Weinzimmer, Laurence G; Baumann, Heidi M; Gullifor, Daniel P; Koubova, Veronika
In this study, we examine the dynamics between emotional intelligence, work-family balance, and job performance. A review of the literature to date has shown distinct relationships between emotional intelligence to job performance and work-family balance to job performance. We utilize a sample of 233 respondents to empirically test our set of hypotheses that contend work-family balance mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance. Our results support these hypotheses. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Aslani, Farshad; Fayyazi, Marjan
Work-life imbalance has several negative impacts on employees' attitudes and behaviors and consequently influences organizations' performance and effectiveness. The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of work-life balance (WLB) on employees' job satisfaction and turnover intention. Moreover, we study the moderating role of continuance commitment on job satisfaction - turnover intention relationship. Regression analysis was used to analyze the data collected from 265 questionn...
Orkibi, Hod; Brandt, Yaron Ilan
The positive characteristics that can help people juggle their work and personal roles and experience greater job satisfaction are attracting increased research attention. This study presents a conceptual model to account for the association between employees’ positive orientation (i.e., the tendency to evaluate self, life, and the future in a positive way) and their job satisfaction (N = 108). As theorized, the results indicate that employees’ ability to manage their work-life balance fully ...
Orkibi, Hod; Brandt, Yaron Ilan
The positive characteristics that can help people juggle their work and personal roles and experience greater job satisfaction are attracting increased research attention. This study presents a conceptual model to account for the association between employees’ positive orientation (i.e., the tendency to evaluate self, life, and the future in a positive way) and their job satisfaction (N = 108). As theorized, the results indicate that employees’ ability to manage their work-life balance fully mediates the relation between their positive orientation and job satisfaction. This suggests that a positive orientation serves as an adaptive personal resource that can facilitate employees’ ability to balance work and non-work demands and hence can foster job satisfaction. The practical implications for positive psychological interventions in organizational settings are discussed. PMID:27247666
Orkibi, Hod; Brandt, Yaron Ilan
The positive characteristics that can help people juggle their work and personal roles and experience greater job satisfaction are attracting increased research attention. This study presents a conceptual model to account for the association between employees' positive orientation (i.e., the tendency to evaluate self, life, and the future in a positive way) and their job satisfaction (N = 108). As theorized, the results indicate that employees' ability to manage their work-life balance fully mediates the relation between their positive orientation and job satisfaction. This suggests that a positive orientation serves as an adaptive personal resource that can facilitate employees' ability to balance work and non-work demands and hence can foster job satisfaction. The practical implications for positive psychological interventions in organizational settings are discussed.
Full Text Available The positive characteristics that can help people juggle their work and personal roles and experience greater job satisfaction are attracting increased research attention. This study presents a conceptual model to account for the association between employees’ positive orientation (i.e., the tendency to evaluate self, life, and the future in a positive way and their job satisfaction (N = 108. As theorized, the results indicate that employees’ ability to manage their work-life balance fully mediates the relation between their positive orientation and job satisfaction. This suggests that a positive orientation serves as an adaptive personal resource that can facilitate employees’ ability to balance work and non-work demands and hence can foster job satisfaction. The practical implications for positive psychological interventions in organizational settings are discussed.
Full Text Available This research examined a moderated mediation model for answering how and why work-life balance affects employee job performance, and how satisfaction with coworkers is contingent upon it by enhancing employee’s psychological wellbeing. Data were collected from subordinates and their supervisors in the banking sector (N = 284. Empirical results indicate that psychological wellbeing mediates the link between work-life balance and job performance, and employees’ satisfaction with coworkers enhances job performance by strengthening the effect of work-life balance on psychological wellbeing. This research contributes to personnel management literature by describing moderated mediation mechanisms through which work-life balance influences employee job performance, and guides practitioners by emphasizing that employees with greater work-life balance perform better when their psychological wellbeing is reinforced by their satisfaction with coworkers.
Sajid Haider; Shaista Jabeen; Jamil Ahmad
This research examined a moderated mediation model for answering how and why work-life balance affects employee job performance, and how satisfaction with coworkers is contingent upon it by enhancing employee’s psychological wellbeing. Data were collected from subordinates and their supervisors in the banking sector (N = 284). Empirical results indicate that psychological wellbeing mediates the link between work-life balance and job performance, and employees’ satisfaction with coworkers enha...
Bryant, Rhonda M.; Constantine, Madonna G.
Many prior studies have reported that school counselors are at risk for experiencing mental health difficulties (e.g., professional burnout) as a result of their participation in a wide variety of service-oriented roles. The majority of school counselors are women, which underscores the importance of examining these individuals' unique…
Work-life balance, job satisfaction and turnover intention amongst ... Employee turnover has signifi cant costs and negative consequences for ... However, no interaction effect was observed between overall work-life balance and job ...
Ng, Lee-Peng; Chen, I-Chi; Ng, Hui-Fuang; Lin, Bo-Yen; Kuar, Lok-Sin
This study investigated the extent to which the job demands and job control of nurses were related to their work-life balance. The inability to achieve work-life balance is one of the major reasons for the declining retention rate among nurses. Job demands and job control are two major work domain factors that can have a significant influence on the work-life balance of nurses. The study measured the job demands, job control and work-life balance of 2040 nurses in eight private hospitals in Taiwan in 2013. Job demands and job control significantly predicted all the dimensions of work-life balance. Job demands increased the level of work-life imbalance among nurses. While job control showed positive effects on work/personal life enhancement, it was found to increase both work interference with personal life and personal life interference with work. Reducing the level of job demands (particularly for psychological demands) between family and career development and maintaining a proper level of job control are essential to the work-life balance of nurses. Flexible work practices and team-based management could be considered by nursing management to lessen job demand pressure and to facilitate job engagement and participation among nurses, thus promoting a better balance between work and personal life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The seminar was divided into three parts: a conceptual discussion; an examination of job satisfaction and work organisation; and an examination of job satisfaction and work–life balance. Session three: job satisfaction and work-life balance
This would create the psychological balance needed in both domains. On the part of the ... concern over the conflicting role of women, as both mothers/wives and workers. ... need for a study on work-family role conflict and job performance.
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of a new version of job stress scale, which measures the extended set of psychosocial stressors by adding new scales to the current version of the job stress scale. Additional scales were extensively collected from theoretical job stress models and similar questionnaire from different countries. Items were tested in workplace and refined through a pilot survey (n = 400 to examine the reliability and construct validity. Most scales showed acceptable levels of internal consistency, intra-class reliability, and test–retest reliability. Factor analysis and correlation analysis showed that these scales fit the theoretical expectations. These findings provided enough evidences that the new job stress scale is reliable and valid. Although confirmatory analysis should be examined in future studies. The new job stress scale is a useful instrument for organization and academicians to evaluate job stress in modern Indian workplace.
Sorensen, Tyson J.; McKim, Aaron J.; Velez, Jonathan J.
This national study sought to extend previous research on the work-family balance (WFB) ability of secondary school agriculture teachers. We utilized data from a simple random sample of agriculture teachers to explore the relationships between work and family characteristics, WFB ability, and job satisfaction. Work role characteristics of interest…
Li, Chenwei; Wu, Keke 'Coco'; Johnson, Diane E
Based on gender role expectations model, we examined how balance-focused attitudes would affect job stress by influencing individuals' perceptions of family interference with work (FIW), and investigated whether a gender difference would exist in the relationships among balance-focused attitudes, FIW and job stress. Using two independent samples from the United States and China, we found support for the indirect influence of balance-focused attitudes on job stress, through FIW. Participants with balance-focused attitudes experienced lower levels of job stress as they perceived less interference from family to work. As expected, such indirect effect was more pronounce among male participants, meaning that the male participants benefited more from having balance-focused attitudes. Discussion, theoretical and practical implications are provided. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Yuan, Zhenyu; Li, Yongjuan; Tetrick, Lois E
Job engagement has received widespread attention in organizational research but has rarely been empirically investigated in the context of safety. In the present study, we examined the mediating role of job engagement in the relationships between job characteristics and safety performance using self-reported data collected at a coal mining company in China. Most of our study hypotheses were supported. Job engagement partially mediated the relationships between job resources and safety performance dimensions. Theoretical and practical implications and directions for future research are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Bass, Brenda L.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.
Using an ecological person-process-context model and recent conceptualization of the "employment continuum," this study examines differences in components of work-family balance among individuals in diverse types of jobs ranging from "inadequate" to "optimal." Cross-sectional data from the 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 2,877)…
Cowin, Leanne S; Moroney, Robyn
Sessional academic staff are an important part of nursing education. Increases in casualisation of the academic workforce continue and satisfaction with the job role is an important bench mark for quality curricula delivery and influences recruitment and retention. This study examined relations between four job constructs - organisation fit, organisation support, staff role and job satisfaction for Sessional Academic Staff at a School of Nursing by creating two path analysis models. A cross-sectional correlational survey design was utilised. Participants who were currently working as sessional or casual teaching staff members were invited to complete an online anonymous survey. The data represents a convenience sample of Sessional Academic Staff in 2016 at a large school of Nursing and Midwifery in Australia. After psychometric evaluation of each of the job construct measures in this study we utilised Structural Equation Modelling to better understand the relations of the variables. The measures used in this study were found to be both valid and reliable for this sample. Job support and job fit are positively linked to job satisfaction. Although the hypothesised model did not meet model fit standards, a new 'nested' model made substantive sense. This small study explored a new scale for measuring academic job role, and demonstrated how it promotes the constructs of job fit and job supports. All four job constructs are important in providing job satisfaction - an outcome that in turn supports staffing stability, retention, and motivation.
Morgeson, Frederick P; Delaney-Klinger, Kelly; Hemingway, Monica A
Role theory suggests and empirical research has found that there is considerable variation in how broadly individuals define their jobs. We investigated the theoretically meaningful yet infrequently studied relationships between incumbent job autonomy, cognitive ability, job-related skill, role breadth, and job performance. Using multiple data sources and multiple measurement occasions in a field setting, we found that job autonomy, cognitive ability, and job-related skill were positively related to role breadth, accounting for 23% of the variance in role breadth. In addition, role breadth was positively related to job performance and was found to mediate the relationship between job autonomy, cognitive ability, job-related skill, and job performance. These results add to our understanding of the factors that predict role breadth, as well as having implications for how job aspects and individual characteristics are translated into performance outcomes and the treatment of variability in incumbent reports of job tasks.
Turner, Nick; Chmiel, Nik; Walls, Melanie
This study investigated job demands and job control as predictors of safety citizenship role definition, that is, employees' role orientation toward improving workplace safety. Data from a survey of 334 trackside workers were framed in the context of R. A. Karasek's (1979) job demands-control model. High job demands were negatively related to safety citizenship role definition, whereas high job control was positively related to this construct. Safety citizenship role definition of employees with high job control was buffered from the influence of high job demands, unlike that of employees with low job control, for whom high job demands were related to lower levels of the construct. Employees facing both high job demands and low job control were less likely than other employees to view improving safety as part of their role orientation. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
This study utilized the existing database from the Iowa State University 2009-2010 COACHE Tenure-Track Job Satisfaction Survey Report to explore faculty work life balance and job satisfaction among academic disciplines at Iowa State University. The articulation of work and life, cast as work life balance, has become a key feature of much current…
Thun, Sylvi; Bakker, Arnold B
The objective of this study was to test the relationship between empowering leadership and job crafting and to examine the moderating role of optimism as a personal resource. We hypothesized that the association between empowering leadership and job crafting would be stronger for employees with high (vs. low) levels of optimism. A total of 331 Norwegian workers from a variety of occupations participated in our study. Results of structural equation modelling analysis generally supported our hypotheses. Empowering leadership was positively related to 3 of the 4 job crafting strategies investigated (increasing structural job resources, increasing social job resources, and increasing challenging job demands; but not reducing hindrance job demands). Moreover, as hypothesized, optimism strengthened the empowering leadership-job crafting relationship for increasing structural resources and increasing challenging demands. The results suggest that empowering leadership is an important antecedent of job crafting strategies, except for reducing hindrance demands. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Schein, Edgar H.
This book was designed to help managers and employees to decipher the two crucial elements in work design and human resource planning: the role network that surrounds every position and the key stakeholders whose expectations define the essence of the job. It provides a structured process for analyzing one's own job as well as the jobs of…
Effective strategic leadership: Balancing roles during church transitions. ... a substantive grounded theory of organisational change and leadership, particularly focusing on the manifestation and management of organisation inertia in churches ...
Xu, Chengcheng; Li, Haojie; Zhao, Jingya; Chen, Jun; Wang, Wei
This study aimed to investigate the effects of jobs-housing balance on traffic safety. The crash, demographic characteristics, employment, road network, household characteristics and traffic data were collected from the Los Angeles in 2010. One-way ANOVA tests indicated that the jobs-housing ratio significantly affects traffic safety in terms of crash frequency at traffic analysis zone (TAZ). To quantify the safety impacts of jobs-housing balance, the semi-parametric geographically weighted Poisson regression (S-GWPR) was further used to link crash frequency at TAZ with jobs-housing ratio and other contributing factors. The S-GWPR provides better fitness to the data than do the generalized linear regression, as the S-GWPR accounts for the spatial heterogeneity. The S-GWPR results showed that the jobs-housing relationship has a significant association with crash frequency at TAZ when the factors of traffic, network, and household characteristics are controlled. Crash frequency at TAZ level increases with an increase in the jobs-housing ratio. To further investigate the interactive effects between jobs-housing ratio and other factors, a comparative analysis was conducted to compare the variable elasticities under different jobs-housing ratios. The results indicate considerable interactive effects that traffic conditions and road network characteristics have different effects on crash frequency under various jobs-housing ratios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hsieh, Hui-Hsien; Huang, Jie-Tsuen
This study examined the mediating role of job insecurity in the relationship between core self-evaluations (CSE) and job satisfaction, while also investigating the moderating role of job insecurity in the mediated relationship between CSE and life satisfaction via job satisfaction. Survey data were collected from a sample of 346 full-time employees in Taiwan. We found that job insecurity partially mediated the CSE-job satisfaction relationship. Moreover, we found that job insecurity moderated not only the relationship between CSE and job satisfaction but also the mediated relationship between CSE and life satisfaction via job satisfaction. Specifically, both the CSE-job satisfaction relationship and the CSE-job satisfaction-life satisfaction relationship became stronger when job insecurity was low. Our results emphasize the importance of raising employees' CSE, which is beneficial not only for diminishing their perceptions of job insecurity, but also for boosting their job and life satisfaction. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the impact of ethical leadership on employees' job satisfaction, job performance, and turnover intention. A conceptual framework is developed which integrates job satisfaction as a mediating mechanism in explaining the nexus among ethical leadership, employee job performance, and turnover intention. The proposed model is tested by using the data collected from a sample (n = 196 of tourist companies in Pakistan. The results reveal that ethical leadership has a positive effect on employees' job satisfaction, job performance and negative effect on employees' turnover intentions. Further, job satisfaction mediates the effect of ethical leadership on employees' job performance and turnover intentions. The findings recommend that the demonstration of ethical leadership behaviours by managers at the workplace increases the likelihood of employees' job satisfaction and performance, while reducing their intention to leave the job. This study elucidates that, in Pakistani tourism sector, ethical leadership plays a key role in achieving performance goals. Future research could analyse the said nexus in different sectors and across different cultures while considering other measures of individual performance. The originality of this study is theorizing as well as empirically testing the intervening mechanism of job satisfaction in probing the linkages among ethical leadership, job performance, and turnover intention in Pakistani workplace context.
Proposes definitions for on- and off-the-job assessment. Presents a model for education and assessment in the workplace that includes (1) development of knowledge, skills, and abilities; (2) performance in simulated or practice situations; and (3) competence in occupational practice. Considers when to choose on- or off-the-job assessment. (SK)
Zito, Margherita; Cortese, Claudio G; Colombo, Lara
In the light of the job demands-resources model, this study aimed to detect the mediating role of flow at work between job demands and job resources on one side, and exhaustion on the other. In a historical period where it is necessary to reduce the abandonment of nursing profession, flow is a useful tool to investigate the factors that can promote work motivation and prevent psychological distress. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a hospital, and 279 nurses completed a questionnaire. Analyses conducted are descriptive statistics, alphas, correlations and a structural equations model that considers the mediating role of flow at work. Findings show both the central role of job resources in determining flow at work, and the mediating role of flow at work in decreasing exhaustion, starting from job resources, and in decreasing the effect of job demands on exhaustion. Moreover, flow at work directly decreases exhaustion. Results show the relevance of containing job demands and provide job resources to promote positive experiences at work. To promote flow at work, organizations should offer specific resources, such as supervisors' support, job autonomy, and psychological support to manage the emotional charge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hakanen, Jari J; Seppälä, Piia; Peeters, Maria C W
Traditionally, employee well-being has been considered as resulting from decent working conditions arranged by the organization. Much less is known about whether employees themselves can make self-initiated changes to their work, i.e., craft their jobs, in order to stay well, even in highly demanding work situations. The aim of this study was to use the job demands-resources (JD-R model) to investigate whether job crafting buffers the negative impacts of four types of job demands (workload, emotional dissonance, work contents, and physical demands) on burnout and work engagement. A questionnaire study was designed to examine the buffering role of job crafting among 470 Finnish dentists. All in all, 11 out of 16 possible interaction effects of job demands and job crafting on employee well-being were significant. Job crafting particularly buffered the negative effects of job demands on burnout (7/8 significant interactions) and to a somewhat lesser extent also on work engagement (4/8 significant interactions). Applying job crafting techniques appeared to be particularly effective in mitigating the negative effects of quantitative workload (4/4 significant interactions). By demonstrating that job crafting can also buffer the negative impacts of high job demands on employee well-being, this study contributed to the JD-R model as it suggests that job crafting may even be possible under high work demands, and not only in resourceful jobs, as most previous studies have indicated. In addition to the top-down initiatives for improving employee well-being, bottom-up approaches such as job crafting may also be efficient in preventing burnout and enhancing work engagement.
, the stylist and the client negotiate not only the quality of the cut, but also their expected roles. Caring about both the bodies and the minds of customers is an important element in measuring the quality of cosmetological services, a consideration which may oblige stylists to immediately agree with and act...... upon every client request or concern. However, simply yielding to the customer’s opinions can threaten the stylist’s role as a beauty expert, one who possesses their own professional standards. The analysis reveals that the participants frequently transform revision requests/offers into mutual...... decisions through a combination of verbal and bodily actions. In doing so, they harmonize the sometimes conflicting responsibilities of “service provider/patron” and “expert/novice.”...
... the work and home domains and psychological health (Geurts, Rutte & Peeters 1999); WHI mediates ... research of work-life balance differences in different socio-demographic groups. ..... For the current study, the Cronbach alpha coefficient.
family role conflict generates some kind of stress and instability that further ... However, this relationship between work-family role conflict and low job performance is considered higher among women with more children and less spousal/family ...
This study examines the characteristics of library information technology (IT) workers using a mail survey. The IT workers showed a moderate level of a sense of belonging, playing the broker's role, job autonomy, and job satisfaction. There were differences between librarian IT workers and non-librarian IT workers regarding most of these…
Detmering, Robert; Sproles, Claudene
This study examines the evolving roles and responsibilities of entry-level academic reference positions, as stated in recent job advertisements posted on the American Library Association's JobLIST Web site and other sources. Findings from a content analysis of these advertisements indicate that current entry-level reference positions in academic…
Bakker, A.B.; Tims, M.; Derks, D.
The article examines the role of proactive personality in predicting work engagement and job performance. On the basis of the literature on proactive personality and the job demands-resources model, we hypothesized that employees with a proactive personality would be most likely to craft their own
Haar, Jarrod M.; Suñé Torrents, Albert; Russo, Marcello; Ollier-Malaterre, Ariane
This study investigates work-life balance and its outcomes across collectivistic (Malaysia, China, and New Zealand Maori) and individualistic (Spain, France, Italy and New Zealand European) cultures. Using a sample of 1416 employees, SEM analysis showed that work-life balance was positively related to job and life satisfaction and negatively related to anxiety and depression across collectivistic and individualistic cultures. Respondents from collectivistic cultures reported lower levels of s...
Full Text Available Turnover intentions refer to employees' intent to leave the organization and, within call centers, it can be influenced by factors such as relational variables or the perception of the quality of working life, which can be affected by emotional dissonance. This specific job demand to express emotions not felt is peculiar in call centers, and can influence job satisfaction and turnover intentions, a crucial problem among these working contexts. This study aims to detect, within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources Model, the role of emotional dissonance (job demand, and two resources, job autonomy and supervisors' support, in the perception of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among an Italian call center.The study involved 318 call center agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company. Data analysis first performed descriptive statistics through SPSS 22. A path analysis was then performed through LISREL 8.72 and tested both direct and indirect effects.Results suggest the role of resources in fostering job satisfaction and in decreasing turnover intentions. Emotional dissonance reveals a negative relation with job satisfaction and a positive relation with turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover and mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover.This study contributes to extend the knowledge about the variables influencing turnover intentions, a crucial problem among call centers. Moreover, the study identifies theoretical considerations and practical implications to promote well-being among call center employees. To foster job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions, in fact, it is important to make resources available, but also to offer specific training programs to make employees and supervisors aware about the consequences of emotional dissonance.
Zito, Margherita; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio Giovanni; Ghislieri, Chiara; Colombo, Lara
Background Turnover intentions refer to employees’ intent to leave the organization and, within call centers, it can be influenced by factors such as relational variables or the perception of the quality of working life, which can be affected by emotional dissonance. This specific job demand to express emotions not felt is peculiar in call centers, and can influence job satisfaction and turnover intentions, a crucial problem among these working contexts. This study aims to detect, within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources Model, the role of emotional dissonance (job demand), and two resources, job autonomy and supervisors’ support, in the perception of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among an Italian call center. Method The study involved 318 call center agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company. Data analysis first performed descriptive statistics through SPSS 22. A path analysis was then performed through LISREL 8.72 and tested both direct and indirect effects. Results Results suggest the role of resources in fostering job satisfaction and in decreasing turnover intentions. Emotional dissonance reveals a negative relation with job satisfaction and a positive relation with turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover and mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover. Conclusion This study contributes to extend the knowledge about the variables influencing turnover intentions, a crucial problem among call centers. Moreover, the study identifies theoretical considerations and practical implications to promote well-being among call center employees. To foster job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions, in fact, it is important to make resources available, but also to offer specific training programs to make employees and supervisors aware about the consequences of emotional dissonance. PMID:29401507
Zito, Margherita; Emanuel, Federica; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio Giovanni; Ghislieri, Chiara; Colombo, Lara
Turnover intentions refer to employees' intent to leave the organization and, within call centers, it can be influenced by factors such as relational variables or the perception of the quality of working life, which can be affected by emotional dissonance. This specific job demand to express emotions not felt is peculiar in call centers, and can influence job satisfaction and turnover intentions, a crucial problem among these working contexts. This study aims to detect, within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources Model, the role of emotional dissonance (job demand), and two resources, job autonomy and supervisors' support, in the perception of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among an Italian call center. The study involved 318 call center agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company. Data analysis first performed descriptive statistics through SPSS 22. A path analysis was then performed through LISREL 8.72 and tested both direct and indirect effects. Results suggest the role of resources in fostering job satisfaction and in decreasing turnover intentions. Emotional dissonance reveals a negative relation with job satisfaction and a positive relation with turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover and mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover. This study contributes to extend the knowledge about the variables influencing turnover intentions, a crucial problem among call centers. Moreover, the study identifies theoretical considerations and practical implications to promote well-being among call center employees. To foster job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions, in fact, it is important to make resources available, but also to offer specific training programs to make employees and supervisors aware about the consequences of emotional dissonance.
Ćulibrk, Jelena; Delić, Milan; Mitrović, Slavica; Ćulibrk, Dubravko
We conducted an empirical study aimed at identifying and quantifying the relationship between work characteristics, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational policies and procedures in the transition economy of Serbia, South Eastern Europe. The study, which included 566 persons, employed by 8 companies, revealed that existing models of work motivation need to be adapted to fit the empirical data, resulting in a revised research model elaborated in the paper. In the proposed model, job involvement partially mediates the effect of job satisfaction on organizational commitment. Job satisfaction in Serbia is affected by work characteristics but, contrary to many studies conducted in developed economies, organizational policies and procedures do not seem significantly affect employee satisfaction.
Ćulibrk, Jelena; Delić, Milan; Mitrović, Slavica; Ćulibrk, Dubravko
We conducted an empirical study aimed at identifying and quantifying the relationship between work characteristics, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational policies and procedures in the transition economy of Serbia, South Eastern Europe. The study, which included 566 persons, employed by 8 companies, revealed that existing models of work motivation need to be adapted to fit the empirical data, resulting in a revised research model elaborated in the paper. In the proposed model, job involvement partially mediates the effect of job satisfaction on organizational commitment. Job satisfaction in Serbia is affected by work characteristics but, contrary to many studies conducted in developed economies, organizational policies and procedures do not seem significantly affect employee satisfaction. PMID:29503623
Kinicki, Angelo J.
Analyzed longitudinal data from 126 employees 1 month prior to being permanently displaced. Behavioral choice model significantly predicted behavioral intention to look for job, effort in looking, and actual behavior/role choice 18 months later. Expectancy for obtaining job was inversely related with age, positively related with education,…
The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to understand the relationship between a balanced scorecard, professors' job characteristics, and the leadership styles of higher education leaders at Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti State, Nigeria, which was the site of the study. The problem statement addressed whether or not a…
Johari, Johanim; Yean Tan, Fee; Zulkarnain, Zati Iwani Tjik
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of autonomy, workload, and work-life balance on job performance among teachers. A survey was carried out among teachers in public schools in the Northern Region of Peninsular Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopted a quantitative approach to address the research…
Wang, Hai-jiang; Lu, Chang-qin; Siu, Oi-ling
Organizational justice has been shown to play an important role in employees' affective and performance outcomes particularly in uncertain contexts. In this study, we investigated the interaction effect of job insecurity and organizational justice on employees' performance, and examined the mediating role of work engagement from the perspective of uncertainty management theory. We used 2-wave data (Study 1) from a sample of 140 Chinese employees and 3-wave data (Study 2) from a sample of 125 Chinese employees to test our hypotheses. In Study 1, we found that when employees perceived low levels of organizational justice, job insecurity was significantly negatively related to job performance. In contrast, we found that job insecurity was not related to job performance when there were high levels of organizational justice. Study 2 again supported the interaction of job insecurity and organizational justice on job performance. Furthermore, it was found that work engagement mediated the interaction effect. The results of the mediated moderation analysis revealed that job insecurity was negatively associated with job performance through work engagement when organizational justice was low. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Sorensen, Tyson J.; McKim, Aaron J.
Agriculture teachers participate in various work and life roles, which can create challenges when trying to balance the pressures and responsibilities associated with each role. When one is unable to balance and prioritize between roles, both satisfaction and professional commitment may be reduced. The purpose of this study was to describe Oregon…
Wang, H.; Lu, C.Q.; Siu, O.L.
Organizational justice has been shown to play an important role in employees’ affective and performance outcomes particularly in uncertain contexts. In this study, we investigated the interaction effect of job insecurity and organizational justice on employees’ performance, and examined the
Joo, Baek-Kyoo; Jeung, Chang-Wook; Yoon, Hea Jun
This study investigates the effects of core self-evaluations, job autonomy, and intrinsic motivation on employees' perceptions of their in-role job performance, based on a cross-sectional survey of 283 employees in a Fortune Global 100 company in Korea. The results suggest that employees perceived higher in-role job performance when they had…
Farh, Crystal I C Chien; Seo, Myeong-Gu; Tesluk, Paul E
We advance understanding of the role of ability-based emotional intelligence (EI) and its subdimensions in the workplace by examining the mechanisms and context-based boundary conditions of the EI-performance relationship. Using a trait activation framework, we theorize that employees with higher overall EI and emotional perception ability exhibit higher teamwork effectiveness (and subsequent job performance) when working in job contexts characterized by high managerial work demands because such contexts contain salient emotion-based cues that activate employees' emotional capabilities. A sample of 212 professionals from various organizations and industries indicated support for the salutary effect of EI, above and beyond the influence of personality, cognitive ability, emotional labor job demands, job complexity, and demographic control variables. Theoretical and practical implications of the potential value of EI for workplace outcomes under contexts involving managerial complexity are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple.......Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple....
The present article aims to show the importance of positive work-related experiences within occupational health psychology by examining the relationship between flow at work (i.e., absorption, work enjoyment, and intrinsic work motivation) and job performance. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that (a) motivating job characteristics are positively related to flow at work and (b) conscientiousness moderates the relationship between flow and other ratings of (in-role and out-of-role) performance. The hypotheses were tested on a sample of 113 employees from several occupations. Results of moderated structural equation modeling analyses generally supported the hypotheses. Motivating job characteristics were predictive of flow, and flow predicted in-role and extra-role performance, for only conscientious employees.
Role perception, job-related tension and organisational confidence of the village extension workers in Nsukka zone of Enugu State Agricultural Development ... Data for the study were collected through structured questionnaire administered on 44 VEWS selected, using ... their role-expectations as being important. Many of ...
Peng, Jiaxi; Li, Dongdong; Zhang, Zhenjiang; Tian, Yu; Miao, Danmin; Xiao, Wei; Zhang, Jiaxi
This study aimed to explore how core self-evaluations influenced job burnout and mainly focused on the confirmation of the mediator roles of organizational commitment and job satisfaction. A total of 583 female nurses accomplished the Core Self-Evaluation Scale, Organizational Commitment Scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, and Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. The results revealed that core self-evaluations, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and job burnout were significantly correlated with each other. Structural equation modeling indicated that core self-evaluations can significantly influence job burnout and are completely mediated by organizational commitment and job satisfaction. © The Author(s) 2014.
Robinson, Janell R.
Information technology (IT) outsourcing poses a potential job loss threat to IT professionals, which can decrease job security, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. The problem that this study addressed was the perceived role of IT outsourcing in the job stress, job dissatisfaction, and turnover intention of IT professionals. The…
Locke, Edwin A.; And Others
A study of faculty job satisfaction concerned with work achievement, work role clarity, superordinates, co-workers, pay promotions, and facilities is described. Results show that faculty are most dissatisfied with pay, promotions and administration; faculty with higher pay scales are more satisfied than those with lower pay scales. (Author/MLW)
Yu, Yue; Wang, Yuchen; Zhang, Jianxin
Previous studies have revealed the association between work-family balance and job satisfaction. The present research further explored the underlying mechanism of this association and aimed to provide a moderated mediation model to explain if personality traits moderate the relationship between work-family balance and job satisfaction through work engagement. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 263 employees from a petrochemical enterprise in China completed self-report questionnaires including the Work-Family Balance Scale, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Big Five Inventory-10, and the Job Satisfaction Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis and structural equation modeling showed that work engagement partially mediated the relationship between work-family balance and job satisfaction, and the indirect effect was further moderated only by extraversion. Therefore, an integrative moderated mediation model was proposed wherein work-family balance boosts job satisfaction by first enhancing employees' work engagement, while the indirect effect was in turn moderated by extraversion. The results suggest that interventions for improving job satisfaction may be enhanced by targeting work engagement, especially for employees with higher extraversion. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Asadullah, Niaz; Fernández, Rosa M.
This paper examines the role of work-life balance practices (WLB) in explaining the “paradox of the contented female worker”. After establishing that females report higher levels of job satisfaction than men in the UK, we test whether firm characteristics such as WLB and gender segregation boost the satisfaction of women proportionately more than that of men, thereby explaining why the former are reportedly happier. The results prove that WLB practices increase the likelihood of reporting hig...
Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to investigate the associations between balance abilities and age, occupation and the use of fire-protective equipment (FPE in different visual conditions, and the associations of slip and fall risk with balance abilities among workers in physically demanding jobs, especially among workers in fire and rescue work. The reliability and predictive values of balance tests in respect to perceived work ability were also studied. The professional firefighters aged 30 to 56-years (n = 29-135, construction workers (n = 52, home care workers (n = 66 and nursing workers (n = 51 aged 23 to 61 years participated in this study. The data were obtained with balance tests with the use of a force platform, functional balance tests, slipping tests and questionnaires. In one study the balance tests were carried out with and without FPE. The slipping tests with FPE were carried out on a straight 8-m long path that had one area covered by water and detergent or glycerol. Perceived work ability at baseline and after a 3-year follow-up was determined with the use of the work ability index (WAI. In the reliability study, the dynamic balance tests were repeated six times in two testing periods at an interval of 2 months. The results indicated that the balance abilities of firefighters over 49 years of age were significantly poorer than those of firefighters in the age groups of <40 and 40-49 years. The decline of balance abilities among construction, home care and nursing workers was not as consistent. Postural balance was also more harmfully affected among the older firefighters (43-56 years than among the younger ones (33-38 years by the use of FPE without visual input. Self-contained breathing apparatus was the most significant single piece of FPE to impair balance in both groups. Furthermore, fast and controlled performance in the dynamic stability test based on visual feedback was related to smaller slip and fall risk with
de Jonge, Jan; Le Blanc, Pascale M; Peeters, Maria C W; Noordam, Hanneke
Research on emotional labour in health care work has not yet revealed under what conditions emotional job demands have an impact on employee health and well-being. There is a need for more theory to unveil the black box of emotional labour processes. To test the moderating role of matching (i.e. emotional) and non-matching (i.e. cognitive) job resources in the relation between emotional job demands and employee health/well-being (i.e. emotional exhaustion, employee creativity, and work motivation). A cross-sectional survey with anonymous questionnaires was conducted. A large organization for residential elderly care with eight locations in an urban area in the Netherlands. Questionnaires were distributed to 1259 health care workers, of which 826 people returned the questionnaire (66% response rate). In addition to descriptive statistics, multivariate multiple regression analysis (LISREL 8.54) with cross-validation was conducted. Findings showed that emotional job resources moderated the relation between emotional job demands and health/well-being outcomes. Firstly, emotional job resources were able to moderate the relation between emotional job demands and emotional exhaustion. Secondly, both emotional job resources and, to a lesser extent, cognitive job resources were able to moderate the relation between emotional job demands and positive well-being outcomes (i.e. employee creativity and work motivation). Finally, cross-validation showed that parameter estimates did not vary across subsamples. Job resources could compensate for resources lost through meeting the requirements of emotional job demands, thereby reducing stress-reactions and increasing well-being. Providing health care workers with more, preferably matching, job resources could make emotional job demands less stressful, and even stimulating and challenging. Future longitudinal studies should investigate the interplay of emotional job demands and (matching) job resources more profoundly.
Ruysseveldt, J. van; Verboon, P.; Smulders, P.G.W.
The Job Demands-Resources model predicts that job demands increase and job resources decrease emotional exhaustion in employees. In this study, we investigated one possible mechanism for this, in order to provide a deeper insight into the role of job resources in this energy-depletion process. We
Employee Motivation is a growing area of importance for the Human Resource Departments organizations of all sizes. Managing the workforce efficiently and effectively has become crucial in order to achieve excellent output from the employees which would lead to the attainment of organizational goals. This study aims to understand the influence of multiple motivational factors on employee motivation of employees of Bank A. Additionally, the mediating role of job satisfaction is elaborated which...
Full Text Available While it has been shown that psychological contract breach leads to detrimental outcomes, relatively little is known about factors leading to perceptions of breach. We examine if job demands and resources predict breach perceptions. We argue that perceiving high demands elicits negative affect, while perceiving high resources stimulates positive affect. Positive and negative affect, in turn, influence the likelihood that psychological contract breaches are perceived. We conducted two experience sampling studies to test our hypotheses: the first using daily surveys in a sample of volunteers, the second using weekly surveys in samples of volunteers and paid employees. Our results confirm that job demands and resources are associated with negative and positive affect respectively. Mediation analyses revealed that people who experienced high job resources were less likely to report psychological contract breach, because they experienced high levels of positive affect. The mediating role of negative affect was more complex, as it increased the likelihood to perceive psychological contract breach, but only in the short-term.
Vantilborgh, Tim; Bidee, Jemima; Pepermans, Roland; Griep, Yannick; Hofmans, Joeri
While it has been shown that psychological contract breach leads to detrimental outcomes, relatively little is known about factors leading to perceptions of breach. We examine if job demands and resources predict breach perceptions. We argue that perceiving high demands elicits negative affect, while perceiving high resources stimulates positive affect. Positive and negative affect, in turn, influence the likelihood that psychological contract breaches are perceived. We conducted two experience sampling studies to test our hypotheses: the first using daily surveys in a sample of volunteers, the second using weekly surveys in samples of volunteers and paid employees. Our results confirm that job demands and resources are associated with negative and positive affect respectively. Mediation analyses revealed that people who experienced high job resources were less likely to report psychological contract breach, because they experienced high levels of positive affect. The mediating role of negative affect was more complex, as it increased the likelihood to perceive psychological contract breach, but only in the short-term.
Uzun, Tevfik; Ozdem, Güven
The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between teachers' perceptions of supervisor support and job performances and the mediating role of job satisfaction in this relationship. The study group consists of 206 teachers working in the public high schools in the Giresun province centre during the 2016-2017 academic year. The…
Ganzach, Yoav; Fried, Itzhak
In a longitudinal study, we investigate the moderating role of intelligence on the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards and intrinsic and extrinsic satisfactions on global job satisfaction. The results support our hypotheses that: (1) intrinsic rewards and intrinsic satisfaction are more strongly related to global job satisfaction among…
David M. Savino
Full Text Available This paper is an acknowledgement of the role of technology as an enabler that encourages the constant need to evaluate, update and employ changing job descriptions and business processes that truly acknowledge job requirements as they are versus notions of what they have been or should be. Advancements in technology have brought about a significant amount of change in terms of how we go about doing our daily work. The evolution from being a manufacturing economy to being information and service based brought to the workplace new realities and responsibilities. As a result, workers can no longer expect to be given a specific listing of assigned duties and tasks that remain fixed over a long period of time. The new paradigm in the workplace relies on continuous demands for improvement and acquired knowledge in a dynamic environment. The catalyst that enables continuous improvement is technology.
Swider, Brian W.; Boswell, Wendy R.; Zimmerman, Ryan D.
This study examined factors that may help explain under what conditions employee job search effort may most strongly (or weakly) predict subsequent turnover. As predicted, the job search-turnover relationship was stronger when employees had lower levels of job embeddedness and job satisfaction and higher levels of available alternatives. These…
Evers, Arnoud; Van der Heijden, Béatrice; Kreijns, Karel; Vermeulen, Marjan
Building upon previous research that focused on the relationships between job demands, job resources, and employee psychological well-being, this longitudinal research makes a unique contribution by relating job demands and job resources to teachers’ professional development (TPD) at work and
Van Yperen, N.W.; Hagedoorn, M.
Examined whether job control and job social support reduce signs of fatigue and enhance intrinsic motivation among employees facing high job demands. 555 nurses (mean age 35.5 yrs) working at specialized units for patients with different levels of mental deficiency completed surveys regarding: (1)
Pearson, Quinn M.
Role overload, job satisfaction, leisure satisfaction, and psychological health were measured for 155 women who were employed full time. Role overload was negatively correlated with psychological health, job satisfaction, and leisure satisfaction. Job satisfaction and leisure satisfaction were positively correlated with psychological health.…
Kunte, Monica; Gupta, Priya; Bhattacharya, Sonali; Neelam, Netra
Purpose: This study examined the relationship of the organizational role stress: Role overload, role self-distance, and role stagnation with job satisfaction and turnover intention with a sample of banking employees in India. Methodology: In this research, we used the RODS scale developed by Prohit and Pareek (2010) for measuring occupational role scale. The reliability of the scale came out to be 0.71. Findings: The majority of employees of all ranks, in both private and public sector banks, suffer from high role stress of all types. It was found that role overload and role stagnation are inversely associated with banking employees' job satisfaction. Private sector bank employees have more role stress and more unsatisfied than employees of public sector banks. Employees Turnover intention was found to be positively impacted by job satisfaction, contrary to many other studies. Possible reasons have been suggested. Job satisfaction was found to play a partial mediating role in the relationship between role overload and turnover intention with 40% mediation. Further, employees with longer tenure (work experience) have less role stress and are more satisfied. Originality: This study is unique in the sense there is hardly any study linking role stress to job satisfaction and turnover intention, specially in Indian context. PMID:29200554
Kunte, Monica; Gupta, Priya; Bhattacharya, Sonali; Neelam, Netra
This study examined the relationship of the organizational role stress: Role overload, role self-distance, and role stagnation with job satisfaction and turnover intention with a sample of banking employees in India. In this research, we used the RODS scale developed by Prohit and Pareek (2010) for measuring occupational role scale. The reliability of the scale came out to be 0.71. The majority of employees of all ranks, in both private and public sector banks, suffer from high role stress of all types. It was found that role overload and role stagnation are inversely associated with banking employees' job satisfaction. Private sector bank employees have more role stress and more unsatisfied than employees of public sector banks. Employees Turnover intention was found to be positively impacted by job satisfaction, contrary to many other studies. Possible reasons have been suggested. Job satisfaction was found to play a partial mediating role in the relationship between role overload and turnover intention with 40% mediation. Further, employees with longer tenure (work experience) have less role stress and are more satisfied. This study is unique in the sense there is hardly any study linking role stress to job satisfaction and turnover intention, specially in Indian context.
Marilu Nuñez Palomino
Full Text Available ABSTRACT From early times to the present, accounting literature has recorded several situations involving role conflict and ambiguity that cause tension among controllers. The theoretical framework was comprised of the seminal work on Role Theory by Katz and Kahn (1970, and empirical evidence regarding the evolution of the role of controllers in the enterprises. In this study, we used the structural equations technique, which allowed for non-rejection of the two study hypotheses, thus providing evidence that role conflict and ambiguity adversely affect job satisfaction among Brazilian controllers. The sample was comprised of 114 controllers. An electronic questionnaire was used to collect the data, allowing information about the respondents to be captured, along with their perceptions regarding levels of role conflict and ambiguity and job satisfaction. For this, the tools developed by Rizzo, House, and Lirtzman (1970 were used, as well as the Job Satisfaction Index presented by Tarrant and Sabo (2010. The results indicated that Brazilian controllers perceive role conflict and role ambiguity while they perform their duties. Job satisfaction of the controllers isaffected more strongly by role ambiguity than by role conflict. However, despite perceiving these two tensions, executives are moderately satisfied with their current working conditions.
Saltzstein, Alan L.; Ting, Yuan; Saltzstein, Grace Hall
Analysis of 1991 survey data on federal employees indicates that a variety of presumably family-friendly policies were used to varying degrees. Use of policies and employee perceptions of organizational understanding of family demands had very difference effects on work-family balance and job satisfaction. (Contains 57 references.) (SK)
Rüveyda Öztürk Basol
Full Text Available The growth of service sector in Turkey occurs faster than the other sectors and the number of shopping malls increases correspondingly. The rapid growth of the number of shopping malls has necessitated the measurement of the attitudes of the employees in this sector. This study demonstrated that the gender, marital status and age were not the significant variables on job satisfaction, managerial satisfaction and job turnover intention; however, education status and income status were found to be significant variables on job satisfaction and job turnover intention. In addition, job satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between managerial satisfaction and job turnover intention.
Cervoni, Annemarie; DeLucia-Waack, Janice
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between role conflict and role ambiguity, and percentage of time spent on ASCA recommended duties (counseling, coordination, consultation, and large group guidance); and job satisfaction of high school counselors. The Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity Scale and the Job Descriptive Index were…
Full Text Available Rapid developments in the Indian Economy post-liberalization in 1991 have prompted institutions like the World Bank to forecast that India would be the fourth largest economy in the world by 2020 (Budhwar and Bhatnagar, 2009. Following globalization this has attracted a large numbers of foreign investors and companies to India. HRM in India has evolved as a specialised function (Budhwar and Bhatnagar, 2009. According to Budhwar and Bhatnagar, 2009 India had a long history of labour legislation and industrial relations and there are many challenges to the HRM systems in India, due to the diverse nature of India’s society which is marked by regional, sectoral, socio-cultural and political variation. In such a climate it is extremely difficult to have a uniform HR system. According to Wheatherly and Tansik (1993 employees have to deal with the demands from superiors as well as the needs and wishes of customers. Because of such a boundary spanning role, the retail frontline employees are in dilemma whether to customize the retail services as per customers needs or to obey the organizational guidelines and procedures (Bitner, 1990. This dilemma often leads to job role stress. There are different types of job role stress (Pareek, 1993 of these the research under study deals with the two job role stressors prominent in retail industry job role conflict and job role ambiguity ( Kahn et.al, 1964. According to Heskett et al. (2003 front line employee’s behavior and perception affects the customer satisfaction and intent of buying behavior which in turn have impact on service productivity. There have been many studies conducted on job role stress and its impact on employee job performance but hardly any with respect to organized Indian retail sector.In the prior research studies it can be noted that employee point of view is hardly taken into consideration. Hence as an attempt to fill in this gap the research focuses on understanding how job role
Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chiu, Su-Fen
Past researchers have found that motivating job characteristics can increase employee display of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In this study, the authors extended previous research by investigating the mediating process of job involvement in the relationship between job characteristics and OCB. The authors collected data from 323 employees and their supervisors from 7 companies in Taiwan. Results show that, through the mediating process of job involvement, the 3 job characteristics (i.e., task identity, task significance, and autonomy) positively influenced the display of an employee's OCB, whereas skill variety had a negative effect on OCB. The authors discuss implications of their findings, contributions, limitations, and future research directions.
Girdler, Sonya J.
Increasingly, women simultaneously balance the roles of mother, parental carer and worker. However, individual role balance strategies among these working ‘sandwich’ generation women have not been thoroughly explored. Eighteen women combining these three roles were interviewed about their individual role balance strategies. Findings were identified through the framework analysis technique, underpinned by the Model of Juggling Occupations. Achieving and maintaining role balance was explained as a complex process accomplished through a range of strategies. Findings revealed the women used six within-role balance strategies: living with integrity, being the best you can, doing what you love, loving what you do, remembering why and searching for signs of success. The women also described six between-role balance strategies: maintaining health and wellbeing, repressing perfectionism, managing time and energy, releasing responsibility, nurturing social connection and reciprocating. These findings provide a basis for health care providers to understand and potentially support working ‘sandwich’ generation women. PMID:27305074
Full Text Available Orientation: The right balance between job demands and job resources are essential for employees to bring energy and enthusiasm to work. Employees who experience high-quality relationships with their supervisors may actively craft their job demands and job resources and feel more engaged. Research purpose: The current study examined the associations between leader–member exchange (LMX, job crafting and work engagement. Motivation: This study attempts to gain more insight in the associations between LMX, job crafting and work engagement. It was hypothesised that high-quality relationships with supervisors fosters work engagement because it stimulates employees to craft their jobs by increasing social and structural job resources and challenging job demands and by decreasing hindering job demands. Research approach, design and methodology: Participants (N = 402 working for a leading mail and parcels company in the Netherlands completed questionnaires measuring LMX, work engagement and job crafting. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the hypotheses. Main findings: Increasing social job resources (β = 0.01, SE = 0.00, p < 0.001 and increasing challenging job demands (β = 0.08, SE = 0.04, p < 0.05 were significant mediators in the association between LMX and work engagement. Increasing structural job resources (β = 0.00, SE = 0.00, p = 0.92 and decreasing hindering job demands (β = -0.00, SE 0.00, p = 0.09 were not significant mediators. Practical and managerial implications: Supervisors who are capable of building high-quality relationships with their employees based on trust, respect and loyalty will foster a positive, fulfilling work-related state of mind among employees because they are more willing to proactively craft a challenging and resourceful work environment. Contribution or value-add: The findings of this study showed the importance of high-quality relationships with supervisors and were unique in examining the
Zhou, Huaping; Liu, Guangzong; Gui, Haixia
MapReduce has been widely used in large scale and complex datasets as a kind of distributed programming model. Original Hash partitioning function in MapReduce often results the problem of data skew when data distribution is uneven. To solve the imbalance of data partitioning, we proposes a strategy to change the remaining partitioning index when data is skewed. In Map phase, we count the amount of data which will be distributed to each reducer, then Job Tracker monitor the global partitioning information and dynamically modify the original partitioning function according to the data skew model, so the Partitioner can change the index of these partitioning which will cause data skew to the other reducer that has less load in the next partitioning process, and can eventually balance the load of each node. Finally, we experimentally compare our method with existing methods on both synthetic and real datasets, the experimental results show our strategy can solve the problem of data skew with better stability and efficiency than Hash method and Sampling method for non-connectivity MapReduce task.
Dysfunctions in role performance have been associated with a large number of consequences, almost always negative, which affect the well-being of workers and the functioning of organizations. An individual's experience of receiving incompatible or conflicting requests (role conflict) and/or the lack of enough information to carry out his/her job (role ambiguity) are causes of role stress. According to previous theory, role ambiguity and conflict decrease workers' performance and are positively related to the probability of workers leaving the organization. Job satisfaction refers to a positive evaluation of a job, while organizational commitment refers to an employee's attachment to the organization. The affective dimensions of organizational commitment and job satisfaction are considered to be important predictors of turnover intention, absenteeism, and job performance. In the literature, role conflict and ambiguity have been proposed as determining factors of workers' job satisfaction and their commitment towards the organization. The role of job satisfaction and organizational commitment were analysed as variables that should mediate between role ambiguity and conflict and employees' behaviour. The hypotheses were confirmed by means of path analysis carried out with data obtained from a sample of Spanish blue-collar workers employed by a bus company and a water supply company. Role stressors were negatively related to affective commitment mediated through job satisfaction. Affective commitment to the organization exerted a positive influence on performance and reduces the withdrawal behaviour analysed— intention to leave and absenteeism—although the strongest predictor of intention to leave was, in this study, job satisfaction.
official ground training course by completing the SAC Contingency Aircrew Training (SCAT) program, which taught ―role- and theatre -specific techniques...paired with 149 crews; there were 53 B-52Ds paired with 52 crews; and at the Thai base of U-Tapao there were 54 B-52Ds paired with 85 crews for a
Weer, Christy H.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Linnehan, Frank
An extensive commitment to nonwork roles was negatively associated with the job performance of 182 women legal secretaries. In addition to its direct negative effect on job performance, nonwork role commitment had both a negative indirect effect (through emotional energy expended on nonwork roles) and a positive indirect effect (through resources…
Peronne, Kristin Marie
A study guided by Super's Life Span, Life Space approach included a survey of 119 women and 66 men about sacrifices made in life and work roles to achieve balance and satisfaction. Differences in sacrifices and satisfaction were related to the combination of life roles they occupied. (SK)
Zacher, Hannes; Bock, Angelika
Purpose - In the context of demographic and economic changes, helping mature age job seekers find employment is imperative. The purpose of this paper is to examine mature age job seekers' proactive personality as a moderator of the relationship between age and job search intensity; and to examine
Demerouti, E.; Bakker, A.B.; Gevers, J.M.P.
This study investigates whether crafting of job demands and resources relates positively to extra-role behavior (i.e. contextual performance and creativity) through work engagement and flourishing. We collected data from 294 employees and their supervisors regarding employees' contextual performance
Dodson, Thomas A.; Borders, L. DiAnne
Men established in traditional (mechanical engineering, n = 100) and nontraditional (elementary school counseling, n = 100) careers were compared on their career compromise choices (sex type vs. prestige), adherence to masculinity ideology, gender role conflict, and job satisfaction. The engineers tended to choose sex type over prestige; the…
Kunte, Monica; Gupta, Priya; Bhattacharya, Sonali; Neelam, Netra
Purpose: This study examined the relationship of the organizational role stress: Role overload, role self-distance, and role stagnation with job satisfaction and turnover intention with a sample of banking employees in India. Methodology: In this research, we used the RODS scale developed by Prohit and Pareek (2010) for measuring occupational role scale. The reliability of the scale came out to be 0.71. Findings: The majority of employees of all ranks, in both private and public sector banks,...
Full Text Available Purpose: According to the Job Demands-Resources (JDR model, engagement and job satisfaction may be produce by two types of working conditions: job demands (i.e. role stress and job resources (i.e. self-efficacy. This study examines the role of role stress and work engagement as antecedents of job satisfaction in a sample of Spanish workers. Design/methodology/approach: This study comprised a sample of 435 Spanish workers. A cross sectional study was used to examine the relationship between role stress, work engagement and job satisfaction. Data were gathered based on personal administered questionnaires. Findings and Originality/value: Hierarchical multiple regression models have revealed that job satisfaction was significantly predicted by role stress and work engagement. Results support JDR model by showing that positive outcomes, such as job satisfaction can be predicted by motivational process and job demands. Research limitations/implications: The cross-sectional design cannot evidence of causal relationships. This study relies on self-reports, which might increase the risk of common method variance. Practical implications: On a practical level, the JDR model provides a framework for understanding motivating workplaces and engaged and satisfied employees. Originality/value: The JDR model could be useful in designing strategies for which engaged employees may be advantageous to improving the quality of services, while at the same time increasing employees’ job satisfaction and well-being.
Carette, Bernd; Anseel, Frederik; Lievens, Filip
To prevent the potential threats of career plateauing for mid-career employees, it has been suggested to give them challenging assignments. This approach is inspired by empirical findings demonstrating that challenging job assignments generally have positive effects on job performance and career development. However, these studies have…
Haar, Jarrod M.; Russo, Marcello; Suñé Torrents, Albert; Ollier-Malaterre, Ariane
This study investigates the effects of work–life balance (WLB) on several individual outcomes across cultures. Using a sample of 1416 employees from seven distinct populations – Malaysian, Chinese, New Zealand Maori, New Zealand European, Spanish, French, and Italian – SEM analysis showed thatWLB was positively related to job and life satisfaction and negatively related to anxiety and depression across the seven cultures. Individualism/collectivism and gender egalitarianism moderated these re...
Job satisfaction is influenced by many factors. Most of them are attributed to personality or company features. Little research has been conducted identifying the relationship of job satisfaction with macroeconomic parameters. We used data collected by European Commission (Eurostat, Eurofound) and World Health Organization (WHO) for personal (eg, subjective health, physical activity), company (eg, career advancement perspectives, negative health effects of work), or macroeconomic parameters (eg, Gross Domestic Product, unemployment rate) on state level. Correlation analysis and a stepwise linear regression model were obtained. Gross domestic product (GDP) was the best predictor for job satisfaction across the European Union member states ahead of good career perspectives, and WHO-5 score (depressive symptoms). Beside personal, job-related, and organizational factors that influence job satisfaction, the macroeconomic perspective has to be considered, too.
Zhang, Rui-Ping; Tsingan, Li; Zhang, Long-Ping
Workers with high levels of role stressors have been known to report low job satisfaction and high turnover intention. However, how the role stressors-job attitudes relationship is influenced by leader-member exchange has hardly been studied. This study examined the effect of leader-member exchange (leader support) on the relationship between chronic role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) and job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intention). Employees (N = 162) who enrolled in weekend psychology courses were investigated. The results showed that leader-member exchange mediated the effects of role stressors on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Implications of these results are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.
Dalessio, Anthony; And Others
Much research on sex roles and their correlates characteristically has been performed in laboratory settings with a college student sample. Job analysis interviews were conducted to extend androgyny research to the work setting. Supervisory performance ratings of job activities and Bem Sex-Role Inventory data were obtained for 135 female nurses. A…
Li, Feng; Jiang, Li; Yao, Xiang; Li, YongJuan
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model in explaining the relationship of job demands and resources with safety outcomes (i.e., workplace injuries and near-misses). We collected self-reported data from 670 crude oil production workers from three sub-companies of a major oilfield company in China. The results of a structural equation analysis indicated that job demands (psychological and physical demands) and job resources (decision latitude, supervisor support and coworker support) could affect emotional exhaustion and safety compliance, and thus influence the occurrence of injuries and near-misses. The implications of the present findings regarding both the JD-R model and occupational safety research were discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jonge, de J.; Blanc, Le P.M.; Peeters, M.C.W.; Noordam, H.
Background Research on emotional labour in health care work has not yet revealed under what conditions emotional job demands have an impact on employee health and well-being. There is a need for more theory to unveil the black box of emotional labour processes. Objectives To test the moderating role
Rüveyda Öztürk Basol; Harun Demirkaya
The growth of service sector in Turkey occurs faster than the other sectors and the number of shopping malls increases correspondingly. The rapid growth of the number of shopping malls has necessitated the measurement of the attitudes of the employees in this sector. This study demonstrated that the gender, marital status and age were not the significant variables on job satisfaction, managerial satisfaction and job turnover intention; however, education status and income...
Mañas, Miguel A.; Díaz-Fúnez, Pedro; Pecino, Vicente; López-Liria, Remedios; Padilla, David; Aguilar-Parra, José M.
In the absence of clearly established procedures in the workplace, employees will experience a negative affective state. This situation influences their well-being and their intention to behave in ways that benefit the organization beyond their job demands. This impact is more relevant on teamwork where members share the perception of ambiguity through emotional contagion (role ambiguity climate). In the framework of the job demands-resources model, the present study analyzes how high levels of role ambiguity climate can have such an effect to reduce employee affective engagement. Over time it has been associated with negative results for the organization due to a lack of extra-role performance. The sample included 706 employees from a multinational company, who were divided into 11 work teams. In line with the formulated hypotheses, the results confirm the negative influence of the role ambiguity climate on extra-role performance, and the mediated effect of affective engagement in the relationship between the role ambiguity climate and extra-role performance. These findings indicate that the role ambiguity climate is related to the adequate or inadequate functioning of employees within a work context. PMID:29375424
Miguel A. Mañas
Full Text Available In the absence of clearly established procedures in the workplace, employees will experience a negative affective state. This situation influences their well-being and their intention to behave in ways that benefit the organization beyond their job demands. This impact is more relevant on teamwork where members share the perception of ambiguity through emotional contagion (role ambiguity climate. In the framework of the job demands-resources model, the present study analyzes how high levels of role ambiguity climate can have such an effect to reduce employee affective engagement. Over time it has been associated with negative results for the organization due to a lack of extra-role performance. The sample included 706 employees from a multinational company, who were divided into 11 work teams. In line with the formulated hypotheses, the results confirm the negative influence of the role ambiguity climate on extra-role performance, and the mediated effect of affective engagement in the relationship between the role ambiguity climate and extra-role performance. These findings indicate that the role ambiguity climate is related to the adequate or inadequate functioning of employees within a work context.
Mañas, Miguel A; Díaz-Fúnez, Pedro; Pecino, Vicente; López-Liria, Remedios; Padilla, David; Aguilar-Parra, José M
In the absence of clearly established procedures in the workplace, employees will experience a negative affective state. This situation influences their well-being and their intention to behave in ways that benefit the organization beyond their job demands. This impact is more relevant on teamwork where members share the perception of ambiguity through emotional contagion (role ambiguity climate). In the framework of the job demands-resources model, the present study analyzes how high levels of role ambiguity climate can have such an effect to reduce employee affective engagement. Over time it has been associated with negative results for the organization due to a lack of extra-role performance. The sample included 706 employees from a multinational company, who were divided into 11 work teams. In line with the formulated hypotheses, the results confirm the negative influence of the role ambiguity climate on extra-role performance, and the mediated effect of affective engagement in the relationship between the role ambiguity climate and extra-role performance. These findings indicate that the role ambiguity climate is related to the adequate or inadequate functioning of employees within a work context.
Griffin, M.A.; Patterson, M.G.; West, M.A.
The link between teamwork and job satisfaction was investigated in a sample of 48 manufacturing companies comprising 4708 employees. Two separate research questions were addressed. First, it was proposed that supervisor support would be a weaker source of job satisfaction in companies with higher
Ma, Bing; Liu, Shanshi; Liu, Donglai; Wang, Hongchun
This research focuses on investigating whether organisational identification mediates the effects of job security on in-role behaviour and extra-role behaviour and how these mediation mechanisms differ according to gender. Through analysing 212 supervisor-subordinate dyads from a Chinese air transportation group, the research indicated that organisational identification partially mediated the effect of job security on in-role behaviour and fully mediated the effect of job security on extra-role behaviour. A multi-group analysis also showed that there were significant differences between male and female employees in these relationships. In addition, moderated mediation analyses showed that gender moderated the indirect effects of job security on in-role behaviour and extra-role behaviour through organisational identification. Limitations and implications of these findings are discussed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Akkermans, J.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Brenninkmeijer, V.; Blonk, R.W.B.
This study investigated the role of career competencies as a mediator in the Job Demands — Resources model. Structural equation modeling with data from 305 young employed persons aged 16–30 years showed that career competencies are positively related to job resources and work engagement, but not to
Shantz, Amanda; Alfes, Kerstin
The present study examined the moderating role of job resources, namely, organizational trust, the quality of employees’ relationship with their manager, and the motivating potential of jobs, on the negative relationship between work engagement and voluntary absence. Employee survey results and
Akkermans, J.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Brenninkmeijer, V.; Blonk, R.W.B.
This study investigated the role of career competencies as a mediator in the Job Demands - Resources model. Structural equation modeling with data from 305 young employed persons aged 16-30 years showed that career competencies are positively related to job resources and work engagement, but not to
Hakanen, Jari J.; Seppälä, Piia; Peeters, Maria C W
Purpose: Traditionally, employee well-being has been considered as resulting from decent working conditions arranged by the organization. Much less is known about whether employees themselves can make self-initiated changes to their work, i.e., craft their jobs, in order to stay well, even in highly
Full Text Available With more organizations looking for employees who take initiative and respond creatively to the challenges of the job, engagement becomes important at both individual and organizational levels. Engaged employees are generally more satisfied with their work, committed and effective at work. According to the JDR model (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004, engagement may be produced by two types of working conditions: job demands (i.e., role stress and job resources (i.e., self-efficacy. This study examines the role of role stress (role ambiguity and role conflict and work engagement as antecedents of job satisfaction. A cross sectional study using online questionnaires was conducted. The sample consisted of 312 Portuguese workers. Hierarchical multiple regressions analyses have revealed that job satisfaction was significantly predicted by role conflict and work engagement. Results support JDR model by showing that positive outcomes, such as job satisfaction, may be predicted by motivational process and job demands. On a practical level, JDR model provides a framework for understanding motivating workplaces and engaged and satisfied employees.
Bui, Hong; Zeng, Yolanda; Higgs, Malcolm
Purpose - This paper explores the relationship between transformational leadership and employees’ work engagement based on fit theory. The paper reports an investigation into the way in which employees’ perceptions of transformational leadership and person-job fit affect their work engagement. Design/methodology/approach – To test our hypotheses, we performed structure equation modelling with maximum likelihood estimation on Mplus with bootstrapping proposed by Hayes (2009) with data from 691...
Simpson, Deborah; Leipzig, Rosanne M; Sauvigné, Karen
Changes in health care that are already in progress, including value- and population-based care, use of new technologies for care, big data and machine learning, and the patient as consumer and decision maker, will determine the job description for geriatricians practicing in 2025. Informed by these future certainties, 115 geriatrics educators attending the 2016 Donald W. Reynolds Foundation Annual meeting identified five 2025 geriatrician job roles: complexivist; consultant; health system leader and innovator; functional preventionist; and educator for big "G" and little "g" providers. By identifying these job roles, geriatrics fellowship training can be preemptively redesigned. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
Sora Miana, Beatriz; González-Morales, M Gloria; Caballer, Amparo; Peiró, José M
In recent decades, transformations in organizations and the labour market have produced an increase in employee job insecurity. In response to this situation, workers present different negative reactions. However, the intensity of these reactions varies across studies that have investigated the outcomes of job insecurity. One possible explanation for this inconsistency may lie in the influence of other factors, such as the occupational group (Sverke et al., 2002). The aim of this study is to provide additional evidence about the relationship between job insecurity and its outcomes (i.e., life satisfaction, job satisfaction, perceived performance and organizational commitment), and examine the moderator role of occupational group in this relationship. The sample was composed of 321 employees from different Spanish organizations. The results showed that job insecurity was directly and negatively related to life satisfaction, job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and they suggest that occupational group moderated relations between job insecurity and three studied outcomes. In the case of life satisfaction and perceived performance, this relationship was stronger among blue collar workers. The relationship between job insecurity and job satisfaction was stronger in white collar workers. The implications and limitations of this study are discussed.
Pisanti, Renato; van der Doef, Margot; Maes, Stan; Violani, Cristiano; Lazzari, David
This study examined the mediating role of personal goal facilitation through work (PGFW), defined as perceptions of the extent to which one's job facilitates the attainment of one's personal goals, in the association between psychosocial job characteristics and psychological distress and job-related well-being. Questionnaire data from 217 nurses (84% female, with a mean age of 42.7 years, SD=7.2) were analyzed. Participants completed the following measures: the Leiden Quality of Work Questionnaire for Nurses, Workplace Goal Facilitation Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (short version). A cross-sectional study design was applied. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results indicated that unfavorable psychosocial job characteristics (high demands, low control, and low social support) were associated with lower PGFW. Furthermore, personal goal facilitation through work explained significant additional variance (from 2 to 11%) in psychological distress (somatic complaints and emotional exhaustion) and job-related well-being (personal accomplishment, job satisfaction, and work engagement), controlling for demographic indicators and psychosocial job characteristics. Finally, the results provided support for the mediating effects of PGFW between all psychosocial job characteristics and all outcomes, except in the case of depersonalization. This study suggests that hindered personal goal facilitation may be a mechanism through which psychosocial job characteristics have a negative impact on employees' well-being.
Vernooy-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Faber, M.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Achterberg, T. van; Braat, D.D.M.; Raas, G.P.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.
OBJECTIVES: A labour shortage in the dementia care sector is to be expected in the near future in the Netherlands and in many other European states. The objective of this study is to analyse why people quit or avoid jobs in dementia care. METHOD: An integrative analysis was used to study reports,
The present article aims to show the importance of positive work-related experiences within occupational health psychology by examining the relationship between flow at work (i.e., absorption, work enjoyment, and intrinsic work motivation) and job performance. On the basis of the literature, it was
Vignoli, Michela; Guglielmi, Dina; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Violante, Francesco Saverio
To investigate how psychosocial factors (such as job demands and work-family conflict) produce absenteeism in the workplace, using the health impairment process of the job demands-resources model. According to this model, job demands lead to burnout (often measured with the emotional exhaustion component), which in turn could lead to outcomes (such as absenteeism). Work-family conflict (WFC) was also studied, because of contradictory results collected in the existing literature on absenteeism in the workplace, regarding the role of WFC in causing absenteeism. Data were collected on 245 workers using both subjective (questionnaire on psychological risk factors and work-related health) and objective data (sickness leave frequency records). To test the hypothesis that job demands and WFC contribute to absenteeism in the workplace, a subsequent mediation analysis was used, which analysed both (a) the subsequent mediation of WFC and emotional exhaustion and (b) the separate roles played by the mediators proposed (WFC and emotional exhaustion). Job demands affect absenteeism through the subsequent mediation of WFC and emotional exhaustion. In addition, emotional exhaustion mediates the relationship between job demands and absenteeism, while WFC does not. In conclusion, subsequent mediation highlights the role of emotional exhaustion in causing absenteeism; in fact, when emotional exhaustion is included in the analysis, job demands are associated with higher levels of absenteeism. The results of this study suggest that without the concurrent contribution of emotional exhaustion, WFC does not influence absenteeism in the workplace. Our findings are useful for organizations that aim to reduce absenteeism.
Olufemi Adigun Lawal
Full Text Available The study examines the extent and nature of mediational roles of affective and cognitive trusts on the predictive relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX and job insecurity. Six hundred and twenty-six employees are surveyed through questionnaire administration. Analysis of the data is done with simple regression and multiple regression analyses. The findings show no significant prediction of job insecurity by affective trust as well as no significant mediation of the LMX and job insecurity relationship by affective trust. The study also shows significant prediction of job insecurity by LMX, and significant mediation of the LMX-job insecurity relationship by cognitive trust. The results are discussed in the light of reviewed literature and current realities. The implications of the study are also highlighted.
Akgündüz, Yusuf Emre; van Huizen, Thomas
This study examines training investments in two-tier labor markets, focusing on the role of job match quality. Temporary workers are in general more likely than permanent workers to leave their employer and therefore are less likely to receive employer-funded training. However, as firms prefer to continue productive job matches, we hypothesize that the negative effect of holding a temporary contract on the probability to be trained diminishes with the quality of the job match. Using a recent longitudinal survey from the Netherlands, we find that temporary workers indeed participate less frequently in firm-sponsored training. However, this effect is fully driven by mismatches: holding a temporary contract does not significantly decrease the probability to receive training for workers in good job matches. Depending on match quality, a temporary job can either be a stepping stone or a dead-end. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martin, Wanda; Grey, Meredith; Webber, Terry; Robinson, Linnea; Hartt, Nancy; Cairns, Moira; Stajduhar, Kelli
Ethical and practical issues are sure to arise from the majority of research studies done with palliative populations. Whether it is feeling opportunistic, being emotionally available, or struggling with witnessing a gap in service and needs of the participants receiving care, nurses involved in research find a way to balance both roles to meet the needs of the participants as well as the study (McIlfatrick, Sullivan, & McKenna, 2006). This paper highlights some of the practical and ethical issues that arise when frontline nurses also take on the role of research assistant for studies with palliative populations. Specifically, the authors highlight their personal experiences based on their research assistant work on a study examining family caregiver coping in end-of-life cancer care. The authors discuss the "balancing act" of taking on these dual roles and offer recommendations on how to be with and approach people when doing research at the end of life using a framework based on Swanson's Theory of Caring (1991).
Full Text Available The phenomenon of job stress is an inevitable part of professional life and in the activities and efficiency is reflected in the organization. This study aimed to identify and predict the relationship between psychological capital and job deviation behavior through job stress regarding the moderating role of perceived organizational support. This study is correlation by using descriptive methods for applied goals. Standard questionnaire was used to collect data. 180 participants was estimated and stratified random sampling. The results showed the significance of the relationship between the variables except the relationship between deviant behaviors with psychological capital. Also, the interactive role of job stress and perceived organizational support on psychological capital and job deviation behavior was confirmed. This means that for the hospital's nurses and staffs with job stress, increasing perceived organizational support associated with enhancing psychological capital and decreasing job deviation behavior. These results emphasize necessity of recognizing interactive role of job stress and perceived organizational support in psychological capital and job deviation behavior
Nijp, Hylco H; Beckers, Debby G J; Geurts, Sabine A E; Tucker, Philip; Kompier, Michiel A J
The aim of this review was to assess systematically the empirical evidence for associations between employee worktime control (WTC) and work-non-work balance, health/well-being, and job-related outcomes (eg, job satisfaction, job performance). A systematic search of empirical studies published between 1995-2011 resulted in 63 relevant papers from 53 studies. Five different categories of WTC measurements were distinguished (global WTC, multidimensional WTC, flextime, leave control, and "other subdimensions of WTC"). For each WTC category, we examined the strength of evidence for an association with (i) work-non-work balance, (ii) health/well-being, and (iii) job-related outcomes. We distinguished between cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies. Evidence strength was assessed based on the number of studies and their convergence in terms of study findings. (Moderately) strong cross-sectional evidence was found for positive associations between global WTC and both work-non-work balance and job-related outcomes, whereas no consistent evidence was found regarding health/well-being. Intervention studies on global WTC found moderately strong evidence for a positive causal association with work-non-work balance and no or insufficient evidence for health/well-being and job-related outcomes. Limited to moderately strong cross-sectional evidence was found for positive associations between multidimensional WTC and our outcome categories. Moderately strong cross-sectional evidence was found for positive associations between flextime and all outcome categories. The lack of intervention or longitudinal studies restricts clear causal inferences. This review has shown that there are theoretical and empirical reasons to view WTC as a promising tool for the maintenance of employees' work-non-work balance, health and well-being, and job-related outcomes. At the same time, however, the current state of evidence allows only very limited causal inferences to be made
Mohammad Ali Soltaniyan
Full Text Available Introduction: The results of research show that work stress causes job burnout. Sport is one of theimportant means for reducing psychological pressures. This study is aimed at analyzing andcomparing the rate of job burnout between athletic and non- athletic employees in Semnan.Materials and Methods: The population consisted of all female and male employees of Semnan.120 athletic and 120 non- athletic employees were selected as samples. Data collected by Jackson andMaslach questionnaires. T test was used for statistical analysis.Results: The most important finding of this research is that emotional exhaustion of athleticemployees is much less than non athletic employees in both sexes.Conclusion: Sport and physical activities can increase human being capacity to cope withpsychological pressures in the workplace
Hawkes, Amy J; Biggs, Amanda; Hegerty, Erin
While the relationship between job resources and engagement has been well established, a greater understanding of the upstream factors that shape job resources is required to develop strategies to promote work engagement. The current study addresses this need by exploring transformational leadership as an upstream job resource, and the moderating role of recovery experiences. It was hypothesized that job resources would mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and engagement. Recovery experiences were expected to moderate the relationship between resources and engagement. A sample of 277 employees from a variety of organizations and industries was obtained. Analysis showed direct relationships between: transformational leadership and engagement, and transformational leadership and job resources. Mediation analysis using bootstrapping found a significant indirect path between transformational leadership and engagement via job resources. Recovery experiences did not significantly moderate the relationship between job resources and engagement. To date, the majority of published literature on recovery has focused on job demands; hence the nonsignificant result offers insight of a potentially more complex relationship for recovery with resources and engagement. Overall, the current study extends the JD-R model and provides evidence for broadening the model to include upstream organizational variables such as transformational leadership.
Perumal, Kala Premarani
The profession of a doctor is considered to be one of the noblest professions. Doctors in general work around the clock in their deed of saving human lives and relieving them of physical ailments. However, on their personal front, most of them do not find them to fulfil their personal obligations. A work-life balance, which is nothing but the art of balancing personal and professional lives, is important for any individual to have fulfilment and satisfaction in life. This research intended to...
A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.
Mubarak Hussain Haider; Adnan Riaz
Effective leadership always plays an important role in the growth and better performance of the organization. This research has been conducted to determine the impact of transformational and transactional leadership style on job success and career satisfaction. A total of 240 responses (n = 240) from various private organizations working in the capital city of Pakistan were collected using various measures of TLI Questionnaire along with items of job success and career satisfaction. Results s...
Full Text Available Police officers’ job satisfaction is an important issue for police force management, but insufficient research exists on the topic, especially in China. This study aimed to examine the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning Province of China during the period of September–October 2014. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2514 police officers, and complete responses were obtained from 2226 participants. The associations among variables in relation to job satisfaction were validated by structural equation modeling. Job stress was negatively associated with job satisfaction, while organizational identification and PsyCap were positively associated with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers. PsyCap mediated the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction. Interventions to improve Chinese police officers’ job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap.
Lu, Lu; Liu, Li; Sui, Guoyuan; Wang, Lie
Police officers' job satisfaction is an important issue for police force management, but insufficient research exists on the topic, especially in China. This study aimed to examine the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning Province of China during the period of September-October 2014. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2514 police officers, and complete responses were obtained from 2226 participants. The associations among variables in relation to job satisfaction were validated by structural equation modeling. Job stress was negatively associated with job satisfaction, while organizational identification and PsyCap were positively associated with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers. PsyCap mediated the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction. Interventions to improve Chinese police officers' job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap.
Lu, Lu; Liu, Li; Sui, Guoyuan; Wang, Lie
Police officers’ job satisfaction is an important issue for police force management, but insufficient research exists on the topic, especially in China. This study aimed to examine the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning Province of China during the period of September–October 2014. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2514 police officers, and complete responses were obtained from 2226 participants. The associations among variables in relation to job satisfaction were validated by structural equation modeling. Job stress was negatively associated with job satisfaction, while organizational identification and PsyCap were positively associated with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers. PsyCap mediated the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction. Interventions to improve Chinese police officers’ job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. PMID:26633436
Ford, Michael T; Wooldridge, Jessica D
The associations between industry revenue growth, individual work role characteristics, and job satisfaction were examined in this cross-level mediation analysis. Work roles were expected to be more autonomous, involve greater skill variety, and offer more opportunities for growth and development for workers in growing industries than for workers in declining industries. Supervisor support was also hypothesized to be stronger for workers in high-growth industries. Results from a nationally representative (U.S.) sample of service industry workers, using multilevel modeling, supported these propositions and suggest that job enrichment mediates relations between industry growth and job satisfaction. Associations between industry growth and autonomy were also stronger among workers in occupations that are less normatively autonomous, suggesting that industry growth fosters a weakening, and industry decline a strengthening, of traditional differences in autonomy across work roles. These results contribute to a multilevel perspective on organizational environments, individual work roles, and worker attitudes and well-being.
Kalshoven, K.; den Hartog, D.N.; de Hoogh, A.H.B.
In this multisource study, we investigated a mediated moderation model proposing the moderating role of job autonomy and the mediating role of responsibility in the relationship of ethical leadership (subordinate rated) with helping and initiative (supervisor rated). In line with expectations, a
Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung
A previous study examined role stress in relation to work outcomes; in this study, we added job structuring antecedents to a model of role stress and examined the moderating effects of locus of control. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of our conceptual model, which specified hypothesized linkages among teachers'…
Chughtai, Aamir Ali; Buckley, Finian
Purpose: The present paper aims to explore the effects of state (trust in supervisor) and trait (trust propensity) trust on employees' work engagement. Furthermore, it seeks to investigate the mediating role of learning goal orientation in the relationship between work engagement and two forms of performance: in-role job performance and innovative…
Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke; Fangel, Anne Bøgh
Knowledge work is becoming more nomadic and flexible, and in recent years we have seen an increased blurring of the boundary between work and private life. While this new flexibility indeed has clear liberating potentials; providing new possibilities for coping with work-life balance, it also......, it is how we manage the balance between work and private life. We want to suggest that conceptions of work may influence the way we take on the new flexible ways of working....... carries the danger of work never really ending. Much has been said about the negative effects of the loss of a clear boundary between work and private life. However, in this paper we want to argue that the blurring of the boundary between work and private life is not in itself problematic. Rather...
Koponen, Anne M; Laamanen, Ritva; Simonsen-Rehn, Nina; Sundell, Jari; Brommels, Mats; Suominen, Sakari
To investigate whether the development of job involvement of primary healthcare (PHC) employees in Southern Municipality (SM), where PHC services were outsourced to an independent non-profit organisation, differed from that in the three comparison municipalities (M1, M2, M3) with municipal service providers. Also, the associations of job involvement with factors describing the psychosocial work environment were investigated. A panel mail survey 2000-02 in Finland (n=369, response rates 73% and 60%). The data were analysed by descriptive statistics and multivariate linear regression analysis. Despite the favourable development in the psychosocial work environment, job involvement decreased most in SM, which faced the biggest organisational changes. Job involvement decreased also in M3, where the psychosocial work environment deteriorated most. Job involvement in 2002 was best predicted by high baseline level of interactional justice and work control, positive change in interactional justice, and higher age. Also other factors, such as organisational stability, seemed to play a role; after controlling for the effect of the psychosocial work characteristics, job involvement was higher in M3 than in SM. Outsourcing of PHC services may decrease job involvement at least during the first years. A particular service provision model is better than the others only if it is superior in providing a favourable and stable psychosocial work environment.
Lu, Chang-Qin; Du, Dan-Yang; Xu, Xiao-Min
The aim of this research is to verify the two-dimensional challenge-hindrance stressor framework in the Chinese context, and investigate the moderating effect of general self-efficacy in the stress process. Data were collected from 164 Chinese employee-supervisor dyads. The results demonstrated that challenge stressors were positively related to job performance while hindrance stressors were negatively related to job performance. Furthermore, general self-efficacy strengthened the positive relationship between challenge stressors and job performance, whereas the attenuating effect of general self-efficacy on the negative relationship between hindrance stressors and job performance was nonsignificant. These findings qualify the two-dimensional challenge-hindrance stressor framework, and support the notion that employees with high self-efficacy benefit more from the positive effect of challenge stressors in the workplace. By investigating the role of an individual difference variable in the challenge-hindrance stressor framework, this research provides a more accurate picture of the nature of job stress, and enhances our understanding of the job stressor-job performance relationship.
Moore, Irene C; Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L; Conlon, Peter D; Sargeant, Jan M
To determine the role of veterinary team effectiveness regarding job satisfaction and burnout in companion animal veterinary practice. Cross-sectional observational study. 48 companion animal veterinary health-care teams. 274 team members participated in an online survey. Overall job satisfaction was evaluated with a 1-item measure, and the 3 dimensions of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) were measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. Team effectiveness was assessed with a survey developed for this study. Demographic and team effectiveness factors (coordinated team environment, toxic team environment, team engagement, and individual engagement) associated with job satisfaction and burnout were evaluated. Overall mean job satisfaction score was 5.46 of 7 (median, 6.00); veterinary technicians and kennel attendants had the lowest scores. According to the Maslach survey results, 22.4% of participants were in the high-risk category for exhaustion, 23.2% were in the high-risk category for cynicism, and 9.3% were in the high-risk category for professional efficacy. A coordinated team environment was associated with increased professional efficacy and decreased cynicism. A toxic team environment was negatively associated with job satisfaction and positively associated with exhaustion and cynicism. Individual engagement was positively associated with job satisfaction and professional efficacy and negatively associated with exhaustion and cynicism. Results suggested the effectiveness of a veterinary team can significantly influence individual team members' job satisfaction and burnout. Practices should pay specific attention to the effectiveness with which their veterinary team operates.
Sjoerd Goslinga; Johnny Hellgren; Antonio Chirumbolo; Hans De Witte; Katharina Näswall; Magnus Sverke
The present study examines the potential moderating role of union support in the relationship between job insecurity and work-related attitudes and well-being of unionised employees. Survey data collected among union members from three European countries (The Netherlands, Italy and Sweden) indicate that job insecurity is associated with reduced levels of job satisfaction, well-being and organisational commitment. Contrary to expectations, union support moderated neither the effect of job inse...
Full Text Available Background: Job burnout is an occupational hazard that reduces physical and mental energy of the staff. This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between the nurses' job burnout and their social responsibility considering the moderating role of control locus. Methods: In an analytical and cross-sectional study we used 3 valid questionnaires including Maslach burnout inventory, Dynson social responsibility and Rotter locus of control in 3 educational hospitals of Yazd, Iran. A total of 246 nurses contributed in the study. Data analysis was done through SPSS19. We used Pearson and Kendall correlation coefficient in data analysis. Findings: The mean scores of job burnout and social responsibility of studied group were 60.75 +8.37 and 71.84+15.47, respectively. Job burnout is negatively correlated with social responsibility statistically (r= -0.250 while locus of control acts as the moderator of this correlation. Conclusion: Our results suggest that creating a supportive work environment for nurses enhances their social responsibility trough affecting their level of job burnout. Also, the approved moderating role of control locus in the relationship of job burnout and social responsibility indicates that the personality traits can be considered as the appropriate criteria for entry to nursing schools.
Galián-Muñoz, Inmaculada; Ruiz-Hernández, Jose Antonio; Llor-Esteban, Bartolomé; López-García, Cecilia
Exposure to patient violence in health staff can lead to the onset of burnout in these workers. The main goal of this investigation is to study how exposure to this kind of violence affects onset of burnout and to appraise the role of job satisfaction as a modulating variable. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire with the nursing staff of all the public hospitals of the Region of Murcia (Spain), obtaining a sample of 1,489 health professionals. From the results obtained, we underline the modulating role of extrinsic job satisfaction in the relationship between nonphysical violence and emotional exhaustion, and the protective effect of job satisfaction on the impact of nonphysical violence and the level of cynicism. No effects of job satisfaction in the relationship between physical violence and burnout were observed. We therefore conclude that experiencing nonphysical aggression has a lower impact on the psychological health of workers who are satisfied with their job, and interventions aimed at increasing these workers' extrinsic job satisfaction are highly recommended. © The Author(s) 2014.
Han, Guohong Helen; Jekel, Marc
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether job satisfaction mediates between leader-member exchange and nurse turnover intentions. Limited knowledge is available on the mediating role of job satisfaction between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions in the nursing field. This is a cross-sectional survey study. Data were collected in a US hospital. Higher leader-member exchange was associated with lower turnover intentions (β=-0.41, PLeader-member exchange was positively related to one's job satisfaction (β=0.50, Pleader-member exchange and job satisfaction were both controlled for, the link between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions was no longer significant (β=-0.12, P>0.05). Job satisfaction mediates the link between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions. The present study reinforces the significant role of managers. Nurse managers can try to cultivate a good relationship with the nurses. This can enhance nurses' job satisfaction and in turn lower their turnover intentions. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Andrianto, Sonny; Jianhong, Ma; Hommey, Confidence; Damayanti, Devi; Wahyuni, Honey
The present study examined the relationship between difficulty in re-entry adjustment and job embeddedness, considering the mediating role of sense of professional identity. The online data on demographic characteristics, difficulty on re-entry adjustment, sense of professional identity, and job embeddedness were collected from 178 Indonesian returnees from multiple organizations. The results showed that difficulty in re-entry adjustment was a significant predictor of a sense of professional identity; a sense of professional identity was a significant predictor of job embeddedness. Furthermore, sense of professional identity is an effective mediating variable, bridging the relationship between post-return conditions to the home country and work atmosphere. Finally, the key finding of this study was that sense of professional identity mediated the effect of difficulty in re-entry adjustment on job embeddedness. The theoretical and practical implications, study limitations, and future research needs of our findings are noted.
Olsen, Espen; Bjaalid, Gunhild; Mikkelsen, Aslaug
To increase understanding of workplace bullying and its relation to work climate and different outcomes among nurses. Examine a proposed bullying model including both job resource and job demands, as well as nurse outcomes reflected in job performance, job satisfaction, and work ability. Workplace bullying has been identified as some of the most damaging mechanisms in workplace settings. It is important to increase understanding of workplace bullying in relation to work climate and different outcomes among nurses. This study adopted a cross-sectional web based survey design. A sample of 2946 Registered Nurses from four public Norwegian hospitals were collected during October 2014. We analysed data using descriptive statistics, correlations, Cronbach's alpa, confirmatory factor analyses, and structural equation modelling. The majority of work climate characteristics confirmed to influence workplace bullying, and additionally had direct influence on nurse outcomes; job performance, job satisfaction, and work ability. Bullying had a mediational role between most of the work climate dimensions and nurse outcomes. This study increases our understanding of organizational antecedent of bullying among nurses. Workplace bullying among nurses functions as a mediator between the majority of work climate dimensions and outcomes related to job satisfaction and work ability. Strategies to reduce bullying should look at the study finding and specifically job resources and job demands that influence bullying and nurse outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sarah B. Setar
Full Text Available Orientation: South African call centres were found to rank amongst those with the highest degree of performance monitoring and feedback. This revelation comes at a time when many scholars concur that research has not entirely succeeded in helping organisations overcome the negative aspects of work and enhance the positive aspects of work, such as job involvement. Research purpose: This study sought to examine the relationship between job stress, job involvement and the display of uncivil behaviour amongst call centre employees, whilst also studying the role of psychological capital (PsyCap in this relationship. Motivation for the study: The study was prompted by the scarcity of research in the area of PsyCap and job involvement, none of which has examined relationships between job stress and the outcomes of incivility and job involvement and the moderating role of PsyCap in this relationship, focusing on call centre employees. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative design employed a cross-sectional survey to collect data from 104 South African call centre employees using a biographical data sheet, the PsyCap Questionnaire, Job Stress Scale, Uncivil Workplace Behaviour Scale and the Job Involvement Scale. Main findings: PsyCap and uncivil workplace behaviour were negatively related, whilst PsyCap and job involvement were positively related. Job stress held predictive value for incivility and the hostility subscale. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that PsyCap did not moderate the relationship between job stress and incivility and neither did it moderate the relationship between job stress and job involvement. Practical implications: Organisations should work on minimising stressors within the workplace in order to enhance the PsyCap of employees, which not only lowers the risk of incivility displayed by employees but also ensures greater employee involvement. Contribution/value-add: Although previous studies have examined
Zito, Margherita; Colombo, Lara; Mura, Gabriella
Work-family conflict (wfc), that originates from an incompatibility between the job and the family demands, is a very relevant topic in health care context, as suggested by NEXT study. Work overload and schedule organization are dimensions that can affect wfc, and particularly, studies indicate work shifts as one of its main determinants, as they limit the work-family balance and represent one of the prime risk factors for workers' health. The aim of this study was to detect the role of some job demands (both general and specific) and of schedule organization in determining the wfc experience, with particular attention to work shifts. Respondents to our questionnaire are 207 nurses of a north Italian public health organization. They are mostly women (92.8%) and their average age is 42. Data analysis shows that wfc is mostly influenced by work shifts, but also by work overload, cognitive load and by on-call availability. Staff working on shifts and on-call availability perceive a higher wfc than their colleagues without work shifts and on-call availability. The central role of work shifts in determining wfc suggests the need to act on schedule organization and on training programs for supervisors and workers.
Full Text Available Orientation: Personality provides a foundation for understanding employee job behaviours. It determines and reflects how they respond to their work situations. There is a shortage of previous researches that have specifically dealt with the predictive role of personality on job crafting. Job crafting is also a significantly new concept in the South African work context. It has both positive and negative consequences on employee job behaviours. Research purpose: The present study investigated the role of big five factors on predicting job crafting propensities amongst administrative employees in Alice, South Africa. Motivation for the study: The present study aimed to determine the role of big five factors on predicting job crafting propensities amongst administrative employees. It was premised on previous research that the big five factors are associated with many employee job behaviours. Research approach, design and method: The present study employed a quantitative, crosssectional research design with a sample of 246 administrative employees in Alice, South Africa. A biographical questionnaire, a Big Five Inventory, and a job crafting questionnaire were used to collect data. Main findings: The findings showed that big five factors of Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to experience and Neuroticism play a significant role in predicting job crafting propensities. Practical implications: The present study suggests that big five factors of Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to experience and Neuroticism have a predictive role on job crafting behaviours. Managers of tertiary institutions can therefore consider these big five personalities to understand and predict the impacts of their job design strategies on administrative employees’ behaviours. Contribution: The contribution of the study was significant in that it contributed to research literature representing the influence of the big five factors in
Spooner, S H; Britton, M E; Erskine, L M; Verschoor, B A; Williams, P A
The process used in preparing this administrative report provided the means of documenting departmental support of technician task expansion, cost benefits, increased availability of professional time, and the need for a dynamic department. Some of the benefits to St. Luke's Regional Medical Center and its Pharmacy Department were an increase in technician job satisfaction, improved quality of patient care attributable to the increased scope of pharmacy service, and up to 8554 hours per year of professional time available for more clinically oriented responsibilities. If technician turnover were decreased by half, technician pricing errors eliminated, and technicians assumed the identified technical tasks, potential monetary benefits could be as much as +116,900 per year. The departmental cost of implementing these recommendations would be an additional 4.16 technician FTEs, and the professional time for training, supervising, and coordinating technicians and functions. These recommendations were well received by pharmacy administration, and the committee was asked to develop a list of priorities and an implementation plan for administrative approval.
Pohl, Sabine; Galletta, Maura
Supervisor emotional support is a strong determinant of job satisfaction. There is no study examining the effect of supervisor emotional support at the group level on job satisfaction. Multilevel statistical techniques can help disentangle the effects of subjective assessments from those of group factors. The study's aim was to examine the moderating role of supervisor emotional support (group-level variable) on the relationship between work engagement and job satisfaction (individual-level variables). A cross-sectional study was performed in 39units from three Belgian hospitals. A total of 323 nurses completed a self-reported questionnaire. We carried out a multilevel analysis by using Hierarchical Linear Modeling. The results showed that the cross-level interaction was significant. Hence, at individual-level, the nurses with high levels of work engagement showed high levels of job satisfaction and this relationship was stronger when supervisor emotional support at group-level was high. Contextual differences among groups had an impact on the form of the work engagement-job satisfaction relationship. This relationship between work engagement and job satisfaction is an individual and group level phenomenon. Ways to enhance emotional supervisor support include training supervisors in providing support and enhancing communication between nurses and supervisors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Galletta, Maura; Portoghese, Igor; Fabbri, Daniele; Pilia, Ilaria; Campagna, Marcello
Health care workers are exposed to several job stressors that can adversely affect their wellbeing. Workplace incivility is a growing organizational concern with the potential to create workplaces harmful to individuals' wellbeing and increase occupational health risks. Based on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of two resources (organizational empowerment and job control) on individuals' well-being (emotional exhaustion) and attitude at work (unit affective commitment). A total of 210 hospital workers completed a self-administered questionnaire that was used to measure organizational empowerment, workplace incivility, job control, exhaustion, and affective commitment. Data were collected in 2014. Data were examined via linear regression analyses. The results showed that workplace incivility was positively related to emotional exhaustion and negatively related to affective commitment. Workplace empowerment was positively related to affective commitment and negatively related to emotional exhaustion. Furthermore, the positive relationship between workplace empowerment and affective commitment was significantly moderated by job control. Our results found support for the JD-R model. Specifically, results showed the buffering effect of job control in the relationship between empowerment and affective commitment. Our findings may concretely contribute to the stress literature and offer additional suggestions to promote healthy workplaces.
Full Text Available Gold mining in South Africa has played a significant role in the economic development of the country. However, the current economic, personnel and rationalisation pressures could imply a loss of production in this industry. The focus of this research fell on investigating the role that social support may play in the translation of employees’ role overload and job satisfaction on their intentions to leave the organisation. A cross-sectional survey design with a random sample was used (n = 206. Results indicate that job satisfaction is the most significant predictor of turnover intention, but that collegial support plays an important role in moderating the effects of role overload on turnover intention.
Evans, Kiah L; Millsteed, Jeannine; Richmond, Janet E; Falkmer, Marita; Falkmer, Torbjorn; Girdler, Sonya J
This pilot study aimed to establish the appropriateness of the Model of Juggling Occupations in exploring the complex experience of role balance amongst working women with family responsibilities living in Perth, Australia. In meeting this aim, an evaluation was conducted of a case study design, where data were collected through a questionnaire, time diary, and interview. Overall role balance varied over time and across participants. Positive indicators of role balance occurred frequently in the questionnaires and time diaries, despite the interviews revealing a predominance of negative evaluations of role balance. Between-role balance was achieved through compatible role overlap, buffering, and renewal. An exploration of within-role balance factors demonstrated that occupational participation, values, interests, personal causation, and habits were related to role balance. This pilot study concluded that the Model of Juggling Occupations is an appropriate conceptual framework to explore the complex and dynamic experience of role balance amongst working women with family responsibilities. It was also confirmed that the case study design, including the questionnaire, time diary, and interview methods, is suitable for researching role balance from this perspective.
Wong, Carol A; Laschinger, Heather K S
To report a study conducted to test a model linking authentic leadership of managers with nurses' perceptions of structural empowerment, performance, and job satisfaction. Authentic leadership has been proposed as the root element of effective leadership needed to build healthier work environments because there is special attention to the development of empowering leader-follower relationships. Although the influence of leadership style and empowerment on job satisfaction is well documented, there are few studies examining the influence of authentic leadership on nurses' empowerment and work outcomes. A non-experimental, predictive survey. In 2008, a random sample of 600 Registered Nurses working in acute care hospitals across Ontario in Canada was surveyed. The final sample consisted of 280 (48% response rate) nurses. Variables were measured using the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire, Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire, Global Job Satisfaction Survey, and General Performance scale. The theoretical model was tested using structural equation modelling. The final model fit the data acceptably. Authentic leadership significantly and positively influenced staff nurses' structural empowerment, which in turn increased job satisfaction and self-rated performance. The results suggest that the more managers are seen as authentic, by emphasizing transparency, balanced processing, self-awareness and high ethical standards, the more nurses perceive they have access to workplace empowerment structures, are satisfied with their work, and report higher performance. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Chen, Lung Hung; Li, Tsui-Shan
Role balance theory proposed that a well-organized self-system, rather than a salient hierarchy role, contributes to individual psychological well-being. However, research on role balance focuses only on the intrapersonal process without regard for the interpersonal process on the spouse's well-being. Furthermore, previous studies were all…
Erkutlu, Hakan; Chafra, Jamel; Bumin, Birol
The purpose of this research is to examine the moderating role of organizational culture in the relationship between leader's power bases and subordinate's job stress. Totally 622 lecturers and their superiors (deans) from 13 state universities chosen by random method in Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, Antalya, Samsun, Erzurum and Gaziantep in 2008-2009…
Eckman, Ellen Wexler; Kelber, Sheryl Talcott
This paper presents a secondary analysis of survey data focusing on role conflict and job satisfaction of 102 female principals. Data were collected from 51 female traditional principals and 51 female co-principals. By examining the traditional and co-principal leadership models as experienced by female principals, this paper addresses the impact…
The study analysed the role performance and job satisfaction of extension agents in technology delivery in Imo State. The multistage random sampling technique was adopted in the selection of farmers and simple random sampling for the selection of extension agents. The instruments for data collection were four sets of ...
Weeks, William A.; Rutherford, Brian; Boles, James; Loe, Terry
This study examines the perceptions of students, recruiters, and faculty regarding the importance of various workplace attributes to students who are entering the job market. Furthermore, this study discusses the important role that faculty can play as a knowledge broker with both students and recruiters. Looking at students' Top 10…
Ocen, Edward; Francis, Kasekende; Angundaru, Gladies
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to establish the role of training in building employee commitment and the task of job satisfaction in the association between training and employee commitment in the banking sector in Uganda. Design/methodology/approach: The authors used correlation, regression and MedGraph to investigate the hypotheses.…
Akgündüz, Yusuf Emre; van Huizen, Thomas
This study examines training investments in two-tier labor markets, focusing on the role of job match quality. Temporary workers are in general more likely than permanent workers to leave their employer and therefore are less likely to receive employer-funded training. However, as firms prefer to
Hogue, Mary; Dubois, Cathy L. Z.; Fox-Cardamone, Lee
Because pay expectations play a role in the persistent gender pay gap, we surveyed 435 undergraduate students to examine the impacts of gender, job intentions, and self-views on the pay expectations of pre-career women and men. Our findings showed a gender gap in which women expected to be paid less than men expected to be paid at the beginning…
Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders
We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups vs. established firms by taking into consideration the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define educationspecific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these to construct...... a measure of “surplus job creation” defined as jobs created on top of any simultaneous destruction of similar jobs in incumbent firms in the same region and industry. Using Danish employer-employee data from 2002-7, which identify the start-ups and which cover almost the entire private sector......, these measures allow us to provide a more nuanced assessment of the role of entrepreneurial firms in the job-creation process than previous studies. Our findings show that while start-ups are responsible for the entire overall net job creation, incumbents account for more than a third of net job creation within...
Evans, Kiah L; Millsteed, Jeannine; Richmond, Janet E; Falkmer, Marita; Falkmer, Torbjorn; Girdler, Sonya J
Women combining paid employment with dual caring responsibilities for children and aging parents, otherwise known as the sandwich generation, experience both benefits and costs related to role participation and quality of life. However, previous literature is inconclusive regarding the impact of this role combination on role balance. In the context of these mixed findings on role balance for working sandwich generation women, this study aimed to explore how within role characteristics and between role interactions are related to role balance for these women. This aim was achieved through the use of a questionnaire administered to 18 Australian working sandwich generation women. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation coefficients, with findings suggesting the women studied tended to experience neither role balance or role imbalance. Within-role characteristics, particularly within the mother and family member roles, were related to role balance. In addition, between-role conflict and role interactions involving either the home maintainer or family member roles had the greatest impact on role balance.
Full Text Available Orientation: Job involvement is essential for the performance of employees. Prior researchers have found a weak relationship between job involvement and job performance, but dimensions of commitment have been considered as a mediator to enhance the relationship.Research purpose: This research is aimed at discovering the role of organisational commitment as a mediating variable between the relationship of job involvement and performance.Motivation for the study: The aim of organisations today is to outperform each other in every respect. In order to realise this, the role of employees is crucial. To elicit the best from employees requires much attention from organisations. This research is focused on this specific issue, namely, increasing employees’ performance.Research design, approach and method: The researchers have used structured questionnaires using the quantitative approach. A similar research methodology using the survey method was applied by the researchers to make the results comparable. The simple random sampling technique was used. Data was evaluated on the basis of 208 completed questionnaires.Main findings: Findings of the study indicate that there is a relationship between job involvement and in-role performance. Affective and normative commitment can act as mediator. However, continuance commitment is not a mediator in this relationship.Practical/managerial implications: It is important for organisations that want to gain a competitive edge over its rivals to enhance the level of involvement of its employees.Contribution/value-add: The results of this study will provide a new dimension for managers on how to gain a competitive advantage over rival firms with regard to performance by increasing the level of job involvement.
Crill, P.; Hargreaves, K.; Korhola, A.
Over the past, total annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Finland, not considering land use change, forestry or peatlands, have remained between 70 000 and 80 000 Gg of CO 2 equivalents. A large portion of which (84% in 1998) is from energy and energy related sources. Signatory members to the 1997 Kyoto protocol of the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change convention, which includes Finland, are compelled to assess their emissions at the national level. This study was undertaken to examine the issues of the role of Finnish peatlands in the national greenhouse gas inventory specifically within the context of the utilization of peatlands for energy production. Our analysis is essentially a literature review and assessment of what has been measured from Finnish peatlands. We are particularly fortunate that there have been a series of recent Ph.D. theses published at the Universities of Helsinki and Joensuu and graduate work at the University of Kuopio on carbon dynamics and greenhouse gas exchange in Finnish peatlands that have both expanded our database and our understanding of peatland processes. Chapter 1 provides a background of the role of peatlands in carbon cycling within the context of changing climate and land use. In Finland about 56 x 103 ha of peatland area were being harvested in 1997, 94% for energy. Even though this is a relatively small area, the implications, on a national scale, for GHG fluxes and carbon balance can be significant The magnitude of GHG fluxes and a qualitative assessment of extant data quality and quantity under different Finnish land use forms and activities is considered in chapter 2. CO 2 fluxes derived from long term C accumulation rates indicate that 3 010 Gg CON and 9 400 Gg CO 2 are sequestered annually from the atmosphere into undrained and peatlands drained for forestry, respectively. Peatlands drained for agriculture emit CO 2 at a rate of 3 200-7 800 Gg annually. Peat harvesting activities and
The microbial community populating the human digestive tract has been linked to the development of obesity, diabetes and liver diseases. Proposed mechanisms on how the gut microbiota could contribute to obesity and metabolic diseases include: (1) improved energy extraction from diet by the conversion of dietary fibre to SCFA; (2) increased intestinal permeability for bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in response to the consumption of high-fat diets resulting in an elevated systemic LPS level and low-grade inflammation. Animal studies indicate differences in the physiologic effects of fermentable and non-fermentable dietary fibres as well as differences in long- and short-term effects of fermentable dietary fibre. The human intestinal microbiome is enriched in genes involved in the degradation of indigestible polysaccharides. The extent to which dietary fibres are fermented and in which molar ratio SCFA are formed depends on their physicochemical properties and on the individual microbiome. Acetate and propionate play an important role in lipid and glucose metabolism. Acetate serves as a substrate for de novo lipogenesis in liver, whereas propionate can be utilised for gluconeogenesis. The conversion of fermentable dietary fibre to SCFA provides additional energy to the host which could promote obesity. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that diets rich in fibre rather prevent than promote obesity development. This may be due to the fact that SCFA are also ligands of free fatty acid receptors (FFAR). Activation of FFAR leads to an increased expression and secretion of enteroendocrine hormones such as glucagon-like-peptide 1 or peptide YY which cause satiety. In conclusion, the role of SCFA in host energy balance needs to be re-evaluated.
Guglielmi, Dina; Simbula, Silvia; Mazzetti, Greta; Tabanelli, Maria Carla; Bonfiglioli, Roberta
The present study investigates the role of boredom within the Job Demands-Resources model. Although empirical evidence suggests that the incidence of boredom at work is widespread, the study of job boredom remains neglected today. Data were collected from 269 mass-retail workers, by means of structured face-to-face interviews. Results of multiple mediation analyses partially supported our hypotheses. Boredom mediates the relationship between transformational leadership, low learning opportunities and general dysphoria, while work engagement mediates the relationship between transformational leadership, low learning opportunities and job satisfaction as well as general dysphoria. Taken together, our results confirm the suitability of conceptualizing boredom within the JD-R model and contribute to the ongoing conceptualization of both the boredom literature and the JD-R literature.
Lee, Haejung; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Yoon, Jung-A
The purpose of this study was to examine the discriminating factors of Korean nurses' turnover intention (TI) among internal marketing (IM), organizational commitment (OC), and job stress (JS). Nurses (n = 185) who had worked for 1-10 years were surveyed from six general hospitals in South Korea. The data were collected by using questionnaires and were analyzed with descriptive statistics and discriminant analysis. The participants were grouped into three groups, depending on the level of their TI: "low TI group" (n = 58), "moderate TI group" (n = 96), and "high TI group" (n = 31). One function significantly discriminated between the high TI and low TI groups. The function correctly classified 84.3% of the participants into the two groups and 75.3% were correctly classified in the cross-validation. Organizational commitment was the most important factor. Job stress and the IM components of staffing-promotion, reward, management philosophy, working environment, and segmentation were significant discriminant factors of TI. Based on the findings of this study, we could conclude that OC, JS, and IM play important roles in the TI of nurses. Implying a career development system as an OC management strategy, an innovative promotion policy to change conservative organizational climates and a balance of effort-reward can be considered as managerial interventions to reduce nurses' TI. © 2010 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2010 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Torabi, Mohsen; Nadali, Iman Zohoorian
Regarding the importance of health care providers such as nurses who are always in stressful environments, it is imperative to better understand how they become more engaged in their work. The purpose of this paper is to focus on health care providers (nurses), and examine how the interaction between spiritual intelligence and psychological empowerment affect job engagement. This descriptive and quantitative study was conducted among nurses at the Faghihi Hospital in Shiraz, Iran in 2010. A sample of nurses ( n = 179) completed standard survey questionnaire including spiritual intelligence, psychological empowerment, and job engagement which included 5 questions for each dimensions. For testing the hypotheses of the study, results were analyzed through structural equation modeling (SEM) using LISREL 8.8. SEM revealed that psychological empowerment could fully mediate the relationship between spiritual intelligence and job engagement. However, the correlation between spiritual intelligence and job engagement was significant but weak using Pearson coefficient method. This can imply that psychological empowerment plays a crucial role in the relationship between spiritual intelligence and job engagement. This paper indicates that spiritual intelligence might affect different organizational parameters, directly or indirectly. Therefore, it is recommended that the researchers evaluate probable relationships between spiritual intelligence and other variables.
Wang, Shu-wen; Repetti, Rena L; Campos, Belinda
We investigated the role of neuroticism in the associations between job stress and working adults' social behavior during the first hour after work with their spouse and school-age children. Thirty dual-earner families were videotaped in their homes on two weekday afternoons and evenings. An observational coding system was developed to assess behavioral involvement and negative emotion expression. Participants also completed self-report measures of job stressors and trait neuroticism. There were few overall associations between job stress and social behavior during the first hour adults were at home with their spouse and school-age children. However, significant moderator effects indicated that linkages between work experiences and family behavior varied for men who reported different levels of trait neuroticism, which captures a dispositional tendency toward emotional instability. Among men who reported high neuroticism, job stress was linked to more active and more negative social behavior. Conversely, for men reporting low neuroticism, job stress was related to less talking and less negative emotion. These patterns were not found for the women in the study. The findings suggest that when work is stressful, men who are higher on neuroticism (i.e., less emotionally stable) may show a negative spillover effect, whereas men who are lower on neuroticism (i.e., more emotionally stable) may withdraw from social interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
Cortese, Claudio G; Colombo, Lara; Ghislieri, Chiara
The aim of the present study was to develop a research model explaining the causal relationship between certain antecedents (job and emotional charge, supportive management and colleagues), work-family conflict (WFC) and job satisfaction. Many research projects in health organizations have highlighted the link between high WFC and lower levels of job satisfaction. The study of these variables is important in understanding the processes of professional nurse retention. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire administered to 351 professional nurses working in a major North Italian hospital. The questionnaire measures six variables: WFC, job satisfaction, job demand, emotional charge, supportive management and supportive colleagues. The data confirmed the connection between WFC and job satisfaction, and showed the importance of some WFC predictors, such as supportive management, emotional charge and job demand, not only for their connections with WFC but also for their direct associations with job satisfaction. WFC, in health organizations, can contribute to a decrease of nurses' job satisfaction. Nursing management could achieve its aim of reducing WFC through the improvement of support from nurse coordinators, the specific organization of work models, ad hoc family-friendly policies and individual counselling programmes for nurses.
Schleicher, Deidra J; Smith, Troy A; Casper, Wendy J; Watt, John D; Greguras, Gary J
Integrating attitude theory with the job attitudes literature, we position job attitude strength (JAS) as a missing yet important theoretical concept in the study of job attitudes. We examine JAS as a moderator of the relationship between job satisfaction and several criteria of interest to organizational scholars (job performance, organizational citizenship behavior, withdrawal). We also examine multiple relevant indicators of JAS (i.e., attitude certainty, attitude extremity, latitude of rejection, and structural consistency), both to shed light on its conceptual nature and to provide meaningful practical direction to researchers interested in incorporating JAS into job attitude research. Data were collected in five field samples (total N = 816). Results support our hypotheses: JAS moderates the relationships between job satisfaction and performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and turnover intentions; in each case, these relationships are significantly stronger for employees with stronger job satisfaction attitudes. However, as expected, not all JAS indicators are equally effective as moderators. We discuss our findings in terms of their theoretical, empirical, and practical implications for the future study of job attitudes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo; Sanz-Vergel, Ana Isabel; Garrosa, Eva
Based on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, the current study examined the moderating role of recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment from work, relaxation, mastery experiences, and control over leisure time) on the relationship between one job demand (i.e., role conflict) and work- and health-related outcomes. Results from our sample of 990 employees from Spain showed that psychological detachment from work and relaxation buffered the negative impact of role conflict on some of the proposed outcomes. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find significant results for mastery and control regarding moderating effects. Overall, findings suggest a differential pattern of the recovery experiences in the health impairment process proposed by the JD-R model.
Hawker, Felicity H
Women are under-represented in the intensive care medicine (ICM) specialist workforce. I aimed to better understand the challenges these women face so they can be considered in the training and support of ICM specialists. All female Fellows of the College of Intensive Care Medicine (CICM) of Australia and New Zealand were surveyed using an online questionnaire. The study was approved by the Cabrini Human Research Ethics Committee. Thirty respondents with children volunteered to complete a second questionnaire. I surveyed demographic and workforce data and women's experiences in the ICM specialist workforce in the first survey, and experiences with child-rearing in the second survey. The response rate was 80.3% (127/158). The median age bracket was 40-45 years, and 118 respondents were practising ICM, 85 full-time in a tertiary intensive care unit. Eighteen were ICU directors and 23 were CICM-appointed supervisors of training. Sixty-five women were mothers, and 70% returned to full-time work after their maternity leave. Child care was most commonly undertaken by family members or a nanny. Overall, 81% were satisfied with their experiences, but 37% felt they had been disadvantaged because of their sex. Fewer women with leadership roles felt disadvantaged. Their major challenges included the on-call work affecting child-rearing and family life, sexism in the workplace and difficulties with academic advancement. The participation and satisfaction rates of women working in the ICM specialist workforce are encouraging. Although challenges exist, women contemplating a career in ICM should see it as achievable and rewarding.
Pryce, Joanna; Albertsen, Karen; Nielsen, Karina
To evaluate the impact of an open-rota scheduling system on the health, work-life balance and job satisfaction of nurses working in a psychiatric ward in Denmark. The effects of shift rotation and scheduling are well known; however, little is known about the wider benefits of open-rota systems. Method A structured questionnaire was distributed to control and intervention groups preintervention and postintervention (20 months). Nurses within the intervention group trialed an open-rota system in which nurses designed their own work-rest schedules. Nurses in the intervention group reported that they were more satisfied with their work hours, less likely to swap their shift when working within the open-rota system and reported significant increases in work-life balance, job satisfaction, social support and community spirit when compared with nurses in the control groups. The ownership and choice over work-rest schedules has benefits for nurses, and potentially the hospital.
Full Text Available Introduction: Although the contribution of organizational learning to employee organizational performance is well documented, the mechanisms that explain such relationship remain unclear. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the interactional role of organizational learning and informal norms in accountability and job performance of the staff in a medical department. Methods: The research method of the study is descriptive-correlational type. The statistical population of this study included all staff (N=315 of the Medical Department in Oshnavieh Hospital in 2014. For data gathering in this study, a sample comprising of 180 staff was selected using stratified random sampling. The data were collected through standard questionnaires of Neefe for organizational learning, informal norms of Hall, job performance of Paterson, and the questionnaire of individual accountability of Hochwarter. Pearson and moderated multiple regression analysis were used to test hypotheses. Results: Results showed that organizational learning has a positive and significant correlation with job performance and individual accountability. The results, also, showed a positive and significant correlation between informal norms, personal accountability, and job performance. Regression results showed the interactive role of learning structure dimensions, strategy, and shared vision with informal norms, predicting individual accountability of the staff. Also, interactive role of organizational learning and informal norms was confirmed in predicting job performance of the medical staff. Conclusion: The result of this study hold out that organizational learning directly and with interaction of informal norms improves staffs' performance and accountability. As a result of improved informal norms in a medical setting, we will have staff’s strong accountability and performance.
Fahimeh Kamali Cheshmeh Jalal; Afsaneh Ghanizadeh; Omid Akbari
The present study sought to explore the relationship between English as a foreign language (EFL) EFL teachers' stress at work and their job satisfaction. Moreover, it explored the role of EFL teachers' gender, length of teaching experience, and educational level in their job satisfaction and stress at work. For this purpose, 134 EFL teachers were chosen from different private language institutes in Mashhad, a city in northeast of Iran. They were asked to complete two questionnaires: Job Descr...
Lopez, Frederick G.; Fons-Scheyd, Alia
This study examined interrelationships among role balance perceptions, adult attachment orientations, and depression within an ethnically diverse, mixed-gender sample of college students. Adult attachment orientations--and particularly attachment avoidance--significantly interacted with students' role balance levels to predict their depression…
Kooij, T.A.M.; Tims,; Akkermans,
This two-wave study aimed to examine future time perspective (FTP) as an antecedent of job crafting, and in turn job crafting as a mediator in associations between FTP and work outcomes. Based on the lifespan socio-emotional selectivity theory, we expected that open-ended and limited FTP would evoke
The aim of this study was to investigate whether sedentary job role and gender are reflected by sedentary risk factors within a university campus. Following institutional ethical approval, 80 U.K. university campus employees were recruited, and 34 of them (age 47.8 ± 11.9 years, height 169 ± 1.0 cm, body mass 72.0 ± 14.1 kg) were measured for their systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), blood glucose (Glu), total serum blood cholesterol (Cho), dominant (DHG) and nondominant handgrip strength (NHG), body fat percentage (Fat%), trunk flexibility (Flex), peak cardiorespiratory capacity (V.O2max), and answered a physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ). The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA with job role and gender as independent factors, and each measured risk as a dependent factor. Gender had significant effects (pworkplace.
Full Text Available Orientation: Knowing that it is imperative to better understand the antecedents and consequences of needs-supplies fit, the present research had two main objectives. Firstly we wanted to extend our knowledge about traditional psychological needs, for example highlighted through the Self-Determination Theory, by presenting more specific work-related needs. Secondly, following the new directions of organisational fit theories, we wanted to better understand how individuals make sense of fit. Research purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose more specific work-related needs in terms of employment quality and to test job crafting as an antecedent of needs-supplies fit (NS fit. We tested the double mediating role of NS fit (i.e. specific: based on more specific work-related needs, and general: based on global job perceptions between job crafting and individual outcomes namely burnout and work engagement. Motivation for the study: By taking into account more specific work-related needs, this study aimed to add more specific information to better help predict well-being at work. Moreover, the present research responds to the need to better understand how individuals make sense of fit. Research design, approach, and method: Data were collected in a Belgian Public Federal Service (N = 1500. Our research model was tested using Structural Equation Modelling with Mplus. Main findings: Results show, (1 that specific NS fit perception was positively related to a global NS fit perception and (2 the partial mediating role (specific and general of NS fit between job crafting and burnout and work engagement. Practical/managerial implications: Managers should encourage crafting behaviours and should know their team and that team’s specific needs. Contribution/added-value: By taking into account more specific work-related needs, our study suggests that needs-supplies may have more than one dimension. Moreover, it shows that job crafting is a way to
Willemse, B.M.; de Jonge, J.; Smit, D.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Pot, A.M.
Background: Healthcare workers in nursing homes are faced with high job demands that can have a detrimental impact on job-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction. Job resources may have a buffering role on this relationship. The Demand-Control-Support (DCS) Model offers a theoretical framework to
Tentama, Fatwa; Pranungsari, Dessy
Teachers' work motivation and teachers' job satisfaction are the factors influencing the organizational commitment. This research is aimed to empirically examine the roles of teachers' work motivation and teachers' job satisfaction in the commitment of the organization in extraordinary schools. The subjects of the research are the teachers in…
Barclay, Lizabeth A.; And Others
Past research has detailed conflicting results in investigations of sex differences and job satisfaction. To explain sex differences and job satisfaction within the framework of subtle treatment discrimination (a situation variable) and beliefs about roles for women (a person variable), 1578 employees of a large corporation completed demographic…
Brenninkmeijer, V.; Demerouti, E.; Blanc, Le P.M.; Emmerik, van I.J.H.
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating role of regulatory focus in the job demands-resources model. Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire survey was conducted among 146 teachers in secondary education. It was expected that detrimental effects of job demands (i.e.
Falco, Alessandra; Dal Corso, Laura; Girardi, Damiano; De Carlo, Alessandro; Comar, Manola
In this study we examined the association between job demands (JD), job resources (JR), and serum levels of a possible biomarker of stress, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). According to the buffer hypothesis of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, we expected that job resources-defined as job autonomy and social support from supervisor-might buffer the relationship between job demands, defined as emotional demands and interpersonal conflict with colleagues, and IL-6. Data from 119 employees in an Italian public healthcare organization (acute care hospital) were analyzed using multiple regression. In predicting IL-6, the interactions between emotional demands and JR and between interpersonal conflict with colleagues and job autonomy (but not social support) were significant, after controlling for the effect of age and gender. The association between JD and IL-6 was stronger for individuals with low levels of JR, so that levels of IL-6 were highest when JD were high and JR were low. Overall, these results are consistent with the buffer hypothesis of the JD-R model and also extend previous research, showing that the exposure to stressful situations at work, measured as high JD and low JR, is associated with higher levels of IL-6 in hospital employees. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The relations between personality, role engagement, and a four-dimensional typology of work-family balance (WFB were examined within a community-based sample (n = 213 derived from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development (JYLS. The typology was formed based on both work-family conflict (WFC and enrichment (WFE experiences. The profiles of personality and role engagement differentiated the four WFB types – Beneficial, Harmful, Active, and Passive types. The Beneficial type (low WFC, high WFE; 48.4% was characterized by low neuroticism, high agreeableness and high conscientiousness. The opposite was observed for the Harmful type (high WFC, low WFE; 8.9%, which was also characterized by low family investment. In turn, high extraversion and high work and family investment characterized the Active type (high WFC, high WFE; 16.4%, whereas low extraversion and openness to experience as well as low work investment characterized the Passive type (low WFC, low WFE; 26.3%. Thus, rather than just being a unidimensional construct ranging from balance to imbalance, it is confirmed that WFB can also be seen as manifesting itself in multiple types, which are linked to meaningful differences in personality traits and role engagement.
Breevaart, Kimberley; Bakker, Arnold B
Using job demands-resources (JD-R) theory, the present study integrates the challenge stressor-hindrance stressor framework and leadership theory to investigate the relationship between daily transformational leadership behavior and employee work engagement. We hypothesized that daily transformational leadership behavior (a) sustains employee work engagement on days characterized by high challenge job demands, and (b) protects work engagement on days characterized by high hindrance job demands. Teachers filled out a short online questionnaire at the end of each workday during a 2-week period (N = 271 × 5.68 days = 1539). Results of latent moderated structural equation modeling showed that teachers' daily challenge demands (workload and cognitive demands) had a positive relationship with work engagement on the days transformational leadership was high (vs. low). In addition, teachers' daily hindrance demands (role-conflict, but not family to work conflict) had a negative relationship with work engagement on the days transformational leadership was low (vs. high). These findings show that the function of transformational leadership behavior changes from day to day, and depends on the type of job demand. We discuss the practical and theoretical implications of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Neda Sadat Sanei
Full Text Available Motivation as a psychological factor can affect the mental health of employees and consequently the health of work place. It has been recently concerned in the social science literature. The present study aimed to assess the mediating effect of job satisfaction on the relation of motivation, perceived support and training to perceived commitment. The data study analyzed in the structural equation modeling method. The data were gathered in library field, and, also using questionnaire. The data were achieved from staff of Sabzevar city municipality using validity and reliability approved questionnaires. For validity, face and construct validity and for reliability, Cronbach's alpha was used. Finally, data from 159 questionnaires were analyzed. The findings showed that motivation, perceived support and training had positive significant effects on normative and continuance commitment of employees. Also, positive significant effect of job satisfaction on continuance and normative commitment was confirmed. In addition, the findings of this study indicated positive effect of motivation, perceived support and training on perceived commitment with mediating role of job satisfaction. In other words, the more motivation, perceived support and training are, the more job satisfaction will be, which in turn can result in the increased continuance and normative commitment.
Wright, Thomas A; Cropanzano, Russell; Bonett, Douglas G
This research provides further clarification to the age-old quest to better understand the happy/productive worker thesis. Using data from 109 managers employed by a large (over 5000 employees) customer services organization on the West Coast of the United States, both job satisfaction (r=.36, pjob satisfaction and job performance. Consistent with Fredrickson's model, performance was highest when employees reported high scores on both PWB and job satisfaction. This moderating effect of PWB may account for some of the inconsistent results of previous studies. Copyright (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Research purpose: This research is aimed at discovering the role of organisational commitment as a mediating variable between the relationship of job involvement and performance. Motivation for the study: The aim of organisations today is to outperform each other in every respect. In order to realise this, the role of employees is crucial. To elicit the best from employees requires much attention from organisations. This research is focused on this specific issue, namely, increasing employees’ performance. Research design, approach and method: The researchers have used structured questionnaires using the quantitative approach. A similar research methodology using the survey method was applied by the researchers to make the results comparable. The simple random sampling technique was used. Data was evaluated on the basis of 208 completed questionnaires. Main findings: Findings of the study indicate that there is a relationship between job involvement and in-role performance. Affective and normative commitment can act as mediator. However, continuance commitment is not a mediator in this relationship. Practical/managerial implications: It is important for organisations that want to gain a competitive edge over its rivals to enhance the level of involvement of its employees. Contribution/value-add: The results of this study will provide a new dimension for managers on how to gain a competitive advantage over rival firms with regard to performance by increasing the level of job involvement.
Teaching is not the safe career bet that it once was. The thinking used to be: New students will always be entering the public schools, and older teachers will always be retiring, so new teachers will always be needed. But teaching jobs aren't secure enough to stand up to the "Great Recession," as this drawn-out downturn has been called. Across…
Fatma Nur IPLIK
Full Text Available With increasing competition among hotels, managing employees seems to be important issue in delivering services to customers effectively. This issue also affects the firms’ outcomes and incomes. Thus, hotels as service providing firms must be able to manage the emotions of employees in order to increase the quality of services and to create value for customers. Controlling emotions of employees also contribute to gain competitive advantage across rivals. The objective of this paper is to reveal the effects of emotional labor on job attitudes of hotel employees by considering the mediating and moderating roles of social support and job autonomy. To this end, a questionnaire was employed to employees of hotels operating in Antalya Province. Results of the analyses support that emotional labor has a negative effect on emotional exhaustion. Emotional labor also has a positive effect on job satisfaction. In addition mediating and moderating roles of job autonomy and social support between emotional exhaustion and emotional labor, and emotional labor and job satisfaction.
Lopopolo, Rosalie B
Many factors in today's hospitals can influence how physical therapists view their work experience. Changing roles, with the accompanying stress, and professionalism may contribute to a therapist's perception of his or her job and the organization in which he or she works. In this study, the relationship between changes in physical therapist role behaviors following hospital restructuring and 2 work-related outcomes--job satisfaction and commitment to the organization--was studied. The influence of stress and occupational commitment on these outcomes also was examined. Through a survey of 273 hospital-based physical therapists, changes in physical therapist role behaviors, levels of stress, occupational commitment, job satisfaction, and commitment to the organization following restructuring were identified and examined. Six role behavior dimensions reflecting professional and organizational responsibilities were identified from the data. After controlling for sample demographics, the professional role behaviors, specifically those reflecting interaction and integration with other practitioners, appeared to exert a small, but positive, influence on job satisfaction and commitment to the organization. In addition, occupational commitment had a positive influence, whereas stress had a negative influence on job satisfaction and commitment to the organization. Multiple aspects of a clinician's role could influence job satisfaction and commitment to the organization following hospital restructuring. The most influential factor was stress, which often accompanies organizational change. However, the positive influence of occupational commitment and the role behaviors that involve increased interaction with other people reflect professional role characteristics described in the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice were noted.
This paper provides an overview of green jobs in the United States, with a focus on synthesizing various estimates of the current and future number of green jobs, and relating these to estimates of the future number of clean energy manufacturing jobs. In doing so, it answers the following two research questions: ?can lost manufacturing jobs become clean energy jobs?? and ?can existing manufacturing jobs be saved from disappearing by transforming into clean energy jobs?? By combining current f...
Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2013
In an effort to support college conversations regarding strengthening the role of part-time faculty, this brief document presents the job description for a Valencia College part-time/adjunct professor (revised as of July 19, 2013). The description includes essential functions, qualifications, and knowledge, skills, and abilities. This is followed…
Dec 31, 2014 ... Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological ... on the work-health balance of journalists in. Nigeria. ..... Life. New York: Basic Books,1990. 15. Lu L. Work Motivation, Job Stress and.
Chen, Senlin; Nam, Yoon Ho
Obesity prevention and control have been identified as top public health priorities in modern societies. Sport and exercise science researchers from multiple perspectives (e.g. behavioral, pedagogical, psychological, and physiological) have been active contributors addressing this topic. This paper examines the importance of energy balance (EB)…
Jang, Yuri; Lee, Ahyoung A; Zadrozny, Michelle; Bae, Sung-Heui; Kim, Miyong T; Marti, Nathan C
Based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, this study explored the impact of job demands (physical injury and racial/ethnic discrimination) and resources (self-confidence in job performance and recognition by supervisor/organization/society) on home health workers' employee outcomes (job satisfaction and turnover intent). Using data from the National Home Health Aide Survey (N = 3,354), multivariate models of job satisfaction and turnover intent were explored. In both models, the negative impact of demands (physical injury and racial/ethnic discrimination) and the positive impact of resources (self-confidence in job performance and recognition by supervisor and organization) were observed. The overall findings suggest that physical injury and discrimination should be prioritized in prevention and intervention efforts to improve home health workers' safety and well-being. Attention also needs to be paid to ways to bolster work-related efficacy and to promote an organizational culture of appreciation and respect. © The Author(s) 2015.
Li, Ning; Liang, Jian; Crant, J Michael
Drawing from a relational approach, the authors conceptualize the quality of leader-member exchange as a mediator and procedural justice climate as a contextual moderator for understanding the role of proactive personality in job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior. Data from a sample of 200 Chinese employees within 54 work groups were used to examine the hypothesized models. Results show that having a proactive personality was associated with employees establishing a high-quality exchange relationship with their supervisors; in turn, the quality of leader-member exchange was associated with greater job satisfaction and more organizational citizenship behaviors. Additionally, the relationship between proactive personality and organizational citizenship behavior was positively moderated by procedural justice climate within the group. Implications for management theory and practice are discussed. 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of work stress, job insecurity, satisfaction and commitment to safety compliance in a mine. Motivation for the study: The study aims to predict safety compliance through work-related variables in order to manage safety better. Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a cross-sectional survey design with a convenience sample (n = 158. They distributed a survey booklet. It included a biographical questionnaire, scales for job insecurity, satisfaction, affective organisational commitment, workplace accidents and safety compliance as well as a work stress measure that comprised dimensions of role clarity, conflict and overload. Main findings: The results showed that work stress and job insecurity had a negative relationship with safety compliance. The researchers found that only job satisfaction was a significant predictor of safety. Practical/managerial implications: Although exploratory, this study suggests that promoting job satisfaction may improve safety compliance whilst job stress and job insecurity also relate negatively to safety compliance. Contribution/value-add: This study shows that job satisfaction is more important than organisational commitment, job security and work stress for predicting safety compliance.
Zandara, M; Garcia-Lluch, M; Villada, C; Hidalgo, V; Salvador, A
Being unemployed and looking for a job has become a source of stress for many people in several European countries. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of this stressful situation on the individuals' psychophysiological stress responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of being an unemployed job seeker on cognitive threat appraisal and cardiac responses to a psychosocial stressor. We exposed a group of unemployed job seekers (N = 42) and a matched group of unemployed non-job seekers (N = 40) to a standardized social stressor in form of job interview, the Trier Social Stress Test. Our results showed that unemployed job seekers manifest lower cardiac responses, along with a lower cognitive threat appraisal, compared to non-job seekers. Moreover, we observed a full mediating role of cognitive threat appraisal on the relationship between being an unemployed job seeker and cardiac responses to stress. These findings reveal that being unemployed and looking for a job has an effect on physiological responses to acute stress, as well as the importance of psychological process related to the situation. These responses might lead to negative health and motivational consequences. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Reda, Nigusse W.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to highlight the congruence and roles of the balanced scorecard in the quality assurance practices in higher education institutions, and second, to propose a balanced scorecard model for higher education institutions. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive literature review was used to…
Schat, Aaron; Frone, Michael R
Despite the growing literature on workplace aggression and the importance of employee performance at work, few studies have examined the relation between workplace aggression and job performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between psychological aggression at work and two forms of job performance (task performance and contextual performance) and potential mediators of these relations. Based on Conservation of Resources theory and prior research, a model was developed and tested in which overall job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and overall personal health (i.e., physical and psychological health) fully mediate the relations between exposure to psychological aggression at work and both task performance and contextual performance. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of US workers (N = 2376) and the model was tested using structural equation modelling. The results supported the hypothesized model, demonstrating that exposure to psychological aggression at work negatively predicted both task performance and contextual performance, and that these relations were explained by decrements in job attitudes and health associated with exposure to psychological aggression at work.
In order to clarify the conceptual and empirical distinction between job satisfaction and job involvement constructs, this study investigates the relationship between construction workers core job characteristics, job satisfaction and job involvement. It also investigates the mediating role of job satisfaction between core job ...
Marloes de Graaf-Zijl
In this paper I analyse job satisfaction using fixed effect analysis and a multiple equation model. Overall job satisfaction is analysed as an aggregate of satisfaction with several job aspects. I find that overall job satisfaction is mainly determined by satisfaction with job content. All aspect satisfactions are subsequently explained from observed characteristics, with special focus on contingent employment contracts. Satisfaction with job security is the aspect satisfaction with the stron...
Full Text Available The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.
Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B
The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.
Full Text Available Psychologists and researchers of management sciences are of great interest in subject of stress and the major reason for this is its impact on psychological well-being and organizational consequences. They also recommend that preventing stress called destructive stress results from factors such as role ambiguity, role uncertainty, and organizational policies, and decreases both the individual and organizational performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of role conflict and role ambiguity on employees' job stress by explaining the role of work-family conflict. The statistical population of this study is comprised of 530 employees of Iran's central insurance. Using stratified random sampling and Cochran's formula, a sample of 118 employees was selected. We used a researcher-made questionnaire for data gathering. The Cronbach's alpha for this questionnaire was .88 and split-half reliability was .80, which represents for a reliable questionnaire. Furthermore, we used content validity and confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the validity of questionnaire. Data analysis was accomplished by structural equation modeling using the LISREL software v 8.7. Research results indicate that the effect of role ambiguity on work-family conflict is statistically significant (p-value = 62.40. Furthermore, the effect of role ambiguity on job stress was confirmed with significance of 1.83. On the other hand, the effect of role conflict on work-family conflict was not confirmed, because its significance value was negative. However, it was found that the job stress is influenced by role conflict (p-value = 2.35. And finally, the effect of work-family conflict on job stress was confirmed with the number of .93 for its significance value.
Syrek, Christine J; Apostel, Ella; Antoni, Conny H
The objective of this article is to investigate transformational leadership as a potential moderator of the negative relationship of time pressure to work-life balance and of the positive relationship between time pressure and exhaustion. Recent research regards time pressure as a challenge stressor; while being positively related to motivation and performance, time pressure also increases employee strain and decreases well-being. Building on the Job Demand-Resources model, we hypothesize that transformational leadership moderates the relationships between time pressure and both employees' exhaustion and work-life balance such that both relationships will be weaker when transformational leadership is higher. Of seven information technology organizations in Germany, 262 employees participated in the study. Established scales for time pressure, transformational leadership, work-life balance, and exhaustion were used, all showing good internal consistencies. The results support our assumptions. Specifically, we find that under high transformational leadership the impact of time pressure on exhaustion and work-life balance was less strong. The results of this study suggest that, particularly under high time pressure, transformational leadership is an important factor for both employees' work-life balance and exhaustion. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Han, Jia; Anson, Judith; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Liu, Yu
Balance control improvement is one of the most important goals in sports and exercise. Better balance is strongly positively associated with enhanced athletic performance and negatively associated with lower limb sports injuries. Proprioception plays an essential role in balance control, and ankle proprioception is arguably the most important. This paper reviews ankle proprioception and explores synergies with balance control, specifically in a sporting context. Central processing of ankle proprioceptive information, along with other sensory information, enables integration for balance control. When assessing ankle proprioception, the most generalizable findings arise from methods that are ecologically valid, allow proprioceptive signals to be integrated with general vision in the central nervous system, and reflect the signal-in-noise nature of central processing. Ankle proprioceptive intervention concepts driven by such a central processing theory are further proposed and discussed for the improvement of balance control in sport.
Han, Jia; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Liu, Yu
Balance control improvement is one of the most important goals in sports and exercise. Better balance is strongly positively associated with enhanced athletic performance and negatively associated with lower limb sports injuries. Proprioception plays an essential role in balance control, and ankle proprioception is arguably the most important. This paper reviews ankle proprioception and explores synergies with balance control, specifically in a sporting context. Central processing of ankle proprioceptive information, along with other sensory information, enables integration for balance control. When assessing ankle proprioception, the most generalizable findings arise from methods that are ecologically valid, allow proprioceptive signals to be integrated with general vision in the central nervous system, and reflect the signal-in-noise nature of central processing. Ankle proprioceptive intervention concepts driven by such a central processing theory are further proposed and discussed for the improvement of balance control in sport. PMID:26583139
Lievens, Ilse; Vlerick, Peter
To report the impact of transformational leadership on two dimensions of nurses' safety performance (i.e. safety compliance and safety participation) and to study the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics in this relationship. Safety performance refers to the behaviours that employees exhibit to adhere to safety guidelines and to promote health and safety at their workplace. Nurses' safety performance is a major challenge for healthcare settings, urging the need to identify the key determinants and psychological mechanisms that influence it. A cross-sectional survey study. The study was carried out in September 2010 in a large Belgian hospital. We used self-administered questionnaires; 152 nurses participated. The hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analyses. In line with our first hypothesis, the results show that transformational leadership exerted a significant positive impact on both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This positive relation was mediated by knowledge-related job characteristics, supporting our second hypothesis. Head nurses' transformational leadership can enhance nurses' compliance with and participation in safety. Furthermore, transformational head nurses are able to influence the perception that their nurses have about the kind and amount of knowledge in their job, which can also lead to increases in both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This study therefore demonstrates the key impact that transformational head nurses have, both directly and indirectly, on the safety performance of their nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Stoilkovska, Biljana Blaževska; Žileska Pančovska, Valentina; Mijoski, Goran
This study examines the degree to which construction sector employees perceive that safety is important in their organizations/sites and how job satisfaction affects these perceptions when age is introduced as a moderator variable. Two-way analysis of variance demonstrated that job satisfaction has a strong effect on perceived management commitment to work safety and that this relationship was moderated by respondents' age. Job satisfaction was associated with perceived accident rate and safety inspection frequency, but the proposed role of age in this linkage was not confirmed. Consequently, the findings indicated that by increasing the level of job satisfaction, perceptions of these safety climate aspects proved to be more positive. The conclusion is that these relationships could further lead to a lower percentage of accidents and injuries in the workplace and better health among employees. A significant relationship between job satisfaction, age and perceived co-workers' commitment to work safety was not found.
Ziegler, Rene; Schlett, Christian
Studies have identified variables either moderating the extent to which job satisfaction predicts work behavior or moderating the reverse impact of work behavior on job satisfaction. Based on an attitude strength and self-perception framework, we argue that certain variables may moderate both the predictive utility of job satisfaction for work behavior and the impact of work behavior on job satisfaction. Specifically focusing on work centrality, we hold that high work centrality renders job satisfaction a strong job attitude, whereas low work centrality renders job satisfaction a weak job attitude. Hence, the predictive utility of job satisfaction for both extra-role behavior and in-role behavior should be higher the more work is central to employees. In contrast, the influence of extra-role behavior, but not of in-role behavior, on job satisfaction should be higher the less work is central to employees. Results of a two-wave study (N = 176) were in line with these predictions. We discuss further variables that may play a similar role for the bi-directional relationship between job satisfaction and work behavior.
Ziegler, Rene; Schlett, Christian
Studies have identified variables either moderating the extent to which job satisfaction predicts work behavior or moderating the reverse impact of work behavior on job satisfaction. Based on an attitude strength and self-perception framework, we argue that certain variables may moderate both the predictive utility of job satisfaction for work behavior and the impact of work behavior on job satisfaction. Specifically focusing on work centrality, we hold that high work centrality renders job satisfaction a strong job attitude, whereas low work centrality renders job satisfaction a weak job attitude. Hence, the predictive utility of job satisfaction for both extra-role behavior and in-role behavior should be higher the more work is central to employees. In contrast, the influence of extra-role behavior, but not of in-role behavior, on job satisfaction should be higher the less work is central to employees. Results of a two-wave study (N = 176) were in line with these predictions. We discuss further variables that may play a similar role for the bi-directional relationship between job satisfaction and work behavior. PMID:26973556
Anna Maria Dåderman
Full Text Available Background: Poland has lower ratios of employed registered nurses per 1,000 inhabitants than the EU average. Polish nurses work under miserable conditions without assisting personnel, and they reconcile their professional demands with responsibilities for their families; 96% of them are women. Rationale/Aims: This study uses Hobfoll’s Conservation of Resources (COR theory to explain the role of various resources in the improvement of work conditions in the nursing profession. Work-family conflict (WFC and family-work conflict (FWC threaten to deplete nurses’ resources. This paper set out to (1 examine the extent to which perceived job demands (workload and interpersonal conflicts at work and engagement (vigour, dedication and absorption are associated with turnover intentions (the intention to leave the present workplace and the intention to leave the nursing profession; (2 attempt to determine whether levels of WFC and FWC moderate these associations. Design/Method: This study comprised 188 female registered nurses. The inclusion criterion was to live with a partner and/or have children. Results: WFC was moderately related to FWC. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only high job demands and low vigour were significantly associated with turnover intentions. WFC was experienced more intensively than FWC. Job demands, vigour, dedication and turnover intentions had a strong effect on WFC, while absorption had a strong effect on FWC. However, levels of WFC and FWC did not significantly moderate these associations. Originality/Conclusion: The study produces new knowledge by examining a constellation of job demands, work engagement and WFC, which reflect the management of personal resources. Results from such a constellation in nurses from countries with a post-transformational economic system have not previously been discussed in the light of COR theory. Most importantly, we conclude that WFC does not intensify turnover intentions.
Dåderman, Anna M; Basinska, Beata A
Background: Poland has lower ratios of employed registered nurses per 1,000 inhabitants than the EU average. Polish nurses work under miserable conditions without assisting personnel, and they reconcile their professional demands with responsibilities for their families; 96% of them are women. Rationale/Aims: This study uses Hobfoll's conservation of resources (CORs) theory to explain the role of various resources in the improvement of work conditions in the nursing profession. Work-family conflict (WFC) and family work conflict (FWC) threaten to deplete nurses' resources. This paper set out to (1) examine the extent to which perceived job demands (workload and interpersonal conflicts at work) and engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption) are associated with turnover intentions (the intention to leave the present workplace and the intention to leave the nursing profession); (2) attempt to determine whether levels of WFC and FWC moderate these associations. Design/Method: This study comprised 188 female registered nurses. The inclusion criterion was to live with a partner and/or have children. Results: WFC was moderately related to FWC. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only high job demands and low vigor were significantly associated with turnover intentions. WFC was experienced more intensively than FWC. Job demands, vigor, dedication, and turnover intentions had a strong effect on WFC, while absorption had a strong effect on FWC. However, levels of WFC and FWC did not significantly moderate these associations. Originality/Conclusion: The study produces new knowledge by examining a constellation of job demands, work engagement and WFC, which reflect the management of personal resources. Results from such a constellation in nurses from countries with a post-transformational economic system have not previously been discussed in the light of COR theory. Most importantly, we conclude that WFC does not intensify turnover intentions.
Mavromaras, Kostas; Sloane, Peter; Wei, Zhang
This paper examines the outcome of over-skilling and over-education on wages and job satisfaction of full-time employees in Australia between 2001 and 2008. We employ a random effects probit model with Mundlak corrections. We find differences by type of mismatch, education pathway, and gender. We categorise reported mismatches as genuine…
Explores factors that influence how women cope with multiple roles. Discusses implications of a study that investigated job sharing as a part-time employment alternative for women (n=4 job-sharing nurses and n=4 part-time nurses) wanting a healthier balance between home and work life. (SNR)
Lean red meat is rich in essential nutrients, such as iron and zinc. Recent changes in farming practice have lowered the fat content of meat significantly. Observational studies have associated high meat consumption with negative health outcomes, but these studies have limitations. The only consistent data relate to colorectal cancer, although it is unclear whether the risk relates to all red meat or to processed or overcooked meats only. The UK government has recently recommended that high consumers of red meat should reduce their intake to 500g per week, although average meat consumption is actually below this figure. This article describes patterns of meat consumption, discusses associations with health and offers guidance on how patients can consume meat as part of a healthy, balanced diet.
Zikic, Jelena; Saks, Alan M.
Social cognitive theory was used to explain the relationships between career-relevant activities (environmental and self career exploration, career resources, and training), self-regulatory variables (job search self-efficacy and job search clarity), variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (job search attitude, subjective norm, job search…
Presented are the results of a secondary analysis of group data from a study of a six-week role conflict reduction intervention among a group of urban American Indian women (n = 8). The specific aim of this researcher was to understand the process of balancing multiple roles as expressed in the participants' daily lived experiences as mothers, wives, and workers. A construction of the process of balancing multiple roles was accomplished through the use of narratives. Balancing multiple roles represented a major current attempt on the part of the participants to integrate and balance traditional and contemporary feminine strengths in a positive, culturally consistent manner. The study themes included: traditional sex role expectation conflicts, family guilt, guilt management, transitioning inner conflict and stress, breaking the silence-learning to say no, and healing the spirit to reclaim the self. Further support for retraditionalization of roles for this group of Indian women was maintained as an effective means of balancing roles and achieving Indian self-determination.
Conclusions: Our findings provided additional evidence that not only being the target of violent behaviors may take an emotional toll. When a worker experiences fear of future violent events at work, he\\she tends to experience stronger levels of emotional exhaustion and cynicism. Job control plays a fundamental role, buffering the way that a person perceives workplace conditions and the choice of coping strategy.
Addy, Samuel N.; Nzaku, Kilungu; Ijaz, Ahmad
Job satisfaction is an important measure of utility that employees derive from their jobs and is related to various features of the job such as pay, security, intrinsic values of work, working conditions, career growth opportunities, working hours, and the like. This paper analyzes the relationship between underemployment and overall job satisfaction among other personal and job characteristics of the workforce in Alabama using survey data from Alabama workforce development regions. A logisti...
Oyler, Jennifer D.
This study extends job embeddedness and job satisfaction theory in several notable directions. As hypothesized, structural equation modeling revealed that community embeddedness was a partial mediator of the relationship between core self-evaluations and job satisfaction. Contrary to job embeddedness theory, this study found that organizational embeddedness and job satisfaction were best represented by a single latent factor. Thus, organizational embeddedness did not act as a mediator of the ...
Mayo, Nicole Lepone
The purpose of this inquiry is to study how student affairs professionals manage role conflict in relation to work/life balance based on the challenging culture of the field. The underlying goals are to identify the barriers or challenges of managing multiple roles as a student affairs administrator and identify strategies to assist employees in…
Sturges, Keith M.
Drawing on a qualitative study of an educational reform and its external evaluation, I describe how a well-intentioned but poorly conceptualized evaluation helped perpetuate asymmetries in the generation and use of evaluation findings. This article explores this project's failure to clarify evaluator roles, identify intended users and expected…
Existing card-based production control systems such as Kanban are mostly dedicated to repetitive production environments. Cards-based systems for job shop control are lacking, while particularly this industry segment shows a need for simple control systems. This paper aims at filling the gap by
Full Text Available Despite the more extensive use of other resources such as modern technology, the optimal utilization of human resources will remain a daunting challenge to all managers during the 1990's and beyond. The absence of em- ployees from work, both temporarily and permanently, however, renders the realization of this objective near impossible. Ensuring that employees want to be and are at work, and stay there, thus become important secondary objectives. Both absenteeism and turnover have been shown to undermine optimal employee performance. Some argue that the willingness to be at work will depend on the degree to which employees identify with the organization's goals, objectives, and values (commitment to the organization. This study investigated this contention, and whether the behaviour and actions of supervisors can influence the organizational commitment of employees. A structural equation modelling approach was used to assess whether job stress and job satisfaction serve as intervening variables in the supervision-organizational commitment relationship. The empirical results revealed that intrinsic job satisfaction exerts a significant positive influence on organizational commitment, and role conflict, a negative influence. A management style which can be described as participative is likely to limit the harmful influence of role conflict while enhancing feelings of intrinsic job satisfaction among employees. Opsomming Nieteenstaande die toenemende gebruik van tegnologie in ondernemings, is die optimale benutting van menslike hulpbronne steeds onmisbaar en van deurslaggewende belang. Die doeltreffende gebruik van menslike hulpbronne kan egter belemmer word deur 'n hoe arbeidsomset en afwesigheidsyfer. Daar word aanvaar dat die bereidwilligheid om by die werk te wees in 'n groot mate beinvloed word deur die mate waartoe werknemers hulleself vereenselwig met die onderneming se waardestelsels en doelstellings. Hierdie verskynsel staan bekend as
Noel J. Pearse
Full Text Available As part of their responsibilities of leading the organisation, strategic leaders are responsible for leading change. This article investigated the application of the strategic leadership of change within the church context. A Straussian approach to the grounded theory method was used to generate a substantive grounded theory of organisational change and leadership, particularly focusing on the manifestation and management of organisation inertia in churches within South Africa that were transitioning from a programme based to a cell based church design. This article reported on one aspect of this study and focused on the patterns of leadership roles. It further distinguished between effective and ineffective leadership patterns that either enhanced or compromised the credibility of the leader and by implication, affected the success of the change intervention. The results of the study were discussed from the perspective of social capital theory, thereby contributing to understanding the role of strategic leaders in building social capital within the context of organisation change.
Job Satisfaction: Rural Versus Urban Primary Health Care Workers'. Perception in ... doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for one's efforts. Several ... community recognition of their work and improved staff relationship. ..... study found important differences about attractors to ... their work, work-life balance, bureaucracy.
Feng, Danjun; Su, Shan; Wang, Lu; Liu, Fang
To determine the prevalence of psychological distress, and to explore the combined protective roles of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction against psychological distress. Few studies have explored the combined protective effect of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction on nurses' mental health in the same theoretical framework. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, a self-developed Job Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale were used to survey 581 nurses. The hypothesized model of the relationships among self-esteem, perceived social support, job satisfaction and psychological distress was tested with structural equation modelling. The prevalence of psychological distress was 92.3%. Job satisfaction exerted the strongest direct protective effect against psychological distress, with perceived social support and self-esteem exerting the second and third strongest direct protective effects, respectively. Additionally, self-esteem had an indirect protective effect. Chinese nurses showed a surprisingly high prevalence of psychological distress. Job satisfaction, self-esteem and perceived social support were identified, in this order of importance, as protective factors against psychological distress. Nurse administrators should take measures to improve nurses' job satisfaction and social support, and hire individuals with high self-esteem as nurses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gaither, Caroline A; Kahaleh, Abir A; Doucette, William R; Mott, David A; Pederson, Craig A; Schommer, Jon C
Understanding the effects of job stress continues to be a concern for health-care providers as workload and personnel needs increase. The overall objective of this study was to test a direct effects model of job stress that examines the characteristics of the organizational environment (interpersonal interactions, environmental aspects, the level of compensation and advancement, role stress, and availability of alternative jobs); extra-role factors (work-home conflict); job stress; individual factors (career commitment); and the work-related psychological outcomes of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job turnover intention. A cross-sectional mail survey was sent to a nationwide random sample of 4895 licensed pharmacists in the United States. Previously validated summated Likert-type scales measured each of the study variables. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the final model. A response rate of 46% was achieved. Psychometric analyses indicated acceptable reliability and validity. The study model fit the data well (CFI[comparative fit index] = 0.90, RMSEA[root mean square error of approximation] = 0.05). Organizational factors in the form of role overload (standardized beta = 0.45) and conflict (0.31) and ease of finding a job with better interpersonal characteristics (0.26) had the largest effects on job stress. Interpersonal characteristics were also one of the strongest predictors of job satisfaction (-0.61) and organizational commitment (-0.70). Work-home conflict directly affected job turnover intention (0.11) and career commitment (-0.16). Other significant, but sometimes, opposite direct effects were found. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment directly affected job turnover intention. Given the increased demand for pharmacy services, health-care organizations will benefit from increasing positive and reducing negative work
Nordenmark, Mikael; Vinberg, Stig; Strandh, Mattias
Self-employed persons and their enterprises are regarded as important to the economy for their contribution to economic development. However, an understanding of the relationship between the psychosocial working conditions, the work-life balance and outcomes, such as health and wellbeing among the self-employed and micro-enterprise is limited. The main aim of this article is to study the relationships between control and demands at work, the work-life balance and wellbeing among self-employed...
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze and find out the role of organizational commitment mediation on the effect of person-organization fit and job satisfaction to the turnover intention of marketing funding employees. The research method used was quantitative. The type of this research was causal associative by using purposive sampling method in the sample determination. Respondents are 96 employees of Marketing Funding at Bank Nusa Tenggara Barat, Indonesia. The data analysis technique used was Partial Least Square analysis. The research result showed that person-organization fit has no significant effect on turnover intention, job satisfaction has no significant effect on turnover intention, person-organization fit has significant effect on the organizational commitment, job satisfaction has significant effect on organizational commitment, organizational commitment has significant effect on turnover intention, organizational commitment fully mediates the relationship between person-organization fit on turnover intention, and organizational commitment fully mediates the relationship between job satisfaction on turnover intention.
Full Text Available Objective: Demographic changes involving western countries and later retirements due to the recent pension reforms induce a gradual aging of the workforce. This imply an increasing number of workers with health problems and a decreasing of ability to work. In this direction, the present study aims at examining the role of job and personal resources between age and work ability within nurses.Method: The study was cross-sectional and not randomized; data were collected by a self-report questionnaire during a multi-center survey conducted in two Italian hospitals in 2016. In this way, 333 nurses were reached.Results: Multiple linear regression showed that age is significantly and negatively associated to work ability, and that job resources (e.g., decision authority and meaning of work and personal resources (e.g., hope and resilience moderate the relationship between age and work ability.Discussion: These results highlight that investing in work and personal resources to support WA is even more relevant for those professions where high physical effort is required.
Unanue, Wenceslao; Gómez, Marcos E.; Cortez, Diego; Oyanedel, Juan C.; Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés
The link between job satisfaction and life satisfaction has been extensively explored in the relevant literature. However, the great majority of past research has been carried out using cross-sectional analyses, and almost exclusively in the Western world. Moreover, the underlying psychological mechanisms explaining the link are not yet completely understood. Thus, we report the first research to date which uses both cross-sectional and longitudinal data among workers in Chile—a fast-developing Latin American economy—and which aims to tackle previous limitations. Three studies consistently support a positive link between the constructs. Study 1 (N = 636) found that higher job satisfaction predicted higher life satisfaction both contemporaneously and longitudinally, and vice versa, above and beyond several key control variables. Study 2 (N = 725) and Study 3 (N = 703) replicated Study 1 results, but tested for the first time the role of satisfaction of basic psychological needs (as stated by self-determination theory) in the job–life satisfaction link. This is the most novel contribution of our paper. Key implications not only for individual quality of life, but also for companies' human resource practices emerge from our findings. PMID:28536541
Van den Broeck, Anja; Parker, Sharon K.
Job design or work design refers to the content, structure, and organization of tasks and activities. It is mostly studied in terms of job characteristics, such as autonomy, workload, role problems, and feedback. Throughout history, job design has moved away from a sole focus on efficiency and productivity to more motivational job designs, including the social approach toward work, Herzberg’s two-factor model, Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics model, the job demand control model of Kar...
Wang, H.; Demerouti, E.; Le Blanc, P.M.
In this study, we aim to explore the link between transformational leadership and job crafting. We predict that transformational leadership will stimulate employee job crafting (seeking resources, seeking challenges, and reducing demands) by increasing their adaptability; but that transformational
Peng, Yu-Ping; Hwang, Shiuh-Nan; Wong, Jehn-Yih
This study uses a structural equation model to examine the effect of job autonomy on the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior for university librarians in Taiwan. Findings indicate that this relationship is stronger when job autonomy is high; we then discuss some implications for the librarianship…
Liu, Yan; Peng, Kelly; Wong, Chi-Sum
Despite the well-recognized importance of career maturity in job searching, little research has been done on the influence of career maturity on job attainment. Drawing on the extant literature, this study examined the relationship between career maturity and job attainment, and explored the boundary conditions that maximize this relationship.…
Turban, Daniel B.; Lee, Felissa K.; Veiga, Serge P. da Motta; Haggard, Dana L.; Wu, Sharon Y.
In this study we developed and tested a self-regulatory model of trait affect in job search. Specifically, we theorized that trait positive and negative affect would influence both motivation control and procrastination, and these mediating variables would, in turn, influence job search outcomes through job search intensity. Using longitudinal…
da Motta Veiga, Serge P; Gabriel, Allison S
Job search is a dynamic self-regulated process during which job seekers need to stay motivated to secure a job. However, past research has taken a relatively static approach to examining motivation during the job search, in addition to ignoring how the quality of one's motivation--ranging from autonomous to controlled--can influence job search processes. Adopting a within-person perspective, the current study extends self-determination theory (SDT) to the job search context to investigate (a) when autonomous and controlled motivations are more or less prevalent and (b) whether they influence job search effort through metacognitive strategies in differing ways depending upon the amount of time elapsed in the search. In a weekly study of new labor market entrants (Level-2 n = 149; Level-1 n = 691), results indicated that autonomous motivation decreased until the midpoint of the job search and then plateaued, whereas controlled motivation remained stable. Results also showed that autonomous motivation had a consistent, positive relation with metacognitive strategies, whereas the relation between controlled motivation and such strategies was negative early in the job search, but became positive as the job search progressed. Finally, the effects of motivation on job search effort occurred via metacognitive strategies differentially depending upon the time elapsed in the search. Combined, we provide a first glimpse into the dynamics of self-determined motivation on job search processes. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Zeijen, Marijntje E.L.; Peeters, Maria C.W.; Hakanen, Jari J.
Job crafting refers to the proactive actions employees take to redesign their jobs in order to get a better fit with their competencies, expectations, and wishes. So far, little is known about job crafting's underlying mechanisms. In this study, we examine how two different states of affective
Zeijen, M.; Peeters, M.C.W.; Hakanen, J.
Job crafting refers to the proactive actions employees take to redesign their jobs in order to get a better fit with their competencies, expectations, and wishes. So far, little is known about job crafting's underlying mechanisms. In this study, we examine how two different states of affective
Successful welfare reform requires quickly moving welfare recipients into jobs. Components to this challenge include the following: a poor fit between where jobs are located and where many welfare recipients live; recipients who lack experience and skills and do not know how to seek, find, or qualify for jobs; childcare and transportation needs;…
This paper analyses how finding a new job affects the earnings of immigrants. I hypothesize that job changes are more successful for individuals who have access to bridging social capital. Using data from the German Socio-economic Panel (1996–2011), fixed-effects models show that finding a new job
Abu Bakar, A; Mohd Nor, N A; Ab-Murat, N; Jaafar, N
To assess Malaysian dental therapists' perceptions of their job satisfaction and future roles. A nationwide postal survey involving all Malaysian dental therapists who met the inclusion criteria (n = 1726). The response rate was 76.8%. All respondents were females; mean age 35.4 years (SD = 8.4). Majority were married (85.5%) and more than one-half had a working experience of income (45.2%), allowances (45.2%) and non-commensurate between pay and performance (44.0%). Majority perceived their role as very important in routine clinical tasks such as examination and diagnosis, preventive treatment, extraction of deciduous teeth and oral health promotion. However, fewer than one-half consider complex treatment such as placement of preformed crowns on deciduous teeth (37.1%) and extraction of permanent teeth (37.2%) as very important tasks. Majority expressed high career satisfaction with most aspects of their employment but expressed low satisfaction in remuneration, lack of career advancement opportunities and administrative tasks. We conclude that most Malaysian dental therapists have positive perceptions of their current roles but do not favour wider expansion of their roles. These findings imply that there was a need to develop a more attractive career pathway for therapists to ensure sustainability of effective primary oral healthcare delivery system for Malaysia's children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Li, Xirui; Kan, Dan; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie; Wu, Hui
Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women). Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank employees.
Full Text Available Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women. Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank
Full Text Available Like manufacturing companies, hotels implement several strategies in order to satisfy consumers’ needs and wants. These strategies play critical roles in the context of unique characteristics of hotel services and interaction between boundary spanning role employee and consumer, when they are examined from the service firms’ perspectives. Having outlined this basic information, managerial ethical behaviors are assumed to depict relationships with frontline employees’ motivation and job satisfaction. In light of the aforementioned information, this study aims to make boundary spanning role employees assess the managerial ethical behaviors. Therefore, Managerial Ethical Behavior and Job Satisfaction Survey was conducted with 836 frontline employees in four and five star hotels in Adana. The reliability and validity dimensions of the scale were taken into consideration so as to be capable of obtaining reasonable results and making contribution to the related literature. Frequency tests and means were employed, and regression analysis was used to investigate the effect of managerial ethical behavior on employees’ motivation and job satisfaction. Managerial ethical behavior has positive effects on both employees' motivation and their job satisfaction. And as expected, employees motivation has positive and moderate effect on their job satisfaction in the subject 4 and 5 Star hotel companies
Purpora, Christina; Blegen, Mary A
To describe the association between horizontal violence and job satisfaction in hospital staff registered nurses and the degree to which peer relationships mediates the relationship. Additionally, the association between nurse and work characteristics and job satisfaction were determined. Horizontal violence is a major predictor of nurses' job satisfaction. Yet, not enough is known about the relationship between these variables. Job satisfaction is an important variable to study because it is a predictor of patient care quality and safety internationally. Peer relationships, a job satisfier for nurses, was identified as a potential mediator in the association between horizontal violence and job satisfaction. Cross-sectional mediational model testing. An anonymous four-part survey of a random sample of 175 hospital staff registered nurses working in California provided the data. Data about horizontal violence, peer relationships, job satisfaction, and nurse and work characteristics were collected between March-August 2010. A statistically significant negative relationship was found between horizontal violence and peer relationships, job satisfaction and a statistically significant positive relationship was found between peer relationships and job satisfaction. Peer relationships mediated the association between horizontal violence and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was reported as higher by nurses who worked in teaching hospitals. There were no statistically significant differences in job satisfaction based on gender, ethnicity, basic registered nurse education, highest degree held, size of hospital or clinical area. The results suggest that peer relationships can attenuate the negative relationship between horizontal violence and job satisfaction. This adds to the extant literature on the relationship between horizontal violence and job satisfaction. The findings highlight peer relationships as an important factor when considering effective interventions that
This study focuses on academics in research-intensive universities in the UK and explores their perceptions of organizational climate, role conflict, role ambiguity and job satisfaction. The findings suggest that the universities have multiple organizational climates. Three organizational climate types -- the Clan, the Hierarchy and the Adhocracy…
Bakker, Arnold B
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of job crafting on the quality of the work environment of health care professionals. Job crafting refers to proactive behavior aimed at optimizing the fit between person and job. Using job demands-resources theory, we hypothesized that job crafting would be positively related to job resources and person-organisation fit, and negatively to hindrance demands. Furthermore, we hypothesized that these relationships would be qualified by work engagement. A total of 5,272 health care professionals from one of 35 different organisations filled out an electronic questionnaire (response is 55%). Regression analyses were used to test hypotheses. Consistent with hypotheses, job crafting in the form of increasing job resources was positively related to opportunities for development, performance feedback and P-O fit; and negatively related to hindrance job demands - particularly when work engagement was high. The combination of job crafting and work engagement is important for the realization of a resourceful work environment and fit between person and organisation. Interventions aimed at fostering job crafting should be tailored to the motivation of health care professionals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Azman Bin Ismail
Full Text Available According to the literature pertaining to human resource development (HRD, a supervisor’s role in training programs has two major characteristics: support and communication. The ability of supervisors to play effective roles in training programs may increase employees’ job performance. More importantly, extant research in this field reveals that the effect of the supervisor’s role in training programs on job performance is indirectly affected by the motivation to learn. The nature of this relationship is less emphasized in training management literature. Therefore, this study was conducted to measure the effect of the supervisor’s role in training programs and the motivation to learn on job performance using 91 usable questionnaires gathered from employees who have worked in a state library in East Malaysia, Malaysia. The outcomes of stepwise regression analysis displayed that the inclusion of motivation to learn in the analysis had increased the effects of the two supervisor’s role elements of support and communication on job performance. This result demonstrates that the motivation to learn acts as a mediating variable in the training model of the organizational sample. The implications of this study to the theory and practice of training programs, methodological and conceptual limitations as well as future directions are elaborated.
Full Text Available The present study examines the potential moderating role of union support in the relationship between job insecurity and work-related attitudes and well-being of unionised employees. Survey data collected among union members from three European countries (The Netherlands, Italy and Sweden indicate that job insecurity is associated with reduced levels of job satisfaction, well-being and organisational commitment. Contrary to expectations, union support moderated neither the effect of job insecurity on job satisfaction nor its effect on wellbeing. However, in two countries a moderating effect of union support on relation between the job insecurity and organisational commitment was found. Opsomming Die huidige studie ondersoek die potensiële modererende rol van vakbond ondersteuning in die verhouding tussen werksonsekerheid en werksverwante houdings en welstand van werknemers wat aan ’n, vakbond behoort. Opname data wat ingesamel is tussen vakbond lede van drie Europese lande (Nederland, Italië en Swede toon dat werksonsekerheid geassosieer word met verlaagde vlakke van werkstevredenheid, welstand en organisasieverbondenheid. Teen verwagting, het vakbond ondersteuning nie die effek van werksonsekerheid op wekstevredenheid of welstand gemodereer nie. Daar is egter in twee lande ’n, moderende effek van vakbond ondersteuning op die verwantskap tussen werksonsekerheid en organisasie gebondenheid gevind.
The detrimental effects of job insecurity on individual and organizational well-being are well documented in recent literature. Job insecurity as a stressor is generally associated with a higher presence of negative attitudes toward the organization. In this article, the moderating role of Honesty-Humility personality trait was investigated. It was assumed that Honesty-Humility would function as a psychological moderator of the job insecurity impact on counterproductive work behaviors. Participants were 203 workers who were administered a self-reported questionnaire. Results confirmed that job insecurity was positively related to counterproductive work behaviors whereas Honesty-Humility was negatively associated to them. More importantly, Honesty-Humility moderated this relationship, even after controlling for gender, age, type of contract, and the other HEXACO personality traits. For individuals with low Honesty-Humility, job insecurity was positively related to counterproductive work behaviors, whereas for individuals with high Honesty-Humility, job insecurity turned out to be unrelated to counterproductive work behaviors.
De Simone, Silvia; Planta, Anna; Cicotto, Gianfranco
Nurses' voluntary turnover is a worrying global phenomenon which affects service quality. Retaining nursing staff within a hospital is important to eliminate the negative influence of voluntary turnover on the quality of care and organisation costs. This research helps explain nurses' voluntary turnover by analysing the role of self-efficacy, agentic capacities, job satisfaction, and work engagement on hospital turnover intention, and to study the relationships between these variables and patient satisfaction. This study gathered data from 194 nurses and 181 patients from 22 inpatient wards at two hospitals in southern Italy. Correlation analysis revealed that job satisfaction, work engagement, self-efficacy and agentic capacities were positively interrelated and negatively correlated with turnover intention. Path analysis showed that self-efficacy, some agentic capacities (anticipation and self-regulation), job satisfaction, and work engagement had direct or indirect effects on nurses' turnover intention, and that job satisfaction exerted a stronger effect on turnover intention. Also, patient satisfaction was positively correlated with nurses' job satisfaction, work engagement, self-efficacy, self-regulation and anticipation and negatively correlated with nurses' turnover intention. Results highlighted the importance of implementing actions (for example through feedforward methodology and the goal setting technique) to improve self-efficacy, self-regulation skill, work engagement and job satisfaction in order to reduce nurses' turnover intention and increase patient satisfaction with nursing care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vardaman, James M; Rogers, Bryan L; Marler, Laura E
Because nurses are on the front lines of care delivery, they are subject to frequent changes to their work practices. This change-laden environment puts nurses at higher risk for turnover. Given the frequent disruption to the way nurses perform their jobs, change-related self-efficacy (CSE), or confidence that one can handle change, may be vital to their retention. The purpose of this article is to examine the roles of CSE and job embeddedness in reducing turnover intentions among nurses. Specifically, this article tests a model in which CSE is the intervening mechanism through which job embeddedness influences turnover intentions. Drawing on a sample of 207 nurses working in the medical/surgical unit of a major metropolitan hospital in the United States, this study employs OLS regression to test for direct effects of job embeddedness and CSE on turnover intentions and bias-corrected bootstrapping to test for the indirect effects of job embeddedness on turnover intentions through CSE. Results show that CSE is directly linked to turnover intentions, and the effects of job embeddedness on turnover intentions become fully manifest through CSE. Improved nurse retention may lead to stable patient care and less disruption in service delivery. Improved retention also benefits health care organizations financially, as costs of replacing a nurse can exceed 100% of the salary for the position. Given the shortage of nurses in some geographic areas, retention remains an important goal.
Emanuel, Federica; Colombo, Lara; Cortese, Claudio G; Ghislieri, Chiara
This study examined the role of the "safety climate", or the organization's attention to health and safety of workers, and of job demand and resources in relation with job satisfaction. Wellbeing at work is a topic of growing interest, in line with the legislation and the programs on health and safety of workers and management and the evaluation of psychosocial risks. Several studies show that organizational actions concerning health and safety can be an indicator of the attention to employees' wellbeing, even if studies about the relationship between safety climate and some psychosocial outcomes are scant. The study analysed the relationship between job demand, job resources, safety climate and job satisfaction in three different occupational contexts (public authority, N = 224; social care organization, N = 115; pharmaceutical company, N = 127); workers were divided into groups based on the risk level appeared in the objective assessment of work-related stress, in order to identify differences. The self-report questionnaire gathered information about: job satisfaction, work efforts, supervisors' support, colleagues support, safety climate (α between .72 and .93). Data analysis provided: Cronbach α, analysis of variance, correlations, stepwise multiple regressions. The results showed that job satisfaction (R2 between .23 and .88) had a negative relationship with efforts and a positive relationship with job resources and safety climate. It emerges the importance of safety climate: to support and promote wellbeing at work, organizations could endorse training and information programs on health and safety for all workers and management, not only for professional groups with high-risk level. Future studies could explore the relation between safety climate and other outcomes, such as emotional exhaustion or objective indicators of organizational health (e.g. absenteeism, accidents, etc.). Copyright© by Aracne Editrice, Roma, Italy.
Full Text Available This study is aimed at exploring how self-employed women cope in balancing their dual roles as mothers and executives. Through the elicitation of constructs by making use of Kelly’s repertory grid technique, the personal construct system of five self-employed white women in Gauteng across varying industries was established. While being successful dual earners, they still bore the primary responsibility for nurturing their families and assuring their well-being. The successful balancing of their dual roles was attributed to the following central themes, which emerged from all the participants: quality time spent with children and family, structure and planning, coping with guilt, support structures and self-reliance, and balance between work and life.
Jantzer, Amanda M; Anderson, Jenn; Kuehl, Rebecca A
Women are increasingly faced with decisions about how to combine breastfeeding with work, but few researchers have directly measured how breastfeeding relates to the work-life interface. Research aim: The authors examined how perceptions of work enhancement of personal life and work interference with personal life were influenced by workplace breastfeeding support, including organizational, manager, and coworker support, as well as adequate time to express human milk. Then, we examined how workplace breastfeeding support predicted work-life variables and job satisfaction. Using a self-report, survey design, the authors analyzed online surveys from 87 women in a rural, community sample who indicated that they had pumped at work or anticipated needing to pump in the future. According to regression results, provision of workplace breastfeeding support, particularly providing adequate time for human milk expression, predicted work enhancement of personal life. Conversely, we found that as workplace support diminished, employees perceived greater work interference with personal life. Results of path analysis further suggested that providing time for expressing milk improved job satisfaction via a partially mediated relationship where work enhancement of personal life acted as a mediator. These results suggest that employers can enhance the lives of their breastfeeding employees both at work and at home by providing workplace breastfeeding support, especially through providing time for expressing human milk in the workplace.
Smits, J.; Mulder, C.H.; Hooimeijer, P.
Long-distance migration of couples requires joint decision-making within the household. The uneven power balance between men and women and traditional gender roles have given rise to the concepts of 'tied stayer' (usually the male partner) and 'tied mover' (usually the female). Since these concepts
Smits, J.P.J.M.; Mulder, C.H.; Hooimeijer, P.
Long-distance migration of couples requires joint decision-making within the household. The uneven power balance between men and women and traditional gender roles have given rise to the concepts of ‘tied stayer’ (usually the male partner) and ‘tied mover’ (usually the female). Since these
Dutta, Vartika; Sahney, Sangeeta
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of teacher job satisfaction and school climate in mediating the relative effects of principals' instructional and transformational leadership practices on student outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Guided by strong evidence from theories on school leadership and work psychology, the…
O' Neil, Lori Ross [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Conway, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tobey, D. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greitzer, Frank L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dalton, Angela C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pusey, Portia K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Behavioral Interview Guidelines by Job Roles. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.
Gaziel, Haim Henry; Cohen-Azaria, Yael; Ermenc, Klara Skubic
The objective of the present study was to compare principals' perceptions of their leadership roles in regular (Dovno, 1999) versus special education (Zaretzky, Faircloth & Moreau, 2005) schools, and how these perceptions affect feelings of job stress (Friedman, 2001; Margalit, 1999). We predicted that regular school principals would differ in…
Full Text Available When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. Indeed, how athletes from different sports perform on balance tests is not well understood. The goal of the present study was to compare static balance and the role of vision among elite sprinters, jumpers and rugby players. The modified clinical test of sensory interaction on balance (mCTSIB was used to assess the velocity of the center-of-pressure (CoP on a force platform during a 30 s bipedal quiet standing posture in 4 conditions: firm surface with opened and closed eyes, foam surface with opened and closed eyes. Three-factor ANOVA indicated a significant main effect for groups (F=21.69, df=2, p0.05. The nature of the sport practiced and the absence of visual control are linked to modify static balance in elite athletes. Coaches and strength and conditioning professionals are recommended to use a variety of exercises to improve balance, including both exercises with opened and closed eyes on progressively challenging surfaces in order to make decisions about tasks and sensory availability during assessment and training.
Juliette A. Brown
Full Text Available Survival depends on an organism’s ability to sense nutrient status and accordingly regulate intake and energy expenditure behaviors. Uncoupling of energy sensing and behavior, however, underlies energy balance disorders such as anorexia or obesity. The hypothalamus regulates energy balance, and in particular the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA is poised to coordinate peripheral cues of energy status and behaviors that impact weight, such as drinking, locomotor behavior, arousal/sleep and autonomic output. There are several populations of LHA neurons that are defined by their neuropeptide content and contribute to energy balance. LHA neurons that express the neuropeptides melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH or orexins/hypocretins (OX are best characterized and these neurons play important roles in regulating ingestion, arousal, locomotor behavior and autonomic function via distinct neuronal circuits. Recently, another population of LHA neurons containing the neuropeptide Neurotensin (Nts has been implicated in coordinating anorectic stimuli and behavior to regulate hydration and energy balance. Understanding the specific roles of MCH, OX and Nts neurons in harmonizing energy sensing and behavior thus has the potential to inform pharmacological strategies to modify behaviors and treat energy balance disorders.
Hosein Kamani, Seyed Mohammad
Job pride and honor is affected by various causes. Elements of positive psychology can be pointed out as one of them that in recent years has played an important role in organizational development. Hence, this study is to provide a prediction model about the impact of hope and resilience on job pride and honor with an emphasis on mediator role of…
Eason, Christianne M; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Monsma, Eva V; Mensch, James M
The degree to which an individual likes his or her job is known as job satisfaction. A person with higher job satisfaction is less likely to depart from a profession than a person with lower job satisfaction. Researchers studying job satisfaction among other allied health professionals suggest a personality component could explain why the reasons for departure can be so individual. Collegiate institutions. To determine the relationship between job satisfaction and personality among collegiate athletic trainers (ATs). A total of 202 ATs (68 [33.7%] men and 134 [66.3%] women), were recruited using the National Athletic Trainers' Association e-mail database. We excluded any AT from this study who worked outside of the collegiate setting. The response rate was 20.2%. Data were collected using a Web-based survey instrument consisting of 3 sections: (1) demographics, (2) job satisfaction survey, and (3) Big Five Personality Inventory. Independent t tests were run to determine sex differences, and correlations were run to evaluate relationships between demographics and job satisfaction and between job satisfaction and personality. Women reported higher levels of neuroticism than men. Extroversion and conscientiousness showed a weak positive relationship with job satisfaction. A moderate positive relationship was found between agreeableness and job satisfaction. A moderate negative relationship was noted between neuroticism and job satisfaction. Based on our findings, head ATs or other organizational leaders may consider using personality assessments during interview processes, or athletic training program directors may be able to better guide students interested in athletic training based on knowledge of their personalities.
Choi, Sang Long; Goh, Chin Fei; Adam, Muhammad Badrull Hisyam; Tan, Owee Kowang
Recent studies have revealed that nursing staff turnover remains a major problem in emerging economies. In particular, nursing staff turnover in Malaysia remains high due to a lack of job satisfaction. Despite a shortage of healthcare staff, the Malaysian government plans to create 181 000 new healthcare jobs by 2020 through the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP). This study investigated the causal relationships among perceived transformational leadership, empowerment, and job satisfaction among nurses and medical assistants in two selected large private and public hospitals in Malaysia. This study also explored the mediating effect of empowerment between transformational leadership and job satisfaction. This study used a survey to collect data from 200 nursing staff, i.e., nurses and medical assistants, employed by a large private hospital and a public hospital in Malaysia. Respondents were asked to answer 5-point Likert scale questions regarding transformational leadership, employee empowerment, and job satisfaction. Partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to analyze the measurement models and to estimate parameters in a path model. Statistical analysis was performed to examine whether empowerment mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction. This analysis showed that empowerment mediated the effect of transformational leadership on the job satisfaction in nursing staff. Employee empowerment not only is indispensable for enhancing job satisfaction but also mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction among nursing staff. The results of this research contribute to the literature on job satisfaction in healthcare industries by enhancing the understanding of the influences of empowerment and transformational leadership on job satisfaction among nursing staff. This study offers important policy insight for healthcare managers who seek to increase job
Eason, Christianne M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Monsma, Eva V.; Mensch, James M.
Context The degree to which an individual likes his or her job is known as job satisfaction. A person with higher job satisfaction is less likely to depart from a profession than a person with lower job satisfaction. Researchers studying job satisfaction among other allied health professionals suggest a personality component could explain why the reasons for departure can be so individual. Setting Collegiate institutions. Objective To determine the relationship between job satisfaction and personality among collegiate athletic trainers (ATs). Patients or Other Participants A total of 202 ATs (68 [33.7%] men and 134 [66.3%] women), were recruited using the National Athletic Trainers' Association e-mail database. We excluded any AT from this study who worked outside of the collegiate setting. The response rate was 20.2%. Intervention(s) Data were collected using a Web-based survey instrument consisting of 3 sections: (1) demographics, (2) job satisfaction survey, and (3) Big Five Personality Inventory. Main Outcome Measure(s) Independent t tests were run to determine sex differences, and correlations were run to evaluate relationships between demographics and job satisfaction and between job satisfaction and personality. Results Women reported higher levels of neuroticism than men. Extroversion and conscientiousness showed a weak positive relationship with job satisfaction. A moderate positive relationship was found between agreeableness and job satisfaction. A moderate negative relationship was noted between neuroticism and job satisfaction. Conclusions Based on our findings, head ATs or other organizational leaders may consider using personality assessments during interview processes, or athletic training program directors may be able to better guide students interested in athletic training based on knowledge of their personalities. PMID:26599958
van Wingerden, Jessica; Poell, Rob F.
The present study was designed to gain knowledge of the relationship between employees’ perceived opportunities to craft, their actual job crafting behavior and, in line with JD-R theory, subsequently their work engagement and performance. Although scholars have suggested that employees’ perceived opportunities to craft their job may predict their actual job crafting behavior, which may have consequences for their well-being and performance, no study has examined the relationships between these variables. We collected data among a heterogeneous group of Dutch employees (N = 2090). Participants of the study reported their perceived opportunities to craft, job crafting behavior, work engagement and performance. Results indicated that individuals who experience a high level of opportunities to craft reported higher levels of job crafting behavior. In turn, perceived opportunities to craft and job crafting behavior related to higher levels of work engagement and subsequently performance. We discuss the implications of these findings for theory and practice. PMID:29118729
van Wingerden, Jessica; Poell, Rob F
The present study was designed to gain knowledge of the relationship between employees' perceived opportunities to craft, their actual job crafting behavior and, in line with JD-R theory, subsequently their work engagement and performance. Although scholars have suggested that employees' perceived opportunities to craft their job may predict their actual job crafting behavior, which may have consequences for their well-being and performance, no study has examined the relationships between these variables. We collected data among a heterogeneous group of Dutch employees ( N = 2090). Participants of the study reported their perceived opportunities to craft, job crafting behavior, work engagement and performance. Results indicated that individuals who experience a high level of opportunities to craft reported higher levels of job crafting behavior. In turn, perceived opportunities to craft and job crafting behavior related to higher levels of work engagement and subsequently performance. We discuss the implications of these findings for theory and practice.
This study uses data from the Police Stress and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland 1997-1999 to examine the offender-victim overlap among police officers in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV). Specifically, the study examines the role of parental violence, child maltreatment, and job-related stress on perpetrating violence and victimization. Results from two logistic regression models indicate that one element of job-related stress (negative emotions) was positive and significant in predicting IPV perpetration, whereas parental violence, child maltreatment, and negative emotions were found to be positive and significant in predicting victimization. The study's limitations and future research are discussed.
Full Text Available This study examines the relation between servant leadership and organizational identity and job involvement in Tax office of Guilan in Iran. One hundred and twenty two employees are participated in the study. For this purpose, a questionnaire with three parts was used. The questionnaire included three main sections, namely servant leadership, job involvement, and organizational identity. The analysis of the data obtained through the questionnaire indicated that servant leadership has significant effect on organizational identity and job involvement. Also, job involvement has positive effect on organizational identity. The findings, implications of the study, and suggestions for further research in this field are discussed in detail.
Lam, Jack; Fox, Kimberly; Fan, Wen; Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; Hammer, Leslie; Kossek, Ellen
Most existing research theorizes individual factors as predictors of perceived job insecurity. Incorporating contextual and organizational factors at an information technology organization where a merger was announced during data collection, we draw on status expectations and crossover theories to investigate whether managers’ characteristics and insecurity shape their employees’ job insecurity. We find having an Asian as opposed to a White manager is associated with lower job insecurity, while managers’ own insecurity positively predicts employees’ insecurity. Also contingent on the organizational climate, managers’ own tenure buffers, and managers’ perceived job insecurity magnifies insecurity of employees interviewed after a merger announcement, further specifying status expectations theory by considering context. PMID:26190868
Reitz, Randall; Sudano, Laura; Siler, Anne; Trimble, Kristopher
Great variety exists in the roles that family medicine residency faculty fill in the lives of their residents. A family medicine-specific model has never been created to describe and promote effective training relationships. This research aims to create a consensus model for faculty development, ethics education, and policy creation. Using a modified grounded theory methods, researchers conducted phone interviews with 22 key informants from US family medicine residencies. Data were analyzed to delineate faculty roles, common role conflicts, and ethical principles for avoiding and managing role conflicts. Key informants were asked to apply their experience and preferences to adapt an existing model to fit with family medicine residency settings. The primary result of this research is the creation of a family medicine-specific model that describes faculty roles and provides insight into how to manage role conflicts with residents. Primary faculty roles include Role Model, Advisor, Teacher, Supervisor, and Evaluator. Secondary faculty roles include Friendly Colleague, Wellness Supporter, and Helping Hand. The secondary roles exist on a continuum from disengaged to enmeshed. When not balanced, the secondary roles can detract from the primary roles. Differences were found between role expectations of physician versus behavioral science faculty and larger/university/urban residencies versus smaller/community/rural residencies. Diversity of opinion exists related to the types of roles that are appropriate for family medicine faculty to maintain with residents. This new model is a first attempt to build consensus in the field and has application to faculty development, ethics education, and policy creation.
Körber, Michael; Schmid, Klaus; Drexler, Hans; Kiesel, Johannes
Medical and nursing shortages in rural areas represent a current serious public health problem. The healthcare of the rural population is at risk. This study compares perceived workload, job satisfaction and work-life balance of physicians and nurses at a clinic in a rural area with two clinics of a University hospital. Physicians and nurses were interviewed anonymously with a standardized questionnaire (paper and pencil), including questions on job satisfaction, subjective workload and work-life balance. The response rate was almost 50% in the University hospital as well as in the municipal hospital. 32 physicians and 54 nurses from the University hospital and 18 physicians and 137 nurses from the municipal hospital participated in the survey. Nurses at the University hospital assessed the organization of the daily routine with 94.1% as better than those at the municipal hospital (82.4%, p=0.03). Physicians at the University hospital were able to better implement acquired knowledge at a University clinic with 87.5% than their counterparts at the municipal hospital (55.5%, p=0.02). In contrast to their colleagues at the municipal hospital, only 50% of the physicians at the University hospital subjectively considered their workload as just right (83.3% municipal, p=0.02). 96.9% of the physicians at the University hospital were "daily" or "several times a week" under time pressure (municipal 50%, pwork and family life (62.9% University hospital, 72.8% Municipal hospital). In contrast, only 20% of the physicians at the University Hospital but 42.9% of the physicians of the municipal hospital had sufficient opportunities to balance workload and family (p=0.13). The return rate of almost 50% can be described as good. Due to the small number of physicians, especially from the municipal hospital, it can be assumed that some interesting differences could not be detected. There were only slight differences between the nurses from the two hospitals. In contrast, subjective
Full Text Available The impact and type of effective leadership has a significant role in the improvement of organizational performance. This study has been conducted to indicate the importance of transformational leadership style on employees’ job satisfaction. The aim of this study is to describe the relationship between transformational leadership and employees’ job satisfaction at private universities in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A sample of 150 employees responded to a three-part instrument from two private universities in Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Factor analysis, means, standard deviations, correlation and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The findings determined that a moderate, positive and significant relationship exists between the dimensions transformational leadership and employees’ job satisfaction for both work of nature and operating condition. This study suggests that leaders at the private universities should pay more attention to findings new analytical ways for old problems and describing the demand of followers.
Vainieri, Milena; Smaldone, Pierluigi; Rosa, Antonella; Carroll, Kathleen
The role played by remuneration strategies in motivating health care professionals is one of the most studied factors. Some studies of nursing home (NH) services, while considering wages and labor market characteristics, do not explicitly account for the influence of the contract itself. This study investigates the relationship between the labor contracts applied in 62 Tuscan NHs and NH aides' job satisfaction with two aims: to investigate the impact of European contracts on employee satisfaction in health care services and to determine possible limitations of research not incorporating these contracts. We apply a multilevel model to data gathered from a staff survey administered in 2014 to all employees of 62 NHs to analyze two levels: individual and NH. Labor contracts were introduced into the model as a variable of NH. Findings show that the factors influencing nursing aides' satisfaction occur at both the individual and NH levels. Organizational characteristics explain 16% of the variation. For individual characteristics, foreign and temporary workers emerge as more satisfied than others. For NH variables, results indicate that the labor contract with the worst conditions is not associated with lower workers' satisfaction. Although working conditions play a relevant role in the job satisfaction of aides, labor contracts do not seem to affect it. Interestingly, aides of the NHs with the contract having the best conditions register a significantly lower level of satisfaction compared to the NHs with the worst contract conditions. This suggests that organizational factors such as culture, team work, and other characteristics, which were not explicitly considered in this study, may be more powerful sources of worker satisfaction than labor contracts. Our analysis has value as a management tool to consider alternative sources as well as the labor contract for employee incentives.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Fida, Roberta
A model linking authentic leadership, structural empowerment, and supportive professional practice environments to nurses' perceptions of patient care quality and job satisfaction was tested. Positive work environment characteristics are important for nurses' perceptions of patient care quality and job satisfaction (significant factors for retention). Few studies have examined the mechanism by which these characteristics operate to influence perceptions of patient care quality or job satisfaction. A cross-sectional provincial survey of 723 Canadian nurses was used to test the hypothesized models using structural equation modeling. The model was an acceptable fit and all paths were significant. Authentic leadership had a positive effect on structural empowerment, which had a positive effect on perceived support for professional practice and a negative effect on nurses' perceptions that inadequate unit staffing prevented them from providing high-quality patient care. These workplace conditions predicted job satisfaction. Authentic leaders play an important role in creating empowering professional practice environments that foster high-quality care and job satisfaction.
Van Bogaert, Peter; Adriaenssens, Jef; Dilles, Tinne; Martens, Daisy; Van Rompaey, Bart; Timmermans, Olaf
To study the impact of role, job- and organizational characteristics on nurse managers' work related stress and well-being such as feelings of emotional exhaustion, work engagement, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Various studies investigated role-, job- and organizational characteristics influencing nurse-related work environments. Research on nurse managers' related work environments define influencing factors, but, a clear understanding of the impact of nurse-managers' work-environment characteristics on their work related stress and well-being is limited. A cross-sectional design with a survey. A cross-sectional survey (N = 365) was carried out between December 2011-March 2012. The questionnaire was based on various validated measurement instruments identified by expert meetings (e.g. staff nurses, nurse managers and executives and physicians). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed using emotional exhaustion, work engagement, job satisfaction and turnover intentions as outcome variables. Study results showed one out of six nursing unit managers have high to very high feelings of emotional exhaustion and two out of three respondents have high to very high work engagement. Hierarchical regression models showed that role conflict and role meaningfulness were strong predictors of nursing unit managers' work related stress and well-being, alongside with job- and organizational characteristics. Several risk factors and stimulating factors influencing nurse unit managers' work related stress and well-being were identified. Further challenges will be to develop proper interventions and strategies to support nursing unit managers and their team in daily practice to deliver the best and safest patient care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Menon, Maria Eliophotou; Athanasoula-Reppa, Anastasia
The paper investigates the association between individual characteristics and teacher job satisfaction in secondary education in Cyprus. It focuses on two individual characteristics commonly linked to job satisfaction in the literature, namely, gender and years of experience. A short version of a questionnaire previously employed by Dinham and…
Full Text Available Previous studies on occupational burnout among police personnel did not pay enough attention to how gender and marital status may influence the connection between job stress and occupational burnout, especially where cultural beliefs direct gender and marital issues in relation to work, such as Nigeria. This study, therefore, investigated the extent to which gender and marital status moderate the relationship between job stress and occupational burnout. Participants were 213 police personnel (male = 120; female = 93 selected from 10 urban and 10 semi-urban police divisions in Nigeria. Their ages ranged between 20 and 54 years (Mage=38.15 years; SD =10.0. Results revealed that job stress significantly predicted occupational burnout such that an increase in job stress led to increase in the level of occupational burnout. Gender moderated the effects of job stress on occupational burnout in such a way that job stress tended to result in higher level of occupational burnout in female than in male police personnel. Similarly, marital status moderated the relationship between job stress and occupational burnout in such a way that police personnel who were married tended to report higher level of occupational burnout in the presence of job stress than those who were single. Implications for gender sensitivity and family supportiveness were discussed.
Alessandri, Guido; Borgogni, Laura; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Consiglio, Chiara
This study aims to investigate the validity of a conceptual model that explains the mechanisms linking positive orientation (P-OR) to future job performance in a sample of 388 male security agents. The relationship between P-OR and job performance as rated by three supervisors, each with different
Ranz, J; Stueve, A; McQuistion, H L
In a previous survey of Columbia University Public Psychiatry Fellowship alumni, medical directors reported experiencing higher job satisfaction compared to staff psychiatrists. To further this inquiry, the authors conducted an expanded survey among the membership of the American Association of Community Psychiatrists (AACP). We mailed a questionnaire to all AACP members. Respondents categorized their positions as staff psychiatrist, program medical director or agency medical director, and rated their overall job satisfaction. The form also included a number of demographic and job characteristic items. Of 479 questionnaires mailed, a total of 286 individuals returned questionnaires (61%-12 forms were undeliverable). As in our previous survey, medical directors experience significantly higher job satisfaction compared to staff psychiatrists. Program and agency medical directors do not differ significantly. In addition, job satisfaction is strongly and negatively correlated with age for staff psychiatrists but not for medical directors. This survey strengthens the previously reported advantage medical directors have over staff psychiatrists regarding job satisfaction. The finding that job satisfaction decreases with increasing age of staff psychiatrists but not medical directors is particularly interesting, suggesting that staff psychiatrist positions may come to be regarded as "dead-end" over time. Psychiatrists are advised to seek promotions to program medical director positions early in their careers, since these positions are far more available, and provide equal job satisfaction, compared to agency medical director positions.
Goos, M.; Konings, Jozef; Vanderweyer, Marieke
This paper shows that high-tech employment – broadly defined as all workers in high-tech sectors but also workers with STEM degrees in low-tech sectors- has increased in Europe over the past decade. Moreover, we estimate that every high-tech job in a region creates five additional low-tech jobs in
Kooij, T.A.M.; Tims, M.; Akkermans, J.
This two-wave study aimed to examine future time perspective (FTP) as an antecedent of job crafting, and in turn job crafting as a mediator in associations between FTP and work outcomes. Based on the lifespan socio-emotional selectivity theory, we expected that open-ended and limited FTP would evoke
Full Text Available Introduction: Human resources are the most valuable assets to any organisation, identifying factors that affect job performance of these resources has become increasingly important. Aim: To determine the relationship between self-esteem and success with job performance in the staff of the Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences (SKUMS Headquarters, Shahrekord, Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical (correlational study, based on structural equation modeling, was conducted in 2015. The study population included 240 of the staff of SKUMS Headquarters, Shahrekord, Iran. From these people, 86 were selected by simple random sampling. A questionnaire of demographic characteristics, Paterson job performance, Radsyp career success and Eysenck selfesteem questionnaire were used to evaluate the concepts of job performance, success and self-esteem. The data were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 23.0. Results: A total of 86 out of which 49 were female (57% and 37 (43% male, with a mean age of 39.85±7.6 (range 24-55 years. There was no significant relationship between demographic characteristics and job performance, career success and selfesteem. Self-esteem could be predicted positively and career success could be predicted negatively. Job performance and selfesteem had a significant positive correlation relationship (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to the direct relationship between job performance and self-esteem in this study, officials can improve job performance of staff through supporting them and reinforcing their self-esteem and thus providing career success.
Görlitz, Katja; Tamm, Marcus
This paper addresses the question to what extent the strong positive correlation between education and training can be attributed to differences in individual-, job- and firm-specific characteristics. The novelty of this paper is to analyze previously unconsidered characteristics, in particular, job tasks and firm-fixed effects. The results show…
This panel study examined the reactions of 187 federal government employees aged 45 and older during the initial phase of a large-scale downsizing and 20 months later. There were few significant differences in the reactions of older men and women. Respondents in management positions reported significantly more positive attitudes toward their job and the organization than did respondents in nonmanagement jobs. Compared with the initial phase of the downsizing, respondents reported a significant decrease in commitment to the organization 20 months later. For the two dimensions of job insecurity, perceived threat of job loss decreased, whereas sense of powerlessness over decisions affecting the future of one's job increased. A major area of concern for management is the low level of organizational trust and morale reported by the respondents at both time periods.
Full Text Available This study investigates how quantitative and qualitative job insecurity relate to idea generation, a dimension of innovative work behaviour. We hypothesise that both types of job insecurity relate negatively to this type of innovative behaviour, and expect a stronger association between quantitative job insecurity and idea generation. Moreover, we argue that psychological contract breach mediates (‘explains’ these negative relationships. The hypotheses were tested in a sample of 1420 supervisors from a large Belgian organisation, using hierarchical regression analyses, bootstrapping analyses, and relative weight analysis. The results showed that both types of job insecurity are negatively associated with idea generation. Contrary to our expectations, the relationship between both forms of job insecurity and idea generation was equally strong. Psychological contract breach was found to mediate these relationships.
McCullough, Megan B; Solomon, Jeffrey L; Petrakis, Beth Ann; Park, Angela M; Ourth, Heather; Morreale, Anthony P; Rose, Adam J
Clinical pharmacists (CPs) with a scope of practice operate as direct care providers and health care team members. Research often focuses on one role or the other; little is understood about the dynamic relationship between roles in practice settings. To identify the challenges CPs face in balancing dual roles as direct care providers and health care team members and the implications for CP effectiveness and quality of care. Pharmacists were interviewed with a primary purpose of informing an implementation effort. Besides the implementation, there were emergent themes regarding the challenges posed for CPs in negotiating dual roles. This study is, therefore, a secondary analysis of semistructured interviews and direct observation of 48 CPs, addressing this phenomenon. Interview data were entered into NVivo 10 and systematically analyzed using an emergent thematic coding strategy. Pharmacists describe role ambiguity, where they perform as direct providers or team members simultaneously or in quick succession. They note the existence of a "transaction cost," where switching causes loss of momentum or disruption of work flow. Additionally, pharmacists feel that fellow providers lack an understanding of what they do and that CP contributions are not evaluated accurately by other health professionals. It is a challenge for CPs to balance the distinct roles of serving as collaborators and primary providers. Frequent role switching is not conducive to optimal work efficiency or patient care. Our findings suggest concrete steps that medical centers can take to improve both CP worklife and quality of patient care. © The Author(s) 2014.
Shahpouri, Samira; Namdari, Kourosh; Abedi, Ahmad
One of the latest models proposed with regard to work engagement is the detailed model put forward by Bakker and Demerouti (2007). The present study aims at investigating the effect of job resources and personal resources on turnover intention with the mediator role of work engagement among female nurses at Isfahan Alzahra Hospital. In the current study, job and personal resources were considered as the predictors of job turnover and work engagement was considered as the mediator variable among predictive and criterion variables. The data of the present study were collected from 208 female nurses who were selected by systematic random sampling. As for the analysis of the collected data, structural equations model, normal distribution method, and Bootstrap method in Macro, Preacher and Hayes, (2004) program were deployed. The findings showed that the personal resources affect the turnover intention both directly and indirectly (through work engagement); however, job resources are just associated with turnover intention with the mediating role of work engagement. The results of the study have important implications for organizations' managers about improving work engagement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vardaman, James M; Cornell, Paul T; Allen, David G; Gondo, Maria B; Muslin, Ivan S; Mobley, Robin N; Brock, Meagan E; Sigmon, Tracy L
Retention of nursing staff remains an important issue for health care managers. Turnover research has focused primarily on motivational and social factors as keys to retention, whereas the role of the physical work conditions has received considerably less attention. However, work design theory suggests that physical work conditions may be an important factor in fostering retention among nursing staff. The aim of this study was to integrate work design theory with turnover process models to explore the influence of perceptions of physical work conditions on the development of turnover intentions among nursing staff. Drawing on two samples of registered nurses working in cancer units in metropolitan hospitals in the southeastern United States, this study explores the impact of perceptions of physical work conditions on turnover intentions using ordinary least squares regression. Hypotheses are tested in Study 1 and replicated in Study 2. A measure of perceptions of physical work conditions is also developed and validated using exploratory (Study 1) and confirmatory (Study 2) factor analyses. Perceptions of physical work conditions explain variance in turnover intentions above than that explained by motivational and social factors. Specifically, employee perceptions of noisy work conditions are found to significantly increase turnover intentions, whereas perceptions that work conditions facilitate tasks were found to significantly reduce turnover intentions. Perceptions of temperature and health hazard did not show significant effects. Results suggest that health care managers and scholars should re-examine the role of physical work conditions in the turnover process. Investments in upgrades that facilitate tasks may foster retention better than investments that simply improve employee comfort. Negative perceptions of work conditions may have no impact if they are considered a normal "part of the job," although negative perceptions of conditions that are viewed as
Molino, Monica; Bakker, Arnold B; Ghislieri, Chiara
The present study tries to gain more insight in workaholism by investigating its antecedents and consequences using the job demands-resources model. We hypothesized that job demands would be positively related to workaholism, particularly when job resources are low. In addition, we hypothesized that workaholism would be positively related to negative outcomes in three important life domains: health, family, and work. The research involved 617 Italian workers (employees and self-employed). To test the hypotheses we applied structural equation modeling (SEM) and moderated structural equation modeling (MSEM) using Mplus 6. The results of SEM showed a good model where workload, cognitive demands, emotional demands, and customer-related social stressors were positively related to workaholism and work-family conflict (WFC) (partial mediation). Additionally, workaholism was indirectly related to exhaustion and intentions to change jobs through WFC. Moreover, MSEM analyses confirmed that job resources (job security and opportunities for development) buffered the relationship between job demands and workaholism. Particularly, the interaction effects were statistically significant in five out of eight combinations. These findings suggest that workaholism is a function of a suboptimal work environment and predicts unfavorable employee outcomes. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
Santos, Alda; Chambel, Maria José; Castanheira, Filipa
To study work engagement as a mediator of the associations between relational job characteristics and nurses' affective commitment to the hospital. Earlier research has shown that work engagement mediates the relationship between job resources and affective organizational commitment. However, relational job characteristics, which may be job resources, have not been studied or examined in relation to work engagement and affective organizational commitment in the nursing profession. This study uses a correlational survey design and an online survey for data collection. Data for this correlational study were collected by survey over months (2013) from a sample of 335 hospital nurses. Measures included Portuguese translations of the Relational Job Characteristics' Psychological Effects Scale, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Affective Organizational Commitment Scale. Data analysis supports a full mediation model where relational job characteristics explained affective commitment to the hospital through nurses' work engagement. Relational job characteristics contribute to nurses' work engagement, which in turn contributes to affective organizational commitment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Das, I.; Scambos, T. A.; Koenig, L.; Creyts, T. T.; Bell, R. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Lenaerts, J.; Paden, J. D.
Accurate quantification of surface snow-accumulation over Antarctica is important for mass balance estimates and climate studies based on ice core records. An improved estimate of surface mass balance must include the significant role near-surface wind plays in the sublimation and redistribution of snow across Antarctica. We have developed an empirical model based on airborne radar and lidar observations, and modeled surface mass balance and wind fields to produce a continent-wide prediction of wind-scour zones over Antarctica. These zones have zero to negative surface mass balance, are located over locally steep ice sheet areas (>0.002) and controlled by bedrock topography. The near-surface winds accelerate over these zones, eroding and sublimating the surface snow. This scouring results in numerous localized regions (≤ 200 km2) with reduced surface accumulation. Each year, tens of gigatons of snow on the Antarctic ice sheet are ablated by persistent near-surface katabatic winds over these wind-scour zones. Large uncertainties remain in the surface mass balance estimates over East Antarctica as climate models do not adequately represent the small-scale physical processes that lead to mass loss through sublimation or redistribution over the wind-scour zones. In this study, we integrate Operation IceBridge's snow radar over the Recovery Ice Stream with a series of ice core dielectric and depth-density profiles for improved surface mass balance estimates that reflect the mass loss over the wind-scour zones. Accurate surface mass balance estimates from snow radars require spatially variable depth-density profiles. Using an ensemble of firn cores, MODIS-derived surface snow grain size, modeled accumulation rates and surface temperatures from RACMO2, we assemble spatially variable depth-density profiles and use our mapping of snow density variations to estimate layer mass and net accumulation rates from snow radar layer data. Our study improves the quantification of
Evans, Kiah L; Girdler, Sonya J; Falkmer, Torbjorn; Richmond, Janet E; Wagman, Petra; Millsteed, Jeannine; Falkmer, Marita
Occupational therapists need to be cognizant of evidence-based role balance advice and strategies that women with multigenerational caring responsibilities can implement independently or with minimal assistance, as role balance may not be the primary goal during many encounters with this population. Hence, this study aimed to identify the viewpoints on the most helpful role balance strategies for working sandwich generation women, both from their own perspectives and from the perspective of occupational therapists. This was achieved through a Q methodology study, where 54 statements were based on findings from interviews, sandwich generation literature and occupational therapy literature. In total, 31 working sandwich generation women and 42 occupational therapists completed the Q sort through either online or paper administration. The data were analysed using factor analysis with varimax rotation and were interpreted through collaboration with experts in the field. The findings revealed similarities between working sandwich generation women and occupational therapists, particularly in terms of advocating strategies related to sleep, rest and seeking practical assistance from support networks. Differences were also present, with working sandwich generation women viewpoints tending to emphasize strategies related to coping with a busy lifestyle attending to multiple responsibilities. In contrast, occupational therapy viewpoints prioritized strategies related to the occupational therapy process, such as goal setting, activity focused interventions, monitoring progress and facilitating sustainable outcomes.
King, Laurie; Mancini, Martina
This perspective article will discuss the potential role of body-worn movement monitors for balance and gait assessment and treatment in rehabilitation. Recent advances in inexpensive, wireless sensor technology and smart devices are resulting in an explosion of miniature, portable sensors that can quickly and accurately quantify body motion. Practical and useful movement monitoring systems are now becoming available. It is critical that therapists understand the potential advantages and limitations of such emerging technology. One important advantage of obtaining objective measures of balance and gait from body-worn sensors is impairment-level metrics characterizing how and why functional performance of balance and gait activities are impaired. Therapy can then be focused on the specific physiological reasons for difficulty in walking or balancing during specific tasks. A second advantage of using technology to measure balance and gait behavior is the increased sensitivity of the balance and gait measures to document mild disability and change with rehabilitation. A third advantage of measuring movement, such as postural sway and gait characteristics, with body-worn sensors is the opportunity for immediate biofeedback provided to patients that can focus attention and enhance performance. In the future, body-worn sensors may allow therapists to perform telerehabilitation to monitor compliance with home exercise programs and the quality of their natural mobility in the community. Therapists need technological systems that are quick to use and provide actionable information and useful reports for their patients and referring physicians. Therapists should look for systems that provide measures that have been validated with respect to gold standard accuracy and to clinically relevant outcomes such as fall risk and severity of disability. PMID:25504484
Talachi, Rahil Kazemi; Gorji, Mohammad Bagher; Boerhannoeddin, Ali Bin
Job satisfaction, as an integral part of organizational environment, can affect organizational citizenship behavior. Therefore, the present paper aimed at determination of the relationship between these two factors among the employees to provide an appropriate model. The population of this study consisted of all employees of Golestan Province industry, mine and trade organization (Iran), the number of whom is 154, out of which, 120 employees were selected as a sample by the simple random sampling method. For collecting the data, two questionnaires of job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior were applied, and the obtained data was analyzed using the statistical methods of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman's correlation, Pearson's correlation coefficient, Regression analysis, F-test and T-test. From the results, it was found that the variable of job satisfaction had a significant positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior and one unit increase in organizational citizenship behavior is resulted from 0.622 unit increase in job satisfaction.
Harvey, Samuel B; Sellahewa, Dilan A; Wang, Min-Jung; Milligan-Saville, Josie; Bryan, Bridget T; Henderson, Max; Hatch, Stephani L; Mykletun, Arnstein
Long-standing concerns exist about reverse causation and residual confounding in the prospective association between job strain and risk of future common mental disorders. We aimed to address these concerns through analysis of data collected in the UK National Child Development Study, a large British cohort study. Data from the National Child Development Study (n=6870) were analysed by use of multivariate logistic regression to investigate the prospective association between job strain variables at age 45 years and risk of future common mental disorders at age 50 years, controlling for lifetime psychiatric history and a range of other possible confounding variables across the lifecourse. Population attributable fractions were calculated to estimate the public health effect of job strain on midlife mental health. In the final model, adjusted for all measured confounders, high job demands (odds ratio 1·70, 95% CI 1·25-2·32; p=0·0008), low job control (1·89, 1·29-2·77; p=0·0010), and high job strain (2·22, 1·59-3·09; pmental disorder. If causality is assumed, our findings suggest that 14% of new cases of common mental disorder could have been prevented through elimination of high job strain (population attributable fraction 0·14, 0·06-0·20). High job strain appears to independently affect the risk of future common mental disorders in midlife. These findings suggest that modifiable work-related risk factors might be an important target in efforts to reduce the prevalence of common mental disorders. iCare Foundation and Mental Health Branch, NSW Health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gil Flores, Javier
Recent studies show that teacher job satisfaction declined in Spain over the last decade. Also, it is significantly lower in secondary education than in previous educational levels. In this paper we identify variables that contribute to the explanation of teacher job satisfaction in secondary education. We use the Spanish sample (192 schools and 3339 teachers) participating in the 2013 edition of TALIS (Teaching and Learning International Study), sponsored by the OECD (Organisation for Econom...
Nqubane, Rirhandzu Milder
Organisations have been under enormous pressure due to the changes that they are constantly faced with. Most organisations have at some stage been involved in restructuring, laying-off of employees, and outsourcing of non-core business activities with the aim of coping with the change process. When organisations go through these changes, they still need to support their employees. They must ensure that the employees' roles are clarified, and that they feel secure in their jobs in order to imp...
Full Text Available By acknowledging the uncertainty and unpredictability of the job search process in an unemployment setting, the present study explored the predictive strength of dispositional employability in job search behaviours. Dispositional employability has been recognized as a potentially important personal resource that promotes job opportunities. However, it has rarely been assessed in an unemployment setting to date. According to recent employability models that differentiate between distal (i.e., personal strengths and proximal (e.g., perceived employability determinants of behaviour on the labour market, we hypoth- esized that: (i dispositional employability relates positively to job search intensity and (ii perception of one’s employment possibilities (i.e., perceived employability serves as an explanatory mechanism of this relationship. The hypothesized structural model was tested among a heterogeneous sample of 533 unemployed persons in Croatia. The results of structural equation modelling provided support for our hypotheses: dispositional employability related positively to job search intensity via perceived employ- ability. Accordingly, nurturing dispositional employability may be beneficial for unemployed persons as it relates positively to engagement in job search behaviour.
Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Haro, Josep Maria; Mariolis, Anargiros; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Makri, Kornilia; Zeimbekis, Akis; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia; Lionis, Christos; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes
The determinants that promote living beyond life expectancy and successful aging still remain unknown. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the role of energy balance in successful aging, in a random sample of older adults living in the Mediterranean basin. During 2005 to 2011, 2,663 older (aged 65-100 years) adults from 21 Mediterranean islands and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) of Greece were voluntarily enrolled in the study. Dietary habits, energy intake, expenditure, and energy balance were derived throughout standard procedures. A successful aging index (range = 0-10) was used. After adjusting for several confounders, high energy intake (i.e., >1,700 kcal/day), b-coefficient [95% CI] = -0.21[-0.37, -0.05], as well as positive energy balance, b-coefficient [95% CI] = -0.21 [-0.37, -0.05], were inversely associated with successful aging. A diet with excessive energy intake and a positive energy balance seems to be associated with lower quality of life, as measured through successful aging. © The Author(s) 2015.
Perry, Sara Jansen; Rubino, Cristina; Witt, L A
In an integrated test of the job demands-resources model and trait activation theory, we predicted that the general job performance of employees who also hold supervisory roles may act as a demand to subordinates, depending on levels of subordinate conscientiousness. In a sample of 313 customer service call centre employees, we found that high-conscientiousness individuals were more likely to experience emotional exhaustion, and low-conscientiousness individuals were less likely as the general job performance of their supervisor improved. The results were curvilinear, such that high-conscientiousness individuals' exhaustion levelled off with very high supervisor performance (two standard deviations above the mean), and low-conscientiousness individuals' exhaustion levelled off as supervisor performance improved from moderate to high. These findings suggest high-conscientiousness employees may efficiently handle demands presented by a low-performing coworker who is their boss, but when performance expectations are high (i.e. high-performing boss), these achievement-oriented employees may direct their resources (i.e. energy and time) towards performance-related efforts at the expense of their well-being. Conversely, low-conscientiousness employees suffer when paired with a low-performing boss, but benefit from a supervisor who demonstrates at least moderate job performance.
Estiri, Mehrdad; Nargesian, Abbas; Dastpish, Farinaz; Sharifi, Seyed Mahdi
The role of nurses in providing high quality healthcare to patients is so important that creating a desirable working environment to enhance their overall performance is unavoidable. This paper aimed to explore the impact of psychological capital on mental health by investigating the mediating effects of job burnout on this relationship. The data used in this research was obtained via a survey conducted among selected Iranian nurses in public hospitals. In total, 450 questionnaires were distributed and 384 were completed and returned. Collected data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Findings showed that there is a significant relationship between psychological capital, job burnout and mental health; also, there is a significant negative relationship between psychological capital and job burnout, and a significant positive relationship between psychological capital and mental health. The results have several important practical implications for human resource management in Iranian public hospitals. According to the results of this study, reducing job burnout is an important factor in enhancing psychological capital and can positively enhance nurses' mental health.
Full Text Available Workplace bullying is considered by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work one of the emerging psychosocial risk factors that could negatively affect workers’ health. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the process that leads from bullying to negative health (such as musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs, testing the mediating role of job-related strain. Data were collected on 512 workers (62.9% female; mean age = 43.6 years of a retail chain who filled in a self-report questionnaire after a one-hour training session on work-related stress. Data analyses were performed controlling for potentially confounding variables (i.e., gender, age, organizational role, type of contract, and perceived physical job demands. Preacher and Hayes analytical approach was used to test the indirect relationship between bullying and MSDs. Results showed that work-related strain mediates the relationship between bullying and MSDs considered (low back, upper back, and neck except for MSDs of the shoulders. Our study confirms the role played by bullying and job-related strain in determining workers’ MSDs.
Vignoli, Michela; Guglielmi, Dina; Balducci, Cristian; Bonfiglioli, Roberta
Workplace bullying is considered by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work one of the emerging psychosocial risk factors that could negatively affect workers' health. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the process that leads from bullying to negative health (such as musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)), testing the mediating role of job-related strain. Data were collected on 512 workers (62.9% female; mean age = 43.6 years) of a retail chain who filled in a self-report questionnaire after a one-hour training session on work-related stress. Data analyses were performed controlling for potentially confounding variables (i.e., gender, age, organizational role, type of contract, and perceived physical job demands). Preacher and Hayes analytical approach was used to test the indirect relationship between bullying and MSDs. Results showed that work-related strain mediates the relationship between bullying and MSDs considered (low back, upper back, and neck) except for MSDs of the shoulders. Our study confirms the role played by bullying and job-related strain in determining workers' MSDs.
THIS PAPER SKETCHES RECENT TRENDS AND PROBLEMS THAT HAVE EMERGED IN PUBLIC TRAINING EFFORTS IN THE UNITED STATES DURING THE 1960S. IT CITES SHIFTS IN EMPHASIS FROM TRAINING WORKERS FOR EXISTING JOBS TO REFOCUSING ON YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND TO PREPARING THE HARD-CORE UNEMPLOYED FOR WORK, AND FROM CONCERN WITH JOB TRAINING TO JOB CREATION. IT POINTS…
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the influence of gender and age on the quality of the professional lives of health care professionals at a university hospital. METHOD: a total of 546 professionals completed a general questionnaire that measured sociodemographic variables and evaluated job satisfaction using a scale adopted from the NTP 394 Job Satisfaction scale and translated into Spanish. RESULTS: overall, 77.2% of the professionals surveyed were satisfied with the work they perform. With regards to gender, we found overwhelming evidence of the feminization of practically all health care professions included in the study, with higher levels of job satisfaction among women than men. Regarding age, 20-30-year-olds and professionals over 61 years old showed higher satisfaction levels than did middle-aged professionals. Higher levels of dissatisfaction were reported by professionals between 41 and 50 years old. CONCLUSIONS: we were able to detect the influence of gender and age on the level of job satisfaction, finding significant associations between job satisfaction and both of these variables. Generally, women expressed more satisfaction than men, and elderly professionals showed higher satisfaction compared to younger professionals. Management policies should focus on taking action to correct the conditions that produce dissatisfaction among certain groups of employees.
Carrillo-García, César; Solano-Ruíz, María del Carmen; Martínez-Roche, María Emilia; Gómez-García, Carmen Isabel
to analyze the influence of gender and age on the quality of the professional lives of health care professionals at a university hospital. a total of 546 professionals completed a general questionnaire that measured sociodemographic variables and evaluated job satisfaction using a scale adopted from the NTP 394 Job Satisfaction scale and translated into Spanish. overall, 77.2% of the professionals surveyed were satisfied with the work they perform. With regards to gender, we found overwhelming evidence of the feminization of practically all health care professions included in the study, with higher levels of job satisfaction among women than men. Regarding age, 20-30-year-olds and professionals over 61 years old showed higher satisfaction levels than did middle-aged professionals. Higher levels of dissatisfaction were reported by professionals between 41 and 50 years old. we were able to detect the influence of gender and age on the level of job satisfaction, finding significant associations between job satisfaction and both of these variables. Generally, women expressed more satisfaction than men, and elderly professionals showed higher satisfaction compared to younger professionals. Management policies should focus on taking action to correct the conditions that produce dissatisfaction among certain groups of employees.
Portoghese, Igor; Galletta, Maura; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Finco, Gabriele; Campagna, Marcello
Background As health care workers face a wide range of psychosocial stressors, they are at a high risk of developing burnout syndrome, which in turn may affect hospital outcomes such as the quality and safety of provided care. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the moderating effect of job control on the relationship between workload and burnout. Methods A total of 352 hospital workers from five Italian public hospitals completed a self-administered questionnaire that was used to measure exhaustion, cynicism, job control, and workload. Data were collected in 2013. Results In contrast to previous studies, the results of this study supported the moderation effect of job control on the relationship between workload and exhaustion. Furthermore, the results found support for the sequential link from exhaustion to cynicism. Conclusion This study showed the importance for hospital managers to carry out management practices that promote job control and provide employees with job resources, in order to reduce the burnout risk. PMID:25379330
Evandrou, Maria; Glaser, Karen; Henz, Ursula
This article investigates the extent of multiple-role occupancy among midlife individuals in Britain in cross-section and over the life course, focusing on work and family commitments. The association between demographic and social factors and multiple-role obligations is also investigated. The research is based on secondary analysis of the British Family and Working Lives Survey, which contains retrospective paid work, caregiving, and child coresidence histories. The proportion of individuals in midlife (women aged 45-59 and men aged 45-64) who have multiple roles, in terms of paid work and consistent family care, at any one point in time is low (2%). This is primarily due to the relatively small proportion (7%) of people in this age group who are caring for a dependent. Being older, unmarried, and in poor health significantly reduces the number of roles held among men and women. Although the frequency of multiple role occupancy, and intensive multiple role occupancy, is low on a cross-sectional basis, a much higher proportion of individuals have ever occupied multiple roles over their life course (14%). The findings will inform debate on how policy can best aid those endeavouring to balance paid work, family life, and caring responsibilities.
Akinlawon O. AMOO
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate job satisfaction as a moderator of the relationship between leadership behaviour and trainee work engagement. The study was conducted in an artisan training academy located inthe East of Johannesburg. Data was collected from the entire population of 150 employed trainees in the academy using: (i a self-designed demographical data questionnaire; (iithe Harris and Ogbonna (2001 13-item leadership behaviour questionnaire (iii the Utrecht work engagement scale (UWES developed by Schaufeli et al. (2002, and (iv the single global rating for job satisfaction developed in 1990 by Allen and Meyer. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis were conducted in a census study of 150 trainees. Results showed that work engagement is significantly affected by leadership behaviour, and job satisfaction mediated and moderated the leadership behaviour – work engagement relationship.
Salami, Samuel O; Ajitoni, Sunday O
This study investigated the prediction of burnout from job characteristics, emotional intelligence, motivation and pay among bank employees. It also examined the interactions of emotional intelligence, motivation, pay and job characteristics in the prediction of burnout. Data obtained from 230 (Males = 127, Females = 103) bank employees were analysed using Pearson's Product Moment Correlation and multiple regression analysis. Results showed that theses variables jointly and separately negatively predicted burnout components. The results further indicated that emotional intelligence, motivation and pay separately interacted with some job characteristic components to negatively predict some burnout components. The findings imply that emotional intelligence, motivation and pay could be considered by counsellors when designing interventions to reduce burnout among bank employees. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Bonifacius Riwi Wijayanto
Nurses (N = 170 and their immediate supervisors ( N = 41 from five privately owned hospital in Jogjakarta participated in this study. Of 340 questionnaires distributed to the respondents, 339 were returned yielding a response rate of 99 percent. Of those returned, 300 questionnaires were available for further analyses. Nurses were asked to respond to a questionnaire of 40 items concerning perception of embeddedness and 4 item concerning sense of responsibility to their employing organization. Nurses’ citizenship behavior were measured using 12 items as rated by their immediate supervisors. The results support the hypothesis that job embeddedness correlates positively with OCB. However, our result failed to support the prediction of the mediating effect of employees’ sense of responsibility in causal relationship between job embeddedness and OCB. The implications of the findings for further research on relationship between job embeddedness and OCB research are discussed.
Dec 31, 2014 ... employees, feels a tension of anxiety caused by their jobs. ...  High job stress creates negative psychological effects ... where product quality is largely dependent ... on the work-health balance of journalists in. Nigeria. ..... Life. New York: Basic Books,1990. 15. Lu L. Work Motivation, Job Stress and.
Donatella Di Marco
Full Text Available Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organisational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organisational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyse the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees’ health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male= 826, female= 764, employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees’ health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R²= .17. This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers’ health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognise and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g. through training, diversity policies, etc.. On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g. providing mechanisms of voice might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment.Keywords: Discriminatory work environment, Job satisfaction, Employees’ health, Human Resource Management, Italian workers, Workplace, Work-related stress
Walker, Margaret J
Long-term care nurses continue to struggle with increasing workloads, fulfilling regulatory requirements and limited staffing resources. One method of impacting the workload is the introduction of the new medication nursing assistant (MNA) role to alleviate the nurse from prolonged time intervals spent administering medications. An early step in MNA role implementation is to evaluate its impact by comparing agencies using the MNA and those not using the role. This article presents findings from a mixed method study examining the efficacy of the MNA role in relationship to job satisfaction and the degree of perceived stress experienced by long-term care nurses. Ninety-one nurses employed at 2 large New Hampshire facilities responded. Findings offer empirical evidence supporting the use of the MNA to reduce job stress and increase satisfaction for licensed nurses. The MNA role is accepted by nurse leaders and viewed as a benefit. Findings also support a correlation between empowerment and decision making in the nursing environment with levels of nurse satisfaction.
Steinbauer, Robert; Renn, Robert W; Chen, H Shawna; Rhew, Nicholas
Drawing from a self-regulation perspective, we examine how intrinsic work motivation changes the relation between workplace ostracism and employee job performance via self-leadership. We test a moderated mediated model with data collected from 101 employees at two points in time. Results provide support for the hypothesis that ostracized employees who are more intrinsically motivated use self-leadership strategies to a greater degree to improve their job performance than their counterparts who are not intrinsically motivated. The findings contribute to research regarding boundary conditions of ostracism theory and have important practical implications.
Brown, M; Tucker, P; Rapport, F; Hutchings, H; Dahlgren, A; Davies, G; Ebden, P
The organisation of junior doctors' work hours has been radically altered following the partial implementation of the European Working Time Directive. Poorly designed shift schedules cause excessive disruption to shift workers' circadian rhythms. Interviews and focus groups were used to explore perceptions among junior doctors and hospital managers regarding the impact of the European Working Time Directive on patient care and doctors' well-being. Four main themes were identified. Under "Doctors shift rotas", doctors deliberated the merits and demerits of working seven nights in row. They also discussed the impact on fatigue of long sequences of day shifts. "Education and training" focused on concerns about reduced on-the-job learning opportunities under the new working time arrangements and also about the difficulties of finding time and energy to study. "Work/life balance" reflected the conflict between the positive aspects of working on-call or at night and the impact on life outside work. "Social support structures" focused on the role of morale and team spirit. Good support structures in the work place counteracted and compensated for the effects of negative role stressors, and arduous and unsocial work schedules. The impact of junior doctors' work schedules is influenced by the nature of specific shift sequences, educational considerations, issues of work/life balance and by social support systems. Poorly designed shift rotas can have negative impacts on junior doctors' professional performance and educational training, with implications for clinical practice, patient care and the welfare of junior doctors.
Bvenura, Callistus; Sivakumar, Dharini
Without a doubt, fruits and vegetables are important components of a balanced and healthy diet. However, their consumption is very low in the world, with the lowest figures being reported in sub-Saharan Africa. The low consumption of fruits and vegetables means unbalanced and unhealthy diets, which has been linked to various diseases and conditions associated with increased mortality rates in worst cases. Poverty is the major contributor to the low consumption of fruits and vegetables in the majority of cases. However, the world, including sub-Saharan Africa, is endowed with numerous wild fruit and vegetable species which can be exploited and incorporated into the diets and help solve some nutrition related concerns. Therefore, in this review, we explore literature on wild fruits and vegetables with a special emphasis on some of the poorest regions of the world and where the lowest consumption figures are reported; their nutritional compositions; the status of their consumption and their role in the diet with a view to uncover their possible role in delivering a healthy and balanced diet as well as helping lower food and nutrition insecurity. A total of 396 articles were downloaded and analysed but only 213 were considered for this review. The results of the search indicate that wild fruits and vegetables are nutritionally rich and high in phytochemicals, especially antioxidants and therefore can possibly play a significant and positive role in delivering a healthy and balanced diet. However, the major challenge is the acceptability, accessibility as well as a lack of interest in wild fruits and vegetables and sheer neglect. People need to be educated using various forms of media on the nutritional and health benefits of these wild food plants with a view to bring them from the forest to the plate. Researchers need to channel more efforts towards domesticating them for ease of access, among other reasons. Governments need to incentivise the subsistence or
Semenov, B.A.; Guthrie, D.; Tatsuta, Y.
A sound judgement on the role of nuclear power in the global energy balance within the time span of the next 30 years should logically be based on the consideration of at least a number of factors such as global trends in energy and electricity demand, practically available or estimated sources of supply, major requirements that these energy sources should meet, nuclear power's own potential, a realistic assessment of nuclear power's present status, and problems related to nuclear power. The conclusion of such an analysis is that nuclear power will retain, and may even enhance, its position as an important element in the world's energy supply mix
Ryan, Karen K; Li, Bailing; Grayson, Bernadette E; Matter, Emily K; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is a nuclear receptor that is activated by lipids to induce the expression of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism, thereby converting nutritional signals into metabolic consequences. PPAR-γ is the target of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of insulin-sensitizing drugs, which have been widely prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. A common side effect of treatment with TZDs is weight gain. Here we report a previously unknown role for central nervous system (CNS) PPAR-γ in the regulation of energy balance. We found that both acute and chronic activation of CNS PPAR-γ, by either TZDs or hypothalamic overexpression of a fusion protein consisting of PPAR-γ and the viral transcriptional activator VP16 (VP16-PPAR-γ), led to positive energy balance in rats. Blocking the endogenous activation of CNS PPAR-γ with pharmacological antagonists or reducing its expression with shRNA led to negative energy balance, restored leptin sensitivity in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed rats and blocked the hyperphagic response to oral TZD treatment. These findings have implications for the widespread clinical use of TZD drugs and for understanding the etiology of diet-induced obesity.
Musselman, R.C.; Fox, D.G.
The role of temperate forests in the global carbon balance is difficult to determine because many uncertainties exist in the data, and many assumptions must be made in these determinations. Still, there is little doubt that increases in atmospheric CO 2 and global warming would have major effects on temperate forest ecosystems. Increases in atmospheric CO 2 may result in increases in photosynthesis, changes in water and nitrogen use efficiency, and changes in carbon allocation. Indirect effects of changes in global carbon balance on regional climate and on microenvironmental conditions, particularly temperature and moisture, may be more important then direct effects of increased CO 2 on vegetation. Increased incidence of forest perturbations might also be expected. The evidence suggests that conditions favorable to forest growth and development may exist in the northern latitudes, while southern latitude forests may undergo drought stress. Current harvest of temperate and world forests contributes substantial amounts of carbon to the atmosphere, possibly as much as 3 gigatons (Gt) per year. Return of this carbon to forest storage may require decades. Forest managers should be aware of the global as well as local impact their management decisions will have on the atmospheric carbon balance of the ecosystems they oversee
Karimi, Leila; Leggat, Sandra G; Donohue, Lisa; Farrell, Gerald; Couper, Greta E
To investigate the extent to which emotional labour and emotional intelligence are associated with well-being and job-stress among a group of Australian community nurses. The moderating role of emotional intelligence was evaluated as a key factor in the rescue of healthcare workers from job-stress, thus increasing job retention. Although emotional labour has been broadly investigated in the literature, the contribution of emotional labour and emotional intelligence to the well-being and experience of job-stress in a community nursing setting requires further exploration. This study used a cross-sectional quantitative research design with data collected from Australian community nurses. Australian community nurses (n = 312) reported on their perceived emotional labour, emotional intelligence and their levels of well-being and job-stress using a paper and pencil survey in 2010. Results from structural equation modelling support the hypothesis that both emotional labour and emotional intelligence have significant effects on nurses' well-being and perceived job-stress. Emotional intelligence plays a moderating role in the experience of job-stress. These findings provide additional evidence for the important effects that emotional labour and emotional intelligence can have on well-being and job-stress among community nurses. The potential benefits of emotional intelligence in the nurses' emotional work have been explored. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Su, Yanqing; Huber, Christian; Bachmann, Olivier; Zajacz, Zoltán; Wright, Heather M.; Vazquez, Jorge A.
The release of large amounts of sulfur to the stratosphere during explosive eruptions affects the radiative balance in the atmosphere and consequentially impacts climate for up to several years after the event. Quantitative estimations of the processes that control the mass balance of sulfur between melt, crystals, and vapor bubbles is needed to better understand the potential sulfur yield of individual eruption events and the conditions that favor large sulfur outputs to the atmosphere. The processes that control sulfur partitioning in magmas are (1) exsolution of volatiles (dominantly H2O) during decompression (first boiling) and during isobaric crystallization (second boiling), (2) the crystallization and breakdown of sulfide or sulfate phases in the magma, and (3) the transport of sulfur-rich vapor (gas influx) from deeper unerupted regions of the magma reservoir. Vapor exsolution and the formation/breakdown of sulfur-rich phases can all be considered as closed-system processes where mass balance arguments are generally easier to constrain, whereas the contribution of sulfur by vapor transport (open system process) is more difficult to quantify. The ubiquitous “excess sulfur” problem, which refers to the much higher sulfur mass released during eruptions than what can be accounted for by amount of sulfur originally dissolved in erupted melt, as estimated from melt inclusion sulfur concentrations (the “petrologic estimate”), reflects the challenges in closing the sulfur mass balance between crystals, melt, and vapor before and during a volcanic eruption. In this work, we try to quantify the relative importance of closed- and open-system processes for silicic arc volcanoes using kinetic models of sulfur partitioning during exsolution. Our calculations show that crystallization-induced exsolution (second boiling) can generate a significant fraction of the excess sulfur observed in crystal-rich arc magmas. This result does not negate the important role of
Pekaar, K.A. (Keri A.); D. van der Linden (Dimitri); A.B. Bakker (Arnold); M.Ph. Born (Marise)
textabstractThe link between emotional intelligence (EI) and job performance was examined focusing on the interplay between self- and other-focused EI dimensions. Two diary studies were conducted among divorce lawyers and salespersons. We adopted a two-level perspective including individual
Chang, Yujin; Leach, Nicole; Anderman, Eric M.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relations between principals' perceived autonomy support from superintendents, affective commitment to their school districts, and job satisfaction. We also explore possible moderation effects of principals' career experiences on these relations. Data were collected from K-12 public school principals in…
Kinman, Gail; Wray, Siobhan; Strange, Calista
Although teaching has been described as a profoundly emotional activity, little is known about the emotional demands faced by teachers or how this impacts on their well-being. This study examined relationships between "emotional labour", burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment) and job satisfaction in…
Lim, Doo Hun; Oh, Eunjung; Ju, Boreum; Kim, Hae Na
This study focuses on career development processes and options for older workers in South Korea and explores how career coaching enhances their career development efforts and transition needs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural relationship between older employees' goal-setting, self-efficacy, and job-search behavior mediated by career coaching. A total of 249 participants were recruited in a metropolitan city in South Korea. Based on the literature review, hypotheses were developed and tested on the structural model and the following findings were revealed. First, the findings indicate a positive effect of self-efficacy on older workers' job-search behavior. Second, the value of career coaching was found to affect older workers' job-search behavior in the South Korean context. Third, career-goal commitment alone did not have a positive significant effect on job-search behavior, but it was influential through the mediating process of the perceived quality of the career coaching program provided by an employment center in South Korea.
van den Hooff, B.J.; de Vries, R.; de Ridder, J.
In this study, the authors investigate the relationships between team communication styles and job-related cognitions on one hand and knowledge-sharing attitudes and behaviors on the other using 424 members of different work-related teams. Both eagerness and willingness to share are positively
Bontis, Nick; Richards, David; Serenko, Alexander
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose and test a model designed to investigate the impact of job characteristics, employee satisfaction, and information sharing on two key indicators of quality service delivery, such as worker perceptions of their efficiency and customer focus. Design/methodology/approach: During the project, 9,060…
de Vries, R.E.; van den Hooff, B.J.; de Ridder, J.A.
In this study, the authors investigate the relationships between team communication styles and job-related cognitions on one hand and knowledge-sharing attitudes and behaviors on the other using 424 members of different work-related teams. Both eagerness and willingness to share are positively
Çevik, Gülsen Büyüksahin
The current research aims to find out the extent to which high school teachers' life satisfaction, teaching efficacy, and self-esteem predict their job satisfaction. Research participants included a total of 358 teachers (age = 38.82; Ss = 6.73; range, 22-58), 222 males (62%) and 136 females (38%), employed in 21 public high schools in the city…
Tooren, van den M.; Jonge, de J.
This study examines human service employees' beliefs about the availability, relevance, and use of specific types of job resources (i.e. cognitive, emotional, and physical) in similar types of demanding situations at work. To gain a better understanding of these intra-psychic processes assumed to
Xanthopoulou, D.; Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Schaufeli, W.B.
This study investigates how daily fluctuations in job resources (autonomy, coaching, and team climate) are related to employees' levels of personal resources (self-efficacy, self-esteem, and optimism), work engagement, and financial returns. Forty-two employees working in three branches of a
Farris, Jimmy D.
The purpose of this research was to explore the relationship between two variables, "servant leadership" and "job satisfaction," among management, executive staff, and faculty at Alabama's five regional universities: Jacksonville State University, Troy University, the University of Montevallo, the University of North Alabama,…
Research purpose: The objective of the present study was to assess whether individuals’career anchors (measured by the career orientations inventory significantly moderate therelationship between their work engagement (measured by the Utrecht work engagementscale and job commitment (measured by the organisation-related commitment scale. Motivation for the study: Although the literature review suggests that people’s workengagement and job commitment may be influenced by their career anchors, there seems to bea paucity of research examining the interaction effects between these three variables. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional quantitative survey approach wasused. A non-probability purposive sample of adults (N = 318 employed in a human resourcecapacity in the South African service industry participated in the study. Stepwise hierarchicalmoderated regression analysis was performed to achieve the objective of the study. Main findings: The results showed that the work engagement-job commitment relationshipwas generally stronger for high career anchor preferences than for low career anchorpreferences.Practical/managerial implications: The results of the study can be useful when human resourceinterventions for enhancing employees’ engagement and commitment are developed. Contribution: The results of the study add new insights to the career literature by showing thatpeople’s career self-concepts (as reflected by their career anchors are important to consider inenhancing their work engagement and job commitment.
Schaumberg, Rebecca L; Flynn, Francis J
We propose that the relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism depends partly on guilt proneness. Drawing on withdrawal and process models of absenteeism, we argue that job satisfaction predicts absences for employees who are low (but not high) in guilt proneness because low guilt-prone people's behaviors are governed more by fulfilling their own egoistic desires than by fulfilling others' normative expectations. We find support for this prediction in a sample of customer service agents working for a major telecommunications company and a sample of working adults employed in a range of industries. In each study, we use measures of employees' guilt proneness and job satisfaction to predict their subsequent workplace absences. In Study 2, we extend our hypothesis tests to 2 traits that are conceptually comparable to guilt proneness (i.e., moral identity and agreeableness), showing that these traits similarly moderate the relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism. We discuss the implications of these findings for extant models of absenteeism and research on moral affectivity in the workplace. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Preenen, P.; Verbiest, S.; van Vianen, A.; van Wijk, E.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop and investigate the idea that self-profiling and career control by temporary agency workers (TAWs) in low-skill jobs are positively related to informal learning and that this relationship is mediated by job challenge. Design/methodology/approach: An
Preenen, P.T.Y.; Verbiest, S.; Vianen, A. van; Wijk, E. van
Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to develop and investigate the idea that self-profiling and career control by temporary agency workers (TAWs) in low-skill jobs are positively related to informal learning and that this relationship is mediated by job challenge. Design/methodology/approach. An
te Boekhorst, S.; Willemse, B.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Eefsting, J.A.; Pot, A.M.
Background: Group living homes are a fast-growing form of nursing home care for older people with dementia. This study seeks to determine the differences in job characteristics of nursing staff in group living homes and their influence on well-being. Methods: We examined the Job Demand Control
Boekhorst, S. te; Willemse, B.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Eefsting, J.A.; Pot, A.M.
ABSTRACT Background: Group living homes are a fast-growing form of nursing home care for older people with dementia. This study seeks to determine the differences in job characteristics of nursing staff in group living homes and their influence on well-being. Methods: We examined the Job Demand
Van Wingerden, Jessica; Poell, R.F.
The present study was designed to gain knowledge of the relationship between employees' perceived opportunities to craft, their actual job crafting behavior and, in line with JD-R theory, subsequently their work engagement and performance. Although scholars have suggested that employees' perceived
Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola
Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees' health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees' health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R (2) = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers' health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment.
Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola
Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees’ health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees’ health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R2 = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers’ health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment. PMID:27625625
Karmakar, Sunita D; Breslin, F Curtis
The mediating effect of job characteristics in the socioeconomic status (SES)-health relationship has not been well studied in the young adult population. The early health trajectory is important to study since the health trajectories of young people shape their health in later years. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the education defined SES-health relationship is mediated through job characteristics, controlling for healthy lifestyle factors in young adults. We hypothesize that accounting for differences in job quality would reduce the education-health gradient. Using a sample of 10,215 Canadian workers aged 20-29 years, we used multivariable logistic regressions to examine the associations of sociodemographic, work, and lifestyle factors with two health outcomes, self-perceived health and work-related injury. The key findings indicate that job characteristics partly explain the education gradient observed in work-related injuries, and to a lesser extent in self-perceived health for working young adults. Our results show that increased physical exertion and working in sales and service or manual occupations were job characteristics which were independently associated with work-related injuries, while low work-related social support and irregular shift work were associated with poor self-perceived health. Lifestyle factors have a greater association with the education-self-perceived health relationship. This pattern of findings suggests that work factors related to education have a more specific effect on occupational health early in the health trajectory. These findings have potential practical implications since policies to reduce poor health must be targeted at appropriate age groups, as workers need to be healthy in their younger years in order to stay in the workforce as they age.
A number of factors are leading to a re-examination of the balance between the roles of the operators and the machine in controlling nuclear power plants. Some of these factors are: the advent of new and advanced computer technologies; increased plant complexity, placing heavy workloads and stress on the control room operator; and increasing concerns about the role of human reliability in industrial mishaps. In light of the changing control aspects, we examine the meaning of automation, we discuss a proposed model of the control process, the concept of control within a few defined reactor states, a decision-making sequence; and we identify some possible problem areas in implementing new control technologies. Significant benefits should come from the new control methods and these opportunities should be exploited as soon as prudence allows, taking great care that the safety of the plants is improved
Boon, Corine; Biron, Michal
Person–environment fit has been found to have significant implications for employee attitudes and behaviors. Most research to date has approached person–environment fit as a static phenomenon, and without examining how different types of person–environment fit may affect each other. In particular, little is known about the conditions under which fit with one aspect of the environment influences another aspect, as well as subsequent behavior. To address this gap we examine the role of leader–member exchange in the relationship between two types of person–environment fit over time: person–organization and person–job fit, and subsequent turnover. Using data from two waves (T1 and T2, respectively) and turnover data collected two years later (T3) from a sample of 160 employees working in an elderly care organization in the Netherlands, we find that person–organization fit at T1 is positively associated with person–job fit at T2, but only for employees in high-quality leader–member exchange relationships. Higher needs–supplies fit at T2 is associated with lower turnover at T3. In contrast, among employees in high-quality leader–member exchange relationships, the demands–abilities dimension of person–job fit at T2 is associated with higher turnover at T3. PMID:27904171
Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Eguchi, Hisashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi
We examined the interaction effect of job insecurity (JI) and role ambiguity (RA) on psychological distress in Japanese employees. Overall, 2184 male and 805 female employees from two factories of a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising the scales measuring JI (Job Content Questionnaire), RA (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Generic Job Stress Questionnaire), psychological distress (K6 scale), and potential confounders (i.e., age, education, family size, occupational class, and work shift). Taking psychological distress as a dependent variable, hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted by gender and employment status (i.e., permanent and non-permanent employees). An interaction term of JI × RA was included in the model. After adjusting for potential confounders, the main effects of JI and RA on psychological distress were significant regardless of gender or employment status. Furthermore, the significant interaction effect of JI × RA on psychological distress was observed among permanent male employees (β = 0.053, p = 0.010). Post hoc simple slope analyses showed that the simple slope of JI was greater at higher levels of RA (i.e., one standard deviation [SD] above the mean) (β = 0.300, p female employees. The present study suggests that higher levels of RA strengthen the association of JI with psychological distress, at least among Japanese permanent male employees.
Boon, Corine; Biron, Michal
Person-environment fit has been found to have significant implications for employee attitudes and behaviors. Most research to date has approached person-environment fit as a static phenomenon, and without examining how different types of person-environment fit may affect each other. In particular, little is known about the conditions under which fit with one aspect of the environment influences another aspect, as well as subsequent behavior. To address this gap we examine the role of leader-member exchange in the relationship between two types of person-environment fit over time: person-organization and person-job fit, and subsequent turnover. Using data from two waves (T1 and T2, respectively) and turnover data collected two years later (T3) from a sample of 160 employees working in an elderly care organization in the Netherlands, we find that person-organization fit at T1 is positively associated with person-job fit at T2, but only for employees in high-quality leader-member exchange relationships. Higher needs-supplies fit at T2 is associated with lower turnover at T3. In contrast, among employees in high-quality leader-member exchange relationships, the demands-abilities dimension of person-job fit at T2 is associated with higher turnover at T3.
Chux Gervase Iwu
Full Text Available This is an applied study endeavour with the aim of exploring the specific role of survivalist retail entrepreneurship in job creation and poverty reduction. Two hundred (200 subjects were sampled using snowballing technique. Structured questionnaires as well as semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data. 182 usable questionnaires were analysed with the help of SPSS version 23. The results indicate that retail entrepreneurship is evolving in Khayelitsha, especially when one does not only focus on spaza shops, but looks at the entire survivalist retail industry. This sector is capable of creating jobs, reducing poverty and aiding economic growth of the country even more, should measures to boost motivation levels and self-efficacy of the entrepreneurs emerge. These measures, among others could include support programmes for survivalist entrepreneurial ventures that present greater potential for growth and job creation. Part of the support programmes should include business skills training (such as simple bookkeeping practices and human resource management. Importantly, this study is the first of its kind in the community of Khayelitsha; an emerging black-populated township in South Africa, indicating a new vista for retail entrepreneurship research.
shaping foreign policy during the Victorian era was Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, also known as Lord Palmerston. He was an ex Tory who...East (Russia, Prussia, and Austria).22 Palmerston’s policies of brinksmanship in this era typify the style required to make an offshore balancing...Military Modernization in an Era of Uncertainty ed. Ashley J. Tellis and Michael Wills (Seattle, WA: National Bureau of Asian Research, 2005), iv
Charissa K. Eaton, PhD
Full Text Available Research has commonly suggested that adequate and appropriate mentoring and faculty perception of support for a work-life balance are important factors in the recruitment, development, and retention of university faculty. To better understand the role of these factors in faculty job performance at teaching universities, faculty from such a university were surveyed about their experiences with these forms of support and the factors that influenced their perception of the ability to do their job well. Results indicate that faculty mentoring was an important predictor for support at the department level. Additionally, perceived work-life balance was a significant factor at the college and university levels.
The effects of transformational leadership and satisfaction were studied along with their interconnected effects (mediation and moderation) on commitment to change in the life insurance industry in two samples, sales managers and salespersons. A multiple mediated-moderated regression approach showed mediation and moderation to have statistically significant main effects on change commitment. Transformational leadership and satisfaction made a more important contribution to change commitment while job satisfaction had a mediating and moderating role that could enhance the relationships between leadership and change commitment. This information is of importance in building successful change commitment associations with customers.
Lee, Ahyoung Anna; Jang, Yuri
Based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, this study explored the role of physical injury and organizational support in predicting home health workers' turnover intention. In a sample of home health workers in Central Texas (n = 150), about 37% reported turnover intention. The logistic regression model showed that turnover intention was 3.23 times more likely among those who had experienced work-related injury. On the other hand, organizational support was found to reduce the likelihood of turnover intention. Findings suggest that injury and organizational support should be prioritized in prevention and intervention efforts to promote home health workers' safety and retention.
Barnes, Christopher M; Ghumman, Sonia; Scott, Brent A
We examine sleep as an important factor beyond the work domain that is relevant to organizational citizenship behavior. In a field study of 87 employees from a variety of organizations, an objective measure of sleep quantity predicted organizational citizenship behavior directed toward organizations but not organizational citizenship behavior directed toward individuals. Additionally, job satisfaction mediated this relationship. In a second field study of 85 working college students, we found that natural variation in daily sleep over the course of a work week predicted daily variance in organizational citizenship behavior directed toward both individuals and organizations, and that job satisfaction mediated these relationships. Based on these findings, we discuss theoretical and practical implications of sleep-deprived employees.
Salazar, J. F.; Villegas, J. C.; Bettin, D. M.; Molina, R.; Henao, J. J.; Rodríguez, E.; Rendón, A.; Hoyos, I.; Poveda, G.
In last decades, there has been increasing debate about the hydrological and meteorological role of forests, particularly regarding its role in the regulation of the energy and water balances. Here we summarize results from an ongoing research program studying this problem. First, we introduce the notion of ecohydrological scaling to show the existence of two alternative states of regulated or unregulated streamflows in the main tributaries of the Amazon river basin. The transition between both states is associated with the loss of forest cover, with a potential critical threshold at around 40% forest loss in the Amazon. These results imply that large-scale forest loss can force the entire Amazon basin system beyond a critical threshold where its natural streamflow regulation is lost. More generally, our proposed framework provides insights for a physical interpretation of the scaling relations in river basins, as well as foundations and tools to develop early warnings of critical transitions in river basins. Second, we show that long-term rainfall-streamflow ratios converge to low values with low spatial variability in forested basins of the world, independent of location, climatic regime, basin size or forest type. We interpret this as evidence that high forest cover provides long-term regulation of the water balance. Third, we examine the linkage between the presence of tropical forests in South America and the long-term spatial distribution of continental precipitation, and found evidence suggesting that the Amazon forests enhance the atmospheric rivers flowing inland from the Atlantic ocean, particularly during the austral and boreal summers. The associated effects on precipitation may be highly relevant for water availability in river basins located downstream such atmospheric rivers, such as the La Plata and the Orinoco river basins. Finally, we explore the linkage between forest-induced temperature inversions and the vertical transport of atmospheric
Melinde Coetzee; Dries Schreuder; Rebecca Tladinyane
Orientation: Organisations continue to focus on human resource initiatives for enhancingemployee commitment, satisfaction and engagement in order to gain a competitive edge in adynamic and fast-changing marketplace. Research purpose: The objective of the present study was to assess whether individuals’career anchors (measured by the career orientations inventory) significantly moderate therelationship between their work engagement (measured by the Utrecht work engagementscale) and job comm...
Oliveira, Bernardo Lança Cirnes Nogueira de
This work analyses unemployed individuals’ psychological capital (Psycap), and the mediating and moderation developments through which this resource is related with amotivation to search for a job. We tested, in particular, whether need frustration of autonomy, relatedness and competence mediated the relationship between Psycap and amotivation, by using a questionnaire that was applied to a sample of 298 unemployed people. Additionally, we also tested whether individuals’ famil...
Ernest Miguélez; Rorina Moreno
The aim of the present paper is to identify the determinants of the geographical mobility of skilled individuals, such as inventors, across European regions. Their mobility contributes to the geographical diffusion of knowledge and reshapes the geography of talent. We test whether geography, amenities, job opportunities and social proximity between inventors’ communities, and the so-called National System of Innovation, drive in- and out-flows of inventors between pairs of regions. We use a c...
Mohsen Torabi; Iman Zohoorian Nadali
Background: Regarding the importance of health care providers such as nurses who are always in stressful environments, it is imperative to better understand how they become more engaged in their work. The purpose of this paper is to focus on health care providers (nurses), and examine how the interaction between spiritual intelligence and psychological empowerment affect job engagement. Materials and Methods: This descriptive and quantitative study was conducted among nurses at the Faghihi Ho...
Demerouti, E.; Shimazu, A.; Bakker, A.B.; Shimada, K.; Kawakami, N.
In work-family research the effects on the individual, or the "self", in terms of personal interests independent of the work and family domains, have been largely neglected. This longitudinal study on 471 Japanese employees with young children investigated how job demands and job resources may have
Eaton, Charissa K.; Osgood, Aurea K.; Cigrand, Dawnette L.; Dunbar, Ann-Marie L.
Research has commonly suggested that adequate and appropriate mentoring and faculty perception of support for a work-life balance are important factors in the recruitment, development, and retention of university faculty. To better understand the role of these factors in faculty job performance at teaching universities, faculty from such a…
Kankaanranta, Terhi; Nummi, Tapio; Vainiomäki, Jari; Halila, Hannu; Hyppölä, Harri; Isokoski, Mauri; Kujala, Santero; Kumpusalo, Esko; Mattila, Kari; Virjo, Irma; Vänskä, Jukka; Rissanen, Pekka
This study is based on a unique data set for the years 1988-2003 and uses structural equation models to examine the impact of job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction on physicians' intention to switch from public- to private-sector work. In Finland, physicians who work primarily in a public-hospital or health-centre setting can also run a private practice. Therefore, we also analysed the impact of having a private practice on a physician's intention to change sector. We found that private practice had a positive, statistically significant effect on the intention to switch sector in 1998 and 2003. Results also suggest that job satisfaction decreases a physician's intention to switch sector, although for 1998 it had no effect. Surprisingly, job dissatisfaction significantly increased the physicians' intentions to leave the public sector only in the 1988 data.
Adams, Adrienne E; Tolman, Richard M; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M; Kennedy, Angie C
This study sought to extend our understanding of the mechanisms by which intimate partner violence (IPV) harms women economically. We examined the mediating role of job instability on the IPV-economic well-being relationship among 503 welfare recipients. IPV had significant negative effects on women's job stability and economic well-being. Job stability was at least partly responsible for the deleterious economic consequences of IPV, and the effects lasted up to three years after the IPV ended. This study demonstrates the need for services and policies that address barriers to employment as a means of improving the economic well-being of low-income women with abusive partners.
Vieira, Joana Marina; AVila, Marisa; Matos, Paula Mena
Given the increasingly challenging task of balancing multiple adult life roles in contemporary society, this study examined the influences of both conflicting and (positively) synergistic work and family roles in mediating associations between the quality of adult attachment and both parental satisfaction and parenting stress. Participants were…
Goforth, Paulette B; Myers, Martin G
The neuropeptide hypocretin is also commonly referred to as orexin, since its orexigenic action was recognized early. Orexin/hypocretin (OX) neurons project widely throughout the brain and the physiologic and behavioral functions of OX are much more complex than initially conceived based upon the stimulation of feeding. OX most notably controls functions relevant to attention, alertness, and motivation. OX also plays multiple crucial roles in the control of food intake, metabolism, and overall energy balance in mammals. OX signaling not only promotes food-seeking behavior upon short-term fasting to increase food intake and defend body weight, but, conversely, OX signaling also supports energy expenditure to protect against obesity. Furthermore, OX modulates the autonomic nervous system to control glucose metabolism, including during the response to hypoglycemia. Consistently, a variety of nutritional cues (including the hormones leptin and ghrelin) and metabolites (e.g., glucose, amino acids) control OX neurons. In this chapter, we review the control of OX neurons by nutritional/metabolic cues, along with our current understanding of the mechanisms by which OX and OX neurons contribute to the control of energy balance and metabolism.
Full Text Available Modern organizations focus on the importance of strategic management and control over current and short-term goals and their corrective role on the strategic success factors of the organization in the process of using the resources of the external environment, ignoring the challenges; as the priorities of the activity are to maximally satisfy public expectations, to minimize the spending of resources, to use its own priorities, to successfully overcome uncertainty and risk, to introduce the adequacy of management decisions against the background of reasonable and measured risk. In the study alternatives are discussed as the Balanced Scorecard model suggested by observations and practice, and implications are provided in regard to changing and improving the architecture of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC as a tool for management and control in conditions of high variability and uncertainty of the economic and social environment. Examined are some models in place to develop and implement the BSC and on this basis are structured conclusions and recommendations in the following aspects: the organization's strategy, which involves the application of BSC and the inclusion of elements to develop key aspects of the strategy; the potential of the BSC model and its application according to the different needs of management; the needs of the process of developing and implementing BSC and to further expand the applications of the BSC as a strategic management tool requiring an assessment of the expected status and priorities in the control of the indicators included.
O'Reilly, Oliver M
This book presents theories of deformable elastic strings and rods and their application to broad classes of problems. Readers will gain insights into the formulation and analysis of models for mechanical and biological systems. Emphasis is placed on how the balance laws interplay with constitutive relations to form a set of governing equations. For certain classes of problems, it is shown how a balance of material momentum can play a key role in forming the equations of motion. The first half of the book is devoted to the purely mechanical theory of a string and its applications. The second half of the book is devoted to rod theories, including Euler’s theory of the elastica, Kirchhoff ’s theory of an elastic rod, and a range of Cosserat rod theories. A variety of classic and recent applications of these rod theories are examined. Two supplemental chapters, the first on continuum mechanics of three-dimensional continua and the second on methods from variational calculus, are included to provide relevant ...
Gröpel, Peter; Kuhl, Julius
The relationship between work-life balance (WLB) (i.e. the perceived sufficiency of the time available for work and social life) and well-being is well-documented. However, previous research failed to sufficiently explain why this relationship exists. In this research, the hypothesis was tested that a sufficient amount of the time available increases well-being because it facilitates satisfaction of personal needs. Using two separate samples (students and employees), the mediating role of need fulfilment in the relationship between WLB and well-being was supported. The results suggest that perceived sufficiency of the time available for work and social life predicts the level of well-being only if the individual's needs are fulfilled within that time.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the perceptions of Work-Life Balance (WLB practices in a developing nation of Nigeria. Evidently, on the threshold of widened globalization propensities, work-life research is beginning to spread outside the western context. Thus, a qualitative approach was employed by conducting 61 in-depth interviews with Nigerian employees (41 women and 20 men working in frontline employments in the banking, telecommunications and insurance sectors about their perceptions of WLB. The findings showed that though conflict situations existed more than work-family enrichment, but under different circumstances due to the long legacy of national challenges facing Nigeria. The apparent role conflicts have generated various coping strategies adapted by participants of study to moderate their perceived work-life conflict and this paper seeks to add to the compendium of WLB discourse on a global scale by examining key barriers detected to hinder its workable practices in Nigeria.
Eltahir, E.A.B.; Humphries, E.J. Jr.
Deforestation in the Amazon region will initially impact the energy balance at the land surface through changes in land cover and surface hydrology. However, continuation of this human activity will eventually lead to atmospheric feedbacks, including changes in cloudiness which may play an important role in the final equilibrium of solar and terrestrial radiation at the surface. In this study, the different components of surface radiation over an undisturbed forest in the Amazon region are computed using data from the Amazon region micrometerological experiment (ARME). Several measures of cloudiness are defined: two estimated from the terrestrial radiation measurements, and one from the solar radiation measurements. The sensitivity of the surface fluxes of solar and terrestrial radiation to natural variability in cloudiness is investigated to infer the potential role of the cloudiness feedback in the surface energy balance. The results of this analysis indicate that a 1% decrease in cloudiness would increase net solar radiation by ca. 1.6 W/m 2 . However, the overall magnitude of this feedback, due to total deforestation of the Amazon forest, is likely to be of the same order as the magnitude of the decrease in net solar radiation due to the observed increase in surface albedo following deforestation. Hence, the total change in net solar radiation is likely to have a negligible magnitude. In contrast to this conclusion, we find that terrestrial radiation is likely to be more strongly affected; reduced cloudiness will decrease net terrestrial radiation; a 1% decrease in cloudiness induces a reduction in net terrestrial radiation of ca. 0.7 W/m 2 ; this process augments the similar effects of the predicted warming and drying in the boundary layer. Due to the cloudiness feedback, the most significant effect of large-scale deforestation on the surface energy balance is likely to be in the modification of the terrestrial radiation field rather than the classical albedo
Yamada, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki; Ebara, Takeshi; Hirosawa, Masataka
Although role conflict management is necessary for the prevention of dropout from participation in sports, little has been known about it, especially regarding Japanese university student-athletes. Hence, this study examined the aspects of merit and demerit involved in their performances of academic, athletic, part-time job, family and human relationship roles. The merits and demerits were evaluated using the theoretical concepts of negative spillover (NSP), positive spillover (PSP), compensation and segmentation. In the research, a total of 108 participants (63 males, 45 females) described information about their multiple roles in the Multiple Roles Map (MRM) form. NSP with high frequency rates (3rd quartile) showed demerit that negative condition in athletic and part-time job roles tended to disturb performance of other roles (male ≥ 17.5%, female ≥ 15.6%). The results of PSP showed merit that positive condition in the athletic, part-time job and academic roles contributes to accomplishment of good performance in other roles (male ≥ 19.0%, female ≥ 17.8%). Compensation indicated that negative conditions in the roles were compensated by satisfaction in the human relationships and family roles and private time (male ≥ 9.5%, female ≥ 11.1%). The family role was segmented from other roles (male ≥ 71.4%, female ≥ 68.9%). Sharing these findings will be effective in helping to solve role conflict problems of university student-athletes in Japan.
Japan's industrial and trade policies are often seen as the reason for high Japanese balance of trade surpluses. Does this theory stand up to a close examination of the relationships between balance of trade, trade policy and structural change?
Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to investigate differences in balance control between individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS and healthy control subjects using clinical scales and instrumented measures of balance and determine relationships between balance measures, fatigue, and disability levels in individuals with MS with and without a history of falls. Method. Twelve individuals with MS and twelve healthy controls were evaluated using the Berg Balance and Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scales, Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance, and Limits of Stability Tests as well as Fatigue Severity Scale and Barthel Index. Results. Mildly affected individuals with MS had significant balance performance deficits and poor balance confidence levels (P<0.05. MS group had higher sway velocities and diminished stability limits (P<0.05, significant sensory impairments, high fatigue and disability levels (P<0.05. Sway velocity was a significant predictor of balance performance and the ability to move towards stability limits for the MS group. For the MS-fallers group, those with lower disability levels had faster movement velocities and better balance performance. Conclusion. Implementation of both clinical and instrumented tests of balance is important for the planning and evaluation of treatment outcomes in balance rehabilitation of people with MS.
Foglesong, Grant D.; Huang, Wei; Liu, Xianglan; Slater, Andrew M.; Siu, Jason; Yildiz, Vedat; Salton, Stephen R. J.
Environmental enrichment (EE), a housing condition providing complex physical, social, and cognitive stimulation, leads to improved metabolic health and resistance to diet-induced obesity and cancer. One underlying mechanism is the activation of the hypothalamic-sympathoneural-adipocyte axis with hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as the key mediator. VGF, a peptide precursor particularly abundant in the hypothalamus, was up-regulated by EE. Overexpressing BDNF or acute injection of BDNF protein to the hypothalamus up-regulated VGF, whereas suppressing BDNF signaling down-regulated VGF expression. Moreover, hypothalamic VGF expression was regulated by leptin, melanocortin receptor agonist, and food deprivation mostly paralleled to BDNF expression. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer of Cre recombinase to floxed VGF mice specifically decreased VGF expression in the hypothalamus. In contrast to the lean and hypermetabolic phenotype of homozygous germline VGF knockout mice, specific knockdown of hypothalamic VGF in male adult mice led to increased adiposity, decreased core body temperature, reduced energy expenditure, and impaired glucose tolerance, as well as disturbance of molecular features of brown and white adipose tissues without effects on food intake. However, VGF knockdown failed to block the EE-induced BDNF up-regulation or decrease of adiposity indicating a minor role of VGF in the hypothalamic-sympathoneural-adipocyte axis. Taken together, our results suggest hypothalamic VGF responds to environmental demands and plays an important role in energy balance and glycemic control likely acting in the melanocortin pathway downstream of BDNF. PMID:26730934
Raymond, Christy; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne; Myrick, Florence; Strean, William B
Critical thinking is an important indicator of student learning and is an essential outcome of baccalaureate nursing education. The role of nurse educators in the development of students' critical thinking has been overlooked despite the importance of their actions to facilitate critical thinking in nursing education. We used a constructivist grounded theory approach within a larger mixed methods triangulation study to explore how nurse educators revealed their critical thinking in practice. From the grounded theory approach, a model emerged from our research, outlining the important aspects of nurse educators' critical thinking and how it is revealed in the clinical setting. The important categories of this model include: a) fostering the student-educator relationship; b) role modeling critical thinking; c) mobilizing and operationalizing resources; as well as d) balancing factors that impact nurse educators' critical thinking. Our findings inform what is known about nurse educators' critical thinking and how it can be implemented in nurse educators' teaching practice. Given our findings, we offer recommendations for future nursing education practice and research, including the need to apply our findings in additional settings and further develop nurse educators' awareness of their own critical thinking. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Home, Alice M.
Data from 443 women combining work, family, and schooling showed that lower income increased their vulnerability to role conflict. Perceived intensity of student demands was the strongest predictor of role conflict, overload, and contagion (preoccupation with one role while performing another). Conflict and overload were eased somewhat by distance…
Li, Feng; Wang, Guangxi; Li, Yongjuan; Zhou, Ronggang
This study aimed to examine the effects of both hindrance and challenge demands on driving anger within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. We collected self-reported data from 411 office workers driving to and from work each day in five cities in China. The results from a structural equation modeling analysis indicated that both hindrance and challenge demands were positively related to emotional exhaustion, which was in turn positively correlated with driving anger. Moreover, work engagement was positively correlated with driving anger. Implications of the present findings regarding both the JD-R model and driving safety research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Succession planning has become a misconstrued phenomenon in a global environment where organisations largely depend on their human resources for achievement, continuity and effectiveness. Methodology/methods: Data for this research were collected from three Beverages companies in Lagos, Nigeria, with 244 administered questionnaires, retrieved and analysed using the regression analysis. Scientific aim: This paper examines the Moderating Role of Employees’ Satisfaction on Succession Planning and Job Commitment in the manufacturing sector. Findings: The result showed that succession planning significantly impact on employees’ job commitment. The findings indicated a variance of 52% between mentoring and affective commitment, however when the moderating variable of employees’ satisfaction was established, the R-squared increased to 56.8% while the significance of the F-change assessed show significance at 0.0001. Conclusions: The study recommends that when organizational replacement is done, it should meet the present and future need as well as the corporate objectives of the organization and that management should handle the issue of Succession Planning with high sense of objectivity in order to achieve organizational efficiency, among others.
Cecil, Joanne E; Watt, Peter; Palmer, Colin N; Hetherington, Marion
Mechanisms regulating energy balance involve complex interactions between genetic, environmental and behavioural (learnt and intrinsic) factors. Genotype may drive the partitioning of energy metabolism and predispose to site-specific adiposity, culminating in a state of energy imbalance. One candidate gene with a direct link to adiposity is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) gene. PPARG is a cell nuclear receptor expressed almost exclusively in adipose tissue that regulates adipocyte differentiation, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. PPARgamma appears to be a key regulator of energy balance, with polymorphisms on the PPARG gene linked to obesity and effects on body composition. Our research has confirmed an association between the pro12ala allele and reduced incidence of obesity in pre-pubertal children and there are strong associations between genetic variation at the PPARG locus and percentage body fat. Moreover, our evidence suggests that PPARG C-681G and pro12ala polymorphisms display opposing effects in terms of growth phenotype, with pro12Ala associated with deficient energy utilisation, leading to reduced growth and the G-681 variant associated with accelerated growth compared with wildtypes. Common differences in this gene have also been associated with variations in body weight in response to dietary macronutrients. Preliminary evidence suggests that PPARG variants may even be involved in the control of short term energy compensation. Taken together these data suggest that the role of PPARG is varied and complex, influencing fat deposition and growth velocity early in life, with potential impact in the control of energy intake and appetite regulation, and could provide a key target for future research and anti-obesity agents.
Full Text Available Assembly lines take the attention of researchers and companies because of its great effect on efficiency. Efficiency in assembly lines has an important role on cost and quality which are the basic fundamentals of competition. Assembly lines contain a number of workstations and tasks (jobs are processed in these stations and are moved from station to station. The tasks are assigned to each station regarding a cycle time. The cycle time is the maximum available time for the production of a job at any workstation. The assingning of jobs to workstations is based on the objective of minimizing the workflow among the workstations, reducing the throughput time as well as the work in progress and thus increasing productivity. If the jobs are not allocated in balance, this will cause idle workstations and waste of workforce besides the loss of overall efficiency. In this study, an assebly line balancing problem was examined for a five pocket denim trousers in a clothing company. Firstly, priority associations and standard durations of operations of denim trousers were determined. Then, assembly line balancing study was carried out by using ranked positional weights assembly line balancing method developed by Helgeson and Birnie to increase the production in a clothing company manufacturing five pocket denim trousers.
Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P.
Purpose: Knowledge on what contributes to job satisfaction of people with intellectual disabilities is limited. Using self-determination theory, we investigated whether fulfillment of basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, relatedness, competence) affected job satisfaction, and explored
Petrou, P.; Demerouti, E.; Xanthopoulou, D.
The present study addresses how job characteristics (e.g., autonomy, workload, and their interaction) relate to employee job crafting (i.e., seeking resources, seeking challenges, and reducing demands), and whether job crafting relates to employee work-related well-being (i.e., work engagement and
Ghadeer Mohamed Badr ElDin Aboul-Ela
Full Text Available Employees are the key resources of organizational success. Developing and maintaining job embeddedness is a cornerstone success in the workplace. The purpose of this research study is to analyze selected antecedents of job embeddedness. Role ambiguity, training, and demographics (age groups, gender and education were identified from the extant literature as the selected antecedents for this study. An in-depth statistical analysis of the job embeddedness sub-dimensions was conducted in relation to the selected antecedents. Questionnaires were administered among the employees working in the private banks in Egypt. Results revealed a negative relationship between role ambiguity and job embeddedness, a positive relationship between training and job embeddedness, elder employees held higher level of embeddedness compared to young employees, females possessed higher level of embeddedness compared to males, and no significant differences among the various education levels and job embeddedness.
Yamaguchi, Yoshiko; Inoue, Takahiro; Harada, Hiroko; Oike, Miyako
The shortage of nurses is a problem in many countries. In Japan, the distribution of nurses across different care settings is uneven: the shortage of nurses in home healthcare and nursing homes is more serious than in hospitals. Earlier research has identified numerous factors affecting nurses' intention to leave work (e.g., job control, family-related variables, work-family conflict); however, these factors' levels and effect size may vary between nurses in hospitals, home healthcare, and nursing homes. This study measured job control, family-related variables, and work-family conflict among nurses in hospitals, home healthcare, and nursing homes, and compared these variables' levels and effect size on nurses' intention to leave their organization or profession between these care settings. The research design was cross-sectional. Participating nurses from hospitals, home healthcare facilities, and nursing homes self-administered an anonymous questionnaire survey; nurses were recruited from the Kyushu district of Japan. Nurses from nine hospitals, 86 home healthcare offices, and 107 nursing homes participated. We measured nurses' intention to leave nursing or their organization, perceived job control, family variables and work-family conflict. We analyzed 1461 participants (response rate: 81.7%). The level of job control, family variables, and work-family conflict affecting nurses varied between hospitals, home healthcare, and nursing homes; additionally, these variables' effect on nurses' intention to leave their organization or profession varied between these care settings. Work-family conflict, family variables, and job control most strongly predicted nurses' intention to leave their organization or profession in hospitals, home healthcare, and nursing homes, respectively. Interventions aiming to increase nurse retention should distinguish between care settings. Regarding hospitals, reducing nurses' work-family conflict will increase nurse retention. Regarding
Weale, Victoria P; Wells, Yvonne; Oakman, Jodi
Previous research identified an association between work-family conflict and musculoskeletal pain. This study explores how the work-life interface might affect pain experienced by residential aged care staff. A cross-sectional survey of 426 employees in residential aged care was analyzed to assess the impacts of workplace hazards, work-family conflict, and work-life balance on self-reported musculoskeletal pain. Work-family conflict acts as a mediator of the relationships between workplace hazards and the total number of body regions at which musculoskeletal pain was experienced. Work-life balance only acts as a mediator for particular hazards and only if work-family conflict is not taken into account. Addressing work-life interaction, and in particular work-family conflict, warrants further investigation as a legitimate means through which musculoskeletal disorder risk can be reduced. Policies and practices to improve work-life interaction and reduce work-family conflict should be considered as integral components of musculoskeletal disorder risk management strategies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
IOAN LAZAR; CODRUTA OSOIAN; PATRICIA RATIU
Well known in the literature as work life balance, the quality relationship between paid work and unpaid responsibilities is critical for success in today’s competitive business world. The issue of work-life balance has been developed in response to demographic, economic and cultural changes. The purpose of this paper is to establish whether work-life balance initiatives and practices can be considered as strategic human resource management decisions that can translate into improved individua...
Murali Raman; Sharmini Gopinathan
The ability of employees to effectively recognize, practice, and apply knowledge management (KM) and learning system principles accessible to them is a vital issue in improving work-life balance and providing strategies to enhance it. This issue has become obvious in efforts to apply information technology in the development of work-life balance policies through various learning systems. The victory and letdown of KM and work-life balance initiatives certainly depend on the deliberation of ho...
Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B; Leiter, Michael
The present study aims to explain why research thus far has found only low to moderate associations between burnout and performance. We argue that employees use adaptive strategies that help them to maintain their performance (i.e., task performance, adaptivity to change) at acceptable levels despite experiencing burnout (i.e., exhaustion, disengagement). We focus on the strategies included in the selective optimization with compensation model. Using a sample of 294 employees and their supervisors, we found that compensation is the most successful strategy in buffering the negative associations of disengagement with supervisor-rated task performance and both disengagement and exhaustion with supervisor-rated adaptivity to change. In contrast, selection exacerbates the negative relationship of exhaustion with supervisor-rated adaptivity to change. In total, 42% of the hypothesized interactions proved to be significant. Our study uncovers successful and unsuccessful strategies that people use to deal with their burnout symptoms in order to achieve satisfactory job performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Stacey L. Parker
Full Text Available We examine the relationships among employees’ use of energy management strategies and two occupational well-being outcomes: job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that employees with high job demands would benefit more from using energy management strategies (i.e., including prosocial, organizing, and meaning-related strategies, compared to employees with low job demands. We tested this proposition using a quantitative diary study. Fifty-four employees provided data twice daily across one work week (on average, 7 daily entries. Supporting the hypotheses, prosocial energy management was positively related to job satisfaction. Moreover, employees with high job demands were less emotionally exhausted when using prosocial strategies. Contrary to predictions, when using organizing strategies, employees with low job demands had higher job satisfaction and lower emotional exhaustion. Under high job demands, greater use of organizing strategies was associated with lower job satisfaction and higher emotional exhaustion. Finally, use of meaning-related strategies was associated with higher emotional exhaustion when job demands were low. With this research, we position energy management as part of a resource investment process aimed at maintaining and improving occupational well-being. Our findings show that this resource investment will be more or less effective depending on the type of strategy used and the existing drain on resources (i.e., job demands. This is the first study to examine momentary effects of distinct types of work-related energy management strategies on occupational well-being.
Parker, Stacey L; Zacher, Hannes; de Bloom, Jessica; Verton, Thomas M; Lentink, Corine R
We examine the relationships among employees' use of energy management strategies and two occupational well-being outcomes: job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that employees with high job demands would benefit more from using energy management strategies (i.e., including prosocial, organizing, and meaning-related strategies), compared to employees with low job demands. We tested this proposition using a quantitative diary study. Fifty-four employees provided data twice daily across one work week (on average, 7 daily entries). Supporting the hypotheses, prosocial energy management was positively related to job satisfaction. Moreover, employees with high job demands were less emotionally exhausted when using prosocial strategies. Contrary to predictions, when using organizing strategies, employees with low job demands had higher job satisfaction and lower emotional exhaustion. Under high job demands, greater use of organizing strategies was associated with lower job satisfaction and higher emotional exhaustion. Finally, use of meaning-related strategies was associated with higher emotional exhaustion when job demands were low. With this research, we position energy management as part of a resource investment process aimed at maintaining and improving occupational well-being. Our findings show that this resource investment will be more or less effective depending on the type of strategy used and the existing drain on resources (i.e., job demands). This is the first study to examine momentary effects of distinct types of work-related energy management strategies on occupational well-being.
Saverino, A.; Waller, D.; Rantell, K.; Parry, R.; Moriarty, A.; Playford, E. D.
Introduction\\ud \\ud There is a consistent body of evidence supporting the role of cognitive functions, particularly executive function, in the elderly and in neurological conditions which become more frequent with ageing. The aim of our study was to assess the role of different domains of cognitive functions to predict balance and fall risk in a sample of adults with various neurological conditions in a rehabilitation setting.\\ud \\ud Methods\\ud \\ud This was a prospective, cohort study conduct...
S. Umamaheswari; Jayasree Krishnan
The study examines the role of work life balance, career development and supervisor support on organization commitment over employees of unattended, ceramic sanitary ware factories in India. It also verifies the influence of organization commitment on retention and its mediating role. Findings reveal that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhance it. Moreover, organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retentio...
Hallding, Karl; Guoyi Han; Olsson, Marie (Stockholm Environment Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))
At a time when climate change is at the top of the global political agenda, China has come to a point where continued economic growth must be balanced with environmental limitations. Through the implementation of ambitious national targets that bear on climate mitigation, the Chinese leadership is showing that it is willing to actively participate in the global climate game. China understands its role in global climate change and is fully aware of the fact that, at a minimal level, OECD countries will need some kind of assurance that China is sufficiently 'in' for there to be a realistic chance of containing global emissions. In return, at a minimal level, China will insist on developed countries demonstrating sufficient commitment (e.g., significant mid-term targets, clear response to China's proposal on technology transfer and adaptation). With those two minimal requirements met, trust building may start, and that is where the ultimate hope lies for an effective green deal
Yun, Seokhwa; Takeuchi, Riki; Liu, Wei
This study examined the effects of employee self-enhancement motives on job performance behaviors (organizational citizenship behaviors and task performance) and the value of these behaviors to them. The authors propose that employees display job performance behaviors in part to enhance their self-image, especially when their role is not clearly defined. They further argue that the effects of these behaviors on managerial reward recommendation decisions should be stronger when managers believe the employees to be more committed. The results from a sample of 84 working students indicate that role ambiguity moderated the effects of self-enhancement motives on job performance behaviors and that managerial perceptions of an employee's commitment moderated the effects of those organizational citizenship behaviors that are aimed at other individuals on managers' reward allocation decisions. 2007 APA, all rights reserved
Leao, Izabela; Ahmed, Mansur; Kar, Anuja
The agriculture sector can play an important role in poverty reduction and sustained growth in Afghanistan, primarily through job creation, improved productivity, and inclusiveness. Using an 'agricultural jobs lens' and multidimensional approach, this report explores the sector’s direct and indirect roles in explaining the dynamics of rural employment. The report critically examines three dimensions. First, it evaluates the current jobs structure in rural areas and finds that rural jobs are c...
Willemse, Bernadette M; de Jonge, Jan; Smit, Dieneke; Depla, Marja F I A; Pot, Anne Margriet
Healthcare workers in nursing homes are faced with high job demands that can have a detrimental impact on job-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction. Job resources may have a buffering role on this relationship. The Demand-Control-Support (DCS) Model offers a theoretical framework to study how specific job resources can buffer the adverse effects of high demands, and can even activate positive consequences of high demands. The present study tests the moderating (i.e. buffering and activating) effects of decision authority and coworker- and supervisor support that are assumed by the hypotheses of the DCS Model. A national cross-sectional survey was conducted with an anonymous questionnaire. One hundred and thirty six living arrangements that provide nursing home care for people with dementia in the Netherlands. Fifteen healthcare workers per living arrangement. In total, 1147 people filled out the questionnaires (59% response rate). Hierarchical multilevel regression analyses were conducted to test the assumption that the effect of job demands on the dependent variables is buffered or activated the most when both decision authority and social support are high. This moderation is statistically represented by three-way interactions (i.e. demands×authority×support), while lower-order effects are taken into account (i.e. two-way interactions). The hypotheses are supported when three-way interaction effects are found in the expected direction. The dependent variables studied are job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment. The proposed buffering and activation hypotheses of the DCS Model were not supported in our study. Three-way interaction effects were found for emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment, though not in the expected direction. In addition, two-way interaction effects were found for job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Decision authority was found to buffer the adverse effect of job demands and to activate
Niaz, Mansoor; Lawson, Anton E.
Tested two hypotheses: (1) formal reasoning is required to balance simple one-step equations; and (2) formal reasoning plus sufficient mental capacity are required to balance many-step equations. Independent variables included intellectual development, mental capacity, and degree of field dependence/independence. With 25 subjects, significance was…
K, Charu; Gupta, Sachin
In recent years, the term work/life balance has replaced what used to be known as work/family balance16. Although the concept of family has broadened to encompass extended families, shared parenting, same-sex relationships and a wide range of social and support networks and communities, the semantic shift from work/family to work/life arises from a recognition that care of dependent children is by no means the only important non-work function. Other life activities that need to be balanced wi...
Haris, Zarin Daneshvar; Saidabadi, Reza Yousefi; Niazazari, Kiumars
Purpose: the present study aimed to investigate the effect of perceived spiritual leadership on envy management of faculty members of Islamic Azad Universities of East Azerbaijan province through the role of professional development mediation and job satisfaction. Methodology: this study was a descriptive and correlational study that was conducted…
Song, Ji Hoon
The purpose of this research was to examine the mediating roles of job autonomy and the quality of the leader-member relationship to explain the impact of organizational support on team performance. A total of 228 cases collected from Korean business organizations were used for data analysis. Hierarchical multiple regression, Type 1 SS-based…
Sahibzada, Khatera; Hammer, Leslie B.; Neal, Margaret B.; Kuang, Daniel C.
This study determined whether work-family role combinations (i.e., work and elder care, work and child care, work and elder care and child care) and work-family culture significantly moderate the relationship between availability of workplace supports and job satisfaction. The data were obtained from the Families and Work Institute's 1997 archival…
Full Text Available Micro, small and medium enterprises (SMEs play a crucial role in the European economy, representing a major source of entrepreneurial skills, innovationand job creation. The values of the main indicators of SMEs in the year 2013, the aggregate in the European Union, give a suggestive image of the contribution of SMEs in the Europeaneconomy, namely 99% of all enterprises in the EU are SMEs, 66% of employees are employed in SMEs, 58% of the value added generated in the economy is achieved by SMEs. However, SMEs are often confronted with market imperfections, often having difficulties in obtaining financing or crediting, especially in the phaseof newly established SMEs (start-up. Limited financial resources may also hamper access to new technologies, investment and innovation. Therefore, support for SMEs is one of the priorities ofthe European Commission for growth, creating jobs and economic and social cohesion.Regarding Romania, it is the eighth country in the EU, with a great number of employees inSMEs and with a contribution of 3% to the total workforce in the EU-28 SME sector. We are not better at the chapter of the added value achieved in the SME sector, ranking 17thin the European Union, with a 0.7% contribution to total value added in the EU-28, in front of Greece (0.93% and before Hungary (0.68%, countries with a higher number of SMEs. The disparity report between the share of added value and the potential ofRomania's demographic development reflects the large gap between the productivity and the competitiveness of Romanian SMEs. The example of other countries, such as Austria and Belgium, shows a greater contribution to value added (3.1% and 2.8% compared with 2% share of the total number of employees in the aggregate European SMEs, which demonstrates a higher level of productivity. Also, this is true for the strongest European economies, such as Germany, France and Britain.
Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael
the possible locking-in effect reducing job search. In a general equilibrium search framework, we show that the effects of workfare policies critically depend on the response of those not in the programme when they take into account that workfare is a condition for remaining eligible for unemployment benefits...
is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound......This paper explores the concept of balance in music production and examines the role of conceptual metaphors in reasoning about audio editing. Balance may be the most central concept in record production, however, the way we cognitively understand and respond meaningfully to a mix requiring balance...
Chang, Li-Chun; Shih, Chia-Hui; Lin, Shu-Man
The importance of the professional role of school health nurses in promoting children's health in their school environment is widely recognized. However, studies of their working experience have revealed feelings of disempowerment that appear to be related to insufficient support from school managers. In these unsupportive working environments, it seems possible that psychological empowerment may play a mediating role to strengthen employees' satisfaction and commitment to their employing organization. The aim of this study is to test an exploratory model of empowerment in a Taiwanese sample of school health nurses by examining the mediating role of psychological empowerment in the relationship between external factors and work-related attitudes, specifically job satisfaction and organizational commitment. A cross-sectional survey with self-reported questionnaires. Probability proportional sampling was used to generate a randomly selected sample of 500 school health nurses in elementary and junior high schools in Taiwan. A total of 330 valid questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 66%. The exploratory model including all hypothesized variables provided an adequate fit (chi(2)=29.24; df=17; p=.052; adjusted goodness-of-fit index [AGFI]=.96; goodness-of-fit index [GFI]=.98; root-mean-square error of approximation [RMSEA]=.05) for the data and indicated that psychological empowerment did not fully mediate the relationship between organizational empowerment and job satisfaction because of the strong direct effects of organizational empowerment on job satisfaction. The influence of empowerment on organizational commitment was mediated through job satisfaction. Psychological empowerment did not mediate the relationship between external factors and work attitudes, and job satisfaction emerged as an important factor. If school leaders can improve the job satisfaction of school health nurses, this will help them achieve greater commitment and loyalty of
Peng, Jiaxi; Jiang, Xihua; Zhang, Jiaxi; Xiao, Runxuan; Song, Yunyun; Feng, Xi; Zhang, Yan; Miao, Danmin
Nursing has a high risk of job burnout, but only a few studies have explored its influencing factors from an organizational perspective. The present study explores the impact of psychological capital on job burnout by investigating the mediating effect of organizational commitment on this relationship. A total of 473 female nurses from four large general hospitals in Xi'an City of China were selected as participants. Data were collected via the Psychological Capital Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Organizational Commitment Scale. Both psychological capital and organizational commitment were significantly correlated to job burnout. Structural equation modelling indicated that organizational commitment partially mediated the relationship between psychological capital and job burnout. The final model revealed a significant path from psychological capital to job burnout through organizational commitment. These findings extended prior reports and shed some light on the influence of psychological capital on job burnout.
Kyndt, Eva; Donche, Vincent; Gijbels, David; Van Petegem, Peter
Within teacher education, it is widely recognised that internships play a major role in preparing prospective teachers. The current research examines if the learning activities students' undertake in the workplace can be explained by students' goal orientation and their perceptions of the workplace. In addition, it will be investigated…
Full Text Available The ability of employees to effectively recognize, practice, and apply knowledge management (KM and learning system principles accessible to them is a vital issue in improving work-life balance and providing strategies to enhance it. This issue has become obvious in efforts to apply information technology in the development of work-life balance policies through various learning systems. The victory and letdown of KM and work-life balance initiatives certainly depend on the deliberation of how these elements can be effectively designed and deployed to the general public in various industries. Work-life balance has become an imperative area of research that analyzes how these elements can be understood and applied to improve the aspects involved in one’s work and life. Such concept has also significantly emerged in recent years. In this special issue, several papers that focus on the budding concept of KM and work-life balance are presented. These articles particularly look into the theoretical and methodological approaches for studying work-life balance. A special focus of the issue is how these notions are practiced and can be personalized to improve work-life balance through KM and learning systems.
Parker, Stacey L.; Zacher, Hannes; de Bloom, Jessica; Verton, Thomas M.; Lentink, Corine R.
We examine the relationships among employees’ use of energy management strategies and two occupational well-being outcomes: job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that employees with high job demands would benefit more from using energy management strategies (i.e., including prosocial, organizing, and meaning-related strategies), compared to employees with low job demands. We tested this proposition using a quantitative diary ...
Montgomery Anthony; Panagopoulou Efharis; Costa Patricia
Health care professionals deal on a daily basis with several job demands – emotional, cognitive, organizational and physical. They must also ensure high quality care to their patients. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of job demands on quality of care and to investigate team (backup behaviors) and individual (positivity ratio) processes that help to shield that impact. Data was collected from 2,890 doctors and nurses in 9 European countries by means of questionnaires. Job demand...
It is increasingly becoming clear that the United States (US) is playing the role of a balancer in the South Asian region. The role has relevance as its presence is required by the greater mutual suspicions of each other amongst China, India and Pakistan than fears of these countries towards the US. Only the development of a trilateral common perception of shared interests amongst the three neighbours can keep the US out from the region. On the other hand, the introduction of the cold war might once again bring back the US role as a partisan. 35 refs
Jin, Jianliang; Lv, Xianhui; Chen, Lulu; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jinbo; Wang, Qian; Wang, Rong; Lu, Xiang; Miao, Dengshun
To determine whether Bmi-1 deficiency could lead to renal tubulointerstitial injury by mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress in the kidney, 3-week-old Bmi-1-/- mice were treated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 1 mg mL−1) in their drinking water, or pyrro-quinoline quinone (PQQ, 4 mg kg−1 diet) in their diet for 2 weeks, and their renal phenotypes were compared with vehicle-treated Bmi1-/- and wild-type mice. Bmi-1 was knocked down in human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK2) cells which were treated with 1 mm NAC for 72 or 96 h, and their phenotypes were compared with control cells. Five-week-old vehicle-treated Bmi-1-/- mice displayed renal interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and severe renal function impairment with decreased renal cell proliferation, increased renal cell apoptosis and senescence, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Impaired mitochondrial structure, decreased mitochondrial numbers, and increased oxidative stress occurred in Bmi-1-/- mice; subsequently, this caused DNA damage, the activation of TGF-β1/Smad signaling, and the imbalance between extracellular matrix synthesis and degradation. Oxidative stress-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of renal tubular epithelial cells was enhanced in Bmi-1 knocked down HK2 cells. All phenotypic alterations caused by Bmi-1 deficiency were ameliorated by antioxidant treatment. These findings indicate that Bmi-1 plays a critical role in protection from renal tubulointerstitial injury by maintaining redox balance and will be a novel therapeutic target for preventing renal tubulointerstitial injury. PMID:24915841
Qian, Jing; Wang, Haiwan; Han, Zhuo Rachel; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hui
While the nursing profession has been associated with mental health problems and the research into the antecedents of mental health has steadily grown, the relationship between abusive supervision and mental health issues of anxiety and depression remains largely unknown. This study aims to examine the relationship between abusive supervision and mental health problems. And we also aim to investigate whether this relationship is moderated by role ambiguity and the patients' lack of reciprocity. A total of 227 frontline nurses from two public hospitals completed the survey questionnaire. (1) Abusive supervision was positively associated with poor mental health; (2) the positive relationship was moderated by nurses' perceived role ambiguity in such a way that the relationship was stronger when the perceived role ambiguity is high; (3) the positive relationship was moderated by the patients' lack of reciprocity in such a way that the relationship was stronger when patients' lack of reciprocity was high. To conclude, the present study showed that abusive supervision was positively associated with mental health problems of anxiety and depression among samples of Chinese nurses. Findings of this study also highlighted that this relationship was contingent upon perceived role ambiguity and patients' reciprocity.
Shah, Shalaka Sharad
The issue of work-life balance is becoming increasingly important for employers and employees globally. The clearer becomes our understanding about this issue; the better it will be for an effective and positive integration of these dynamic domains of our lives. Work-family enrichment is a positive way of integrating work and family and it helps to achieve work-life balance. In this Indo-German study, work-life balance, work-family enrichment, work-family culture and career success are analys...
Kristensen, Nicolai; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.
This paper seeks to analyse the role of job satisfaction and actual job change behaviour. The analysis is based on the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) data for Danish families 1994-2000. The results show that inclusion of job satisfaction, which is a subjective measure, does improve...... the ability to predict actual quit behaviour: Low overall job satisfaction significantly increases the probability of quit. Various job satisfaction domains are ranked according to their ability to predict quits. Satisfaction with Type of Work is found to be the most important job characteristic while...... satisfaction with Job Security is found to be insignificant. These results hold across age, gender and education sub-groups and are opposed to results for UK, where job security is found to be the most important job domain. This discrepancy between UK and Denmark might be due to differences in unemployment...
Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P
Knowledge on what contributes to job satisfaction of people with intellectual disabilities is limited. Using self-determination theory, we investigated whether fulfillment of basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, relatedness, competence) affected job satisfaction, and explored associations between workplace participation, need fulfillment and job satisfaction. A total of 117 persons with intellectual disabilities, recruited from a Dutch care organization, were interviewed on need fulfillment at work and job satisfaction. Data on workplace participation was obtained from staff. Questionnaires were based on well-established instruments. Basic psychological need fulfillment predicted higher levels of job satisfaction. Level of workplace participation was not associated with need fulfillment or job satisfaction. Allowing workers with intellectual disabilities to act with a sense of volition, feel effective, able to meet challenges, and connected to others is essential and contributes to job satisfaction. It is needed to pay attention to this, both in selection and design of workplaces and in support style. Implications for rehabilitation Knowledge on factors that contribute to job satisfaction is necessary to improve employment situations and employment success of people with intellectual disabilities. In order to achieve job satisfaction, it is essential that workplaces allow for fulfillment of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence of people with intellectual disabilities. People with intellectual disabilities are able to report on their needs and satisfaction, and it is important that their own perspective is taken into account in decisions regarding their employment situation.
Muhammet Sait Dinc
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the joint effects of employees' moral values and job involvement on their organizational commitment. Data were collected via a questionnaire survey of private educational institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina and a total of 100 valid responses were received. It was found that although both moral values and job involvement could enhance organizational commitment, once the effects of job involvement are accounted for, the direct effects of moral values on organizational commitment diminish to almost non-existent. This result provides strong evidence that the influence of employees’ moral values on organizational commitment is mediated by job involvement.
Saverino, A; Waller, D; Rantell, K; Parry, R; Moriarty, A; Playford, E D
There is a consistent body of evidence supporting the role of cognitive functions, particularly executive function, in the elderly and in neurological conditions which become more frequent with ageing. The aim of our study was to assess the role of different domains of cognitive functions to predict balance and fall risk in a sample of adults with various neurological conditions in a rehabilitation setting. This was a prospective, cohort study conducted in a single centre in the UK. 114 participants consecutively admitted to a Neuro-Rehabilitation Unit were prospectively assessed for fall accidents. Baseline assessment included a measure of balance (Berg Balance Scale) and a battery of standard cognitive tests measuring executive function, speed of information processing, verbal and visual memory, visual perception and intellectual function. The outcomes of interest were the risk of becoming a faller, balance and fall rate. Two tests of executive function were significantly associated with fall risk, the Stroop Colour Word Test (IRR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.03) and the number of errors on part B of the Trail Making Test (IRR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.49). Composite scores of executive function, speed of information processing and visual memory domains resulted in 2 to 3 times increased likelihood of having better balance (OR 2.74 95% CI 1.08 to 6.94, OR 2.72 95% CI 1.16 to 6.36 and OR 2.44 95% CI 1.11 to 5.35 respectively). Our results show that specific subcomponents of executive functions are able to predict fall risk, while a more global cognitive dysfunction is associated with poorer balance.
Full Text Available There is a consistent body of evidence supporting the role of cognitive functions, particularly executive function, in the elderly and in neurological conditions which become more frequent with ageing. The aim of our study was to assess the role of different domains of cognitive functions to predict balance and fall risk in a sample of adults with various neurological conditions in a rehabilitation setting.This was a prospective, cohort study conducted in a single centre in the UK. 114 participants consecutively admitted to a Neuro-Rehabilitation Unit were prospectively assessed for fall accidents. Baseline assessment included a measure of balance (Berg Balance Scale and a battery of standard cognitive tests measuring executive function, speed of information processing, verbal and visual memory, visual perception and intellectual function. The outcomes of interest were the risk of becoming a faller, balance and fall rate.Two tests of executive function were significantly associated with fall risk, the Stroop Colour Word Test (IRR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.03 and the number of errors on part B of the Trail Making Test (IRR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.49. Composite scores of executive function, speed of information processing and visual memory domains resulted in 2 to 3 times increased likelihood of having better balance (OR 2.74 95% CI 1.08 to 6.94, OR 2.72 95% CI 1.16 to 6.36 and OR 2.44 95% CI 1.11 to 5.35 respectively.Our results show that specific subcomponents of executive functions are able to predict fall risk, while a more global cognitive dysfunction is associated with poorer balance.
Johari, Johanim; Yahya, Khulida Kirana
Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to assess the predicting role of job characteristics on job performance. Dimensions in the job characteristics construct are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Further, work involvement is tested as a mediator in the hypothesized link. Design/methodology/approach: A…
Chin-Quee, Dawn; Mugeni, Cathy; Nkunda, Denis; Uwizeye, Marie Rose; Stockton, Laurie L; Wesson, Jennifer
Task shifting from higher cadre providers to CHWs has been widely adopted to address healthcare provider shortages, but the addition of any service can potentially add to an already considerable workload for CHWs. Objective measures of workload alone, such as work-related time and travel may not reflect howCHWs actually perceive and react to their circumstances. This study combined perception and objectivemeasures of workload to examine their effect on quality of services, worker performance, and job and clientsatisfaction. Three hundred eighty-three CHWs from control and intervention districts, where the intervention group was trained to provide contraceptive resupply, completed diaries of work-related activities for one month. Interviews were also conducted with a subset of CHWs and their clients. CHW diaries did not reveal significant differences between intervention and control groups in time spent on service provision or travel. Over 90% of CHWs reported workload manageability, job satisfaction, and motivation to perform their jobs. Clients were highly satisfied with CHW services and most stated preference for future services from CHWs. The study demonstrated that adding resupply of hormonal contraceptives to CHWs' tasks would not place undue burden on them. Accordingly, the initiative was scaled up in all 30 districts in the country.
Ismadiyanti P Astuti
Full Text Available The balance of payments is an indicator of economic fundamentals. Balance of payment describes the ability of a country to gain foreign exchange and foreign payments. This study aimed to analyze the determinants of the balance of payments on the Indonesian economy . It used Thirlwall and Hussain models and also Duasa empirical model. This study used secondary data years 1987-2014, namely foreign exchange reserves, exports, foreign investment, the exchange rate and the real gross national income. The results showed that the performance of the balance of payments in Indonesia can be explained by the models shown in accordance with the hypothesis, but on several variables did not show a significant correlation.
Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders
We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups versus established firms by considering the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define education-specific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these measures to construct a meas...
Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders
We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups vs. established firms by taking into consideration the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define educationspecific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these to construct a mea...
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the moderating role of job resourcefulness under the influence of work–family and family–work life conflict on the burnout levels of employees. In this con-text, a questionnaire was created using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, Work–Family Life Conflict, and Job Resourcefulness Scale. This survey was applied to travel agency employees in Izmir, Turkey, who were selected by using deliberate sampling method. At the end of the data collection period, 220 valid questionnaires were obtained. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses based on the reliability and validity of the scales. Analysis results indicate that resourcefulness reduces detrimental effects of work-family conflict on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. In addition results also indicate that job resourcefulness reduces detrimental effects of family-work conflict on depersonalization. The implications of these results for future research are also discussed.
Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Borleffs, Jan C C; Stewart, Roy E; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna
Job satisfaction is essential for physicians' well-being and patient care. The work ethic of long days and hard work that has been advocated for decades is acknowledged as a threat for physicians' job satisfaction, well-being, and patient safety. Our aim was to determine the actual and preferred job size of physicians and to investigate how these and the differences between them influence physicians' job satisfaction. Data were retrieved from a larger, longitudinal study among physicians starting medical training at Groningen University in 1982/83/92/93 (N = 597). Data from 506 participants (85%) were available for this study. We used regression analysis to investigate the influence of job size on physicians' job satisfaction (13 aspects) and ANOVA to examine differences in job satisfaction between physicians wishing to retain, reduce or increase job size. The majority of the respondents (57%) had an actual job size less than 1.0 FTE. More than 80% of all respondents preferred not to work full-time in the future. Respondents' average actual and preferred job sizes were .85 FTE and .81 FTE, respectively. On average, respondents who wished to work less (35% of respondents) preferred a job size reduction of 0.18 FTE and those who wished to work more (12%) preferred an increase in job size of 0.16 FTE. Job size influenced satisfaction with balance work-private hours most (β = -.351). Physicians who preferred larger job sizes were - compared to the other groups of physicians - least satisfied with professional accomplishments. A considerable group of physicians reported a gap between actual and preferred job size. Realizing physicians' preferences as to job size will hardly affect total workforce, but may greatly benefit individual physicians as well as their patients and society. Therefore, it seems time for a shift in work ethic.
Roczniewska, Marta; Retowski, Sylwiusz
Person-organization (P-O) fit is a predictor of job satisfaction, and a misfit is a potential stressor. We aimed to examine the consequences of fit between a person and an organization in terms of goal pursuit strategies. We tested whether job satisfaction mediates the relationship between regulatory fit and mental health. Research was conducted in a group of 169 employees. They were asked to fill in questionnaires assessing their chronic work regulatory focus, organiza tional regulatory focus and job satisfaction. To measure mental well-being we administered the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). We conducted mediation analysis in regression. The results of the mediation analysis confirmed the me- diating role of job satisfaction in the relation between regulatory focus misfit and physical and mental symptoms of distress. The results of this study point to the fact that P-O fit can relate to goal pursuit strategies. It influences not only job satisfaction, but also employees' health.The conclusions can be applied in the human resources management practices, e.g., it may serve as a useful argument to motivate employers to shape goals and strategies individually by managers, according to employees preferences. The results should be interpreted with caution because of non-random sampling.
de Jonge, J.; Gevers, J.M.P.; Dollard, M.F.
Health care staff in nursing homes are facing increasingly high job demands at work, which can have a detrimental impact on their health and work motivation. The Demand-Induced Strain Compensation (DISC) Model offers a theoretical framework to study how matching job resources and matching
Van Wingerden, Jessica; van der Stoep, Joost; Poell, R.F.
This study examines the impact of meaningful work on employees’ level of work engagement as mediated by perceived opportunities to craft and job crafting. Based on the literature on meaningful work and job crafting, we hypothesize that meaningful work has a positive relationship with an employee’s
Airila, Auli; Hakanen, Jari J.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073779563; Luukkonen, Ritva; Punakallio, Anne; Lusa, Sirpa
Using a two-wave 10-year longitudinal design, this study examined the motivational process proposed by the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. The aim was to examine whether work engagement acts as a mediator between job resources (i.e. supervisory relations, interpersonal relations and task
Blickle, Gerhard; Frohlich, Julia K.; Ehlert, Sandra; Pirner, Katharina; Dietl, Erik; Hanes, T. Johnston; Ferris, Gerald R.
Socioanalytic theory postulates that job performance ratings are predicted by basic social motives moderated by social competency. The two motives are the motive to get along with others and the motive to achieve status and power. The present two-study investigation assessed these motives as work values and collected supervisors' job performance…
The objective of the study is to examine how job resources modify the relationship between Dark Triad (DT) and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). Specifically the study examined (1) the direct link between DT and CWB, (2) the moderation effects of two kinds of job resources (job control and social support), and (3) the moderated moderation effect of the job resources (job control x social support) on the DT-CWB link. Moreover, the effect of social approval on CWB was controlled. Data were collected among 659 white- and blue-collar workers. The hypotheses were tested by means of the PROCESS method. As expected in the hypotheses, high DT was found to be directly related to high CWB, and job control moderated (intensified) the link. Social support did not moderate the DT-CWB link. The moderated moderation effect was supported. Social support increases the moderation effect of job control on the DT-CWB link. The lowest level of CWB is observed when job control was low and social support was high.
Banerjee, Neena; Stearns, Elizabeth; Moller, Stephanie; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin
Studies have not conclusively established whether teacher job satisfaction improves student achievement or whether the advantages to students from having satisfied teachers vary with the broader school culture. In this article, we investigate two research questions: (1) Is there a relationship between teacher job satisfaction and students' math…
Ellis, Christina; Skidmore, Susan Troncoso; Combs, Julie P.
Purpose: Teachers' satisfaction with their jobs has reached the lowest point in 25 years. One contributing factor is when teachers experience information-poor hiring processes and do not obtain an accurate preview of their positions, their person-organization (P-O) fit, and person-job (P-J) fit. Sparked by a renewed focus on the variables that can…
Bonaccio, Silvia; Gauvin, Natalie; Reeve, Charlie L.
The authors investigate the role of emotions in the job search and choice process of novice job seekers. Results of qualitative analyses of the first-person accounts of 41 job seekers indicate that participants whose recollections of their job search contained emotional language were more likely to display a haphazard job search strategy than…
Jenkins, Sarah; Chenneville, Tiffany; Salnaitis, Christina
This study was designed to examine the impact of role clarity and job training on job satisfaction among peer specialists. A 3-part survey assessing job training, job satisfaction, and role clarity was administered online to 195 peer specialists who are members of the International Association of Peer Specialists. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlational analyses to include multiple linear regressions and analysis of variance. Self-study and online training methods were negatively correlated with job satisfaction while job shadowing was positively correlated with job satisfaction. Role clarity was positively correlated with job satisfaction and job training satisfaction as well as job shadowing and one-on-one training. The use of self-study and online training for peer specialists is contraindicated by current findings, which suggest the need to utilize job shadowing or training methods that allow for personal interaction between peer specialists and their colleagues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Newton, Cameron; Teo, Stephen T T; Pick, David; Yeung, Melissa; Salamonson, Yenna
To integrate existing theoretical perspectives on change management, subjective fit and occupational stress to better understand the effects of change on employee adjustment. Although subjective fit with organizational goals and objectives has been shown to have positive effects on employee adjustment, its role in the organizational change-occupational stress context is not understood. This represents a caveat in research when considering the notion that those who feel that they fit with the organization's goals may be better equipped to reconcile and deal with change. A cross-sectional survey of nurses from public and non-profit sector hospitals was conducted. Data were collected from 252 public and non-profit sector nurses via online surveys. Data were collected from June-October in 2010. Structural equation modelling was used to test the direct and indirect effects among the focal variables. The results showed that public and non-profit nurses experience flexibility-limiting and flexibility-promoting change initiatives and that these are differentially related to the perception of administrative stressors and adjustment with these relationships directly and indirectly influenced by perceptions of subjective fit. Flexibility-limiting change initiatives led to lower levels of subjective fit, higher levels of administrative stressors and less favourable adjustment. On the other hand, flexibility-promoting change practices led to higher levels of subjective fit, lower levels of administrative stressors and ultimately better adjustment. The results further the theoretical understanding of the role of subjective fit in organizational change and occupational stress theories. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Finnegan, Lorna; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L
Most Thai women continue to work throughout their pregnancy; however, little is known about job strain and its relation to psychological distress. This study aimed to examine: (1) the direct effects of job strain, perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on psychological distress and (2) the moderating effect of perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping guided this cross-sectional study. Full-time employed pregnant women (N = 300) were recruited from three antenatal clinics in Thailand. Thai versions of the following instruments were used: the State-Anxiety Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (psychological distress), the Job Content Questionnaire (job strain and perceived workplace support), the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (perceived family support), and the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (coping strategies). Job strain with other predictors explained 54% of the variance in psychological distress. In the separate hierarchical multiple linear regression models, two types of coping strategies, seeking social support and wishful thinking, moderated the effects of job strain on psychological distress. Perceived family support had a direct effect in reducing psychological distress. Job strain is a significant contributor to psychological distress. The average levels of seeking social support and wishful thinking were most beneficial in moderating the negative impact of job strain on psychological distress. Since perceived workplace and family support did not have moderating effects, stress management programs for decreasing the levels of job strain should be developed.
Barnes, F.J.; Rodgers, J.C.; Trujillo, G.
After the 30-year post-closure maintenance period at hazardous waste landfills, long-term stability must be assured without continued intervention. Understanding water balance in the established vegetative cover system is central to predicting such stability. A Los Alamos National Laboratory research project has established a series of experimental cover treatment plots on a closed waste disposal site which will permit the determination of the effects of such critical parameters as soil cover design, leaf area index, and rooting characteristics on water balance under varied conditions. Data from these experiments are being analyzed by water balance modeling and other means. The results show consistent differences in soil moisture storage between soil profiles and between vegetation cover treatments
Zhang, Jianliang; Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Hough, Monica; Kalinowski, Joseph
This study assessed the impact of stuttering via a questionnaire in which fluent individuals were asked to assume the mindset of persons who stutter (PWS) in various life aspects, including vocation, romance, daily activities, friends/social life, family and general lifestyle. The perceived impact of stuttering through the mind's eyes of nonstutterers is supposed to reflect respondents' abilities to impart 'theory of mind' in addressing social penalties related to stuttering. Ninety-one university students answered a questionnaire containing 56 statements on a 7-point Likert scale. Forty-four participants (mean age = 20.4, SD = 4.4) were randomly selected to assume a stuttering identity and 47 respondents (mean age = 20.5, SD = 3.1) to assume their normally fluent identity. Significant differences between groups were found in more than two thirds of items regarding employment, romance, and daily activities, and in fewer than half of items regarding family, friend/social life, and general life style (p role of PWS, are capable of at least temporarily feeling the negative impact of stuttering. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available The study examines the role of work life balance, career development and supervisor support on organization commitment over employees of unattended, ceramic sanitary ware factories in India. It also verifies the influence of organization commitment on retention and its mediating role. Findings reveal that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhance it. Moreover, organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retention. It also found that organization’s career development provision alone is not enough and need to be modified according to the employer’s expectation. Managerial implications and suggestions for future research were discussed.
Coulombe, Harry N
The role of succulent halophytes in the water balance and ecology of salt marsh rodents is dependent upon an evaluation of the composition of the available sources and the physiological properties of their potential consumers. Studies of the osmotic properties of succulent halophytes from southern California coastal salt marshes are presented, together with experiments regarding the utilization of Common Pickleweed (Salicornia virginica L.) by indigenous populations of cricetid rodents (harvest mouse Reithrodontomys megalotis limicola Von Bloecker, and meadow-mouse Microtus californicus stephensi Von Bloecker). These data are discussed in relation to other available information concerning the ecology of coastal salt marshes, particularly in western North America.Extruded sap of Common Pickleweed was found to have a mean total osmotic pressure (TOP) of 1,450 mOsm/liter, with an average chloride ion content of 876 mEq/liter (about 70% of the TOP). A related species, Salicornia subterminale, had a slightly lower TOP (1,300 mOsm/liter), of which about 29% was accounted for by chloride ion concentration. Sea Blight (Suaeda fruticosa) was the only species in which the TOP correlated with the distance from the tide level; sap TOP increased away from the lagoon's edge. In both Sea Blight and Common Pickle weed, TOP was not directly related to chloride content, indicating the importance of other osmotically active solutes.Harvest mice were placed on three experimental regimes: 1) millet seeds only, 2) pickleweed only, and 3) pickleweed and millet seed. Meadow mice were tested on the last regime only. Harvest mice survived best on a strict millet seed diet; when Salicornia was consumed to a detectable extent, the mice did not survive. Meadow mice, however, could survive using Salicornia as a dietary source in conjunction with seeds. Kidney electrolyte concentrating abilities indicated that harvest mice should be able to utilize pickleweed; this was not confirmed in my
Full Text Available Orientation: Although work characteristics and recovery strategies are associated with work- family interference, the influence on specific types of work-nonwork interference (W-NWI has not been investigated. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of work characteristics and recovery strategies on four types of W-NWI. Motivation for the study: It is clear from the literature that job characteristics and W-NWI have adverse effects on employees’ health and well-being. It is therefore important to identify work characteristics and recovery strategies associated with W-NWI. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used in this study. The target population was married employees with children working at a Tertiary Education Institution (TEI in the North West Province (N = 366. Main findings: Work pressure and emotional demands significantly predicted all the work-nonwork role interference dimensions. A lack of autonomy predicted work-parent interference and work-religion and/or spirituality interference, whilst a lack of development possibilities predicted work-religion and/or spirituality interference. Relaxation and mastery recovery experiences significantly predicted lower work-parent interference. A lack of psychological detachment and relaxation were significantly associated with lower work- spouse interference. Relaxation and control significantly predicted lower work-domestic interference, whilst psychological detachment significantly predicted lower work-religion and/or spirituality interference. Practical/managerial implications: The results give managers insight into the specific work characteristics and recovery experiences that play a role in W-NWI, upon which interventions can be based to address these issues. Contribution/value-add: This study provides information on the relationship between work characteristics, recovery experiences and the effect on different types of W-NWI.
Figuring out how to make home care jobs more attractive has become a top policy priority. This study investigates the impact of wages, hours, and benefits on the retention of home care workers. Using a 2-wave survey design and a sample of home care workers from Maine, the factors associated with turnover intentions, actual turnover, and job-to-job transitions are examined. The analysis uses actual data on hours, wages, and benefits at current and subsequent jobs and controls for perceived rewards and work conditions, personal characteristics, and local labor market conditions. Although the analysis finds that improved work conditions and non-pecuniary rewards of home-based direct care work have significant negative effects on turnover intentions, compensation accounts for more actual job turnover. Higher wages, more hours, and travel cost reimbursement are found to be significantly associated with reduced turnover. Although wages and hours appear to have stronger effects, health benefits do appear to have some significance in predicting job-to-job transitions. Although improving compensation presents budgetary challenges to home care agencies, for this low-income workforce, the ability to earn higher wages and work more hours may be more of an imperative than improved work conditions.
Lin, Wei-Quan; Wu, Jiang; Yuan, Le-Xin; Zhang, Sheng-Chao; Jing, Meng-Juan; Zhang, Hui-Shan; Luo, Jia-Li; Lei, Yi-Xiong; Wang, Pei-Xi
Objective: To explore the impact of workplace violence on job performance and quality of life of community healthcare workers in China, especially the relationship of these three variables. Methods: From December 2013 to April 2014, a total of 1404 healthcare workers were recruited by using the random cluster sampling method from Community Health Centers in Guangzhou and Shenzhen. The workplace violence scale, the job performance scale and the quality of life scale (SF-36) were self-administered. The structural equation model constructed by Amos 17.0 was employed to assess the relationship among these variables. Results: Our study found that 51.64% of the respondents had an experience of workplace violence. It was found that both job performance and quality of life had a negative correlation with workplace violence. A positive association was identified between job performance and quality of life. The path analysis showed the total effect (β = −0.243) of workplace violence on job performance consisted of a direct effect (β = −0.113) and an indirect effect (β = −0.130), which was mediated by quality of life. Conclusions: Workplace violence among community healthcare workers is prevalent in China. The workplace violence had negative effects on the job performance and quality of life of CHCs’ workers. The study suggests that improvement in the quality of life may lead to an effective reduction of the damages in job performance caused by workplace violence. PMID:26610538
Lin, Wei-Quan; Wu, Jiang; Yuan, Le-Xin; Zhang, Sheng-Chao; Jing, Meng-Juan; Zhang, Hui-Shan; Luo, Jia-Li; Lei, Yi-Xiong; Wang, Pei-Xi
To explore the impact of workplace violence on job performance and quality of life of community healthcare workers in China, especially the relationship of these three variables. From December 2013 to April 2014, a total of 1404 healthcare workers were recruited by using the random cluster sampling method from Community Health Centers in Guangzhou and Shenzhen. The workplace violence scale, the job performance scale and the quality of life scale (SF-36) were self-administered. The structural equation model constructed by Amos 17.0 was employed to assess the relationship among these variables. Our study found that 51.64% of the respondents had an experience of workplace violence. It was found that both job performance and quality of life had a negative correlation with workplace violence. A positive association was identified between job performance and quality of life. The path analysis showed the total effect (β = -0.243) of workplace violence on job performance consisted of a direct effect (β = -0.113) and an indirect effect (β = -0.130), which was mediated by quality of life. Workplace violence among community healthcare workers is prevalent in China. The workplace violence had negative effects on the job performance and quality of life of CHCs' workers. The study suggests that improvement in the quality of life may lead to an effective reduction of the damages in job performance caused by workplace violence.
General Services Administration — This Jobs API returns job openings across the federal government and includes all current openings posted on USAJobs.gov that are open to the public and located in...
Barać, Ivana; Prlić, Nada; Plužarić, Jadranka; Farčić, Nikolina; Kovačević, Suzana
The aim of this study was to examine the degree to which it is possible to predict job satisfaction in hospital nurses based on core self-evaluation and the nurses' professional commitment. Psychological constructs of nurses' professional commitment could predict a level of job satisfaction. A cross-sectional design was applied. Data were collected between April 2016 and November 2016 from 584 nurses of the University Hospital Osijek. Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSES), Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and Nurses' professional commitment scale (NPCS) were administrated to the study participants. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the validity of each questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to test the prediction of nurses' professional commitment and core self-evaluation on job satisfaction. Nurses' professional commitment is variable, which functions as a mediator between predictor (CSE) and criterion variable (JS). As a mediator, it explains what the effect is, provided that correlations between all variables are significant. The correlation analyses reveal significant positive correlations between job satisfaction and core self evaluation (r = 0.441, p > 0.001) and also between job satisfaction and nurses' professional commitment (r = 0.464, p > 0.001). Furthermore, core self evaluation significantly and positively correlates with nurses' professional commitment (r = 0.402, p > 0.001). The results showed that nurses' professional commitment mediates the relationship between core self evaluation and job satisfaction. Bootstrap analysis showed that core self evaluation partially mediated the relationship between nurses' professional commitment and job satisfaction ( β = 0.78, p core self evaluation on job satisfaction through nurses' professional commitment was also significant (β = 0.17, p < 0.001**). Nurses who are more committed to their work, regardless of the structure of personality, have greater satisfaction in their work. This
Lim, Ah Young; Lee, Seung-Hee; Jeon, Yeongju; Yoo, Rankyung; Jung, Hee-Yeon
Increases in unemployment and suicide in the young Korean population have recently become major social concerns in the country. The purpose of this study was to examine mental health status in young job seekers and identify sociodemographic factors related to job-seeking stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. We also explored the mediating effect of depression on the relationship between job-seeking stress and suicidal ideation and examined whether social support moderated this effect. In total, 124 university graduates completed the Job-Seeking Stress Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Descriptive statistics were calculated for participants' general characteristics, and t-tests or analyses of variance, correlation analysis, simple mediation analysis, and mediated moderation analysis were performed. Of the 124 participants, 39.5% and 15.3% exhibited clinical levels of depression and suicidal ideation, respectively. Sociodemographic factors (i.e., sex, academic major, educational expenses loan, and willingness to accept irregular employment) were associated with job-seeking stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. Women and graduates who were willing to accept irregular employment exhibited high levels of job-seeking stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. Job-seeking stress affected suicidal ideation via depression, and perceived social support moderated the effect of job-seeking stress on depression and the effect of depression on suicidal ideation. The results suggest that depression management and interventions are urgently required for young job seekers, and social support should be provided to assist them both emotionally and economically.
Treadway, Darren C; Ferris, Gerald R; Hochwarter, Wayne; Perrewé, Pamela; Witt, L A; Goodman, Joseph M
This research examined the interaction of organizational politics perceptions and employee age on job performance in 3 studies. On the basis of conservation of resources theory, the authors predicted that perceptions of politics would demonstrate their most detrimental effects on job performance for older workers. Results across the 3 studies provided strong support for the hypothesis that increases in politics perceptions are associated with decreases in job performance for older employees and that perceptions of politics do not affect younger employees' performance. Implications of these results, strengths and limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Lindsay, Sally; McDougall, Carolyn; Sanford, Robyn; Menna-Dack, Dolly; Kingsnorth, Shauna; Adams, Tracey
To assess performance differences in a mock job interview and workplace role-play exercise for youth with disabilities compared to their typically developing peers. We evaluated a purposive sample of 31 youth (15 with a physical disability and 16 typically developing) on their performance (content and delivery) in employment readiness role-play exercises. Our findings show significant differences between youth with disabilities compared to typically developing peers in several areas of the mock interview content (i.e. responses to the questions: "tell me about yourself", "how would you provide feedback to someone not doing their share" and a problem-solving scenario question) and delivery (i.e. voice clarity and mean latency). We found no significant differences in the workplace role-play performances of youth with and without disabilities. Youth with physical disabilities performed poorer in some areas of a job interview compared to their typically developing peers. They could benefit from further targeted employment readiness training. Clinicians should: Coach youth with physical disability on how to "sell" their abilities to potential employers and encourage youth to get involved in volunteer activities and employment readiness training programs. Consider using mock job interviews and other employment role-play exercises as assessment and training tools for youth with physical disabilities. Involve speech pathologists in the development of employment readiness programs that address voice clarity as a potential delivery issue.
Bachelor thesis deals with job satisfaction. It is often given to a context with the attitude to work which is very much connected to job satisfaction. Thesis summarises all the pieces of information about job satisfacion, factors that affect it negatively and positively, interconnection of work satisfaction and work motivation, work behaviour and performance of workers, relationship of a man and work and at last general job satisfaction and its individual aspects. In the thesis I shortly pay...
van Dijk, G
Since its discovery, leptin (a 167-amino acid product of the OB gene) has quickly moved to the forefront as an important hormone for regulation of energy balance. It closes a feedback loop from adipose tissue to hypothalamic neuropeptide-containing neural circuitry involved in regulation of food
Rao, Ashwini K; Gilman, Arthur; Louis, Elan D
To examine (1) the effect of cognitive ability on balance confidence and falls, (2) the relationship of balance confidence and falls with quantitative measures of gait, and (3) measures that predict falls, in people with essential tremor (ET). Cross-sectional study. General community. People with ET (n=132) and control subjects (n=48). People with ET were divided into 2 groups based on the median score on the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination: those with lower cognitive test scores (ET-LCS) and those with higher cognitive test scores (ET-HCS). Not applicable. Six-item Activities of Balance Confidence (ABC-6) Scale and falls in the previous year. Participants with ET-LCS had lower ABC-6 scores and a greater number of falls than those with ET-HCS (Pcontrol subjects (Pfalls. Gait speed (Pfalls. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that gait speed balance confidence and a higher number of falls than their counterparts (ET-HCS) and than control subjects. We have identified assessments that are easily administered (gait speed, ABC-6 Scale) and are associated with falls in ET. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This bacherlor thesis deals with the importance of job analysis for personnel activities in the company. The aim of this work is to find the most suitable method of job analysis in a particular enterprise, and continues creating descriptions and specifications of each job.
Liu, Hsin-Yun; Yang, Ching-Tzu; Wang, Yu-Nu; Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Huang, Tzu-Hsin; Lin, Yueh-E; Liu, Chin-Yi; Shyu, Yea-Ing L
To examine the role of balancing competing needs in the relationship between caregiving demand and caregiving outcomes (caregivers' role strain and depressive symptoms). Caregivers who do not balance competing needs are more likely to experience negative caregiving outcomes, suggesting that balance mediates between caregiving demand and caregiving outcomes. Identifying a mediator of negative caregiving effects may help in developing tailored interventions for family caregivers of persons with dementia. A cross-sectional, correlational design. Data were collected from family caregivers' self-completed questionnaires between March 2013 - April 2014. A convenience sample of 120 family caregivers and care receivers with dementia was enrolled. We examined whether balance mediated the relationship between caregiving demand and caregiving outcomes (caregivers' role strain and depressive symptoms) by multiple regression analysis. To evaluate the significance of the indirect effect of caregiver balance, we used the Sobel test and Monte Carlo method, an alternative approach to testing mediation. Balancing competing needs completely mediated the association of caregiving demand with depressive symptoms and partially mediated the association of caregiving demand with role strain. Assessing caregivers' self-perceived sense of balance may help to identify caregivers at high risk for role strain and depressive symptoms. Interventions to enhance caregivers' perceived sense of balance between competing needs may provide a strategy for reducing the negative effects of caregiving. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The Purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of firm's family friendly policies and also the recent introduction of as performance based wage system on employee's motivation. The motivation was measured in terms of work life balance satisfaction and willingness to continuity to work at the same workplace. To analyze these effects, I used probit model and ordinary least squares (OLS), and two step least squares. The main findings is as follows (1) Introduction of various family friend...
Du Toit W P Schabort
Full Text Available The cofactor balances in metabolism is of paramount importance in the design of a metabolic engineering strategy and understanding the regulation of metabolism in general. ATP, NAD+ and NADP+ balances are central players linking the various fluxes in central metabolism as well as biomass formation. NADP+ is especially important in the metabolic engineering of yeasts for xylose fermentation, since NADPH is required by most yeasts in the initial step of xylose utilisation, including the fast-growing Kluyveromyces marxianus. In this simulation study of yeast metabolism, the complex interplay between these cofactors was investigated; in particular, how they may affect the possible roles of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, the pentose phosphate pathway, glycerol production and the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass. Using flux balance analysis, it was found that the potential role of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase was highly dependent on the cofactor specificity of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and on the carbon source. Additionally, the excessive production of ATP under certain conditions might be involved in some of the phenomena observed, which may have been overlooked to date. Based on these findings, a strategy is proposed for the metabolic engineering of a future xylose-fermenting yeast for biofuel production.
through control or trust. Human resource specialists need to make balanced decisions about how to design tasks and jobs in order to make them attractive as well as motivating. Marketers need to make balanced decisions about how to market products in the light of what is now important in consumers...... in their environments. Communication specialists need to make balanced decisions which take the different value systems and assumptions of stakeholders into consideration. Change specialists need to balance the need for continuity and change. Managers need to make balanced decisions about whether to achieve goals...... the creation and recreation of balanced relationships. Chapters in The Balanced Company ask and provide answers to questions about corporately responsible and ethically driven balanced decision making, such as: • How can a company and its stakeholders identify what should be taken into consideration - What...
Full Text Available In this era of highly competitive business environment every organization strives to be successful, and for that an organization pays great emphasis on organizational justice and job satisfaction of its employees in order to be effective and successful. This study investigates the impacts of organizational justice and Job Satisfaction on organizational effectiveness with moderating variable of strategic commitment. The organizational justice is subdivided into three types: Distributive Justice, Procedural justice, Interactional justice while job satisfaction is also divided into three dimensions as well: Working Condition, Job security and Autonomy. This study is an effort to contribute in the body of knowledge and helpful for organizations to improve their effectiveness. The data for this study is collected from Telecommunication sector of Pakistan via questionnaire.
Due to contradictory opinions on the role of peat as a renewable energy source and carbon sink as well as the fact that no comprehensive research are made in this area, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM) assigned an impartial working group to investigate the role of peat in climatic change. The working group consists of Patrick Crill from USA, Ken Hargreaves from Great Britain, and Atte Korhola from Finland. The objective of the working group is to study the greenhouse gas balances of virgin peatland, ditched peatlands, and cultivated peatlands. The carbon cycles will be investigated, as well as the effects of utilisation of peat on greenhouse gas balance, and the possibilities of effecting the balance with active measures. The alternatives for utilisation peatlands after the peat has been harvested, and the effects of these alternatives on greenhouse gas balance will also be studied. The effects of the peatlands left in passive natural state, the regeneration of peatlands, forestation and other usage on greenhouse gas balance will be investigated, and the need for regulations and instructions for recycling have to be estimated. The greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon sinks have to be defined, the alternative means for definition of them have to be inspected. The mutual dependence of peat and wood fuels has also to be taken into consideration. The report will to include the effects of peat on watercourses, versatility of the nature, the effect of the peat production on the amount of peat production areas, and suggestions for possible need of further investigations
Aminah Ahmad; Zoharah Omar
Problem statement: Few studies have tested the mediating effect of work-family conflict on the relationship between workplace culture and job stress. Approach: This study tested a mediation model consisting of job stress as the dependent variable, perceived family-supportive work culture as the independent variable and work-family conflict as the mediator. Data were gathered from 693 employees from private service organizations in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, using self-administered questionna...
Yang, Ziwei; Zhang, Haina; Ho Kwong, Kwan; Chen, Shouming
The present study investigated the crossover effects of employee perceptions of servant leadership and job social support on the family satisfaction and quality of family life experienced by the employees’ spouses. These effects were explored through a focus on the mediating role of employee organization-based self-esteem (OBSE). Results from a three-wave field survey of 199 employee–spouse dyads in the People’s Republic of China support our hypotheses, indicating that OBSE fully mediates the...
Faridi, Adnan; Baloch, Akhtar; Wajidi, Abuzar
This paper examines the impact of modern and traditional training and development programs on the employees of banking sectors' organizational commitment and overall performance within Karachi, Pakistan. Furthermore, the paper explores the causal-effect relationship between organizational commitment's distinctive attributes and T&D program through mediating role of job satisfaction, by particularly looking at the contractual and permanent employees. By combining the strata, convenience, and p...
Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Cable, Noriko; Chandola, Tarani; Marmot, Michael
This study examines (1) whether there are employment grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction and (2) whether work, family, and personality characteristics explain grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction. The participants were 3,812 civil servants, aged 20-65, working at a local government in Japan. In both males and females, low control, low social support, work-to-family conflict, type A behaviour pattern and negative affectivity were significantly associated with job dissatisfaction. In females, high demands, long work hours and being unmarried were also associated with job dissatisfaction. Among males, in comparison with the highest grade employees, the age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for job dissatisfaction in the lowest grade employees was 1.90 (95% CI: 1.40-2.59). The grade differences reduced to 1.08 (0.76-1.54) after adjustment for work, family and personality characteristics. Among females, similar grade differences were observed, although the differences were not statistically significant. In comparison with males, the age-adjusted OR in females for job dissatisfaction was 1.32 (1.14-1.52). This gender difference was reduced to 0.95 (0.79-1.14) following adjustment for the other factors. The majority of employees belong to low to middle grades, and female employees have increased. Reducing grade and gender differences in work and family characteristics is needed.
SEKINE, Michikazu; TATSUSE, Takashi; CABLE, Noriko; CHANDOLA, Tarani; MARMOT, Michael
Abstract: This study examines (1) whether there are employment grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction and (2) whether work, family, and personality characteristics explain grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction. The participants were 3,812 civil servants, aged 20–65, working at a local government in Japan. In both males and females, low control, low social support, work-to-family conflict, type A behaviour pattern and negative affectivity were significantly associated with job dissatisfaction. In females, high demands, long work hours and being unmarried were also associated with job dissatisfaction. Among males, in comparison with the highest grade employees, the age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for job dissatisfaction in the lowest grade employees was 1.90 (95% CI: 1.40–2.59). The grade differences reduced to 1.08 (0.76–1.54) after adjustment for work, family and personality characteristics. Among females, similar grade differences were observed, although the differences were not statistically significant. In comparison with males, the age-adjusted OR in females for job dissatisfaction was 1.32 (1.14–1.52). This gender difference was reduced to 0.95 (0.79–1.14) following adjustment for the other factors. The majority of employees belong to low to middle grades, and female employees have increased. Reducing grade and gender differences in work and family characteristics is needed. PMID:25055848
Mayerl, Hannes; Stolz, Erwin; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang
Objective The main objective of this research was to investigate the buffering effects of an individual’s physical, mental and social resources in the relationship between psychosocial job demands and (1) health symptoms, (2) mental strain and (3) the body mass index (BMI), respectively. Methods We performed moderated regression analysis to examine data from a large cross-sectional survey of an Austrian employee sample (n=9434). Results The results revealed a robust association between psychosocial job demands and health symptoms as well as mental strain, but only a weak relationship between psychosocial job demands and BMI. Although the personal resources showed a positive effect on health symptoms and mental strain, only weak evidence was found for the hypothesised interaction with psychosocial job demands. Solely the physical fitness of a person was found to mitigate the impact of psychosocial job demands on health symptoms. Conclusions In conclusion, personal resources substantially accounted for the prediction of health. However, the interactions between psychosocial job demands and personal resources only slightly contributed to explaining the variation in health. PMID:28851776
Mayerl, Hannes; Stolz, Erwin; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang
The main objective of this research was to investigate the buffering effects of an individual's physical, mental and social resources in the relationship between psychosocial job demands and (1) health symptoms, (2) mental strain and (3) the body mass index (BMI), respectively. We performed moderated regression analysis to examine data from a large cross-sectional survey of an Austrian employee sample (n = 9434). The results revealed a robust association between psychosocial job demands and health symptoms as well as mental strain, but only a weak relationship between psychosocial job demands and BMI. Although the personal resources showed a positive effect on health symptoms and mental strain, only weak evidence was found for the hypothesised interaction with psychosocial job demands. Solely the physical fitness of a person was found to mitigate the impact of psychosocial job demands on health symptoms. In conclusion, personal resources substantially accounted for the prediction of health. However, the interactions between psychosocial job demands and personal resources only slightly contributed to explaining the variation in health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Gut microbial acquisition during the early stage of life is an extremely important event since it affects the health status of the host. In this contest the healthy properties of the genus Bifidobacterium have a central function in newborns. The aim of this thesis was to explore the dynamics of the gut microbial colonization in newborns and to suggest possible strategies to maintain or restore a correct balance of gut bacterial population in inf...
The purpose of this study is to explore the perceptions of Work-Life Balance (WLB) practices in a developing nation of Nigeria. Evidently, on the threshold of widened globalization propensities, work-life research is beginning to spread outside the western context. Thus, a qualitative approach was employed by conducting 61 in-depth interviews with Nigerian employees (41 women and 20 men) working in frontline employments in the banking, telecommunications and insurance sectors about their perc...
Peng, Chi; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Chang, Andrew C.
We investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents in 68 soils samples collected at housing developments that represent different length of development periods across Beijing. Based on the data, we derived a mass balanced mathematical model to simulate the dynamics of PAH accumulations in urban soils as affected by the urban developments. The key parameters were estimated by fitting the modified mass balance model to the data of PAH concentrations vs. building age of the sampling green area. The total PAH concentrations would increase from the baseline of 267 ng g −1 to 3631 ng g −1 during the period of 1978–2048. It showed that the dynamic changes in the rates of accumulations of light and heavy PAH species were related to the shifting of sources of fuels, combustion efficiencies, and amounts of energy consumed during the course of development. - Highlights: • Introduced a mass balance model for soil PAHs accumulation with urbanization. • Reconstructed the historical data of PAH accumulation in soil of Beijing, China. • The soil PAH concentrations would be doubled in the following 40 years. • The composition of PAH emissions were shifting to light PAH species. - Introduced a regression modeling approach to predict the changes of PAH concentrations in urban soil
Shang Guan, Chang-Yue; Li, Yu; Ma, Hong-Lin
Background: Township cadres, considered as basic executors of state policy, play an important role in Chinese society. Their job satisfaction is a vital issue for township management, but there are few studies on this topic in China. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction, and to further examine whether psychological capital (PsyCap) can serve as a mediator between stress and job satisfaction in Chinese township cadres. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of from October 2015 to January 2016 in Liaoning Province of China. The questionnaires, which consisted of an effort-reward imbalance scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) for job satisfaction, and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), as well as questions about demographic characteristics, were distributed to 1800 township cadres and complete responses were received from 1525 participants. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role that psychological capital played in mediating between occupational stress and job satisfaction. Results: In the present study, effort-reward ratio (ERR= 11 × effort/6 × reward) was negatively associated with job satisfaction (r = −0.372, p job satisfaction in township cadres (r = 0.587, p job stress and job satisfaction. Conclusions: Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction among Chinese township cadres. Interventions to improve Chinese township cadres’ job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. Interventions need to be verified in further cohort studies. At present, we are only proposing a theoretical model. Intervention effects need to be validated in further cohort studies. PMID:28846644
The research investigated the relationship of emotion work directed towards customers and towards coworkers with job satisfaction in Saudi Arabia. Emotion work means the requirement to display particular emotions as part of the job and includes surface acting where actual emotions differ from displayed emotions and deep acting where displayed and felt emotions are congruent. Participants were 147 flight attendants (31 men, 116 women; mean age = 36.9 years, SD = 7.5) employed by a major Saudi Arabian airline, who were either Saudi nationals or nationals of other Gulf Arab countries. Data were collected with questionnaires. Analysis was based on the General Linear Model and indicated that deep acting towards customers and towards coworkers was positively related to job satisfaction. On the other hand, the hypothesized negative relationship between surface acting and job satisfaction was not supported. Organizational trust moderated the relationship of emotion work with job satisfaction. The findings indicate the importance of considering emotion work in interactions with coworkers along with the influence of national culture in the relationships of emotion work with key variables. © The Author(s) 2016.
Ramesh, Anuradha; Gelfand, Michele J
Although turnover is an issue of global concern, paradoxically there have been few studies of turnover across cultures. We investigated the cross-cultural generalizability of the job embeddedness model (Mitchell & Lee, 2001) by examining turnover in an individualistic country (United States) and a collectivistic country (India). Using cross-cultural data from call centers (N = 797), we demonstrated that although organization job embeddedness predicted turnover in both countries, different dimensions of job embeddedness predicted turnover in the United States and India. As hypothesized, on the basis of individualism-collectivism theory, person-job fit was a significant predictor of lower turnover in the United States, whereas person-organization fit, organization links, and community links were significant predictors of lower turnover in India. We also explored whether a newly developed construct of embeddedness-family embeddedness-predicts turnover above and beyond job embeddedness and found initial support for its utility in both the United States and India. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Takaki, Jiro; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Fukuoka, Etsuko; Fujii, Yasuhito; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Nakajima, Kazuo; Hirokawa, Kumi
The purpose of this study was to assess whether workplace bullying mediates between job strain, evaluated by the job demand-control model, and symptoms of depression and sleep disturbance. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from all the workers (N=2,634) at 50 organizations in Japan. Due to missing data, the numbers of subjects included in the analyses varied from 1,646 to 2,062 (response rates varied from 62.5% to 78.2%). Job strain and workplace social support, workplace bullying, depression, and sleep disturbance were assessed using the Japanese versions of the Job Content Questionnaire, the Negative Acts Questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, respectively. Mediation analysis followed the approach outlined by Baron and Kenny. We quantitatively estimated the mediation effects and tested their significance after adjustment for various combinations of demographic variables and workplace social support. Total effects of job strain index on depression or sleep disturbance were all positive and significant (pwomen, but remained significant (pjob strain with depression or sleep disturbance in both genders.
Ameigh, A Y
The nurse executive at the corporate level is in a pivotal position to provide balance between the provision of integrated patient care and success of the corporate mission. In this role, the nurse executive shifts the spotlight from a solely nursing perspective to the systems approach in support of patient care. The response that follows is often a redoubling of the efforts of health care providers to render more efficient and cohesive care to patients. In the end, success is an outgrowth of strong teamwork combined with the ability of the executive to connect the corporate business strategy with the provision of patient care wherever it is delivered.
Bloom, A. A.; Liu, J.; Bowman, K. W.; Konings, A. G.; Saatchi, S.; Worden, J. R.; Worden, H. M.; Jiang, Z.; Parazoo, N.; Williams, M. D.; Schimel, D.
Understanding the trajectory of the tropical carbon balance remains challenging, in part due to large uncertainties in the integrated response of carbon cycle processes to climate variability. Satellite observations atmospheric CO2 from GOSAT and OCO-2, together with ancillary satellite measurements, provide crucial constraints on continental-scale terrestrial carbon fluxes. However, an integrated understanding of both climate forcings and legacy effects (or "ecosystem memory") on the terrestrial carbon balance is ultimately needed to reduce uncertainty on its future trajectory. Here we use the CARbon DAta-MOdel fraMework (CARDAMOM) diagnostic model-data fusion approach - constrained by an array of C cycle satellite surface observations, including MODIS leaf area, biomass, GOSAT solar-induced fluorescence, as well as "top-down" atmospheric inversion estimates of CO2 and CO surface fluxes from the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Flux (CMS-Flux) - to constrain and predict spatially-explicit tropical carbon state variables during 2010-2015. We find that the combined assimilation of land surface and atmospheric datasets places key constraints on the temperature sensitivity and first order carbon-water feedbacks throughout the tropics and combustion factors within biomass burning regions. By varying the duration of the assimilation period, we find that the prediction skill on inter-annual net biospheric exchange is primarily limited by record length rather than model structure and process representation. We show that across all tropical biomes, quantitative knowledge of memory effects - which account for 30-50% of interannual variations across the tropics - is critical for understanding and ultimately predicting the inter-annual tropical carbon balance.
Fernando Franco Morais
Full Text Available The Federal Constitution guarantees everyone the right to decent work and put the environment as a fundamental right and duty of the State to implement policies to protect and decrease in unemployment , in protecting the mental and physical integrity of the employee in the workplace , normalizing and supervising if companies are performing their social function. Thus , this paper focuses on demonstrating the importance of the state to maintain a balanced work environment , in the sense that is protected psychophysical integrity of employees, is dampening , so the incidence of occupational diseases and accidents work.
The Relationship between Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Nurses (Examining the Mediating Role of Organizational Commitment, Organizational Trust, and Job Satisfaction
Full Text Available Introduction: Justice has been recognized as the pivot of different organizational research, that the designation of the causal pattern involving the most important variables associated with it was the main objective of the present study. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive-survey study. The statistical population consisted of all nurses of Imam Khomeini hospital in Urmia (n= 420, of which 201 nurses were selected by using Morgan’s table and by random sampling method. The instruments included questionnaires of organizational justice, organizational commitment, organizational trust, job satisfaction, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior whose reliability and validity were confirmed. The structural equations model method was used to analyze the data. Results:The results showed there was a positive and significant relationship between justice perception with organizational commitment, organizational trust, and job satisfaction. In addition, the mediating role of organizational commitment and trust was acknowledged in the relationship between justice and citizenship behavior in the model; however, the mediating role of satisfaction was not fitted in the relationship between justice and citizenship. Conclusion: According the research results that there was a positive and significant relationship between perception of justice with organizational commitment, organizational trust, and job satisfaction, paying attention to organizational justice for improving the staff’s organizational citizenship behavior is critical and indicates the distinct position of this variable in improving all attitudinal and behavioral variables and consequently in the hospital employees’ performance.
Judge, Timothy A; Bono, Joyce E; Erez, Amir; Locke, Edwin A
The present study tested a model explaining how the core self-evaluations (i.e., positive self-regard) concept is linked to job and life satisfaction. The self-concordance model, which focuses on motives underlying goal pursuit, was used as an explanatory framework. Data were collected from 2 samples: (a) 183 university students (longitudinal measures of goal attainment and life satisfaction were used) and (b) 251 employees (longitudinal measures of goal attainment and job satisfaction were utilized). In both studies, the core self-evaluations concept was positively related to goal self-concordance, meaning that individuals with positive self-regard were more likely to pursue goals for intrinsic and identified (value-congruent) reasons. Furthermore, in both studies, goal self-concordance was related to satisfaction (job satisfaction in Study 1 and life satisfaction in Study 2).
Çev.: Nazlı Alkan
Full Text Available This study focus on how an individual's particular work context, job characteristics and knowledge-related job requirements affect the relationship between task-technology fit (TTF and the use of information systems (IS in knowledge management activities. The literature on Knowledge Management (KM and Knowledge Management Systems (KMS is reviewed to identify relevant constructs and their dimensions. Based on this analysis, a model is proposed and tested. Our findings suggest that providing appropriate IT tools that fit tasks alone is no guarantee that they will be employed to leverage the acquisition, transfer and reuse of knowledge. Certain characteristics of jobs, driven by particular work contexts, generate greater need and opportunity for knowledge use. These latter factors moderate the relationship between TTF and actual use of IS for KM purposes: the greater the need and opportunity to conduct knowledgerelated activities, the stronger the relationship between TTF and actual IS use.
McNall, Laurel A; Masuda, Aline D; Nicklin, Jessica M
The authors examined the relation between the availability of 2 popular types of flexible work arrangements (i.e., flextime and compressed workweek) and work-to-family enrichment and, in turn, the relation between work-to-family enrichment and (a) job satisfaction and (b) turnover intentions. In a sample of 220 employed working adults, hierarchical regression analyses showed that work-to-family enrichment mediated the relation between flexible work arrangements and both job satisfaction and turnover intentions, even after controlling for gender, age, marital status, education, number of children, and hours worked. Thus, the availability of flexible work arrangements such as flextime and compressed workweek seems to help employees experience greater enrichment from work to home, which, in turn, is associated with higher job satisfaction and lower turnover intentions. The authors discuss the implications for research and practice.
Wan, Qiaoqin; Li, Zhaoyang; Zhou, Weijiao; Shang, Shaomei
To assess turnover intention among experienced nurses and explore the effects of work environment, job characteristics and work engagement on turnover intention. The nursing shortage is an urgent concern in China. A high turnover rate of experienced nurses could have serious effects on the quality of care, costs and the efficiency of hospitals. It is crucial to explore the predictors of turnover intention and develop strategies tailored to experienced nurses. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey design. A total of 778 experienced nurses from seven hospitals was surveyed on their work engagement, job characteristics, work environment and turnover intention in March-May 2017. Structural equation modelling was used to test a theoretical model and the hypotheses. The results showed that 35.9% of experienced nurses had high-level turnover intention. The final model explained 50% of the variance in experienced nurses' turnover intention and demonstrated that: (1) work environment was positively associated with higher work engagement and lower turnover intention and work engagement partially mediated the relationship between work environment and turnover intention; and (2) job characteristics were positively related to higher work engagement and lower turnover intention and work engagement fully mediated the relationship between job characteristics and turnover intention. The study confirms the intrinsic and extrinsic motivators on work engagement posited by job demands-resources model. Theory-driven strategies to improve work environment, enhance job characteristics and promote wok engagement are needed to address the nursing shortage and high turnover intention among experienced nurses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The role of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in the force balance in the day time magnetopause is discussed. The effect of the circular DR-current on the balance of pressures in the magnetopause is taken into account in the calculations. It is shown that IMF plays a significant role in the balance of forces in the day time magnetopause. The ratio of magnetic pressure to the thermal pressure of solar wind in subsolar point is k=0.5. The field observed in magnetosphere near the neutral line is lower by the value of transition region field. All the conclusions are obtained for Bsub(z) [ru
Hoboubi, Naser; Choobineh, Alireza; Kamari Ghanavati, Fatemeh; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Akbar Hosseini, Ali
Job stress and job satisfaction are important factors affecting workforce productivity. This study was carried out to investigate the job stress, job satisfaction, and workforce productivity levels, to examine the effects of job stress and job satisfaction on workforce productivity, and to identify factors associated with productivity decrement among employees of an Iranian petrochemical industry. In this study, 125 randomly selected employees of an Iranian petrochemical company participated. The data were collected using the demographic questionnaire, Osipow occupational stress questionnaire to investigate the level of job stress, Job Descriptive Index to examine job satisfaction, and Hersey and Goldsmith questionnaire to investigate productivity in the study population. The levels of employees' perceived job stress and job satisfaction were moderate-high and moderate, respectively. Also, their productivity was evaluated as moderate. Although the relationship between job stress and productivity indices was not statistically significant, the positive correlation between job satisfaction and productivity indices was statistically significant. The regression modeling demonstrated that productivity was significantly associated with shift schedule, the second and the third dimensions of job stress (role insufficiency and role ambiguity), and the second dimension of job satisfaction (supervision). Corrective measures are necessary to improve the shift work system. "Role insufficiency" and "role ambiguity" should be improved and supervisor support must be increased to reduce job stress and increase job satisfaction and productivity.
Ye, Jiali; Verma, Pooja; Leep, Carolyn; Kronstadt, Jessica
To examine the association between local health departments' (LHDs') engagement in accreditation and their staffs' perceptions of workplace environment and the overall satisfaction with their jobs. Data from the 2014 Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) (local data only) and the 2014 Forces of Change survey were linked using LHDs' unique ID documented by the National Association of County & City Health Officials. The Forces of Change survey assessed LHDs' accreditation status. Local health departments were classified as "formally engaged" in the Public Health Accreditation Board accreditation process if they had achieved accreditation, submitted an application, or submitted a statement of intent. The PH WINS survey measured employees' perception of 3 aspects of workplace environment, including supervisory support, organizational support, and employee engagement. The overall satisfaction was measured using the Job in General Scale (abridged). There are 1884 LHD employees who completed PH WINS and whose agencies responded to the question on the accreditation status of the Forces of Change survey. When compared with employees from LHDs less engaged in accreditation, employees from LHDs that were formally engaged in accreditation gave higher ratings to all 3 aspects of workplace environment and overall job satisfaction. Controlling for employee demographic characteristics and LHD jurisdiction size, the agency's formal engagement in accreditation remained related to a higher score in perceived workplace environment and job satisfaction. After controlling for perceived workplace environment, accreditation status was marginally associated with job satisfaction. The findings provide support for previous reports by LHD leaders on the benefits of accreditation related to employee morale and job satisfaction. The results from this study allow us to further catalog the benefits of accreditation in workforce development and identify factors that may
Asena ALTIN GÜLOVA
Full Text Available One of the increasingly momentous topics in organisation studies is emotional labor. The direction towards which emotional labor affects the job involvement of service workers has also been studied and stated that this direction might change based on the choice of labor behaviour. The concept of "supervisor support" refers to the close, intimate and understanding attitude of the superior to the subordinates. As a result of the study conducted on student affairs office employees of three state universities in the Aegean Region (n=127 a positive significant relationship among three emotional labor behaviour and job involvement was discerned and an increase in parallel with supervisory support was displayed.
Sonnentag, Sabine; Unger, Dana; Nägel, Inga J.
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to address the relation between task and relationship conflicts at work and employee well-being. It seeks to examine psychological detachment from work during off-job time as a moderator in the relation between conflicts and well-being. Design/methodology/approach – In a field study, 291 white-collar employees completed survey measures of task conflicts, relationship conflicts, psychological detachment from work during off-job time, and well-being. Contr...
Fan, Ee Mei
There are various factors that contribute to the delivery of organisational outcomes but in order to survive and succeed while maintaining long lasting advantage and competitive position, knowledge-based organisations today must depend on its workforce to cross new performance thresholds. In the past, organisational variables and personality have been found to be a valid predictor of organisational outcomes such as job satisfaction and commitment. However, the impact of job task variety and p...
Conclusion: Corrective measures are necessary to improve the shift work system. “Role insufficiency” and “role ambiguity” should be improved and supervisor support must be increased to reduce job stress and increase job satisfaction and productivity.
Dosseto, A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [GeoQuEST Research Centre, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong. Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Buss, Heather [US Geological Survey. Menlo Park, CA (United States); Suresh, P.O. [Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University. North Ryde, NSW (Australia)
Highlights: > The uranium-series isotope composition of regolith material can be used to determine the soil residence time. > Soil residence times up to 30 and 90 kyr are calculated for Frogs Hollow and Bisley, respectively. > Production rates are relatively similar for granitic and shale lithologies, but much higher over volcanic parent rock. > Soil production matches erosion in soil-mantled landscapes, demonstrating quantitatively that this type of landscape results from a balance between these two processes > Soil production is up to two orders of magnitude slower than erosion in cultivated areas. - Abstract: The diversity in landscapes at the Earth's surface is the result, amongst other things, of the balance (or imbalance) between soil production and erosion. While erosion rates are well constrained, it is only recently that we have been able to quantify rates of soil production. Uranium-series isotopes have been useful to provide such estimates independently of erosion rates. In this study, new U-series isotope are presented data from weathering profiles developed over andesitic parent rock in Puerto Rico, and granitic bedrock in southeastern Australia. The site in Australia is located on a highland plateau, neighbouring a retreating escarpment where soil production rates between 10 and 50 mm/kyr have been determined. The results show that production rates are invariant in these two regions of Australia with values between 15 and 25 mm/kyr for the new site. Andesitic soils show much faster rates, about 200 mm/kyr. Overall, soil production rates determined with U-series isotopes range between 10 and 200 mm/kyr. This is comparable to erosion rates in soil-mantled landscapes, but faster than erosion in cratonic areas and slower than in alpine regions and cultivated areas. This suggests that soil-mantled landscapes maintain soil because they can: there is a balance between production and erosion. Similarly, thick weathering profiles develop in cratonic areas