consumption and requirement in wind energy system in the EU 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Junbeum; Guillaume, Bertrand; Chung, Jinwook; Hwang, Yongwoo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Critical and precious materials requirement in the wind energy system in the EU 27 by 2020. - Highlights: • The critical and precious materials consumption were calculated in wind energy system in the EU 27. • The future requirement of critical and precious materials was estimated in the EU 27 by 2020. • Fluorspar, silver, magnesium, indium, gold and tantalum are the mainly used and required materials. • This research approach could be applied to other industrial sectors as well as other renewable technology. - Abstract: Critical materials as well as rare earth elements and precious metals such as platinum, gold and silver are used significantly for computer hard disk drives, mobile phones, hybrid electric vehicles, batteries, renewable energy system and many other applications. It is therefore important to quantify and estimate both current stocks and flows of such materials, as well as future requirement for industries and economies. In this study, which is focused on wind energy system in the European Union (EU) 27, the current consumption and future requirement of critical and precious materials were calculated and estimated using the wind power production dataset from ecoinvent and data from National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP). It is shown that fluorspar has been the most consumed material to date, and will probably be the most required material in the future. Among other critical and valuable materials, the main materials used for current wind energy system are silver, magnesium, indium, gold and tantalum. These materials will also be required significantly by 2020 for the wind energy system in the EU 27. It is argued that these results should be connected to the future energy and material policy and management

  1. Inkjet Printing of Functional and Structural Materials: Fluid Property Requirements, Feature Stability, and Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Brian

    2010-08-01

    Inkjet printing is viewed as a versatile manufacturing tool for applications in materials fabrication in addition to its traditional role in graphics output and marking. The unifying feature in all these applications is the dispensing and precise positioning of very small volumes of fluid (1-100 picoliters) on a substrate before transformation to a solid. The application of inkjet printing to the fabrication of structures for structural or functional materials applications requires an understanding as to how the physical processes that operate during inkjet printing interact with the properties of the fluid precursors used. Here we review the current state of understanding of the mechanisms of drop formation and how this defines the fluid properties that are required for a given liquid to be printable. The interactions between individual drops and the substrate as well as between adjacent drops are important in defining the resolution and accuracy of printed objects. Pattern resolution is limited by the extent to which a liquid drop spreads on a substrate and how spreading changes with the overlap of adjacent drops to form continuous features. There are clearly defined upper and lower bounds to the width of a printed continuous line, which can be defined in terms of materials and process variables. Finer-resolution features can be achieved through appropriate patterning and structuring of the substrate prior to printing, which is essential if polymeric semiconducting devices are to be fabricated. Low advancing and receding contact angles promote printed line stability but are also more prone to solute segregation or “coffee staining” on drying.

  2. 49 CFR 176.99 - Permit requirements for certain hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit requirements for certain hazardous materials. 176.99 Section 176.99 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Special Requirements for Barges § 176.99 Permit requirements for certain hazardous...

  3. Requirements for timber and cadmium used in shielding for fissile material transport packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This Code of Practice has been prepared as a guide for designers who require packaging for fissile materials. It should be noted that this document covers design requirements only and it is not a manufacturing specification which can be quoted on a manufacturing contract without qualification. Compliance with the regulations regarding the safe transport of fissile materials may be achieved by the provision of an effective shield embodying:- (a) a moderating material -usually one rich in hydrogen, such as wood - in order to thermalise incoming neutrons, and (b) a material - such as cadmium - with a large absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons, located between the moderator and the fissile material, in order to capture the incoming neutrons. This Code describes the requirements in two sections, one for each of these materials. (author)

  4. Transportation of hydrogen in pipelines: interaction of NDE and material requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.B.; Thompson, A.W.; Thompson, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    The role of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials used in H pipelines and storage facilities is examined. NDE techniques are available which detect critical flaws in today's natural gas lines, and which should have some success in hydrogen lines made of resistant materials. However, the critical flaws in a hydrogen line which is built of a steel whose toughness is significantly reduced in hydrogen, or which contains low-toughness defects such as weld hard spots, would be extremely difficult to detect with today's instrumentation. That instrumentation is designed to test efficiently long lengths of line with minimum disruption of service. Technology is available that would be capable of the more detailed inspection required for the smaller defects. However, the equipment might be expensive and time-consuming to operate, and these costs must be included in the overall assessment of a system using existing lines without embrittlement protection. In addition, it is evident that strong motivation exists to construct new facilities from steels with improved resistance to hydrogen

  5. IMPLEMENTASI MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PLANNING (MRP PADA PERENCANAAN PERSEDIAAN MATERIAL PANEL LISTRIK DI PT.TIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Sari Dewi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Semakin berkembangnya dunia industri perusahaan manufaktur membuat semakin ketatnya  persaingan pasar untuk mencukupi kebutuhan konsumen. Selain itu perusahaan juga dituntut untuk dapat memuaskan konsumen dengan cara  menyelesaikan pesanan konsumen tepat pada waktunya. Sehingga perlu ditunjang oleh sistem produksi yag efisien. Untuk dapat menciptakan sistem produksi yang efisien maka diperlukan suatu perencanaan yang baik. Peramalan dan perencanaan material untuk box panel menjadi alasan yang kuat untuk meminimalkan stok gudang, khususnya PT. TIS.  Adapun untuk perencanaan persediaan material box panel tersebut memerlukan peramalan yang optimal dengan memafaatkan metode Simple Moving Average (SMA dan Single Exponential Smoothing (SES. Dengan membandingkan kedua metode tersebut dihasilkan data bahwa dengan metode Simple Moving Average menghasilkan nilai eror (MAD dan MSE paling kecil, yaitu sebesar MAD 7,3 dan MSE 72. Sedangkan untuk perencanaan material menggunakan metode MRP Lot for Lot (LFL dan Fixed Order Quantity (FOQ. Hasil perbandingan kedua metode tersebut menghasilan sistem Lot for Lot lebih efisien dan sesuai diterapkan pada PT. TIS karena total biaya persediaan minimum, yaitu sebesar Rp 199.692.470.

  6. Design of intense neutron source for fusion material study and the role of universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, Shiori

    1993-01-01

    Need and requirement for the intense neutron source for fusion materials study have been discussed for many years. Recently, international climate has been becoming gradually maturing to consider this problem more seriously because of the recognition of crucial importance of solving materials problems for fusion energy development. The present symposium was designed to discuss the problems associated with the intense neutron source for material irradiation studies which will have a potential for the National Institute for Fusion Science to become one of the important future research areas. The symposium comprises five sessions; first, the role of materials research in fusion development strategies was discussed followed by a brief summary of current IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) activity. Despite the pressing need for intense fusion neutron source, currently available neutron sources are reactor or accelerator based sources of which FFTF and LASREF were discussed. Then, various concepts of intense neutron source candidates were presented including ESNIT, which are currently under design by JAERI. In the fourth session, discussions were made on the study of materials with the intense neutron source from the viewpoint of materials scientists and engineers as the user of the facility. This is followed by discussions on the role of universities from the two stand points, namely, fusion irradiation studies and fusion materials development. Finally summary discussions were made by the participants, indicating important role fundamental studies in universities for the full utilization of irradiation data and the need of pure 14 MeV neutron source for fundamental studies together with the intense surrogate neutron sources. (author)

  7. Radioactive materials and nuclear fuel transport requirements in Poland in the light of international regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musialowicz, T.

    1977-01-01

    National regulations for the transport of radioactive materials and nuclear fuel in Poland are discussed. Basic transport requirements and regulations, transport experience including transport accidents and emergency service are described. The comparison with international regulations is given

  8. System requirement specifications for the Z-plant materials information tracking system (ZMITS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NEGIN, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    This is a system requirement specification for a database which will be developed to track classified information related to nuclear materials stored at PFP. The system will supplement existing databases to support both processing and disposition information needs

  9. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 2009 ed. Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This publication establishes the regulations that are applied to the transport of radioactive material by all modes of transport on land, water or in the air, including transport that is incidental to the use of the radioactive material. The objective and scope of the regulations are described in detail as well as the range of their application. The publication provides requirements useful to governments, regulators, operators of nuclear and radiation facilities, carriers, users of radiation sources and cargo handling personnel. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Definitions; 3. General provisions; 4. Activity limits and classification; 5. Requirements and controls for transport; 6. Requirements for radioactive materials and for packagings and packages; 7. Test procedures; 8. Approval and administrative requirements; Annex I: Summary of approval and prior notification requirements; Annex II: Conversion factors and prefixes.

  10. The analysis of normative requirements to materials of PWR components, basing on LBB concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses the advisability of the correction of Norms to solve in terms of material science the Problem: how the normative requirements to materials must be changed in terms of the concept open-quotes leak before breakclose quotes (LBB)

  11. Approved requirements for the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive material by rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document specifies the detailed provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to rail transport for packages and packaging, test procedures for radioactive materials, information concerning the preparation of radioactive materials and the operation of tanks and container wagons. The Approved Requirements came into force on 1 September 1996 and are legally binding. (UK)

  12. The analysis of normative requirements to materials of PWR components, basing on LBB concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T. [CRISM Prometey, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-04-01

    The paper discusses the advisability of the correction of Norms to solve in terms of material science the Problem: how the normative requirements to materials must be changed in terms of the concept {open_quotes}leak before break{close_quotes} (LBB).

  13. The role of congress in future disposal of fissile materials from dismantled nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, W.H.; Davis, Z.S.

    1991-01-01

    Assuming the Soviet Union remains intact as a major power and the superpowers do not retrogress to a new Cold War era, it is likely that the United States and the Soviet Union will eventually agree to deep cuts in their nuclear arsenals. Future arms control agreements may be coupled with companion agreements to stop production of fissile materials for nuclear weapons, to dismantle the warheads of the nuclear weapons, and to dispose of their fissile materials to prevent reuse in new warheads. Such agreements would be negotiated by the U.S. executive branch but probably would require ratification, funding, and enabling legislation from the U.S. Congress if they are to succeed. There follows a brief review of the ideas for disposal of fissile materials from dismantled nuclear warheads and the potential role and influence of the Congress in the negotiation, ratification, and implementation of U.S.-Soviet agreements for such disposal

  14. Materials requirements for the ITER vacuum vessel and in-vessel components - approaching the construction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabash, V.; Ioki, K.; Pick, M.; Girard, J.P.; Merola, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The ITER activities are fully devoted toward its construction. In accordance with the ITER integrated project schedule, the procurement specifications for the manufacturing of the Vacuum Vessel should be prepared by March 2008 and the procurement specifications for the in-vessel components (first wall/blanket, divertor) by 2009. To update the design, considering design and technology evolution, the ITER Design Review has been launched. Among the various topics being discussed are the important issues related to selection of materials, material procurement, and assessment of performance during operation. The main requirements related to materials for the vacuum vessel and the in-vessel components are summarized in the paper. The specific licensing requirements are to be followed for structural materials of pressure and nuclear pressure equipment components for construction of ITER. In addition, the procurements in ITER will be done mostly 'in-kind' and it is assumed that materials for these components will be produced by different Parties. However, in accordance with the regulatory requirements and quality requirements for operation, common specifications and the general rules to fulfill these requirements are to be adopted. For some ITER components (e.g. first wall, divertor high heat flux components), the ultimate qualification of the joining technologies (Be/Cu, SS/Cu, CFC/Cu, W/Cu) is under final evaluation. Successful accomplishment of the qualification program will allow to proceed with procurements of the components for ITER. The criteria for acceptance of these components and materials after manufacturing are described and the main results will be reported. Additional materials issues, which come from the on-going manufacturing R and D program, will be also described. Finally, further materials activity during the construction phase, needs for final qualification and acceptance of materials are discussed. (authors)

  15. The Changing Role for Tracheostomy in Patients Requiring Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Kamran; Wahidi, Momen M

    2016-12-01

    Tracheostomy is performed in patients who require prolonged mechanical ventilation or have upper airway instability. Percutaneous tracheostomy with Ciaglia technique is commonly used and rivals the surgical approach. Percutaneous technique is associated with decreased risk of stomal inflammation, infection, and bleeding along with reduction in health resource utilization when performed at bedside. Bronchoscopy and ultrasound guidance improve the safety of percutaneous tracheostomy. Early tracheostomy decreases the need for sedation and intensive care unit stay but may be unnecessary in some patients who can be extubated later successfully. A multidisciplinary approach to tracheostomy care leads to improved outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Forging the Solution to the Energy Challenge: The Role of Materials Science and Materials Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey

    2010-05-01

    The energy challenge is central to the most important strategic problems facing the United States and the world. It is increasingly clear that even large-scale deployments of the best technologies available today cannot meet the rising energy demands of a growing world population. Achieving a secure and sustainable energy future will require full utilization of, and substantial improvements in, a comprehensive portfolio of energy systems and technologies. This goal is complicated by several factors. First, energy strategies are inextricably linked to national security and health issues. Second, in developing and deploying energy technologies, it is vital to consider not only environmental issues, such as global climate change, but also economic considerations, which strongly influence both public and political views on energy policy. Third, a significant and sustained effort in basic and applied research and development (R&D) will be required to deliver the innovations needed to ensure a desirable energy future. Innovations in materials science and engineering are especially needed to overcome the limits of essentially all energy technologies. A wealth of historical evidence demonstrates that such innovations are also the key to economic prosperity. From the development of the earliest cities around flint-trading centers, to the Industrial Revolution, to today’s silicon-based global economy, the advantage goes to those who lead in exploiting materials. I view our challenge by considering the rate of innovation and the transition of discovery to the marketplace as the relationship among R&D investment, a skilled and talented workforce, business innovations, and the activities of competitors. Most disturbing in analyzing this relationship is the need for trained workers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). To develop the STEM workforce needed for innovation, we need sustainable, positive change in STEM education at all levels from preschool

  17. The role of sustainability requirements in international bioenergy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelkmans, Luc; Goovaerts, Liesbet; Goh, Chun Sheng

    2014-01-01

    As the main driver for bioenergy is to enable society to transform to more sustainable fuel and energy production systems, it is important to safeguard that bioenergy deployment happens within certain sustainability constraints. There is currently a high number of initiatives, including binding...... regulations and several voluntary sustainability standards for biomass, bioenergy and/or biofuels. Within IEA Bioenergy studies were performed to monitor the actual implementation process of sustainability regulations and certification, evaluate how stakeholders are affected and envisage the anticipated......’ of biomass involves different policy arenas and legal settings. Policy pathways should be clear and predictable, and future revisions of sustainability requirements should be open and transparent. Sustainability assurance systems (both through binding regulations and voluntary certification) should take...

  18. Artificial implant materials - role of biomaterials in the tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowska-Szumiel, M.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture presents different materials applicable in production of implants. All these materials should be sterilized, however some of them can be modified using by irradiation (e.g. polymers). Numerous examples of tissue engineering are presented

  19. Special purpose materials: an assessment of needs and the role of these materials in the national program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.E.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Davis, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The scope of activities of the Task Group on Special Purpose Materials includes those materials requirements not specifically addressed by the other OFE materials task groups. These materials can be organized according to seven broad materials applications or functions which appear to be generic to all magnetically confined fusion reactor concepts. These are breeding materials, coolants, materials for tritium service, graphite and silicon carbide, electrical insulators and ceramics, heat-sink materials, and magnet materials. The present paper describes the importance of each of these areas of materials technology, outlines major problems or areas of uncertainty, and reviews past and current contributions to our state of understanding as it may relate to fusion power applications

  20. Basic requirements of mechanical properties for nuclear pressure vessel materials in ASME-BPV code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Dong; Yao Weida

    2011-01-01

    The four basic aspects of strengths, ductility, toughness and fatigue strengths can be summarized for overall mechanical properties requirements of materials for nuclear pressure-retaining vessels in ASME-BPV code. These mechanical property indexes involve in the factors of melting, manufacture, delivery conditions, check or recheck for mechanical properties and chemical compositions, etc. and relate to degradation and damage accumulation during the use of materials. This paper specifically accounts for the basic requirements and theoretic basis of mechanical properties for nuclear pressure vessel materials in ASME-BPV code and states the internal mutual relationships among the four aspects of mechanical properties. This paper focuses on putting forward at several problems on mechanical properties of materials that shall be concerned about during design and manufacture for nuclear pressure vessels according to ASME-BPV code. (author)

  1. Identification and summary characterization of materials potentially requiring vitrification: Background information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains background information for the Workshop in general and the presentation entitled 'Identification and Summary Characterization of Materials Potentially Requiring Vitrification' that was given during the first morning of the workshop. summary characteristics of 9 categories of US materials having some potential to be vitrified are given. This is followed by a 1-2 page elaborations for each of these 9 categories. References to more detailed information are included

  2. Guidance and methods for satisfying low specific activity material and surface contaminated object regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Boyle, R.W.; Easton, E.P.; Coodk, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have prepared a comprehensive set of draft guidance for shippers and inspectors to use when applying the newly imposed regulatory requirements for low specific activity (LSA) material and surface contaminated objects (SCOs). These requirements represent significant departures in some areas from the manner in which these materials and objects were regulated by the earlier versions of the regulations. The proper interpretation and application of the regulatory criteria can require a fairly complex set of decisions be made. To assist those trying these regulatory requirements, a detailed set of logic-flow diagrams representing decisions related to multiple factors were prepared and included in the draft report for comment on Categorizing and Transporting Low Specific Activity Materials and Surface Contaminated Objects, (DOT/NRC, 1997). These logic-flow diagrams, as developed, are specific to the U.S. regulations, but were readily adaptable to the IAEA regulations. The diagrams have been modified accordingly and tied directly to specific paragraphs in IAEA Safety Series No. 6. This paper provides the logic-flow diagrams adapted in the IAEA regulations, and demonstrated how these diagrams can be used to assist consignors and inspectors in assessing compliance of shipments with the LSA material and SCO regulatory requirements. (authors)

  3. General Approaches and Requirements on Safety and Security of Radioactive Materials Transport in Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, V.N.; Buchel'nikov, A.E.; Komarov, S.V.

    2016-01-01

    Development and implementation of safety and security requirements for transport of radioactive materials in the Russian Federation are addressed. At the outset it is worth noting that the transport safety requirements implemented are in full accordance with the IAEA's ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (2009 Edition)''. However, with respect to security requirements for radioactive material transport in some cases the Russian Federation requirements for nuclear material are more stringent compared to IAEA recommendations. The fundamental principles of safety and security of RM managements, recommended by IAEA documents (publications No. SF-1 and GOV/41/2001) are compared. Its correlation and differences concerning transport matters, the current level and the possibility of harmonization are analysed. In addition a reflection of the general approaches and concrete transport requirements is being evaluated. Problems of compliance assessment, including administrative and state control problems for safety and security provided at internal and international shipments are considered and compared. (author)

  4. 76 FR 76728 - Benefits and Burdens of Requiring Commenters To File Cited Materials in Rulemaking Proceedings as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Requiring Commenters To File Cited Materials in Rulemaking Proceedings as Further Reform To Enhance Record... materials they cite in pleadings submitted in rulemaking proceedings, so that those materials are more... should require commenters to file materials they cite in pleadings submitted in rulemaking proceedings...

  5. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material, 2005 edition. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This publication includes amendments to the 1996 Edition (As Amended 2003) arising from the second cycle of the biennial review and revision process, as agreed by the Transport Safety Standards Committee (TRANSSC) at its ninth meeting in March 2004, as endorsed by the Commission on Safety Standards at its meeting in June 2004 and as approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in November 2004. Although this publication is identified as a new edition, there are no changes that affect the administrative and approval requirements in Section VIII. The fields covered are General Provisions (radiation protection; emergency response; quality assurance; compliance assurance; non-compliance; special arrangement and training); Activity Limits and Materials Restrictions, Requirement and Controls for Transport , Requirements for Radioactive Materials and for Packagings and Packages, Test Procedures, Approval and Administrative Requirements

  6. Individual differences in children's materialism: the role of peer relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Robin; Dittmar, Helga

    2008-01-01

    Associations between materialism and peer relations are likely to exist in elementary school children but have not been studied previously. The first two studies introduce a new Perceived Peer Group Pressures (PPGP) Scale suitable for this age group, demonstrating that perceived pressure regarding peer culture (norms for behavioral, attitudinal, and material characteristics) can be reliably measured and that it is connected to children's responses to hypothetical peer pressure vignettes. Studies 3 and 4 evaluate the main theoretical model of associations between peer relations and materialism. Study 3 supports the hypothesis that peer rejection is related to higher perceived peer culture pressure, which in turn is associated with greater materialism. Study 4 confirms that the endorsement of social motives for materialism mediates the relationship between perceived peer pressure and materialism.

  7. Role of coal combustion products in sustainable construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, T.R.; Siddique, R.; Vaniker, S. [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (USA). UWM Center for Products Utilization, College of Engineering and Applied Science

    2003-07-01

    The paper describes various coal combustion products, CCPs produced in the process of power generation. These include fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag and flue gas desulfurization products. Typical test protocol used for testing, analysis and evaluation of CCPs, as well as the current best recycling use options for these materials are discussed. Materials, productions, properties, and potential applications in the manufacture of emerging materials for sustainable construction, as well as environmental impact are also briefly discussed. 47 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. 75 FR 63 - Hazardous Materials: Revision to Requirements for the Transportation of Batteries and Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... contained in equipment, fuel cell systems must not charge batteries during transport; (3) For transportation... 2137-AE54 Hazardous Materials: Revision to Requirements for the Transportation of Batteries and Battery... batteries and battery-powered devices. This final rule corrects several errors in the January 14, 2009 final...

  9. 21 CFR 111.460 - What requirements apply to holding in-process material?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding in-process material? 111.460 Section 111.460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  10. The qualification requirements for personnel carry out the testing for the pressure equipment materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojas, M.; Walczak, M.

    2006-01-01

    The article contains information about qualification requirements for personnel carry out the destructive and non-destructive testing for the pressure equipment materials based on the Directive 97/23/CE(PED). Competence laboratory carry out the testing. The responsibility lies with producer / employer. The producer / employer could elaborate the written practice procedure for qualification and certification testing personnel. (authors)

  11. The role of defects on electron behavior in graphene materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervenka, J.

    2009-01-01

    Graphene-based materials exhibit many unique physical properties that are intriguing for both fundamental science and application purposes. This thesis describes three systems of sp2 bonded carbon: graphite, graphene and fullerene, and studies the electron behavior in these materials and how it is

  12. An examination of source material requirements contained in 10 CFR Part 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, D.; Smith, D.A.; Wiblin, C.

    1992-10-01

    This report identifies issues for consideration for rule-making to update the requirements for source material in 10 CFR Part 40 and examines options for resolving these issues. The contemplated rulemaking is intended to update 10 CFR Part 40 to reflect current radiation protection principles and regulatory practices. It is expected that such an update would make requirements for the control of source material more comparable to those pertaining to byproduct material contained in 10 CFR Part 30. The newer biological data and dose calculation methodology reflected in revised 10 CFR Part 20 will be used in analyses of potential regulatory amendments. This report presents historical background information and discussion on the various issues identified and makes preliminary recommendations concerning needed regulatory changes and approaches to rulemaking

  13. New safety and security requirements for the transport of nuclear and other radioactive materials in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, T.; Horvath, K.; Safar, J.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the promulgation of mode-specific regulations of international transport of dangerous goods, some Hungarian governmental and ministerial decrees impose further conditions upon the transport of nuclear and other radioactive materials. One of these ministerial decrees on the transport, carriage and packaging of radioactive materials is under revision and it will require • approval of emergency response plan (including security and safety contingency plan); • report on transport incidents and accidents for classifying them in accordance with the INES scale; • the competent authority to request experts’ support for the approval of package designs, radioactive material designs and shipments. Regarding the security of the transport of nuclear and other radioactive materials a new Hungarian governmental decree and a related guidance are about to be published which will supply additional requirements in the field of the transport security especially concerning radioactive materials, implementing - among others - IAEA recommendations of the NSS No9 and No14. The main and relevant features of the Hungarian nuclear regulatory system and the details of both new decrees regarding the safety and security issues of transport of nuclear and other radioactive materials will be discussed. (author)

  14. Role of dental restoration materials in oral mucosal lichenoid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental restorative materials containing silver-mercury compounds have been known to induce oral lichenoid lesions. Objectives: To determine the frequency of contact allergy to dental restoration materials in patients with oral lichenoid lesions and to study the effect of removal of the materials on the lesions. Results: Forty-five patients were recruited in three groups of 15 each: Group A (lesions in close contact with dental materials, Group B (lesions extending 1 cm beyond the area of contact and Group C (no topographic relationship. Thirty controls were recruited in two groups of 15 individuals each: Group D (oral lichenoid lesions but no dental material and Group E (dental material but no oral lichenoid lesions. Patch tests were positive in 20 (44.5% patients. Mercury was the most common allergen to elicit a positive reaction in eight patients, followed by nickel (7, palladium (5, potassium dichromate (3, balsam of Peru, gold sodium thiosulphate 2 and tinuvin (2 and eugenol (1, cobalt chloride (1 and carvone (1. Seven patients elicited positive response to more than one allergen. In 13 of 20 patients who consented to removal of the dental material, complete healing was observed in 6 (30%, marked improvement in 7 (35% and no improvement in 7 (35% patients. Relief of symptoms was usually observed 3 months after removal. Limitations: Limited number of study subjects and short follow up after removal/replacement of dental restoration materials are the main limitations of this study. Conclusion: Contact allergy to amalgam is an important etiologic factor in oral lichenoid lesions and removal of restorative material should be offered to patients who have lesions in close proximity to the dental material.

  15. Assessing readability of patient education materials: current role in orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badarudeen, Sameer; Sabharwal, Sanjeev

    2010-10-01

    Health literacy is the single best predictor of an individual's health status. It is important to customize health-related education material to the individual patient's level of reading skills. Readability of a given text is the objective measurement of the reading skills one should possess to understand the written material. In this article, some of the commonly used readability assessment tools are discussed and guidelines to improve the comprehension of patient education handouts are provided. Where are we now? Several healthcare organizations have recommended the readability of patient education materials be no higher than sixth- to eighth-grade level. However, most of the patient education materials currently available on major orthopaedic Web sites are written at a reading level that may be too advanced for comprehension by a substantial proportion of the population. WHERE DO WE NEED TO GO?: There are several readily available and validated tools for assessing the readability of written materials. While use of audiovisual aids such as video clips, line drawings, models, and charts can enhance the comprehension of a health-related topic, standard readability tools cannot construe such enhancements. HOW DO WE GET THERE?: Given the variability in the capacity to comprehend health-related materials among individuals seeking orthopaedic care, stratifying the contents of patient education materials at different levels of complexity will likely improve health literacy and enhance patient-centered communication.

  16. Future semiconductor material requirements and innovations as projected in the ITRS 2005 roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arden, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The international technology roadmap for semiconductors (ITRS) is a joint global effort of the semiconductor industry, the manufacturing equipment and material industry and the research community and consortia to define the future requirements and development of the semiconductor technology for the next 15 years. The ITRS started in 1992 as a US-national roadmap and became an international effort in 1998 with all major five industrial global regions (US, Japan, Taiwan, Korea and Europe) participating in its definition. The outlook in semiconductor manufacturing expects the continuous application of silicon technology for the next 15 years where complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) based devices will carry the development of the industry at least for one more decade. New device architectures and concepts based on silicon wafer material are being developed to support the development of the IC industry for another one or two decade. The major section of the ITRS contains technical information about frontend processing and interconnects, device structures and memory concepts, lithography and metrology as well as factory integration and environmental issues. This paper will review the material requirements and the expected material innovations for the industry as outlined in the ITRS Version 2005. Materials to be discussed are, for example, high permittivity gate dielectrics, insulating layers with low dielectric constants for interconnects, and capacitor dielectrics for dynamic memories. In addition, the paper will address, for example, new transistor gate materials, new solutions for interconnect systems beyond copper as well as new starting materials for wafer sizes beyond 300 mm. This publication was presented as an invited paper in the Symposium V of the 2006 spring meeting of the European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) in Nice, May 29th

  17. The Effect of Self-Esteem on Corrupt Intention: The Mediating Role of Materialism

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yuan; Liu, Li; Tan, Xuyun; Huang, Zhenwei; Dang, Jianning; Zheng, Wenwen

    2016-01-01

    The present set of studies aimed to explore the effect of self-esteem on corrupt intention and the mediating role of materialism in generating this effect. In Study 1, we used questionnaires to investigate the correlation among self-esteem, materialism, and corrupt intention. In Study 2, we manipulated self-esteem to explore the causal effect of self-esteem on materialism and corrupt intention. In Study 3, we manipulated materialism to examine whether inducing materialism can reduce the relat...

  18. The roles of thermal insulation and heat storage in the energy performance of the wall materials: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong

    2016-04-07

    A high-performance envelope is the prerequisite and foundation to a zero energy building. The thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of a wall are two thermophysical properties that strongly influence the energy performance. Although many case studies have been performed, the results failed to give a big picture of the roles of these properties in the energy performance of an active building. In this work, a traversal study on the energy performance of a standard room with all potential wall materials was performed for the first time. It was revealed that both heat storage materials and insulation materials are suitable for external walls. However, the importances of those materials are distinct in different situations: the heat storage plays a primary role when the thermal conductivity of the material is relatively high, but the effect of the thermal insulation is dominant when the conductivity is relatively low. Regarding internal walls, they are less significant to the energy performance than the external ones, and they need exclusively the heat storage materials with a high thermal conductivity. These requirements for materials are consistent under various climate conditions. This study may provide a roadmap for the material scientists interested in developing high-performance wall materials.

  19. The role of materials in controlled thermonuclear research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craston, J L; Hancox, R; Robson, A E [U.K. Atomic Energy Authority, AERE, Harwell (United Kingdom); Kaufman, S; Miles, H T; Ware, A A; Wesson, J A [AEI Research Laboratory, Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    1958-07-01

    It is the purpose of this paper to examine the processes occurring at the wall and to discuss their importance in the choice of materials both for present equipment and for future designs. The emphasis is laid primarily on plasma contamination but other effects are considered, such as thermal stress fatigue and radiation damage of the wall. The principal problems associated with the choice of wall material for a high current discharge tube have been discussed, both under the conditions which exist in present systems and under the conditions which are anticipated in a thermonuclear reactor.

  20. Spacing Identity: The role of Spatial, Material and Social Entanglements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang Våland, Marianne; Georg, Susse

    The paper addresses the question of how architectural design and the changes in organizationalspaces and material artifacts this involves, contribute to the continuous shaping of identities in anorganization. Based upon a case study of an organizational and architectural change process in amunici...

  1. Parametric linear programming for a materials requirement planning problem solution with uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Darío Arango Serna; Conrado Augusto Serna; Giovanni Pérez Ortega

    2010-01-01

    Using fuzzy set theory as a methodology for modelling and analysing decision systems is particularly interesting for researchers in industrial engineering because it allows qualitative and quantitative analysis of problems involving uncertainty and imprecision. Thus, in an effort to gain a better understanding of the use of fuzzy logic in industrial engineering, more specifically in the field of production planning, this article was aimed at providing a materials requirement planning (MRP) pr...

  2. NRC's rulemaking to require materials licensees to be financially responsible for cleanup of accidental releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    On June 7, 1985, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) in the Federal Register to address funding for cleanup of accidents and unexpected decontamination by certain materials licensees. The NRC asked for public comment to help them determine whether to amend its regulations to require certain materials and fuel cycle licensees to demonstrate that they possess adequate financial means to pay for cleanup of accidental releases of radioactive materials. If licensees lack adequate financial resources and funds are to available for prompt cleanup, the consequences could be potentially significant for the public, the licencee and the federal government. The purpose of this paper is to explain the purpose and scope of the Commission's proposed regulatory action, as well as describing several accidents that made the Commission consider this action. Additionally, the paper will address other regulatory precedents. Finally, the paper will conclude by generally characterizing the public comments and items of concern raised by commenters

  3. The role of certified reference materials in material control and accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turel, S.P.

    1979-01-01

    One way of providing an adequate material control and accounting system for the nuclear fuel cycle is to calculate material unaccounted for (MUF) after a physical inventory and to compare the limit of error of the MUF value (LEMUF) against prescribed criteria. To achieve a meaningful LEMUF, a programme for the continuing determination of systematic and random errors is necessary. Within this programme it is necessary to achieve traceability of all Special Nuclear Material (SNM) control and accounting measurements to an International/National Measurement System by means of Certified Reference Materials. SNM measurements for control and accounting are made internationally on a great variety of materials using many diverse measurement procedures by a large number of facilities. To achieve valid overall accountability over this great variety of measurements there must be some means of relating all these measurements and their uncertainties to each other. This is best achieved by an International/National Measurement System (IMS/NMS). To this end, all individual measurement systems must be compatible to the IMS/NMS and all measurement results must be traceable to appropriate international/national Primary Certified Reference Materials. To obtain this necessary compatibility for any given SNM measurement system, secondary certified reference materials or working reference materials are needed for every class of SNM and each type of measurement system. Ways to achieve ''traceability'' and the various types of certified reference material are defined and discussed in this paper. (author)

  4. Development of thoria certified reference materials-role of NFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaji Rao, Y.; Yadav, R.B.; Ramana Rao, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper discusses the different phases of Inter Laboratory Comparison Experiments (ILCE) program for development of thoria CRMs with a special emphasis on the role played by Control Laboratory, NFC. The preparation of ThO 2 CRMs along with their importance in analysis is also explained in the paper. (author)

  5. Structural materials requirements for in-vessel components of fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, B. van der

    2000-01-01

    The economic production of fusion energy is determined by principal choices such as using magnetic plasma confinement or generating inertial fusion energy. The first generation power plants will use deuterium and tritium mixtures as fuel, producing large amounts of highly energetic neutrons resulting in radiation damage in materials. In the far future the advanced fuels, 3 He or 11 B, determine power plant designs with less radiation damage than in the first generation. The first generation power plants design must anticipate radiation damage. Solid sacrificing armour or liquid layers could limit component replacements costs to economic levels. There is more than radiation damage resistance to determine the successful application of structural materials. High endurance against cyclic loading is a prominent requirement, both for magnetic and inertial fusion energy power plants. For high efficiency and compactness of the plant, elevated temperature behaviour should be attractive. Safety and environmental requirements demand that materials have low activation potential and little toxic effects under both normal and accident conditions. The long-term contenders for fusion power plant components near the plasma are materials in the range from innovative steels, such as reduced activation ferritic martensitic steels, to highly advanced ceramic composites based on silicon carbide, and chromium alloys. The steels follow an evolutionary path to basic plant efficiencies. The competition on the energy market in the middle of the next century might necessitate the riskier but more rewarding development of SiCSiC composites or chromium alloys

  6. Quality assurance and reference material requirements and considerations for environmental sample analysis in nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindle, D.W. Jr.; Perrin, R.E.; Goldberg, S.A.; Cappis, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: High-sensitivity nuclear environmental sampling and analysis techniques have been proven in their ability to verify declared nuclear activities, as well as to assist in the detection of undeclared nuclear activities and facilities. Following the Gulf War, the capability and revealing power of environmental sampling and analysis techniques to support international safeguards was demonstrated and subsequently adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as routine safeguards measures in safeguards inspections and verifications. In addition to having been proved useful in international safeguards, environmental sampling and analysis techniques have demonstrated their utility in identifying the origins of 'orphaned' nuclear material, as well as the origin of intercepted smuggled nuclear material. Today, environmental sampling and analysis techniques are now being applied in six broad areas to support nonproliferation, disarmament treaty verification, national and international nuclear security, and environmental stewardship of weapons production activities. Consequently, more and more laboratories around the world are establishing capabilities or expanding capabilities to meet these growing applications, and as such requirements for quality assurance and control are increasing. The six areas are: 1) Nuclear safeguards; 2) Nuclear forensics/illicit trafficking; 3) Ongoing monitoring and verification (OMV); 4) Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT); 5) Weapons dismantlement/materials disposition; and 6) Research and development (R and D)/environmental stewardship/safety. Application of environmental sampling and analysis techniques and resources to illicit nuclear material trafficking, while embodying the same basic techniques and resources, does have unique requirements for sample management, handling, protocols, chain of custody, archiving, and data interpretation. These requirements are derived from needs of how data from nuclear forensics

  7. The role of phase change materials for the sustainable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuta Marta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unceasing global economic development leads to continuous increase of energy demand. Considering the limited conventional resources of energy as well as impact on the environment associated with its use, it is important to focus on the rational management of energy resources and on supporting the development of new technologies related to both conventional and renewable energy resources. In a number of cases the use of phase change materials (PCMs turns out to be a reasonable solution. This paper contains a summary of well-studied and known, previously used solutions based on phase change materials as well as novel possibilities, which are under development. It has been decided to investigate this topic due to the wide range of highly effective solutions. The review is focused on selected applications of PCMs for technologies which are designed to improve energy efficiency and on PCMs used in technologies based on renewable energy sources.

  8. Analysis of NEPA/CEQ requirements with respect to nuclear materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, K.E.L.; Welles, B.W.; Pellettieri, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the responsibility of federal agencies concerned with nuclear materials transportation decisions that come within the scope of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the requirements established by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). Two of the case histories presented in this paper focus on actions taken by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Department of Transportation (DOT). A third case history, in which the limits of environmental impact are judicially redefined, presents an analysis of NEPA application in an NRC licensing action. The decision by the US Supreme Court (April 19, 1983) disallowed psychological stress as a factor to be required in environmental analysis of federal actions. The review by the Supreme Court of environmental impact considerations required under NEPA is clearly transferable to federal actions involving transportation of nuclear materials. Of interest in these examples is the application of NEPA requirements for worst-case analysis and the employment of the rule of reason by a federal agency to determine the limits of its NEPA obligations

  9. Role of Interfaces in Mechanical Properties of Polycrystalline Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Commercial Applications · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Grain Boundary Sliding and Slip · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Role of Grain Boundaries · Superplasticity in Zirconia · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Scaling Relationship · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24 · Slide 25 · Slide 26 · Slide 27 · Slide 28 · Creep in Electrodeposited ...

  10. The role of the central registry in the safety and security of radioactive materials in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petoe, A.; Safar, J.; Turi, G.; Abonyi, T.

    2001-01-01

    After a brief overview of the Hungarian legislation and regulatory infrastructure the report provides information on the number of companies and licensees using radioactive materials and explains also the role of the established central registry of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Hungary for improving the safety and security of radioactive materials in the country. It concludes that a reliable nationwide central registry can be a very useful tool for increasing the safety and security of radiation sources and radioactive materials. (author)

  11. Sulfur and Its Role In Modern Materials Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Darryl A

    2016-12-12

    Although well-known and studied for centuries, sulfur continues to be at the center of an extensive array of scientific research topics. As one of the most abundant elements in the Universe, a major by-product of oil refinery processes, and as a common reaction site within biological systems, research involving sulfur is both broad in scope and incredibly important to our daily lives. Indeed, there has been renewed interest in sulfur-based reactions in just the past ten years. Sulfur research spans the spectrum of topics within the physical sciences including research on improving energy efficiency, environmentally friendly uses for oil refinery waste products, development of polymers with unique optical and mechanical properties, and materials produced for biological applications. This Review focuses on some of the latest exciting ways in which sulfur and sulfur-based reactions are being utilized to produce materials for application in energy, environmental, and other practical areas. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Main requirements and criteria for State nuclear material control and accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazanov, B.G.; Goryunov, V.K.; Erastov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents comments and substantiation of the main requirements and criteria for the State nuclear materials (NM) control and accounting system in the draft of the federal Main regulations of NM control and accounting. The State NM control and accounting system structure and design principles, the list of nuclear and special non-nuclear materials which are subject to the control and accounting, NM control and accounting principles are considered. Measurement system for the values for NM control and accounting and measurement assurance program, NM transfer procedures, physical inventory taking, closing a material balance and evaluation of inventory difference and balance closure of bulk form NM are shown. Accounting units in the inventory, the system accounting report documentation and preliminary notifications, the NM control and accounting arrangement, the federal and departmental control in the State NM control and accounting system, the State NM control and accounting system supervision and requirement to the personnel carrying out the NM control and accounting are discussed [ru

  13. One Generation of New Material, One Generation of New Type Engine:Development Trend of Aero-engine and Its Requirements for Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Da-xiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the brief review of accelerated developing status of aircraft power technology in the world, the present status and developing trend of key materials technology for aero-engine were analyzed. In accordance with the idea of "one generation of new material, one generation of new type engine", development requirements for the materials technology of the system and main parts of aero-engine were proposed. Suggestions for improving development and application level of the materials technology in China were presented from aspects of quality stability and technical maturity, investigation and verification for engineering, materials system and data, composite materials, airworthiness certificate,etc.

  14. Friction Reduction in Powertrain Materials: Role of Tribolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Anindya

    This study aims at understanding the micromechanisms responsible for reduction in friction and wear in the engine cylinder bore/liner materials when tested under lubricated and unlubricated conditions. The tribolayers formed in-situ during sliding contact are unique to each tribosystem and a detailed study of these tribolayers will shed light on the friction reduction mechanisms in powertrain materials. Boundary lubricated tribological performance of grey cast iron (CI) tested against non-hydrogenated diamond-like carbon coating (NH-DLC) resulted in 21% lower coefficient of friction (COF) and an order of magnitude lower volumetric wear compared to CI and steel counterfaces. Dilution of the engine oil by ethanol containing E85 biofuel, consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, was beneficial as COF and volumetric wear losses were further reduced. TEM/EELS studies of the NH-DLC counterface provided evidence for OH adsorption of the dangling carbon bonds at the coating surface leading to low friction. Advantage of E85/engine oil blend was also evident during boundary lubricated sliding of eutectic Al-12.6% Si alloy against AISI 52100 steel. The oil residue layer (ORL) formed during boundary lubricated sliding incorporated nanocrystalline regions of Al, Si, ZnS, AlPO4 and ZnO surrounded by amorphous carbon regions. Higher proportions of Zn, S, and P antiwear compounds formed in the ORL when tested using the E85/oil (1:1) blend compared to the unmixed engine oil as the hydroxyl groups in ethanol molecules facilitated ZDDP degradation. Mico-Raman spectroscopy indicated two types of tribolayers formed during unlubricated sliding of thermally sprayed low carbon steel 1010 coating deposited on linerless Al 380 cylinder bore: i) Fe2O3 layer transformed from FeO during dry sliding and ii) Fe2O3 layer with a top amorphous carbon transfer layer when run against H-DLC coated TCR with COF of 0.18. The NH- and H-DLC coatings, that provide low friction under room temperature

  15. Materializing Mind: The Role of Objects in Cognition and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tylén, Kristian; McGraw, John J.

    2014-01-01

    , and distributed cognition, we review and classify a set of cognitive processes mediated by material representations. Specifically, we ask how—in a range of everyday cognitive and cultural practices—we employ objects (1) to scaffold memory, (2) to alter cognitive complexity, (3) to facilitate epistemic......If mind is investigated as the set of interactions that accomplish a cognitive task, that is, if mind is more than that which occurs inside the head, then how does the interplay of biological and environmental resources produce human cognition? Informed by active externalism, joint action...... experimentation, (4) to enable the division of cognitive labor, (5) to promote confidence and trust, (6) to consolidate social structure, and (7) to support dialogical coupling. We conclude that through cultural practices the stable, “manipulable”, and public properties of objects have come to afford...

  16. The urgent requirement for new radioanalytical certified reference materials for nuclear safeguards, forensics, and consequence management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inn, K.G.W.; Martin Johnson, Jr.C.; Warren Oldham; Lav Tandon; Simon Jerome; Thomas Schaaff; Robert Jones; Daniel Mackney; Pam MacKill; Brett Palmer

    2013-01-01

    A multi-agency workshop was held from 25 to 27 August 2009, at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), to identify and prioritize the development of radioanalytical Certified Reference Materials (CRMs, generally provided by National Metrology Institutes; Standard Reference Materials, a CRM issued by NIST) for field and laboratory nuclear measurement methods to be used to assess the consequences of a domestic or international nuclear event. Without these CRMs, policy makers concerned with detecting proliferation and trafficking of nuclear materials, attribution and retribution following a nuclear event, and public health consequences of a nuclear event would have difficulty making decisions based on analytical data that would stand up to scientific, public, and judicial scrutiny. The workshop concentrated on three areas: post-incident Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) nuclear forensics, safeguard materials characterization, and consequence management for an IND or a Radiological Dispersion Device detonation scenario. The workshop identified specific CRM requirements to fulfill the needs for these three measurement communities. Of highest priority are: (1) isotope dilution mass spectrometry standards, specifically 233 U, 236 gNp, 244 Pu, and 243 Am, used for quantitative analysis of the respective elements that are in critically short supply and in urgent need of replenishment and certification; (2) CRMs that are urgently needed for post-detonation debris analysis of actinides and fission fragments, and (3) CRMs used for destructive and nondestructive analyses for safeguards measurements, and radioisotopes of interest in environmental matrices. (author)

  17. Regulatory requirements on management of radioactive material safe transport in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, C.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1980s, the IAEA Regulation for safe transport of radioactive material was introduced into China; the regulatory system of China began with international standards, and walked towards the institutionalized. In 2003 the National People’s Congress (NPC) promulgated “the Act on the Prevention of Radioactive Pollution of the People's Republic of China”. In 2009 “Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material” (Referred to “Regulation”) was promulgated by the State Council. Subsequently, the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) began to formulate executive detailed department rules, regulations guidelines and standards. The present system of acts, regulations and standards on management of safe transport of radioactive material in China and future planning were introduced in this paper. Meanwhile, the paper described the specific administration requirements of the Regulation on classification management of radioactive materials, license management of transport packaging including design, manufacture and use, licensing management of transport activities and the provisions of illegal behaviors arising in safe transport of radioactive material. (author)

  18. Application of the Materials Requirement Planning (MRP in the Pharmaceutical Laboratory Oriente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Saumell–Fonseca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the logistics management of any business organization the allocation of material resources is very important, both for its dynamic approach to the internal processes of the company, as the pursuit of customer satisfaction, enabling the fulfillment of their goals efficiently and effectively. In this context, are used with effective results the models of Material’s Requirements Planning (MRP which allow to plan and control the demands for materials and production capacities in companies, conjugating with orders’s delivery dates, so is a tool proven effective, especially in the conditions of the Cuban economy. The present work has as objective to apply a MRP model in drugs manufacturing in the Company Laboratory Oriente in Santiago de Cuba, based on a theoretical and practical analysis for application of MRP tool using the WinQSB software. 

  19. Requirements for near-real-time accounting of strategic nuclear materials in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Cobb, D.D.; Dietz, R.J.; Shipley, J.P.; Smith, D.B.

    1978-01-01

    A Purex-based nuclear fuel reprocessing plant has been studied for possible incorporation of near-real-time accounting to supplement conventional accounting procedures. Near-real-time accounting of special nuclear materials relies on in-line or at-line flow measurements and plutonium assay of product and waste streams, complemented by conventional analytical chemistry for daily instrument calibrations. In-line alpha monitors could be used for waste stream measurements of plutonium, even in the presence of high beta-gamma fluxes from fission products. X-ray absorption edge densitometry using either K- or L-absorption edges could be used for plutonium concentration measurements in main product streams. Some problem areas identified in waste stream measurements include measurements of leached hulls and of centrifuge sludge. Conventional analytical chemical methods for measuring plutonium in weapons grade material can be modified for reprocessed plutonium. Analytical techniques requiring special precautions will be reviewed

  20. Material characterization for morphing purposes in order to match flight requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Sebastian; Kintscher, Markus; Heintze, Olaf; Wierach, Peter; Monner, Hans-Peter; Wiedemann, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Natural laminar flow is one of the challenging aims of the current aerospace research. Main reasons for the aerodynamic transition from laminar into turbulent flow focusing on the airfoil-structure is the aerodynamic shape and the surface roughness. The Institute of Composite Structures and Adaptive Systems at the German Aerospace Center in Braunschweig works on the optimization of the aerodynamic-loaded structure of future aircrafts in order to increase their efficiency. Providing wing structures suited for natural laminar flow is a step towards this goal. Regarding natural laminar flow, the structural design of the leading edge of a wing is of special interest. An approach for a gap-less leading edge was developed to provide a gap- and step-less high quality surface suited for natural laminar flow and to reduce slat noise. In a national project the first generation of the 3D full scale demonstrator was successfully tested in 2010. The prototype consists of several new technologies, opening up the issue of matching the long and challenging list of airworthiness requirements simultaneously. Therefore the developed composite structure was intensively tested for further modifications according to meet requirements for abrasion, impact and deicing basically. The former presented structure consists completely of glass-fiber-prepreg (GFRP-prepreg). New functions required the addition of a new material-mix, which has to fit into the manufacturing-chain of the composite structure. In addition the hybrid composites have to withstand high loadings, high bending-induced strains (1%) and environmentally influenced aging. Moreover hot-wet cycling tests are carried out for the basic GFRP-structure in order to simulate the long term behavior of the material under extrem conditions. The presented paper shows results of four-points-bending-tests of the most critical section of the morphing leading edge device. Different composite-hybrids are built up and processed. An experimental

  1. Role of point defects and additives in kinetics of hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Walle, Chris

    2010-03-01

    First-principles computational studies of hydrogen interactions with storage materials can provide direct insight into the processes of H uptake and release, and may help in developing guidelines for designing storage media with improved storage capacity and kinetics. One important conclusion is that the defects involved in kinetics of semiconducting or insulating H-storage materials are charged, and hence their formation energy is Fermi-level dependent and can be affected by the presence of impurities that change the Fermi level [1,2]. This provides an explanation for the role played by transition-metal impurities in the kinetics of NaAlH4 and related materials. Desorption of H and decomposition of NaAlH4 requires not only mass transport of H but also of Al and/or Na. This process is mediated by native defects. We have investigated the structure, stability, and migration enthalpy of native defects based on density functional theory. The results allow us to estimate diffusion activation energies for the defects that may be involved in mass transport. Most of the relevant defects exist in charge states other than neutral, and consideration of these charge states is essential for a proper description of kinetics. We propose specific new mechanisms to explain the observed activation energies and their dependence on the presence of impurities. We have also expanded our studies to materials other than NaAlH4. In the case of LiBH4 and Li4BN3H10 we have found that the calculations have predictive power in terms of identifying which impurities will actually enhance kinetics. Other complex hydrides that we are currently investigating include Li2NH and LiNH2. [4pt] [1] A. Peles and C. G. Van de Walle, Phys. Rev. B 76, 214101 (2007). [0pt] [2] C. G. Van de Walle, A. Peles, A. Janotti, and G. B. Wilson-Short, Physica B 404, 793 (2009).

  2. Role of materials accounting in integrated safeguards systems for reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.; Whitty, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Integration of materials accounting and containment/surveillance techniques for international safeguards requires careful examination and definition of suitable inspector activities for verification of operator's materials accounting data. The inspector's verification procedures are designed to protect against data falsification and/or the use of measurement uncertainties to conceal missing material. Materials accounting activities are developed to provide an effective international safeguards system when combined with containment/surveillance activities described in a companion paper

  3. The role of material evidence in architectural research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The following texts explore the production of knowledge in architectural research. Focussing on a wide definition of practice led research, the aim for these texts is to discuss how the practices of architectural design; drawing, modelling, prototyping and building embody a particular set of know...... emerges are the fundamental crossovers between these practices. What we see here is that drawing is as much a practice of theoretical reflection as one of detailing, prototyping as much one of physical as conceptual testing.......The following texts explore the production of knowledge in architectural research. Focussing on a wide definition of practice led research, the aim for these texts is to discuss how the practices of architectural design; drawing, modelling, prototyping and building embody a particular set...... of knowledges that inform architectural thinking. Architectural reflection is allied with it media. It is through the drawing, the model and the built that architecture is conceived and developed. In practice based research working through design means reflecting through the production of material evidence...

  4. The Role of Solid Lubricants for Brake Friction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Österle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review article comprises of three parts. Firstly, reports of brake manufacturers on the beneficial impact of solid lubricants for pad formulations are surveyed. Secondly, since tribofilms were identified to play a crucial role in friction stabilization and wear reduction, the knowledge about tribofilm structures formed during automotive braking was reviewed comprehensively. Finally, a model for simulating the sliding behavior of tribofilms is suggested and a review on modelling efforts with different model structures related to real tribofilms will be presented. Although the variety of friction composites involved in commercial brake systems is very broad, striking similarities were observed in respect to tribofilm nanostructures. Thus, a generalization of the tribofilm nanostructure is suggested and prerequisites for smooth sliding performance and minimal wear rates have been identified. A minimum of 13 vol % of soft inclusions embedded in an iron oxide based tribofilm is crucial for obtaining the desired properties. As long as the solid lubricants or their reaction products are softer than magnetite, the main constituent of the tribofilm, the model predicts smooth sliding and minimum wear.

  5. The role of materiality in apprenticeships: the case of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, Thomas; Maat, Harro; Wals, Arjen; Richards, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Jaarsma, T., Maat, H., Richards, P., & Wals, A. (2011). The role of materiality in apprenticeships: The case of the suame magazine, kumasi, ghana. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 63(3), 439-449.

  6. Physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials. Safeguards and the role of the IAEA in physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolej, M.

    1999-01-01

    The physical protection and security of nuclear facilities and materials concerns utilities, manufactures, the general public, and those who are responsible for licensing and regulating such facilities. The requirements and process to ensure an acceptable physical protection and security system have been evolutionary in nature. This paper reviews the first step of such process: the State's safeguards system and the international safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), including the relationship between these two safeguards systems. The elements of these systems that are reviewed include the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material, physical protection measures, and containment and surveillance measures. In addition, the interactions between the State, the facility operator, and the IAEA are described. The paper addresses the IAEA safeguards system, including material accountancy and containment and surveillance; the State safeguards system, including material control and accountancy, and physical protection; the role of the IAEA in physical protection; a summary of safeguards system interactions.(author)

  7. 48 CFR 52.225-12 - Notice of Buy American Act Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. 52.225-12 Section 52.225-12 Federal Acquisition...—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. As prescribed in 25.1102(d)(1), insert the following provision: Notice of Buy American Act Requirement—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements (FEB 2009) (a...

  8. Teaching materials and the roles of EFL/ESL teachers practice and theory

    CERN Document Server

    McGrath, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Teaching Materials and the Roles of EFL/ESL Teachers is published amidst a decade long increase in academic publications and training courses concerned with the evaluation and design of English language teaching materials. It is timely to consider what effect the advice on offer has had on teachers' practice. Are teachers evaluating materials carefully, using textbooks in the ways expected by textbook writers, developing their own materials, and mediating between materials and learners in the ways advised in the professional literature? The book explores these issues from a variety of

  9. Report Summarizing the Effort Required to Initiate Welding of Irradiated Materials within the Welding Cubicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, Greg [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Sutton, Benjamin J. [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Tatman, Jonathan K. [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Vance, Mark Christopher [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Allen W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clark, Scarlett R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feng, Zhili [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, Roger G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chen, Jian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tang, Wei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hu, Xunxiang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gibson, Brian T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The advanced welding facility within a hot cell at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which has been jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy, Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and the Electric Power Research Institute, Long Term Operations Program and the Welding and Repair Technology Center, is in the final phase of development. Research and development activities in this facility will involve direct testing of advanced welding technologies on irradiated materials in order to address the primary technical challenge of helium induced cracking that can arise when conventional fusion welding techniques are utilized on neutron irradiated stainless steels and nickel-base alloys. This report details the effort that has been required since the beginning of fiscal year 2017 to initiate welding research and development activities on irradiated materials within the hot cell cubicle, which houses welding sub-systems that include laser beam welding (LBW) and friction stir welding (FSW) and provides material containment within the hot cell.

  10. Tritium retention in candidate next-step protection materials: engineering key issues and research requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, G.; Andrew, P.L.; Wu, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Although a considerable volume of valuable data on the behaviour of tritium in beryllium and carbon-based armours exposed to hydrogenic fusion plasmas has been compiled over the past years both from operation of present-day tokamaks and from laboratory simulations, knowledge is far from complete and tritium inventory predictions for these materials remain highly uncertain. In this paper we elucidate the main mechanisms responsible for tritium trapping and release in next-step D-T tokamaks, as well as the applicability of some of the presently known data bases for design purposes. Owing to their strong anticipated implications on tritium uptake and release, attention is focused mainly on the interaction of tritium with neutron damage induced defects, on tritium codeposition with eroded carbon and on the effects of oxide and surface contaminants. Some preliminary quantitative estimates are presented based on most recent experimental findings and latest modelling developments as well. The influence of important working conditions such as target temperature, loading particle fluxes, erosion and redeposition rates, as well as material characteristics such as the type of morphology of the protection material (i.e. amorphous plasma-sprayed beryllium vs. solid forms), and design dependent parameters are discussed in this paper. Remaining issues which require additional effort are identified. (orig.)

  11. Development of materialism in adolescence: The longitudinal role of life satisfaction among Chinese youths

    OpenAIRE

    Ku, L.

    2014-01-01

    The present research tests the longitudinal role of life satisfaction on materialism among Chinese adolescents, and provides empirical evidence to support the theorisation that materialism develops as compensation for dissatisfaction with life. Study 1 establishes that the negative relationship between life satisfaction and materialism is present and similar among the younger (N = 516; M = 12.94 years) and the older adolescents (N = 531; M = 16.57 years). A two-wave survey (Study 2) finds no ...

  12. The analysis of normative requirements to materials of VVER components, basing on LBB concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T. [CRISM Prometey, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-04-01

    The paper demonstrates an insufficiency of some requirements native Norms (when comparing them with the foreign requirements for the consideration of calculating situations): (1) leak before break (LBB); (2) short cracks; (3) preliminary loading (warm prestressing). In particular, the paper presents (1) Comparison of native and foreign normative requirements (PNAE G-7-002-86, Code ASME, BS 1515, KTA) on permissible stress levels and specifically on the estimation of crack initiation and propagation; (2) comparison of RF and USA Norms of pressure vessel material acceptance and also data of pressure vessel hydrotests; (3) comparison of Norms on the presence of defects (RF and USA) in NPP vessels, developments of defect schematization rules; foundation of a calculated defect (semi-axis correlation a/b) for pressure vessel and piping components: (4) sequence of defect estimation (growth of initial defects and critical crack sizes) proceeding from the concept LBB; (5) analysis of crack initiation and propagation conditions according to the acting Norms (including crack jumps); (6) necessity to correct estimation methods of ultimate states of brittle an ductile fracture and elastic-plastic region as applied to calculating situation: (a) LBB and (b) short cracks; (7) necessity to correct estimation methods of ultimate states with the consideration of static and cyclic loading (warm prestressing effect) of pressure vessel; estimation of the effect stability; (8) proposals on PNAE G-7-002-86 Norm corrections.

  13. Quantifying and Addressing the DOE Material Reactivity Requirements with Analysis and Testing of Hydrogen Storage Materials & Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Y. F. [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The objective of this project is to examine safety aspects of candidate hydrogen storage materials and systems being developed in the DOE Hydrogen Program. As a result of this effort, the general DOE safety target will be given useful meaning by establishing a link between the characteristics of new storage materials and the satisfaction of safety criteria. This will be accomplished through the development and application of formal risk analysis methods, standardized materials testing, chemical reactivity characterization, novel risk mitigation approaches and subscale system demonstration. The project also will collaborate with other DOE and international activities in materials based hydrogen storage safety to provide a larger, highly coordinated effort.

  14. 21 CFR 111.113 - What quality control operations are required for a material review and disposition decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for a... Production and Process Control System: Requirements for Quality Control § 111.113 What quality control operations are required for a material review and disposition decision? (a) Quality control personnel must...

  15. Questioning the Role of Requirements Engineering in the Causes of Safety-Critical Software Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Many software failures stem from inadequate requirements engineering. This view has been supported both by detailed accident investigations and by a number of empirical studies; however, such investigations can be misleading. It is often difficult to distinguish between failures in requirements engineering and problems elsewhere in the software development lifecycle. Further pitfalls arise from the assumption that inadequate requirements engineering is a cause of all software related accidents for which the system fails to meet its requirements. This paper identifies some of the problems that have arisen from an undue focus on the role of requirements engineering in the causes of major accidents. The intention is to provoke further debate within the emerging field of forensic software engineering.

  16. Role of Fabrication on Materials Compatibility in APT Target/Blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, N.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Dunn, K.; Fisher, D.L.

    1998-09-01

    This paper summarizes several of the options associated with the fabrication of selected target/blanket components. In addition, the materials characterization technologies required to validate these components performance is presented

  17. Materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available . It is generally included as part of a structurally insulated panel (SIP) where the foam is sandwiched between external skins of steel, wood or cement. Cement composites Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials. These products... for their stone buildings, including the Egyptians, Aztecs and Inca’s. As stone is a very dense material it requires intensive heating to become warm. Rocks were generally stacked dry but mud, and later cement, can be used as a mortar to hold the rocks...

  18. A case study on determining air monitoring requirements in a radioactive materials handling area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; Bechtold, W.E.; Hoover, M.D.; Ghanbari, F.; Herring, P.S.; Jow, Hong-Nian

    1993-01-01

    A technical, defensible basis for the number and placement of air sampling instruments in a radioactive materials handling facility was developed. Historical air sampling data, process and physicochemical knowledge, qualitative smoke dispersion studies with video documentation, and quantitative trace gas dispersion studies were used to develop a strategy for number and placement of air samplers. These approaches can be used in other facilities to provide a basis for operational decisions. The requirements for retrospective sampling, personal sampling, and real-time monitoring are included. Other relevant operational decisions include selecting the numbers, placement, and appropriate sampling rates for instruments, identifying areas of stagnation or recirculation, and determining the adequacy and efficiency of any sampling transport lines. Justification is presented for using a graded approach to characterizing the workplace and determining air sampling and monitoring needs

  19. Schedules of requirements for the transport of specified types of radioactive material consignments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    These Schedules have been prepared as a companion document to the 1985 Edition of the Transport Regulations (Safety Series No. 6). As presented here, the Schedules also reflect the corrections and changes implemented by the 1986 Supplement to the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Direct cross-referencing to the paragraphs, tables and figures in the Regulations is made, and the use of both the International System of Units (SI) and the formerly accepted, traditional units is continued. In many cases, due to rounding off the numbers, the two values for a given parameter for the two units may differ somewhat. To move toward international use of SI units and to avoid inconsistencies, the values for the SI units are controlling in all cases. These Schedules are provided only as an aid to users of the Regulations and the provisions of the Regulations take precedence over the Schedules. These Schedules also serve as a generic model of the Schedules which are part of modal international regulatory documents, such as the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the European Agreement Concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) and the International Convention Concerning the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (CIM/RID). For regulatory purposes, reference shall be made to the detailed provisions of the Regulations specified in Safety Series No. 6. The Schedules do not reproduce the provisions of the Regulations in detail nor do they contain any additional requirements. They merely provide a summary of the main provisions for each specified type of radioactive material, references being provided to the relevant detailed provisions of the Regulations to enable these to be consulted where necessary. A table summarizing package, shipment approval, and notification requirements of the Regulations is provided

  20. Shape memory alloy wires turn composites into smart structures: I. Material requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrooten, Jan; Michaud, Veronique J.; Zheng, Yanjun; Balta-Neumann, J. Antonio; Manson, Jan-Anders E.

    2002-07-01

    Composites containing thin Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wires show great potential as materials able to adapt their shape, thermal behavior or vibrational properties to external stimuli. The functional properties of SMA-composites are directly related to the constraining effect of the matrix on the reversible martensitic transformation of the embedded pre-strained SMA wires. The present work reports results of a concerted European effort towards a fundamental understanding of the manufacturing and design of SMA composites. This first part investigates the transformational behavior of constrained SMA wires and its translation into functional properties of SMA composites. Thermodynamic and thermomechanical experiments were performed on SMA wires. A model was developed to simulate the thermomechanical behavior of the wires. From the screening of potential wires it was concluded that NiTiCu, as well as R-phase NiTi appeared as best candidates. Requirements for the host composite materials were surveyed. A Kevlar-epoxy system was chosen. Finally, the quality of the SMA wire-resin interface was assessed by two different techniques. These indicated that a thin oxide layer seems to provide the best interfacial strength. A temperature window in which SMA composites can be safely used was also defined. The manufacturing and properties of the SMA composites will be discussed in Part II.

  1. European DEMO divertor target: Operational requirements and material-design interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. You

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an integrated program of conceptual design activities for the European DEMO reactor was launched in the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium, where reliable power handling capability was identified as one of the most critical scientific as well as technological challenges for a DEMO reactor. The divertor is the key in-vessel plasma-facing component being in charge of power exhaust and removal of impurity particles. The DEMO divertor target will have to withstand extreme thermal loads where the local peak heat flux is expected to reach up to 20 MW/m2 during slow transient events in DEMO. To assure sufficient heat removal capability of the divertor target against normal and transient operational scenarios under expected cumulative neutron dose of up to 13 dpa is one of the fundamental engineering challenges imposed on target design. To develop the design of the DEMO divertor and related technologies, an R&D work package ‘Divertor’ has been set up in this consortium. The subproject ‘Target Development’ is devoted to the development of the conceptual design and the core technologies of the plasma-facing target. Devising and implementing novel structural heat sink materials (e.g. W/Cu composites to advanced target design concepts is one of the major objectives of this subproject. In this paper, the underlying design requirements imposed by the envisaged power exhaust goal and the prominent material-design interface issues are discussed. In addition, the candidate design concepts being currently considered are presented together with the related material issues. Finally, the first results achieved so far are presented.

  2. Pilot program to assess proposed basic quality assurance requirements in the medical use of byproduct materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, E.; Nelson, K.; Meinhold, C.B. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1991-10-01

    In January 1990, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proposed amendments to 10 CFR Part 35 that would require medical licensees using byproduct material to establish and implement a basic quality assurance program. A 60-day real-world trial of the proposed rules was initiated to obtain information beyond that generally found through standard public comment procedures. Volunteers from randomly selected institutions had opportunities to review the details of the proposed regulations and to implement these rules on a daily basis during the trial. The participating institutions were then asked to evaluate the proposed regulations based on their personal experiences. The pilot project sought to determine whether medical institutions could develop written quality assurance programs that would meet the eight performance-based objectives of proposed Section 35.35. In addition, the NRC wanted to learn from these volunteers if they had any recommendations on how the rule could be revised to minimized its cost and to clarify its objectives without decreasing its effectiveness. It was found that licensees could develop acceptable QA programs under a performance-based approach, that most licensee programs did meet the proposed objectives, and that most written QA plans would require consultations with NRC or Agreement State personnel before they would fully meet all objectives of proposed Section 35.35. This report describes the overall pilot program. The methodology used to select and assemble the group of participating licensees is presented. The various workshops and evaluation questionnaires are discussed, and detailed findings are presented. 7 refs.

  3. Pilot program to assess proposed basic quality assurance requirements in the medical use of byproduct materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, E.; Nelson, K.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1991-10-01

    In January 1990, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proposed amendments to 10 CFR Part 35 that would require medical licensees using byproduct material to establish and implement a basic quality assurance program. A 60-day real-world trial of the proposed rules was initiated to obtain information beyond that generally found through standard public comment procedures. Volunteers from randomly selected institutions had opportunities to review the details of the proposed regulations and to implement these rules on a daily basis during the trial. The participating institutions were then asked to evaluate the proposed regulations based on their personal experiences. The pilot project sought to determine whether medical institutions could develop written quality assurance programs that would meet the eight performance-based objectives of proposed Section 35.35. In addition, the NRC wanted to learn from these volunteers if they had any recommendations on how the rule could be revised to minimized its cost and to clarify its objectives without decreasing its effectiveness. It was found that licensees could develop acceptable QA programs under a performance-based approach, that most licensee programs did meet the proposed objectives, and that most written QA plans would require consultations with NRC or Agreement State personnel before they would fully meet all objectives of proposed Section 35.35. This report describes the overall pilot program. The methodology used to select and assemble the group of participating licensees is presented. The various workshops and evaluation questionnaires are discussed, and detailed findings are presented. 7 refs

  4. Routine inspection effort required for verification of a nuclear material production cutoff convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Sanborn, J.

    1994-12-01

    Preliminary estimates of the inspection effort to verify a Nuclear Material Cutoff Convention are presented. The estimates are based on (1) a database of about 650 facilities a total of eight states, i.e., the five nuclear-weapons states and three ''threshold'' states; (2) typical figures for inspection requirements for specific facility types derived from IAEA experience, where applicable; and (3) alternative estimates of inspection effort in cutoff options where full IAEA safeguards are not stipulated. Considerable uncertainty must be attached to the effort estimates. About 50--60% of the effort for each option is attributable to 16 large-scale reprocessing plants assumed to be in operation in the eight states; it is likely that some of these will be shut down by the time the convention enters into force. Another important question involving about one third of the overall effort is whether Euratom inspections in France and the U.K. could obviate the need for full-scale IAEA inspections at these facilities. Finally, the database does not yet contain many small-scale and military-related facilities. The results are therefore not presented as predictions but as the consequences of alternative assumptions. Despite the preliminary nature of the estimates, it is clear that a broad application of NPT-like safeguards to the eight states would require dramatic increases in the IAEA's safeguards budget. It is also clear that the major component of the increased inspection effort would occur at large reprocessing plants (and associated plutonium facilities). Therefore, significantly bounding the increased effort requires a limitation on the inspection effort in these facility types

  5. SB certification handout material requirements, test methods, responsibilities, and minimum classification levels for mixture-based specification for flexible base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    A handout with tables representing the material requirements, test methods, responsibilities, and minimum classification levels mixture-based specification for flexible base and details on aggregate and test methods employed, along with agency and co...

  6. Information or resolution: Which is required from an SEM to study bulk inorganic materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Q

    2016-11-01

    Significant technological advances in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been achieved over the past years. Different SEMs can have significant differences in functionality and performance. This work presents the perspectives on selecting an SEM for research on bulk inorganic materials. Understanding materials demands quantitative composition and orientation information, and informative and interpretable images that reveal subtle differences in chemistry, orientation/structure, topography, and electronic structure. The capability to yield informative and interpretable images with high signal-to-noise ratios and spatial resolutions is an overall result of the SEM system as a whole, from the electron optical column to the detection system. The electron optical column determines probe performance. The roles of the detection system are to capture, filter or discriminate, and convert signal electrons to imaging information. The capability to control practical operating parameters including electron probe size and current, acceleration voltage or landing voltage, working distance, detector selection, and signal filtration is inherently determined by the SEM itself. As a platform for various accessories, e.g. an energy-dispersive spectrometer and an electron backscatter diffraction detector, the properties of the electron optical column, specimen chamber, and stage greatly affect the performance of accessories. Ease-of-use and ease-of-maintenance are of practical importance. It is practically important to select appropriate test specimens, design suitable imaging conditions, and analyze the specimen chamber geometry and dimensions to assess the overall functionality and performance of an SEM. For an SEM that is controlled/operated with a computer, the stable software and user-friendly interface significantly improve the usability of the SEM. SCANNING 38:864-879, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Role of Outgassing of ITER Vacuum Vessel In-Wall Shielding Materials in Leak Detection of ITER Vacuum Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, A.; Pathak, H. A.; Mehta, B. K.; Phull, G. S.; Laad, R.; Shaikh, M. S.; George, S.; Joshi, K.; Khan, Z.

    2017-04-01

    ITER Vacuum Vessel is a torus-shaped, double wall structure. The space between the double walls of the VV is filled with In-Wall Shielding Blocks (IWS) and Water. The main purpose of IWS is to provide neutron shielding during ITER plasma operation and to reduce ripple of Toroidal Magnetic Field (TF). Although In-Wall Shield Blocks (IWS) will be submerged in water in between the walls of the ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV), Outgassing Rate (OGR) of IWS materials plays a significant role in leak detection of Vacuum Vessel of ITER. Thermal Outgassing Rate of a material critically depends on the Surface Roughness of material. During leak detection process using RGA equipped Leak detector and tracer gas Helium, there will be a spill over of mass 3 and mass 2 to mass 4 which creates a background reading. Helium background will have contribution of Hydrogen too. So it is necessary to ensure the low OGR of Hydrogen. To achieve an effective leak test it is required to obtain a background below 1 × 10-8 mbar 1 s-1 and hence the maximum Outgassing rate of IWS Materials should comply with the maximum Outgassing rate required for hydrogen i.e. 1 x 10-10 mbar 1 s-1 cm-2 at room temperature. As IWS Materials are special materials developed for ITER project, it is necessary to ensure the compliance of Outgassing rate with the requirement. There is a possibility of diffusing the gasses in material at the time of production. So, to validate the production process of materials as well as manufacturing of final product from this material, three coupons of each IWS material have been manufactured with the same technique which is being used in manufacturing of IWS blocks. Manufacturing records of these coupons have been approved by ITER-IO (International Organization). Outgassing rates of these coupons have been measured at room temperature and found in acceptable limit to obtain the required Helium Background. On the basis of these measurements, test reports have been generated and got

  8. The Effect of Self-Esteem on Corrupt Intention: The Mediating Role of Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Liu, Li; Tan, Xuyun; Huang, Zhenwei; Dang, Jianning; Zheng, Wenwen

    2016-01-01

    The present set of studies aimed to explore the effect of self-esteem on corrupt intention and the mediating role of materialism in generating this effect. In Study 1, we used questionnaires to investigate the correlation among self-esteem, materialism, and corrupt intention. In Study 2, we manipulated self-esteem to explore the causal effect of self-esteem on materialism and corrupt intention. In Study 3, we manipulated materialism to examine whether inducing materialism can reduce the relationship between self-esteem and corrupt intention. The three studies converged to show that increased self-esteem caused a low level of materialism, which in turn decreased corrupt intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  9. The Effect of Self-Esteem on Corrupt Intention: The Mediating Role of Materialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Liu, Li; Tan, Xuyun; Huang, Zhenwei; Dang, Jianning; Zheng, Wenwen

    2016-01-01

    The present set of studies aimed to explore the effect of self-esteem on corrupt intention and the mediating role of materialism in generating this effect. In Study 1, we used questionnaires to investigate the correlation among self-esteem, materialism, and corrupt intention. In Study 2, we manipulated self-esteem to explore the causal effect of self-esteem on materialism and corrupt intention. In Study 3, we manipulated materialism to examine whether inducing materialism can reduce the relationship between self-esteem and corrupt intention. The three studies converged to show that increased self-esteem caused a low level of materialism, which in turn decreased corrupt intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:27462297

  10. 46 CFR 164.009-3 - Noncombustible materials not requiring specific approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for... noncombustible materials may be used in merchant vessel construction though not specifically approved under this subpart: (a) Sheet glass, block glass, clay, ceramics, and uncoated fibers. (b) All metals, except...

  11. Conceptual design of a system for nuclear material control in a research centre according to the IAEA safeguards requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueker, H.; Kotte, U.; Stein, G.

    1976-01-01

    In comparison with other facilities handling nuclear material, a nuclear research centre is characterized by a wider spectrum of operations. This requires a number of installations within the centre such as research reactors, critical assemblies, research institutes and central departments, operating, in general, independently of each other. Nuclear material is stored and processed in small quantities and in different chemical and physical configurations within prescribed license areas. The conceptual design of a new system for nuclear material control in a research centre has to consider the operator's and IAEA's safeguards requirements. Using the example of the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre in the Federal Republic of Germany, these requirements are being examined in conjunction with the specified peculiarities of a nuclear research centre. Following this, a division of the research centre into material balance areas and key measurement points is being proposed, based on the existing facilities and licence areas. The essential characteristic of the concept is a far-reaching displayability of the inventory and flow of nuclear material. The availability of information is based on differentiated material accountancy in conjunction with adequate measurement of nuclear material data. For data processing and generation of data, a computerized record and report system is to be provided as well as a central measurement system. The design of an integrated accountancy system with a central computer and remote terminals is described; various measuring appliances, now being developed or tested, for the non-destructive assay of nuclear material are specified. The functions of a central department for nuclear material management for operating these systems are discussed and the planned verification of nuclear material in the different material balance areas illustrated. On applying the measures described in this paper, the conceptual design of a system for nuclear material

  12. A role for research ethics committees in exchanges of human biospecimens through material transfer agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Donald; Nicol, Dianne; Nicolás, Pilar; Zeps, Nikolajs

    2014-09-01

    International transfers of human biological material (biospecimens) and data are increasing, and commentators are starting to raise concerns about how donor wishes are protected in such circumstances. These exchanges are generally made under contractual material transfer agreements (MTAs). This paper asks what role, if any, should research ethics committees (RECs) play in ensuring legal and ethical conduct in such exchanges. It is recommended that RECs should play a more active role in the future development of best practice MTAs involving exchange of biospecimens and data and in monitoring compliance.

  13. 30 CFR 250.108 - What requirements must I follow for cranes and other material-handling equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements must I follow for cranes and... Performance Standards § 250.108 What requirements must I follow for cranes and other material-handling equipment? (a) All cranes installed on fixed platforms must be operated in accordance with American...

  14. 49 CFR 173.427 - Transport requirements for low specific activity (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport requirements for low specific activity... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.427 Transport requirements for low specific... must be transported in accordance with the following conditions: (1) The external dose rate may not...

  15. 10 CFR 32.26 - Gas and aerosol detectors containing byproduct material: Requirements for license to manufacture...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: Requirements for license to manufacture, process, produce, or initially transfer. 32.26 Section 32.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS... byproduct material: Requirements for license to manufacture, process, produce, or initially transfer. An...

  16. Reduction of minimum required weight of cementitious materials in WisDOT concrete mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the feasibility of lowering the cementitious materials content : (CMC) used in Wisconsin concrete pavement construction. The cementitious materials studied included : portland cement, fly ash, and ground granulate...

  17. Reduction of minimum required weight of cementitious materials in WisDOT concrete mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "This project was designed to explore the feasibility of lowering the cementitious materials content : (CMC) used in Wisconsin concrete pavement construction. The cementitious materials studied included : portland cement, fly ash, and ground granulat...

  18. 46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (15 Minutes) § 160.057-3 Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance...

  19. 46 CFR 160.062-3 - Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-3 Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance...

  20. 46 CFR 160.031-3 - Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-3 Materials, construction, workmanship, and...

  1. 46 CFR 160.036-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, workmanship, construction and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-3 Materials, workmanship, construction and...

  2. 46 CFR 160.040-3 - Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Impulse-Projected Rocket Type (and Equipment) § 160.040-3 Materials, construction, workmanship...

  3. 46 CFR 160.024-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.024-3 Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance...

  4. 46 CFR 160.058-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, workmanship, construction and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Desalter Kits, Sea Water, for Merchant Vessels § 160.058-3 Materials, workmanship, construction and performance...

  5. Experimental clogging of biliary endoprostheses. Role of bacteria, endoprosthesis material, and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowidar, N; Kolmos, H J; Matzen, Peter

    1992-01-01

    with a low friction coefficient, such as Teflon, contained significantly less sludge than endoprostheses made of materials with a higher friction coefficient, such as polyethylene and polyurethane (p less than 0.05). These results emphasize the role of bacteria in endoprostheses clogging and clearly...

  6. The role and use of materials-testing reactors in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomez, Gerard; Mas, Pierre

    1981-01-01

    The authors outline the role played by polyvalent materials-testing reactors in France - in the area of primary and applied research - in neutronic irradiation production and the acquisition and diffusion of nuclear know-how. They then go on to describe the fields of application of these reactors [fr

  7. The Mediating Role of Materialism on the Relationship between Values and Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevgili, Fatma; Cesur, Sevim

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between values and consumption, and to adduce the mediating roles of materialism in this association. Values have been investigated through Schwartz's main value dimensions in his Theory of Human Values: Self-Enhancement, Self-Transcendence, Openness to Change and Conservation. Through…

  8. Hysteresis in magnetic materials: the role of structural disorder, thermal relaxation, and dynamic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertotti, G.; Basso, V.; Beatrice, C.; LoBue, M.; Magni, A.; Tiberto, P.

    2001-01-01

    An overview is given of the present understanding of hysteresis phenomena in magnetic materials. The problem is addressed from three approximate viewpoints: the connection between rate-independent hysteresis and micromagnetics; the modifications brought into this picture by thermal relaxation effects; the role of rate-dependent magnetization mechanisms, like eddy-current-damped domain wall motion

  9. The Role of Comic Reading Materials in Enhancing the Ability to Read in EFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozafzai, Zahra Sadat

    2012-01-01

    Reading is an extremely active, complex, mental and personal process that concerns both the reader and the text. It is now generally believed that a range of reader with text factors affect the reading process to a considerable extent. So, teachers of EFL need to be aware of the important role of teaching materials. Thus, this study investigated…

  10. The role of supramolecular chemistry in stimuli responsive and hierarchically structured functional organic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Broer, D.J.; Debije, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In this review, we show the important role of supramolecular chemistry in the fabrication of stimuli responsive and hierarchically structured liquid crystalline polymer networks. Supramolecular interactions can be used to create three dimensional order or as molecular triggers in materials

  11. The role of elastic energy in activities with high force and power requirements: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jacob M; Flanagan, Eamonn P

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide strength and conditioning practitioners with an understanding of the role of elastic energy in activities with high force and power requirements. Specifically, the article covers 1) the nature of elasticity and its application to human participants, 2) the role of elastic energy in activities requiring a stretch-shorten cycle such as the vertical jump, 3) the role of muscular stiffness in athletic performance, 4) the control of muscular stiffness through feedforward and feedback mechanisms, and 5) factors affecting muscular stiffness. Finally, practical applications are provided. In this section, it is suggested that the storage and reuse of elastic energy is optimized at relatively higher levels of stiffness. Because stiffness decreases as fatigue ensues as well as with stretching before an event, the article emphasizes the need for proper preparation phases in a periodized cycle and the avoidance of long static stretches before high-force activities. The importance of teaching athletes to transition from eccentric to concentric movements with minimal time delays is also proposed due to the finding that time delays appear to decrease the reuse of elastic energy. In addition to teaching within the criterion tasks, evidence is provided that minimizing transitions in plyometric training, a technique demonstrated to increase musculotendinous stiffness, can optimize power output in explosive movements. Finally, evidence is provided that training and teaching programs designed to optimize muscular stiffness may protect athletes against sports-related injuries.

  12. Cognitive Connected Vehicle Information System Design Requirement for Safety: Role of Bayesian Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Khan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent transportation systems (ITS are gaining acceptance around the world and the connected vehicle component of ITS is recognized as a high priority research and development area in many technologically advanced countries. Connected vehicles are expected to have the capability of safe, efficient and eco-driving operations whether these are under human control or in the adaptive machine control mode of operations. The race is on to design the capability to operate in connected traffic environment. The operational requirements can be met with cognitive vehicle design features made possible by advances in artificial intelligence-supported methodology, improved understanding of human factors, and advances in communication technology. This paper describes cognitive features and their information system requirements. The architecture of an information system is presented that supports the features of the cognitive connected vehicle. For better focus, information processing capabilities are specified and the role of Bayesian artificial intelligence is defined for data fusion. Example applications illustrate the role of information systems in integrating intelligent technology, Bayesian artificial intelligence, and abstracted human factors. Concluding remarks highlight the role of the information system and Bayesian artificial intelligence in the design of a new generation of cognitive connected vehicle.

  13. Peculiarities in covering the requirements for seed material of sorghum crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. І. Мельник

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the demand for sorghum seed material and sufficiency of domestic seeds. Results. The analysis of the State register for the period of 2002–2012 showed that there was the tendency not only towards increasing quantity of sorghum crops in general but their substitution by hybrids of foreign breeding. During the period from 2002 to 2017, 72 sorghum varieties were entered on the State register in total, among them only 12 varieties were of domestic breeding, the rest 60 was presented by foreign breeding institutions. Investigation results allowed to determine that the production of base and prebase seeds of sorghum in 2010 amounted to 1,3 t, in 2016 was 43 t. During the same period the production of sugar sorghum increased from 0,2 to 12,0 t, grass sorghum – from 4,0 to 83 t. In 2017, requirements of acreage of such crops as grass sorghum and broomcorn were completely satisfied by the amount of grown seeds. At the same time, the need for seeds of sorghum and sugar sorghum can not be covered completely at the expense of domestic varieties reproduction. In 2017, general demand for sorghum seeds was 400,5 t, among which only 42,0 t was of domestic production. The rest demand for seeds will be met at the expense of import of foreign breeding seeds into the country to be grown and prepared for sowing abroad. Conclusions. In the Register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine, there are 72 sorghum varieties among them only 12 varieties were of domestic breeding, that is 17%, as compared to 83% of recommended great sorghum varieties of foreign breeding. In Ukraine, the area occupied by sorghum cultivation was 22,8 thou ha in 2005, up to 2017 it increased to 89,0 thou ha, and accordingly the demand for seeds run up from 102,6 to 400,5 t. The area occupied by the sugar sorghum in 2005 amounted to only 2,6 thou ha, in 2017 – 20,0 thou ha, that accordingly determined increase of demand for seed material from 13,0 to 99

  14. The role of materials in the analysis of fast breeder reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, Michel; Petrequin, Pierre.

    1982-09-01

    The analysis of fast breeder reactor components involves the knowledge of certain properties of the materials used. The latter consist of the following: - a body of data required for calculations, including allowable stresses and fatigue strength, as well as the rules applicable to these data, - a number of qualitative requirements serving to guarantee that the quality of the material fully justifies the use of the previously established elements. This duality of concerns is illustrated by some recent examples which occured during the construction of the Super Phenix reactor [fr

  15. Design of the breeder units in the new HCPB modular blanket concept and material requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccaccini, L.V.; Fischer, U.; Hermsmeyer, S.; Reimann, J.; Xu, Z.; Koehly, C.

    2004-01-01

    ; according to the experience from the old design no major problems are expected concerning stress levels and gap formation in the pebble beds; in fact, the situation should be more favourable due to the reduced dimensions (max. 20 cm) of the beds that should minimise ratcheting and particle flow phenomena. In respect to tritium extraction, the most favourable features of the HCPB concept (e.g. an overall low partial pressure of tritium in the beds that minimise permeation into the main coolant system) can be kept in the new design; a complication could be the necessity to provide each cell with a system of tubes to inlet the purge helium in the front part of the beds or to divide the purge flow for Be and CB. The modular design of the new HCPB blanket, that makes the breeder units almost independent on the structural design of the box, opens interesting possibilities in the development of these units. The present design can be optimised on the basis of the results of the present R and D programme on Be and CB. In addition, new requirements could appear to improve the design performances or manufacturing: i.e. in respect to filling procedures of the beds (use of pre-packed breeder units) or the necessity of insulating layer to thermally decouple the breeder units from the box or the selection of new materials with a better compatibility with Be and CB at high temperatures as protection of the steel structure. (author)

  16. Experimental clogging of biliary endoprostheses. Role of bacteria, endoprosthesis material, and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowidar, N; Kolmos, H J; Matzen, Peter

    1992-01-01

    in an in vitro model, evaluating the role of bacteria, endoprosthesis design, and material in sludge formation. We found endoprostheses perfused with artificially contaminated bile to contain significantly more sludge than those perfused with sterile bile (p less than 0.05). The amount of sludge varied...... with a low friction coefficient, such as Teflon, contained significantly less sludge than endoprostheses made of materials with a higher friction coefficient, such as polyethylene and polyurethane (p less than 0.05). These results emphasize the role of bacteria in endoprostheses clogging and clearly......The major problem facing patients treated with biliary endoprostheses is their frequent clogging, necessitating their exchange. Clogged endoprostheses contain mainly bacteria embedded in an amorphous proteinaceous material with the occasional presence of food fibres. We studied this problem...

  17. Roles and Responsibilities, and Education and Training Requirements for Clinically Qualified Medical Physicists (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This publication addresses the shortfall of well trained and clinically qualified medical physicists working in radiation medicine. The roles, responsibilities and clinical training requirements of medical physicists have not always been well defined or well understood by health care professionals, health authorities and regulatory agencies. To fill this gap, this publication provides recommendations for the academic education and clinical training of clinically qualified medical physicists, including recommendations for their accreditation certification and registration, along with continuous professional development. The goal is to establish criteria that support the harmonization of education and clinical training worldwide

  18. Experiencing the Elicitation of User Requirements and Recording Them in Use Case Diagrams through Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costain, Gay; McKenna, Brad

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a role-play exercise used in a second-year tertiary Systems Analysis and Design course, and the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the students' responses to a survey that solicited their perceptions of that role-play experience. The role-play involved students in eliciting user requirements from customers during a Joint…

  19. Development of guidance on applications of regulatory requirements for low specific activity materials and surface contaminated objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Easton, E.P.; Shankman, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    In 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency issued revised regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. Significant among the changes were major revisions to requirements for Low Specific Activity (LSA) material and Surface Contaminated Objects (SCOs). In preparation for the adoption of these requirements into regulations in the United States, it became apparent that guidance on how to apply these requirements, clarifying technical uncertainties and ensuring proper implementation, would be needed both by the regulators and those regulated. Thus, the US Department of Transportation and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are preparing regulatory guidance for LSA material and SCO transport. The guidance will present examples of acceptable methods for demonstrating compliance with the revised rules. Ideas being investigated for inclusion in the pending guidance are discussed in this paper. Under current plans, the guidance will be issued for public comment prior to final issuance of the guidance in 1997

  20. Development of guidance on applications of regulatory requirements for low specific activity materials and surface contaminated objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Easton, E.P.; Shankman, S.F.; Boyle, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    In 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency issued revised regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. Significant among the changes were major revisions to requirements for Low Specific Activity (LSA) material and Surface Contaminated Objects (SCOs). In preparation for the adoption of these requirements into regulations in the United States, it became apparent that guidance on how to apply these requirements, clarifying technical uncertainties and ensuring proper implementation, would be needed both by the regulators and those regulated. Thus, the US Department of Transportation and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are preparing regulatory guidance for LSA material and SCO transport. The guidance will present examples of acceptable methods for demonstrating compliance with the revised rules. Ideas being investigated for inclusion in the pending guidance are discussed in this paper. Under current plans, the guidance will be issued for public comment prior to final issue of the guidance in 1997. (Author)

  1. Materials Science Research Hardware for Application on the International Space Station: an Overview of Typical Hardware Requirements and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S.; Fiske, M. R.; Srinivas, R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the lead center for Materials Science Microgravity Research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a key development effort underway at MSFC. The MSRF will be the primary facility for microgravity materials science research on board the International Space Station (ISS) and will implement the NASA Materials Science Microgravity Research Program. It will operate in the U.S. Laboratory Module and support U. S. Microgravity Materials Science Investigations. This facility is being designed to maintain the momentum of the U.S. role in microgravity materials science and support NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise goals and objectives for Materials Science. The MSRF as currently envisioned will consist of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR), which will be deployed to the International Space Station (ISS) in phases, Each rack is being designed to accommodate various Experiment Modules, which comprise processing facilities for peer selected Materials Science experiments. Phased deployment will enable early opportunities for the U.S. and International Partners, and support the timely incorporation of technology updates to the Experiment Modules and sensor devices.

  2. Employers’ Perspectives on Future Roles and Skills Requirements for Australian Health Librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Hamill

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study, which comprises one stage of a larger project (ALIA/HLA Workforce and Education Research Project, aimed to discover employers’ views on how (or whether health librarians assist in achieving the mission-critical goals of their organizations; how health librarians contribute to the organization now and into the future; and what are the current and future skills requirements of health librarians.Methods – Each member of the project group approached between one and five individuals known to them to generate a convenience sample of 22 employers of health librarians. There were 15 semi-structured interviews conducted between October and November 2010 with employers in the hospital, academic, government, private, consumer health and not-for-profit sectors. The interview schedule was sent to each interviewee prior to the interview so that they had time to consider their responses. The researchers wrote up the interview notes using the interview schedule and submitted them to the principal researcher, who combined the data into one document. Content analysis of the data was used to identify major themes.Results – Employers expressed a clear sense of respect for the roles and responsibilities of library staff in their organizations. Areas of practice such as education and training, scientific research and clinical support were highlighted as critical for the future. Current areas of practice such as using technology and systems to manage information, providing information services to meet user needs and management of health information resources in a range of formats were identified as remaining highly relevant for the future. There was potential for health librarians to play a more active and strategic role in their organizations, and to repackage their traditional skill sets for anticipated future roles. Interpersonal skills and the role of health librarians as the interface between clinicians and information technology

  3. The effect of using low-polluting building materials on ventilation requirements and energy use in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.; Frontczak, M. (International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK)); Knudsen, Henrik N. (Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg Univ., Hoersholm (DK))

    2007-07-01

    The main objective of the ongoing research project described in this paper was to study the potential for reducing energy used for ventilating buildings by using low-polluting building materials, without compromising the indoor air quality. To quantify this potential, the exposure-response relationships, i.e. the relationships between ventilation rate and perceived indoor air quality, were established for rooms furnished with different categories of polluting materials and the simulations of energy used for ventilation were carried out. The exposure-response relationships were based on a summary of data reported in the literature on exposure-response relationships for materials tested in laboratory settings in small-scale glass chambers, and in full-scale in climate chambers, test rooms or normal offices. New experiments were also considered in which the effect of using low-polluting materials on perceived air quality was examined in test rooms ventilated with different outdoor air supply rates, low-polluting materials being selected in small glass chambers. The results suggest that the exposure-response relationships vary between different building materials and that the perceived air quality can be improved considerably when polluting building materials are substituted with materials that pollute less. The preliminary energy simulations indicate that selecting low-polluting materials will result in considerable energy savings as a result of reducing the ventilation rates required to achieve acceptable indoor air quality. (au)

  4. The role played by the Coulombic traction for an interface crack in dissimilar piezoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qun; Chen Yiheng

    2008-01-01

    The role played by the Coulombic traction for an interface crack in dissimilar piezoelectric materials is clarified. Based on the extended Stroh theory, the Coulombic traction, usually neglected in piezoelectric fracture, is imposed on the interface crack surfaces. It is found that the low-capacitance medium (air or vacuum) inside the crack gap yields some large Coulombic traction as compared to the applied mechanical loading whether the remanent polarization of piezoelectric material is considered or not. Thus, previous investigations based on the traction-free condition underestimate the role of the Coulombic traction and in turn may yield unexpected errors for the effective stress intensity factor (SIF) and energy release rate (ERR) at the crack tip. (technical note)

  5. Meeting Radiation Protection Requirements and Reducing Spacecraft Mass - A Multifunctional Materials Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Rojdev, Kristina; Franklin, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Both crew and radio-sensitive systems, especially electronics must be protected from the effects of the space radiation environment. One method of mitigating this radiation exposure is to use passive-shielding materials. In previous vehicle designs such as the International Space Station (ISS), materials such as aluminum and polyethylene have been used as parasitic shielding to protect crew and electronics from exposure, but these designs add mass and decrease the amount of usable volume inside the vehicle. Thus, it is of interest to understand whether structural materials can also be designed to provide the radiation shielding capability needed for crew and electronics, while still providing weight savings and increased useable volume when compared against previous vehicle shielding designs. In this paper, we present calculations and analysis using the HZETRN (deterministic) and FLUKA (Monte Carlo) codes to investigate the radiation mitigation properties of these structural shielding materials, which includes graded-Z and composite materials. This work is also a follow-on to an earlier paper, that compared computational results for three radiation transport codes, HZETRN, HETC, and FLUKA, using the Feb. 1956 solar particle event (SPE) spectrum. In the following analysis, we consider the October 1989 Ground Level Enhanced (GLE) SPE as the input source term based on the Band function fitting method. Using HZETRN and FLUKA, parametric absorbed doses at the center of a hemispherical structure on the lunar surface are calculated for various thicknesses of graded-Z layups and an all-aluminum structure. HZETRN and FLUKA calculations are compared and are in reasonable (18% to 27%) agreement. Both codes are in agreement with respect to the predicted shielding material performance trends. The results from both HZETRN and FLUKA are analyzed and the radiation protection properties and potential weight savings of various materials and materials lay-ups are compared.

  6. Future materials requirements for the high-energy-intensity production of aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, B. J.; Hyland, M. M.; James, B. J.

    2001-02-01

    Like all metallurgical industries, aluminum smelting has been under pressure from two fronts—to give maximum return on investment to the shareholders and to comply with environmental regulations by reducing greenhouse emissions. The smelting process has advanced by improving efficiency and productivity while continuing to seek new ways to extend the cell life. Materials selection (particularly the use of more graphitized cathodic electrodes) has enabled lower energy consumption, while optimization of the process and controlling in a narrow band has enabled increases in productivity and operations at higher current densities. These changes have, in turn, severely stressed the materials used for cell construction, and new problems are emerging that are resulting in a reduction of cell life. The target for aluminum electro-winning has been to develop an oxygen-evolving electrode, rather than one that evolves substantial amounts of carbon dioxide. Such an electrode, when combined with suitable wettable cathode material developments, would reduce operating costs by eliminating the need for frequent electrode change and would enable more productive cell designs and reduce plant size. The materials specifications for developing these are, however, an extreme challenge. Those specifications include minimized corrosion rate of any electrode into the electrolyte, maintaining an electronically conducting oxidized surface that is of low electrical resistance, meeting the metal purity targets, and enabling variable operating current densities. Although the materials specifications can readily be written, the processing and production of the materials is the challenge.

  7. 14 CFR Appendix O to Part 121 - Hazardous Materials Training Requirements For Certificate Holders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... K of this chapter. The training requirements for various categories of persons are defined by job... to persons actually performing the job function. Training requirements for certificate holders.... The method of delivering the training will be determined by the certificate holder. The certificate...

  8. Uranium refining in South Africa. The production of uranium trioxide, considering raw material properties and nuclear purity requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colborn, R.P.; Bayne, D.L.G.; Slabber, M.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conventional practice results in raw materials being delivered to the uranium refineries in a form more suitable for transportation than for processing, and therefore the refineries are required to treat these raw materials to produce an acceptable intermediate feed stock. During this treatment, it is advantageous to include a purification step to ensure that the feed stock is of the required purity for nuclear grade uranium hexafluoride production, and this usually results in ammonium diuranate slurries of the required quality being produced as the intermediate feed stock. All subsequent processing steps can therefore be standardized and are effectively independent of the origin of the raw materials. It is established practice in South Africa to transport uranium as an ammonium diuranate slurry from the various mines to the Nufcor central processing plant for UOC production, and therefore the process for the production of uranium hexafluoride in South Africa was designed to take cognizance of existing transport techniques and to accept ammonium diuranate slurries as the raw material. The South African refinery will be able to process these slurries directly to uranium trioxide. This paper discusses the conditions under which the various ammonium diuranate raw materials, exhibiting a wide range of properties, can be effectively processed to produce a uranium trioxide of acceptably consistent properties. Mention is also made of the uranium hexafluoride distillation process adopted

  9. 48 CFR 52.216-30 - Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition without...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition without Adequate Price Competition. 52.216... Price Competition. As prescribed in 16.601(e)(2), insert the following provision: Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition Without Adequate Price Competition (FEB...

  10. IAEA's role in achieving and assuring safety in the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The results of the radiological impact studies, the data on shipments and the feedback from compliance assurance actions will help identify any shortcomings or weaknesses in the Regulations. The Advisory Material and the Explanatory Material, by amplifying the various requirements and elaborating the purpose and reason(s) for them, will help users understand the Regulations. These documents may also help motivate users. Quality Assurance will help prevent problems in the implementation process. Compliance Assurance will detect and lead to the rectification of failures in the implementation process. The data transfer on Certificates will aid in stopping the use of unsafe packages. 17 references

  11. The role of nanotechnology in the development of battery materials for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Chen, Zonghai; Ma, Zifeng; Pan, Feng; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Khalil

    2016-12-06

    A significant amount of battery research and development is underway, both in academia and industry, to meet the demand for electric vehicle applications. When it comes to designing and fabricating electrode materials, nanotechnology-based approaches have demonstrated numerous benefits for improved energy and power density, cyclability and safety. In this Review, we offer an overview of nanostructured materials that are either already commercialized or close to commercialization for hybrid electric vehicle applications, as well as those under development with the potential to meet the requirements for long-range electric vehicles.

  12. Supplement to the approved requirements for the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive material by rail. Packaging, Labelling and Carriage of Radioactive Material by Rail Regulations 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The ADR and RID Framework Directives require EC member states' arrangements for the carriage of dangerous goods on domestic road and rail journeys to align with the existing ADR and RID agreements which cover international journeys by road and rail. Because ADR and RID are updated every two years in line with technical and scientific developments, the ADR/RID Framework Directives are also revised on a two-year cycle, to require member states to amend their implementing legislation accordingly. In Great Britain, these two Directives were initially implemented on 1 September 1996 via regulations (usually referred to as the 'carriage regulations'), containing the general legal duties, supported by approved documents, and an Approved Code of Practice containing the detailed technical requirements. The following approved documents have been updated: (a) Approved Vehicle Requirements (AVR) - L89; (b) Approved Requirements and test methods for the classification and packaging of dangerous goods for carriage (ARTM) - L88; (c) Approved Requirements for the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive material by rail (ARCRR) - L94; (d) Approved Requirements for the construction of vehicles intended for the carriage of explosives by road (AEVR) - L92; and (e) Approved Carriage List (ACL) - L90

  13. Pathogenetic role of Factor VII deficiency and thrombosis in cross-reactive material positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, A; Sambado, L; Bonamigo, E; Ferrari, S; Lombardi, A M

    2013-12-01

    Congenital Factor VII (FVII) deficiency can be divided into two groups: cases of "true" deficiency, or cross-reactive material (CRM) negative and variants that are cross-reactive material positive.The first form is commonly recognized as Type I condition whereas the second one is known as Type II. FVII deficiency has been occasionally associated with thrombotic events, mainly venous. The reasons underlying this peculiar manifestation are unknown even though in the majority of associated patients thrombotic risk factors are present. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if a thrombotic event was more frequent in Type I or in Type II defect.The majority of patients with FVII deficiency and thrombosis belong to Type II defects. In the following paper we discuss the possible role of the dysfunctional FVII cross-reaction material as a contributory cause for the occurrence of thrombosis.

  14. Materialism and addictive buying in women: the mediating role of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-López, José Manuel; Villardefrancos, Estíbaliz

    2013-08-01

    There is empirical evidence regarding the interrelationships between materialism, negative emotions, and addictive buying. The aim of this study was to clarify the direction of the relationships among these variables. Specifically, the main objective was to explore the possible mediating roles of anxiety and depression in the link between materialism and addictive buying. Path analysis results, using a sample of 685 women, generally supported the suitability of the proposed model in which anxiety and depression mediated the effects of the materialism dimensions, "importance" and "success," on addictive buying, and that depression also mediates the influence of the "importance" and "happiness" dimensions. Moreover, a direct effect of the importance dimension on addictive buying was found.

  15. Three roles for textiles as tangible working materials in co-design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz

    2012-01-01

    Textiles are increasingly complex materials used in a growing number of applications, e. g. in architecture. The textile industry must therefore engage with other professions when developing both textiles and products of which textiles are a part. In this article, we argue that tools taken from...... the field of participatory design represent a potential for staging such co-design situations and report on our experience from a co-design process where architects, engineers and textile experts engaged in designing future textile solutions for Danish hospital environments. During this process we used what...... we call tangible working materials to stage the collaboration between the stakeholders engaged as co-designers. Our experience using the tangible working materials showed us that they can be divided into three types, with different attributes and roles in the design process: real, mediating...

  16. The role of the micro environment on the tribological behavior of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    The paper reviews studies of the role of the microenvironment in the adhesion, friction, and wear behavior of materials in solid-state contact. The microenvironment is defined as the environment on the surface of solids in solid-state contact. Properties of the environment are discussed which exert an influence on the adhesion, friction, wear, and lubrication of materials in contact. The effect of the environment on lubricants and their properties is considered with respect to the interaction of lubricants with material surfaces in contact; the effect on the ability of lubricants to provide protective surface films is also considered. It is concluded that naturally occurring oxides are probably the best available natural solid-film lubricants.

  17. Material properties requirements for LMFBR structural design: General considerations and data needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, C E [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Purdy, C M [U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (United States)

    1977-07-01

    A statement is given of material properties information needed in connection with the structural design technology for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) primary circuit components. Implementation of current analysis methods and criteria is considered with an emphasis on data and data correlations for performing elastic-plastic and creep analyses, for establishing allowable stress limits, and for computing creep-fatigue damage. Further development of the technology is discussed in relation to properties information. Emphasis is placed on improved constitutive equations for representing inelastic material behavior, on procedures for treating time-dependent fatigue, and on criteria for creep rupture. The properties are generally discussed without regard to specific alloys, since most categories of information are needed for each major structural material. Some sample experimental results are given for type 304 stainless steel and 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel. (author)

  18. Material properties requirements for LMFBR structural design: general considerations and data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, C.E.; Purdy, C.M.

    1977-01-01

    A statement is given of material properties information needed in connection with the structural design technology for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) primary circuit components. Implementation of current analysis methods and criteria is considered with an emphasis on data and data correlations for performing elastic-plastic and creep analyses, for establishing allowable stress limits, and for computing creep-fatigue damage. Further development of the technology is discussed in relation to properties information. Emphasis is placed on improved constitutive equations for representing inelastic material behavior, on procedures for treating time-dependent fatigue, and on criteria for creep rupture. The properties are generally discussed without regard to specific alloys, since most categories of information are needed for each major structural material. Some sample experimental results are given for type 304 stainless steel and 2 1 / 4 Cr-1 Mo steel

  19. Material property requirements for application leak-before-break technology on nuclear power plant high-energy piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chengliang; Deng Xiaoyun; Yin Zhiying; Liu Meng

    2012-01-01

    The application of leak-before-break (LBB) technology on nuclear power plant high-energy piping systems can improve their safety and economy, while propose some new requirements on testing material properties. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's LBB related standard review plan and implementation specifications were analyzed, and test items, object, temperature, quantity and thermal aging effect of five general requirements were summarized. In addition, four key testing technical requirements, such as specimen size, side grooves, strain range and the orientation of specimens were also discussed to ensure the test data usefulness, representativeness and integrity. This study can provide some guidance for the aforementioned test program on domestic materials. (authors)

  20. Graded approach for establishment of QA requirements for Type B packaging of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, R.R.; Woodruff, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    A study that was conducted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the U.S. Congress to assess the effectiveness of quality assurance (QA) activities has demonstrated a need to modify and improve the application of QA requirements for the nuclear industry. As a result, the packaging community, along with the nuclear industry as a whole, has taken action to increase the efficacy of the QA function. The results of the study indicate that a graded approach for establishing QA requirements is the preferred method. The essence of the graded approach is the establishment of applicable QA requirements to an extent consistent with the importance to safety of an item, component, system, or activity. This paper describes the process that is used to develop the graded approach for QA requirements pertaining to Type B packaging

  1. Hybrid supply chain model for material requirement planning under financial constraints: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Vita; Dassisti, Michele; Josefa, Mula Bru; Manuel, Díaz Madroñero

    2014-10-01

    Supply chain model (SCM) are potentially capable to integrate different aspects in supporting decision making for enterprise management tasks. The aim of the paper is to propose an hybrid mathematical programming model for optimization of production requirements resources planning. The preliminary model was conceived bottom-up from a real industrial case analysed oriented to maximize cash flow. Despite the intense computational effort required to converge to a solution, optimisation done brought good result in solving the objective function.

  2. Generic Planning and Control of Automated Material Handling Systems: Practical Requirements Versus Existing Theroy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, S.W.A.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Schuur, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of generic planning and control of Automated Material Handling Systems (AMHSs). The paper illustrates the relevance of this research direction, and then addresses three different market sectors where AMHSs are used. These market sectors are: baggage handling,

  3. Analysis of requirements for teaching materials based on the course bioinformatics for plant metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balqis, Widodo, Lukiati, Betty; Amin, Mohamad

    2017-05-01

    A way to improve the quality of learning in the course of Plant Metabolism in the Department of Biology, State University of Malang, is to develop teaching materials. This research evaluates the needs of bioinformatics-based teaching material in the course Plant Metabolism by the Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate (ADDIE) development model. Data were collected through questionnaires distributed to the students in the Plant Metabolism course of the Department of Biology, University of Malang, and analysis of the plan of lectures semester (RPS). Learning gains of this course show that it is not yet integrated into the field of bioinformatics. All respondents stated that plant metabolism books do not include bioinformatics and fail to explain the metabolism of a chemical compound of a local plant in Indonesia. Respondents thought that bioinformatics can explain examples and metabolism of a secondary metabolite analysis techniques and discuss potential medicinal compounds from local plants. As many as 65% of the respondents said that the existing metabolism book could not be used to understand secondary metabolism in lectures of plant metabolism. Therefore, the development of teaching materials including plant metabolism-based bioinformatics is important to improve the understanding of the lecture material in plant metabolism.

  4. Guide relative to the regulatory requirements applicable to the radioactive materials transport in airport area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    This guide makes an inventory of all the points necessary for the correct functioning of the transport of radioactive materials in airport zone. Stowage of the parcels, program of radiological protection (P.R.P.), operation of transport, quality assurance, radiation dose evaluation, radiation monitoring, dose optimization, storage management, are the principal points of this guide. (N.C.)

  5. Generic planning and control of automated material handling systems : practical requirements versus existing theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, S.W.A.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Schuur, Peter; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem to design a generic planning and control architecture for utomated material handling systems (AMHSs). We illustrate the relevance of this research direction, and then address three different market sectors where AMHSs are used, i.e., baggage handling, distribution,

  6. 77 FR 17394 - Hazardous Materials: Approval and Communication Requirements for the Safe Transportation of Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... seat-belt pretensioner devices to a capacity not greater than fifty (50) percent of the drum's total... transported; transportation operations conducted under a special permit; the potential for broad application... utilized by 31 grantees with no known safety problems. A review of the Hazardous Materials Incident Data...

  7. Routine inspection effort required for verification of a nuclear material production cutoff convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.; Fainberg, A.; Sanborn, J.; Allentuck, J.; Sun, C.

    1996-11-01

    On 27 September 1993, President Clinton proposed open-quotes... a multilateral convention prohibiting the production of highly enriched uranium or plutonium for nuclear explosives purposes or outside of international safeguards.close quotes The UN General Assembly subsequently adopted a resolution recommending negotiation of a non-discriminatory, multilateral, and internationally and effectively verifiable treaty (hereinafter referred to as open-quotes the Cutoff Conventionclose quotes) banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons. The matter is now on the agenda of the Conference on Disarmament, although not yet under negotiation. This accord would, in effect, place all fissile material (defined as highly enriched uranium and plutonium) produced after entry into force (EIF) of the accord under international safeguards. open-quotes Productionclose quotes would mean separation of the material in question from radioactive fission products, as in spent fuel reprocessing, or enrichment of uranium above the 20% level, which defines highly enriched uranium (HEU). Facilities where such production could occur would be safeguarded to verify that either such production is not occurring or that all material produced at these facilities is maintained under safeguards

  8. 10 CFR 32.18 - Manufacture, distribution and transfer of exempt quantities of byproduct material: Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture, distribution and transfer of exempt... COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.18 Manufacture, distribution and transfer of exempt quantities of...

  9. The role of the airline industry in the safe and efficient carriage of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouchaar, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    For the transport of dangerous goods, including radioactive material, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) - representing its member airlines - works towards greater standardization, streamlining of traffic-handling procedures, more automation, reduced government-clearance procedures and documentary requirements, improved handling at airports, and adequate terminal facilities. The paper provides an overview of how IATA works with other international agencies to accomplish these goals and how it reflects the IAEA Transport Regulations in the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations. (author)

  10. Study of different roles phosphorescent material played in different positions of organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keke, Gu; Jian, Zhong; Jiule, Chen; Yucheng, Chen; Ming, Deng

    2013-09-01

    Phosphorescent materials are crucial to improve the luminescence and efficiency of organic light emitting diodes (OLED), because its internal quantum efficiency can reach 100%. So the studying of optical and electrical properties of phosphorescent materials is propitious for the further development of phosphorescent OLED. Phosphorescent materials were generally doped into different host materials as emitting components, not only played an important role in emitting light but also had a profound influence on carrier transport properties. We studied the optical and electrical properties of the blue 4,4'-bis(2,2-diphenylvinyl)-1,1'-biphenyl (DPVBi)-based devices, adding a common yellow phosphorescent material bis[2-(4- tert-butylphenyl)benzothiazolato- N,C2'] iridium(acetylacetonate) [( t-bt)2Ir(acac)] in different positions. The results showed ( t-bt)2Ir(acac) has remarkable hole-trapping ability. Especially the ultrathin structure device, compared to the device without ( t-bt)2Ir(acac), had increased the luminance by about 60%, and the efficiency by about 97%. Then introduced thin 4,4'-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) host layer between DPVBi and ( t-bt)2Ir(acac), and got devices with stable white color.

  11. Fracture toughness requirements of reactor vessel material in evaluation of the safety analysis report of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widia Lastana Istanto

    2011-01-01

    Fracture toughness requirements of reactor vessel material that must be met by applicants for nuclear power plants construction permit has been investigated in this paper. The fracture toughness should be described in the Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) document that will be evaluated by the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN). Because BAPETEN does not have a regulations or standards/codes regarding the material used for the reactor vessel, especially in the fracture toughness requirements, then the acceptance criteria that applied to evaluate the fracture toughness of reactor vessel material refers to the regulations/provisions from the countries that have been experienced in the operation of nuclear power plants, such as from the United States, Japan and Korea. Regulations and standards used are 10 CFR Part 50, ASME and ASTM. Fracture toughness of reactor vessel materials are evaluated to ensure compliance of the requirements and provisions of the Regulatory Body and the applicable standards, such as ASME or ASTM, in order to assure a reliability and integrity of the reactor vessels as well as providing an adequate safety margin during the operation, testing, maintenance, and postulated accident conditions over the reactor vessel lifetime. (author)

  12. Capital requirements for the transportation of energy materials: 1979 ARC estimates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-28

    TERA's estimates of capital requirements to transport natural gas, crude oil, petroleum products, and coal in the US by 1990 are presented. It is a continuation of a 1978 study (EAPA 5:3946) to perform a similar analysis on 1979 scenarios. Scenarios B, C, and D from the EIA's Mid-range Energy Forecasting Systems, as used in the 1979 Annual Report to Congress (ARC), were provided as a basis for the analysis and represent three alternative futures. Summaries of transportation investment requirements through 1990 are given for Scenarios B, C, and D. Total investment requirements for the three models (pipelines, railroads, waterways) and the three energy commodities (coal, petroleum, petroleum products, natural gas) are estimated to range between $35.3 and $42.7 billion by 1990 depending on the scenario.

  13. Reprocessing and disposal of used lubricating and process materials. requirements, problems, and solution methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzke, U D

    1978-02-01

    A discussion covers West German laws concerning used oil disposal and re-refining (316,000 tons were reprocessed in 1976); disposal of sulfuric acid resins or tar and fuller's earth containing mineral oils by solidification (with added lime, alkali ash, clay, etc.) or pyrolysis; disposal of rolling mill scale and sludge containing oil and grease by rolling with a solid carbonaceous material and processing to high-grade sponge iron; and the breaking of oil-water emulsions.

  14. War games: using MRP (material requirements planning) audits to pinpoint problems and keep the competitive edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S H; Yocus, T E

    1994-05-01

    In today's world, it is a challenge just to stay in business, let alone remain competitive in a specific industry. We will show you how to pinpoint MRP II problems and attack them through self-assessment audits. You will discover the secrets of breaking down barriers between Master Schedulers, Material Planners, Production Control Planners, and the Manufacturing Line. Self-assessment audits are one way to take care of your planning functions before outside auditors take care of them for you.

  15. Verification of a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT): The Potential Role of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    The objective of a future verification of a FMCT(Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty) is to deter and detect non-compliance with treaty obligations in a timely and non-discriminatory manner with regard to banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear devices. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has already established the IAEA safeguards as a verification system mainly for Non -Nuclear Weapon States (NNWSs), it is expected that the IAEA's experience and expertise in this field will make a significant contribution to setting up a future treaty's verification regime. This paper is designed to explore the potential role of the IAEA in verifying the future treaty by analyzing verification abilities of the Agency in terms of treaty verification and expected challenges. Furthermore, the concept of multilateral verification that could be facilitated by the IAEA will be examined as a measure of providing a credible assurance of compliance with a future treaty. In this circumstance, it is necessary for the IAEA to be prepared for playing a leading role in FMCT verifications as a form of multilateral verification by taking advantage of its existing verification concepts, methods, and tools. Also, several challenges that the Agency faces today need to be overcome, including dealing with sensitive and proliferative information, attribution of fissile materials, lack of verification experience in military fuel cycle facilities, and different attitude and culture towards verification between NWSs and NNWSs

  16. Verification of a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT): The Potential Role of the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jin Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of a future verification of a FMCT(Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty) is to deter and detect non-compliance with treaty obligations in a timely and non-discriminatory manner with regard to banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear devices. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has already established the IAEA safeguards as a verification system mainly for Non -Nuclear Weapon States (NNWSs), it is expected that the IAEA's experience and expertise in this field will make a significant contribution to setting up a future treaty's verification regime. This paper is designed to explore the potential role of the IAEA in verifying the future treaty by analyzing verification abilities of the Agency in terms of treaty verification and expected challenges. Furthermore, the concept of multilateral verification that could be facilitated by the IAEA will be examined as a measure of providing a credible assurance of compliance with a future treaty. In this circumstance, it is necessary for the IAEA to be prepared for playing a leading role in FMCT verifications as a form of multilateral verification by taking advantage of its existing verification concepts, methods, and tools. Also, several challenges that the Agency faces today need to be overcome, including dealing with sensitive and proliferative information, attribution of fissile materials, lack of verification experience in military fuel cycle facilities, and different attitude and culture towards verification between NWSs and NNWSs.

  17. The essential role of vibronic interactions in electron pairing in the micro- and macroscopic sized materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The electron-phonon interactions destroy the electron pairs formed by Coulomb interactions, and at the same time, form the energy gap by which the electron pairs become stable. - Abstract: In order to discuss how the nondissipative delocalized diamagnetic currents in the microscopic sized materials are closely related to the conventional superconductivity in the macroscopic sized materials, the unified theory, by which various sized superconductivity can be explained, is suggested. It has been believed for a long time that the electron-phonon interactions play an essential role in the attractive electron-electron interactions, as described in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory in the conventional superconductivity. However, it is suggested in this paper that the electron-phonon interactions do not play an essential role in the attractive electron-electron interactions but play an essential role in the forming of energy gap by which the electron pairs formed by the attractive Coulomb interactions in the conventional superconducting states become more stable than those in the normal metallic states at low temperatures.

  18. Against all odds! You still can upgrade and reimplement an MRP II (material requirements planning) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noujaim, S G

    1994-08-01

    This article illustrates the three key elements necessary when reimplementing a closed-loop manufacturing system. The first is to accept the paradigm of people's fear of being changed. The second is to devise a methodological process to define the overall tasks, identify roles, and determine an organized approach. The third is to involve and receive commitment of all players to ensure that predefined tasks are completed on schedule.

  19. 10 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Reactor Vessel Material Surveillance Program Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... arrangement for data sharing between plants. d. There must be a contingency plan to assure that the... Requirements I. Introduction II. Definitions III. Surveillance Program Criteria IV. Report of Test Results I..., Rockville, MD 20852-2738. II. Definitions All terms used in this appendix have the same meaning as in...

  20. 41 CFR 101-42.404 - Special requirements for the sale of hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Special requirements for... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION... special storage and handling. It is the responsibility of the holding agency to properly store hazardous...

  1. 41 CFR 101-42.304 - Special requirements for donation of certain hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Special requirements for... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION... is the responsibility of the Federal holding agency or State agency to properly store hazardous...

  2. Trajectory Orientation: A Technology-Enabled Concept Requiring a Shift in Controller Roles and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiden, Ken; Green, Steven

    2000-01-01

    The development of a decision support tool (DST) for the en-route domain with accurate conflict prediction time horizons of 20 minutes has introduced an interesting problem. A 20 minute time horizon for conflict prediction often results in the predicted conflict occurring one or more sectors downstream from the sector controller who "owns" (i-e., is responsible for the safe separation of aircraft) one or both of the aircraft in the conflict pair. Based on current roles and responsibilities of today's en route controllers, the upstream controller would not resolve this conflict. In most cases, the downstream controller would wait until the conflicting aircraft entered higher sector before resolving the conflict. This results in a delay of several minutes from the time when the conflict was initially predicted. This delay is inefficient from both a controller workload and user's cost of operations perspective. Trajectory orientation, a new concept for facilitating an efficient, conflict-free flight path across several sectors while conforming to metering or miles-in-trail spacing, is proposed as an alternative to today's sector-oriented method. This concept necessitates a fundamental shift in thinking about inter-sector coordination. Instead of operating independently, with the main focus on protecting their internal airspace, controllers would work cooperatively, depending on each other for well-planned, conflict-free flow of aircraft. To support the trajectory orientation concept, a long time horizon (15 to 20 minutes) for conflict prediction and resolution would most likely be a primary requirement. In addition, new tools, such as controller-pilot data link will be identified to determine their necessity and applicability for trajectory orientation. Finally, with significant controller participation from selected Air Route Traffic Control Centers, potential shifts in R-side/D-side roles and responsibilities as well as the creation of a new controller position for

  3. Assessment of state and local notification requirements for transportation of radioactive and other hazardous materials. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dively, D.; Morris, F.; Schilling, A.H.; Shen, E.; Allen, J.

    1985-01-01

    State and local laws requiring notification for shipments of radioactive and other hazardous materials have become increasingly common and controversial during the last decade. Such laws are seen by their proponents as essential for planning and emergency response, while their opponents view them as unnecessary and intrusive. The debate over the value of notification requirements has often been hampered by the lack of information about the extent and nature of these laws. The report is intended to present factual information about notification laws in order to facilitate more informed discussion

  4. Detection capabilities and accuracy requirements of concentrations of radioactive material in air for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in the formulation of detection capability and accuracy criteria for bioassay measurements will be interpreted and adapted to provide similar criteria for the measurement of air concentrations of radioactive material for radiation protection purposes. Considerations of accuracy will be related to the known variability of measurement processes, as well as the uncertainties in the calculated limits of intake that serve as the basis of regulatory and voluntary standards of practice. Formulations and criteria will be presented for minimum detection amounts (MDA) and precision and bias of measurements for radiation protection purposes. 17 references

  5. Determinants of compulsive buying behavior among young adults: The mediating role of materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Tahir; Wei, Jiuchang; Sheikh, Zaryab; Hameed, Zahid; Azam, Rauf I

    2017-12-01

    This research seeks to determine what makes young adults materialistic. The study examines the mediating role of materialism between the contextual factors and compulsive buying. Data was gathered from 219 Pakistani undergraduate university students. Partial Least Square (PLS) technique was used to analyze the data. The study confirms the intuition that more materialistic young adults are more likely to be involved in compulsive buying than are less materialistic young adults. The results were similar with the previous literature conducted in the western culture, indicating that also applies in a modern Islamic society. The findings of the study reveal that materialism mediated the relationship between certain sociological factors (i.e., group, media Celebrity endorsement, and TV advertisement) and compulsive buying. The study highlights the importance of understanding young adults' materialistic attitudes and consumption decisions and provides key knowledge for researchers, policymakers, and managers of leading brands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. IRMM Certified Reference Materials and k0-NAA: an important role for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robouch, P.; Arana, G.; Pauwels, J.; Pomm, S.

    1998-01-01

    The k 0 -Neutron Activation Analysis method was introduced at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) and the Belgian nuclear research centre (SCK CEN) in 1994. This analytical technique is routinely used at IRMM for the production control, homogeneity and stability tests and/or for certification of metallic, biological and environmental reference materials. The successful implementation of k 0 -NAA was proven at several certification exercises - such as ISS Antarctic Sediment, BCR Mussel Tissue and BCR Bovine Liver, SMU Bovine Blood - where all our results were accepted for certification. Responding to regulatory and/or scientific demands, IRMM is collaborating with national institutes to develop new high quality reference materials: (i) in the field of Neutron dosimetry: high purity nickel, Al-Ag or Zr-Au-Lu alloys; (ii) for environmental and industrial monitoring: Antarctic krill, doped plastics or catalytic converters; (iii) synthetic multi-element standard for the accreditation of k 0 -NAA laboratories. Far from being exhaustive, this list highlights the important role that k 0 -NAA will play in the certification of reference materials in the years 2000. (author)

  7. The role of riverine particulate material on the global cycles of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelkers, Eric H.; Gislason, Sigurdur R.; Eiriksdottir, Eydis Salome; Jones, Morgan; Pearce, Christopher R.; Jeandel, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Particulate transport dominates dissolved transport of the elements to the ocean. → Particulate material readily dissolves in sea water releasing its elements. → Particulate element release can rapidly affect the isotopic composition of seawater. → Ocean Nd, Fe, Si, and Sr isotopic ratios are likely affected strongly by this process. - Abstract: A review of the relative masses of continental weathering products transported to the oceans indicates that particulate fluxes dominate dissolved fluxes for most elements. The degree to which this particulate material plays a role in the compositional evolution of seawater depends on its dissolution rate, which appears to be rapid due to its high surface area. Consideration of the results of batch experiments and mineral saturation state calculations suggest that much of the mass dissolved into seawater from particulate material dissolution is rapidly removed by the precipitation of secondary minerals. Although this process limits the degree to which the overall concentration of elements in seawater are affected by the addition of particulate material, the dissolution of isotopically distinct particulate phases may affect the isotopic composition of seawater over remarkably short timescales.

  8. Role of iron and aluminum coagulant metal residuals and lead release from drinking water pipe materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Alisha D; Nguyen, Caroline K; Edwards, Marc A; Stoddart, Amina; McIlwain, Brad; Gagnon, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    Bench-scale experiments investigated the role of iron and aluminum residuals in lead release in a low alkalinity and high (> 0.5) chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) in water. Lead leaching was examined for two lead-bearing plumbing materials, including harvested lead pipe and new lead: tin solder, after exposure to water with simulated aluminum sulfate, polyaluminum chloride and ferric sulfate coagulation treatments with 1-25-μM levels of iron or aluminum residuals in the water. The release of lead from systems with harvested lead pipe was highly correlated with levels of residual aluminum or iron present in samples (R(2) = 0.66-0.88), consistent with sorption of lead onto the aluminum and iron hydroxides during stagnation. The results indicate that aluminum and iron coagulant residuals, at levels complying with recommended guidelines, can sometimes play a significant role in lead mobilization from premise plumbing.

  9. Mean deformation metrics for quantifying 3D cell–matrix interactions without requiring information about matrix material properties

    OpenAIRE

    Stout, David A.; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Estrada, Jonathan B.; Toyjanova, Jennet; Kesari, Haneesh; Reichner, Jonathan S.; Franck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Investigations in mechanobiology rely on correlation of cellular processes with mechanical signals, such as matrix stiffness and cell tractions. Almost all cell traction and force quantification methodologies require knowledge of the underlying mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix to convert displacement data into corresponding traction data, which restricts the use of these techniques to systems in which the material properties are known. To overcome this hurdle, we present a ne...

  10. 18th ICPR paper: Master Production Scheduling and A Comparision of Material Requirements Planning and Cover-Time Planning

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract For a company?s long-term profitability, most important processes are the way it starts parts of the manufacturing process before the customer order arrives and the way it determines and promises delivery quantities and times for the customer orders. In practical computer applications Material Requirement Planning and/or Reorder point systems are the base techniques mostly used. This article pre?sents Cover-Time Planning, a variant of a reorder point system. Cover-Time Pla...

  11. Particle Engineering of Excipients for Direct Compression: Understanding the Role of Material Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Sharad; Meiser, Felix; Morton, David; Larson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Tablets represent the preferred and most commonly dispensed pharmaceutical dosage form for administering active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Minimizing the cost of goods and improving manufacturing output efficiency has motivated companies to use direct compression as a preferred method of tablet manufacturing. Excipients dictate the success of direct compression, notably by optimizing powder formulation compactability and flow, thus there has been a surge in creating excipients specifically designed to meet these needs for direct compression. Greater scientific understanding of tablet manufacturing coupled with effective application of the principles of material science and particle engineering has resulted in a number of improved direct compression excipients. Despite this, significant practical disadvantages of direct compression remain relative to granulation, and this is partly due to the limitations of direct compression excipients. For instance, in formulating high-dose APIs, a much higher level of excipient is required relative to wet or dry granulation and so tablets are much bigger. Creating excipients to enable direct compression of high-dose APIs requires the knowledge of the relationship between fundamental material properties and excipient functionalities. In this paper, we review the current understanding of the relationship between fundamental material properties and excipient functionality for direct compression.

  12. The role of porosity and annealing in the impact fragmentation of an aluminum reactive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Joseph

    2017-06-01

    A reactive fragment has a unique structural requirement to survive explosive launch but then fragment catastrophically and combust upon impact. Suitable materials for this application tend to be metal composites with high ductility in compression but elastic-brittle behavior in tension. Characterizing the dynamic fragmentation of such materials is key for understanding their lethality. Here we consider a prototypical aluminum reactive frag material, formed via cold isostatic pressing of micron-scale powder followed by annealing. Samples were gun-launched into a target and recovered in a soft-catch medium of artificial snow, allowing for excellent recovery down to micron sizes and minimal contamination. Recovered fragment distributions were analyzed and compared to standard energy-balance theories. We study the effect of compaction pressure and annealing conditions on the fragmentation behavior at 500-800 m/s impacts, and find a particularly strong effect from short annealing periods. Though dynamic fracture occurs entirely along original particle boundaries in this material, recovery processes within the Al microstructure during annealing lead to a rapid decrease in the extent of fragmentation. This work was funded by the Office of Naval Research, program director Cliff Bedford.

  13. Role of physical protection and safeguards technology used to Nuclear Material Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoko-Irianto, Ign.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of nuclear materials at any nuclear facility must be in secure and must be known as safeguards purpose such as its position, from or type and amount. The clarification of the amount be reported to the national regulatory body and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as the International regulatory body. The national regulatory body and IAEA will then verify that report. The verification must be done to know there is no difference of the amount, and to give the assurance to the International community that any diversion of safeguarded nuclear material from civil use to a prescribed military purpose would be detected. To carry out verification, several verification techniques such as non-destructive analysis, surveillance, unattended and remote monitoring and environmental sampling are explained to convey the impression how those techniques are implemented. According to the security requirement, the physical protection system including all components of physical protection system have to be effectively designed

  14. The role of socioeconomic differences and material deprivation in peer violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Bilic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In schools around the world in the 21st century the dominant and worrying problems are: an increase in the number of poor and financially and materially deprived and a continuous increase in violence among peers, which brings us to the intriguing question whether there is a connection between these two phenomena. Therefore, the theoretical part of this paper analyzes the increase of peer violence in the context of socioeconomic inequalities of different societies which students live in and socioeconomic family factors. The aim of the empirical part is to determine which variables of socioeconomic status and material deprivation of children predict the status of perpetrators or victims of peer violence. The study included 610 (44.8% M; 51.6% F primary school students, with average age of 13,88 years from different regions of the Republic of Croatia. For data collection the socioeconomic status questionnaire, scale of material deprivation of children in school and scale of victimization and violence among peers were used. The results indicated that 34.8% of respondents have acted violently toward peers because of their poorer financial status, and 45.7% were victimized for the same reason. It was also found that the analyzed SES variables and material deprivation do not predict committing violence against peers. Living in unfavorable socioeconomic conditions is associated with the role of victims, lower education of mothers, lower work status of the father, child’s experience of fear because of the family’s poor financial situation, and material deprivation in school are statistically significant predictors of victimization. It is suggested that practitioners, the public and policy makers pay attention and assist the growing number of children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families. They must be in focus of all school preventive programs, especially due to the increased risk for those children of being exposed to peer violence.

  15. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt' standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions

  16. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements (Chinese Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt' standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions

  17. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt... standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the

  18. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt... standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the

  19. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to ''establish or adopt standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the

  20. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt' standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions

  1. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 2012 Edition. Specific Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt' standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions

  2. Impact of dynamic certification requirements on the Nuclear Materials Technology Division's transuranic waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkey, J.J.; Montoya, A.J.; Wieneke, Ronald E.

    2002-01-01

    The issuance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit in August of 2000, specifically the attachment I3 Waste Analysis Plan (WAP),had a profound impact upon transuranic (TRU) waste certification at Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Plutonium Facility. Program certification was lost until Laboratory internal program documents could be amended to meet the new WAP requirements, waste management personnel could be retrained to incorporate the changes into waste operations and the entire program successfully pass subsequent Carlsbad Field Ofice (CBFO) audit. This action resulted in the suspension of transuranic waste shipments from LANL to WIPP. In addition the changes unnecessarily increased the complexity of TRU waste program activities in waste handling.

  3. Usulan Aplikasi Metode Material Requirement Planning (MRP dalam Perencanaan Kebutuhan Firebrick PT Semen Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajar Aristiyanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to describe the results of research models firebrick requirements planning in PT Semen Padang with MRP method. Firebrick is one of the spare parts and essential in the production of operational PT Semen Padang as protective and insulating of shell kiln. This article describes the firebrick requirements planning at all kiln Indarung II / III, IV and V to meet the needs of 2017 up to 2018. One type of firebrick most widely used in PT Semen Padang is spinal firebrick. Spinal firebrick highly susceptible to hydration and moisture as the main component is MgO compound that is hygroscopic so susceptible to damage in the form of cracks firebrick. Based on the research that has been done, get MRP application design that can be used in planning the needs of firebrick PT Semen Padang to come. Plans need firebrick for compliance in 2017 to 2018 : (a item 422 purchased through two phases in the 4th month of 12.711 pcs and in the 9th month of 24.909 pcs (b item 622 purchased through two phases in the 4th month of 21.185 pcs and in the 9th  month of 41.515 pcs (c item P22 purchased through two phases in the 4th month of 446 pcs and in the 9th month of 874 pcs (d item P + 22 purchased through two phases in the 4th month of 446 pcs and in the 9th month of 874 pcs (e item 425 purchased in the 8th month of 14.626 pcs (f item 825 purchased in the 8th month of 20.600 pcs (g P25 item purchased in the 8th  month of 412 pcs (h P + 25 items purchased in the 8th month of 412 pcs.

  4. The roles of energy and material efficiency in meeting steel industry CO2 targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milford, Rachel L; Pauliuk, Stefan; Allwood, Julian M; Müller, Daniel B

    2013-04-02

    Identifying strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from steel production requires a comprehensive model of the sector but previous work has either failed to consider the whole supply chain or considered only a subset of possible abatement options. In this work, a global mass flow analysis is combined with process emissions intensities to allow forecasts of future steel sector emissions under all abatement options. Scenario analysis shows that global capacity for primary steel production is already near to a peak and that if sectoral emissions are to be reduced by 50% by 2050, the last required blast furnace will be built by 2020. Emissions reduction targets cannot be met by energy and emissions efficiency alone, but deploying material efficiency provides sufficient extra abatement potential.

  5. Importance of the gas phase role to the prediction of energetic material behavior: An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.N.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.; Sander, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Various thermal (radiative, conductive, and convective) initiation experiments are performed to demonstrate the importance of the gas phase role in combustion modeling of energetic materials (EM). A previously published condensed phase model that includes a predicted critical irradiance above which ignition is not possible is compared to experimental laser ignition results for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Experimental results conflict with the predicted critical irradiance concept. The failure of the model is believed to result from a misconception about the role of the gas phase in the ignition process of energetic materials. The model assumes that ignition occurs at the surface and that evolution of gases inhibits ignition. High speed video of laser ignition, oven cook-off and hot wire ignition experiments captures the ignition of HMX and TNT in the gas phase. A laser ignition gap test is performed to further evaluate the effect of gas phase laser absorption and gas phase disruption on the ignition process. Results indicate that gas phase absorption of the laser energy is probably not the primary factor governing the gas phase ignition observations. It is discovered that a critical gap between an HMX pellet and a salt window of 6 mm±0.4 mm exists below which ignition by CO 2 laser is not possible at the tested irradiances of 29 W/cm 2 and 38 W/cm 2 for HMX ignition. These observations demonstrate that a significant disruption of the gas phase, in certain scenarios, will inhibit ignition, independent of any condensed phase processes. These results underscore the importance of gas phase processes and illustrate that conditions can exist where simple condensed phase models are inadequate to accurately predict the behavior of energetic materials

  6. Importance of the gas phase role to the prediction of energetic material behavior: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. N.; Son, S. F.; Asay, B. W.; Sander, R. K.

    2005-03-01

    Various thermal (radiative, conductive, and convective) initiation experiments are performed to demonstrate the importance of the gas phase role in combustion modeling of energetic materials (EM). A previously published condensed phase model that includes a predicted critical irradiance above which ignition is not possible is compared to experimental laser ignition results for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Experimental results conflict with the predicted critical irradiance concept. The failure of the model is believed to result from a misconception about the role of the gas phase in the ignition process of energetic materials. The model assumes that ignition occurs at the surface and that evolution of gases inhibits ignition. High speed video of laser ignition, oven cook-off and hot wire ignition experiments captures the ignition of HMX and TNT in the gas phase. A laser ignition gap test is performed to further evaluate the effect of gas phase laser absorption and gas phase disruption on the ignition process. Results indicate that gas phase absorption of the laser energy is probably not the primary factor governing the gas phase ignition observations. It is discovered that a critical gap between an HMX pellet and a salt window of 6mm±0.4mm exists below which ignition by CO2 laser is not possible at the tested irradiances of 29W /cm2 and 38W/cm2 for HMX ignition. These observations demonstrate that a significant disruption of the gas phase, in certain scenarios, will inhibit ignition, independent of any condensed phase processes. These results underscore the importance of gas phase processes and illustrate that conditions can exist where simple condensed phase models are inadequate to accurately predict the behavior of energetic materials.

  7. Lattice Symmetry and Identification-The Fundamental Role of Reduced Cells in Materials Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mighell, A D

    2001-01-01

    In theory, physical crystals can be represented by idealized mathematical lattices. Under appropriate conditions, these representations can be used for a variety of purposes such as identifying, classifying, and understanding the physical properties of materials. Critical to these applications is the ability to construct a unique representation of the lattice. The vital link that enabled this theory to be realized in practice was provided by the 1970 paper on the determination of reduced cells. This seminal paper led to a mathematical approach to lattice analysis initially based on systematic reduction procedures and the use of standard cells. Subsequently, the process evolved to a matrix approach based on group theory and linear algebra that offered a more abstract and powerful way to look at lattices and their properties. Application of the reduced cell to both database work and laboratory research at NIST was immediately successful. Currently, this cell and/or procedures based on reduction are widely and routinely used by the general scientific community: (i) for calculating standard cells for the reporting of crystalline materials, (ii) for classifying materials, (iii) in crystallographic database work (iv) in routine x-ray and neutron diffractometry, and (v) in general crystallographic research. Especially important is its use in symmetry determination and in identification. The focus herein is on the role of the reduced cell in lattice symmetry determination.

  8. Critical Role of Monoclinic Polarization Rotation in High-Performance Perovskite Piezoelectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Jun; Fan, Longlong; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Lalitha, K V; Rödel, Jürgen; Xing, Xianran

    2017-07-07

    High-performance piezoelectric materials constantly attract interest for both technological applications and fundamental research. The understanding of the origin of the high-performance piezoelectric property remains a challenge mainly due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. We perform in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction combined with 2D geometry scattering technology to reveal the underlying mechanism for the perovskite-type lead-based high-performance piezoelectric materials. The direct structural evidence reveals that the electric-field-driven continuous polarization rotation within the monoclinic plane plays a critical role to achieve the giant piezoelectric response. An intrinsic relationship between the crystal structure and piezoelectric performance in perovskite ferroelectrics has been established: A strong tendency of electric-field-driven polarization rotation generates peak piezoelectric performance and vice versa. Furthermore, the monoclinic M_{A} structure is the key feature to superior piezoelectric properties as compared to other structures such as monoclinic M_{B}, rhombohedral, and tetragonal. A high piezoelectric response originates from intrinsic lattice strain, but little from extrinsic domain switching. The present results will facilitate designing high-performance perovskite piezoelectric materials by enhancing the intrinsic lattice contribution with easy and continuous polarization rotation.

  9. Mapping the coupled role of structure and materials in mechanics of platelet-matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzanian, Shafee; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh

    2018-03-01

    Despite significant progresses on understanding and mimicking the delicate nano/microstructure of biomaterials such as nacre, decoding the indistinguishable merger of materials and structures in controlling the tradeoff in mechanical properties has been long an engineering pursuit. Herein, we focus on an archetype platelet-matrix composite and perform ∼400 nonlinear finite element simulations to decode the complex interplay between various structural features and material characteristics in conferring the balance of mechanical properties. We study various combinatorial models expressed by four key dimensionless parameters, i.e. characteristic platelet length, matrix plasticity, platelet dissimilarity, and overlap offset, whose effects are all condensed in a new unifying parameter, defined as the multiplication of strength, toughness, and stiffness over composite volume. This parameter, which maximizes at a critical characteristic length, controls the transition from intrinsic toughening (matrix plasticity driven without crack growths) to extrinsic toughening phenomena involving progressive crack propagations. This finding, combined with various abstract volumetric and radar plots, will not only shed light on decoupling the complex role of structure and materials on mechanical performance and their trends, but provides important guidelines for designing lightweight staggered platelet-matrix composites while ensuring the best (balance) of their mechanical properties.

  10. Processes underlying the effects of adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material: the role of perceived realism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated a link between adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and sexual attitudes, the processes underlying this association are not well understood. More specifically, studies have pointed to a mediating role of perceived realism,

  11. Roles and Responsibilities, and Education and Training Requirements for Clinically Qualified Medical Physicists (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The IAEA technical cooperation project Strengthening Medical Physics in Radiation Medicine was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors for the period 2009-2013 with the aim of ensuring the safe and effective diagnosis and treatment of patients. The IAEA, together with the World Health Organization and stakeholders from numerous medical physics professional societies worldwide, including the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), the European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the Latin American Medical Physics Association, the Asia-Oceania Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics, the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology, the European Commission and the International Radiation Protection Association, as well as regional counterparts from Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America, met in Vienna in May 2009 to plan and coordinate the new project. A shortage of clinically qualified medical physicists (CQMPs), insufficient education and training (especially properly organized and coordinated clinical training), and lack of professional recognition were identified as the main problems to be addressed under this project. This publication was developed under the project framework in response to these findings. It aims, first, at defining appropriately and unequivocally the roles and responsibilities of a CQMP in specialties of medical physics related to the use of ionizing radiation, such as radiation therapy, nuclear medicine, and diagnostic and interventional radiology. Important, non-ionizing radiation imaging specialties, such as magnetic resonance and ultrasound, are also considered for completeness. On the basis of these tasks, this book provides recommended minimum requirements for the academic education and clinical training of CQMPs, including recommendations for their accreditation, certification and registration, along with continuing professional development

  12. The role of unfinished root canal treatment in odontogenic maxillofacial infections requiring hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönholm, L; Lemberg, K K; Tjäderhane, L; Lauhio, A; Lindqvist, C; Rautemaa-Richardson, R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and radiological findings and the role of periapical infection and antecedent dental treatment of infected focus teeth in odontogenic maxillofacial abscesses requiring hospital care. In this retrospective cohort study, we evaluated medical records and panoramic radiographs during the hospital stay of patients (n = 60) admitted due to odontogenic maxillofacial infection originating from periapical periodontitis. Twenty-three (38 %) patients had received endodontic treatment and ten (17 %) other acute dental treatment. Twenty-seven (45 %) had not visited the dentist in the near past. Median age of the patients was 45 (range 20-88) years and 60 % were males. Unfinished root canal treatment (RCT) was the major risk factor for hospitalisation in 16 (27 %) of the 60 cases (p = .0065). Completed RCT was the source only in 7 (12 %) of the 60 cases. Two of these RCTs were adequate and five inadequate. The initiation of inadequate or incomplete primary RCT of acute periapical periodontitis appears to open a risk window for locally invasive spread of infection with local abscess formation and systemic symptoms. Thereafter, the quality of the completed RCT appears to have minor impact. However, a considerable proportion of the patients had not received any dental treatment confirming the importance of good dental health. Thus, thorough canal debridement during the first session is essential for minimising the risk for spread of infection in addition to incision and drainage of the abscess. If this cannot be achieved, tooth extraction should be considered. Incomplete or inadequate canal debridement and drainage of the abscess may increase the risk for spread of endodontic infection.

  13. Roles and Responsibilities, and Education and Training Requirements for Clinically Qualified Medical Physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA technical cooperation project Strengthening Medical Physics in Radiation Medicine was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors for the period 2009-2013 with the aim of ensuring the safe and effective diagnosis and treatment of patients. The IAEA, together with the World Health Organization and stakeholders from numerous medical physics professional societies worldwide, including the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), the European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the Latin American Medical Physics Association, the Asia-Oceania Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics, the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology, the European Commission and the International Radiation Protection Association, as well as regional counterparts from Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America, met in Vienna in May 2009 to plan and coordinate the new project. A shortage of clinically qualified medical physicists (CQMPs), insufficient education and training (especially properly organized and coordinated clinical training), and lack of professional recognition were identified as the main problems to be addressed under this project. This publication was developed under the project framework in response to these findings. It aims, first, at defining appropriately and unequivocally the roles and responsibilities of a CQMP in specialties of medical physics related to the use of ionizing radiation, such as radiation therapy, nuclear medicine, and diagnostic and interventional radiology. Important, non-ionizing radiation imaging specialties, such as magnetic resonance and ultrasound, are also considered for completeness. On the basis of these tasks, this book provides recommended minimum requirements for the academic education and clinical training of CQMPs, including recommendations for their accreditation, certification and registration, along with continuing professional development

  14. Roles and Responsibilities, and Education and Training Requirements for Clinically Qualified Medical Physicists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The IAEA technical cooperation project Strengthening Medical Physics in Radiation Medicine was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors for the period 2009-2013 with the aim of ensuring the safe and effective diagnosis and treatment of patients. The IAEA, together with the World Health Organization and stakeholders from numerous medical physics professional societies worldwide, including the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), the European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the Latin American Medical Physics Association, the Asia-Oceania Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics, the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology, the European Commission and the International Radiation Protection Association, as well as regional counterparts from Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America, met in Vienna in May 2009 to plan and coordinate the new project. A shortage of clinically qualified medical physicists (CQMPs), insufficient education and training (especially properly organized and coordinated clinical training), and lack of professional recognition were identified as the main problems to be addressed under this project. This publication was developed under the project framework in response to these findings. It aims, first, at defining appropriately and unequivocally the roles and responsibilities of a CQMP in specialties of medical physics related to the use of ionizing radiation, such as radiation therapy, nuclear medicine, and diagnostic and interventional radiology. Important, non-ionizing radiation imaging specialties, such as magnetic resonance and ultrasound, are also considered for completeness. On the basis of these tasks, this book provides recommended minimum requirements for the academic education and clinical training of CQMPs, including recommendations for their accreditation, certification and registration, along with continuing professional development

  15. Material instabilities and their role for the initiation of boudinage and folding structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veveakis, Manolis; Peters, Max; Poulet, Thomas; Karrech, Ali; Herwegh, Marco; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Localized phenomena, such as pinch-and-swell boudinage or localized folds, are usually interpreted to arise from viscosity contrasts. These are caused by structural heterogeneities, such as geometric or material imperfections. An alternative possibility for strain localization exists in material science, where dynamic localization emerges out of a steady state for a given critical set of material parameters and loading rates (Montési and Zuber, 2002). In our contribution, we will investigate the conditions under which this type of instabilities triggers localized deformation. Moreover, we discuss whether geological materials necessarily require structural heterogeneities, such as weak seeds, in order to generate aforementioned localized structures. We set up a random distribution of grain sizes in a layer embedded in a matrix with a diffusion creep rheology. Deformation within the layer is accommodated by dislocation and diffusion creep as end member deformation mechanism. The grain size evolution follows the paleowattmeter scaling relationship for calcite creep (Austin and Evans, 2007), which is controlled by thermo-mechanical feedbacks (Herwegh et al., 2014). During the first strain increments in the numerical simulation, the layer establishes a viscous steady state, which is the systems' response to optimize energy following the paleowattmeter (Herwegh et al., 2014). With further loading, localization interestingly arises out of a homogeneous state. We will demonstrate the robustness of this numerical solution by identifying the natural mode shapes and frequencies of the simulated structure and material parameters, including geometric imperfections (Rudnicki and Rice, 1975). This technique aims at the determination of the spatial manifestation of the instability pattern (Peters et al., in review). The eigenvalues are thought to represent the nodal points, where the onset of (visco)-elasto-plastic localization can initiate in the structure (Rudnicki and Rice

  16. Assessment of Quality Assurance Measures for Radioactive Material Transport Packages not Requiring Competent Authority Design Approval - 13282

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komann, Steffen; Groeke, Carsten; Droste, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The majority of transports of radioactive materials are carried out in packages which don't need a package design approval by a competent authority. Low-active radioactive materials are transported in such packages e.g. in the medical and pharmaceutical industry and in the nuclear industry as well. Decommissioning of NPP's leads to a strong demand for packages to transport low and middle active radioactive waste. According to IAEA regulations the 'non-competent authority approved package types' are the Excepted Packages and the Industrial Packages of Type IP-1, IP-2 and IP-3 and packages of Type A. For these types of packages an assessment by the competent authority is required for the quality assurance measures for the design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection (IAEA SSR 6, Chap. 306). In general a compliance audit of the manufacturer of the packaging is required during this assessment procedure. Their regulatory level in the IAEA regulations is not comparable with the 'regulatory density' for packages requiring competent authority package design approval. Practices in different countries lead to different approaches within the assessment of the quality assurance measures in the management system as well as in the quality assurance program of a special package design. To use the package or packaging in a safe manner and in compliance with the regulations a management system for each phase of the life of the package or packaging is necessary. The relevant IAEA-SSR6 chap. 801 requires documentary verification by the consignor concerning package compliance with the requirements. (authors)

  17. Assessment of Quality Assurance Measures for Radioactive Material Transport Packages not Requiring Competent Authority Design Approval - 13282

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komann, Steffen; Groeke, Carsten; Droste, Bernhard [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 44-46, 12203 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The majority of transports of radioactive materials are carried out in packages which don't need a package design approval by a competent authority. Low-active radioactive materials are transported in such packages e.g. in the medical and pharmaceutical industry and in the nuclear industry as well. Decommissioning of NPP's leads to a strong demand for packages to transport low and middle active radioactive waste. According to IAEA regulations the 'non-competent authority approved package types' are the Excepted Packages and the Industrial Packages of Type IP-1, IP-2 and IP-3 and packages of Type A. For these types of packages an assessment by the competent authority is required for the quality assurance measures for the design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection (IAEA SSR 6, Chap. 306). In general a compliance audit of the manufacturer of the packaging is required during this assessment procedure. Their regulatory level in the IAEA regulations is not comparable with the 'regulatory density' for packages requiring competent authority package design approval. Practices in different countries lead to different approaches within the assessment of the quality assurance measures in the management system as well as in the quality assurance program of a special package design. To use the package or packaging in a safe manner and in compliance with the regulations a management system for each phase of the life of the package or packaging is necessary. The relevant IAEA-SSR6 chap. 801 requires documentary verification by the consignor concerning package compliance with the requirements. (authors)

  18. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Development of radiation resistant structural materials utilizing fission research reactors in Japan (Role of research reactors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikama, T.; Tanigawa, H.; Nozawa, T.; Muroga, T.; Aoyama, T.; Kawamura, H.; Ishihara, M.; Ito, C.; Kaneda, S.; Mimura, S.

    2009-01-01

    Structural materials for next-generation nuclear power systems should have a good radiation resistance, where the expected accumulation dose will largely exceed 10 dpa. Among several candidate materials, materials of five categories, 1. Austenitic steels, including high nickel alloys, 2. Low activation ferritic martensitic steels, 3. ODS steels (austenitic and ferritic), 4. Vanadium based alloys, 5. Silicon carbide composites (SiC/SiCf). All have been most extensively studied in Japan, in collaboration among industries, national institutes such as Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) and National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), and universities. The high nickel base alloys were studied for their low swelling behaviors mainly by the NIMS and the austenitic steels are studied for their reliable engineering data base and their reliable performance in irradiation environments mainly by the JAEA, mainly for their application in the near-term projects such as the ITER and the Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors. The most extensive studies are now concentrated on the Low Activation Ferritic Marsensitic steels and ODS steels, for their application in a demonstration fusion reactor and prototype sodium cooled fast reactors. Fundamental studies on radiation effects are carried out, mainly utilizing Japan Materials Testing Rector (JMTR) with its flexible irradiation ability, up to a few dpa. For higher dpa irradiation, a fast test reactor, JOYO is utilized up to several 10s dpa. Some international collaborations such as Japan/USA and Japan/France are effective to utilize reactors abroad, such as High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and sodium cooled high flux fast reactors in France. Silicon carbide based composites are extensively studied by university groups led by Kyoto University and the JAEA. For their performance in heavy irradiation environments, the Japan/USA collaboration plays an important role

  20. Promoting Educational Equity through School Libraries. Module 2: Sexism and Sex-Role Stereotyping in School Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Tyler, Karen Beyard

    The second learning module in a continuing education program for inservice school media specialists focuses on sex stereotyping and ways in which inaccurate ideas about sex differences are transmitted through instructional materials in exploring the following questions: (1) Why do school materials communicate sexist ideas and sex-role stereotypes?…

  1. The Common Core State Standards and the Role of Instructional Materials: A Case Study on EdReports.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review research studies investigating the role of instructional materials in relation to the Common Core State Standards and to evaluate whether a new organisation, EdReports.org, founded to evaluate the alignment of instructional materials to the Common Core State Standards, has achieved its objectives. Content…

  2. Cuban experience in verification of the execution of the safety requirements during the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevedo Garcia, J.R.; Lopez Forteza, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The Cuban Regulatory Authority has paid special attention to the verification of the execution of the safety requirements during the transport of radioactive material in the country. With this purpose, the Authority has followed a consequent policy based on supplementary demands to those collections in the juridical mark settled down in 1987 in the sphere of transport of radioactive substances. In the work the technical approaches are exposed kept in mind when establishing the one referred politics, the current situation is characterized, the results are evaluated obtained in correspondence with the pursued objectives and the essential aspects are exposed to keep in mind for the adopted politics ulterior development. (author)

  3. Fabricating the "Southern Belle": Assessing the Role of Imported Material Culture in the Confederacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Emily A.

    2017-10-01

    Confederate society was dependent on a rigidly defined hierarchy that assigned roles and appropriate behavior based on race, gender, and wealth. White, wealthy, southern women were dependent on material culture as a socially acceptable means of self-fashioning and making their status public. The Union naval blockade threatened this practice by preventing Confederate markets from accessing imported, status-affirming goods. The industry of blockade running rose to fill this need, often controversially prioritizing cargo space for civilian, luxury products over necessities for the military. This article examines the artifact assemblages of blockade runner sites off the coasts of Wilmington, North Carolina and Charleston, South Carolina through a theoretical framework of agency and costly signaling to make assessments about Confederate identity during the Civil War.

  4. The role of ab initio electronic structure calculations in studies of the strength of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sob, M.; Friak, M.; Legut, D.; Fiala, J.; Vitek, V.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we give an account of applications of quantum-mechanical (first-principles) electronic structure calculations to the problem of theoretical tensile strength in metals and intermetallics. First, we review previous as well as ongoing research on this subject. We then describe briefly the electronic structure calculational methods and simulation of the tensile test. This approach is then illustrated by calculations of theoretical tensile strength in iron and in the intermetallic compound Ni 3 Al. The anisotropy of calculated tensile strength is explained in terms of higher-symmetry structures encountered along the deformation paths studied. The table summarizing values of theoretical tensile strengths calculated up to now is presented and the role of ab initio electronic structure calculations in contemporary studies of the strength of material is discussed

  5. Teaching materials: a critical position about the role they play in the language classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araya Araya, Karla

    2007-12-01

    conceptual study about theoretical assumptions related to the importance and the role teaching materials have in the language teaching-learning process has been carried out. Also, there is a general analysis regarding the relationship among teaching materials, motivation and ideology. Finally, it can be concluded that materials are reproductions and constructors of certain discursive and ideological realities that usually favor the interests of the dominant classes. That is why a critical position about the role teaching materials have is necessary to prevent the reproduction of prejudices and common sense assumptions about language and society.

  6. The role of strain localization in the fracture of irradiated pressure tube material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, R.

    1989-04-01

    This report reviews those phenomena that lead to strain localization in zirconium alloys, with particular reference to the role played by the formation of shear bands in fracture processes. The important influence of plastic deformation, in general, on fracture mechanisms is emphasized. This is to be expected when elastic-plastic fracture mechanics is the chosen analytical technique. Intensely inhomogeneous characteristics of strain localization cause an abrupt bifurcation in the evolution of deformation strain and lead to plastic instability linked with intrinsic material behaviour (e.g., work softening) or of geometric origin (e.g., localized necking). Both of these effects are discussed in relation to measurable deformation parameters, such as the work hardening rate and strain rate sensitivity, which determine the degree of resistance to plastic instability. The modifying effect of irradiation on these quantities is given specific attention, the appropriate literature pertaining to Zircaloy and Zr-2.5% Nb being reviewed. Recommendations are made for a combined experimental and theoretical program to characterize strain localization and reduced ductility in irradiated cold-worked Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tube material. The relationship between the deformation properties and the fracture behaviour is discussed

  7. The Role of Automatic Radiation Monitoring in Control of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Automatic radiation monitoring in Slovenia comprises monitoring of external gamma radiation, aerosol radioactivity, radon progeny concentration, and radioactive deposition measurements. The officer on duty has an important part in assuring proper and undisturbed functioning of our automatic radiation monitoring. He is the one who gets the first alert message on radiation levels when exceeded pre-set values in the territory of Slovenia. Together with continuous control over the functioning of automatic radiation monitoring, the officer on duty has been also assigned for receiving messages from users, who carry the 'Radiation pager' (it is a trade mark for Sensor Technology Engineering, inc. from USA). All valuable experiences of the officer on duty who has been accepting reports from customs officers, police officers, from Slovenian radiation and nuclear safety inspectors, are described in this article. The officer on duty with his new role contributes to prevention of the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movement of radioactive materials over the territory of Slovenia. In the last year there where many different causes of emergency calls: from many cases of patient after radioisotopes medical treatment to serious rejected shipment with exceeded radiation. This is only a beginning of responsible task how to introduce and assure the control of the inadvertent movement of radioactive materials in Slovenia. (author)

  8. [Role of the EFSA in risk management system regarding food contact materials and articles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera; Półtorak, Hanna; Pawlicka, Marzena

    2009-01-01

    The role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the risk management system regarding food contact materials and articles is related with the risk assessment of the substances for the European Commission. General rules for the authorisation of substances used in materials and articles intended to contact with food is established in the Regulation (EC) no 1935/2004. For the evaluation of substances their toxicological properties and magnitude of migration into food simulants is taken into account. Toxicological studies include the mutagenicity tests, oral toxicity studies, carcinogenicity, reproduction and also studies on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the substance and other studies when needed. The set of the relevant toxicological data for substance depends on the magnitude of migration. In the case of positive opinion by EFSA the substance appears on the Community list of authorised substances. Sometimes, the earlier evaluated and authorized substances must undergo re-evaluation due to their new toxicological properties or as a result of a presence in the food of their earlier unknown decomposition products. Examples of the selected substances which underwent re-evaluation by EFSA in the light of the current toxicological knowledge and the relevant activities undertaken by the European Commission have been presented.

  9. Ethnography of Cool Roof Retrofits: The Role of Rebates in the Materials Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur-Stommen, Susan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-02-01

    In the summer of 2010, ethnographic research was conducted with nine households in the Bay Area and Sacramento region. The purpose of this task was to collect methodologically grounded insights into how and why consumers chose the cool roofing material they selected. These nine households comprised fifteen respondents, and their dependents. They were selected from among a pool of respondents to a mail solicitation of all Sacramento Municipal Utility District and Pacific Gas and Electric customers who had received a rebate for their cool roof retrofit. Consumers are uniformly happy with their cool roof retrofits. Consumers typically stayed very close to the aesthetic of the original roof style. Price was not a primary concern, while longevity was paramount. Consumers did not use roofing price, nor energy savings (with one exception), in tracking return on investment through energy savings. The utility rebate had little role to play in terms of incentivizing customers to choose cool materials. Contractors were critical partners in the decision-­making process.

  10. Role of oxygen disorder in the ferroelectric phase transitions for various materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasciak, Marek; Goossens, Darren J.; Welberry, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The nature of ferroelectric phase transitions in many materials have been questioned for many years. Whereas some methods provide definitive evidence of mode softening, other methods, such as local structure probes, indicate the existence of disorder in the paraelectric phase [1]. It is now widely accepted, that the ferroelectric phase transition usually has two components - soft-mode displacive and order-disorder. The latter leads inevitably to some form of pretransitional clusters in the paraelectric phase [2]. In relaxor ferroelectrics, in which disorder drives the transformation, such polar clusters can exist over a wide range of temperatures. Diffuse scattering is a powerful tool for studying such disorder and also for studying short-range order correlations in atomic displacements [3]. In this work we concentrate on the role of oxygens in various materials. By different means of molecular simulations we build models in which the oxygens constitute a framework for short range order correlations. This leads to a discussion of the differences between x-ray and neutron diffuse scattering patterns that may arise due to the disorder of oxygens.

  11. The Role of Requirements in the Success or Failure of Software Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O.C.; Kamal, Fazillah Mohmad

    2016-01-01

    Requirements engineering is pivotal and central to every successful software development project. There are several reasons why software projects fail; however, poorly elicited, documented, validated and managed requirements contribute grossly to software projects failure. Software project failures are normally very costly and risky and these could even a times be life threatening also. Projects that overlook requirements engineering processes often suffer or are most likely to suffer from fa...

  12. How practitioners approach gameplay requirements? An exploration into the context of massive multiplayer online role-playing games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia; Lutz, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Gameplay requirements are central to game development. In the business context of massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMOGs) where game companies' revenues rely on players' monthly subscriptions, gameplay is also recognized as the key to player retention. However, information on what

  13. The role of positron annihilation lifetime studies and nuclear sensors for characterising porous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mume, E; Smith, S V; Uedono, A; Mizunaga, G; Lynch, D E

    2011-01-01

    A series of nuclear sensors were designed to assess the chemistry within the nanopores of a porous material. The nuclear sensors of varying size, charge, and hydrophobicity were exposed to hollow silica shells (HSS) at varying pH. Uptake and release kinetics were studied over a 24 h period at room temperature. Preliminary study indicate positively charged nuclear sensors were selectively and rapidly (within 10 min) absorbed by the HSS at pH 7 to 9. PALS showed there were two types of pores (1.7 and 0.7 nm) present. The data suggest the nuclear sensors sit within the larger pore of the HSS. Both PALS and nuclear sensors are required to obtain an accurate insight into the nanoporosity of the hollow silica shells.

  14. Production and requirements for pre-basic seed potato material in the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Drago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-basic seed potato material is used for basic seed (elite and certified seed potato production. At this moment all basic seed material is imported into Republic of Serbia and Republic of Srpska, despite the fact that the method of in vitro tissue culture production of virus-free seed potato has been developed in both countries and there is a continuous demand for pre-basic and basic seed potato. Current total production is significantly lower than actual requirements. In the 80s and 90s of the previous century two modern facilities for production of virus-free seed potato and certified seed were built in Sokolac (Republic of Srpska and Guča (Republic of Serbia. Although facilities were well-equipped, seed potato production was permanently ceased in 2000. The presence of high infection pressure dominated by potato virus Y is shown in the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Srpska. This paper gives an overview of pre-basic seed potato material production in both countries over the last two decades.

  15. Materialism and well-being among Chinese college students: the mediating role of basic psychological need satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongjie; Yao, Meilin; Yan, Wenfan

    2014-10-01

    Based on self-determination theory, this study explored the potential mediating role of basic psychological need satisfaction in the relationship between materialism and well-being among Chinese college students. The results showed that basic psychological need satisfaction partially mediated the relationship between materialism and life satisfaction and fully mediated the relationships among materialism and emotional well-being, subjective vitality, and self-actualization. The findings indicated the importance of considering both subjective and psychological well-being and the interpretative power of basic psychological need satisfaction and Chinese culture in the flow from materialism to well-being. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. On the roles of the dopants in LiF: Mg,Cu,Na,Si thermoluminescent material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Chang, S. Y.; Chung, K. S.; Choe, H. S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, some results of the study on the roles of the dopants in the LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si thermoluminescent (TL) material that was developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. for radiation protection are presented. Although there have been many studies to investigate the roles of the dopants in LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL material in the TL process, there are some discrepancies in the understanding of the roles of Cu and P between various researchers. In case of LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si TL material, there are a few studies on the roles of the dopants. Three kinds of samples in each of which one dopant is excluded, and the optimised sample, were prepared for this study. The measurements and analysis of the three-dimensional TL spectra, based on the temperature, wavelength and intensity, and the glow curves for those samples are used in this study. The results show that Mg plays a role in the trapping of the charge carriers and Cu plays a role in the luminescence recombination process; however, the effect of Na and Si on the glow curve structure and the TL emission spectra is much less than that of Mg and Cu. It is considered that Na and Si each plays a role in the improvement of the luminescence efficiency. (authors)

  17. How Does Transformational Leadership Promote Innovation in Construction? The Mediating Role of Innovation Climate and the Multilevel Moderation Role of Project Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanchun Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovation plays a critical role in the sustainable development of the construction industry. This research aims at examining transformational leadership’s role in shaping employees’ innovative behavior by analyzing the mediating effect of innovation climate and the cross-level moderating effect of innovativeness as a project requirement. To achieve this aim, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 300 construction industry professionals in China and 251 valid replies were received. Data collected by the questionnaire were analyzed using the method of hierarchical linear modeling (HLM. The results showed that transformational leaders could nurture a mutual climate for innovation to motivate employees’ innovative behaviors. In addition, innovativeness as a project requirement at the project level strengthens the indirect link amongst transformational leadership and innovative behavior via the innovation climate. Therefore, in the presence of higher innovativeness as a project requirement, transformational leadership is more prone to exert a positive influence upon an individual’s innovative behavior via the perceived innovation climate. The research findings improve understanding of the roles of leadership and innovation climate in affecting individual behavioral outcomes, and could help project managers and leaders encourage innovative ideas within project organizations.

  18. The role and requirements of digestible dietary carbohydrates in infants and toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephen, A.; Alles, M.; Graaf, de C.; Fleith, M.; Hadjilucas, E.; Isaacs, A.; Maffeis, C.; Zeinstra, G.G.; Gil, A.

    2012-01-01

    Digestible carbohydrates are one of the main sources of dietary energy in infancy and childhood and are essential for growth and development. The aim of this narrative review is to outline the intakes of digestible carbohydrates and their role in health and disease, including the development of food

  19. An evaluation of the procedures required to ensure consistent material supply in the Eastern Cape automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Horn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a common perception that logistics practice and supply chain management have not yet reached the required international standards among all the supply chain members in the South African automotive industry. This article is based on a research study that investigated possible reasons for the inconsistent supply of materials in the Eastern Cape automotive industry specifically. Problems identified include the fact that suppliers are not evaluated on a regular basis and do not receive sufficient logistics training, while a commitment and will to development local suppliers is lacking. Recommendations made to the South African automotive industry include the improvement of development programmes to assist local suppliers in becoming world-class suppliers, better logistics training, more regular supplier assessments, as well as improved mutual communication among suppliers and motor vehicle assemblers.

  20. Data requirements for valuing externalities: The role of existing permitting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Baechler, M.C.; Callaway, J.M.

    1990-08-01

    While the assessment of externalities, or residual impacts, will place new demands on regulators, utilities, and developers, existing processes already require certain data and information that may fulfill some of the data needs for externality valuation. This paper examines existing siting, permitting, and other processes and highlights similarities and differences between their data requirements and the data required to value environmental externalities. It specifically considers existing requirements for siting new electricity resources in Oregon and compares them with the information and data needed to value externalities for such resources. This paper also presents several observations about how states can take advantage of data acquired through processes already in place as they move into an era when externalities are considered in utility decision-making. It presents other observations on the similarities and differences between the data requirements under existing processes and those for valuing externalities. This paper also briefly discusses the special case of cumulative impacts. And it presents recommendations on what steps to take in future efforts to value externalities. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Transportation of radioactive materials: a summary of state and local legislative requirements for the period ending December 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, N.P.; Goins, L.F.; Fowler, J.W.; Owen, P.T.

    1986-04-01

    This report lists 670 adopted US state and local laws that impact the transportation of radioactive materials. The report was generated from information contained in the Legislative Database (LDB), a comprehensive, interactive database developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy and the Joint Integration Office. Laws are sorted alphabetically by state, with state and local bills listed separately and sorted by date of adoption. Each citation contains the following information: locale (geographical areas and political jurisdictions affected by the action), bill number, bill title, bill sponsor, history of bill status, comments, and abstract. Seven indexes are provided to assist the reader in locating legislation of interest: locale, bill number, title word (permuted), sponsor, transport restriction (type of transportation restriction specified, e.g., escort, notify, permit, ban), transport mode (mode of transportation specified, e.g., truck, rail, barge), and keyword. This report adds new legislation to the information contained in last year's report, ''Transportation of Radioactive and Hazardous Materials: A Summary of State and Local Legislative Requirements for the Period Ending December 31, 1981,'' ORNL/TM-9563, published in September 1985

  2. Transportation of radioactive materials: a summary of state and local legislative requirements for the period ending December 31, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.P.; Goins, L.F.; Fowler, J.W.; Owen, P.T.

    1986-04-01

    This report lists 670 adopted US state and local laws that impact the transportation of radioactive materials. The report was generated from information contained in the Legislative Database (LDB), a comprehensive, interactive database developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy and the Joint Integration Office. Laws are sorted alphabetically by state, with state and local bills listed separately and sorted by date of adoption. Each citation contains the following information: locale (geographical areas and political jurisdictions affected by the action), bill number, bill title, bill sponsor, history of bill status, comments, and abstract. Seven indexes are provided to assist the reader in locating legislation of interest: locale, bill number, title word (permuted), sponsor, transport restriction (type of transportation restriction specified, e.g., escort, notify, permit, ban), transport mode (mode of transportation specified, e.g., truck, rail, barge), and keyword. This report adds new legislation to the information contained in last year's report, ''Transportation of Radioactive and Hazardous Materials: A Summary of State and Local Legislative Requirements for the Period Ending December 31, 1981,'' ORNL/TM-9563, published in September 1985.

  3. Role of core support material in veneer failure of brittle layer structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Ilja; Bhowmick, Sanjit; Lawn, Brian R

    2007-07-01

    A study is made of veneer failure by cracking in all-ceramic crown-like layer structures. Model trilayers consisting of a 1 mm thick external glass layer (veneer) joined to a 0.5 mm thick inner stiff and hard ceramic support layer (core) by epoxy bonding or by fusion are fabricated for testing. The resulting bilayers are then glued to a thick compliant polycarbonate slab to simulate a dentin base. The specimens are subjected to cyclic contact (occlusal) loading with spherical indenters in an aqueous environment. Video cameras are used to record the fracture evolution in the transparent glass layer in situ during testing. The dominant failure mode is cone cracking in the glass veneer by traditional outer (Hertzian) cone cracks at higher contact loads and by inner (hydraulically pumped) cone cracks at lower loads. Failure is deemed to occur when one of these cracks reaches the veneer/core interface. The advantages and disadvantages of the alumina and zirconia core materials are discussed in terms of mechanical properties-strength and toughness, as well as stiffness. Consideration is also given to the roles of interface strength and residual thermal expansion mismatch stresses in relation to the different joining methods. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Role of the misfit stress between grains in the Bauschinger effect for a polycrystalline material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.; Hu, J.N.; Wang, Y.Q.; Zhang, S.Y.; Van Petegem, S.; Cocks, A.C.F.; Smith, D.J.; Flewitt, P.E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The role of misfit stress in kinematic hardening under reversed straining of a Type 316H austenitic stainless steel has been investigated by using neutron diffraction combined with in situ deformation. Initial misfit stresses, often referred to an intergranular internal stresses, were created by the tensile pre-straining at high temperature. The misfit stresses at the length-scale of grain families, measured by neutron diffraction, were shown to be a function of the magnitude of the tensile pre-strain. The pre-strained specimens were further subjected to either continued (tensile) straining or reversed (compressive) straining at room temperature. In situ neutron diffraction measurements were undertaken to monitor the change of the misfit stresses during loading. The macroscopic stress–strain behaviour was used to derive isotropic and kinematic hardening stresses developed in the pre-strained specimens. Results show that the change of the transient softening stress towards a zero value is accompanied by a decrease in the change of the misfit stresses. A multi-scale self-consistent model has been developed to assist in understanding the measured change of the misfit stresses when subjecting the material to strain reversal. An important conclusion is that the origin of the kinematic hardening of Type 316H austenitic stainless steel arises from the misfit stress between grains

  5. Preparation of Silica Nanoparticles and Its Beneficial Role in Cementitious Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ahalawat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Spherical silica nanoparticles (n‐SiO2 with controllable size have been synthesized using tetraethoxysilane as starting material and ethanol as solvent by sol‐gel method. Morphology and size of the particles was controlled through surfactants. Sorbitan monolaurate, sorbitain monopalmitate and sorbitain monostearate produced silica nanoparticles of varying sizes (80‐150 nm, indicating the effect of chain length of the surfactant. Increase in chain length of non‐ionic surfactant resulted in decreasing particle size of silica nanoparticles. Further, the size of silica particles was also controlled using NH3 as base catalyst. These silica nanoparticles were incorporated into cement paste and their role in accelerating the cementitious reactions was investigated. Addition of silica nanoparticles into cement paste improved the microstructure of the paste and calcium leaching is significantly reduced as n‐SiO2 reacts with calcium hydroxide and form additional calcium‐ silicate‐hydrate (C‐S‐H gel. It was found that calcium hydroxide content in silica nanoparticles incorporated cement paste reduced ~89% at 1 day and up to ~60% at 28 days of hydration process. Synthesized silica particles and cement paste samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, powder X‐ray diffraction (XRD, infrared spectroscopy (IR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA.

  6. The Role of Orthogonal Polynomials in Tailoring Spherical Distributions to Kurtosis Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bagnato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper carries out an investigation of the orthogonal-polynomial approach to reshaping symmetric distributions to fit in with data requirements so as to cover the multivariate case. With this objective in mind, reference is made to the class of spherical distributions, given that they provide a natural multivariate generalization of univariate even densities. After showing how to tailor a spherical distribution via orthogonal polynomials to better comply with kurtosis requirements, we provide operational conditions for the positiveness of the resulting multivariate Gram–Charlier-like expansion, together with its kurtosis range. Finally, the approach proposed here is applied to some selected spherical distributions.

  7. Mean deformation metrics for quantifying 3D cell–matrix interactions without requiring information about matrix material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, David A.; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Estrada, Jonathan B.; Toyjanova, Jennet; Kesari, Haneesh; Reichner, Jonathan S.; Franck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Mechanobiology relates cellular processes to mechanical signals, such as determining the effect of variations in matrix stiffness with cell tractions. Cell traction recorded via traction force microscopy (TFM) commonly takes place on materials such as polyacrylamide- and polyethylene glycol-based gels. Such experiments remain limited in physiological relevance because cells natively migrate within complex tissue microenvironments that are spatially heterogeneous and hierarchical. Yet, TFM requires determination of the matrix constitutive law (stress–strain relationship), which is not always readily available. In addition, the currently achievable displacement resolution limits the accuracy of TFM for relatively small cells. To overcome these limitations, and increase the physiological relevance of in vitro experimental design, we present a new approach and a set of associated biomechanical signatures that are based purely on measurements of the matrix's displacements without requiring any knowledge of its constitutive laws. We show that our mean deformation metrics (MDM) approach can provide significant biophysical information without the need to explicitly determine cell tractions. In the process of demonstrating the use of our MDM approach, we succeeded in expanding the capability of our displacement measurement technique such that it can now measure the 3D deformations around relatively small cells (∼10 micrometers), such as neutrophils. Furthermore, we also report previously unseen deformation patterns generated by motile neutrophils in 3D collagen gels. PMID:26929377

  8. APPLICATION METHODS TO INCREASE OF ROLE PLAYING ON LEARNING MATERIALS PRESERVING NKRI (PENERAPAN METODE ROLE PLAY UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR PADA MATERI MENJAGA KEUTUHAN NKRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfudin -

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Uncertainty in the nation's economy, the impact of globalization as well as various crises and disasters are problems that may lead to national disintegration which make few groups want to secede from NKRI. All these problems unilaterally are evidences of the unreliability of civic education learning as a subject that mandates to maintain the integrity of NKRI, not in the macro scope but in giving civic education as early as possible from the elementary school. The learning outcomes of civic education learning do not only include the acquisition of knowledge, but more to the acquisition of feeling and behavior. Consequently, in the pre-cycle, the researcher found difficulties to integrate the two domains, which made the learning outcomes below the mini-mum mastery criteria, students’ behavior lacking the feeling of love to their homeland and stu-dents’ motivation in learning low. To solve the problems, the researcher used role play method and as a result, after two cycles, students’ learning outcomes increased. The percentage of stu-dents’ minimum mastery criteria increased from 52% (score 75 to 69% in cycle I and 96% in cycle II. In addition, the students’ were more motivated in learning, followed ceremony in an or-derly manner, and behaved in ways that reflect the love of homeland. It can be concluded that ap-plying role play method in the lesson of preserving the integrity of NKRI at Grade V SDN Cilengkrang North Sumedang Regencey, students’ learning outcomes could be improved. Keywords: Role Play Method, Civic Education Learning, Integrity of The Unitary State of The Republic of Indonesia Abstrak. Ketidakpastian kondisi perekonomian bangsa, pengaruh globalisasi serta berbagai krisis dan bencana merupakan permasalahan yang merujuk ke arah disintegrasi bangsa. Sehingga segelintir kelompok ingin memisahkan diri dari NKRI. Semua permasalahan diatas secara sepihak merupakan suatu bukti ketidak mempanan pembelajaran PKn

  9. Financing biotechnology projects: lender due diligence requirements and the role of independent technical consultants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J B; Plath, P B

    1999-01-01

    An increasing number of biotechnology projects are being brought to commercialization using conventional structured finance sources, which have traditionally only been available to proven technologies and primary industries. Attracting and securing competitive cost financing from mainstream lenders, however, will require the sponsor of a new technology or process to undergo a greater level of due diligence. The specific areas and intensity of investigation, which are typically required by lenders in order to secure long-term financing for biotechnology-based manufacturing systems, is reviewed. The processes for evaluating the adequacy of prior laboratory testing and pilot plant demonstrations is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to scale-up considerations and the ability of the proposed facility design to accommodate significant modifications, in the event that scale-up problems are encountered.

  10. The role of advanced nuclear power technologies in developing countries: Criteria and design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    The document includes the papers presented at the following two technical committee meetings organized by the IAEA: Technical Committee Meeting and Workshop on Criteria for the Introduction of Advanced Nuclear Power Technologies for Specific Applications in Developing Countries, Vienna, 27-30 June 1988 (14 papers) and Technical Committee Meeting and Workshop on Design Requirements for the Application of Advanced Concepts in Developing Countries, Vienna, 6-9 December 1988 (16 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  11. The role of cement to be expected in radioactive waste disposal system. 2. From the standpoint of materials design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Nagasaki, Shinya; Ohe, Toshiaki

    2000-01-01

    Cement materials are used at various fields because of their mechanical properties, and then a large construction without using the cement materials is impossible to suppose. For disposal of radioactive wastes, it is expected to use the cement materials for a main constitution material of artificial barrier materials such as construction materials for a disposal facility, wastes container, solidification materials for wastes, and so forth, and in fact, they are used for cement solidified matters, concrete pit as a landfill apparatus, and so forth at the Low Level Radioactive Wastes Storage Center situated in Rokkasho-mura, Aomori prefecture. For their disposal, as cement materials are expected for their property on transfer control of radioactive nuclides such as water stoppage, pH buffering of circumferential groundwater, and transfer retarding, except their mechanical properties, it must be quantitatively investigated how they change with time and if their change forms any problem on safety, because a time to consider their soundness on mechanics or nuclide conservation becomes long term such as for more than hundreds years. Under consideration on disposal and technical trends of radioactive wastes in- and out of-Japan described in previous report, after showing on direction of investigation required to make the cement materials function as an artificial material in disposal of radioactive wastes and on technical trends to it, here was summarized on positioning of studies on cement in the disposal business. (G.K.)

  12. The role of structural materials in the vulnerability of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debarberis, L.; Simola, K.; Ballesteros, A.; Kryukov, A.; Brumovsky, M.

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear power plants (NPPs) world-wide are generally very robustly designed and constructed, capable to stand very extreme conditions. Small design differences from this point of view can be found among the various reactor types of the same generation; PWR, WWER, ets. The NPP structures are thus designed to accommodate all originally thinkable unwanted conditions, to cope with various extreme scenarios and respond safely to the various considered initiating events. In addition to the robust design, a series of complex redundant and diverse safety barriers, following a defence in depth concept, have been developed to avoid negative consequences, or at least mitigate the consequences of the events. Recently, questions and debates are appearing with regard to the vulnerability of the NPPs and their possible exposure to external threats; like for example terrorist attacks involving few individuals able to by-pass security and introducing small charges of explosive inside or near-by such containments. The role of the structural materials is in these situations very important for the safety of the NPP. The worst consequences of an event can contemplate of course huge environmental damage, like release of radio-activity combined with possible human losses and considerable direct costs, and financial and logistic indirect consequences. Such negative consequences are especially impacting the nuclear industry; in fact, it can be foreseen that a single accident or serious incident may put in danger the complete NPP fleet operation simply due to public opinion justified pressure. The response of the structures subjected to non-design impacts is discussed and reviewed in this paper. Although the main focus is on structural integrity, the paper also discusses the overall risk assessment of terrorist attacks presenting the link between structural analyses and plant risk analysis

  13. 48 CFR 252.216-7002 - Alternate A, Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price Competition... Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price Competition. As prescribed in 216.601(e...-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price...

  14. Wind energy in the United States and materials required for the land-based wind turbine industry from 2010 through 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The generation of electricity in the United States from wind-powered turbines is increasing. An understanding of the sources and abundance of raw materials required by the wind turbine industry and the many uses for these materials is necessary to assess the effect of this industry's growth on future demand for selected raw materials relative to the historical demand for these materials. The U.S. Geological Survey developed estimates of future requirements for raw (and some recycled) materials based on the assumption that wind energy will supply 20 percent of the electricity consumed in the United States by 2030. Economic, environmental, political, and technological considerations and trends reported for 2009 were used as a baseline. Estimates for the quantity of materials in typical "current generation" and "next generation" wind turbines were developed. In addition, estimates for the annual and total material requirements were developed based on the growth necessary for wind energy when converted in a wind powerplant to generate 20 percent of the U.S. supply of electricity by 2030. The results of the study suggest that achieving the market goal of 20 percent by 2030 would require an average annual consumption of about 6.8 million metric tons of concrete, 1.5 million metric tons of steel, 310,000 metric tons of cast iron, 40,000 metric tons of copper, and 380 metric tons of the rare-earth element neodymium. With the exception of neodymium, these material requirements represent less than 3 percent of the U.S. apparent consumption for 2008. Recycled material could supply about 3 percent of the total steel required for wind turbine production from 2010 through 2030, 4 percent of the aluminum required, and 3 percent of the copper required. The data suggest that, with the possible exception of rare-earth elements, there should not be a shortage of the principal materials required for electricity generation from wind energy. There may, however, be selective

  15. Engineering Analysis of Intermediate Loop and Process Heat Exchanger Requirements to Include Configuration Analysis and Materials Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.M. Lillo; R.L. Williamson; T.R. Reed; C.B. Davis; D.M. Ginosar

    2005-09-01

    The need to locate advanced hydrogen production facilities a finite distance away from a nuclear power source necessitates the need for an intermediate heat transport loop (IHTL). This IHTL must not only efficiently transport energy over distances up to 500 meters but must also be capable of operating at high temperatures (>850oC) for many years. High temperature, long term operation raises concerns of material strength, creep resistance and general material stability (corrosion resistance). IHTL design is currently in the initial stages. Many questions remain to be answered before intelligent design can begin. The report begins to look at some of the issues surrounding the main components of an IHTL. Specifically, a stress analysis of a compact heat exchanger design under expected operating conditions is reported. Also the results of a thermal analysis performed on two ITHL pipe configurations for different heat transport fluids are presented. The configurations consist of separate hot supply and cold return legs as well as annular design in which the hot fluid is carried in an inner pipe and the cold return fluids travels in the opposite direction in the annular space around the hot pipe. The effects of insulation configurations on pipe configuration performance are also reported. Finally, a simple analysis of two different process heat exchanger designs, one a tube in shell type and the other a compact or microchannel reactor are evaluated in light of catalyst requirements. Important insights into the critical areas of research and development are gained from these analyses, guiding the direction of future areas of research.

  16. Role of nuclear material accounting and control on nuclear security. Countermeasure against insider threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osabe, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Possibility on unauthorized removal (theft) of nuclear material by a facility insider is a recognized as a serious threat. An insider could take advantage or knowledge of control system and access to nuclear material to intercept facility's system designed to protect theft of nuclear material by an insider. This paper will address how the facility level Nuclear Material Accounting and Control (NMAC) System should be designed and implemented to enhance deterring and detect theft of nuclear material by a facility insider. (author)

  17. The role of requirements management in the design of built environments: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pegoraro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the known difficulties on managing the design process of built environments, researchers and entrepreneurs have continuously developed and implemented best practices from areas such as Project Management (PM. However, there are still gaps to be filled, such as difficulties on monitoring the stakeholder’s requirements and their dynamics. In attempt to eliminate this gap, this paper aims to analyze if requirements management (RM can be integrated to PM and which are the main advantages and disadvantages of this integration. The research includes a literature review which presents PM and RM concepts, the last one based on software engineering approach. Moreover, a case study was performed in a construction company, using semi-structured interviews. The research showed that the use of RM is advantageous, even not solving all the projects difficulties, and that the proper structuring of the projects is a condition for the success of RM implementation. The main contribution is a generic and systematic proposal for integrating the stages of the RM to the projects.

  18. The role of textured material in supporting perceptual-motor functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Orth

    Full Text Available Simple deformation of the skin surface with textured materials can improve human perceptual-motor performance. The implications of these findings are inexpensive, adaptable and easily integrated clothing, equipment and tools for improving perceptual-motor functionality. However, some clarification is needed because mixed results have been reported in the literature, highlighting positive, absent and/or negative effects of added texture on measures of perceptual-motor performance. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of textured materials for enhancing perceptual-motor functionality. The systematic review uncovered two variables suitable for sub-group analysis within and between studies: participant age (groupings were 18-51 years and 64.7-79.4 years and experimental task (upright balance and walking. Evaluation of studies that observed texture effects during upright balance tasks, uncovered two additional candidate sub-groups for future work: vision (eyes open and eyes closed and stability (stable and unstable. Meta-analysis (random effects revealed that young participants improve performance by a small to moderate amount in upright balance tasks with added texture (SMD = 0.28, 95%CI = 0.46-0.09, Z = 2.99, P = 0.001; Tau(2 = 0.02; Chi(2 = 9.87, df = 6, P = 0.13; I(2 = 39.22. Significant heterogeneity was found in, the overall effect of texture: Tau(2 = 0.13; Chi(2 = 130.71, df = 26, P<0.0001; I(2 = 85.98%, pooled samples in upright balance tasks: Tau(2 = 0.09; Chi(2 = 101.57, df = 13, P<0.001; I(2 = 72.67%, and in elderly in upright balance tasks: Tau(2 = 0.16; Chi(2 = 39.42, df = 5, P<0.001; I(2 = 83.05%. No effect was shown for walking tasks: Tau(2 = 0.00; Chi(2 = 3.45, df = 4, P = 0.27, I(2 = 22.99%. Data provides unequivocal support for utilizing textured materials in young healthy populations for improving

  19. The Role of Rotavirus Infection Requiring Treatment in a Hospital in Children with Diarrheal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.Yu. Stepanova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the prognostic and diagnostic value of some clinical and biological factors in the development of acute intestinal rotavirus infection in children. We observed 161 children aged 1 month to 6 years. 81 children were diagnosed with rotavirus infection, and 80 — with secretory diarrhea of unknown origin. Treatment of children was carried out in a hospital. Analysis of clinical and anamnestic data enabled to choose the most prognostically and diagnostically important predictors out of 117 studied risk factors. The authors investigated the association of clinical and biological factors with the severity of rotavirus infection, which would highlight the groups of children with high risk of rotavirus infection, which requires treatment in a hospital. The practical application of the results of this work should be the optimization of early diagnostics of rotavirus infections and timeliness of preventive measures.

  20. Review and evaluation of the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). Volume 1. Comparison of DOE nuclear materials information system requirements with NMMSS capabilities and recommendations for NMMSS improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report documents the result of a review of the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS), a Department of Energy nuclear materials control and accountability data base and information processing system. This review was performed to determine what data are required from the NMMSS, how it is collected, and how it is used. Based upon the review, NMMSS deficiencies and excess capabilities were identified and a draft set of requirements for the nuclear materials information system that the Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) should be supporting as well as recommendations for attaining that capability

  1. THE ROLE OF THE MATERIALITY IN AUDIT AND ACCOUNTACY IN AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Simona Bumbescu; Dimi Ofileanu; Raul Burdea

    2014-01-01

    In this article it is realised an overview of the importance that the materiality has forthe audit and the accountancy activity, beeing an interdependence relationship between theinformation provided by the accountancy and audit activity. Based on previous studies concerningthe materiality, in this article it is developed a synthetic theoretical framework regarding themateriality, the relationship between materiality and audit risk, the steps that heve to be made inorder to determine the mate...

  2. The role of materialism on social, emotional and behavioural difficulties for British adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Maras, Pam; Moon, Amy; Gupta, Taveeshi; Gridley, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between materialism and social-emotional behavioural difficulties (SEBDs) was assessed by comparing a sample of adolescents receiving in-school behavioural support with adolescents not receiving any support. All participants completed the Youth Materialism Scale and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Binary logistic regression indicated that adolescents who reported higher levels of materialism were more likely to be classified into a group considered ‘at-risk’ for...

  3. Reference materials and their role in quality assurance in environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    The importance of a good and routine quality control procedure for the analyses of environmental samples is presented. The use of Reference Materials as one simple procedure for validating analytical methodologies and determining the accuracy of analytical data is emphasized. The quality of the reference materials is also discussed as well as their selection and correct use. The convenience of preparing 'in-house' reference materials is discussed and attention is called to relevant aspects to be considered. An example of the preparation of a reference material is presented and some aspects of the procedure are discussed. (author)

  4. Help guide for the application of regulatory requirements on the transport of radioactive material; Guia de ayuda para la aplicacion de requisitos reglementarios sobr el transporte de material radiactivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Rodriguez, S.; Acena Moreno, V.; Zamora Martin, F.; Rubio de Juan, E.

    2011-07-01

    The regulation of transport of radioactive material by road in Spain refers to compliance with the requirements of the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) in force. The structure presented by this legislation, which is international, and the inclusion in it of requirements that apply to other dangerous goods makes it difficult to consult the requirements that specifically apply to the transport of radioactive material. Therefore, the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) has found it necessary to publish a guide that facilitates users to comply with its provisions and, consequently, this transport security.

  5. The growing role of noninvasive ventilation in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Dean R

    2012-06-01

    For many patients with chronic respiratory failure requiring ventilator support, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is preferable to invasive support by tracheostomy. Currently available evidence does not support the use of nocturnal NIV in unselected patients with stable COPD. Several European studies have reported benefit for high intensity NIV, in which setting of inspiratory pressure and respiratory rate are selected to achieve normocapnia. There have also been studies reporting benefit for the use of NIV as an adjunct to exercise training. NIV may be useful as an adjunct to airway clearance techniques in patients with cystic fibrosis. Accumulating evidence supports the use of NIV in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome. There is considerable observational evidence supporting the use of NIV in patients with chronic respiratory failure related to neuromuscular disease, and one randomized controlled trial reported that the use of NIV was life-prolonging in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A variety of interfaces can be used to provide NIV in patients with stable chronic respiratory failure. The mouthpiece is an interface that is unique in this patient population, and has been used with success in patients with neuromuscular disease. Bi-level pressure ventilators are commonly used for NIV, although there are now a new generation of intermediate ventilators that are portable, have a long battery life, and can be used for NIV and invasive applications. Pressure support ventilation, pressure controlled ventilation, and volume controlled ventilation have been used successfully for chronic applications of NIV. New modes have recently become available, but their benefits await evidence to support their widespread use. The success of NIV in a given patient population depends on selection of an appropriate patient, selection of an appropriate interface, selection of an appropriate ventilator and ventilator settings, the skills of the clinician, the

  6. Sphingosine kinase 1 is required for mesothelioma cell proliferation: role of histone acetylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kalari

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is a devastating disease with an overall poor prognosis. Despite the recent advances in targeted molecular therapies, there is a clear and urgent need for the identification of novel mesothelioma targets for the development of highly efficacious therapeutics.In this study, we report that the expression of Sphingosine Kinase 1 (SphK1 protein was preferentially elevated in MPM tumor tissues (49 epithelioid and 13 sarcomatoid compared to normal tissue (n = 13. In addition, we also observed significantly elevated levels of SphK1 and SphK2 mRNA and SphK1 protein expression in MPM cell lines such as H2691, H513 and H2461 compared to the non-malignant mesothelial Met5 cells. The underlying mechanism appears to be mediated by SphK1 induced upregulation of select gene transcription programs such as that of CBP/p300 and PCAF, two histone acetyl transferases (HAT, and the down regulation of cell cycle dependent kinase inhibitor genes such as p27Kip1 and p21Cip1. In addition, using immunoprecipitates of anti-acetylated histone antibody from SphK inhibitor, SphK-I2 treated Met5A and H2691 cell lysates, we also showed activation of other cell proliferation related genes, such as Top2A (DNA replication, AKB (chromosome remodeling and mitotic spindle formation, and suppression of p21 CIP1 and p27KIP1. The CDK2, HAT1 and MYST2 were, however, unaffected in the above study. Using SphK inhibitor and specific siRNA targeting either SphK1 or SphK2, we also unequivocally established that SphK1, but not SphK2, promotes H2691 mesothelioma cell proliferation. Using a multi-walled carbon nanotubes induced peritoneal mesothelioma mouse model, we showed that the SphK1-/- null mice exhibited significantly less inflammation and granulamatous nodules compared to their wild type counterparts.The lipid kinase SphK1 plays a positive and essential role in the growth and development of malignant mesothelioma and is therefore a likely

  7. Adult Materialism/Postmaterialism and Later Mental Health: The Role of Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2005-01-01

    This study used data from the British National Child Development Study (NCDS) to examine the relationship between materialism/postmaterialism and later mental health. Materialism/postmaterialism was assessed (using Inglehart's 4-item index) at age 33 and mental health (measured by the GHQ-12) was assessed at age 42. It was found that after…

  8. The Role of Materialism on Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties for British Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, Pam; Moon, Amy; Gupta, Taveeshi; Gridley, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between materialism and social-emotional behavioural difficulties (SEBDs) was assessed by comparing a sample of adolescents receiving in-school behavioural support with adolescents not receiving any support. All participants completed the Youth Materialism Scale and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Binary logistic…

  9. Young Children's Judgments About the Relative Size of Shared Portions: The Role of Material Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Rachel E.; Beal, Carole R.

    2004-01-01

    3 experiments were conducted to assess young (5-7 years) children's ability to judge the relative amount that a character would receive if sharing a material with 1 friend (halves) or 2 friends (thirds). Materials included items that appeared in 3 forms: continuous, discrete, and composite. In the first 2 experiments, performance was best with…

  10. Randomised controlled trial of whether erotic material is required for semen collection: impact of informed consent on outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, D J; Sivananathan, T; Andres, L; Bathur, F; Jayadev, V; Conway, A J

    2013-11-01

    Semen is collected to evaluate male fertility or cryostore sperm preferentially in laboratories but such collection facilities have no standard fit-out. It is widely believed but untested whether providing erotic material (EM) is required to collect semen by masturbation in the unfamiliar environment. To test this assumption, 1520 men (1046 undergoing fertility evaluation, 474 sperm cryostorage, providing 1932 semen collection episodes) consecutively attending the semen laboratory of a major metropolitan teaching hospital for semen analysis were eligible for randomization to be provided or not with printed erotic material EM (X-rated, soft-core magazines) during semen collection. Randomization was performed by providing magazines in the collection rooms (as a variation on non-standard fit-out) on alternate weeks using a schedule concealed from participants. In the pilot study, men were randomized without seeking consent. In the second part of the study, which continued on from the first without interruption, an approved informed consent procedure was added. The primary outcome, the time to collect semen defined as the time from receiving to returning the sample receptacle, was significantly longer (by ~6%, 14.9 ± 0.3 [mean ± standard error of mean] vs. 14.0 ± 0.2 minutes, p = 0.02) among men provided with EM than those randomized to not being provided. There was no significant increase in the failure to collect semen samples (2.6% overall) nor any difference in age, semen volume or sperm concentration, output or motility according to whether EM was provided or not. The significantly longer time to collect was evident in the pilot study and the study overall, but not in the main study where the informed consent procedure was used. This study provides evidence that refutes the assumption that EM needs to be provided for semen collection in a laboratory. It also provides an example of a usually unobservable participation bias influencing study outcome of a

  11. Strategies for discovery and optimization of thermoelectric materials: Role of real objects and local fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Xiao, Chong

    2018-06-01

    Thermoelectric materials provide a renewable and eco-friendly solution to mitigate energy shortages and to reduce environmental pollution via direct heat-to-electricity conversion. Discovery of the novel thermoelectric materials and optimization of the state-of-the-art material systems lie at the core of the thermoelectric society, the basic concept behind these being comprehension and manipulation of the physical principles and transport properties regarding thermoelectric materials. In this mini-review, certain examples for designing high-performance bulk thermoelectric materials are presented from the perspectives of both real objects and local fields. The highlights of this topic involve the Rashba effect, Peierls distortion, local magnetic field, and local stress field, which cover several aspects in the field of thermoelectric research. We conclude with an overview of future developments in thermoelectricity.

  12. Present knowledge and perspectives on the role of copper in brake materials and related environmental issues: A critical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straffelini, Giovanni; Ciudin, Rodica; Ciotti, Alessandro; Gialanella, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    This critical review presents several aspects related to the use of copper as a main component in brake pads in road vehicles. The compositions of these materials are attracting increasing interest and concern due to the relative contribution of wear products to particulate matter emissions in the environment as a result of braking action even though there has been a reduction in exhaust products from internal combustion engines. We review the data on the main wear mechanisms in brake systems and highlight the positive role of copper. However, similar to other heavy metal emissions, even the release of copper into the atmosphere may have important environmental and health effects. Thus, several replacement strategies are being pursued, and the positive and negative features will be critically reviewed. Additionally, the future perspectives in materials development will be discussed. - Highlights: • Copper in brake pad materials: role and concerns. • Environmental and health impact of copper. • Copper replacement in frictional brake materials. • International legislation and standards on the above issues. - Importance of copper in brake pad materials and concern as regards environmental and health impact of its emission as brake wear product.

  13. Plasma-material interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    Plasma-interactive components must be resistant to erosion processes, efficient in heat removal, and effective in minimizing tritium inventory and permeation. As long as plasma edge temperatures are 50 eV, no one material can satisfy the diverse requirements imposed by these plasma materials interactions. The only solution is the design of duplex, or even more complicated, structures. The material that faces the plasma should be low atomic number, with acceptable erosion and evaporation characteristics. The substrate material must have high thermal conductivity for heat removal. Finally, materials must be selected judiciously for tritium compatibility. In conclusion, materials play a critical role in the achievement of safe and economical magnetic fusion energy. Improvements in materials have already led to many advances in present day device operation, but additional innovative materials solutions are required for the critical plasma materials interaction issues in future power reactors

  14. Hierarchically Porous Carbon Materials for CO 2 Capture: The Role of Pore Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez, Luis [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Barpaga, Dushyant [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Zheng, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Sabale, Sandip [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Patel, Rajankumar L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Zhang, Ji-Guang [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; McGrail, B. Peter [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Motkuri, Radha Kishan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99352, United States

    2018-01-17

    With advances in porous carbon synthesis techniques, hierarchically porous carbon (HPC) materials are being utilized as relatively new porous carbon sorbents for CO2 capture applications. These HPC materials were used as a platform to prepare samples with differing textural properties and morphologies to elucidate structure-property relationships. It was found that high microporous content, rather than overall surface area was of primary importance for predicting good CO2 capture performance. Two HPC materials were analyzed, each with near identical high surface area (~2700 m2/g) and colossally high pore volume (~10 cm3/g), but with different microporous content and pore size distributions, which led to dramatically different CO2 capture performance. Overall, large pore volumes obtained from distinct mesopores were found to significantly impact adsorption performance. From these results, an optimized HPC material was synthesized that achieved a high CO2 capacity of ~3.7 mmol/g at 25°C and 1 bar.

  15. Positive or negative Poynting effect? The role of adscititious inequalities in hyperelastic materials

    KAUST Repository

    Mihai, L. A.; Goriely, A.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on biopolymer gels whereby the reverse of the usual (positive) Poynting effect was observed, we investigate the effect of the so-called 'adscititious inequalities' on the behaviour of hyperelastic materials subject

  16. Porous alkali activated materials with slow alkali release dynamic. Role of composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.

    2018-01-01

    Alkali activated materials (AAM) based on calcined metakaolin or illite clay together with waste by-products, such as waste glass or aluminium scrap recycling waste, were tested as value-added materials for pH stabilization in biogas technology where decrease of pH should be avoided. Porous materials with ability to slowly leach alkalis in the water media thus providing continuous control of the pH level were obtained. XRD, FTIR, SEM and titration methods were used to characterize AAM and their leaching properties. It is clear that composition of the material has an important effect on the diffusion of alkali from structure. Namely, higher Si/Al and Na/Al molar ratios may increase pore solution transfer to the leachate. The leaching rate of alkalis from the structure of AAM is high for the first few days, decreasing over time. It was possible to calculate the buffer capacity from the mixture design of AAM. [es

  17. The Role of the Federal Standard in the Beneficial Use of Dredged Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    A guide for USACE Districts, other federal agencies, state agencies, local governments, and private interest groups. The Federal Standard Paper provides guidance on using dredged material as a resource to achieve environmental and economic benefits.

  18. A 2D finite element study on the role of material properties on eddy current losses in soft magnetic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaotao; Corcolle, Romain; Daniel, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    The use of soft magnetic composites (SMCs) in electrical engineering applications is growing. SMCs provide an effective alternative to laminated steels because they exhibit a high permeability with low eddy current losses. Losses are a critical feature in the design of electrical machines, and it is necessary to evaluate the role of microstructure and constitutive properties of SMCs during the predesign stage. In this paper we propose a simplified finite element approach to compute eddy current losses in these materials. The computations allow to quantify the role of exciting source and material properties on eddy current losses. This analysis can later be used in the development of homogenization models for SMC. Contribution to the topical issue "Numelec 2015 - Elected submissions", edited by Adel Razek

  19. Engineering report. Part 2: NASA wheel and brake material tradeoff study for space shuttle type environmental requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, L. D.

    1973-01-01

    The study included material selection and trade-off for the structural components of the wheel and brake optimizing weight vs cost and feasibility for the space shuttle type application. Analytical methods were used to determine section thickness for various materials, and a table was constructed showing weight vs. cost trade-off. The wheel and brake were further optimized by considering design philosophies that deviate from standard aircraft specifications, and designs that best utilize the materials being considered.

  20. The role of global in-use material stocks in the course of the socio-metabolic transition, from 1900 -2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Lauk, Christian; Fishman, Tomer; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Eisenmenger, Nina; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2014-05-01

    further research & data requirements for improved stock estimations, b) discuss possible ranges of global material stocks in use and c) give an outlook on regionalized stock modelling exercises. In conclusion, we reflect on quantitative long term developments of global material stocks and discuss the relation of economic development and stocks. We finalize with reflections on the role of in-use stocks in ongoing socio-ecological transitions into the fossil-fuel based regime as well as implications for more sustainable resource use strategies in the light of the need for a new transition towards sustainability. Literature cited: Krausmann, Fridolin, Simone Gingrich, Nina Eisenmenger, Karl-Heinz Erb, Helmut Haberl, and Marina Fischer-Kowalski. "Growth in Global Materials Use, GDP and Population during the 20th Century." Ecological Economics 68, no. 10 (2009): 2696-2705. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.05.007.

  1. 10 CFR 73.73 - Requirement for advance notice and protection of export shipments of special nuclear material of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shipments of special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 73.73 Section 73.73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Records and Reports § 73.73... Incident Response, using any appropriate method listed in § 73.4; (2) Assure that the notification will be...

  2. Laser ablation characteristics of metallic materials: Role of Debye-Waller thermal parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M Z

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with a solid target results in the formation of a crater and a plasma plume. The characteristics of both depend on physical properties of target material, environmental conditions, and laser parameters (e.g. wavelength, pulse duration, energy, beam diameter) etc. It has been shown for numerous metals and their alloys that plasma threshold fluence, plasma threshold energy, ablation efficiency, ablation yield, angular distribution of laser produced plasma (LPP) ions, etc. are a unique function of the Debye-Waller thermal parameter B or the mean-square amplitude of atomic vibration of the target material for given experimental conditions. The FWHM of the angular distribution of LPP ions, ablation yield, and ablation efficiency increase whereas plasma threshold fluence and plasma threshold energy decrease as B-factor of the target material increases

  3. Role of thermo-analytical techniques in compositional characterization of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raje, Naina

    2015-01-01

    The study of heat effects on different materials has a long history. Extraction of metals from the ores, pottery production, glasses making etc. are the examples, where the performance of products obtained from raw materials depends on the processing temperatures. Concrete, pottery, bricks etc., are severely damaged due to uncontrolled high temperatures. Therefore, the heating of raw materials in controlled manner is of pivotal importance to get products of the desired quality. Thermo-analytical techniques provide the information on the effect of heat under controlled heating conditions. In thermo-analytical techniques, physical properties of materials are measured as a function of temperature. Simultaneous thermo-analytical techniques are beneficial in comparison to any single thermo-analytical technique. Simultaneous techniques refer to the measurement of two or more signals on the same sample at the same time in the same instrument. Nowadays, simultaneous thermo-analytical technique are extensively in use for the analysis of materials. Ammonium diuranate (ADU) and magnesium diuranate (MDU), also known as yellowcake, are intermediate precursors in fuel fabrication process, with stringent specifications along with the need to understand its thermal behavior. In the processing of lowgrade ores, higher levels of impurities are being encountered in the leach solution that affects the properties of ADU/MDU. In order to meet the fuel specifications, quality assurance of these nuclear materials is essential. Current studies describe the application of simultaneous Thermogravimetry (TG) - differential thermal analysis (DTA) - evolved gas analysis (EGA) techniques for the compositional characterization of ADU/MDU with respect to the impurities present in the matrices

  4. Exploring the role of curriculum materials to support teachers in science education reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rebecca M.

    2001-07-01

    For curriculum materials to succeed in promoting large-scale science education reform, teacher learning must be supported. Materials were designed to reflect desired reforms and to be educative by including detailed lesson descriptions that addressed necessary content, pedagogy, and pedagogical content knowledge for teachers. The goal of this research was to describe how such materials contributed to classroom practices. As part of an urban systemic reform effort, four middle school teachers' initial enactment of an inquiry-based science unit on force and motion were videotaped. Enactments focused on five lesson sequences containing experiences with phenomena, investigation, technology use, or artifact development. Each sequence spanned three to five days across the 10-week unit. For each lesson sequence, intended and actual enactment were compared using ratings of (1) accuracy and completeness of science ideas presented, (2) amount student learning opportunities, similarity of learning opportunities with those intended, and quality of adaptations , and (3) amount of instructional supports offered, appropriateness of instructional supports and source of ideas for instructional supports. Ratings indicated two teachers' enactments were consistent with intentions and two teachers' enactments were not. The first two were in school contexts supportive of the reform. They purposefully used the materials to guide enactment, which tended to be consistent with standards-based reform. They provided students opportunities to use technology tools, design investigations, and discuss ideas. However, enactment ratings were less reflective of curriculum intent when challenges were greatest, such as when teachers attempted to present challenging science ideas, respond to students' ideas, structure investigations, guide small-group discussions, or make adaptations. Moreover, enactment ratings were less consistent in parts of lessons where materials did not include lesson specific

  5. Role IAEA implementation of ICRP-60 on regulations the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshinawy, R.K.M.; Gomaa, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    In november 1990, the (ICRP) adopted its 1990 recommendations (ICRP-60) ( 1). These recommendations will significantly influence not only IAEA's basic safety standards (safety series 9) ( 2), but also the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material ( 3) and its supporting documents ( 4-6). IAEA experts are currently engaged in the revision of the transport regulations. This revision process led to the publication of the revised transport regulations of 1966. The transport regulations are developed to ensure safety during movement of radioactive materials, and to provide reasonable assurance that the transport activities comply with the basic safety standards for radiation protection

  6. The role of spin–orbit coupling in topologically protected interface states in Dirac materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abergel, D S L; Balatsky, Alexander V; Edge, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    We highlight the fact that two-dimensional (2D) materials with Dirac-like low energy band structures and spin–orbit coupling (SOC) will produce linearly dispersing topologically protected Jackiw–Rebbi modes at interfaces where the Dirac mass changes sign. These modes may support persistent spin or valley currents parallel to the interface, and the exact arrangement of such topologically protected currents depends crucially on the details of the SOC in the material. As examples, we discuss buckled 2D hexagonal lattices such as silicene or germanene, and transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS 2 . (paper)

  7. The role of clearance in Germany - release of materials, buildings and sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.

    2005-01-01

    Clearance in Germany is far advanced. A complex regulatory framework exists in the Radiation Protection Ordinance (RPO/Strahlenschutzverordnung, StrlSchV) since 2001 which has replaced previous recommendations on clearance issued by the German Radiation Protection Commission (Strahlenschutzkommission, SSK). A number of options exist both for unconditional clearance (e.g. of all kinds of materials with no restrictions on the destination or future use) and for clearance for a specific purpose (e.g. recycling of metal scrap). For each clearance option there is a set of nuclide specific clearance levels which have been derived on the basis of the 10 Sv/a individual dose criterion using complex radiological models which are tailored to the respective material cycles (metal scrap, buildings, building rubble, waste for disposal, sites). The clearance levels have been thoroughly reviewed by the SSK. An extensive comparison to sets of clearance levels used in other countries or issued as guidance by international bodies revealed that the correspondence between values is between good and acceptable taking into account country-specific approaches and special assumptions which would not necessarily pertain to German situations. Clearance is a major factor in the material management, especially of nuclear installations undergoing decommissioning. The variety of clearance options leaves the operator of a nuclear installation sufficient flexibility for optimisation of the material management. Clearance is of particular importance in a country like Germany where the estimated costs for a future repository are very high and the interim storage facilities for radioactive material are limited and costly. While the licensee is responsible for his material management, the issuance of a clearance permit is done by the regulatory body upon application. The regulators may choose to use the clearance levels and regulations as stipulated by the RPO, or to impose site-specific regulations on

  8. Preparation for microgravity - The role of the Microgravity Material Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. Christopher; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Meyer, Maryjo B.; Glasgow, Thomas K.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Microgravity Material Science Laboratory using physical and mathematical models to delineate the effects of gravity on processes of scientific and commercial interest are discussed. Where possible, transparent model systems are used to visually track convection, settling, crystal growth, phase separation, agglomeration, vapor transport, diffusive flow, and polymer reactions. Materials studied include metals, alloys, salts, glasses, ceramics, and polymers. Specific technologies discussed include the General Purpose furnace used in the study of metals and crystal growth, the isothermal dendrite growth apparatus, the electromagnetic levitator/instrumented drop tube, the high temperature directional solidification furnace, the ceramics and polymer laboratories and the center's computing facilities.

  9. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ggggg of... - Control Levels as Required by § 63.7895(a) for Tanks Managing Remediation Material With a Maximum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Levels as Required by § 63.7895(a) for Tanks Managing Remediation Material With a Maximum HAP Vapor Pressure Less Than 76.6 kPa 2..., Subpt. GGGGG, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart GGGGG of Part 63—Control Levels as Required by § 63.7895(a) for...

  10. Role of proper response schemes, legislation and regional cooperation in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterzov, A.

    2002-01-01

    proper model scheme for the developing countries is important for starting the initial process of preventing and combating the illicit traffic of nuclear materials. There is a need of reinforcing strategy to control the existing stockpiles of fissile material and to lower the future production and use of such materials. The illicit traffic of nuclear materials is a new threat, which requires rapid implementation of comprehensive, mutually measures and efforts, new approaches, coordination of services and institutions and even new legislation. IV. Action Scheme for illicit radioactive or nuclear material It was felt that the application of a new model scheme would allow better and quicker response of Bulgarian capabilities for combating illicit nuclear trafficking. First Step 1. Health physics analysis (gamma and neutron dose) 2. Preservation of evidence (proper protocols adopted by the law enforcement forces) Second Step 1. NDA analysis to categorize the radioactive material on site: radioactive, non-fissile material; nuclear fuel ( 235 U content less 20 %); Pu and/or enriched U ( 235 U content higher 20 %) 2. Ge(Li) high Resolution Gamma Spectroscopy 3. Passive Neutron interrogation for Pu Third Step 1. In-Depth Analysis by Specialized laboratory: Analysis of the matrix, of packaging material; element composition of nuclear material; impurities, traces etc. V. Setting up a Legal and Administrative Frame. The creation and proposition of a model scheme procedure for the developing countries is important for starting the initial process of preventing and combating the illicit traffic of nuclear materials. The proposition of a model procedure will allow better and quicker upgrade of developing countries capabilities for combating illicit nuclear trafficking. It is also important to initiate the contacts between neighbouring countries by regional collaboration of law enforcement authorities, customs, analytical laboratories etc. which will make combating illicit trafficking

  11. The role of absorbent building materials in moderating changes of relative humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Tim

    The problem studied in this work is, how porous, absorbent materials surroundning or placed in a room influence the relative humidity of the room. This is of interest in designing precautions and machinery to monitor the indoor climate in museums and dwelling rooms. - A novel technique for the in...

  12. Stimulating the use of secondary materials in the construction industry: The role of certification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, R.J.; Brouwers, Jos

    2002-01-01

    Introduction of secondary materials in the construction industry is quite difficult and has not always been successful, even when they satisfy all necessary product demands and environmental (leaching) conditions. Besides the financial and commercial aspects the main problem is convincing the user

  13. Stimulating The Use Of Secondary Materials In The Construction Industry: The Role Of Certification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, R.J.; Brouwers, Jos

    2002-01-01

    Introduction of secondary materials in the construction industry is quite difficult and has not always been successful, even when they satisfy all necessary product demands and environmental (leaching) conditions. Besides the financial and commercial aspects the main problem is convincing the user

  14. THE ROLE OF REVIEW MATERIAL IN CONTINUOUS PROGRAMMING WITH TEACHING MACHINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FERSTER, C.B.

    STUDENTS WERE PRESENTED 61 LESSONS BY MEANS OF SEMIAUTOMATIC TEACHING MACHINES. LESSONS WERE ARRANGED SO THAT EACH PARTICIPATING STUDENT STUDIED PART OF THE COURSE MATERIAL WITH A SINGLE REPETITION AND PART WITHOUT REPETITION. DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM TWO TESTS SHOWING TEACHING-MACHINE RESULTS AND ONE FINAL COURSE EXAMINATION. NO SIGNIFICANT…

  15. The Role of Business Agreements in Defining Textbook Affordability and Digital Materials: A Document Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, John; deNoyelles, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Adopting digital materials such as eTextbooks and e-coursepacks is a potential strategy to address textbook affordability in the United States. However, university business relationships with bookstore vendors implicitly structure which instructional resources are available and in what manner. In this study, a document analysis was conducted on…

  16. The role of quality function deployment in meeting customers’ requirements: A case study on the Egyptian tire manufacturing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mehelmi Heba

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the use of QFD within the Egyptian public sector. Thus, there is a need to examine the role of QFD as an improvement approach within the Egyptian public sector organizations. Where QFD had consistently been claimed in the Western world and Europe. This study aimed to extend the knowledge of choosing an appropriate TQM tool for the Egyptian PSOs. Where it serves as an extension to previous studies carried out in the Western world but within the Egyptian context. This study is based on two sources of data collection, semi structured interviews from customers which were analyzed using content analysis and focus groups with managers to construct the QFD model. A purposive sample targeting the company's customers and managers were selected who had the requisite information. Semi-structured interviews helped to identify the factors affecting customers' purchase preferences, customers' opinions, perception, requirements, and problems. Moreover, it served the purpose to identify the 'WHATs' that are an essential part of the proposed QFD framework. Two focus group sessions were conducted to construct the QFD model. The findings of the study indicate that QFD is a generic framework that is appropriate and feasible for application within the public sector tire manufacturing company in Egypt. It was quite a good scientific exercise to demonstrate how customers' requirements were identified, the technical specifications needed and finally constructing the QFD framework to meet customers' requirements. The current study is a single case study which might limit the ability to generalize the research findings, although it identified powerful context and specific insights into QFD implementation. Yet, generalization of findings could be applied to other public sector companies in Egypt facing almost the same problems and having the same surrounding context and environment. Another limitation of this study is the sample

  17. Interaction of Peat Soil and Sulphidic Material Substratum: Role of Peat Layer and Groundwater Level Fluctuations on Phosphorus Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Heru Purwanto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P often becomes limiting factor for plants growth. Phosphorus geochemistry in peatland soil is associated with the presence of peat layer and groundwater level fluctuations. The research was conducted to study the role of peat layer and groundwater level fluctuations on P concentration in peatland. The research was conducted on deep, moderate and shallow peat with sulphidic material as substratum, peaty acid sulphate soil, and potential acid sulphate soil. While P concentration was observed in wet season, in transition from wet to dry season, and in dry season. Soil samples were collected by using peat borer according to interlayer and soil horizon. The results showed that peat layer might act as the main source of P in peatland with sulphidic material substratum. The upper peat layer on sulphidic material caused by groundwater level fluctuations had no directly effect on P concentration in the peat layers. Increased of P concentration in the lowest sulphidic layer might relate to redox reaction of iron in the sulphidic layer and precipitation process. Phosphorus concentration in peatland with sulphidic material as substratum was not influenced by peat thickness. However, depletion or disappearance of peat layer decreased P concentration in soil solution. Disappearance of peat layer means loss of a natural source of P for peatland with sulphidic material as substratum, therefore peat layer must be kept in order to maintain of peatlands.

  18. Underlying role of mechanical rigidity and topological constraints in physical sputtering and reactive ion etching of amorphous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Gyanendra; Dhungana, Shailesh; Nordell, Bradley J.; Caruso, Anthony N.; Paquette, Michelle M.; Lanford, William A.; King, Sean W.

    2018-05-01

    Analytical expressions describing ion-induced sputter or etch processes generally relate the sputter yield to the surface atomic binding energy (Usb) for the target material. While straightforward to measure for the crystalline elemental solids, Usb is more complicated to establish for amorphous and multielement materials due to composition-driven variations and incongruent sublimation. In this regard, we show that for amorphous multielement materials, the ion-driven yield can instead be better understood via a consideration of mechanical rigidity and network topology. We first demonstrate a direct relationship between Usb, bulk modulus, and ion sputter yield for the elements, and then subsequently prove our hypothesis for amorphous multielement compounds by demonstrating that the same relationships exist between the reactive ion etch (RIE) rate and nanoindentation Young's modulus for a series of a -Si Nx :H and a -Si OxCy :H thin films. The impact of network topology is further revealed via application of the Phillips-Thorpe theory of topological constraints, which directly relates the Young's modulus to the mean atomic coordination () for an amorphous solid. The combined analysis allows the trends and plateaus in the RIE rate to be ultimately reinterpreted in terms of the atomic structure of the target material through a consideration of . These findings establish the important underlying role of mechanical rigidity and network topology in ion-solid interactions and provide additional considerations for the design and optimization of radiation-hard materials in nuclear and outer space environments.

  19. Report of consultants to the IAEA on requirements for the safe transport of low hazard radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collin, W.; Grenier, M.; Hopkins, D.

    1982-01-01

    In the present paper changes are recommmended to certain definitions given in the 2nd draft revision of the IAEA 'regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials (safety series no. 6)'. (orig./RW)

  20. The prospective United Kingdom nuclear energy programme up to 2000 AD and the UKAEA's role and manpower requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeone, R.N.; Hodgkinson, I.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper begins by surveying the development of the United Kingdom nuclear industry, its organization in both the public and private sectors of the economy, and changes in the numbers employed up to the present day. The possible future nuclear programme and overall manpower needs, and the UKAEA's role and manpower requirements within this programme, are outlined. Manpower problems arising from national shortages of engineers and technicians and reviews of arrangements for their education and training, and also from the pattern of historical development of the UKAEA, are described. UKAEA arrangements for formulating and implementing personnel policies, current policies for recruitment, carrier management and in-service training and their relationship to present and future needs are then discussed. The final section draws attention to UKAEA facilities for the training of staff from other organizations in the United Kingdom and from overseas. (author)

  1. 21 CFR 212.60 - What requirements apply to the laboratories where I test components, in-process materials, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... maintenance. Each laboratory must have and follow written procedures to ensure that equipment is routinely... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to the laboratories where...) Laboratory Controls § 212.60 What requirements apply to the laboratories where I test components, in-process...

  2. Role and responsibilities of management in NPP personnel training and competence. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The main aim and result of this seminar was imparting knowledge to various levels of Paks NPP management on their special tasks and responsibilities to achieve personnel competence, which include: meeting relevant regulatory and other requirements; defining the qualifications for NPP personnel jobs; training using systematic approach to training to attain the required level of qualification and competence of all NPP personnel, which includes management, operations, maintenance and technical support personnel and others; recruiting and retaining qualified personnel, including career development; supporting the training of all personnel on their responsibilities for introducing, maintaining and improving safety. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. 48 CFR 52.216-29 - Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price Competition. 52.216-29... Proposal Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price Competition (FEB 2007) (a) The... Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price...

  4. Effect of near-infrared-radiation reflective screen materials on ventilation requirement, crop transpiration and water use efficiency of a greenhouse rose crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanghellini, C.; Jianfeng, D.; Kempkes, F.L.K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of Near Infrared (NIR)-reflective screen material on ventilation requirement, crop transpiration and water use efficiency of a greenhouse rose crop was investigated in an experiment whereby identical climate was ensured in greenhouse compartments installed with either NIR-reflective or

  5. National Forum on the Future of Automated Materials Processing in US Industry: The Role of Sensors. Report of a workshop (1st) held at Santa Barbara, California on December 16-17, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolken, H. T.; Mehrabian, R.

    1985-12-01

    These are the proceedings of the workshop A National Forum on the Future of Automated Materials Processing in U.S. Industry - The Role of Sensors. This is the first of two workshops to be sponsored by the Industrial Research Institute and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, Committee on Materials Working Group on Automation of Materials Processing. The second workshop will address the other two key components required for automated materials processing, process models and artificial intelligence coupled with computer integration of the system. The objective of these workshops is to identify and assess important issues afecting the competitive position of U.S. industry related to its ability to automate production processes for basic and advanced materials and to develop approaches for improved capability through cooperative R&D and associated efforts.

  6. Mediators of the association between narcissism and compulsive buying: the roles of materialism and impulse control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Building upon past research about the guiding values and self-regulation difficulties of people with narcissistic personalities, this study tested a model of the association between narcissism and compulsive consumption. In data obtained from a sample of undergraduate consumers (N=238) with varying degrees of spending problems, positive associations emerged between narcissism, materialism, and compulsive buying. Impulse control was negatively correlated with each of these variables. Mediation tests revealed that both impulse control and materialism accounted for significant portions of the shared variance between narcissism and compulsive consumption. These findings highlight the importance of both personal values and impulse control as correlates of addictive buying. They also add to growing evidence that people who are relatively narcissistic are poor self-regulators who may be at risk of developing a variety of addictive behaviors.

  7. The role of business agreements in defining textbook affordability and digital materials: A document analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Raible

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adopting digital materials such as eTextbooks and e-coursepacks is a potential strategy to address textbook affordability in the United States. However, university business relationships with bookstore vendors implicitly structure which instructional resources are available and in what manner. In this study, a document analysis was conducted on the bookstore contracts for the universities included in the State University System of Florida. Namely, issues of textbook affordability, digital material terminology and seller exclusivity were investigated. It was found that textbook affordability was generally conceived in terms of print rental textbooks and buyback programs, and that eTextbooks were priced higher than print textbooks (25% to 30% markup. Implications and recommendations for change are shared. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v5i4.284

  8. Homogeneity study on biological candidate reference materials: the role of neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Daniel P.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: dsilva.pereira@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis (INAA) is a mature nuclear analytical technique able to accurately determine chemical elements without the need of sample digestion and, hence, without the associated problems of analyte loss or contamination. This feature, along with its potentiality use as a primary method of analysis, makes it an important tool for the characterization of new references materials and in the assessment of their homogeneity status. In this study, the ability of the comparative method of INAA for the within-bottle homogeneity of K, Mg, Mn and V in a mussel reference material was investigated. Method parameters, such as irradiation time, sample decay time and distance from sample to the detector were varied in order to allow element determination in subsamples of different sample masses in duplicate. Sample masses were in the range of 1 to 250 mg and the limitations of the detection limit for small sample masses and dead time distortions for large sample masses were investigated. (author)

  9. The role of adequate reference materials in density measurements in hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, A.; Moutinho, J.; Moura, S.; Oliveira, F.; Filipe, E.

    2015-02-01

    In hemodialysis, oscillation-type density meters are used to measure the density of the acid component of the dialysate solutions used in the treatment of kidney patients. An incorrect density determination of this solution used in hemodialysis treatments can cause several and adverse events to patients. Therefore, despite the Fresenius Medical Care (FME) tight control of the density meters calibration results, this study shows the benefits of mimic the matrix usually measured to produce suitable reference materials for the density meter calibrations.

  10. The role of adequate reference materials in density measurements in hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado, A; Moura, S; Filipe, E; Moutinho, J; Oliveira, F

    2015-01-01

    In hemodialysis, oscillation-type density meters are used to measure the density of the acid component of the dialysate solutions used in the treatment of kidney patients. An incorrect density determination of this solution used in hemodialysis treatments can cause several and adverse events to patients. Therefore, despite the Fresenius Medical Care (FME) tight control of the density meters calibration results, this study shows the benefits of mimic the matrix usually measured to produce suitable reference materials for the density meter calibrations

  11. The Role of Material/Energy Resources and Dematerialisation in Economic Growth Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Ayres, Robert U.; van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The nature of energy and material resources in an endogenous growththeory framework isclarified. This involves three modifications of the conventionaltheory. Firstly, multiple feedbackmechanisms or “growth engines” are identified. Secondly, a productionfunction distinguishesbetween resource use, technical efficiency and value creation.Thirdly, the impact of the cost ofproduction through demand on growth is accounted for. A formal modelis analytically solvedunder a condition of a constant grow...

  12. The role of cladding material for performance of LWR control assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewes, P.; Roppelt, A.

    2000-01-01

    The lifetime of control assemblies in LWRs can be limited presently by mechanical failure of the absorber cladding. The major cause of failure is mechanical interaction of the absorber with the cladding due to irradiation induced dimensional changes such as absorber swelling and cladding creep, resulting in cracking of the clad. Such failures occurred in both BWRs and PWRs. Experience and in-reactor tests revealed that cracking can be avoided principally by two ways: First, if strain rates and hence, stresses in the cladding are kept low (well below the yield strength), significant strains can be tolerated. This is the case for the cladding of PWR control assemblies with slowly swelling Ag-In-Cd absorber. Recent examinations of highly exposed PWR control assemblies confirmed the design correlation up to the presently used strain limit. Second, in such cases where strongly swelling absorber material like boron carbide is still preferred, materials which are resistant against irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) can be used. The influence of material composition and condition on IASCC was studied in-reactor using tubular samples of various stainless steels and Ni-base alloys stressed by swelling mandrels. In several programme steps high purity materials with special features had been identified as resistant to IASCC. Another process of cladding damage which may occur in PWRs is wear caused by friction of the control rods in the surrounding guide structure. For replacement control assemblies this problem is solved by coating of the cladding. There exists meanwhile excellent experience of up to 18 operation cycles with coated claddings. (author)

  13. Advanced metallic structural materials and a new role for microalloyed steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchynsky, M.

    2004-01-01

    The recent worldwide surge of steel consumption, mainly of low-strength carbon grades, has created raw-materials shortages and price increases. These supply-demand strains could be relaxed by satisfying engineering needs with less steel. However, materials used for such a substitution must combine high weight reducing potential with low cost. Microalloyed (MA) steels are cost-effective substitutes, since their high strength is the result of grain refinement and precipitation hardening. These two strengthening mechanisms are developed by the interaction of micro-additives: niobium or vanadium with the deformation occurring during hot rolling followed by cooling. The physical metallurgy of these phenomena is discussed in the paper. The optimum alloy design of MA steels combines superior properties with lowest processing cost. In many applications, the versatility and adaptability of vanadium steels provides an economic advantage. The monetary value of weight production is sufficient to increase the profitability of steel makers and to lower the material cost to steel users. This 'win-win' situation is financed by the elimination of efforts spent in producing inefficient steel, yielding an increase in wealth formation. The gain acceptance of substitution by the consumer, a long-term strategic plan is needed to be implemented by the beneficiaries - both steel producers and steel users. The successful substitution is of importance to the national economy, resources and energy conservation, and the environment. Since microalloyed steels, used as a replacement for carbon steels, offer low cost weight savings, they deserve to be classified as advanced structural materials. (author)

  14. Investigation of Trap Sites and Their Roles in Organic Triphenylamine-Based Photorefractive Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Tsujimura, Sho

    2016-01-01

    Organic photorefractive (PR) materials have been studied during the last quarter-century, and they have recently received much attention due to their updatable features that allow them to be used in dynamic holographic devices. However, understanding bulk trap sites that drive the PR effect (by inducing a space-charge field) remains a critical issue. In general, the trap site behavior can be controlled from the energetic point of view; however, bulk devices contain not only the energy trap si...

  15. Positive or negative Poynting effect? The role of adscititious inequalities in hyperelastic materials

    KAUST Repository

    Mihai, L. A.

    2011-08-10

    Motivated by recent experiments on biopolymer gels whereby the reverse of the usual (positive) Poynting effect was observed, we investigate the effect of the so-called \\'adscititious inequalities\\' on the behaviour of hyperelastic materials subject to shear. We first demonstrate that for homogeneous isotropic materials subject to pure shear, the resulting deformation consists of a triaxial stretch combined with a simple shear in the direction of the shear force if and only if the Baker-Ericksen inequalities hold. Then for a cube deformed under pure shear, the positive Poynting effect occurs if the \\'sheared faces spread apart\\', whereas the negative Poynting effect is obtained if the \\'sheared faces draw together\\'. Similarly, under simple shear deformation, the positive Poynting effect is obtained if the \\'sheared faces tend to spread apart\\', whereas the negative Poynting effect occurs if the \\'sheared faces tend to draw together\\'. When the Poynting effect occurs under simple shear, it is reasonable to assume that the same sign Poynting effect is btained also under pure shear. Since the observation of the negative Poynting effect in semiflexible biopolymers implies that the (stronger) empirical inequalities may not hold, we conclude that these inequalities must not be imposed when such materials are described. © 2011 The Royal Society.

  16. Quantifying the risks of solid aerosol geoengineering: the role of fundamental material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykema, J. A.; Keutsch, F. N.; Keith, D.

    2017-12-01

    Solid aerosols have been considered as an alternative to sulfate aerosols for solar geoengineering due to their optical and chemical properties, which lead to different and possibly more attractive risk profiles. Solid aerosols can achieve higher solar scattering efficiency due to their higher refractive index, and in some cases may also be less effective absorbers of thermal infrared radiation. The optical properties of solid aerosols are however sensitive functions of the detailed physical properties of solid materials in question. The relevant details include the exact crystalline structure of the aerosols, the physical size of the particles, and interactions with background stratospheric molecular and particulate constituents. In this work, we examine the impact of these detailed physical properties on the radiative properties of calcite (CaCO3) solid aerosols. We examine how crystal morphology, size, chemical reactions, and interaction with background stratospheric aerosol may alter the scattering and absorption properties of calcite aerosols for solar and thermal infrared radiation. For example, in small particles, crystal lattice vibrations associated with the particle surface may lead to substantially different infrared absorption properties than bulk materials. We examine the wavelength dependence of absorption by the particles, which may lead to altered patterns of stratospheric radiative heating and equilibrium temperatures. Such temperature changes can lead to dynamical changes, with consequences for both stratospheric composition and tropospheric climate. We identify important uncertainties in the current state of understanding, investigate risks associated with these uncertainties, and survey potential approaches to quantitatively improving our knowledge of the relevant material properties.

  17. Emissivity of Candidate Materials for VHTR Applicationbs: Role of Oxidation and Surface Modification Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Anderson, Mark; Cao, Guoping; Kulcinski, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    The Generation IV (GEN IV) Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative was instituted by the Department of Energy (DOE) with the goal of researching and developing technologies and materials necessary for various types of future reactors. These GEN IV reactors will employ advanced fuel cycles, passive safety systems, and other innovative systems, leading to significant differences between these future reactors and current water-cooled reactors. The leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to be built at Idaho National Lab (INL) in the United States is the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Due to the high operating temperatures of the VHTR, the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) will partially rely on heat transfer by radiation for cooling. Heat expulsion by radiation will become all the more important during high temperature excursions during off-normal accident scenarios. Radiant power is dictated by emissivity, a material property. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program Plan (1) has identified emissivity and the effects of high temperature oxide formation on emissivity as an area of research towards the development of the VHTR.

  18. Experiences in certification of packages for transportation of fresh nuclear fuel in the context of new safety requirements established by IAEA regulations (IAEA-96 regulations, ST-1) for air transportation of nuclear materials (requirements to C-type packages)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudai, V.I.; Kovtun, A.D.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Nilulin, V.M.; Shapovalov, V.I.; Yakushev, V.A.; Bobrovsky, V.S.; Rozhkov, V.V.; Agapov, A.M.; Kolesnikov, A.S. [Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)]|[JSC ' ' MSZ' ' , Electrostal (Russian Federation)]|[JSC ' ' NPCC' ' , Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)]|[Minatom of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Gosatomnadzor of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Every year in Russia, a large amount of domestic and international transportation of fresh nuclear fuel (FNF) used in Russian and foreign energy and research atomic reactors and referred to fissile materials based on IAEA Regulations is performed. Here, bulk transportation is performed by air, and it concerns international transportation in particular. According to national ''Main Regulations for Safe Transport and physical Protection of Nuclear Materials (OPBZ- 83)'' and ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA Regulations), nuclear and radiation security under normal (accident free) and accident conditions of transport must be completely provided by the package design. In this context, high requirements to fissile packages exposed to heat and mechanical loads in transport accidents are imposed. A long-standing experience in accident free transportation of FM has shown that such approach to provide nuclear and radiation security pays for itself completely. Nevertheless, once in 10 years the International Atomic Energy Agency on every revision of the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' places more stringent requirements upon the FM and transportation thereof, resulting from the objectively increasing risk associated with constant rise in volume and density of transportation, and also strained social and economical situation in a number of regions in the world. In the new edition of the IAEA Regulations (ST-1), published in 1996 and brought into force in 2001 (IAEA-96 Regulations), the requirements to FM packages conveyed by aircraft were radically changed. These requirements are completely presented in new Russian ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' (PBTRM- 2004) which will be brought into force in the time ahead.

  19. Acetylation of Mammalian ADA3 Is Required for Its Functional Roles in Histone Acetylation and Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohibi, Shakur; Srivastava, Shashank; Bele, Aditya; Mirza, Sameer; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2016-10-01

    Alteration/deficiency in activation 3 (ADA3) is an essential component of specific histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes. We have previously shown that ADA3 is required for establishing global histone acetylation patterns and for normal cell cycle progression (S. Mohibi et al., J Biol Chem 287:29442-29456, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.378901). Here, we report that these functional roles of ADA3 require its acetylation. We show that ADA3 acetylation, which is dynamically regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, reflects a balance of coordinated actions of its associated HATs, GCN5, PCAF, and p300, and a new partner that we define, the deacetylase SIRT1. We use mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis to identify major sites of ADA3 acetylated by GCN5 and p300. Acetylation-defective mutants are capable of interacting with HATs and other components of HAT complexes but are deficient in their ability to restore ADA3-dependent global or locus-specific histone acetylation marks and cell proliferation in Ada3-deleted murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Given the key importance of ADA3-containing HAT complexes in the regulation of various biological processes, including the cell cycle, our study presents a novel mechanism to regulate the function of these complexes through dynamic ADA3 acetylation. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Fundamental Studies of the Role of Grain Boundaries on Uniform Corrosion of Advanced Nuclear Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, Mitra; Motta, Arthur; Marquis, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this proposal is to develop fundamental understanding of the role of grain boundaries in stable oxide growth. To understand the process of oxide layer destabilization, it is necessary to observe the early stages of corrosion. During conventional studies in which a sample is exposed and examined after removal from the autoclave, the destabilization process will normally have already taken place, and is only examined post facto. To capture the instants of oxide destabilization, it is necessary to observe it in situ; however, significant questions always arise as to the influence of the corrosion geometry and conditions on the corrosion process. Thus, a combination of post facto examinations and in situ studies is proposed, which also combines state-of-the-art characterization techniques to derive a complete understanding of the destabilization process and the role of grain boundaries.

  1. Fundamental Studies of the Role of Grain Boundaries on Uniform Corrosion of Advanced Nuclear Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Mitra [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Motta, Arthur [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Marquis, Emmanuelle [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-05-20

    The main objective of this proposal is to develop fundamental understanding of the role of grain boundaries in stable oxide growth. To understand the process of oxide layer destabilization, it is necessary to observe the early stages of corrosion. During conventional studies in which a sample is exposed and examined after removal from the autoclave, the destabilization process will normally have already taken place, and is only examined post facto. To capture the instants of oxide destabilization, it is necessary to observe it in situ; however, significant questions always arise as to the influence of the corrosion geometry and conditions on the corrosion process. Thus, a combination of post facto examinations and in situ studies is proposed, which also combines state-of-the-art characterization techniques to derive a complete understanding of the destabilization process and the role of grain boundaries.

  2. Role of tidal flat in material cycling in the coastal sea

    OpenAIRE

    Yara, Yumiko; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Montani, Shigeru; Kuninao, Tada

    2007-01-01

    A simple tidal flat model with pelagic and benthic ecosystems was developed in order to analyze the nitrogen cycling in an inter-tidal flat of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. After the verification of calculation results with the observed results in water quality and benthic biomasses, the role of this tidal flat in nitrogen cycling was evaluated from the viewpoint of water quality purification capability. When there is no suspension feeder in the tidal flat, the water quality purification capab...

  3. Concerning major items in government ordinance requiring modification of part of enforcement regulation for law relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report describes major items planned to be incorporated into the enforcement regulations for laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The modifications have become necessary for the nation to conclude a nuclear material protection treaty with other countries. The modification include the definitions of 'special nuclear fuel substances' and 'special nuclear fuel substances' and 'special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection'. The modifications require that protective measures be taken when handling and transporting special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances requires approval from the Prime Minister or Transport Minister. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection should be conducted after notifying the prefectural Public Safety Commission. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection requires the conclusion of arrangements among responsible persons and approval of them from the Prime Minister. (N.K.)

  4. Advancing Risk Analysis for Nanoscale Materials: Report from an International Workshop on the Role of Alternative Testing Strategies for Advancement: Advancing Risk Analysis for Nanoscale Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shatkin, J. A. [Vireo Advisors, Boston MA USA; Ong, Kimberly J. [Vireo Advisors, Boston MA USA; Beaudrie, Christian [Compass RM, Vancouver CA USA; Clippinger, Amy J. [PETA International Science Consortium Ltd, London UK; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham NC USA; Haber, Lynne T. [TERA, Cincinnati OH USA; Hill, Myriam [Health Canada, Ottawa Canada; Holden, Patricia [UC Santa Barbara, Bren School of Environmental Science & Management, ERI, and UC CEIN, University of California, Santa Barbara CA USA; Kennedy, Alan J. [U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Environmental Laboratory, Vicksburg MS USA; Kim, Baram [Independent, Somerville MA USA; MacDonell, Margaret [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division, Argonne IL USA; Powers, Christina M. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, Ann Arbor MI USA; Sharma, Monita [PETA International Science Consortium Ltd, London UK; Sheremeta, Lorraine [Alberta Ingenuity Labs, Edmonton Alberta Canada; Stone, Vicki [John Muir Building Gait 1 Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh Scotland UK; Sultan, Yasir [Environment Canada, Gatineau QC Canada; Turley, Audrey [ICF International, Durham NC USA; White, Ronald H. [RH White Consultants, Silver Spring MD USA

    2016-08-01

    The Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) has a history of bringing thought leadership to topics of emerging risk. In September 2014, the SRA Emerging Nanoscale Materials Specialty Group convened an international workshop to examine the use of alternative testing strategies (ATS) for manufactured nanomaterials (NM) from a risk analysis perspective. Experts in NM environmental health and safety, human health, ecotoxicology, regulatory compliance, risk analysis, and ATS evaluated and discussed the state of the science for in vitro and other alternatives to traditional toxicology testing for NM. Based on this review, experts recommended immediate and near-term actions that would advance ATS use in NM risk assessment. Three focal areas-human health, ecological health, and exposure considerations-shaped deliberations about information needs, priorities, and the next steps required to increase confidence in and use of ATS in NM risk assessment. The deliberations revealed that ATS are now being used for screening, and that, in the near term, ATS could be developed for use in read-across or categorization decision making within certain regulatory frameworks. Participants recognized that leadership is required from within the scientific community to address basic challenges, including standardizing materials, protocols, techniques and reporting, and designing experiments relevant to real-world conditions, as well as coordination and sharing of large-scale collaborations and data. Experts agreed that it will be critical to include experimental parameters that can support the development of adverse outcome pathways. Numerous other insightful ideas for investment in ATS emerged throughout the discussions and are further highlighted in this article.

  5. The Energy & Raw Materials Factory: Role and Potential Contribution to the Circular Economy of the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Kees; de Vries, Eli; Koop, Stef; Roest, Kees

    2018-05-01

    Water is an abundant resource worldwide, but fresh and clean water is scarce in many areas of the world. Increases in water consumption and climate change will affect global water security even further in the near future. With increasing numbers of people living in metropolitan areas, water, energy, and materials need to be used carefully, reused and renewed. Resource scarcity is the driver behind the circular economy. The recovery of materials and energy can add significant new value streams and improve cost recovery and water quality. In this paper, we present the creation of the Energy & Raw Materials Factory (ERMF) of the Dutch Water Authorities, also known as the Resource Factory, as one of the solutions to this global challenge of water in the circular economy. Resources like cellulose, bioplastics, phosphate, alginate-like exopolymers from aerobic granular sludge (bio-ALE), and biomass can be recovered. Bio-ALE is an alginate-like polymer of sugars and proteins and can be used in agriculture and horticulture, the paper industry, medical, and construction industries. The ERMF demands significant investments but the return on investment is high both from a financial and environmental perspective, provided that markets can be realized. Experiences in the Netherlands show that the concept of the ERMF is viable and adds to the creation of a circular economy. Achieving climate neutrality and production of new and promising resources like bio-ALE are possible. The ERMF can contribute to the sustainable development goals (SDGs) of the United Nations on water and sanitation, once fully operational.

  6. The role of material/energy resources and dematerialisation in economic growth theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, R.U. [Center for the Management of Environmental Resources INSEAD, Fountainebleau (France); Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. [Department of Spatial Economics, Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2000-06-01

    The nature of energy and material resources in an endogenous growth theory framework is clarified. This involves three modifications of the conventional theory. Firstly, multiple feedback mechanisms or 'growth engines' are identified. Secondly, a production function distinguishes between resource use, technical efficiency and value creation. Thirdly, the impact of the cost of production through demand on growth is accounted for. A formal model is analytically solved under a condition of a constant growth rate. Given model complexity, numerical experiments are performed as well, providing relevant insights to the academic and political debates on 'environmental Kuznets curves' and 'dematerialization'. 49 refs.

  7. A role for distributed processing in advanced nuclear materials control and accountability systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisinger, R.M.; Whitty, W.J.; Ford, W.; Strittmatter, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    Networking and distributed processing hardware and software have the potential of greatly enhancing nuclear materials control and account-ability (MCandA) systems, both from safeguards and process operations perspectives while allowing timely integrated safeguards activities and enhanced computer security at reasonable cost. A hierarchical distributed system is proposed consisting of groups of terminals and instruments in plant production and support areas connected to microprocessors that are connected to either larger microprocessors or minicomputers. The structuring and development of a limited distributed MCandA prototype system, including human engineering concepts, are described. Implications of integrated safeguards and computer security concepts to the distributed system design are discussed

  8. Present knowledge and perspectives on the role of copper in brake materials and related environmental issues: A critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straffelini, Giovanni; Ciudin, Rodica; Ciotti, Alessandro; Gialanella, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    This critical review presents several aspects related to the use of copper as a main component in brake pads in road vehicles. The compositions of these materials are attracting increasing interest and concern due to the relative contribution of wear products to particulate matter emissions in the environment as a result of braking action even though there has been a reduction in exhaust products from internal combustion engines. We review the data on the main wear mechanisms in brake systems and highlight the positive role of copper. However, similar to other heavy metal emissions, even the release of copper into the atmosphere may have important environmental and health effects. Thus, several replacement strategies are being pursued, and the positive and negative features will be critically reviewed. Additionally, the future perspectives in materials development will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding the Role of Teaching Materials in a Beginners’ Level English as a Foreign Language Course: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Jesús Cruz Rondón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning a foreign language may be a challenge for most people due to differences in the form and structure between one’s mother tongue and a new one. However, there are some tools that facilitate the teaching and learning of a foreign language, for instance, new applications for digital devices, video blogs, educational platforms, and teaching materials. Therefore, this case study aims at understanding the role of teaching materials among beginners’ level students learning English as a foreign language. After conducting five non-participant classroom observations and nine semi-structured interviews, we found that the way the teacher implemented a pedagogical intervention by integrating the four language skills, promoting interactive learning through the use of online resources, and using the course book led to a global English teaching and learning process.

  10. Role of material properties and mechanical constraint on stress-assisted diffusion in plate electrodes of lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yicheng; Zhang Junqian; Shao Xianjun; Guo Zhansheng

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the stress-assisted diffusion of lithium ions in layered electrodes of Li-ion batteries. Decoupled diffusion governing equations are obtained. Material properties, which are characterized by a single dimensionless parameter, and mechanical constraint between a current collector and an active layer, which is characterized by the elastic modulus ratio and thickness ratio between the layers, are identified as key factors that govern the stress-assisted diffusion. For a symmetric plate electrode, stress is induced by the Li-ion concentration gradient, and stress-assisted diffusion therefore depends only on the material properties. For an asymmetric bilayer electrode, mechanical constraint plays a very important role in the diffusion via generation of bending stress. Diffusion may be facilitated, or inversely impeded, according to the constraint. By summarizing the coupling factors of common active materials and investigating the concentration variation induced by stress-assisted diffusion in various electrodes, this work provides insights on stress-assisted diffusion in a layered electrode, as well as suggestions for relevant modelling works on whether the stress-assisted diffusion should be taken into account according to the selection of material and structure. (paper)

  11. Role of a national system of accounting and control of nuclear material under ABACC's (Brazilian-Argentine Agency) regional system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Moreno, Sonia; Estrada Oyuela, Miguel E.

    2000-01-01

    The Brazilian-Argentine Agency (ABACC) and the 'Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials' (SCCC) are the result of a process started with nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil. The SCCC reflects a common policy of transparency established by a Bilateral Agreement. Its insertion in the global context was made through a Quadripartite Agreement (Argentina, Brazil, ABBAC, IAEA). This paper describes the role of the State System of Accounting and Control (SSAC) in the framework established in the Bilateral and the Quadripartite Safeguards Agreements and in the context of new trends and perspectives in international safeguards. It could also serve as a example for initiatives in other regions. (author)

  12. 10 CFR 35.390 - Training for use of unsealed byproduct material for which a written directive is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., radionuclide handling, quality assurance, and clinical use of unsealed byproduct material for which a written... the related radiation surveys; (B) Performing quality control procedures on instruments used to... 200 hours of classroom and laboratory training, in basic radionuclide handling techniques applicable...

  13. A Chemist's View of Labeling Hazardous Materials as Required by the U.S. Department of Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurpik, Anton J.; Beim, Howard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of materials and labels used by the Department of Transportation, including label design and color: red (flammable and spontaneously combustible), white/yellow (radioactives), orange (explosives), white (poisons), yellow (oxidizers), green (non-flammable gas), black/white (corrosive), blue (dangerous when wet). Includes…

  14. Role of image analysis in quantitative characterisation of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, J.N.; Rao, T.S.; Pandey, V.D.; Majumdar, S.

    2005-01-01

    Image analysis is one of the important techniques, widely used for materials characterization. It provides the quantitative estimation of the microstructural features present in the material. This information is very much valuable for finding out the criteria for taking up the fuel for high burn up. Radiometallurgy Division has been carrying out development and fabrication of plutonium related fuels for different type of reactors viz. Purnima, Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) and KAMINI Reactor. Image analysis has been carried out on microstructures of PHWR, AHWR, FBTR and KAMINI fuels. Samples were prepared as per standard ASTM metallographic procedure. Digital images of the microstructure of these specimens were obtained using CCD camera, attached to the optical microscope. These images are stores on computer and used for detection and analysis of features of interest with image analysis software. Quantitative image analysis technique has been standardised and used for finding put type of the porosity, its size, shape and distribution in the above sintered oxide and carbide fuels. This technique has also been used for quantitative estimation of different phases present in KAMINI fuel. Image analysis results have been summarised and presented in this paper. (author)

  15. PERENCANAAN DAN PENGENDALIAN BAHAN BAKU UNTUK MENINGKATKAN EFISIENSI PRODUKSI DENGAN METODE MATERIAL REQUIREMENT PLANNING DAN ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS DI PT. XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Adi Sungkono

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Suatu perusahaan sering kali mengalami kesulitan dalam pengendalian bahan baku, diantaranya adalah persediaan yang terlalu banyak atau terlalu sedikit. Untuk menghindari masalah tersebut perlu dibuat suatu pemecahan masalah. Perencanaan kebutuhan material dimaksudkan agar dalam pelaksanaan pekerjaan, penggunaan material menjadi efisien dan efektif sehingga tidak terjadi masalah akibat tidak tersedianya material pada saat dibutuhkan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk merencanakan dan mengendalikan bahan baku dan pemilihan supplier dengan metode Material Requirement Planning (MRP. Perencanaan kebutuhan bahan (Material Requirement Planning adalah suatu metode untuk menentukan bahan-bahan atau komponen-komponen apa yang harus di buat atau di beli, berapa jumlah yang dibutuhkan dan kapan dibutuhkan. Hasil yang didapatkan dengan melakukan perhitungan dengan metode MRP, di dapatkan metode yang paling baik di pergunakan adalah metode Period Order Quantity (POQ karena dari perhitungan metode Period Order Quantity didapatkan total biaya yang paling kecil yaitu sebesar Rp. 23.372.166,- . bila dibandingkan dengan perhitungan Lot For Lot yaitu sebesar Rp. 28.567.200,- , dan perhitugan Economic Order Quantity yaitu sebesar Rp. 37.209.031,- . karena dengan metode POQ dapat meminimalkan biaya pesan dan biaya simpan sehingga total biaya yang dikeluarkan kecil dibandingkan dengan metode EOQ dan L-F-L. sedangkan biaya terbesar adalah metode EOQ, karena pada perhitungan metode EOQ biaya pesan dan biaya simpan sangat besar.

  16. Role of complex utilization of mineral raw materials In geological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takacs, P.; Varju, G.

    1979-01-01

    Presents Hungarian research efforts on ways of utilizing the secondary raw materials alunite, pumice and slate coal from various mines. The slate coal is separated from brown coal and disposed of at spoil banks of brown coal mines, due to its high ash content (up to 56.8% under dry conditions), silicate content up to 58.2% and low calorific value between 1500 and 2780 kcal/kg. The research proposal for utilizing slate coal is directed at partial separation of the mineral and coal content by comminution, peptization and hydrocentrifugal separation. The larger part of the silicate content is held in the colloid suspension, which could be used for conditioning drilling mud or foundry sand. The produced coal concentrate has a reduced ash content and higher calorific value (between 500 and 800 kcal/kg) and could be employed in soil amelioration or combustion. (10 refs.) (In German)

  17. Tipping the Proteome with Gene-Based Vaccines: Weighing in on the Role of Nano materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, K.J.; Craig, M.; Smith, J.J.; DeLong, R.K.; Wanekaya, A.; Dong, L.

    2012-01-01

    Since the first generation of DNA vaccines was introduced in 1988, remarkable improvements have been made to improve their efficacy and immunogenicity. Although human clinical trials have shown that delivery of DNA vaccines is well tolerated and safe, the potency of these vaccines in humans is somewhat less than optimal. The development of a gene-based vaccine that was effective enough to be approved for clinical use in humans would be one of, if not the most important, advance in vaccines to date. This paper highlights the literature relating to gene-based vaccines, specifically DNA vaccines, and suggests possible approaches to boost their performance. In addition, we explore the idea that combining RNA and nano materials may hold the key to successful gene-based vaccines for prevention and treatment of disease

  18. On the role of solidification modelling in Integrated Computational Materials Engineering “ICME”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, G J; Böttger, B; Apel, M

    2016-01-01

    Solidification during casting processes marks the starting point of the history of almost any component or product. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) [1-4] recognizes the importance of further tracking the history of microstructure evolution along the subsequent process chain. Solidification during joining processes in general happens quite late during production, where the parts to be joined already have experienced a number of processing steps which affected their microstructure. Reliable modelling of melting and dissolution of these microstructures represents a key issue before eventually modelling ‘re’-solidification e.g. during welding or soldering. Some instructive examples of microstructure evolution during a joining process obtained on the basis of synthetic and simulated initial microstructures of an Al-Cu binary model system are discussed. (paper)

  19. Studies of the role of molten materials in interactions with UO2 and graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.K.; Heiberger, J.J.; Leibowitz, L.

    1979-01-01

    Graphite, which is being considered as a lower reactor shield in gas-cooled fast reactors, would be contacted by core debris during a core disruptive accident. Information on the interaction of graphite, UO 2 , and stainless steel is needed in assessing the safety of the GCFR. In an ongoing study of the interaction of graphite, UO 2 , and stainless steel, the effects of the steel components have been investigated by electron microprobe scans, x-ray diffraction, and reaction-rate measurements. Experiments to study the role of the reaction product, FeUC 2 , in the interaction suggested that FeUC 2 promotes the interaction by acting as a carrier to bring graphite to the reaction site. Additional experiments using pyrolytic graphite show that while the reaction rate is decreased at 2400 K, at higher temperatures the rate is similar to that using other grades of graphite

  20. Construction and equipment requirements for installations and laboratories handling unsealed radioactive materials in low and medium activity - Proposal of an Israeli standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Shlomo, A; Schlesinger, T; Barshad, M [Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne (Israel)

    1993-10-01

    Working with unsealed radioactive materials involves risks of internal or external exposure to ionizing radiation. Exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation involves adverse health effects and must be prevented or at least reduced to reasonable levels. Radiation sources in this work are unsealed radioactive materials, that may be solids, liquid or in gaseous states, and in varying toxic levels. Various works and actions that are performed on the unsealed radioactive materials have varying potentials of dispersion, contamination and exposure, so that the combination of the type of work activity, isotope characteristics and physical state dictate the internal and external exposure risks. In order to limit the exposure of the personnel of installations and laboratories which deals with unsealed radioactive materials, national and international authorities and organizations standards and procedures for the requirements of construction and equipment of such installations and laboratories. This document means to be a proposal for an Israeli standard requirements for equipment and construction of installations working with low and medium activity unsealed radioactive materials. The targets for defining the, construction and equipment, requirements are: a. Safety and proper protection of personnel and public from external and internal exposure while the work is done properly. Proper protection against the risk of contaminating the environment. c. Standardization of requirements. d. Proper design of installations and laboratories. e. Supply means for evaluation and reduction of construction costs.The equipment detailed here refers to fixed (none movable) equipment which is a part of the construction of the laboratory or installation, unless specified otherwise. The document starts with a review of the recommendations of some international organizations (WHO, IAEA, NRPB) for construction and equipment requirements for these laboratories and installations. Then the

  1. The role of energetic ions from plasma in the creation of nanostructured materials and stable polymer surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilek, M.M.M.; Newton-McGee, K.; McKenzie, D.R.; McCulloch, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma processes for the synthesis of new materials as thin films have enabled the production of a wide variety of new materials. These include meta-stable phases, which are not readily found in nature, and more recently, materials with structure on the nanoscale. Study of plasma synthesis processes at the fundamental level has revealed that ion energy, depositing flux and growth surface temperature are the critical parameters affecting the microstructure and the properties of the thin film materials formed. In this paper, we focus on the role of ion flux and impact energy in the creation of thin films with nanoscale structure in the form of multilayers. We describe three synthesis strategies, based on the extraction of ions from plasma sources and involving modulation of ion flux and ion energy. The microstructure, intrinsic stress and physical properties of the multilayered samples synthesized are studied and related back to the conditions at the growth surface during deposition. When energetic ions of a non-condensing species are used, it is possible to place active groups on the surfaces of materials such as polymers. These active groups can then be used as bonding sites in subsequent chemical attachment of proteins or other macromolecules. If the energy of the non-condensing ions is increased to a few keV then modified layers buried under the surface can be produced. Here we describe a method by which the aging effect, which is often observed in plasma surface modifications on polymers, can be reduced and even eliminated using high energy ion bombardment

  2. Users' requirements for IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, K.; Jitsukawa, S.; Ehrlich, K.; Moeslang, A.

    1998-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is a high energy neutron irradiation facility which generates an intense neutron flux with D-Li stripping reactions for fusion materials testing. The role of IFMIF is (1) development of various fusion reactor materials, (2) determination of design-relevant engineering databases for the DEMO fusion reactor, (3) calibration and validation of data generated from fission reactor irradiations and the other simulation experiments, etc. The conceptual design activity (CDA) of IFMIF was initiated in February 1995 as an IEA collaborative activity to complete a reference conceptual design of IFMIF in December 1996. Users' requirements for the conceptual design of IFMIF were developed for materials to be tested, types of experiments, small specimen test technology and irradiation conditions. Furthermore, the neutron irradiation field characteristics (spectrum, flux/volume, etc.) of IFMIF were evaluated for the conceptual design parameters and were shown to meet the essential requirements of the users. (orig.)

  3. Radiation effects in nuclear materials: Role of nuclear and electronic energy losses and their synergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomé, Lionel [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3-Université Paris-Sud; Debelle, Aurelien [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Garrido, Frederico [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Mylonas, Stamatis [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Décamps, B. [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Bachelet, C. [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Sattonnay, G. [LEMHE/ICMMO, Université Paris-Sud, Bât. Orsay, France; Moll, Sandra [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette; Pellegrino, S. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Miro, S. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Trocellier, P. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Serruys, Y. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Velisa, G. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Grygiel, C. [CNRS, France; Monnet, I. [CIMAP, CEA-CNRS-Université de Caen, France; Toulemonde, Marcel [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS)-ENSICAE; Simon, P. [CEMHTI, CNRS, France; Jagielski, Jacek [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology; Jozwik-Biala, Iwona [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology; Nowicki, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk, Poland; Behar, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre,; Weber, William J [ORNL; Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Backman, Marie [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nordlund, Kai [University of Helsinki; Djurabekova, Flyura [University of Helsinki

    2013-01-01

    Ceramic oxides and carbides are promising matrices for the immobilization and/or transmutation of nuclear wastes, cladding materials for gas-cooled fission reactors and structural components for fusion reactors. For these applications there is a need of fundamental data concerning the behavior of nuclear ceramics upon irradiation. This article is focused on the presentation of a few remarkable examples regarding ion-beam modifications of nuclear ceramics with an emphasis on the mechanisms leading to damage creation and phase transformations. Results obtained by combining advanced techniques (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and channeling, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy) concern irradiations in a broad energy range (from keV to GeV) with the aim of exploring both nuclear collision (Sn) and electronic excitation (Se) regimes. Finally, the daunting challenge of the demonstration of the existence of synergistic effects between Sn and Se is tackled by discussing the healing due to intense electronic energy deposition (SHIBIEC) and by reporting results recently obtained in dual-beam irradiation (DBI) experiments.

  4. Selective visual working memory in fear of spiders: the role of automaticity and material-specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Andrea; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike

    2009-12-01

    Following cognitive models of anxiety, biases occur if threat processing is automatic versus strategic. Therefore, most of these models predict attentional bias, but not explicit memory bias. We suggest dividing memory into the highly automatic working memory (WM) component versus long-term memory when investigating bias in anxiety. WM for threat has rarely been investigated although its main function is stimulus monitoring, particularly important in anxiety. We investigated WM for spiders in spider fearfuls (SFs) versus non-anxious controls (NACs). In Experiment 1 (23 SFs/24 NACs), we replicated an earlier WM study, reducing strategic processing options. This led to stronger group differences and, thus, clearer WM threat biases. There were no group differences in Experiment 2 (18 SFs/19 NACs), using snakes instead of spiders to test whether WM biases are material-specific. This article supports cognitive models of anxiety in that biases are more likely to occur when reducing strategic processing. However, it contradicts the assumption that explicit memory biases are not characteristic of anxiety.

  5. Explorative Materiality and Knowledge. The Role of Creative Exploration and Artefacts in Design Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Niedderer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Juxtaposing the nature of design and the foundations of research in the traditional science and humanities disciplines puts their differences into sharp relief. The comparison highlights the key characteristics of design – its creative and experiential nature – which any design research must take into account, as well as the theoretical foundations of research. The aim of this article is to develop an understanding of the ontological, epistemological and methodological issues of design research, and to offer a framework that can embrace equally the notions of creativity and experiential knowledge, and of academic rigour. Furthermore,the potential roles of the design process and artefact within research are examined within this theoretical framework, which suggests that design processes and artefacts can – if appropriately framed – play an important partin the research process, facilitating an approach commensurate with the aims ofdesign enquiry. A case study of the Niedderer’s own work serves to illustratethe balance and integration of theory and (creative practice within the research process, and how this integration can enable a multi-layered contribution to the theoretical and practical advancement of the field.

  6. The role of national regulatory authority in monitoring of radioactivity and in case of seizure of radioactive or nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morkunas, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Radiation Protection Centre is a regulatory authority in radiation protection in Lithuania. Its main tasks are licensing of practices, supervision, control and enforcement of radiation protection requirements, dosimetric, radiometric and spectrometric measurements, evaluation of exposure and its sources, expertise and advice on optimization of radiation protection. Its activities may be divided into two main parts -- regulatory and analytical ones. Food, drinking water, environmental, wipe and other samples are monitored, the appropriate evaluation of doses is done. The data on concentrations of artificial radionuclides in different bodies are available. The laboratory is to be accredited according to the ISO 17025 standard in the framework of Phare Twinning Project. In case of seized radioactive or nuclear material the Radiation Protection Centre has to identify the necessary radiation protection means for members of public and emergency workers, perform measurements of dose rate and radioactive contamination, and, if necessary, evaluate doses received due to the seized radioactive or nuclear material. Since the Radiation Protection Centre has its departments in the largest cities of Lithuania the above mentioned measures can be taken very urgently, especially the ones connected with primary evaluation of situation and identification of optimized radiation protection measures. The Radiation Protection Centre has its own possibilities of identification of radionuclides in the seized material. Such installations as HpGe spectrometers (Oxford and Canberra), equipment for radiochemical separation of U, Pu and actinides, alpha spectrometer, liquid scintillation spectrometer and neutron rem counter are available. There were a few cases when seized material had to be analyzed also. Different sources were found in different places of Lithuania, and it was necessary to define the activity and isotopic content of these sources. The following scheme is used in

  7. The Role of Interfaces in Polyethylene/Metal-Oxide Nanocomposites for Ultrahigh-Voltage Insulating Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourrahimi, Amir Masoud; Olsson, Richard T; Hedenqvist, Mikael S

    2018-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of polyethylene/metal-oxide nanocomposites for extruded high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) cables with ultrahigh electric insulation properties is presented. This is a promising technology with the potential of raising the upper voltage limit in today's underground/submarine cables, based on pristine polyethylene, to levels where the loss of energy during electric power transmission becomes low enough to ensure intercontinental electric power transmission. The development of HVDC insulating materials together with the impact of the interface between the particles and the polymer on the nanocomposites electric properties are shown. Important parameters from the atomic to the microlevel, such as interfacial chemistry, interfacial area, and degree of particle dispersion/aggregation, are discussed. This work is placed in perspective with important work by others, and suggested mechanisms for improved insulation using nanoparticles, such as increased charge trap density, adsorption of impurities/ions, and induced particle dipole moments are considered. The effects of the nanoparticles and of their interfacial structures on the mechanical properties and the implications of cavitation on the electric properties are also discussed. Although the main interest in improving the properties of insulating polymers has been on the use of nanoparticles, leading to nanodielectrics, it is pointed out here that larger microscopic hierarchical metal-oxide particles with high surface porosity also impart good insulation properties. The impact of the type of particle and its inherent properties (purity and conductivity) on the nanocomposite dielectric and insulating properties are also discussed based on data obtained by a newly developed technique to directly observe the charge distribution on a nanometer scale in the nanocomposite. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Development of high temperature containerless processing equipment and the design and evaluation of associated systems required for microgravity materials processing and property measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Charles A.

    1991-03-01

    The development of high temperature containerless processing equipment and the design and evaluation of associated systems required for microgravity materials processing and property measurements are discussed. Efforts were directed towards the following task areas: design and development of a High Temperature Acoustic Levitator (HAL) for containerless processing and property measurements at high temperatures; testing of the HAL module to establish this technology for use as a positioning device for microgravity uses; construction and evaluation of a brassboard hot wall Acoustic Levitation Furnace; construction and evaluation of a noncontact temperature measurement (NCTM) system based on AGEMA thermal imaging camera; construction of a prototype Division of Amplitude Polarimetric Pyrometer for NCTM of levitated specimens; evaluation of and recommendations for techniques to control contamination in containerless materials processing chambers; and evaluation of techniques for heating specimens to high temperatures for containerless materials experimentation.

  9. Development of high temperature containerless processing equipment and the design and evaluation of associated systems required for microgravity materials processing and property measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    The development of high temperature containerless processing equipment and the design and evaluation of associated systems required for microgravity materials processing and property measurements are discussed. Efforts were directed towards the following task areas: design and development of a High Temperature Acoustic Levitator (HAL) for containerless processing and property measurements at high temperatures; testing of the HAL module to establish this technology for use as a positioning device for microgravity uses; construction and evaluation of a brassboard hot wall Acoustic Levitation Furnace; construction and evaluation of a noncontact temperature measurement (NCTM) system based on AGEMA thermal imaging camera; construction of a prototype Division of Amplitude Polarimetric Pyrometer for NCTM of levitated specimens; evaluation of and recommendations for techniques to control contamination in containerless materials processing chambers; and evaluation of techniques for heating specimens to high temperatures for containerless materials experimentation.

  10. The role of some microorganisms on phosphorus availability from organic materials using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-seer, A.M.M

    2010-01-01

    Series of laboratory and field experiments were conducted at Soil Microbiology Unit and Farm of Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Availability of phosphorus in Egyptian alkaline soil had been subjected to many problems related with adverse environmental conditions (biotic and abiotic factors) and human mismanagement on flied scale. The supply power of this second important element under these conditions was very low and soil become P-deficient. To overcome this problem, there are two strategies via application of chemical approach or biological management using soil microorganisms and fungi. We considered the biological approach as the most reliable strategy for reorientation of status in soil without risks on environment. This objective aims to recycling different plant and animal residues in soil which is consistent with (sustainable development) of these organic residues as organic P source for PSMs.The present work aimed to study :1- The role of PSMs as microbiological means to convert organic P into available form utilized by plant through secretion of acid and alkaline phosphatase.2-The incubation experiment to point out the best incubation period of the residues with PSMs to be chosen before application in the field experiment and the selection of applicable residues 3- The effect of PSMs on degradation of faba bean straw and sheep manure used as organic fertilizer in addition to nitrogen fixing bacteria on marjoram (as medical plant) growth, yield, nutrient uptake and essential oil yield.4- The purification of the produced enzymes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and studying its properties in addition to the possible application pure enzyme of sequential fractionation scheme of phosphorus in soil after harvest marjoram plant.5- The effects of gamma irradiation on the chemical constituents and antimicrobial action of essential oil marjoram plant.

  11. Evaluation of inactive uranium mill tailings sites for liner requirements: Characterization and interaction of tailings, soil, and liner materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relyea, J.F.; Martin, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of laboratory experiments using soils from Clive, Utah and tailings samples from three inactive uranium processing sites. The results are to be used to predict contaminant behavior for comparison with the regulatory criteria to decide whether a liner is needed. The interactions of leachates with soils and liner material were studied using both batch and column methods. It is determined that batch leaching tests are suitable for screening a large number of tailings samples for relative contaminant concentrations between samples but not for determining contaminant concentrations and release rates in tailings leachate. The results of column leaching tests on samples of tailings from inactive sites indicate that contaminant concentrations are highest in initial leachate from the columns and that concentrations decrease by an order of magnitude or more after one pore volume

  12. The Role of Sexually Explicit Material (SEM) in the Sexual Development of Black Young Same-Sex-Attracted Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Harper, Gary W.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school-and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent men ages 15–19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one’s sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., “top” or “bottom”); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA young men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who maybe accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  13. The Role of Vocation of Process Technology and Material Synthesis in Order to Support Nuclear Industries in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusnanto

    2009-01-01

    Energy has become a basic need, which is comparable to the food requirement. With regard to forecast to the future, it is a time to visualize a reduction of dependency on the primary energy source i.e. fossil fuel, and seriously enhance a development of another new source of energy, that is a nuclear energy, which is synergy extend with other new and renewable energy sources. Development of an advanced reactor will be necessary if the nuclear energy is still to be the main choice to fulfill the energy requirement. An opportunity to extend material process industries in Indonesia is increasingly opened. Natural resources, i.e. mineral and energy sources, will be a big capital investment when it is supported by an ability of grasping technology and also the government policy that is in favor to the ability and independency of the nation. If hydrogen production is commercially produced by an advanced reactor, surely that the requirement of zircon oxide as a fuel-cell which is an intermediate product of industry of zirconium metal will increase significantly. SOFC, a kind of fuel cell, is believed to be the most effective fuel cell as a converter energy when hydrogen used as a fuel energy source. In order to realize this independency of Indonesian nation, it is required knowledgeable, expertise and skilled human resources in the process technology field. These expertise human resources can not be prepared by a formal education in collages/universities only, but also through 3 (three) steps of training, i.e. education, skilled/ professional training and working experience. The last two steps have a large contribution to the personal expertise. Therefore, skilled/ professional certification of someone, that consist of professional training and working experienced will be necessary for the above requirements. formal education, professional training, working experience. (author)

  14. The influence of sexually explicit internet material and peers on stereotypical beliefs about women's sexual roles: similarities and differences between adolescents and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on the influence of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) on adolescents' stereotypical beliefs about women's sexual roles has three shortcomings. First, the role of peers has been neglected; second, stereotypical beliefs have rarely been studied as causing the use of SEIM and

  15. Improving Requirements Generation Thoroughness in User-Centered Workshops: The Role of Prompting and Shared User Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The rise of stakeholder centered software development has led to organizations engaging users early in the development process to help define system requirements. To facilitate user involvement in the requirements elicitation process, companies can use Group Support Systems (GSS) to conduct requirements elicitation workshops. The effectiveness of…

  16. The role of type III secretion system and lens material on adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Elizabeth P; Tsay, Ruey-Yug; Chia, Jean-San; Wu, Semon; Lee, Jing-Wen; Hu, Fung-Rong

    2012-09-21

    To determine the distribution of invasive and cytotoxic genotypes among ocular isolates of P. aeruginosa and investigate the influence of the type III secretion system (T3SS) on adhesion to conventional, cosmetic, and silicone hydrogel contact lenses (CL). Clinical isolates from 2001 to 2010 were analyzed by multiplex PCR for exoS, exoU, and exoT genes. Bacterial adhesion to etafilcon, nelfilcon (gray colored), balafilcon, and galyfilcon CL with or without artificial tear fluid (ATF) incubation were compared. Surface characteristics were determined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Among 87 total isolates, 64 strains were from microbial keratitis cases. CL-related microbial keratitis (CLMK) isolates were mostly of the cytotoxic genotype (expressing exoU) (P = 0.002). No significant differences were found in bacterial adhesion to all types of CL between the genotypes under T3SS-inducing conditions. A trend for least bacterial adhesion of galyfilcon compared to the other CL was noted for both genotypes. Needle complex pscC mutants adhered less to all materials than the wild type (P bacteria adhering on CL surfaces. CLMK isolates were mostly of cytotoxic genotype. Different genotypes did not significantly differ in its adhesion to various CL. T3SS and other adhesins are involved in bacteria-contact lens adhesion through complex interactions. Contact lens materials may also play an important role in the adherence of both genotypes of P. aeruginosa.

  17. Department of Energy (DOE) transportation system for nuclear materials and the role of state law enforcement agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.M.; Hoover, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy has been assigned the responsibility for the safe and secure movement of strategic quantities of government-owned special nuclear material as well as classified material. To accomplish this mission, a transportation system has been developed which takes advantage of advanced technology and other features to reduce vulnerability to terrorists. The system consists of a careful balance of specially-trained personnel, procedures and sophisticated equipment. These, in combination, generally allow the system to be self-sufficient. However, should the need arise, DOE will request assistance from state law enforcement agencies. The primary contact for assistance is the state police or highway patrol. DOE, with the assistance of Sandia Laboratories, has surveyed state police agencies throughout the nation. A data base has been created which includes the results of these surveys and a numerical description of DOE transportation routes. This data base, along with a ''Response'' model developed by Sandia Laboratories, allows projections of officer availability to be made for all of DOE's routes. This paper will describe the DOE Transportation System, the role of state law enforcement agencies in support of the system, the nationwide state policy survey, and the operation of the response computer model

  18. Associations Between Croatian Adolescents' Use of Sexually Explicit Material and Sexual Behavior: Does Parental Monitoring Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Ivan; Burić, Jakov; Štulhofer, Aleksandar

    2017-10-25

    The use of sexually explicit material (SEM) has become a part of adolescent sexual socialization, at least in the Western world. Adolescent and young people's SEM use has been associated with risky sexual behaviors, which has recently resulted in policy debates about restricting access to SEM. Such development seems to suggest a crisis of the preventive role of parental oversight. Based on the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects Model, this study assessed the role of parental monitoring in the context of adolescent vulnerability to SEM-associated risky or potentially adverse outcomes (sexual activity, sexual aggressiveness, and sexting). Using an online sample of Croatian 16-year-olds (N = 1265) and structural equation modeling approach, parental monitoring was found consistently and negatively related to the problematic behavioral outcomes, regardless of participants' gender. While SEM use was related to sexual experience and sexting, higher levels of parental monitoring were associated with less frequent SEM use and lower acceptance of sexual permissiveness. Despite parents' fears about losing the ability to monitor their adolescent children's lives in the Internet era, there is evidence that parental engagement remains an important protective factor.

  19. Revk - a Tool for the Fulfilment of Requirements from National Rules for Tracking and Documentation of Radioactive Residual Material and Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, B.; Haeger, M.; Gruendler, D.

    2006-01-01

    According to the German Radiation Protection Ordinance treatment, storage, whereabouts of radioactive material etc. have to be documented. Due to legal requirements an electronic documentation system for radioactive waste has to be installed. Within the framework of the currently largest decommissioning project of nuclear facilities by Energiewerke Nord GmbH, a material flow-waste tracking and control system (ReVK) has been developed, tailored to the special needs of the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. With this system it is possible to record radioactive materials which can be released after treatment or decay storage for restricted and unrestricted utilization. Radioactive waste meant for final storage can be registered and documented as well. Based on ORACLE, ReVK is a client/server data base system with the following modules: 1. data registration, 2. transport management, 3. waste tracking, 4. storage management, 5. container management, 6. reporting, 7. activity calculation, 8. examination of technical acceptance criteria for storages and final repositories. Furthermore ReVK provides a multitude of add-ons to meet special user needs, which enlarge the spectrum of application enormously. ReVK is validated and qualified, accepted by experts and authorities and fulfils the requirements for a radioactive waste documentation system. (authors)

  20. Recommendations to the NRC on acceptable standard format and content for the Fundamental Nuclear Material Control (FNMC) Plan required for low-enriched uranium enrichment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, B.W.; Belew, W.L.; Hammond, G.A.; Brenner, L.M.

    1991-11-01

    A new section, 10 CFR 74.33, has been added to the material control and accounting (MC ampersand A) requirements of 10 CFR Part 74. This new section pertains to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed uranium enrichment facilities that are authorized to produce and to possess more than one effective kilogram of special nuclear material (SNM) of low strategic significance. The new section is patterned after 10 CFR 74.31, which pertains to NRC licensees (other than production or utilization facilities licensed pursuant to 10 CFR Part 50 and 70 and waste disposal facilities) that are authorized to possess and use more than one effective kilogram of unencapsulated SNM of low strategic significance. Because enrichment facilities have the potential capability of producing SNM of moderate strategic significance and also strategic SNM, certain performance objectives and MC ampersand A system capabilities are required in 10 CFR 74.33 that are not contained in 10 CFR 74.31. This document recommends to the NRC information that the licensee or applicant should provide in the fundamental nuclear material control (FNMC) plan. This document also describes methods that should be acceptable for compliance with the general performance objectives. While this document is intended to cover various uranium enrichment technologies, the primary focus at this time is gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion

  1. [The role of nutritional factors on the structure and function of the brain: an update on dietary requirements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, J-M

    2004-09-01

    The brain is an organ elaborated and functioning from substances present in the diet. Dietary regulation of blood glucose level (via ingestion of food with a low glycemic index ensuring a low insulin level) improves the quality and duration of intellectual performance, if only because at rest the adult brain consumes 50 p. 100 of dietary carbohydrates, 80 p. 100 of them for energy purposes. The nature of the amino acid composition of dietary proteins contributes to good cerebral function; tryptophan plays a special role. Many indispensable amino acids present in dietary proteins help to elaborate neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. Omega-3 fatty acids provided the first coherent experimental demonstration of the effect of dietary nutrients on the structure and function of the brain. First it was shown that the differentiation and functioning of cultured brain cells requires omega-3 fatty acids. It was then demonstrated that alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) deficiency alters the course of brain development, perturbs the composition and physicochemical properties of brain cell membranes, neurones, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes (ALA). This leads to physicochemical modifications, induces biochemical and physiological perturbations, and results in neurosensory and behavioral upset. Consequently, the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids (in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for infants (premature and term) conditions the visual and cerebral abilities, including intellectual abilities. Moreover, dietary omega-3 fatty acids are certainly involved in the prevention of some aspects of cardiovascular disease (including at the level of cerebral vascularization), and in some neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, as well as in dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease. Their deficiency can prevent the satisfactory renewal of membranes and thus accelerate cerebral aging. Iron is necessary to ensure oxygenation, to produce energy in the cerebral parenchyma

  2. Advancing Risk Analysis for Nanoscale Materials: Report from an International Workshop on the Role of Alternative Testing Strategies for Advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatkin, J A; Ong, Kimberly J; Beaudrie, Christian; Clippinger, Amy J; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Haber, Lynne T; Hill, Myriam; Holden, Patricia; Kennedy, Alan J; Kim, Baram; MacDonell, Margaret; Powers, Christina M; Sharma, Monita; Sheremeta, Lorraine; Stone, Vicki; Sultan, Yasir; Turley, Audrey; White, Ronald H

    2016-08-01

    The Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) has a history of bringing thought leadership to topics of emerging risk. In September 2014, the SRA Emerging Nanoscale Materials Specialty Group convened an international workshop to examine the use of alternative testing strategies (ATS) for manufactured nanomaterials (NM) from a risk analysis perspective. Experts in NM environmental health and safety, human health, ecotoxicology, regulatory compliance, risk analysis, and ATS evaluated and discussed the state of the science for in vitro and other alternatives to traditional toxicology testing for NM. Based on this review, experts recommended immediate and near-term actions that would advance ATS use in NM risk assessment. Three focal areas-human health, ecological health, and exposure considerations-shaped deliberations about information needs, priorities, and the next steps required to increase confidence in and use of ATS in NM risk assessment. The deliberations revealed that ATS are now being used for screening, and that, in the near term, ATS could be developed for use in read-across or categorization decision making within certain regulatory frameworks. Participants recognized that leadership is required from within the scientific community to address basic challenges, including standardizing materials, protocols, techniques and reporting, and designing experiments relevant to real-world conditions, as well as coordination and sharing of large-scale collaborations and data. Experts agreed that it will be critical to include experimental parameters that can support the development of adverse outcome pathways. Numerous other insightful ideas for investment in ATS emerged throughout the discussions and are further highlighted in this article. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and nuclear security. Overview of safeguards requirements for States with limited nuclear material and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodding, J.; Ribeiro, B.

    2006-06-01

    This booklet provides an overview of safeguards obligations that apply to States which are parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) that have no nuclear facilities and only limited quantities of nuclear material. Most State parties to the NPT have no nuclear facilities and only limited quantities of nuclear material. For such States, safeguards implementation is expected to be simple and straightforward. This booklet provides an overview of the safeguards obligations that apply to such States. It is hoped that a better understanding of these requirements will facilitate the conclusion and implementation of safeguards agreements and additional protocols, and thereby contribute to the strengthening of the IAEA?s safeguards system and of collective security

  4. Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and nuclear security. Overview of Safeguards requirements for States with limited nuclear material and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodding, J.; Ribeiro, B.

    2006-06-01

    This booklet provides an overview of safeguards obligations that apply to States which are parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) that have no nuclear facilities and only limited quantities of nuclear material. Most State parties to the NPT have no nuclear facilities and only limited quantities of nuclear material. For such States, safeguards implementation is expected to be simple and straightforward. This booklet provides an overview of the safeguards obligations that apply to such States. It is hoped that a better understanding of these requirements will facilitate the conclusion and implementation of safeguards agreements and additional protocols, and thereby contribute to the strengthening of the IAEA?s safeguards system and of collective security

  5. The influence of the static wind load concept on the material requirements for reinforced-concrete natural-draught cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnach, R.

    1977-01-01

    The natural wind is the decisive risk factor in natural-draught cooling towers; therefore, the establishment of an assumed velocity is indispensable for the safety and reliability of the construction. In the framework of a statistical wind concept, static substitution loads for the assumed dynamic wind pressure have been determined, also including dynamic wind effects and the resonance response of the structure. On this basis, it has been studied how wind loads with different periodicity affect the material requirements of reinforced-concrete natural-draught cooling towers. It is found that the additional steel requirements, related to the total building cost, remain within acceptable limits even for extreme wind loads. (orig.) [de

  6. The role of the Gosatomnadzor of Russia in national regulating of safety of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, M.V.; Sitnikov, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    authorities are the Gosatomnadzor of Russia, the Ministry of Health, the Gosgortechnadzor of Russia (mining and technical supervision authority) and the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Nuclear and radiation safety regulation is assigned to the Gosatomnadzor (technical and organizational aspects including licensing and inspections) and the Ministry of Health (health aspects of radiation safety normalization). Fire safety and activities to detect, prevent, suppress and disclose illegal actions regarding radioactive materials and radioactive waste are assigned to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The key elements of the Russian regulatory infrastructure are: For ensuring the safety of radiation sources - standards and rules for nuclear energy use and for ensuring the security of radioactive materials - the State's system of accounting for and control of radioactive material and radioactive waste, which is being created now. The role of the Gosatomnadzor of Russia and other national regulatory authorities consists in implementing State regulation of radiation source safety and ensuring radioactive material security according to the authority's assigned competence. (author)

  7. Role of Nuclear Based Techniques in Development and Characterization of Materials for Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-02-01

    Today various materials for fuel cell applications are urgently needed, including potential electrodes for the molten carbonate fuel cells. Identification of appropriate storage concepts are also urgently needed in order to initiate necessary steps for implementation of such technologies in daily life. Recent progress in nuclear analyses and observation/imaging techniques can significantly contribute to a successful achievement of ongoing research challenges. Primary importance is given to areas of characterization and in-situ testing of materials and/or components of hydrogen storage and fuel cell systems. Dedicated attention is addressed to issues related to hydrogen storage concepts, such as metal hydrides and other systems (e.g. fullerene structures) as well as their stability and the changes induced by hydrogen sorption process. In total 14 papers report on various scientific and research issues related to hydrogen storage and conversion technologies. Based on presented results, it can be concluded that nuclear- based techniques, specifically those involving neutrons, X rays and particle beams, play very important roles in ongoing research activities among many IAEA Member States. A short overview of individual reports is summarized below. The presented papers give an overview of typical applications of such techniques and their experimental setups based either on X ray or neutron sources, which can be used effectively to study specific properties of materials for hydrogen storage as well as microstructural features and hydrogen interaction with solid matter. The papers presented by Canadian, Dutch, Italian and Norwegian groups, report on research results related to application of thermal neutron scattering and neutron diffraction in studies of hydrogen containing materials, particularly in situ characterization as a means to study metal hydrides' structure and their modification upon hydrogen sorption. The investigation on solid state hydrogen storage

  8. New Materials Developed To Meet Regulatory And Technical Requirements Associated With In-Situ Decommissioning Of Nuclear Reactors And Associated Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenship, J.; Langton, C.; Musall, J.; Griffin, W.

    2012-01-01

    For the 2010 ANS Embedded Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination and Reutilization and Technology, Savannah River National Laboratory's Mike Serrato reported initial information on the newly developed specialty grout materials necessary to satisfy all requirements associated with in-situ decommissioning of P-Reactor and R-Reactor at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Since that report, both projects have been successfully completed and extensive test data on both fresh properties and cured properties has been gathered and analyzed for a total of almost 191,150 m 3 (250,000 yd 3 ) of new materials placed. The focus of this paper is to describe the (1) special grout mix for filling the P-Reactor vessel (RV) and (2) the new flowable structural fill materials used to fill the below grade portions of the facilities. With a wealth of data now in hand, this paper also captures the test results and reports on the performance of these new materials. Both reactors were constructed and entered service in the early 1950s, producing weapons grade materials for the nation's defense nuclear program. R-Reactor was shut down in 1964 and the P-Reactor in 1991. In-situ decommissioning (ISD) was selected for both facilities and performed as Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensations and Liability Act actions (an early action for P-Reactor and a removal action for R-Reactor), beginning in October 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy concept for ISD is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally robust facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of producing (reactor facilities), processing (isotope separation facilities), or storing radioactive materials. Funding for accelerated decommissioning was provided under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Decommissioning of both facilities was completed in September 2011. ISD objectives for these CERCLA actions included: (1) Prevent industrial worker exposure to

  9. Heat release, time required, and cleaning ability of MTwo R and ProTaper universal retreatment systems in the removal of filling material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Fidelis, Natasha Siqueira; Assumpção, Tatiana Santos; Bernardineli, Norberti; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bramante, Alexandre Silva; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes

    2010-11-01

    This ex vivo study evaluated the heat release, time required, and cleaning efficacy of MTwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) and ProTaper Universal Retreatment systems (Dentsply/Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and hand instrumentation in the removal of filling material. Sixty single-rooted human teeth with a single straight canal were obturated with gutta-percha and zinc oxide and eugenol-based cement and randomly allocated to 3 groups (n = 20). After 30-day storage at 37 °C and 100% humidity, the root fillings were removed using ProTaper UR, MTwo R, or hand files. Heat release, time required, and cleaning efficacy data were analyzed statistically (analysis of variance and the Tukey test, α = 0.05). None of the techniques removed the root fillings completely. Filling material removal with ProTaper UR was faster but caused more heat release. Mtwo R produced less heat release than the other techniques but was the least efficient in removing gutta-percha/sealer. ProTaper UR and MTwo R caused the greatest and lowest temperature increase on root surface, respectively; regardless of the type of instrument, more heat was released in the cervical third. Pro Taper UR needed less time to remove fillings than MTwo R. All techniques left filling debris in the root canals. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MRS [monitored retrievable storage] systems study Task G report: The role and functions of surface storage of radioactive material in the federal waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.W.; Short, S.M.; Woodruff, M.G.; Altenhofen, M.K.; MacKay, C.A.

    1989-04-01

    This is one of nine studies undertaken by contractors to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), to provide a technical basis for re-evaluating the role of a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The study investigates the functions that could be performed by surface storage of radioactive material within the federal radioactive waste management system, including enabling acceptance of spent fuel from utility owners, scheduling of waste-preparation processes within the system, enhancement of system operating reliability, and conditioning the thermal (decay heat) characteristics of spent fuel emplaced in a repository. The analysis focuses particularly on the effects of storage capacity and DOE acceptance schedule on power reactors. Figures of merit developed include the storage capacity [in metric tons of uranium (MTU)] required to be added beyond currently estimated maximum spent fuel storage capacities and its associated cost, and the number of years that spent fuel pools would remain open after last discharge (in pool-years) and the cost of this period of operation. 27 refs., 36 figs., 18 tabs

  11. Confirming the key role of Ar+ ion bombardment in the growth feature of nanostructured carbon materials by PECVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulin; Lin, Jinghuang; Jia, Henan; Chen, Shulin; Qi, Junlei; Qu, Chaoqun; Cao, Jian; Feng, Jicai; Fei, Weidong

    2017-11-24

    In order to confirm the key role of Ar + ion bombardment in the growth feature of nanostructured carbon materials (NCMs), here we report a novel strategy to create different Ar + ion states in situ in plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) by separating catalyst film from the substrate. Different bombardment environments on either side of the catalyst film were created simultaneously to achieve multi-layered structural NCMs. Results showed that Ar + ion bombardment is crucial and complex for the growth of NCMs. Firstly, Ar + ion bombardment has both positive and negative effects on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). On one hand, Ar + ions can break up the graphic structure of CNTs and suppress thin CNT nucleation and growth. On the other hand, Ar + ion bombardment can remove redundant carbon layers on the surface of large catalyst particles which is essential for thick CNTs. As a result, the diameter of the CNTs depends on the Ar + ion state. As for vertically oriented few-layer graphene (VFG), Ar + ions are essential and can even convert the CNTs into VFG. Therefore, by combining with the catalyst separation method, specific or multi-layered structural NCMs can be obtained by PECVD only by changing the intensity of Ar + ion bombardment, and these special NCMs are promising in many fields.

  12. Confirming the key role of Ar+ ion bombardment in the growth feature of nanostructured carbon materials by PECVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulin; Lin, Jinghuang; Jia, Henan; Chen, Shulin; Qi, Junlei; Qu, Chaoqun; Cao, Jian; Feng, Jicai; Fei, Weidong

    2017-11-01

    In order to confirm the key role of Ar+ ion bombardment in the growth feature of nanostructured carbon materials (NCMs), here we report a novel strategy to create different Ar+ ion states in situ in plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) by separating catalyst film from the substrate. Different bombardment environments on either side of the catalyst film were created simultaneously to achieve multi-layered structural NCMs. Results showed that Ar+ ion bombardment is crucial and complex for the growth of NCMs. Firstly, Ar+ ion bombardment has both positive and negative effects on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). On one hand, Ar+ ions can break up the graphic structure of CNTs and suppress thin CNT nucleation and growth. On the other hand, Ar+ ion bombardment can remove redundant carbon layers on the surface of large catalyst particles which is essential for thick CNTs. As a result, the diameter of the CNTs depends on the Ar+ ion state. As for vertically oriented few-layer graphene (VFG), Ar+ ions are essential and can even convert the CNTs into VFG. Therefore, by combining with the catalyst separation method, specific or multi-layered structural NCMs can be obtained by PECVD only by changing the intensity of Ar+ ion bombardment, and these special NCMs are promising in many fields.

  13. Performance-oriented Architecture and the Spatial and Material Organisation Complex. Rethinking the Definition, Role and Performative Capacity of the Spatial and Material Boundaries of the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ulrich Hensel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the proposition that performance-oriented design is characterised by four domains of ‘active agency’: the human subject, the spatial and material organisation complex and the environment (Hensel, 2010. While these four domains are seen to be interdependent and interacting with one another, it is nevertheless necessary to examine each in its own right. However, the spatial and material organisation complex contains both the spatial and material domains, which are interdependent to such a degree that these need to be examined in relation to one another and also in relation to the specific environment they are set within and interacting with. To explore this combined domain within the context of performance-oriented design is the aim of this article, in particularly in relation to the question of the definition and performative capacity of spatial and material boundaries. The various sections are accompanied by research by design efforts undertaken in specified academic contexts, which are intended as examples of modes and areas of inquiry relative to the purpose of this article.

  14. Transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials: a summary of state and local legislative requirements for the period ending December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, N.P.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1985-09-01

    This report summarizes 513 adopted US state and local laws that impact the transportation of radioactive materials. The report was generated from legislative information contained in the Legislative Data Base (LDB), a comprehensive interactive database developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The annotated citations alphabetically by state, with state and local bills listed separately and sorted by date of adoption. Each citation contains the following information: locale (geographical areas and political jurisdictions affected by the action), bill number, bill title, bill sponsor, history of bill status, comments, and abstract. Six indexes are provided to assist the reader in locating legislation of interest: locale index, bill number index, title word index (permuted), sponsor index, transport restriction index (type of transportation restriction specified, e.g., escort, notify, permit, ban), transport mode index (mode of transportation specified, e.g., truck, rail, barge), and keyword index. This report updates the information contained in Transportation of Radioactive and Hazardous Materials: A Summary of State and Local Legislative Requirements for the Period ending September 30, 1983, ORNL/TM-8860 (TTC-0485), published in June 1984

  15. WHAT WAS THE ROLE OF THE SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CREDIT INSTITUTIONS AND THE REQUIREMENTS OF BASEL III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic downturn and financial crisis has negative impacted the European banking system, which determined the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, after the implementation of "Basel I and Basel II", to conduct a new series of recommendations. The economic crisis has affected all types banking products and services, all models of supervision and all evaluation methods known. Credit institutions innovations, on the ease of promoting new products and services, absence amid of high quality capital who can absorb losses in the limit of liquidity, led to a deadlock on lending activity. Supervisory Committee appointed by the new "Basel III" recommendations, requires the introduction of minimum global standards for measuring and monitoring liquidity risk and also requires banks to triple quality capital reserve by 2015-2019, up to a 7% capital adequacy.

  16. Acceptable standard format and content for the fundamental nuclear material control (FNMC) plan required for low-enriched uranium facilities. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.R.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a standard format suggested by the NRC for use in preparing fundamental nuclear material control (FNMC) plans as required by the Low Enriched Uranium Reform Amendments (10CFR 74.31). This report also describes the necessary contents of a comprehensive plan and provides example acceptance criteria which are intended to communicate acceptable means of achieving the performance capabilities of the Reform Amendments. By using the suggested format, the licensee or applicant will minimize administrative problems associated with the submittal, review and approval of the FNMC plan. Preparation of the plan in accordance with this format Will assist the NRC in evaluating the plan and in standardizing the review and licensing process. However, conformance with this guidance is not required by the NRC. A license applicant who employs a format that provides a equal level of completeness and detail may use their own format. This document is also intended for providing guidance to licensees when making revisions to their FNMC plan

  17. Development of A Web-Based Information System for Material Inventory Control: The Case of An Automotive Company

    OpenAIRE

    Renjana Setyoandara Wibisono; Tanika D Sofianti; Setijo Awibowo

    2016-01-01

    Inventory control is controlling the materials movement to fulfill the requirements. The materials can from the direct and indirect materials. the indirect materials are the materials that cannot be calculated according to the bill of materials. Indirect materials need safety stocks, so the requirements can always be fulfilled, means it need the control and monitoring of their levels. To control the movement of the materials, each department have roles to control and information that need to ...

  18. Generational changes in materialism and work centrality, 1976-2007: associations with temporal changes in societal insecurity and materialistic role modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Kasser, Tim

    2013-07-01

    We examined whether culture-level indices of threat, instability, and materialistic modeling were linked to the materialistic values of American 12th graders between 1976 and 2007 (N = 355,296). Youth materialism (such as the importance of money and of owning expensive material items) increased over the generations, peaking in the late 1980s to early 1990s with Generation X and then staying at historically high levels for Millennials (GenMe). Societal instability and disconnection (e.g., unemployment, divorce) and social modeling (e.g., advertising spending) had both contemporaneous and lagged associations with higher levels of materialism, with advertising most influential during adolescence and instability during childhood. Societal-level living standards during childhood predicted materialism 10 years later. When materialistic values increased, work centrality steadily declined, suggesting a growing discrepancy between the desire for material rewards and the willingness to do the work usually required to earn them.

  19. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD): Future role and requirements as viewed by an applied aerodynamicist. [computer systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, H.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of designing the wing-fuselage configuration of an advanced transonic commercial airliner and the optimization of a supercruiser fighter are sketched, pointing out the essential fluid mechanical phenomena that play an important role. Such problems suggest that for a numerical method to be useful, it must be able to treat highly three dimensional turbulent separations, flows with jet engine exhausts, and complex vehicle configurations. Weaknesses of the two principal tools of the aerodynamicist, the wind tunnel and the computer, suggest a complementing combined use of these tools, which is illustrated by the case of the transonic wing-fuselage design. The anticipated difficulties in developing an adequate turbulent transport model suggest that such an approach may have to suffice for an extended period. On a longer term, experimentation of turbulent transport in meaningful cases must be intensified to provide a data base for both modeling and theory validation purposes.

  20. Materials in energy conversion, harvesting, and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    First authored book to address materials' role in the quest for the next generation of energy materials Energy balance, efficiency, sustainability, and so on, are some of many facets of energy challenges covered in current research. However, there has not been a monograph that directly covers a spectrum of materials issues in the context of energy conversion, harvesting and storage. Addressing one of the most pressing problems of our time, Materials in Energy Conversion, Harvesting, and Storage illuminates the roles and performance requirements of materials in energy an

  1. Role of Morphological Structure, Doping, and Coating of Different Materials in the Sensing Characteristics of Humidity Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Ashis; Pramanik, Sumit; Cho, Jongman; Santhosh, Jayasree; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2014-01-01

    The humidity sensing characteristics of different sensing materials are important properties in order to monitor different products or events in a wide range of industrial sectors, research and development laboratories as well as daily life. The primary aim of this study is to compare the sensing characteristics, including impedance or resistance, capacitance, hysteresis, recovery and response times, and stability with respect to relative humidity, frequency, and temperature, of different materials. Various materials, including ceramics, semiconductors, and polymers, used for sensing relative humidity have been reviewed. Correlations of the different electrical characteristics of different doped sensor materials as the most unique feature of a material have been noted. The electrical properties of different sensor materials are found to change significantly with the morphological changes, doping concentration of different materials and film thickness of the substrate. Various applications and scopes are pointed out in the review article. We extensively reviewed almost all main kinds of relative humidity sensors and how their electrical characteristics vary with different doping concentrations, film thickness and basic sensing materials. Based on statistical tests, the zinc oxide-based sensing material is best for humidity sensor design since it shows extremely low hysteresis loss, minimum response and recovery times and excellent stability. PMID:25256110

  2. Localization and Instability in Sheared Granular Materials: Role of Pore Fluids and Non-monotonic Rate Dependent Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.; Elbanna, A. E.; Kothari, K.

    2017-12-01

    Fault zone dynamics hold the key to resolving many outstanding geophysical problems including the heat flow paradox, discrepancy between fault static and dynamic strength, and energy partitioning. Most fault zones that generate tectonic events are gouge filled and fluid saturated posing the need for formulating gouge-specific constitutive models that capture spatially heterogeneous compaction and dilation, non-monotonic rate dependence, and transition between localized and distributed deformation. In this presentation, we focus primarily on elucidating microscopic underpinnings for shear banding and stick-slip instabilities in sheared saturated granular materials and explore their implications for earthquake dynamics. We use a non-equilibrium thermodynamics model, the Shear Transformation Zone theory, to investigate the dynamics of strain localization and its connection to stability of sliding in the presence and absence of pore fluids. We also consider the possible influence of self-induced mechanical vibrations as well as the role of external acoustic vibrations as analogue for triggering by a distant event. For the dry case, our results suggest that at low and intermediate strain rates, persistent shear bands develop only in the absence of vibrations. Vibrations tend to fluidize the granular network and de-localize slip at these rates. Stick-slip is only observed for rough grains and it is confined to the shear band. At high strain rates, stick-slip disappears and the different systems exhibit similar stress-slip response. Changing the vibration intensity, duration or time of application alters the system response and may cause long-lasting rheological changes. The presence of pore fluids modifies the stick slip pattern and may lead to both loss and development of slip instability depending on the value of the confining pressure, imposed strain rate and hydraulic parameters. We analyze these observations in terms of possible transitions between rate

  3. Recycling fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooms, L.

    2005-01-01

    The inherent safety and environmental advantages of fusion power in comparison with other energy sources play an important role in the public acceptance. No waste burden for future generations is therefore one of the main arguments to decide for fusion power. The waste issue has thus been studied in several documents and the final conclusion of which it is stated that there is no permanent disposal waste needed if recycling is applied. But recycling of fusion reactor materials is far to be obvious regarding mostly the very high specific activity of the materials to be handled, the types of materials and the presence of tritium. The main objective of research performed by SCK-CEN is to study the possible ways of recycling fusion materials and analyse the challenges of the materials management from fusion reactors, based on current practices used in fission reactors and the requirements for the manufacture of fusion equipment

  4. The Role of Romanian Universities in Increasing Graduates’ Employability. Curriculum Management and Development of Competences Required by the Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Cornelia BUTUM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  IT&C instruments have been introduced in teaching and learning in order to facilitate the acquisition of competences and develop abilities for using new media and technologies. They lead to creating the competences which are necessary for a well-trained workforce. The results of a previous study where we wanted to identify the students’ main requests regarding development needs by using new teaching/learning technologies have highlighted the support that students want to receive from universities in finding a workplace. Thus, “84% of students want universities to establish partnerships with private institutions or ask for their support in developing projects in which students could participate as volunteers. 64% of students want the curriculum to be adapted to the employers’ requests and 59% consider it is necessary to include new teach/learn tools in the process of adapting the curriculum” (Butum, Stan & Zodieru, 2015. The present paper develops the idea that students are very demanding with the quality of their studies and they are focusing to obtain “right” skills for the labor market. We want to develop this analysis by approaching the change/adaptation of the curriculum in concordance to the market needs. We also intend to identify the employers’ requests about the young graduates’ competences and abilities and the way the employers perceive the role of universities in building human capital.

  5. Experimental Investigation of the Role of Defects in Detonation Sensitivity of Energetic Materials: Development of Techniques for Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-31

    materials. The initial work was focused on design and construction of an apparatus for injecting defects into the crystals using PZT ceramics ...in the energy partitioning (Table 2), which offers some insight into the nature of the energetic texture of crystalline materials not apparent in

  6. The causal relation between children’s life satisfaction and materialism and the role of advertising exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opree, S.J.; Buijzen, M.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal survey study was designed to determine the causal direction of the relation between materialism and life satisfaction among children. We tested the hypothesis that life satisfaction negatively affects materialism. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that this effect would be

  7. Spatiotemporally regulated proteolysis to dissect the role of vegetative proteins during Bacillus subtilis sporulation: cell-specific requirement of σH and σA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Eammon P; Trinquier, Aude; Reilly, Madeline L; Durchon, Marine; Perera, Varahenage R; Pogliano, Kit; Lopez-Garrido, Javier

    2018-04-01

    Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is a paradigm of bacterial development, which involves the interaction between a larger mother cell and a smaller forespore. The mother cell and the forespore activate different genetic programs, leading to the production of sporulation-specific proteins. A critical gap in our understanding of sporulation is how vegetative proteins, made before sporulation initiation, contribute to spore formation. Here we present a system, spatiotemporally regulated proteolysis (STRP), which enables the rapid, developmentally regulated degradation of target proteins, thereby providing a suitable method to dissect the cell- and developmental stage-specific role of vegetative proteins. STRP has been used to dissect the role of two major vegetative sigma factors, σ H and σ A , during sporulation. The results suggest that σ H is only required in predivisional cells, where it is essential for sporulation initiation, but that it is dispensable during subsequent steps of spore formation. However, evidence has been provided that σ A plays different roles in the mother cell, where it replenishes housekeeping functions, and in the forespore, where it plays an unexpected role in promoting spore germination and outgrowth. Altogether, the results demonstrate that STRP has the potential to provide a comprehensive molecular dissection of every stage of sporulation, germination and outgrowth. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The role of the state system of accounting for and control of nuclear material and its relationship with the international safeguards agreements for the set-up of peaceful nuclear programs and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhadhbi, H.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy plays an important role in the development of the economy and is considered as a key element with regard to the growth of the world energy demand due to the limitation of other natural energy resources, its contribution to the protection of the environment and the reduction of CO 2 emission. Several countries, including some Arab countries, are planning to consider the nuclear option in the near future. To provide an assurance to the international community of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, the International Atomic Energy Agency established legal tools, called Safeguards Agreements, to be accepted by every state willing to run nuclear programmes for peaceful purposes. The most important basis required by these agreements is the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material, which plays a primary role for effective and efficient fulfilment of the state commitment with regard to the international safeguards agreements. The requirements for the set-up of a State System of Accounting for and Control , its role, its objectives and its fundamental elements are deeply presented. (author)

  9. Pharmacological targeting of native CatSper channels reveals a required role in maintenance of sperm hyperactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E Carlson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The four sperm-specific CatSper ion channel proteins are required for hyperactivated motility and male fertility, and for Ca(2+ entry evoked by alkaline depolarization. In the absence of external Ca(2+, Na(+ carries current through CatSper channels in voltage-clamped sperm. Here we show that CatSper channel activity can be monitored optically with the [Na(+](i-reporting probe SBFI in populations of intact sperm. Removal of external Ca(2+ increases SBFI signals in wild-type but not CatSper2-null sperm. The rate of the indicated rise of [Na(+](i is greater for sperm alkalinized with NH(4Cl than for sperm acidified with propionic acid, reflecting the alkaline-promoted signature property of CatSper currents. In contrast, the [Na(+](i rise is slowed by candidate CatSper blocker HC-056456 (IC(50 approximately 3 microM. HC-056456 similarly slows the rise of [Ca(2+](i that is evoked by alkaline depolarization and reported by fura-2. HC-056456 also selectively and reversibly decreased CatSper currents recorded from patch-clamped sperm. HC-056456 does not prevent activation of motility by HCO(3 (- but does prevent the development of hyperactivated motility by capacitating incubations, thus producing a phenocopy of the CatSper-null sperm. When applied to hyperactivated sperm, HC-056456 causes a rapid, reversible loss of flagellar waveform asymmetry, similar to the loss that occurs when Ca(2+ entry through the CatSper channel is terminated by removal of external Ca(2+. Thus, open CatSper channels and entry of external Ca(2+ through them sustains hyperactivated motility. These results indicate that pharmacological targeting of the CatSper channel may impose a selective late-stage block to fertility, and that high-throughput screening with an optical reporter of CatSper channel activity may identify additional selective blockers with potential for male-directed contraception.

  10. Cognitive requirements in the redesign of a TRIGA RC-1 control room: The role of the operators' evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visciola, M.; Bagnara, S.; Ruggeri, R.

    1986-01-01

    When a control room undergoes to a redesign process it is of crucial importance to analyze how operators critically review it and which improvements they suggest. This is even more critical when presumably the same people will operate in the new 'redesigned' control room: Consistency in the mental models possessed by the operators of the plant functions and of their control should be emphasized. Consistency in the mental models can be assumed when redesign follows well-established guidelines drawn from experiences and studies carried out in very similar situations. However, this condition is not fulfilled when a nuclear research control room has to be redesigned, since available guidelines (e.g.; NUREG-0700) are based on studies conducted on nuclear power plant control rooms. These two types of facilities are of much difference as for activities performed in the control room, goals to be aimed at, costs and risks. As a consequence, the available guidelines cannot be safely applied to such a situation as the redesign of a TRIGA RC-1 control room. So, data have to be collected in order to allow the operators to efficiently and easily adapt to the new control room by consistently 'updating' their mental models. In the present study, these data have been collected through structured interviews, which consisted of a modified version of EPRI. The results can be summarized as follows: 1) The operators critically reviewed the present control room and underlined the lack of 'transparency' of the control system as for the plant's conditions and for the feedbacks about their own activities. 2) The operators' work analysis showed that they spend much of their time out of the control room. This means that, if the operators have to stay in the control room, they should be allowed to perform more and higher-level activities than those presently required, to prevent understimulation. So, the redesign should or allow and support the central control and maintenance, and other

  11. The role of prosthetic abutment material on the stress distribution in a maxillary single implant-supported fixed prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, Hugo Eduardo; Bordin, Dimorvan; Del Bel Cury, Altair A.; Silva, Wander José da; Faot, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the influence of abutment's material and geometry on stress distribution in a single implant-supported prosthesis. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional models were made based on tomographic slices of the upper middle incisor area, in which a morse taper implant was positioned and a titanium (Ti) or zirconia (ZrN) universal abutments was installed. The commercially available geometry of titanium (T) and zirconia (Z) abutments were used to draw two models, TM1 and ZM1 respectively, which served as control groups. These models were compared with 2 experimental groups were the mechanical properties of Z were applied to the titanium abutment (TM2) and vice versa for the zirconia abutment (ZM2). Subsequently, loading was simulated in two steps, starting with a preload phase, calculated with the respective friction coefficients of each materials, followed by a combined preload and chewing force. The maximum von Mises stress was described. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA that considered material composition, geometry and loading (p 0.05). Conclusion: The screw was the piece most intensely affected, mainly through the preload force, independent of the abutment's material. - Highlights: • The abutment's screw was the most impaired piece of the dental implant system. • The highest stress was located at first thread of the abutment's screw. • The preload is the main factor in the abutment's screw stress. • Abutment configuration and material can have a positive contribution for the stress distribution

  12. When and Why Does Materialism Relate to Employees’ Attitudes and Well-being: The Mediational Role of Need Satisfaction and Need Frustration

    OpenAIRE

    Unanue, Wenceslao; Rempel, Konrad; Gómez, Marcos E.; Van den Broeck, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Materialistic values may be detrimental for people’s well-being. However, we know little about why (i.e., explaining mechanisms) and when (i.e., boundary conditions) this is the case. Although low satisfaction of the psychological needs is said to play a key role in this process, a recent meta-analysis indicates that the explaining power of need satisfaction is limited and suggests that need frustration may be more important. Moreover, although materialism may be detrimental in...

  13. Neo-Marxian social class inequalities in self-rated health among the employed in South Korea: the role of material, behavioral, psychosocial, and workplace environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoung Ae Kong; Young-Ho Khang; Hong-Jun Cho; Sung-Mi Jang; Kyunghee Jung-Choi

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of social inequality in self-rated health among the employed using the Wright?s social class location indicator, and to assess the roles of material, behavioral, psychosocial, and workplace environmental factors as mediating factors in explaining the social class inequality in self-rated health in South Korea. Methods This study used data from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2009. Study sub...

  14. Educational and laboratory base for the expert training on physical protection of nuclear materials: the requirements and experience of practical implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarev, P.V.; Pogozhin, N.S.; Ryzhukhin, D.V.; Tolstoy, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In expert training on physical protection of nuclear materials (NMPP) an educational and laboratory base has special importance. In these laboratories the students receive practical skills concerning physical protection systems (PPS). The basic requirements for creating such base are formulated in a certain educational program implemented at an educational institution. Thus it is necessary to take into account the following features of a modern nuclear object PPS: restriction of an object visiting with the purpose of acquaintance with features of a certain object PPS; dynamical change of PPS component nomenclature; increase of use of computer facilities for managing all PPS subsystems; increase of integration degree of separate subsystems in a uniform PPS complex; high cost of PPS components. Taking that into consideration a university, which assumes to begin the expert training on NMPP, is compelled to solve the following tasks: creation of its own laboratory base. The implementation of practical occupations with visiting a nuclear object cannot be executed practically; definition of quantity and structure of educational laboratories. Thus the features of the implemented educational plan should be taken into account in addition; optimization of expenses on laboratory creation. The regular updating of laboratory equipment structure is impossible in a practical manner. Therefore unique correct decision is to supply laboratories with the equipment, which uses the typical technological decisions on performing the basic PPS functions (detection, delay, estimation of a situation, neutralization); development of laboratory work conducting procedures (laboratory practical works); technical support of the created laboratories. The certain experience of solving the listed tasks is accumulated at the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) (MEPhl) while implementing 'Physical Protection, Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials' master

  15. Coagulopathy and transfusion requirements in war related penetrating traumatic brain injury. A single centre study in a French role 3 medical treatment facility in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, J; Joubert, C; Esnault, P; Montcriol, A; Nguyen, C; Meaudre, E; Dulou, R; Dagain, A

    2017-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury associated coagulopathy is frequent, either in isolated traumatic brain injury in civilian practice and in combat traumatic brain injury. In war zone, it is a matter of concern because head and neck are the second most frequent site of wartime casualty burden. Data focusing on transfusion requirements in patients with war related TBI coagulopathy are limited. A descriptive analysis was conducted of 77 penetrating traumatic brain injuries referred to a French role 3 medical treatment facility in Kabul, Afghanistan, deployed on the Kabul International Airport (KaIA), over a 30 months period. On 77 patients, 23 died during the prehospital phase and were not included in the study. Severe traumatic brain injury represented 50% of patients. Explosions were the most common injury mechanism. Extracranial injuries were present in 72% of patients. Traumatic brain injury coagulopathy was diagnosed in 67% of patients at role 3 admission. Red blood cell units (RBCu) were transfused in 39 (72%) patients, French lyophilized plasma (FLYP) in 41 (76%), and fresh whole blood (FWB) in 17 (31%). The results of this study support previous observations of coagulopathy as a frequent complication of traumatic brain injury. The majority of patients with war related penetrating traumatic brain injury presented with extracranial lesions. Most of them required a high level of transfusion capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural Framework for Flight: NASA's Role in Development of Advanced Composite Materials for Aircraft and Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Darrel R.; Davis, John G., Jr.; Johnston, Norman J.; Pipes, R. Byron; McGuire, Jack F.

    2011-01-01

    This serves as a source of collated information on Composite Research over the past four decades at NASA Langley Research Center, and is a key reference for readers wishing to grasp the underlying principles and challenges associated with developing and applying advanced composite materials to new aerospace vehicle concepts. Second, it identifies the major obstacles encountered in developing and applying composites on advanced flight vehicles, as well as lessons learned in overcoming these obstacles. Third, it points out current barriers and challenges to further application of composites on future vehicles. This is extremely valuable for steering research in the future, when new breakthroughs in materials or processing science may eliminate/minimize some of the barriers that have traditionally blocked the expanded application of composite to new structural or revolutionary vehicle concepts. Finally, a review of past work and identification of future challenges will hopefully inspire new research opportunities and development of revolutionary materials and structural concepts to revolutionize future flight vehicles.

  17. Identification of factors required for m6 A mRNA methylation in Arabidopsis reveals a role for the conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase HAKAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růžička, Kamil; Zhang, Mi; Campilho, Ana; Bodi, Zsuzsanna; Kashif, Muhammad; Saleh, Mária; Eeckhout, Dominique; El-Showk, Sedeer; Li, Hongying; Zhong, Silin; De Jaeger, Geert; Mongan, Nigel P; Hejátko, Jan; Helariutta, Ykä; Fray, Rupert G

    2017-07-01

    N6-adenosine methylation (m 6 A) of mRNA is an essential process in most eukaryotes, but its role and the status of factors accompanying this modification are still poorly understood. Using combined methods of genetics, proteomics and RNA biochemistry, we identified a core set of mRNA m 6 A writer proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The components required for m 6 A in Arabidopsis included MTA, MTB, FIP37, VIRILIZER and the E3 ubiquitin ligase HAKAI. Downregulation of these proteins led to reduced relative m 6 A levels and shared pleiotropic phenotypes, which included aberrant vascular formation in the root, indicating that correct m 6 A methylation plays a role in developmental decisions during pattern formation. The conservation of these proteins amongst eukaryotes and the demonstration of a role in writing m 6 A for the E3 ubiquitin ligase HAKAI is likely to be of considerable relevance beyond the plant sciences. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Investigating the role of educative curriculum materials in supporting teacher enactment of a field-based urban ecology investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Meredith

    2008-10-01

    This multiple case study examined how three urban science teachers used curriculum materials designed educatively. Educative curriculum materials have been suggested as one way to support science teacher learning, particularly around new innovations and new pedagogies and to support teachers in evaluating and modifying materials to meet the needs of their students (Davis & Krajcik, 2005). While not a substitute for professional development, educative curriculum materials may provide an opportunity to support teachers' enactment and learning in the classroom context (Davis & Krajcik, 2005; Remillard, 2005; Schneider & Krajcik, 2002). However, little work has examined how science teachers interact with written curriculum materials to design classroom instruction. Grounded in sociocultural analysis, this study takes the theoretical stance that teachers and curriculum materials are engaged in a dynamic and participatory relationship from which the planned and enacted curriculum emerges (Remillard, 2005). Teaching is therefore a design activity where teachers rely on their personal resources and the curricular resources to construct and shape their students' learning experiences (Brown, 2002). Specifically this study examines how teacher beliefs influence their reading and use of curriculum and how educative features in the written curriculum inform teachers' pedagogical decisions. Data sources included classroom observation and video, teacher interviews, and classroom artifacts. To make sense how teachers' make curricular decisions, video were analyzed using Brown's (2002) Pedagogical Design for Enactment Framework. These coded units were examined in light of the teacher interviews, classroom notes and artifacts to examine how teachers' beliefs influenced these decisions. Data sources were then reexamined for evidence of teachers' use of specific educative features. My analyses revealed that teachers' beliefs about curriculum influenced the degree to which teachers

  19. Regulations for the transport of radioactive material in Italy: the role of the Italian Competent Authority (ANPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsini, A.; Trivelloni, S.

    1995-01-01

    In Italy four Ministries, Industry, Transport, Marine Merchandise and Interior, have the legal responsibility to issue and apply the transport safety regulations for radioactive material. ANPA, the National Agency for Environmental Protection, has the technical duty to issue the approval certificates and to support the various Ministries in authorizing carriers for all modes of transport, in updating the regulations and advising in the case of emergency conditions. ANPA is monitoring the quantity of radioactive material transported in Italy, the radiation doses of workers and public, and verifying the implementation of transport regulations through inspections of the carriers and during storage in transit and handling. (Author)

  20. Regulations for the transport of radioactive material in Italy: the role of the Italian Competent Authority (ANPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsini, A.; Trivelloni, S.

    1995-01-01

    In Italy four Ministries, Industry, Transport, Marine Merchandise and Interior, have the legal responsibility to issue and apply the transport safety regulations for radioactive material. ANPA, the National Agency for Environmental Protection, has the technical duty to issue the approval certificates and to support the various Ministries in authorising carriers for all modes of transport, in updating the regulations and advising in the case of emergency conditions. ANPA is monitoring the quantity of radioactive material transported in Italy, the radiation doses of workers and public, and verifying the implementation of transport regulations through inspection of the carriers and during storage in transit and handling. (author)

  1. JHR Project: a future Material Testing Reactor working as an International user Facility: The key-role of instrumentation in support to the development of modern experimental capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bignan, G. [CEA, DEN, DER, JHR user Facility Interface Manager' , Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Gonnier, C. [CEA, DEN, DER, SRJH Jules Horowitz Reactor Service, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lyoussi, A.; Villard, J.F.; Destouches, C. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Chauvin, J.P. [CEA,DEN, DER, SPEX, Experimental Physics Service, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Maugard, B. [CEA, DEN, DER, Reactor Department Studies, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-07-01

    Research and development on fuel and material behaviour under irradiation is a key issue for sustainable nuclear energy in order to meet specific needs by keeping the best level of safety. These needs mainly deal with a constant improvement of performances and safety in order to optimize the fuel cycle and hence to reach nuclear energy sustainable objectives. A sustainable nuclear energy requires a high level of performances in order to meet specific needs such as: - Pursuing improvement of the performances and safety of present and coming water cooled reactor technologies. This will require a continuous R and D support following a long-term trend driven by the plant life management, safety demonstration, flexibility and economics improvement. Experimental irradiations of structure materials are necessary to anticipate these material behaviours and will contribute to their optimisation. - Upgrading continuously nuclear fuel technology in present and future nuclear power plants to achieve better performances and to optimise the fuel cycle keeping the best level of safety. Fuel evolution for generation II, III and III+ is a key stake requiring developments, qualification tests and safety experiments to ensure the competitiveness and safety: experimental tests exploring the full range of fuel behaviour determine fuel stability limits and safety margins, as a major input for the fuel reliability analysis. To perform such accurate and innovative progress and developments, specific and ad hoc instrumentation, irradiation devices, measurement methods are necessary to be set up inside or beside the material testing reactor (MTR) core. These experiments require beforehand in situ and on line sophisticated measurements to accurately determine different key parameters such as thermal and fast neutron fluxes and nuclear heating in order to precisely monitor and control the conducted assays. The new Material Testing Reactor JHR (Jules Horowitz Reactor) currently under

  2. Roles of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) and mu-near-zero (MNZ) materials in optical metatronic circuit networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Fereshteh; Engheta, Nader

    2014-10-20

    The concept of metamaterial-inspired nanocircuits, dubbed metatronics, was introduced in [Science 317, 1698 (2007); Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 095504 (2005)]. It was suggested how optical lumped elements (nanoelements) can be made using subwavelength plasmonic or non-plasmonic particles. As a result, the optical metatronic equivalents of a number of electronic circuits, such as frequency mixers and filters, were suggested. In this work we further expand the concept of electronic lumped element networks into optical metatronic circuits and suggest a conceptual model applicable to various metatronic passive networks. In particular, we differentiate between the series and parallel networks using epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) and mu-near-zero (MNZ) materials. We employ layered structures with subwavelength thicknesses for the nanoelements as the building blocks of collections of metatronic networks. Furthermore, we explore how by choosing the non-zero constitutive parameters of the materials with specific dispersions, either Drude or Lorentzian dispersion with suitable parameters, capacitive and inductive responses can be achieved in both series and parallel networks. Next, we proceed with the one-to-one analogy between electronic circuits and optical metatronic filter layered networks and justify our analogies by comparing the frequency response of the two paradigms. Finally, we examine the material dispersion of near-zero relative permittivity as well as other physically important material considerations such as losses.

  3. Readability of HIV/AIDS educational materials: the role of the medium of communication, target audience, and producer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J A

    1994-12-01

    The reading difficulty of many HIV/AIDS brochures and pamphlets limits their effectiveness. This analysis addresses correlates of readability in 136 HIV/AIDS educational items. Readability is measured using the SMOG Index. The medium of communication is significantly related to readability: comic books and brochures are, on average, more readable than books and pamphlets (10.9 versus 11.9). The target audience also differentiates readability. Materials for HIV antibody test seekers, the general community, and sexually active adults have a more difficult reading grade, averaging 12.1, whereas materials for ethnic minorities average a more readable 9.2. The producer organization's type and location are unrelated to readability, but an AIDS-specific organizational focus correlates with better readability (grade 10.8 vs. 11.8). These findings remain significant in multivariate analysis. The results indicate that brochures and comics are more likely to be comprehended by low-literacy populations, that an understanding of the literacy of target audiences is needed to produce materials with appropriate reading levels, and that policies to influence producer organizations may result in the creation of more readable materials.

  4. The Role and Use of E-Materials in Vocational Education and Training: The Case of Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mažgon, Jasna; Šebart, Mojca Kovac; Štefanc, Damijan

    2015-01-01

    In the paper some issues and problems regarding the implementation of ICT in initial vocational education and training in Slovenia are discussed. After the brief analysis of the main theoretical characteristics of ICT and e-materials, the key findings from the recent EU survey on the ICT in schools are presented and some conclusions on the basis…

  5. Important Role of the Hall Effect Measurement System in a Modified Course of Materials in Electrical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, G.; Savic, S.; Zivanov, L.

    2009-01-01

    The course "Materials in Electrical Engineering" is a core course in the Mechatronics curriculum at the Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Serbia. In the past, this course was comprehensive and mainly theory-based. Teaching methods used in this course had not been changed for many years, and were mainly based on a…

  6. The role of prosthetic abutment material on the stress distribution in a maxillary single implant-supported fixed prosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Hugo Eduardo, E-mail: hugo.e.peixoto@hotmail.com [Implantology Team, Latin American Institute of Research and Education in Dentistry, Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Bordin, Dimorvan, E-mail: dimorvan_bordin@hotmail.com [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Limeira avenue, 901-Vila Rezende, Piracicaba, SP 13414-903 (Brazil); Del Bel Cury, Altair A., E-mail: altcury@fop.unicamp.br [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Limeira avenue, 901-Vila Rezende, Piracicaba, SP 13414-903 (Brazil); Silva, Wander José da, E-mail: wanderjose@fop.unicamp.br [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Limeira avenue, 901-Vila Rezende, Piracicaba, SP 13414-903 (Brazil); Faot, Fernanda, E-mail: fernanda.faot@gmail.com [Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Pelotas, Gonçalves Chaves, 457, 2nd floor, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul 96015-560 (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the influence of abutment's material and geometry on stress distribution in a single implant-supported prosthesis. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional models were made based on tomographic slices of the upper middle incisor area, in which a morse taper implant was positioned and a titanium (Ti) or zirconia (ZrN) universal abutments was installed. The commercially available geometry of titanium (T) and zirconia (Z) abutments were used to draw two models, TM1 and ZM1 respectively, which served as control groups. These models were compared with 2 experimental groups were the mechanical properties of Z were applied to the titanium abutment (TM2) and vice versa for the zirconia abutment (ZM2). Subsequently, loading was simulated in two steps, starting with a preload phase, calculated with the respective friction coefficients of each materials, followed by a combined preload and chewing force. The maximum von Mises stress was described. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA that considered material composition, geometry and loading (p < 0.05). Results: Titanium and zirconia abutments showed similar von Mises stresses in the mechanical part of the four models. The area with the highest concentration of stress was the screw thread, following by the screw body. The highest stress levels occurred in screw thread was observed during the preloading phase in the ZM1 model (931 MPa); and during the combined loading in the TM1 model (965 MPa). Statistically significant differences were observed for loading, the material × loading interaction, and the loading × geometry interaction (p < 0.05). Preloading contributed for 77.89% of the stress (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences to the other factors (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The screw was the piece most intensely affected, mainly through the preload force, independent of the abutment's material. - Highlights: • The abutment's screw was the most impaired piece of the

  7. Role of RecA protein in untargeted UV mutagenesis of bacteriophage lambda: evidence for the requirement for the dinB gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotcorne-Lannoye, A.; Maenhaut-Michel, G.

    1986-01-01

    Untargeted UV mutagenesis of bacteriophage lambda--i.e., the increased recovery of lambda mutants when unirradiated lambda infects UV-irradiated Escherichia coli--is thought to be mediated by a transient decrease in DNA replication fidelity, generating mutations in the newly synthesized strands. Using the bacteriophage lambda cI857----lambda c mutation system, we provide evidence that the RecA protein, shown previously to be required for this mutagenic pathway, is no longer needed when the LexA protein is inactivated by mutation. We suggest that the error-prone DNA replication responsible for UV-induced untargeted mutagenesis is turned on by the presence of replication-blocking lesions in the host cell DNA and that the RecA protein is required only to derepress the relevant din gene(s). This is in contrast to mutagenesis of irradiated bacteria or irradiated phage lambda, in which activated RecA protein has a second role in mutagenesis in addition to the cleavage of the LexA protein. Among the tested din genes, the dinB gene product (in addition to the uvrA and uvrB gene products) was found to be required for untargeted mutagenesis of bacteriophage lambda. To our knowledge, a phenotype associated with the dinB gene has not been reported previously

  8. Material focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  9. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Certifications for Professional Hazardous Materials and Waste Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kenneth E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need for determining a curriculum to provide qualified hazardous waste personnel. Describes the needed role of colleges and universities and current hazardous materials certification requirements. Lists requirements for 18 professional certifications. (MVL)

  10. The role of errors in the measurements performed at the reprocessing plant head-end for material accountancy purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foggi, C.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Petraglia, E.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most common procedures used in determining the amount of nuclear material contained in solutions consists of first measuring the volume and the density of the solution, and then determining the concentrations of this material. This presentation will focus on errors generated at the process lime in the measurement of volume and density. These errors and their associated uncertainties can be grouped into distinct categories depending on their origin: those attributable to measuring instruments; those attributable to operational procedures; variability in measurement conditions; errors in the analysis and interpretation of results. Possible errors sources, their relative magnitudes, and an error propagation rationale are discussed, with emphasis placed on bases and errors of the last three types called systematic errors [ru

  11. Towards a First-Principles Determination of Effective Coulomb Interactions in Correlated Electron Materials: Role of Intershell Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Priyanka; Hansmann, Philipp; van Roekeghem, Ambroise; Vaugier, Loig; Biermann, Silke

    2017-08-04

    The determination of the effective Coulomb interactions to be used in low-energy Hamiltonians for materials with strong electronic correlations remains one of the bottlenecks for parameter-free electronic structure calculations. We propose and benchmark a scheme for determining the effective local Coulomb interactions for charge-transfer oxides and related compounds. Intershell interactions between electrons in the correlated shell and ligand orbitals are taken into account in an effective manner, leading to a reduction of the effective local interactions on the correlated shell. Our scheme resolves inconsistencies in the determination of effective interactions as obtained by standard methods for a wide range of materials, and allows for a conceptual understanding of the relation of cluster model and dynamical mean field-based electronic structure calculations.

  12. Cumulative input/output balance of a mechanical-biological waste treatment plant. Comparison of construction material requirements, operating energy expenditure, and the requirement of auxiliary materials in comparison with waste combustion; Kumulative Bilanzierung der mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlung - Baumaterialien und betrieblicher Energie- und Hilfsstoffaufwand im Vergleich zur Muellverbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallmann, R.; Fricke, K. [Ingenieurgemeinschaft Witzenhausen (Germany); Vogtmann, H. [Hessisches Landesamt fuer Regionalentwicklung und Landwirtschaft, Kassel (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The study strikes a cumulative input/output balance of an existing waste conditioning plant considering not only operating energy demand but also the required construction materials for erecting the plant. In operation since 1996, the waste conditioning plant is entirely state of the art; hence the data obtained are up to date. The results are compared with relevant results for a waste processing plant and evaluated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Untersuchung erfolgt eine kumulative Bilanzierung einer bestehenden MBA-Anlage, wobei neben den betrieblichen Energieaufwendungen auch die Baumaterialien zur Herstellung der Anlage beruecksichtigt werden. Die seit 1996 in Betrieb befindliche Abfallbehandlungsanlage entspricht weitestgehend dem Stand der Technik der MBA, wodurch die Aktualitaet der Daten gegeben ist. Die Ergebnisse der Bilanzierung werden im Vergleich zu einer MVA dargestellt und bewertet. (orig.)

  13. Role of human gut microbiota metabolism in the anti-inflammatory effect of traditionally used ellagitannin-rich plant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarski, Jakub P; Granica, Sebastian; Zwierzyńska, Marta; Stefańska, Joanna; Schopohl, Patrick; Melzig, Matthias F; Kiss, Anna K

    2014-08-08

    Ellagitannin-rich plant materials are widely used in traditional medicine as effective, internally used anti-inflammatory agents. Due to the not well-established bioavailability of ellagitannins, the mechanisms of observed therapeutic effects following oral administration still remain unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate if selected ellagitannin-rich plant materials could be the source of bioavailable gut microbiota metabolites, i.e. urolithins, together with determination of the anti-inflammatory activity of the metabolites produced on the THP-1 cell line derived macrophages model. The formation of urolithins was determined by ex vivo incubation of human fecal samples with aqueous extracts from selected plant materials. The anti-inflammatory activity study of metabolites was determined on PMA differentiated, IFN-γ and LPS stimulated, human THP-1 cell line-derived macrophages. The formation of urolithin A, B and C by human gut microbiota was established for aqueous extracts from Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. herb (Ph. Eur.), Geranium pratense L. herb, Geranium robertianum L. herb, Geum urbanum L. root and rhizome, Lythrum salicaria L. herb (Ph. Eur.), Potentilla anserina L. herb, Potentilla erecta (L.) Raeusch rhizome (Ph. Eur.), Quercus robur L. bark (Ph. Eur.), Rubus idaeus L. leaf, Rubus fruticosus L. and pure ellagitannin vescalagin. Significant inhibition of TNF-α production was determined for all urolithins, while for the most potent urolithin A inhibition was observed at nanomolar concentrations (at 0.625 μM 29.2±6.4% of inhibition). Urolithin C was the only compound inhibiting IL-6 production (at 0.625 μM 13.9±2.2% of inhibition). The data obtained clearly indicate that in the case of peroral use of the examined ellagitannin-rich plant materials the bioactivity of gut microbiota metabolites, i.e. urolithins, has to be taken under consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Social inequalities in self-rated health in Ukraine in 2007: the role of psychosocial, material and behavioural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Loretta G; Gerry, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Despite Ukraine's large population, few studies have examined social inequalities in health. This study describes Ukrainian educational inequalities in self-rated health and assesses how far psychosocial, material and behavioural factors account for the education gradient in health. Data were analyzed from the 2007 wave of the Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. Education was categorized as: lower secondary or less, upper secondary and tertiary. In logistic regressions of 5451 complete cases, stratified by gender, declaring less than average health was regressed on education, before and after adjusting for psychosocial, material and behavioural factors. In analyses adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, compared with those educated up to lower secondary level, tertiary education was associated with lower risk of less than average health for both men and women. Including material factors (income quintiles, housing assets, labour market status) reduced the association between education and health by 55-64% in men and 35-47% in women. Inclusion of health behaviours (physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index) reduced the associations by 27-30% in men and 19-27% in women; in most cases including psychosocial factors (marital status, living alone, trust in family and friends) did not reduce the size of the associations. Including all potential explanatory factors reduced the associations by 68-84% in men and 43-60% in women. The education gradient in self-rated health in Ukraine was partly accounted for by material and behavioural factors. In addition to health behaviours, policymakers should consider upstream determinants of health inequalities, such as joblessness and poverty. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. The Role of Source Material in Basin Sedimentation, as Illustrated within Eureka Valley, Death Valley National Park, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, M. J.; Yin, A.; Rhodes, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Steep landscapes are known to provide sediment to sink regions, but often petrological factors can dominate basin sedimentation. Within Eureka Valley, in northwestern Death Valley National Park, normal faulting has exposed a steep cliff face on the western margin of the Last Chance range with four kilometers of vertical relief from the valley floor and an angle of repose of nearly 38 degrees. The cliff face is composed of Cambrian limestone and dolomite, including the Bonanza King, Carrara and Wood Canyon formations. Interacting with local normal faulting, these units preferentially break off the cliff face in coherent blocks, which result in landslide deposits rather than as finer grained material found within the basin. The valley is well known for a large sand dune, which derives its sediment from distal sources to the north, instead of from the adjacent Last Chance Range cliff face. During the Holocene, sediment is sourced primary from the northerly Willow Wash and Cucomungo canyon, a relatively small drainage (less than 80 km2) within the Sylvan Mountains. Within this drainage, the Jurassic quartz monzonite of Beer Creek is heavily fractured due to motion of the Fish Valley Lake - Death Valley fault zone. Thus, the quartz monzonite is more easily eroded than the well-consolidated limestone and dolomite that forms the Last Change Range cliff face. As well, the resultant eroded material is smaller grained, and thus more easily transported than the limestone. Consequently, this work highlights an excellent example of the strong influence that source material can have on basin sedimentation.

  16. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  17. When and Why Does Materialism Relate to Employees' Attitudes and Well-being: The Mediational Role of Need Satisfaction and Need Frustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unanue, Wenceslao; Rempel, Konrad; Gómez, Marcos E; Van den Broeck, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Materialistic values may be detrimental for people's well-being. However, we know little about why (i.e., explaining mechanisms) and when (i.e., boundary conditions) this is the case. Although low satisfaction of the psychological needs is said to play a key role in this process, a recent meta-analysis indicates that the explaining power of need satisfaction is limited and suggests that need frustration may be more important. Moreover, although materialism may be detrimental in some life domains, studies in materialistic contexts such as work are lacking, particularly in the non-Western world. In response, we put need frustration to the fore and examine both need satisfaction and frustration as the underlying processes in the relation between materialism and employee attitudes and well-being in two Latin-American countries. The Chilean sample ( N = 742) shows that materialism at work is associated with less positive (work satisfaction and engagement) and more negative (burnout and turnover intentions) outcomes, even when controlling for workers' income. Notably, need frustration explained the detrimental effects of materialism alongside need satisfaction in a unique manner, showing that it is essential to distinguish both constructs. Results were replicated in Paraguay ( N = 518) using different positive (organizational commitment and meaning at work) and negative (negative emotions and job insecurity) outcomes, adding to the generalizability of our results across samples of different nations.

  18. Role of Oxygen in Ionic Liquid Gating on Two-Dimensional Cr2Ge2Te6: A Non-oxide Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangyang; Xing, Wenyu; Wang, Xirui; Shen, Bowen; Yuan, Wei; Su, Tang; Ma, Yang; Yao, Yunyan; Zhong, Jiangnan; Yun, Yu; Xie, X C; Jia, Shuang; Han, Wei

    2018-01-10

    Ionic liquid gating can markedly modulate a material's carrier density so as to induce metallization, superconductivity, and quantum phase transitions. One of the main issues is whether the mechanism of ionic liquid gating is an electrostatic field effect or an electrochemical effect, especially for oxide materials. Recent observation of the suppression of the ionic liquid gate-induced metallization in the presence of oxygen for oxide materials suggests the electrochemical effect. However, in more general scenarios, the role of oxygen in the ionic liquid gating effect is still unclear. Here, we perform ionic liquid gating experiments on a non-oxide material: two-dimensional ferromagnetic Cr 2 Ge 2 Te 6 . Our results demonstrate that despite the large increase of the gate leakage current in the presence of oxygen, the oxygen does not affect the ionic liquid gating effect on  the channel resistance of Cr 2 Ge 2 Te 6 devices (ionic liquid gating is more effective on the modulation of the channel resistances compared to the back gating across the 300 nm thick SiO 2 .

  19. When and Why Does Materialism Relate to Employees’ Attitudes and Well-being: The Mediational Role of Need Satisfaction and Need Frustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Unanue

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Materialistic values may be detrimental for people’s well-being. However, we know little about why (i.e., explaining mechanisms and when (i.e., boundary conditions this is the case. Although low satisfaction of the psychological needs is said to play a key role in this process, a recent meta-analysis indicates that the explaining power of need satisfaction is limited and suggests that need frustration may be more important. Moreover, although materialism may be detrimental in some life domains, studies in materialistic contexts such as work are lacking, particularly in the non-Western world. In response, we put need frustration to the fore and examine both need satisfaction and frustration as the underlying processes in the relation between materialism and employee attitudes and well-being in two Latin–American countries. The Chilean sample (N = 742 shows that materialism at work is associated with less positive (work satisfaction and engagement and more negative (burnout and turnover intentions outcomes, even when controlling for workers’ income. Notably, need frustration explained the detrimental effects of materialism alongside need satisfaction in a unique manner, showing that it is essential to distinguish both constructs. Results were replicated in Paraguay (N = 518 using different positive (organizational commitment and meaning at work and negative (negative emotions and job insecurity outcomes, adding to the generalizability of our results across samples of different nations.

  20. When and Why Does Materialism Relate to Employees’ Attitudes and Well-being: The Mediational Role of Need Satisfaction and Need Frustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unanue, Wenceslao; Rempel, Konrad; Gómez, Marcos E.; Van den Broeck, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Materialistic values may be detrimental for people’s well-being. However, we know little about why (i.e., explaining mechanisms) and when (i.e., boundary conditions) this is the case. Although low satisfaction of the psychological needs is said to play a key role in this process, a recent meta-analysis indicates that the explaining power of need satisfaction is limited and suggests that need frustration may be more important. Moreover, although materialism may be detrimental in some life domains, studies in materialistic contexts such as work are lacking, particularly in the non-Western world. In response, we put need frustration to the fore and examine both need satisfaction and frustration as the underlying processes in the relation between materialism and employee attitudes and well-being in two Latin–American countries. The Chilean sample (N = 742) shows that materialism at work is associated with less positive (work satisfaction and engagement) and more negative (burnout and turnover intentions) outcomes, even when controlling for workers’ income. Notably, need frustration explained the detrimental effects of materialism alongside need satisfaction in a unique manner, showing that it is essential to distinguish both constructs. Results were replicated in Paraguay (N = 518) using different positive (organizational commitment and meaning at work) and negative (negative emotions and job insecurity) outcomes, adding to the generalizability of our results across samples of different nations. PMID:29066992

  1. A Novel Interaction of Ecdysoneless (ECD) Protein with R2TP Complex Component RUVBL1 Is Required for the Functional Role of ECD in Cell Cycle Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Riyaz A; Bele, Aditya; Mirza, Sameer; Srivastava, Shashank; Olou, Appolinaire A; Ammons, Shalis A; Kim, Jun Hyun; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Qiu, Fang; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2015-12-28

    Ecdysoneless (ECD) is an evolutionarily conserved protein whose germ line deletion is embryonic lethal. Deletion of Ecd in cells causes cell cycle arrest, which is rescued by exogenous ECD, demonstrating a requirement of ECD for normal mammalian cell cycle progression. However, the exact mechanism by which ECD regulates cell cycle is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ECD protein levels and subcellular localization are invariant during cell cycle progression, suggesting a potential role of posttranslational modifications or protein-protein interactions. Since phosphorylated ECD was recently shown to interact with the PIH1D1 adaptor component of the R2TP cochaperone complex, we examined the requirement of ECD phosphorylation in cell cycle progression. Notably, phosphorylation-deficient ECD mutants that failed to bind to PIH1D1 in vitro fully retained the ability to interact with the R2TP complex and yet exhibited a reduced ability to rescue Ecd-deficient cells from cell cycle arrest. Biochemical analyses demonstrated an additional phosphorylation-independent interaction of ECD with the RUVBL1 component of the R2TP complex, and this interaction is essential for ECD's cell cycle progression function. These studies demonstrate that interaction of ECD with RUVBL1, and its CK2-mediated phosphorylation, independent of its interaction with PIH1D1, are important for its cell cycle regulatory function. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. When and Why Does Materialism Relate to Employees’ Attitudes and Well-being: The Mediational Role of Need Satisfaction and Need Frustration

    OpenAIRE

    Wenceslao Unanue; Konrad Rempel; Marcos E. Gómez; Anja Van den Broeck; Anja Van den Broeck

    2017-01-01

    Materialistic values may be detrimental for people’s well-being. However, we know little about why (i.e., explaining mechanisms) and when (i.e., boundary conditions) this is the case. Although low satisfaction of the psychological needs is said to play a key role in this process, a recent meta-analysis indicates that the explaining power of need satisfaction is limited and suggests that need frustration may be more important. Moreover, although materialism may be detrimental in some life doma...

  3. Molecular plasmonics: The role of rovibrational molecular states in exciton-plasmon materials under strong-coupling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukharev, Maxim; Charron, Eric

    2017-03-01

    We extend the model of exciton-plasmon materials to include a rovibrational structure of molecules using wave-packet propagations on electronic potential energy surfaces. Our model replaces conventional two-level emitters with more complex molecules, allowing us to examine the influence of alignment and vibrational dynamics on strong coupling with surface plasmon-polaritons. We apply the model to a hybrid system comprising a thin layer of molecules placed on top of a periodic array of slits. Rigorous simulations are performed for two types of molecular systems described by vibrational bound-bound and bound-continuum electronic transitions. Calculations reveal new features in transmission, reflection, and absorption spectra, including the observation of significantly higher values of the Rabi splitting and vibrational patterns clearly seen in the corresponding spectra. We also examine the influence of anisotropic initial conditions on optical properties of hybrid materials, demonstrating that the optical response of the system is significantly affected by an initial prealignment of the molecules. Our work demonstrates that prealigned molecules could serve as an efficient probe for the subdiffraction characterization of the near-field near metal interfaces.

  4. Role of the Material Electrodes on Resistive Behaviour of Carbon Nanotube-Based Gas Sensors for H2S Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lucci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturized gas-sensing devices that use single-walled carbon nanotubes as active material have been fabricated using two different electrode materials, namely, Au/Cr and NbN. The resistive sensors have been assembled aligning by dielectrophoresis the nanotube bundles between 40 μm spaced Au/Cr or NbN multifinger electrodes. The sensing devices have been tested for detection of the H2S gas, in the concentration range 10–100 ppm, using N2 as carrier gas. No resistance changes were detected using sensor fabricated with NbN electrodes, whereas the response of the sensor fabricated with Au/Cr electrodes was characterized by an increase of the resistance upon gas exposure. The main performances of this sensor are a detection limit for H2S of 10 ppm and a recovery time of few minutes. The present study suggests that the mechanism involved in H2S gas detection is not a direct charge transfer between molecules and nanotubes. The hypothesis is that detection occurs through passivation of the Au surfaces by H2S molecules and modification of the contact resistance at the Au/nanotube interface.

  5. A role of nanotube dangling pyrrole and oxygen functions in the electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole/MWCNTs hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Herman, Artur P.; Turczyn, Roman; Szymańska, Katarzyna; Koziol, Krzysztof K.K.; Boncel, Sławomir; Zak, Jerzy K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of MWCNT functionalization on properties of PPy composites was explained. • The behavior of pristine, pyrrole-modified and oxidized MWCNT was explained. • Functionalization of MWCNT improved their dispersibility and processability. • Different mechanisms of (f-)MWCNT incorporation into PPy composites were explained. • Orientation of growing PPy chains was tailored through the addition of (f-)MWCNT. - Abstract: The effect of the functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the process of electrochemical co-deposition of MWCNTs and polypyrrole (PPy), as well as the morphology of obtained composites have been demonstrated. As the nanotube components of the hybrids, three types of MWCNT were used, namely c-CVD derived (pristine) MWCNTs, their oxidized counterparts MWCNT-Ox and pyrrole-modified MWCNT-Py. The stability of pristine and functionalized MWCNTs (f-MWCNT) dispersions in tetrahydrofuran and water was studied together with the description of the process of formation PPy/(f-)MWCNT hybrid materials via electrochemical co-deposition. The structural and morphological properties of the hybrids were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealing substantial differences among hybrid materials in their surface morphology and the influence of MWCNT functionalization on the orientation of growing PPy chains

  6. A role of nanotube dangling pyrrole and oxygen functions in the electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole/MWCNTs hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krukiewicz, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.krukiewicz@polsl.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Herman, Artur P., E-mail: artur.herman@polsl.pl [Department of Organic Chemistry, Bioorganic Chemistry and Biotechnology, Silesian University of Technology, Krzywoustego 4, Gliwice 44-100 (Poland); Turczyn, Roman, E-mail: roman.turczyn@polsl.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Szymańska, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.szymanska@polsl.pl [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 7, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Koziol, Krzysztof K.K., E-mail: kk292@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Boncel, Sławomir, E-mail: slawomir.boncel@polsl.pl [Department of Organic Chemistry, Bioorganic Chemistry and Biotechnology, Silesian University of Technology, Krzywoustego 4, Gliwice 44-100 (Poland); Zak, Jerzy K., E-mail: jerzy.zak@polsl.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • The effect of MWCNT functionalization on properties of PPy composites was explained. • The behavior of pristine, pyrrole-modified and oxidized MWCNT was explained. • Functionalization of MWCNT improved their dispersibility and processability. • Different mechanisms of (f-)MWCNT incorporation into PPy composites were explained. • Orientation of growing PPy chains was tailored through the addition of (f-)MWCNT. - Abstract: The effect of the functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the process of electrochemical co-deposition of MWCNTs and polypyrrole (PPy), as well as the morphology of obtained composites have been demonstrated. As the nanotube components of the hybrids, three types of MWCNT were used, namely c-CVD derived (pristine) MWCNTs, their oxidized counterparts MWCNT-Ox and pyrrole-modified MWCNT-Py. The stability of pristine and functionalized MWCNTs (f-MWCNT) dispersions in tetrahydrofuran and water was studied together with the description of the process of formation PPy/(f-)MWCNT hybrid materials via electrochemical co-deposition. The structural and morphological properties of the hybrids were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealing substantial differences among hybrid materials in their surface morphology and the influence of MWCNT functionalization on the orientation of growing PPy chains.

  7. On-site infiltration of a copper roof runoff: role of clinoptilolite as an artificial barrier material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, Konstantinos; Helmreich, Brigitte; Horn, Harald

    2007-08-01

    On-site infiltration may be considered as a promising way of managing rainwater runoffs in urban areas, provided the hydrological and ecological conditions allow infiltration, and provided there is adequate treatment of the contaminants to avoid a risk of soil and groundwater pollution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the application of a new technical infiltration system equipped with clinoptilolite as an artificial barrier material for the treatment of the copper roof runoff of the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich, Germany. During the 2-yr sampling period, 30 rain events were examined. The cover material of the roof and the drainage system was responsible for the high copper concentrations in the roof runoff. The rain height and the rain intensity were of great significance regarding the establishment of the copper runoff rate. The technical infiltration system applied was able to reduce the copper from the roof runoff by a factor up to 96%. The mean measured copper concentration in percolation water was lower than the critical value of 50 microg/l set by the German Federal Soil Protection Act and Ordinance, indicating no risk for soil and groundwater contamination.

  8. Role of four-fermion interaction and impurity in the states of two-dimensional semi-Dirac materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    2018-03-28

    We study the effects of four-fermion interaction and impurity on the low-energy states of 2D semi-Dirac materials by virtue of the unbiased renormalization group approach. The coupled flow equations that govern the energy-dependent evolutions of all correlated interaction parameters are derived after taking into account one-loop corrections from the interplay between four-fermion interaction and impurity. Whether and how four-fermion interaction and impurity influence the low-energy properties of 2D semi-Dirac materials are discreetly explored and addressed attentively. After carrying out the standard renormalization group analysis, we find that both trivial insulating and nontrivial semimetal states are qualitatively stable against all four kinds of four-fermion interactions. However, while switching on both four-fermion interaction and impurity, certain insulator-semimetal phase transitions and the distance of Dirac nodal points can be respectively induced and modified due to their strong interplay and intimate competition. Moreover, several non-Fermi liquid behaviors that deviate from the conventional Fermi liquids are exhibited at the lowest-energy limit.

  9. Southeast Regional Implementation Manual for Requirements and Procedures for Evaluation of the Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material in Southeastern U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coast Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Regional Implementation Manual was prepared by EPA Region 4 to provide guidance for applicants proposing open-water disposal of dredged material in southeastern U.S. coastal waters of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.

  10. Role of proper response schemes, legislation and regional co-operation in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterzov, A.

    2003-01-01

    Bulgaria's geographical location - between Europe, the former Soviet Union, and the Middle East - exposes it to much illegal trafficking: of people, arms, drugs, etc. The trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials in Bulgaria can be divided in two main parts - internal and transit. Internal trafficking consists of stolen radioactive sources such as counters and densitometers, irradiation devices, tools for removing static electricity, and smoke detectors, which mainly contain the isotopes 137 Cs, 60 Co, 192 Ir, 226 Ra and 241 Am. The external trafficking of illicit nuclear materials is connected with transfer of raw materials and expensive metals from the former Soviet Union to countries in Western Europe and the Middle East, including aluminium, osmium, caesium, scandium, rare earth elements, red mercury, plutonium and enriched uranium. Detecting internal and external trafficking poses serious problems for the Bulgarian authorities, in terms of equipment and qualified personnel at the borders and inside the country. Developing countries need protocols for detecting and responding to illicit trafficking of nuclear materials, which is a new threat that requires rapid implementation of comprehensive measures and efforts, novel approaches, coordination of services and institutions, and even new legislation. The paper describes a three step model for better and more rapid responses for combating illicit nuclear trafficking in Bulgaria.The steps involve developing first response protocols, using nondestructive analytical means to categorize materials on-site, followed by in-depth analysis. It is also important to initiate contacts with neighbouring countries to foster regional collaboration among law enforcement agencies, customs authorities, analytical laboratories, etc., to improve efficiency in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. (author)

  11. Theory of superplastic flow in two-phase materials: roles of interphase-boundary dislocations, ledges, and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    A new theory is developed to explain superplastic flow in two-phase materials. It is postulated that boundary-dislocations, piled up in dislocation-Interphase-Boundaries (IPBs) climb away into disordered regions of the IPB. Sliding then occurs at an IPB as dislocations glide toward the head of the pile up to replace those which have climbed into disordered regions of the boundary. An energy barrier which would otherwise render sliding virtually impossible on dislocation-IPBs can, it is shown, be largely eliminated if the dislocations glide in pairs. The disorder (actually an antiphase domain boundary) which is created by the passage of the leading dislocation is then repaired by passage of its successor. The threshold stress for superplastic flow is provisionally identified with the stress which pins IPB dislocations to boundary ledges. The activation energy is theoretically that for IPB diffusion. Good agreement is obtained between the theoretical equation for superplastic flow and the results of published experiments

  12. The role of ceramic materials in the production of hydrogen with simultaneous CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, B.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Hydrogen is considered one of the most promising alternatives to fossil fuels. However, it is mainly obtained from syngas resulting from natural gas steam reforming (SMR), producing a significant amount of carbon dioxide as a side product. Carbon dioxide emission (CO2) is a major contributor to global warming, and one-third of those emissions come from fuel combustion for power generation. A new interesting process has been described to control CO2 emission: the reforming optimized by CO2 sorption, which associates conventional methane reforming and in situ capture of CO2 via absorption in a solid oxide. Furthermore, this strategy can increase the H2 production and concentrate CO2 for the eventual use as chemicals or energy vectors. Alkaline and alkaline-earth ceramics have been proposed for CO2 capture through adsorption and chemisorption processes. These materials can be classified into two large groups: dense and porous ceramics. Dense ceramics mainly trap CO2 chemically: the CO2 is chemisorbed. Among these ceramics, CaO is the most studied one. CaO-based materials have been highlighted as the solid sorbents in the capture of CO2 because of their favorable thermodynamic and chemical properties. The main problem with CaO is the strong decrease in the sorption capacity after multiple carbonation–calcination cycles. This talk will cover some strategies to improve this sorption capacity, such as the deposition of calcium oxide on an inert support, Ca12Al14O33 (mayenite). This oxide has no sorption properties but presents a large surface area, and provides stable network inhibiting deactivation of CaO by sintering. (author)

  13. Considering the role of time budgets on copy-error rates in material culture traditions: an experimental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillinger, Kerstin; Mesoudi, Alex; Lycett, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Ethnographic research highlights that there are constraints placed on the time available to produce cultural artefacts in differing circumstances. Given that copying error, or cultural 'mutation', can have important implications for the evolutionary processes involved in material culture change, it is essential to explore empirically how such 'time constraints' affect patterns of artefactual variation. Here, we report an experiment that systematically tests whether, and how, varying time constraints affect shape copying error rates. A total of 90 participants copied the shape of a 3D 'target handaxe form' using a standardized foam block and a plastic knife. Three distinct 'time conditions' were examined, whereupon participants had either 20, 15, or 10 minutes to complete the task. One aim of this study was to determine whether reducing production time produced a proportional increase in copy error rates across all conditions, or whether the concept of a task specific 'threshold' might be a more appropriate manner to model the effect of time budgets on copy-error rates. We found that mean levels of shape copying error increased when production time was reduced. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the 20 minute and 15 minute conditions. Significant differences were only obtained between conditions when production time was reduced to 10 minutes. Hence, our results more strongly support the hypothesis that the effects of time constraints on copying error are best modelled according to a 'threshold' effect, below which mutation rates increase more markedly. Our results also suggest that 'time budgets' available in the past will have generated varying patterns of shape variation, potentially affecting spatial and temporal trends seen in the archaeological record. Hence, 'time-budgeting' factors need to be given greater consideration in evolutionary models of material culture change.

  14. Historical background of the development of various requirements in the international regulations for the safe packaging and transport of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, R.B.

    2004-07-01

    Questions are frequently asked regarding the source of some of the package test requirements in the Transport Regulations, the philosophy behind them and the basis for selecting them. This paper summarizes the results of a review of early historical documents and elaborates on the early philosophy behind the regulatory requirements. To the extent possible, the paper compares the early philosophy with the current structure of the Transport Regulations in key topic areas with a focus on the test requirements for packages that are designed to withstand accident conditions of transport.

  15. Historical background of the development of various requirements in the international regulations for the safe packaging and transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Questions are frequently asked regarding the source of some of the package test requirements in the Transport Regulations, the philosophy behind them and the basis for selecting them. This paper summarizes the results of a review of early historical documents and elaborates on the early philosophy behind the regulatory requirements. To the extent possible, the paper compares the early philosophy with the current structure of the Transport Regulations in key topic areas with a focus on the test requirements for packages that are designed to withstand accident conditions of transport

  16. Role of Thiobacillus thioparus in the biodegradation of carbon disulfide in a biofilter packed with a recycled organic pelletized material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenafeta-Boldú, Francesc X; Rojo, Naiara; Gallastegui, Gorka; Guivernau, Miriam; Viñas, Marc; Elías, Ana

    2014-07-01

    This study reports the biodegradation of carbon disulfide (CS2) in air biofilters packed with a pelletized mixture of composted manure and sawdust. Experiments were carried out in two lab-scale (1.2 L) biofiltration units. Biofilter B was seeded with activated sludge enriched previously on CS2-degrading biomass under batch conditions, while biofilter A was left as a negative inoculation control. This inoculum was characterized by an acidic pH and sulfate accumulation, and contained Achromobacter xylosoxidans as the main putative CS2 biodegrading bacterium. Biofilter operation start-up was unsuccessfully attempted under xerophilic conditions and significant CS2 elimination was only achieved in biofilter A upon the implementation of an intermittent irrigation regime. Sustained removal efficiencies of 90-100 % at an inlet load of up to 12 g CS2 m(-3) h(-1) were reached. The CS2 removal in this biofilter was linked to the presence of the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus thioparus, known among the relatively small number of species with a reported capacity of growing on CS2 as the sole energy source. DGGE molecular profiles confirmed that this microbe had become dominant in biofilter A while it was not detected in samples from biofilter B. Conventional biofilters packed with inexpensive organic materials are suited for the treatment of low-strength CS2 polluted gases (IL biofiltration of recalcitrant compounds has been highlighted.

  17. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  18. Student’s Misconception of Digestive System Materials in MTs Eight Grade of Malang City and the Role of Teacher’s Pedadogic Competency in MTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuswa Istikomayanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Misconception research has important value in the development of students' thinking processes especially in science field. As the identification of important concepts that must be mastered by the students can be done, the teacher will easily able to emphasis the important or main concepts. This study aims to identify the students’ misconception in digestive system materials in eight grade of MTs and teacher pedagogic competence role. The survey was conducted in 8A (16 students and 8B (17 students MTs Muhammadiyah 1 and 8E (19 students Surya Buana Malang. The stages of research survey were: preparation of research goals (formulation, sample determination, preparation and instruments validation, data collection, and data analysis. The instruments used were: misconception test, student response questionnaire, learning observation guide, and teacher pedagogic competency form. The findings of the learning outcomes were discussed with the observer team, which then were assessed by using the assessment rubric and classified into the categories of student misconceptions. The results showed that the three teachers, neither certified nor uncertified were proved to be limited in overcoming misconceptions in the learning process; meanwhile, the results of students’ misconception test were mostly reach only level 3 (medium. Thus, the study of misconceptions of the digestive system material or other physiological material matter needs to get the attention of the teachers and educational practitioners.

  19. Materials testing and requirement for the ERDA nuclear-powered artificial heart. Technical progress report, July 15, 1975--May 30, 1976. [BIOMER and AVCOTHANE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, J. D.; Hufferd, W. L.; Lyman, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    The two materials currently being used for the artificial heart fabrication are BIOMER and AVCOTHANE. BIOMER is a polyether urethane polymer. AVCOTHANE is a proprietary polyurethane/polydimethylsiloxane polymer blend. Research progress on the chemical degradation, mechanical strength, and blood compatibility is reported. (TFD)

  20. Materials testing and requirement for the ERDA nuclear-powered artificial heart. Technical progress report, July 15, 1975--May 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, J.D.; Hufferd, W.L.; Lyman, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    The two materials currently being used for the artificial heart fabrication are BIOMER and AVCOTHANE. BIOMER is a polyether urethane polymer. AVCOTHANE is a proprietary polyurethane/polydimethylsiloxane polymer blend. Research progress on the chemical degradation, mechanical strength, and blood compatibility is reported