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Sample records for roentgenology radium therapy

  1. Radium-223 dichloride therapy in breast cancer with osseous metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takalkar, Amol; Paryani, Bhavna; Adams, Scott; Subbiah, Vivek

    2015-11-18

    Osseous metastases occur frequently in patients with breast cancer. Few options exist for bone targeted therapy for hormone refractory patients with breast cancer with progressive bone metastases. We present a case of breast cancer with osseous metastases but no visceral metastases. The patient had been treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and hormonal therapy, but still had extensive symptomatic osseous metastases. She received radium-223 dichloride, a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for castration resistant prostate cancer with bone metastases. She tolerated the therapy well with no significant adverse effects. She had an excellent response with significant pain relief obviating need for regular analgaesics. Her tumour markers also dropped significantly. Osseous metastases assessed with F-18 fluorodeoxy glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) and F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) bone PET/CT) scans at baseline, after two and six cycles, also showed interval improvement in the lesions. Radium-223 dichloride could potentially be a safe and useful therapeutic option in this setting. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. Clinical Correlates of Benefit From Radium-223 Therapy in Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Ajjai; Nordquist, Luke; Daignault, Stephanie; George, Saby; Ramos, Jorge; Albany, Costantine; Isharwal, Sudhir; McDonald, Matthew; Campbell, Gregory; Danchaivijitr, Pongwut; Yentz, Sarah; Anand, Aseem; Yu, Evan Y

    2017-04-01

    We sought to identify potential clinical variables associated with outcomes after radium-223 therapy in routine practice. Consecutive non-trial mCRPC patients who received ≥1 dose of radium dichloride-223 at four academic and one community urology-specific cancer centers from May 2013 to June 2014 were retrospectively identified. Association of baseline and on-therapy clinical variables with number of radium doses received and clinical outcomes including overall survival were analyzed using chi-square statistics, cox proportional hazards, and Kaplan-Meier methods. Bone Scan Index (BSI) was derived from available bone scans using EXINI software. One hundred and forty-five patients were included. Radium-223 was administered for six cycles in 74 patients (51%). One-year survival in this heavily pre-treated population was 64% (95%CI: 54-73%). In univariate and multivariate analysis, survival was highly associated with receiving all six doses of Radium-223. Receipt of six doses was associated with ECOG PS of 0-1, lower baseline PSA & pain level, no prior abiraterone/enzalutamide, radium-223. Radium-223 therapy is well tolerated with most patients reporting declines in pain scores and BSI. Prostate 77:479-488, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Therapy of induratio penis plastica (peyronies disease) by means of radium moulages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alth, G.; Koren, H.; Gasser, G.; Eidler, R.

    1985-01-01

    In the past 50 years 2210 patients suffering from induratio penis plastica were admitted to our department. In 69% of the cases an improvement could be observed within 18 months after radium moulage therapy. By improving radium protection the therapy may now be performed without any significant exposure of the testes. A 15 year old patient is the youngest case reported in world literature. Trend analyses show a case shift towards the senium.

  4. The Legacy of Radium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Legacy of Radium. M S S Murthy. The discovery of radium, its use in radiation therapy for cancer and its modern replacements are described. Introduction. Show any person any thing that fluoresces in the dark and ask what it is. Snap comes the reply 'Radium'. In most cases it is not radium. Most people have not seen ...

  5. Hematologic Toxicity of Concurrent Administration of Radium-223 and Next-generation Antiandrogen Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Tu D; Eldredge-Hindy, Harriet B; Hoffman-Censits, Jean; Lin, Jianqing; Kelly, William K; Gomella, Leonard G; Lallas, Costas D; Trabulsi, Edouard J; Hurwitz, Mark D; Dicker, Adam P; Den, Robert B

    2017-08-01

    Radium-223 is a first-in-class radiopharmaceutical recently approved for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer in patients with symptomatic bone metastases. Initial studies investigating Radium-223 primarily used nonsteroidal first-generation antiandrogens. Since that time, newer antiandrogen therapies have demonstrated improved survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. It has been suggested that the rational combination of these newly approved agents with Radium-223 may lead to improved response rates and clinical outcomes. Currently, there is lack of information regarding the safety of concurrent administration of these agents with radiopharmaceuticals. Here, we report on hematologic toxicity findings from our institution in patients receiving concurrent Radium-223 and next-generation antiandrogen therapies with either enzalutamide or abiraterone. In a retrospective study, we analyzed patients who received Radium-223 as part of an early-access trial, and following FDA approval in May 2013, patients receiving Radium-223 as part of standard care. Radium-223 was given at standard dosing of 50 kBq/kg each month for 6 total cycles. Complete blood counts were performed before treatment monthly and following each injection. Blood counts from patients receiving Radium alone and concurrently with next-generation antiandrogens were compared. To date, 25 total patients were analyzed, with a median of 5 monthly doses received per patient. Fourteen patients received concurrent therapy during monthly Radium-223 with either enzalutamide (n=8) or abiraterone (n=6). Six patients expired due to disease progression. Two patients discontinued treatment due to grade 3 myelosuppression. For patients receiving either Radium alone and with concurrent next-generation antiandrogen therapy, there did not appear to be any statistically significant differences between initial and nadir blood counts. Mean change from initial neutrophil count to nadir was

  6. Allergic bronchopulmonary and sinus aspergillosis: the roentgenologic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashok

    2003-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS) are the best recognized manifestations of Aspergillus-associated hypersensitivity respiratory disorders. These conditions occur predominantly in atopic individuals. Roentgenologic techniques play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of these two conditions. ABPA, on imaging, is characterized by fleeting pulmonary infiltrates often confused with pulmonary tuberculosis. However, central bronchiectasis on computed tomography (CT) is considered to be the hallmark of the disease. Though the diagnosis of AAS is primarily based on histopathology, roentgenology is essential for the diagnosis. Haziness of one or more paranasal sinuses is almost always seen on plain roentgenograms. However, CT proffers more reliable information with characteristic features that include heterogeneous densities and serpiginous areas of increased attenuation on non-contrast scans. Early diagnosis, with the help of roentgenologic techniques, and appropriate therapy could alter the natural history of these diseases.

  7. Radium-223 Therapy of Bone Metastases in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Sten

    2016-11-01

    Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to the bone, often resulting in painful skeletal events, reduced quality of life, and reduced survival. Radium-223 is a first-in-class alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical that has proven to prolong overall survival, delay time to symptomatic skeletal events, and improve quality of life in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and symptomatic bone metastases and no visceral metastases. Radium-223 provides survival benefit to patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and symptomatic bone metastases, regardless of prior docetaxel use. This article gives an overview of the development of radium-223 from the first-in-human trial to current status. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Radium-223 Use in Clinical Practice and Variables Associated With Completion of Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Rana R; Jacobus, Susanna; Fiorillo, Matthew; Ledet, Elisa M; Cotogna, Patrick M; Steinberger, Allie E; Jacene, Heather A; Sartor, Oliver; Taplin, Mary-Ellen

    2017-04-01

    Radium-223 has shown clinical efficacy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Despite improvement in quality of life and survival, practice patterns and utility of this agent outside the context of clinical trials have not been fully characterized. The primary objective in this study was to evaluate variables associated with completion of 5 to 6 radium-223 doses. We conducted retrospective analyses of patients who received radium-223 (n = 135). Patients were classified into 3 cohorts: 1 to 2, 3 to 4, or 5 to 6 radium-223 doses. We evaluated the association of clinical and laboratory variables with the number of cycles administered (5-6 vs. 1-4 doses). Twenty-five patients (18.5%) received 1 to 2 radium-223 doses, 27 (20.0%) received 3 to 4, and 83 (61.5%) received 5 to 6. The most common reasons for treatment discontinuation included disease progression (61.5%, n = 40), patient preference (15.4%, n = 10), and toxicity (10.8%, n = 7). Factors associated with therapy completion in univariate analysis included previous sipuleucel-T treatment (P = .068), no previous abiraterone or enzalutamide treatment (P = .007), hemoglobin ≥ lower limit of normal (LLN; P = .006), white blood cell count ≥ LLN (P = .045), absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥ LLN (P = .049), lower alkaline phosphatase (P = .029), and lower lactate dehydrogenase levels (P = .014). Factors associated with therapy completion in multivariable analysis included previous sipuleucel-T treatment (P = .009), hemoglobin ≥ LLN (P = .037), and ANC ≥ LLN (P = .029). Several clinical parameters are associated with radium-223 therapy completion. In general, these parameters reflect earlier disease stage. These data are hypothesis-generating and prospective testing of the optimal number of radium-223 doses is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of treatment delay in Radium-223 therapy of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Marie Øbro; Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Daugaard, Gedske

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radium-223-dichloride (Ra-223) is an alpha-emitting, bone seeking radionuclide therapy approved for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In the fall of 2014, a global temporary shortage of Ra-223 occurred for 2 months due to production irregularities...... to non-disease related reasons on OS, rPFS or number of completed treatment cycles....

  10. Radium-223 Therapy for Patients with Metastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer: An Update on Literature with Case Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleman, Leonard J.; Mountz, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Radium-223 dichloride (Xofigo®, Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.) is the first α-particle emitter therapeutic agent approved by the FDA, with benefits in overall survival and delay in symptomatic skeletal event for patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Recent post hoc analyses of the phase III ALSYMPCA trial support the previously established safety profile as well as therapeutic effect and clinical outcome of Radium-223. Currently, Radium-223 is approved as a single agent therapy for metastatic CRPC. Clinical trials are currently investigating Radium-223 in additional clinical settings such as earlier asymptomatic disease and in combination with other agents including hormonal therapeutic agents and immunotherapeutic as well as chemotherapeutic agents. Trials are also ongoing in patients with other primary cancers such as breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and renal cancer metastatic to bone. In this article, the physics and radiobiology, as well as a literature update on the use of Radium-223, are provided along with case presentations, aiming at a better appreciation of research data as well as the assimilation of research data into clinical practice. PMID:27774318

  11. Lymphocyte function following radium-223 therapy in patients with metastasized, castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsegian, Vahe; Moeckel, Daniel [Helios Kliniken, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Schwerin (Germany); Mueller, Stefan P.; Bockisch, Andreas [University Hospital Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Horn, Peter A.; Lindemann, Monika [University Hospital Essen, Institute for Transfusion Medicine, Essen (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Therapy with the alpha-emitter radium-223 chloride ({sup 223}Ra) is an innovative therapeutic option in patients with metastasized, castration-resistant prostate cancer. However, radiotherapy can lead to hematopoietic toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine if {sup 223}Ra therapy induces an impairment of cellular antimicrobial immune responses. In 11 patients receiving {sup 223}Ra treatment, lymphocyte proliferation and the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-10) were determined, using lymphocyte transformation testing and ELISpot, respectively. Lymphocyte function after stimulation with mitogens and microbial antigens was assessed prior to therapy and at day 1, 7 and 28 after therapy. Lymphocyte proliferation and the production of interferon-γ and interleukin-10 towards mitogens and antigens remained unchanged after therapy. Consistent with these in vitro data, we did not observe infectious complications after treatment. The results argue against an impairment of lymphocyte function after {sup 223}Ra therapy. Thus, immune responses against pathogens should remain unaffected. (orig.)

  12. Lymphocyte function following radium-223 therapy in patients with metastasized, castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsegian, Vahé; Müller, Stefan P; Möckel, Daniel; Horn, Peter A; Bockisch, Andreas; Lindemann, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Therapy with the alpha-emitter radium-223 chloride ((223)Ra) is an innovative therapeutic option in patients with metastasized, castration-resistant prostate cancer. However, radiotherapy can lead to hematopoietic toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine if (223)Ra therapy induces an impairment of cellular antimicrobial immune responses. In 11 patients receiving (223)Ra treatment, lymphocyte proliferation and the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-10) were determined, using lymphocyte transformation testing and ELISpot, respectively. Lymphocyte function after stimulation with mitogens and microbial antigens was assessed prior to therapy and at day 1, 7 and 28 after therapy. Lymphocyte proliferation and the production of interferon-γ and interleukin-10 towards mitogens and antigens remained unchanged after therapy. Consistent with these in vitro data, we did not observe infectious complications after treatment. The results argue against an impairment of lymphocyte function after (223)Ra therapy. Thus, immune responses against pathogens should remain unaffected.

  13. Radium-223 therapy of advanced metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Marie Øbro; Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Kjaer, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    ratio 2.65 [95% CI: 1.5-4.71];P= 0.001). Likewise, baseline BSI was prognostic for occurrence of hematological toxicity and patients with BSI > 5 had an odds ratio of 3.02 (95% CI: 1.2-7.8;P= 0.02) for toxicity. BSI declined during therapy in 44% of patients who completed three cycles of223RaCl2(n= 52......Aim: To investigate the prognostic value of quantitative assessment of skeletal tumor burden on bone scintigraphy (Bone Scan Index) in patients with advanced metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) receiving Radium-223-dichloride (223RaCl2). We hypothesize that Bone Scan Index (BSI...

  14. Imaging response during therapy with radium-223 for castration-resistant prostate cancer with bone metastases-analysis of an international multicenter database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keizman, D; Fosboel, M O; Reichegger, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The imaging response to radium-223 therapy is at present poorly described. We aimed to describe the imaging response to radium-223 treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the computed tomography (CT) and bone scintigraphy response of metastatic castration-resistant prostate...... of 54% (n=70) patients completed the planned six injections of radium-223. In patients with available data, a transient increase in bone metastases-related pain was observed in 27% (n=33/124) and an improvement of bone metastases-related pain on treatment with radium-223 was noted in 49% of patients (n......=61/124). At 3 and 6 months of treatment with radium-223, bone imaging showed stable disease in 74% (n=84/113) and 94% of patients (n=93/99) with available data, respectively. An increase in the number of bone lesions was documented at 3 months compared with baseline in 26% (n=29/113) and at 6 months...

  15. Stochastic simulation of radium-223 dichloride therapy at the sub-cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Y; Zhu, X; Fulton, R; Meikle, S; El-Fakhri, G; Kuncic, Z

    2015-08-07

    Radium-223 dichloride ((223)Ra) is an alpha particle emitter and a natural bone-seeking radionuclide that is currently used for treating osteoblastic bone metastases associated with prostate cancer. The stochastic nature of alpha emission, hits and energy deposition poses some challenges for estimating radiation damage. In this paper we investigate the distribution of hits to cells by multiple alpha particles corresponding to a typical clinically delivered dose using a Monte Carlo model to simulate the stochastic effects. The number of hits and dose deposition were recorded in the cytoplasm and nucleus of each cell. Alpha particle tracks were also visualized. We found that the stochastic variation in dose deposited in cell nuclei ([Formula: see text]40%) can be attributed in part to the variation in LET with pathlength. We also found that [Formula: see text]18% of cell nuclei receive less than one sigma below the average dose per cell ([Formula: see text]15.4 Gy). One possible implication of this is that the efficacy of cell kill in alpha particle therapy need not rely solely on ionization clustering on DNA but possibly also on indirect DNA damage through the production of free radicals and ensuing intracellular signaling.

  16. [Clinico-roentgenological semiotics of the chest damage in polytrauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiatin, P N; Panchenko, E V; Grigor'ian, G O; Goloshchapova, E V

    2006-10-01

    There are presented the main clinico-roentgenological signs of the chest damage in the injured persons, suffering polytrauma, according to the data from the specialized department of traumatic shock and polytrauma.

  17. Radium-223 outcomes after multiple lines of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer therapy in clinical practice: implication of pre-treatment spinal epidural disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, D E; Osborne, J R; Zumsteg, Z S; Rebeiz, K; Leeman, J; Rivera, A; Morris, M J; Zelefsky, M J

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not routinely performed before initiating radium-223 to document spinal epidural disease. However, radium-223 decays to form α-particles with very short path lengths that may not reach the epidural space. Herein, we investigate the impact of baseline spinal epidural disease on metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients treated with radium-223. Between October 2013 to December 2014, 41 consecutive mCRPC patients at a large tertiary cancer center were prescribed radium-223 as part of standard of care. 29% of patients had pre-treatment epidural disease (posMRI), 27% had no epidural disease (negMRI), and 44% did not have a baseline MRI (noMRI). All patients had post-treatment spinal imaging. Actuarial survival times were calculated for overall survival (OS), spinal axis radiographic progression-free survival (spinePFS) and epidural progression-free survival (epiPFS) from time of first radium-223 treatment. For patients with posMRI (n=12), noMRI (n=18) and negMRI (n=11) cumulative rates of development or worsening of epidural disease and/or high-grade cord compression at time of last follow-up were 83%, 44% and 9%, respectively (P=0.001). For the posMRI, noMRI and negMRI groups the median OS was 6.3 months, 12.6 months and not reached (P=0.01), the median spinePFS was 3.2 months, 4.8 months and not reached (P=0.01), and the median epiPFS was 3.2 months, 10.4 months and not reached (P=0.001). Completing less than six cycles of radium-223 was significantly associated with worse OS (Pradium-223 therapy. Studies are needed to determine the optimal timing of radium-223 with other mCRPC therapies given the predilection for epidural disease and treatment failure after multiple prior lines of mCRPC therapy.

  18. Roentgenologic abnormalities in Down's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Takehiko; Russell, W.J.; Komatsuda, Michio; Neriishi, Shotaro

    1968-07-25

    Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less frequently reported findings were also seen. One abnormal vertebral measurement found in this series may be an additional stigma of Down's syndrome. All of the 27 cases studied cytogenetically had chromosomal abnormalities consistent with this disease. This study emphasizes the need for roentgenologic norms for the Japanese, and the desirability of combining chromosome studies with roentgenological abnormalities and clinical observations in diagnosing Down's syndrome. 19 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  19. Therapy assessment of bone metastatic disease in the era of {sup 223}radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etchebehere, Elba; Brito, Ana Emilia [The University of Campinas, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Campinas (Brazil); Rezaee, Alireza; Langsteger, Werner [St. Vincent' s Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, PET - CT Center LINZ, Ordensklinikum, Linz (Austria); Beheshti, Mohsen [St. Vincent' s Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, PET - CT Center LINZ, Ordensklinikum, Linz (Austria); Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, Salzburg (Austria)

    2017-08-15

    Defining an optimal imaging modality for assessment of therapy and the best time of evaluation are pivotal for ideal patient's management. {sup 223}Ra (Xofigo registered, formerly Alpharadin) has been approved by the FDA and European Medicines Agency for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with painful osseous involvement. PET/CT imaging using various radiotracers such as {sup 18}F-FDG, {sup 18}F-FCH, {sup 68}Ga-PSMA and {sup 18}F-NaF have been investigated to mitigate the limitations of conventional imaging modalities. Diagnostic radiotracers that have properties similar to a therapeutic radiotracer will precisely assess of the possibility and efficacy of a treatment; this is the theranostic concept. An example of a diagnostic test employed for selecting targeted therapy is the combined use of {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT for evaluation of possible therapy with {sup 223}Ra. This review examines the most recent publications related to this topic. (orig.)

  20. [Improvement of gynecologic radium therapy through the afterloading method using cesium 137].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, D V; Senf, W; Kuttig, H; Kubli, F

    1976-03-01

    For all centers performing gynecological contact irradiation the use of afterloading techniques is urgently required, since they eliminate any radiation exposure to the personnel. The radio-therapist may position and control the empty applicators still free from radiation withoug haste. This procedure diminishes the occurrence of overdosages and underdosages. The care for the patients is possible without radiation exposure, and the morbidity of contact therapy can be reduced by occasional mobilization of the patient, the applicator without sources remaining at its place. The fully automatic apparatus "Curietron" using cesium-137 sources (0.662 MeV gamma emission, half-life period 26.6 years) with an equivalent source activity (factor 2.6) yields the dose distribution demanded in the gynecologic field which in practice is identical to that of Ra-226 (medium gamma emission 1 MeV, half-life period 1620 years). With similar dose distribution, a biological and therapeutical effect alike to Ra-226 may be expected from Cs-137. In comparison with Ra-226, the following advantages of Cs-137 may be mentioned: Lower half-value thickness of 5.5 mm lead (low expenses for radioprotection), less danger with handling (no emanation of radioactive gases), and lower contamination risks in case of breaking. The measured dose distributions at equivalent source activity and similar geometry of the applicators revealed the possibility with regard of all techniques of gynecologic irradiation utilized in our field of arriving at similar relative and absolute dose distributions by means of the Cs-137 afterloading technique. Whilst short-term afterloading irradiation with highly active sources, their radiobiological effectiveness being not yet ascertained, has to be tested at appropriate scientific centers, it is necessary to demand afterloading techniques with dosages and duration of irradiations approved over decades for all centers of gynecological contact therapy because of radiation

  1. Radium-223 and concomitant therapies in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: an international, early access, open-label, single-arm phase 3b trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Fred; Carles, Joan; Gillessen, Silke; Heidenreich, Axel; Heinrich, Daniel; Gratt, Jeremy; Lévy, Jérémy; Miller, Kurt; Nilsson, Sten; Petrenciuc, Oana; Tucci, Marcello; Wirth, Manfred; Federhofer, Judith; O'Sullivan, Joe M

    2016-09-01

    In the previously reported ALSYMPCA trial in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and symptomatic bone metastases, overall survival was significantly longer in patients treated with radium-223 dichloride (radium-223) than in patients treated with placebo. In this study, we investigated safety and overall survival in radium-223 treated patients in an early access programme done after the ALSYMPCA study and before regulatory approval of radium-223. We did an international, prospective, interventional, open-label, single-arm, phase 3b study. Enrolled patients were aged 18 years or older with histologically or cytologically confirmed progressive bone-predominant metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with two or more skeletal metastases on imaging (with no restriction as to whether they were symptomatic or asymptomatic; without visceral disease but lymph node metastases were allowed). Patients received intravenous injections of radium-223, 50 kBq/kg (current recommendation 55 kBq/kg after implementation of National Institute of Standards and Technology update on April 18, 2016) every 4 weeks for up to six injections. Other concomitant anticancer therapies were allowed. Primary endpoints were safety and overall survival. The safety and efficacy analyses were done on all patients who received at least one dose of the study drug. The study has been completed, and we report the final analysis here. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01618370, and the European Union Clinical Trials Register, EudraCT number 2012-000075-16. Between July 22, 2012, and Dec 19, 2013, 839 patients were enrolled from 113 sites in 14 countries. 696 patients received one or more doses of radium-223; 403 (58%) of these patients had all six planned injections. Any-grade treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 523 (75%) of 696 patients; any-grade treatment-emergent adverse events deemed to be related to treatment were reported in 281 (40%) patients

  2. [Alpha emitter radium-223 dichloride: new therapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzer, H; König, F; Klutmann, S

    2014-04-01

    Radium-223 dichloride (Ra-223) is an alpha emitter with low toxicity for the treatment of patients with castrations-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and symptomatic bone metastases showing a 30% reduction in the risk of death, as compared to placebo. Because of the favorable physical and chemical characteristics, Ra-223 can be handled easily in daily practice based on interdisciplinary co-operation between urology and nuclear medicine. Ra-223 has been approved under the product name Xofigo® by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA).

  3. [Bone-specific therapy with radium-223 dichloride : Castration-resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, R; Gschwend, J; Scheidhauer, K; Eiber, M; Krönke, M

    2017-01-01

    Radium-223 dichloride (Xofigo®, Alpharadin) is approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases and no known visceral metastases. As a calcium mimetic, it is integrated into osteoplastic bone lesions and emits alpha particles with high energy which leads to local destruction of tumor cells. In the 2013 published ALSYMPCA trial, a significant advantage for overall survival and quality of life in comparison to placebo was found. Recent data suggest an increased potential in combination with next generation hormonal treatment.

  4. Chest roentgenology in the intensive care unit: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffessanti, M. [Istituto di Radiologia, Universita di Trieste, Ospedale di Cattinara, I-34 100 Trieste (Italy); Berlot, G. [Istituto di Anestesia e Rianimazione, Universita di Trieste, Ospedale di Cattinara, I-34 100 Trieste (Italy); Bortolotto, P. [Servizio di Radiologia, Ospedale Maggiore, I-34 100 Trieste (Italy)

    1998-02-01

    Chest roentgenology in the intensive care unit is a real challenge for the general radiologist. Beyond the basic disease, the critically ill is at risk for developing specific cardiopulmonary disorders, all presenting as chest opacities, their diagnosis often being impossible if based only on the radiological aspect. To make things harder, their appearance can vary with the subject`s position and the mechanical ventilation. Patients require a continuous monitoring of the vital functions and their mechanical and pharmacological support, for which they are connected to different instruments. The radiologist should know the normal position of these devices, and promptly recognize when they are misplaced or when complications from their insertion occurred. Our aim is to suggest for each of the above-mentioned conditions a guideline of interpretation based not only on the radiological aspect and distribution of the lesions, but also on the physiopathological and clinical grounds. (orig.) With 13 figs., 58 refs.

  5. Determination of radium in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Franklin Butt; Johnson, J.O.

    1964-01-01

    Radium isotopes are common radioactive constituents of natural waters. The concentration of radium-226 in potable water is of particular significance because this isotope is generally considered the most hazardous of all radionuclides with respect to ingestion. The approximate concentration of radium-226 is determined after coprecipitating radium with barium sulfate. The short-lived daughters of radium are allowed to grow for 10-12 days, then the alpha activity of the precipitate is measured and compared with that of a precipitate containing a known amount of radium-226. Concentrations of the individual alpha-emitting isotopes of radium-223, radium-224, and radium-226, are determined by coprecipitating radium first with lead sulfate, then with barium chloride, and finally with barium sulfate. This final precipitate is initially free of other alpha-emitting nuclides, thus permitting the isotopic composition to be determined by measuring the growth and decay of the alpha activity of the precipitate.

  6. Radium: a miracle cure{exclamation_point} (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genet, M

    1998-07-01

    In 1896, the general population had little enthusiasm for the recent discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel. There was certainly much less than for X rays which had appeared, 3 months earlier, as a 'magic radiation'. However, polonium and radium, discovered by the Curies in 1898, aroused new interest in 'uranic rays'. The first weighable amounts of radium, prepared at the beginning of this century, were used for medical applications. Immediately, the therapeutic properties of radium rays against cancer were recognised. The use of radium in medicine became so common that every kind of disease was treated by radium therapy: not only breast cancer, but also, diabetes, sciatica, uraemia, rheumatism, and even impotence{exclamation_point} As a consequence of this tremendous success, the radium industry grew rapidly during the 1920s and numerous goods, especially cosmetics, doped with radium were on sale. It was even considered that in order to be in good health, one should drink a glass of radioactive water every day, prepared by using a radium percolator. This period lasted for more than 25 years, then, just before World War II radium use was considered dangerous and the number of its applications decreased. (author)

  7. Internationalization of the American Journal of Roentgenology: 1980-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michael Y; Jenkins, Charles B; Elster, Allen D

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze trends in the number of articles from international authors submitted to or published by the American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR) between 1980 and 2002. More than 5000 articles published by the AJR during three 3-year periods (1980-1982, 1990-1992, and 2000-2002) were categorized by country of residence of the corresponding author, type of article, subject matter and age of patients, organ system, and radiologic technique. Additionally, 6202 manuscripts submitted to the AJR (1991-1992 and 2001-2002) were used to calculate the acceptance rates for the two 2-year periods. The percentage of articles published by the AJR from international authors was 10% (158/1610) in 1980-1982, 25% (441/1788) in 1990-1992, and 37% (602/1624) in 2000-2002 (p < 0.0001). Japanese, South Korean, and German authors achieved the largest increases during the 22 years covered by our research, and Canada had the largest decrease. The increase in international articles at the AJR was accompanied by an absolute decrease in publications from authors in the United States. Nonetheless, during 2000-2002, the acceptance rate for major papers from authors in the United States was 45% and the acceptance rate for foreign authors was 31%. During 1990-1992, the acceptance rates for major papers were 33% and 27%, respectively. The contents of the AJR reflect a continually increasing number of international articles during the past two decades.

  8. Do pyrotechnics contain radium?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Musilek, Andreas, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@ati.ac.a [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Wien (Austria)

    2009-07-15

    Many pyrotechnic devices contain barium nitrate which is used as an oxidizer and colouring agent primarily for green-coloured fireworks. Similarly, strontium nitrate is used for red-coloured pyrotechnic effects. Due to their chemical similarities to radium, barium and strontium ores can accumulate radium, causing a remarkable activity in these minerals. Radium in such contaminated raw materials can be processed together with the barium or strontium, unless extensive purification of the ores was undertaken. For example, the utilization of 'radiobarite' for the production of pyrotechnic ingredients can therefore cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols when the firework is displayed, resulting in negative health effects upon inhalation of these aerosols. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of gamma-photon-emitting radionuclides in several pyrotechnic devices. The highest specific activities were due to K-40 (up to 20 Bq g{sup -1}, average value 14 Bq g{sup -1}). Radium-226 activities were in the range of 16-260 mBq g{sup -1} (average value 81 mBq g{sup -1}). Since no uranium was found in any of the samples, indeed, a slight enrichment of Ra-226 in coloured pyrotechnics can be observed. Radioactive impurities stemming from the Th-232 decay chain were found in many samples as well. In the course of novel developments aiming at the 'greening' of pyrotechnics, the potential radioactive hazard should be considered as well.

  9. Practical guide to the use of radium 223 dichloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den, Robert B; Doyle, Laura A; Knudsen, Karen E

    2014-04-01

    Bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals have been used for decades in the palliation of pain from bone metastases emerging from prostate cancer. Recent clinical evidence has demonstrated an improved survival in men with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with radium 223. A review of the literature was performed to identify the role of radiopharmaceuticals in the management of prostate cancer. We focused on prospective trials in order to identify the highest level of evidence describing this therapy. Further, we focused on providing a clinical guide for the use of radium 223. The phase III ALSYMPCA trial which compared radium 223 to placebo in men with symptomatic CRPC demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in median overall survival of 3.6 months and an improvement in time to first skeletal related event. There were higher rates of myelosuppression and diarrhea with radium 223, however, no clinically meaningful differences in the frequency of grade 3 or 4 adverse events were observed between the study groups. Radium 223 is a safe and effective therapy in men with symptomatic CRPC providing a survival advantage on par with novel antiandrogens, CYP-17 inhibitors, and chemotherapy. Radium 223 has huge potential in combination strategies as well as for use earlier in the natural history of metastatic prostate cancer.

  10. Changes in skeletal tumor activity on {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT in patients receiving {sup 223}radium radionuclide therapy for metastatic prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Kyle S. [Oncology Research Dept. and Hamamatsu/Queen' s PET Imaging Center, The Queen' s Medical Center, Honolulu (United States); Kang, Yu; Kwee, Sandi A. [Dept. of Medical Physics, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Radium-223 dichloride is an alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical shown to prolong survival in patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and symptomatic skeletal metastases. This report describes in two patients the acute changes in bone metastatic activity detected by F-18 choline PET/CT imaging midway during treatment with radium-223 dichloride. In addition to visual and standardized uptake value analysis, changes in the whole-body tumor burden were quantified by measuring the difference in net metabolically active tumor volume (MATV) and total lesion activity (TLA) between pre- and mid-treatment PET scans. After the third dose of radium-223 dichloride, near-total disappearance of abnormal skeletal activity was observed in one case (net MATV change from 260.7 to 0.8 cc; net TLA change from 510.7 to 2.1), while a heterogeneous tumor response was observed in the other (net MATV change from 272.2 to 241.3 cc; net TLA change from 987.1 to 779.4). Corresponding normalization and persistent elevation in serum alkaline phosphatase levels were observed in these cases, respectively. Further research is needed to determine the predictive value of serial F-18 choline PET/CT imaging in patients receiving radium-223 dichloride for CRPC.

  11. Practical recommendations for radium-223 treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Yong [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT, London (United Kingdom); Carrio, Ignasi [Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); De Vincentis, Giuseppe [Policlinico Umberto I University Hospital Rome, Rome (Italy); Fanti, Stefano [University Hospital Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Ilhan, Harun [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Munich (Germany); Mommsen, Caroline [Praxis fuer diagnostische und therapeutische Nuklearmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Nitzsche, Egbert [Canton Hospital Aarau, Aarau (Switzerland); Sundram, Francis [University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom); Vogel, Wouter [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oyen, Wim [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT, London (United Kingdom); The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Lewington, Val [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-15

    Radium Ra 223 dichloride (radium-223, Xofigo registered) is the first targeted alpha therapy for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and symptomatic bone metastases. Radium-223 provides a new treatment option for this setting, but also necessitates a new treatment management approach. We provide straightforward and practical recommendations for European nuclear medicine centres to optimize radium-223 service provision. An independent research consultancy agency observed radium-223 procedures and conducted interviews with all key staff members involved in radium-223 treatment delivery in 11 nuclear medicine centres across six countries (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and the UK) experienced in administering radium-223. The findings were collated and discussed at a meeting of experts from these centres, during which key consensus recommendations were defined. The recommendations cover centre organization and preparation; patient referral; radium-223 ordering, preparation and disposal; radium-223 treatment delivery/administration; and patient experience. Guidance includes structured coordination and communication within centres and multidisciplinary teams, focusing on sharing best practice to provide high-quality, patient-centred care throughout the treatment pathway. These expert recommendations are intended to complement existing management guidelines. Sharing best practice and experience will help nuclear medicine centres to optimize radium-223 service provision and improve patient care. (orig.)

  12. Modified determination of radium in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, F.B.; Thatcher, L.L.

    1957-01-01

    The proposed method embodies a barium sulfate carrier precipitation, filtration through molecular filter membranes, and collection of activity after prescribed aging period. The method is sufficiently accurate and precise to indicate the potability of water and for use in general studies of radium in chemical hydrology. Amounts of radium as low as 0.1 ????c. can be detected by using 1 -hour counting times. Radium-226 is used as the standard and the results indicate about 100 to 110 % of the activity of the alpha-emitting radium isotopes as radium-223, radium-224, and radium-226.

  13. Dosimetry of radium-223 and progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sgouros, G. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived (11.4 d) alpha emitter with potential applications in radioimmunotherapy of cancer. Radium-223 can be complexed and linked to protein delivery molecules for specific tumor-cell targeting. It decays through a cascade of short-lived alpha- and beta-emitting daughters with emission of about 28 MeV of energy through complete decay. The first three alpha particles are essentially instantaneous. Photons associated with Ra-223 and progeny provide the means for tumor and normal-organ imaging and dosimetry. Two beta particles provide additional therapeutic value. Radium-223 may be produced economically and in sufficient amounts for widescale application. Many aspects of the chemistry of carrier-free isotope preparation, complexation, and linkage to the antibody have been developed and are being tested. The radiation dosimetry of a Ra-223-labeled antibody shows favorable tumor to normal tissue dose ratios for therapy. The 11.4-d half-life of Ra-223 allows sufficient time for immunoconjugate preparation, administration, and tumor localization by carrier antibodies before significant radiological decay takes place. If 0.01 percent of a 37 MBq (1 mCi) injection deposits in a one gram tumor mass, and if the activity is retained with a typical effective half-time (75 h), the absorbed dose will be 163 mGy MBq{sup {minus}1} (600 rad mCi{sup {minus}1}) administered. 49 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Nursing management of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer undergoing radium-223 dichloride treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacruz, Anthony; Arauz, Gabrielle; Curley, Tracy; Lindo, Amabella; Jensen, Trine

    2015-04-01

    Radium-223 dichloride, or radium-223, is a first-in-class alpha emitter that selectively targets bone metastases with high-energy, short-range alpha particles and is approved for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), symptomatic bone metastases, and no known visceral metastatic disease. Nurses are essential in educating patients about radium-223. This article provides oncology nurses with information from the randomized phase III Alpharadin in Symptomatic Prostate Cancer (ALSYMPCA) trial, as well as important handling, administration, and safety details unique to radium-223. Data from the ALSYMPCA trial and related published information on radium-223 were reviewed. Radium-223 is the only alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical that has been shown to improve overall survival in patients with CRPC, as demonstrated in the ALSYMPCA trial. In addition, radium-223 delays time to first symptomatic skeletal event, and it is well tolerated with a low incidence of myelosuppression and gastrointestinal adverse events. Delivered on an outpatient basis, radium-223 requires universal precautions for handling and administration. Because of the potential for additive myelosuppression, the concomitant use of radium-223 with chemotherapy, other systemic radioisotopes, or hemibody external radiation therapy is not recommended.

  15. Nasopharyngeal radium irradiation: The lessons of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graamans, Kees

    2017-02-01

    In the Netherlands, nasopharyngeal radium irradiation was started in 1945. The indications included refractory symptoms of otitis media with effusion and other adenoid-related disorders after adenoidectomy. It was considered a safe and effective therapy. Its use decreased sharply in 1958, following a worldwide media avalanche around the dramatic events in the treatment of a 5-year-old child in Utrecht, enhancing the widespread fear of radioactivity. This case history illustrates the powerful role of the media in medical decision-making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radium-223 in Heavily Pretreated Metastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Dipenkumar; Hwang, Clara; Mamdani, Hirva; Kim, Seongho; Gayar, Hesham; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Joyrich, Richard; Heath, Elisabeth I

    2016-10-01

    Radium-223 is a bone-targeting radiopharmaceutical that extends survival in mCRPC. Postapproval data are limited, and the value of biochemical and radiologic monitoring during radium therapy is unknown. We conducted a retrospective study of 29 patients with mCRPC who received radium-223 at 1 of 3 participating institutions between August 2013 and December 2014. Trend of PSA, radiographic changes, and association of biochemical and clinical variables with PSA trend were measured. The median age of patients was 70 years, 79% of patients (N = 23) were European Americans, and 17% of patients (N = 5) were African Americans. Twenty patients (69%) had received at least 3 lines of prior therapies. Some 38% of patients (N = 11) received all 6 cycles of radium-223. Twenty patients (69%) had an increase in PSA during radium therapy, and 4 patients (14%) had a decline in PSA levels. Five patients had visceral metastases on computed tomography imaging performed during the course of radium-223. Radium therapy in mCRPC was associated with an increase in PSA in the majority of these heavily pretreated patients. The development of visceral disease was not uncommon, suggesting a need for follow-up computed tomography monitoring during radium-223 therapy. The significance of early increases in PSA and pain with radium-223 is still uncertain. Although pain and PSA flare have been reported in patients who subsequently have a dramatic response to therapy, we observed that a PSA increase or pain flare correlates to an improvement in bone scans only in a minority of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Radium-223 dichloride for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Philip Geoffrey; O'Sullivan, Joe

    2014-10-01

    Bone metastases are a frequent complication of many malignancies and are particularly common in metastatic prostate cancer, where they are associated with a high degree of morbidity. Until recently, treatments relied on palliative bone targeting measures with no proven survival-prolonging action or on systemic agents with general anti-prostate cancer activity but significant toxicities. Radium-223 dichloride is a bone-seeking, α-emitting, radionuclide that has recently been licensed in the US and Europe for the treatment of men with castration-resistant prostate cancer, bone metastases and no known visceral metastases. Radium-223 is the first bone-seeking radionuclide therapy proven to result in increased overall survival versus placebo. The existing market of bone-targeted agents is reviewed before considering what radium-223 adds by examining its pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy and safety data. Initial relevant papers were identified by searching PubMed using combinations of the terms, 'Radium', 'Prostatic neoplasms', 'Bone', 'Neoplasm metastasis'. Consideration is given to further preclinical work needed into the mechanism of action of radium-223 and future clinical directions of the drug including combinations with other agents.

  18. Radium-223 dichloride for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: the urologist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Neal D

    2015-04-01

    Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223) is an important therapeutic option for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, symptomatic bone metastases, and no visceral disease. The unique mechanism of action of this first-in-class alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical underlies its favorable safety profile and low incidence of myelosuppression. In the pivotal phase 3 ALpharadin in SYMptomatic Prostate CAncer Patients study, radium-223 reduced the risk of death by 30% and prolonged time to first symptomatic skeletal event by 5.8 months. This article summarizes current guidelines and clinical studies that led to the approval of radium-223 as an overall survival therapy, and discusses the urologist's perspective on using radium-223 in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Radium-223 for the treatment of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Shaista; Parker, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Bone metastases cause significant morbidity and mortality in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Until recently, treatment options have been limited, but now six drugs are known to extend life expectancy, with docetaxel the current standard first-line cytotoxic therapy. Phase III studies have also shown a survival advantage for sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide and radium-223 . Radium-223 is unique among these agents, as the only bone-directed therapy shown to prolong survival in CRPC. This review covers the current standard of care for CRPC and recent drug developments that have demonstrated a survival benefit. It focuses on bone-directed therapies, in particular radium-223, the first-in-class alpha-emitting radionuclide and discusses the pivotal studies to date. A PubMed search using the keywords below was performed. Radium-223 is set to become a new standard of care for the treatment of bony metastatic CRPC. It improves both survival and quality of life, delays skeletal events and is well tolerated. Its optimal use in the evolving treatment strategies for men with CRPC and bone metastases is yet to be determined.

  20. Survival benefit with radium-223 dichloride in a mouse model of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Mari I; Rissanen, Jukka P; Käkönen, Rami; Fagerlund, Katja M; Alhoniemi, Esa; Mumberg, Dominik; Ziegelbauer, Karl; Halleen, Jussi M; Käkönen, Sanna-Maria; Scholz, Arne

    2013-06-19

    Bone metastases are associated with increased morbidity and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Radium-223 dichloride is a calcium mimetic that localizes to bone, providing targeted therapy for skeletal metastasis. We investigated the mode of action of radium-223 dichloride using breast cancer cell, osteoclast, and osteoblast cultures as well as a mouse model of breast cancer bone metastasis. A single dose of radium-223 dichloride was used in three different settings mimicking the prevention or treatment of bone metastasis. Disease progression was monitored using fluorescence and radiographic imaging and histological analyses. The effect of radium-223 dichloride alone and in combination with doxorubicin or zoledronic acid on survival of mice was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier methods. All statistical tests used were two-sided. Radium-223 dichloride incorporated into bone matrix and inhibited proliferation of breast cancer cells and differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts (all P values radium-223 dichloride prevented tumor-induced cachexia (0/14 vs 7/14 control mice) and decreased osteolysis by 56% and tumor growth by 43% (all P values Radium-223 dichloride induced double-strand DNA breaks in cancer cells in vivo. Finally, radium-223 dichloride extended survival as a monotherapy (29.2 days, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 26.6 to 31.8 days, P = .039) and in combination with zoledronic acid (31.4 days, 95% CI = 28.8 to 34.0 days, P = .004) or doxorubicin (31.5 days, 95% CI = 29.5 to 33.5 days, P radium-223 dichloride was administered in a preventive or micrometastatic setting. Our findings strongly support the development of radium-223 dichloride for the treatment of breast cancer patients with or at high risk of developing bone metastases.

  1. Charge radii of radium isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansbeek, L. W.; Schlesser, S.; Sahoo, B. K.; Dieperink, A. E. L.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Timmermans, R. G. E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a combined analysis of the available isotope-shift data from the optical spectra of Ra atoms and Ra+ ions. Atomic structure calculations of the field-shift and specific mass-shift constants of the low-lying levels in Ra+ are used. The nuclear radial differences delta for the radium

  2. Radium-223 in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Winston; Sartor, Oliver; Pal, Sumanta K

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, docetaxel was approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). For the next several years, there was a lull in drug approvals. However, from 2010 onwards, 5 additional therapies have been approved on the basis of showing a survival benefit in phase III studies. These agents include sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide and (most recently) radium-223. Amongst radiopharmaceuticals currently used for advanced prostate cancer (e.g. samarium-153 and strontium-89), radium-223 possesses several unique properties. As an alpha-emitting compound, the agent produces a high-energy output over a short range, facilitating selective destruction of tissue within the bone in the region of osteoblastic lesions while sparing surrounding normal tissue. The current review will outline biological rationale for radium-223 and also provide an overview of preclinical and clinical development of the agent. Rational sequencing of radium-223 and combinations, in the increasingly complex landscape of mCRPC will be discussed, along with factors influencing clinical implementation.

  3. Radium-223 in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Vuong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, docetaxel was approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC. For the next several years, there was a lull in drug approvals. However, from 2010 onwards, 5 additional therapies have been approved on the basis of showing a survival benefit in phase III studies. These agents include sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide and (most recently radium-223. Amongst radiopharmaceuticals currently used for advanced prostate cancer (e.g. samarium-153 and strontium-89, radium-223 possesses several unique properties. As an alpha-emitting compound, the agent produces a high-energy output over a short range, facilitating selective destruction of tissue within the bone in the region of osteoblastic lesions while sparing surrounding normal tissue. The current review will outline biological rationale for radium-223 and also provide an overview of preclinical and clinical development of the agent. Rational sequencing of radium-223 and combinations, in the increasingly complex landscape of mCRPC will be discussed, along with factors influencing clinical implementation.

  4. Case report 361: Radium intoxication with radium-induced osteonecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milgram, J.W.; Jasty, M.

    1986-03-01

    In summary, a male patient was treated with radium chloride for arthritis involving both knees at a time when he had gonococcal urethritis. He was then 20 years of age and was followed until his death 40 years later at the age of 60 years. During that interval this individual, who possessed one of the largest burdens of radium ever recorded in man, developed spontaneous fractures of both femori and one humerus, symptomatic osteonecrosis of both femoral heads, dramatic progressive radiological findings of bone, and finally, a carcinoma of the maxillary sinus which proved to be the cause of his death. Tissue was obtained from both cortical and cancellous bone at four different times during the patient's life and again at post-mortem. Progressive ischemia with abnormal calcification and then necrosis of both bone and bone marrow were demonstrated in the skeletal tissues. The pathological chances are correlated superbly with the roentgenograms in this report.

  5. Radium-223 dichloride in clinical practice: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florimonte, Luigia; Dellavedova, Luca; Maffioli, Lorenzo Stefano

    2016-09-01

    The onset of skeletal metastases is typical of advanced-stage prostate cancer and requires a multidisciplinary approach to alleviate bone pain and try to delay disease progression. The current therapeutic armamentarium includes conventional analgesics, chemotherapeutic agents, immunotherapy, androgen-deprivation therapy, osteoclast inhibitors (bisphosphonates, denosumab), surgical interventions, external-beam radiotherapy and radionuclide metabolic therapy. Many studies in recent decades have demonstrated the efficacy of various radiopharmaceuticals, including strontium-89 and samarium-153, for palliation of pain from diffuse skeletal metastases, but no significant benefit in terms of disease progression and overall survival has been shown. The therapeutic landscape of metastatic skeletal cancer significantly changed after the introduction of radium-223, the first bone-homing radiopharmaceutical with disease-modifying properties. In this paper we extensively review the literature on the use of radium-223 dichloride in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  6. [History of the development of radiodiagnosis at the Russian Research Center of Roentgenology and Radiology: on the occasion of the 90th anniversary of its foundation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodkiĭ, V A; Kotliarov, P M; Nudnov, N V

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the history of the Russian Research Center of Roentgenology and Radiology set up 90 years ago, the main advances of the researchers of the Institute in roentgenology and radiodiagnosis in historical perspective--from the last century up to the present day. It gives a brief list of the most important procedures and publications on radiodiagnosis, which have been developed and published by the Institute's researchers.

  7. Radium-223 dichloride for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelzang, Nicholas J

    2017-08-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is associated with the development of bone metastases, increased mortality, and a reduction in the patient's quality of life (QOL). The management of metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) has rapidly evolved over the past decade, with a number of available therapeutic agents improving overall survival. Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223), the first targeted alpha therapy, improves survival accompanied by QOL benefits with a favorable safety profile. It is approved in over 40 countries for the treatment of patients with CRPC with symptomatic bone metastases and no known visceral metastatic disease. Areas covered: The current management of CRPC in men with bone metastases, and in particular the role of radium-223 in this setting, is reviewed and discussed. A search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed literature and major meetings was conducted. Expert commentary: In treating patients with mCRPC, the best sequencing and/or combination of radium-223 with other agents has yet to be fully elucidated. The role of radium-223 in treating patients with hormone-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer who are candidates for chemotherapy should also be investigated in well-designed trials. The ability to tailor radium-223 therapy to both the clinical and genetic profiles of CRPC patients would be a promising development.

  8. Meeting Report From the Prostate Cancer Foundation Scientific Working Group on Radium-223.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahira, Andrea K; Morris, Michael; Soule, Howard R

    2017-02-01

    The Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) convened a Scientific Working Group Meeting on Radium-223 on September 8, 2016, at The Sidney Kimmel Center for Prostate and Urologic Cancers, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. The meeting was attended by 18 investigators with expertise in radium-223, bone biology, molecular imaging, biomarkers, and prostate cancer clinical trials. The goal of this meeting was to discuss the known and unknown surroundings the therapeutic effects of the bone targeting agent radium-223, in bone metastatic prostate cancer therapy, and to outline the most critical studies needed to improve the clinical use of this agent. Three major topic areas were discussed: (1) the basic science of radium; (2) immuno-adjuvant properties of radium therapy; and (3) high impact clinical trials and correlative science. This article reviews the major topics discussed at the meeting for the purpose of accelerating studies that will improve the use of radium-223 in the treatment of prostate cancer patients. Prostate 77:245-254, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of Alpha-Therapy with Radium-223-Dichloride in Castration Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer—the Role of Gamma Scintigraphy in Dosimetry and Pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalevi Kairemo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Radium-223-dichloride (223RaCl2 is a new bone-seeking calcium analogue alpha-emitter, which has obtained marketing authorization for the treatment skeletal metastases of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. The current treatment regimen is based on six consecutive doses of 223RaCl2 at 4 week intervals and the administered activity dose, 50 kBq/kg per cycle is based on patient weight. We analyzed two patients using quantitative serial gamma imaging to estimate dosimetry in tumors and see possible pharmacokinetic differences in the treatment cycles. The lesions were rather well visualized in gamma scintigraphy in spite of low gamma activity (<1.1% gamma radiation at 0, 7 and 28 days using 30–60 min acquisition times. Both our patients analyzed in serial gamma imagings, had two lesions in the gamma imaging field, the mean counts of the relative intensity varied from 27.8 to 36.5 (patient 1, and from 37.4 to 82.2 (patient 2. The half-lives varied from 1.8 days to 4.5 days during the six cycles (patient 1, and from 1.5 days to 3.6 days (patient 2, respectively. In the lesion half-lives calculated from the imaging the maximum difference between the treatment cycles in the same lesion was 2.0-fold (1.8 vs. 3.6. Of these patients, patient 1 demonstrated a serum PSA response, whereas there was no PSA response in patient 2. From our data, there were maximally up to 4.0-fold differences (62.1 vs. 246.6 between the relative absorbed radiation doses between patients as calculated from the quantitative standardized imaging to be delivered in only two lesions, and in the same lesion the maximum difference in the cycles was up to 2.3-fold (107.4 vs. 246.6. Our recommendation based on statistical simulation analysis, is serial measurement at days 0–8 at least 3 times, this improve the accuracy significantly to study the lesion activities, half-lives or calculated relative absorbed radiation doses as calculated from the imaging. Both our patients had

  10. REMOVAL OF RADIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water...

  11. Radium in baggerspecie afkomstig uit het Rijnmondgebied

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard H; Overwater RMW; Glastra P; Nissan LA; LSO

    2003-01-01

    The radium concentration was measured in 25 samples of harbour sludge taken from the Rijnmond area (Rotterdam harbours and the Nieuwe Waterweg) in 2002. High radium levels were found near the former discharge points of the phosphate ore processing plants, confirming the results of previous

  12. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals as targeted agents of osteosarcoma: samarium-153-EDTMP and radium-223.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter M; Subbiah, Vivek; Rohren, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a cancer characterized by formation of bone by malignant cells. Routine bone scan imaging with Tc-99m-MDP is done at diagnosis to evaluate primary tumor uptake and check for bone metastases. At time of relapse the Tc-99m-MDP bone scan also provides a specific means to assess formation of bone by malignant osteosarcoma cells and the potential for bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals to deliver radioactivity directly into osteoblastic osteosarcoma lesions. This chapter will review and compare a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical that emits beta-particles, samarium-153-EDTMP, with an alpha-particle emitter, radium-223. The charged alpha particles from radium-223 have far more mass and energy than beta particles (electrons) from Sm-153-EDTMP. Because radium-223 has less marrow toxicity and more radiobiological effectiveness, especially if inside the bone forming cancer cell than samarium-153-EDTMP, radium-223 may have greater potential to become widely used against osteosarcoma as a targeted therapy. Radium-223 also has more potential to be used with chemotherapy against osteosarcoma and bone metastases. Because osteosarcoma makes bone and radium-223 acts like calcium, this radiopharmaceutical could possibly become a new targeted means to achieve safe and effective reduction of tumor burden as well as facilitate better surgery and/or radiotherapy for difficult to resect large, or metastatic tumors.

  13. Preoperative radium therapy and radical hysterectomy in the treatment of cervical cancer stage IB, IIA, and initial IIB.; Radiumterapia pre-operatoria e histerectomia radical no tratamento do cancer do colo uterino IB, IIA e IIB inicial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salum, Resalla; Lopes, Edison R.; Souza, Maria A.H. de [Faculdade de Medicina do Triangulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG (Brazil). Hospital Escola

    1995-07-01

    Patients with IB, IIa and in initial IIb cervical cancer were randomized for combined therapy, consisting of one or two radium insertion followed by Wertheim Meigs operation performed 40 days later. We look for the early and late complications of the treatment, residual cancer after radiotherapy and survival without recurrence. The project begin in 1965 and ended in 1986. All the operations were done by one of the investigators and 116 patients were analysed. The age ranged from 21 to 75 years with an average of 4.18 years. During the operations 31 (26.72%) patients needed 1.500 cc or greater amount of blood transfusion and we have 3 iliac veins lesions. Managing the ureters, we do our best to leave the posterior fascia as intact as possible. Post operative complications ranged from minor (fever, localised pelvic infections, temporary popliteal nerve paralysis) to evisceration (3 patients) deep venous thrombosis (3 patients) and two early urinary fistulas. Late complications were seen in patients submitted to sequential teletherapy irradiation. One uretrovaginal fistula occurred 10 month after treatment, another one, 7 years later and the third one 24 years later. One patient develop hydronefrosis and enterocolite after 7.000 rads of teletherapy and another one rectovaginal fistula 13 years after initial therapy. The shortening of the vagina making impossible the intercourse was seen in 7 patients. By the histological examination, the cervix was sterilized in 73.3 % of the patients. Residual cancer was found according the original size of the tumour and the stage of the disease. Studying different combinations between the existence of residual cervical cancer with positive or negative limphnodes and making a correlation with survival, we found the critical points is to have positive cervix and positive lymphonodes. The five years survival (life table methodology) for stage 1 lesion was 96%; stage II, 67%. At ten years survival was slighted different. With positive

  14. A brief history of Lord Rutherford's radium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Neil

    2014-09-20

    In this paper I give a brief summary of what is known about the acquisition, use and fate of the radium sources that were in the possession of Lord Rutherford during his lifetime. The account is written in two parts, corresponding to the periods from the discovery of radium in 1898 until his death in 1937 and then from 1937 until recent times. The history of Rutherford's radium closely shadows the history of radioactivity, the evolution of nuclear physics, the race for the bomb, and the development of the nuclear industry.

  15. Radium-223 dichloride: a review of its use in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Matt; McCormack, Paul L

    2014-04-01

    Radium-223 dichloride (Xofigo®; formerly Alpharadin™) [hereafter referred to as radium-223] is a first-in-class alpha particle-emitting radiopharmaceutical that has recently been approved for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with symptomatic bone metastases and no known visceral metastatic disease. Radium-223 is a calcium mimetic, which targets bone, delivering cytotoxic radiation to the sites of bone metastases. In the recently reported Alpharadin™ in Symptomatic Prostate Cancer (ALSYMPCA) phase III study, radium-223 was associated with significantly improved overall survival compared with placebo, making it the first bone-targeted CRPC therapy for which an overall survival benefit has been demonstrated. The ALSYMPCA study also demonstrated the beneficial effects of radium-223 on disease-related symptomatic skeletal events, pain and health-related quality of life. Radium-223 was generally well tolerated, being associated with low rates of myelosuppression and generally mild gastrointestinal adverse events. Thus, radium-223 is a valuable addition to the treatment options for this poor-prognosis population.

  16. Radium, Marie Curie and modern science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin-Joliot, H

    1998-11-01

    In 1898, the discovery of two new elements, polonium and radium, reawakened interest in the topic of uranic rays discovered 2 years before by H. Becquerel. Radioactivity, a name coined by Marie Curie, became a major research field for decades. The contrasting personalities of Pierre Curie, already a first-rank physicist, and of the young Marie Curie-Sklodowska as they undertook their common work are described. It is shown how a well-chosen quantitative method and a systematic approach combining physics and chemistry led to the discovery within less than 1 year. The special role of radium and the determination of its atomic weight by Marie Curie followed by her long-term program for accumulating pure radium salts are emphasized. The first woman with a full professorship at a French University, Marie Curie created and managed the Radium Institute.

  17. The Radiochemical and Radiopharmaceutical Applications of Radium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gott Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the chemistry and application of radium isotopes to environmental monitoring, analytical, and medicinal uses. In recent years, radium has been used primarily as a tracer to study the migration of radioactive substances in environmental systems. Tracing the naturally occurring radium isotopes in mineral and water sources allows for the determination of source location, residence time, and concentrations. An understanding of the concentration of radionuclides in our food and water sources is essential to everyone’s health as alpha particle decay is highly damaging in vivo. Due to this high radiobiological effectiveness, there is increased interest in using alpha-emitting radionuclides to prepare new, therapeutic radiopharmaceutical drugs. Selected studies from the recent literature are provided as examples of these modern applications of radium isotopes.

  18. Inaccurate Citations in Biomedical Journalism: Effect on the Impact Factor of the American Journal of Roentgenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Nevzat

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of incorrect citations and its effects on the impact factor of a specific biomedical journal: the American Journal of Roentgenology. The Cited Reference Search function of Thomson Reuters' Web of Science database (formerly the Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Knowledge database) was used to identify erroneous citations. This was done by entering the journal name into the Cited Work field and entering "2011-2012" into the Cited Year(s) field. The errors in any part of the inaccurately cited references (e.g., author names, title, year, volume, issue, and page numbers) were recorded, and the types of errors (i.e., absent, deficient, or mistyped) were analyzed. Erroneous citations were corrected using the Suggest a Correction function of the Web of Science database. The effect of inaccurate citations on the impact factor of the AJR was calculated. Overall, 183 of 1055 citable articles published in 2011-2012 were inaccurately cited 423 times (mean [± SD], 2.31 ± 4.67 times; range, 1-44 times). Of these 183 articles, 110 (60.1%) were web-only articles and 44 (24.0%) were print articles. The most commonly identified errors were page number errors (44.8%) and misspelling of an author's name (20.2%). Incorrect citations adversely affected the impact factor of the AJR by 0.065 in 2012 and by 0.123 in 2013. Inaccurate citations are not infrequent in biomedical journals, yet they can be detected and corrected using the Web of Science database. Although the accuracy of references is primarily the responsibility of authors, the journal editorial office should also define a periodic inaccurate citation check task and correct erroneous citations to reclaim unnecessarily lost credit.

  19. Radium 223: how can we optimize this new tool for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorff, Tanya Barauskas; Gross, Mitchell E

    2015-01-01

    Radium 223 is an alpha-emitting intravenous radiotherapy approved for the treatment of men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The approved indication covers men with pain from bony metastatic disease and no visceral involvement; however, questions remain as to optimal patient selection and timing of this treatment relative to other life-extending therapies for mCRPC. Limited data exist to guide clinicians on how to position radium 223 in the therapeutic sequence, however, some theoretical considerations and data derived from the ALSYMPCA trial populations pre- and postdocetaxel will be outlined. Subgroup analyses may provide some insight into patient selection.

  20. Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Technologies Topics include: Introduction to Rad Chemistry, Summary of the Rad, Regulations Treatment Technology, and Disposal. The introductions cover atoms, ions, radium and uranium and the removal of radioac...

  1. New Jersey Radium Research Project: final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    Cancers among dead New Jersey subjects were almost three times the expected number. Their radiation experience apparently acted as a generalized carcinogen. Conventional clinical, laboratory and roentgenographic tests neither correlated with calculated radiation exposure nor predicted which subjects subsequently developed cancer. More subjects than expected were deaf and enough of the subjects had increased erythrocyte sedimentation rates and decreased alpha-1 serum globulin levels that both hearing tests and tests of immune competence should be undertaken among asymptomatic exposed populations at regular intervals to see whether these may indicate radiation effects prior to a fatal cancer or blood dyscrasia. If pre-terminal radium-226 burdens validly express total irradiation experience, and past exposure to shorter-lived radium-228 (mesothorium) makes it unlikely that this is so, the distribution of radium osteitis among our subjects suggests that anatomically demonstrable radiation injury occurs in the vast majority of subjects with any radium-226 burden that can be measured above background levels after twenty-five years, and in almost half of those exposed whose measured radium-226 burdens are indistinguishable from background levels. Modification of the occupational exposure standard is recommended. (PCS)

  2. Radium in the environment: exposure pathways and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugge, Doug; Buchner, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive element in the environment that can exist as several isotopes. Little information is available on the acute (short-term) non-cancer effects in humans. Radium exposure has resulted in acute leukopenia, anemia, necrosis of the jaw, and other effects. Cancer is the major effect of concern. Radium, via oral exposure, is known to cause bone, head, and nasal passage tumors in humans. The US Environmental Protection Agency has not classified radium for carcinogenicity.

  3. REMOVING RADIUM FROM WATER BY PLAIN AND TREATED ACTIVATED ALUMINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research determined the feasibility of using BaSO4-impregnated activated alumina and plain activated alumina for radium removal from groundwater by fixed-bed adsorption. The major factors influencing radium adsorption onto the two types of alumina were identified. The radium ...

  4. Radium-223 dichloride for the treatment of bone metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: an evaluation of its safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Sten

    2015-07-01

    Approximately 10 - 20% of prostate cancer cases ultimately progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), for which there is a poor prognosis and a therapeutic need. Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223 [Xofigo]) is a first-in-class α-emitting radiopharmaceutical shown to significantly prolong overall survival in patients with CRPC with symptomatic bone metastases and no visceral metastases. Current treatment guidelines recommended it in both pre- and post-docetaxel settings. Radium-223 mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics and key efficacy and safety data are reviewed. The evaluation of adverse events reported in the Phase III ALSYMPCA trial is summarized for the overall population and patient subpopulations (prior docetaxel, concomitant external beam radiation therapy and baseline opioid use). An evaluation of how radium-223 is being incorporated into the CRPC treatment paradigm and the implications of its safety profile for future use are provided. The pronounced efficacy and safety profile of radium-223 positions it as a valuable new therapeutic tool in the CRPC armamentarium. Its novel mechanism of action underlies low rates of hematologic adverse events. Radium-223 treatment will become common in the majority of pre-docetaxel symptomatic CRPC cases, as it has proved to be highly efficient with few safety concerns earlier in the course of disease.

  5. A phase IIa, nonrandomized study of radium-223 dichloride in advanced breast cancer patients with bone-dominant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Robert; Aksnes, Anne-Kirsti; Naume, Bjørn; Garcia, Camilo; Jerusalem, Guy; Piccart, Martine; Vobecky, Nancy; Thuresson, Marcus; Flamen, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223) mimics calcium and emits high-energy, short-range alpha-particles resulting in an antitumor effect on bone metastases. This open-label, phase IIa nonrandomized study investigated safety and short-term efficacy of radium-223 in breast cancer patients with bone-dominant disease. Twenty-three advanced breast cancer patients with progressive bone-dominant disease, and no longer candidates for further endocrine therapy, were to receive radium-223 (50 kBq/kg IV) every 4 weeks for 4 cycles. The coprimary end points were change in urinary N-telopeptide of type 1 (uNTX-1) and serum bone alkaline phosphatase (bALP) after 16 weeks of treatment. Exploratory end points included sequential (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) to assess metabolic changes in osteoblastic bone metastases. Safety data were collected for all patients. Radium-223 significantly reduced uNTX-1 and bALP from baseline to end of treatment. Median uNTX-1 change was -10.1 nmol bone collagen equivalents/mmol creatinine (-32.8 %; P = 0.0124); median bALP change was -16.7 ng/mL (-42.0 %; P = 0.0045). Twenty of twenty-three patients had FDG PET/CT identifying 155 hypermetabolic osteoblastic bone lesions at baseline: 50 lesions showed metabolic decrease (≥25 % reduction of maximum standardized uptake value from baseline) after 2 radium-223 injections [32.3 % metabolic response rate (mRR) at week 9], persisting after the treatment period (41.5 % mRR at week 17). Radium-223 was safe and well tolerated. Radium-223 targets areas of increased bone metabolism and shows biological activity in advanced breast cancer patients with bone-dominant disease.

  6. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested.

  7. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of radium-223 in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeku, Oladapo; Slovin, Susan F

    2015-05-01

    Prostate cancer metastatic to bone is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Bone pain and other skeletal events negatively impact the quality of life in patients who might otherwise be functioning well. As such, there has been intense interest in the development of strategies and pharmaceuticals to address this problem. The authors reviewed the current literature for articles relevant to metastatic prostate cancer, clinical radiopharmaceuticals, castrate-resistant prostate cancer and development of Radium-223 . The authors have referenced primary literature, clinical trials and relevant review articles that summarize the history, development and current utilization of radiopharmaceuticals for management of bone metastases from prostate cancer. Radium-223 is the first radiopharmaceutical with an overall survival benefit approved for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, symptomatic bone metastasis and no known visceral metastatic disease. The additional benefit of clinically significant improved overall survival should lead to exploration of whether this agent can be used earlier in the treatment algorithm or combined with chemotherapy or androgen deprivation therapy. An individualized approach needs to be tailored to each patient based on their overall symptoms, disease burden, hematologic profile and goals of care.

  8. The metabolism of radium in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, B. F.; Garner, R. J.

    1966-01-01

    1. The isotopes 45Ca and 224Ra were administered simultaneously, both orally and intravenously, to two pairs of cows. 2. The first pair of animals received large doses of 224Ra and 45Ca, which produced clinical and metabolic disturbances. 3. The second pair of animals received much smaller doses and showed no clinical disturbances. The mean recoveries in these animals of 45Ca and 224Ra in the 8 days after the oral administration were respectively: from faeces, 63·2 and 103·8%; from urine, 0·26 and 0·44%; from milk, 15·8 and 0·35% of the dose; and in the 8 days after intravenous administration: from faeces, 20·5 and 36·5%; from urine, 1·56 and 17·6%; from milk, 49·3 and 11·8% of the dose. 4. Calculation of discrimination factors shows that absorptive discrimination played the most important part in the overall discrimination between the calcium and radium in their passage from diet to milk, but that mammary discrimination plays a more important role than in the overall discrimination between calcium and strontium or barium. 5. In its treatment by the kidney radium is more like strontium than barium, but radium is actively secreted by the gut in the same way as barium. 6. In its skeletal metabolism radium is indistinguishable from calcium and strontium except in its rate of resorption, which is similar to that of barium. PMID:5964964

  9. REMEDIATION OF RADIUM FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of a physico-chemical separation process for the removal of radium from a sample of contaminated soil at the Ottawa, Illinois, site near Chicago. The size/activity distribution analyzed among the particles coarser tha...

  10. Radium single-ion optical clock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versolato, O. O.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Jungmann, K.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the potential of the electric quadrupole transitions $7s\\,^2S_{1/2}$ - $6d\\,^2D_{3/2}$, $6d\\,^2D_{5/2}$ in radium isotopes as single-ion optical frequency standards. The frequency shifts of the clock transitions due to external fields and the corresponding uncertainties are calculated.

  11. Factors affecting radium removal using mixed iron-manganese oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, H.V. Singh, S.; Kondapally, V.R. (South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Batch experiments confirmed that sorption of radium by a mixed iron-manganese oxide solid phase shows promise for treating radium-contaminated water. The capacities of these mixed oxides for sorption of radium depend on the composition of the solid phase, the pH of the aqueous solution, and the presence of competing cations. The removal of the oxide-radium complexes from aqueous suspension by manganese greensand filtration was also investigated. It was found that influent radium concentrations of 100 pCi/L were reduced to 2--9 pCi/L by this process. Additional study of the fate of radium in manganese greensand filters is recommended before this procedure is used for drinking water treatment.

  12. Radium-223 dichloride: a new paradigm in the treatment of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anido Herranz, Urbano; Fernández Calvo, Ovidio; Afonso Afonso, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez Martínez de Llano, Sofía; Lázaro Quintela, Martín; León Mateos, Luis; Vázquez Estévez, Sergio; Antón Aparicio, Luis Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Radionuclides have been widely used for cancer treatment. Recently, new research about radium-223 dichloride has been conducted in prostate cancer, which reveals that it is the first radiopharmaceutical to demonstrate an improvement in overall survival and time to first symptomatic skeletal event in patients with castration resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases. This fact has created a new paradigm in the treatment of prostate cancer landscape, where only chemotherapy and hormone therapy had a role, while β-emitters had been confined exclusively to the role of pain relief with no impact on survival. The aim of this review is to outline current treatment approaches for advanced prostate cancer with a focus on the role of radium-223 dichloride, reviewing patients' profile that make them suitable to therapy and chances for further studies.

  13. [Principles, modalities and indications of the administration of Radium in cancers, focus on metastatic prostate cancer: State of arts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolaso, Pauline; Leroy, Laura; Gross-Goupil, Marine; Aupee, Olivier; Ravaud, Alain; Roubaud, Guilhem; Cazeau, Anne-Laure; Le Moulec, Sylvestre

    2017-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the first cancer in men and has a specific tropism to bones. This tropism provided the rationale to develop bone targeting radiopharmaceutical agents, such as strontium, samarium and more recently the Radium-223, an alpha-emitter. In a phase III trial, ALSYMPCA, Radium-223 not only improved pain relief, but also impacted on overall survival. Despite an approval by both FDA and EMA, prescription of this agent remains limited by the lack of refund, especially in France. Radium-223 is currently evaluated in several clinical trials (combination with chemotherapy, radiotherapy or hormone therapy) in order to optimize the therapeutic sequences in metastatic bone prostate cancer and argues for being incorporated into the current therapeutic arsenal. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Effective radium-226 concentration in meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Frédéric; Perrier, Frédéric; Moreira, Manuel; Zanda, Brigitte; Rochette, Pierre; Teitler, Yoram

    2017-07-01

    The analysis of noble gases in meteorites provides constraints on the early solar system and the pre-solar nebula. This requires a better characterization and understanding of the capture, production, and release of noble gases in meteorites. The knowledge of transfer properties of noble gases for each individual meteorite could benefit from using radon-222, radioactive daughter of radium-226. The radon-222 emanating power is commonly quantified by the effective radium-226 concentration (ECRa), the product of the bulk radium-226 concentration and of the emanation coefficient E, which represents the probability of one decaying radium-226 to inject one radon-222 into the free porous network. Owing to a non-destructive, high-sensitivity accumulation method based on long photomultiplier counting sessions, we are now able to measure ECRa of meteorite samples, which usually have mass smaller than 15 g and ECRa chondrites exhibit the largest ECRa values and eucrites the smallest. Such values are smaller than typical values from most terrestrial rocks, but comparable with those from Archean rocks (mean of ca. 0.18 Bq kg-1), an end-member of terrestrial rocks. Using uranium concentration from the literature, E is inferred from ECRa for all the meteorite samples. Values of E for meteorites (mean 40 ± 4%) are higher than E values for Archean rocks and reported values for lunar and Martian soils. Exceptionally large E values likely suggest that the 238U-226Ra pair would not be at equilibrium in most meteorites and that uranium and/or radium are most likely not uniformly distributed. ECRa of meteorites is correlated with E and seems to mainly reflect the gas permeability of the meteorite, which could be one important property, preserved in the meteorite, of its parent body, characterizing its history in space, possibly modified by alteration, shock metamorphism, and eventually weathering on Earth. Larger radon emanation values are associated with larger concentrations of the

  15. Radium in Humans: A Review of U.S. Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, R. E.

    1994-09-01

    This document was originally conceived as a description of the radium studies that took place at Argonne National Laboratory. It soon became evident, however, that to document the widespread use of radium, a brief review of the application of radium in medicine and in the US dial painting industry is required. Further, because the Argonne studies were not the only such efforts, brief overviews of the other radium programs are included. Even so, much material has been omitted. The extensive references included will allow the interested reader to find additional information. The effects of internally deposited radium in humans have been studied in this country for more than 75 years. Some 2,400 subjects have had their body contents of radium measured, and a majority of them have been followed for most of their adult lives, to understand and quantify the effects of radium. Many more individuals acquired radium internally but were never measured. Some of this group have been located and followed until death; in these cases the cause of death is known without a body content measurement. As a consequence of the efforts made to locate, measure, and follow exposed individuals, a great deal of information about the effects of radium is available. Nevertheless, great gaps remain in the knowledge of radium toxicity. The Argonne study is the largest every undertaken of the effects on humans of an internally deposited radioelement, in which the insult has been quantitated by actual measurements of the retained radioisotope. The study has now been terminated, even though more than 1,000 subjects with measured radium burdens are still alive. This document is written as a brief summary of current knowledge accumulated in this incomplete study.

  16. Radium, for the best and the worst; Le radium, pour le meilleur et pour le pire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudia, S

    1998-12-01

    This digest paper describes how radium became a common constituent of consumer products (medicines, beauty creams, soaps, tooth-pastes, mineral waters etc..) a few years after its discovery. Its use in France was prohibited only in the 1970`s. (J.S.)

  17. Marie and Pierre Curie and radium: history, mystery, and discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould, R F

    1999-09-01

    Commencing with Marie Curie's early life in Poland and the discovery of radium in the rue l'Homond "shed" in Paris in 1898, this paper includes some little known facts. It ends with some unusual uses of and claims for radium, and finally, because Medical Physics is an American journal, details are included of Marie Curie's two visits to the USA.

  18. EVALUATING VARIOUS ADSORBENTS AND MEMBRANES FOR REMOVING RADIUM FROM GROUNDWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies were conducted in Lemont, Ill., to evaluate specific adsorbents and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes for removing radium from groundwater. A radium-selective complexer and barium-sulfate-loaded alumina appeared to have the best potential for low-cost adsorption of ra...

  19. Searches for permanent electric dipole moments in Radium isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Willmann, L.; Jungmann, K.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2010-01-01

    Permanent electric dipole moments are uniquely sensitive to sources of T and P violation in fundamental interactions. In particular radium isotopes offer the largest intrinsic sensitivity. We want to explore the prospects for utilizing the high intense beams from HIE-ISOLDE to boost the statistical sensitivity of search for EDMs in atomic radium.

  20. Radium in baggerspecie afkomstig uit het Rijnmondgebied. Resultaten over 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lembrechts J; Glastra P; Nissan LA; Overwater RMW; LSO

    2002-01-01

    The radium concentration was measured in 25 samples of harbour sludge taken in 2001 from the Rijnmond area (Rotterdam harbours and the Nieuwe Waterweg). High radium levels were found near the former discharge points of the phosphate ore processing plants, confirming the results of previous

  1. Rapid Radiochemical Method for Radium-226 in Building ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Fact Sheet Analysis Purpose: Qualitative analysis Technique: Alpha spectrometry Method Developed for: Radium-226 in building materials Method Selected for: SAM lists this method for qualitative analysis of radium-226 in concrete or brick building materials Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  2. EVALUATING ION EXCHANGE FOR REMOVING RADIUM FROM GROUNDWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article, the second in a series, focuses on the results of bench- and pilot-scale studies of ion exchange processes for radium removal from groundwater in Lemont, Ill. Batch and column studies indicated a very high resin selectivity for radium compared with common cations. E...

  3. Radium in humans: A review of U.S. studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, R.E.

    1994-09-01

    This document was originally conceived as a compilation of activities at Argonne National Laboratory that were directed toward the study of radium in humans. However, it soon became obvious that this was a very limited approach, because such a compilation would include no background on the widespread uses of radium in industry and in the medical profession, nor would it address the early history of the discovery of the hazards of radium. Such an approach would also ignore contributions to the study of radium effects made at other laboratories. This document now addresses these topics, in order to give an overall picture of what might be called the radium era, that period from the early part of this century, when radium was rapidly exploited as a tool and a medication, to the present time, when radium is not generally used and the study of its effects has been terminated. The appendix to this review lists all of the measured radium cases, a total of 2,403 individuals whose records were in the files at the end of 1990. For each case the route of exposure, the dates of exposure, the years of birth and death, the measured body content, the calculated intake and dose, and the cause of death have been listed. 165 refs.

  4. Radium Ra 223 dichloride in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, J Y; Ha, Y S; Kim, I Y

    2013-08-01

    Radium Ra 223 dichloride (Xofigo®, formerly Alpharadin) is one of the representative α-particle-emitting isotopes that delivers radiation with a higher biological effect to a more localized area. Preclinical studies in mouse, rat and canine models have demonstrated that radium Ra 223 dichloride has a definite skeletal affinity and antitumor effect with a relatively low toxicity on bone marrow. More recently, in a large randomized phase III trial (ALSYMPCA), patients with bone metastasis and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) received six cycles of 50 kBq/kg of radium Ra 223 dichloride in 4-week intervals. In these men, radium Ra 223 dichloride improved the median overall survival by 3.6 months when compared to the placebo group. Collectively, these results suggest that radium Ra 223 dichloride is a promising candidate for managing bone metastases in patients with CRPC. Copyright 2013 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  5. Radium-223 in the Treatment of Osteoblastic Metastases: A Critical Clinical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humm, John L. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Sartor, Oliver [Departments of Medicine and Urology, Tulane Cancer Center, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States); Parker, Chris [Department of Clinical Oncology, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom); Bruland, Oyvind S. [Department of Oncology, Norwegian Radium Hospital and Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Macklis, Roger, E-mail: rmmacklis@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals of Cleveland and Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The element radium (Ra) was discovered by the Curies in 1898 and within a decade was in broad scientific testing for the management of several forms of cancer. The compound was known to give rise to a series of both high-energy particulate and penetrating γ-emissions. The latter found an important role in early 20th century brachytherapy applications, but the short-range α-particles seemed much less useful. Although highly cytotoxic when released within a few cell diameters of critical cell nuclei, the dense double-strand break damage was poorly repaired, and concerns regarding treatment-related toxicities and secondary malignancies halted clinical development. Moreover, the most common isotope of Ra has an exceptionally long half-life (>1600 years for {sup 226}Ra) that proved daunting when aiming for a systemic cancer therapy. Fortunately, other radium isotopes have more convenient half-lives while still producing cytotoxic α particles. Radium-223 dichloride has a half-life of 11.4 days, and this isotope was identified as an excellent candidate for radionuclide therapy of cancers metastatic to bone. The calcium-mimetic chemical properties of the radium allowed intravenous infusion with rapid uptake to sites of new bone formation. The highly efficient bone localization suggested a potential therapeutic role for osteoblastic bone metastases, and a series of phase 1, 2, and 3 clinical trials was undertaken to explore this possibility. This series of clinical explorations culminated in the ALSYMPCA trial, an international, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study that accrued 921 symptomatic men with bone-metastatic, castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Results of this trial demonstrated a prolongation of overall survival, and regulatory agencies around the world have now approved this product as a treatment for advanced prostate cancer.

  6. Radium-223 in the treatment of osteoblastic metastases: a critical clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humm, John L; Sartor, Oliver; Parker, Chris; Bruland, Oyvind S; Macklis, Roger

    2015-04-01

    The element radium (Ra) was discovered by the Curies in 1898 and within a decade was in broad scientific testing for the management of several forms of cancer. The compound was known to give rise to a series of both high-energy particulate and penetrating γ-emissions. The latter found an important role in early 20th century brachytherapy applications, but the short-range α-particles seemed much less useful. Although highly cytotoxic when released within a few cell diameters of critical cell nuclei, the dense double-strand break damage was poorly repaired, and concerns regarding treatment-related toxicities and secondary malignancies halted clinical development. Moreover, the most common isotope of Ra has an exceptionally long half-life (>1600 years for (226)Ra) that proved daunting when aiming for a systemic cancer therapy. Fortunately, other radium isotopes have more convenient half-lives while still producing cytotoxic α particles. Radium-223 dichloride has a half-life of 11.4 days, and this isotope was identified as an excellent candidate for radionuclide therapy of cancers metastatic to bone. The calcium-mimetic chemical properties of the radium allowed intravenous infusion with rapid uptake to sites of new bone formation. The highly efficient bone localization suggested a potential therapeutic role for osteoblastic bone metastases, and a series of phase 1, 2, and 3 clinical trials was undertaken to explore this possibility. This series of clinical explorations culminated in the ALSYMPCA trial, an international, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study that accrued 921 symptomatic men with bone-metastatic, castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Results of this trial demonstrated a prolongation of overall survival, and regulatory agencies around the world have now approved this product as a treatment for advanced prostate cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Alpha emitter radium-223 and survival in metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, C; Nilsson, S; Heinrich, D; Helle, S I; O'Sullivan, J M; Fosså, S D; Chodacki, A; Wiechno, P; Logue, J; Seke, M; Widmark, A; Johannessen, D C; Hoskin, P; Bottomley, D; James, N D; Solberg, A; Syndikus, I; Kliment, J; Wedel, S; Boehmer, S; Dall'Oglio, M; Franzén, L; Coleman, R; Vogelzang, N J; O'Bryan-Tear, C G; Staudacher, K; Garcia-Vargas, J; Shan, M; Bruland, Ø S; Sartor, O

    2013-07-18

    Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223), an alpha emitter, selectively targets bone metastases with alpha particles. We assessed the efficacy and safety of radium-223 as compared with placebo, in addition to the best standard of care, in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases. In our phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we randomly assigned 921 patients who had received, were not eligible to receive, or declined docetaxel, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive six injections of radium-223 (at a dose of 50 kBq per kilogram of body weight intravenously) or matching placebo; one injection was administered every 4 weeks. In addition, all patients received the best standard of care. The primary end point was overall survival. The main secondary efficacy end points included time to the first symptomatic skeletal event and various biochemical end points. A prespecified interim analysis, conducted when 314 deaths had occurred, assessed the effect of radium-223 versus placebo on survival. An updated analysis, when 528 deaths had occurred, was performed before crossover from placebo to radium-223. At the interim analysis, which involved 809 patients, radium-223, as compared with placebo, significantly improved overall survival (median, 14.0 months vs. 11.2 months; hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55 to 0.88; two-sided P=0.002). The updated analysis involving 921 patients confirmed the radium-223 survival benefit (median, 14.9 months vs. 11.3 months; hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.83; Pradium-233 as compared with placebo. Radium-223 was associated with low myelosuppression rates and fewer adverse events. In this study, which was terminated for efficacy at the prespecified interim analysis, radium-223 improved overall survival. (Funded by Algeta and Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals; ALSYMPCA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00699751.).

  8. Collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy of radium ions

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the neutron-deficient radium isotopes with high-resolution collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy. Probing the hyperfine structure of the $7{s}\\,^2\\!{S}\\!_{1/2}\\,\\rightarrow\\,7{p}\\,^{2}\\!{P}\\!_{1/2}$ and $7{s}\\,^{2}\\!{S}\\!_{1/2}\\,\\rightarrow\\,7{p}\\,^{2}\\!{P}\\!_{3/2}$ transitions in Ra II will provide atomic-structure measurements that have not been achieved for $^{{A}<208}$Ra. Measurement of the $7{s}\\,^{2}\\!{S}\\!_{1/2}\\,\\rightarrow\\,7{p}\\,^{2}\\!{P}\\!_{3/2}$ transition in $^{{A}<214}$Ra will allow the spectroscopic quadrupole moments to be directly measured for the first time. In addition, the technique will allow tentative spin assignments to be confirmed and the magnetic dipole moments measured for $^{\\textit{A}<208}$Ra. Measurement of the hyperfine structure (in particular the isotope shifts) of the neutron-deficient radium will provide information to further constrain the nuclear models away from the N=126 shell closure.

  9. Radium-223 chloride: Extending life in prostate cancer patients by treating bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissing, Michel D; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B; van der Pluijm, Gabri; Gelderblom, Hans

    2013-11-01

    The treatment scope for patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is rapidly expanding. On May 15, 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved radium-223 chloride ((223)RaCl2) for the treatment of mCRPC patients whose metastases are limited to the bones. Radium-223 is an α-emitting alkaline earth metal ion, which, similar to calcium ions, accumulates in the bone. In a phase III study (ALSYMPCA), mCRPC patients with bone metastases received best standard-of-care treatment with placebo or (223)RaCl2. At a prespecified interim analysis, the primary endpoint of median overall survival was significantly extended by 3.6 months in patients treated with radium-223 compared with placebo (P < 0.001). The radioisotope was well tolerated and gave limited bone marrow suppression. (223)RaCl2 is the first bone-targeting antitumor therapy that received FDA approval based on a significant extended median overall survival. Further studies are required to optimize its dosing and to confirm its efficacy and safety in cancer patients.

  10. Radium and radon tracers in aquatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, S. B.

    2012-10-01

    Fourth International Ra-Rn Workshop;Narragansett, Rhode Island, 3-8 June 2012 Radium (Ra) and radon (Rn) are widely recognized as important geochemical tracers in the estimation of dispersion in aquatic environments, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal ocean, water mass residence times, and air-sea and water- sediment exchange. More than 50 scientists, including graduate students and early- career scientists from 10 countries, recently participated in a workshop on Ra and Rn in Narragansett, R. I. The workshop was hosted by the University of Rhode Island and sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation Chemical Oceanography Program, ORTEC, Eichrom, and Durridge Company. The workshop provided a forum for presentations and open discussions regarding the latest developments and new directions in the application and measurement of isotopes 223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 222Rn, as well as models used in the application of these tracers to a range of environmental problems.

  11. Radium dial watches, a potentially hazardous legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin K; Crockett, Robin; Denman, Tony; Flowers, Alan; Harris, Richard

    2012-09-15

    This study re-examines the risk to health from radium ((226)Ra) dial watches. Ambient dose equivalent rates have been measured for fifteen pocket watches giving results of up to 30 μSv h(-1) at a distance of 2 cm taken with a series 1000 mini-rad from the front face (arithmetic mean ambient dose equivalent for pocket watches being 13.2 μSv h(-1)). A pocket compass gave rise to a similar ambient dose equivalent rate, of 20 μSv h(-1), to the pocket watches, with its cover open. Eighteen wristwatches have also been assessed, but their dose rates are generally much lower (the arithmetic mean being 3.0 μSv h(-1)), although the highest ambient dose equivalent rate noted was 20 μSv h(-1). A phantom experiment using a TLD suggested an effective dose equivalent of 2.2 mSv/y from a 1 μCi (37 kBq) radium dial worn for 16 h/day throughout the year (dose rate 0.375 μSv h(-1)). For this condition we estimated maximum skin dose for our pocket watches as 16 mSv per year, with effective doses of 5.1 mSv and 1.169 mSv when worn in vest and trouser pockets respectively. This assumes exposure from the back of the watch which is generally around 60-67% of that from the front. The maximum skin dose from a wristwatch was 14 mSv, with 4.2 mSv effective dose in vest pocket. Radium ((226)Ra) decays to the radioactive gas radon ((222)Rn), and atmospheric radon concentration measurements taken around a pocket watch in a small sealed glass sphere recorded 18,728 B qm(-3). All watches were placed in a room with a RAD7 real-time radon detector. Radon concentration average was 259±9 Bq m(-3) over 16 h, compared to background average over 24h of 1.02 Bq m(-3). Over 6 weeks highs of the order of 2000 Bq m(-3) were routinely recorded when the heating/ventilation system in the room was operating at reduced rates, peaking at over 3000 Bq m(-3) on several occasions. Estimates of the activity of (226)Ra in the watches ranged from 0.063 to 1.063 μCi (2.31 to 39.31 kBq) for pocket watches and

  12. Comparison of radium-228 determination in water among Australian laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Atun; Cook, Megan; Cutmore, Brodie; Evans, Fiona; Fierro, Daniela; Gedz, Alicea; Harrison, Jennifer J; Loosz, Tom; Medley, Peter; Mokhber-Shahin, Lida; Mullins, Sarah; Sdraulig, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    The National Health and Medical Research Council and Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council of Australia developed the current Australian Drinking Water Guidelines which recommend an annual radiation dose value of 1 mSv year-1. One of the potential major contributors to the radiation dose from drinking water is radium-228, a naturally occurring radionuclide arising from the thorium decay series. Various methods of analysing for radium-228 in water have been established and adapted by analytical radiochemistry laboratories. Seven laboratories in Australia participated in analysing radium-228 spiked water samples with activity concentrations ranging from 6 mBq L-1 to 20 Bq L-1. The aim of the exercise was to compare and evaluate radium-228 results reported by the participating laboratories, the methods used and the detection limits. This paper presents the outcome of the exercise. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Some scientific landmarks of the MIT radium toxicity studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maletskos, C.J. [Constantine Maletskos, Gloucester, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Until the recent forced termination of the studies on radium toxicity, more than six decades of investigation and research have been devoted to them. These studies involve {approximately}2400 subjects who were exposed to long-term internally deposited radium [high linear energy transfer (LET)], whose health status was evaluated in great detail and whose radiation dosimetry was based on measurements of their actual radium body burdens. The quality and usefulness of these studies are, therefore, in sharp contrast to other human radiation-exposure studies that involve instantaneous or somewhat protracted external low-LET exposures and inferred radiation dose, as in the atomic-bomb survivor studies. As a consequence of national news in 1932 concerning the gruesome death of a prominent Pittsburgh businessman and sportsman, Robley D. Evans became involved with radium toxicity, and its study became an important project when he joined the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology physics department and set up the interdisciplinary Radioactivity Center.

  14. Lead-Radium Activity Ratios From Otoliths of Regional Bottomfishes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains lead-radium dating of opakapaka (Pristipomoides filamentosus) otoliths from recent and archival collections (1987-2009).

  15. 42 CFR 37.42 - Approval of roentgenographic facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Roentgenology, Radium Therapy and Nuclear Medicine,” Vol. 117, No. 4, April 1973. (c) Each roentgenographic..., sample roentgenograms, or a Roentgenographic Facility Document for quality control purposes. Approvals... program when they demonstrate their ability to make high quality diagnostic chest roentgenograms by...

  16. An exploratory analysis of alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and prostate-specific antigen dynamics in the phase 3 ALSYMPCA trial with radium-223

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R. E.; Nilsson, S.; Heinrich, D.; Helle, S. I.; O’Sullivan, J. M.; Vogelzang, N. J.; Bruland, Ø.; Kobina, S.; Wilhelm, S.; Xu, L.; Shan, M.; Kattan, M. W.; Parker, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Baseline clinical variables are prognostic for overall survival (OS) in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Their prognostic and predictive value with agents targeting bone metastases, such as radium-223, is not established. Patients and methods The radium-223 ALSYMPCA trial enrolled patients with CRPC and symptomatic bone metastases. Prognostic potential of baseline variables was assessed using Cox models. Percentage changes in biomarker levels from baseline were evaluated during the trial period; changes from baseline to week 12 were evaluated for association with OS and surrogacy. Results Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, total alkaline phosphatase (tALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at baseline were associated with OS (P ≤ 0.0003) in the intent-to-treat population (radium-223, N = 614; placebo, N = 307). tALP declined from baseline within 4 weeks after beginning radium-223, by week 12 declining in 87% of radium-223 and 23% of placebo patients (P radium-223 and 37.2% increase with placebo. Radium-223 patients with tALP decline from baseline to week 12 (confirmed ≥3 weeks from week 12) had 55% lower risk of death (hazard ratio = 0.45; 95% CI 0.34–0.61) versus those with no confirmed tALP decline. Proportional treatment effect (PTE) values for tALP, LDH, and PSA changes from baseline at week 12 as OS surrogate markers were 0.34 (95% CI: 0–0.746), 0.07 (95% CI: 0–0.211), and 0 (95% CI: 0–0.082), respectively. Conclusions Significant tALP declines (versus placebo) occurred as early as 4 weeks after beginning radium-223 therapy. tALP or LDH declines at 12 weeks correlated with longer OS, but did not meet statistical surrogacy requirements. Dynamic changes in tALP and LDH during radium-223 treatments may be useful to monitor, but do not serve as surrogates for survival. PMID:28453701

  17. Radium single-ion optical clock

    CERN Document Server

    Versolato, O O; Jungmann, K; Timmermans, R G E; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W

    2011-01-01

    We explore the potential of the electric quadrupole transitions $7s\\,^2S_{1/2}$ - $6d\\,^2D_{3/2}$, $6d\\,^2D_{5/2}$ in radium isotopes as single-ion optical frequency standards. The frequency shifts of the clock transitions due to external fields and the corresponding uncertainties are calculated. Several competitive $^A$Ra$^+$ candidates with $A=$ 223 - 229 are identified. In particular, we show that the transition $7s\\,^2S_{1/2}\\,(F=2,m_F=0)$ - $6d\\,^2D_{3/2}\\,(F=0,m_F=0)$ at 828 nm in $^{223}$Ra$^+$, with no linear Zeeman and electric quadrupole shifts, stands out as a relatively simple case, which could be exploited as a compact, robust, and low-cost atomic clock operating at a fractional frequency uncertainty of $10^{-17}$. With more experimental effort, the $^{223,225,226}$Ra$^+$ clocks could be pushed to a projected performance reaching the $10^{-18}$ level.

  18. [Roentgenological semiotics of sarcoidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpigorev, S A; Stashuk, G A; Dubrova, S E

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize semiotics of X-ray and CT-observable manifestations of intrathoracic sarcoidosis and clarify the role of conventional X-ray examination and CT (including high resolution CT) in the diagnosis of this disease and its complications. Also analysed are changes in pulmonary parenchyma compared with those detected in morphological studies.

  19. EPA Method 903.1: Radium-226 in Drinking Water Radon Emanation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAM lists this method to provide for the analysis of drinking water samples that contain Radium-226, and is based on the emanation and scintillation counting of Radon-222, the immediate decay product of Radium-226.

  20. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-01-01

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

  1. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-12-31

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

  2. Principal aquifers can contribute radium to sources of drinking water under certain geochemical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Zoltan; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Hancock, Tracy Connell

    2012-01-01

    What are the most important factors affecting dissolved radium concentrations in principal aquifers used for drinking water in the United States? Study results reveal where radium was detected and how rock type and chemical processes control radium occurrence. Knowledge of the geochemical conditions may help water-resource managers anticipate where radium may be elevated in groundwater and minimize exposure to radium, which contributes to cancer risk. Summary of Major Findings: * Concentrations of radium in principal aquifers used for drinking water throughout the United States generally were below 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for combined radium - radium-226 (Ra-226) plus radium-228 (Ra-228) - in public water supplies. About 3 percent of sampled wells had combined radium concentrations greater than the MCL. * Elevated concentrations of combined radium were more common in groundwater in the eastern and central United States than in other regions of the Nation. About 98 percent of the wells that contained combined radium at concentrations greater than the MCL were east of the High Plains. * The highest concentrations of combined radium were in the Mid-Continent and Ozark Plateau Cambro-Ordovician aquifer system and the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. More than 20 percent of sampled wells in these aquifers had combined radium concentrations that were greater than or equal to the MCL. * Concentrations of Ra-226 correlated with those of Ra-228. Radium-226 and Ra-228 occur most frequently together in unconsolidated sand aquifers, and their presence is strongly linked to groundwater chemistry. * Three common geochemical factors are associated with the highest radium concentrations in groundwater: (1) oxygen-poor water, (2) acidic conditions (low pH), and (3) high concentrations of dissolved solids.

  3. Effect of duration of exposure to RaCl{sub 2} and a radium apatite from freshwater mussels on intestinal transport and bone deposition of radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domel, R.U. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organsiation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Environment Division; Beal, A.M. [University of New South Wales, NSW (Australia). Biological Science

    1997-10-01

    Natural leaching of uranium ore bodies can result in {sup 226}Ra pollution of adjacent waterways and consequent incorporation of radium into the food chain. Mining has the potential to augment this effect. In the Magela flood plain, Northern Territory, the freshwater mussel (Velesunio angasi) concentrates radium in its tissues as a phosphate compound. The availability of mussel radium for uptake and tissue incorporation was assessed relative to radium chloride using rats. The results were compared for jejunal transport (in situ in vivo, ligated segment using anaesthetised animals) and feed trial experiments. In addition, the influence of age and duration of dosage (hours in the case of the jejunal transport and weeks in the feed trial studies) were investigated. Mussel radium transport across the jejunum of adults and juveniles (<0.3%) was very small when compared to radium chloride (50% injected dose). The amount of mussel radium available for intestinal uptake in the feed trials was also low (<0.5%) but significant when compared to the uptake of radium chloride (< 1.5%). Incorporation of mussel radium into bone was less than that of radium chloride (p=0.0001) for both adults and juveniles. Extrapolation of the data from the animal model to humans suggests that eating these mussels carries with it only a low risk of exceeding the Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) set for members of the public, even in juveniles 18 refs., 5 figs.

  4. 40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for the extraction of uranium, radium and vanadium. Only vanadium byproduct production from uranium... uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. 440.30 Section 440.30 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.30 Applicability; description of the...

  5. Advisory Report on the Health Effects of Radium 226 in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Inst. for Environmental Quality, Chicago.

    Examined are the health effects of law concentrations of the radioactive isotope Radium-226 in drinking water. Contents include discussions of the physical properties of radium, biological and metabolic effects, health effects of exposure to Radium-226, and populations at risk. Appendices provide more technical information including equations,…

  6. 40 CFR 61.207 - Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radium-226 sampling and measurement... for Radon Emissions From Phosphogypsum Stacks § 61.207 Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures... § 61.206, the owner or operator of a phosphogypsum stack shall measure the average radium-226...

  7. RADIUM REMOVAL FROM WATER MANGANESE DIOXIDE ADSORP- TION AND DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FILTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study reveals that radium adsorption onto precipitated MnO2 followed by diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration is a very effective treatment process for radium-contaminated water. Radium removals in the range of 80% to 97% were observed for performed MnO2 feed concentrations of 0...

  8. Application of zeolites for radium removal from mine water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chałupnik, Stanisław; Franus, Wojciech; Wysocka, Małgorzata; Gzyl, Grzegorz

    2013-11-01

    For removal of radium from saline waters in Upper Silesian mines, several methods of purification have been developed. The most efficient one is based on application of barium chloride, which was implemented in full technical scale in two Polish coal mines several years ago. Very good results of purification have been achieved-the removal efficiency exceeding 95% of the initial activity. Another possibility for the removal of different ions from salty waters and brines is the application of zeolites. We found that technique as a very promising method for removal of not only radium isotopes from mine waters but also other ions (barium, iron, manganese). Treatment of several various water samples has been done to assess the removal efficiency for natural radionuclides. Preliminary results show very good effects for radium isotopes as well as for barium ions. In the paper, a short description of laboratory results of the purification of mine waters with application of synthetic zeolites is presented.

  9. 42 CFR 410.35 - X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.35 X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope. Medicare Part B pays for X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services, including radium therapy and...

  10. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M., E-mail: thoennessen@nscl.msu.edu

    2013-09-15

    Thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is described. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  11. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, C

    2012-01-01

    Currently, thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  12. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M.

    2013-09-01

    Thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is described. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  13. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR A CANDIDATE BUILDING MATERIALS RADIUM STANDARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes the technical basis for a candidate building materials radium standard. It contains the standard and a summary of the technical basis for the standard. (NOTE: The Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP), sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and the...

  14. Searches for permanent electric dipole moments in Radium isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willmann, L.; Jungmann, K.; Wilschut, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Permanent electric dipole moments are uniquely sensitive to sources of T and P violation in fundamental interactions. In particular radium isotopes offer the largest intrinsic sensitivity. We want to explore the prospects for utilizing the high intense beams from HIE-ISOLDE to boost the statistical

  15. Evaluation of bone metastases by 18F-choline PET/CT in a patient with castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with radium-223.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzi, Piera; Baiocco, Cinzia; Genovese, Sabrina; Trevisan, Antonella; Sirotova, Zuzana; Poti, Carlo

    2017-02-03

    To date, bone metastases remain the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Therefore, the combination of accurate early detection of bony disease and effective treatment of these lesions is crucial in the management of mCRPC patients, but clinical trials specifically designed to test novel approaches are currently lacking. This report describes the case of a 74-year-old male with bone mCRPC and symptomatic and biochemical progression, who underwent radium-223 therapy, following previous treatment failure. 18F-choline positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) was used to assess changes in skeletal tumor activity before and after radium-223. Changes in prostate-specific antigen and alkaline phosphatase were also determined. 18F-choline PET/CT showed that treatment with radium-223 was able to effectively reduce bone metastatic disease, and this was accompanied by an excellent metabolic response. In clinical practice, metabolic assessment of lesions by 18F-choline PET/CT following radium-223 seems a valid approach to monitor treatment response. Until results from clinical trials become available, reporting of single cases relating to data on the use of this technique remains paramount.

  16. Hematologic Safety of Radium-223 Dichloride: Baseline Prognostic Factors Associated With Myelosuppression in the ALSYMPCA Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Coleman, Robert E; Michalski, Jeff M; Nilsson, Sten; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Parker, Christopher; Widmark, Anders; Thuresson, Marcus; Xu, Lei; Germino, Joseph; Sartor, Oliver

    2017-02-01

    Myelosuppression is common in patients with progressive castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases. Radium-223 prolongs overall survival in these patients but may cause myelosuppression; understanding risk factors will improve clinical decision making. We describe hematologic safety of radium-223 in ALSYMPCA and post hoc analyses identifying patients at increased risk for hematologic toxicity. Hematologic parameters and adverse events were analyzed. Multivariate analyses assessing baseline risk factors for hematologic toxicities were performed separately for radium-223 and placebo patients. Nine hundred one patients received radium-223 (n = 600) or placebo (n = 301); 65% of radium-223 and 48% of placebo patients had the full 6 cycles. Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia was more common in radium-223 versus placebo patients (6% vs. 2%). Logistic regression analyses identified significant baseline predictors for grade 2-4 hematologic toxicities related to radium-223 treatment: extent of disease (6-20 vs. radium-223 injections received (4-6 vs. 1-3). Radium-223 has a favorable safety profile with a low myelosuppression incidence. Understanding baseline factors associated with myelosuppression may assist clinicians in avoiding severe myelosuppression events with radium-223. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk and effect of radium-224 therapy of ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, E.; Wick, R.R.

    1983-07-04

    A total of 1426 patients suffering from Bechterew's disease who had formerly been treated with 224-Ra (up to 30 years ago), were included in an epidemiological study. The mean skeletal alpha dose amounted to 65 rad, the mean observation period was 16 years. Among the 363 mortalities recorded 3 were due to tumours in the skeletal region; of these, 2 were observed in the haemopoietic system. The types of the tumours detected deserve to be given particular attention: whereas osteosarcomas were almost the only tumours observed in a group of patients studied by Spiess, who had been treated with higher doses, no such tumour was revealed in the study population investigated here. Among the 3 tumours seen in this study group 2 were detected in the haemopoietic system as compared to 1 out of 55 tumours observed by Spiess. In contrast to this finding there was a remarkably high incidence of tumours of haemopoietic organs among the victims of Hiroshima. These results show that the relative benefits and disadvantages of the drug 224-Ra once again must be carefully considered. None of the chemical agents used in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis is free from side-effects. A comparison of the latter with the risks involved in the use of 224-Ra leads to the conclusion that - according to the experience gained so far - 224-Ra is very useful in the treatment of this disease, if there is an absolute indication.

  18. Occurrence of Radium-224, Radium-226 and Radium-228 in Water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel Aquifers, the Englishtown Aquifer System, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands, Southwestern and South-Central New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    dePaul, Vincent T.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is the first regionally focused study of the presence of natural radioactivity in water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands. Geologic materials composing the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands previously have been reported to contain radioactive (uranium-enriched) phosphatic strata, which is common in deposits from some moderate-depth coastal marine environments. The decay of uranium and thorium gives rise to natural radioactivity and numerous radioactive progeny, including isotopes of radium. Naturally occurring radioactive isotopes, especially those of radium, are of concern because radium is a known human carcinogen and ingestion (especially in water used for drinking) can present appreciable health risks. A regional network in southwestern and south-central New Jersey of 39 wells completed in the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, the Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands was sampled for determination of gross alpha-particle activity; concentrations of radium radionuclides, major ions, and selected trace elements; and physical properties. Concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 were determined for water from 28 of the 39 wells, whereas gross alpha-particle activity was determined for all 39. The alpha spectroscopic technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-224, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 2.7 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5pCi/L, and of radium-226, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.2 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5 pCi/L. The beta-counting technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-228. The concentration of radium-228 ranged from less than 0.5 to 4.3 pCi/L with a median of less than 0.5. Radium-228, when quantifiable, had the greatest concentration of the three radium

  19. Late effects of radium-224 injected in children and adults survey and comment of a paediatrician

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiess, H. [Poliklinik Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Radium-224 (Ra-224) was already used as medicament before world war I; but because of serious side effects soon abandoned. It was revived as a remedy for tuberculosis and ankylosing spondylitis after world war II by a country doctor called Troch, supported by the Insurance Company ''Braunschweiger Landesversicherungsanstalt'' and over enthusiastic press reports. The 'new' medicine called 'Peteosthor' was a mixture of Ra-224 with traces of the red dye cosine and platinsol. The propaganda in favour of this therapy was so strong, that the government of Lower Saxony asked the University of Goettingen and others to examine this new 'wonderdrug'. Dr. Troch demanded that it should be used only under his personal supervision. As youngest assistent at the university childrens hospital of the University Goettingen I was sent in 1948 to this hospital in Hildesheim to examine 'Peteosthor'. (orig.)

  20. The Radium Terrors. Science Fiction and Radioactivity before the Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the collective imagination was fascinated and terrified by the discovery of radium. A scientific imagery sprang up around radioactivity and was disseminated by public lectures and newspaper articles discussing the ambiguous power of this strange substance. It was claimed that radium could be used to treat cholera, typhus and tuberculosis, but at the same time there were warnings that it could be used for military purposes. The media and the scientists themselves employed a rich vocabulary influenced by religion, alchemy and magic. The ambivalent power of radioactive elements exerted a great influence on science fiction novelists. This paper will examine some significant works published in Europe, America and Russia during the first decades of the 20th century and their role in the creation of the complex imagery of radioactivity that seized the public imagination long before the invention of the atomic bomb.

  1. Calculation of energy levels and transition amplitudes for barium and radium

    OpenAIRE

    Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2006-01-01

    The radium atom is a promising system for studying parity and time invariance violating weak interactions. However, available experimental spectroscopic data for radium is insufficient for designing an optimal experimental setup. We calculate the energy levels and transition amplitudes for radium states of significant interest. Forty states corresponding to all possible configurations consisting of the $7s$, $7p$ and $6d$ single-electron states as well as the states of the $7s8s$, $7s8p$ and ...

  2. Compilation of spectroscopic data of Radium (Ra I and Ra II)

    OpenAIRE

    Dammalapati, U.; Jungmann, K.; Willmann, L.

    2016-01-01

    Energy levels, wavelengths, lifetimes and hyperfine structure constants for the isotopes of the first and second spectra of radium, Ra I and Ra II have been compiled. Wavelengths and wave numbers are tabulated for 226Ra and for other Ra isotopes. Isotope shifts and hyperfine structure constants of even and odd-A isotopes of neutral radium atom and singly ionized radium are included. Experimental lifetimes of the states for both neutral and ionic Ra are also added, where available. The informa...

  3. A Retrospective Analysis of the First 41 mCRPC Patients with Bone Pain Treated with Radium-223 at the National Institute of Oncology in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küronya, Zs; Sinkovics, I; Ágoston, P; Bíró, K; Bodrogi, I; Böde, I; Dank, M; Gyergyay, F; Vajdics, T; Kolonics, Zs; Nagyiványi, K; Rúzsa, Á; Géczi, L

    2017-10-01

    Radium-223 dichloride is an alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical which significantly prolongs overall survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and symptomatic bone metastases. This was a retrospective analysis of the efficacy and safety of Radium-223 in the first 41 patients treated at a single center in Hungary. Radium-223 was given at a dose of 50 kBq/kg intravenously every 4 weeks for up to 6 cycles. Between 23rd July 2014 and 23rd February 2016, 41 patients were treated. Patient demographics, laboratory values, treatment outcomes and adverse events were collected from medical records. The mean age was 72.2 years (SD: 7.1). 24 patients received Radium-223 as first-line treatment (58%), 7 patients as second (17%), 3 as third (7.3%), 6 as (14.6%), and 1 as fifth-line therapy (2.4%). The mean number of cycles administered was 5.5 (SD: 1.1). The most common side effects were anemia (32% grade 1-3), nausea (28%, grade 1), diarrhea (4%, grade 2), thrombocytopenia (4%, grade 3). The mean baseline PSA level was 307.2 ng/ml (SD: 525.7), which increased to a mean value of 728.5 ng/ml (SD: 1277) by the end of treatment. The baseline mean ALP of 521.1 U/L (SD: 728) decreased to 245.1 U/L (SD: 283.5). The majority of patients experienced a decrease (37%) or complete cessation (43%) of bone pain intensity. In our symptomatic prostate cancer patient population, Radium-223 proved to be efficient in terms of pain relief, with moderate side effects. No PSA response was detected, while alkaline phosphatase levels significantly decreased.

  4. Internal emitter limits for iodine, radium and radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1984-08-15

    This paper identifies some of the issues which arise in the consideration of the derivation of new limits on exposure to internal emitters. Basic and secondary radiation protection limits are discussed. Terms are defined and applied to the limitation of risk from stochastic effects. Non-stochastic data for specific internal emitters (/sup 131/I and the radium isotopes) are presented. Emphasis is placed on the quantitative aspects of the limit setting problem. 65 references, 2 figures, 12 tables.

  5. Radium and radium-daughter nuclides in carbonates: a brief overview of strategies for determining chronologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Sabine, E-mail: s.schmidt@epoc.u-bordeaux1.f [CNRS, UMR5805 EPOC, Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Universite de Bordeaux, OASU, UMR5805 EPOC, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Cochran, J. Kirk [Marine Sciences Research Center, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-5000 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Radium isotopes have been used extensively to trace the movement of groundwater as well as oceanic water masses, but these radionuclides (and their daughters) are also useful chronometers for the determination of the time scales of other Earth and environmental processes. The purpose of this overview is to present the application of Ra and Ra daughters in the dating of carbonates. We show that the choice of dating method (decay of excess radionuclide or ingrowth of daughter) depends strongly on the parent/daughter activity ratios in the water in which the carbonate was precipitated. Thus freshly precipitated carbonates uniformly show excesses of {sup 226}Ra relative to its parent {sup 230}Th, and {sup 226}Ra decay can provide ages of carbonates over Holocene time scales. In contrast, carbonates are precipitated in waters of greatly varying {sup 210}Pb/{sup 226}Ra. Corals, deep-sea hydrothermal vent clams and the shelled cephalopod Nautilus live in waters with significant dissolved {sup 210}Pb and all show excesses of {sup 210}Pb in their carbonate. Bivalve molluscs from nearshore and coastal waters, and carbonates deposited from groundwater environments (e.g. travertines) in which {sup 210}Pb is efficiently scavenged from solution, show deficiencies of {sup 210}Pb relative to {sup 226}Ra. In contrast, fish otoliths strongly discriminate against {sup 210}Pb regardless of the environment in which the fish lives. Deficiencies of {sup 228}Th relative to {sup 228}Ra are common in all carbonates. Useful time ranges for the {sup 210}Pb/{sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th/{sup 228}Ra chronometers are {approx}100 y and {approx}10 y, respectively.

  6. Radium and radium-daughter nuclides in carbonates: a brief overview of strategies for determining chronologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sabine; Cochran, J Kirk

    2010-07-01

    Radium isotopes have been used extensively to trace the movement of groundwater as well as oceanic water masses, but these radionuclides (and their daughters) are also useful chronometers for the determination of the time scales of other Earth and environmental processes. The purpose of this overview is to present the application of Ra and Ra daughters in the dating of carbonates. We show that the choice of dating method (decay of excess radionuclide or ingrowth of daughter) depends strongly on the parent/daughter activity ratios in the water in which the carbonate was precipitated. Thus freshly precipitated carbonates uniformly show excesses of 226Ra relative to its parent 230Th, and 226Ra decay can provide ages of carbonates over Holocene time scales. In contrast, carbonates are precipitated in waters of greatly varying 210Pb/226Ra. Corals, deep-sea hydrothermal vent clams and the shelled cephalopod Nautilus live in waters with significant dissolved 210Pb and all show excesses of 210Pb in their carbonate. Bivalve molluscs from nearshore and coastal waters, and carbonates deposited from groundwater environments (e.g. travertines) in which 210Pb is efficiently scavenged from solution, show deficiencies of 210Pb relative to 226Ra. In contrast, fish otoliths strongly discriminate against 210Pb regardless of the environment in which the fish lives. Deficiencies of 228Th relative to 228Ra are common in all carbonates. Useful time ranges for the 210Pb/226Ra and 228Th/228Ra chronometers are approximately 100 y and approximately 10 y, respectively. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Elevated levels of radium-226 and radium-228 in marine sediments of the Norwegian Trench ("Norskrenna") and Skagerrak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, M; Lepland, Aivo

    2012-10-01

    Oil and gas extraction activities discharge waters bearing radium isotopes which may potentially be transported to locations distant from the discharge point. Sediment cores from the Norwegian Trench and Skagerrak, potential sinks for North Sea discharges, were analyzed for the contents of these isotopes. All cores were such that data could be obtained from periods prior to and during extensive operations in the North Sea. Results indicate elevated levels of radium isotopes in upper sedimentary layers when compared to data for the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. Although diagenetic processes involving manganese cycling may be responsible for these enrichments, the data support previous work indicating a possible influence of North Sea discharges on sediments of the area. The results highlight the need for further work on elaborating background levels of these isotopes in the North Sea and related areas such that possible impacts of these discharges can be properly evaluated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radium-223 dichloride: a novel treatment option for castration-resistant prostate cancer patients with symptomatic bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Shane; Horton, Evan R

    2015-04-01

    To review and evaluate the clinical trial efficacy and safety of radium 223 ((223)Ra) along with its place in therapy in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). A literature search in PubMed/MEDLINE (up to October 2014) was performed using various combinations of the terms radium, hormone-refractory prostate cancer, and castration-resistant prostate cancer. The New Drug Application Medical, Pharmacology, and Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmaceutics Reviews for radium (223)Ra dichloride were also utilized. The bibliographies of articles were reviewed to identify additional references. Phase 1, 2, and 3 studies that assessed the safety and/or efficacy of (223)Ra in patients with CRPC were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles with clinically relevant information were reviewed for background information. In May 2013, the Food and Drug Administration approved intravenous use of (223)Ra for the treatment of patients with CRPC, symptomatic bone metastases, and no known visceral metastatic disease. In a phase 3 study comparing (223)Ra and the best standard of care (SOC) versus the best SOC plus placebo, (223)Ra was shown to increase survival. The most commonly seen adverse drug reactions and hematological laboratory abnormalities with (223)Ra include nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, peripheral edema, anemia, lymphocytopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. (223)Ra is a first-in-class α-particle-emitting radioactive agent that is first-line therapy, providing an extra option for men suffering from CRPC with symptomatic bone metastases and no known visceral metastases. (223)Ra has also been shown to be relatively well tolerated when up to 6 injections are given. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether (223)Ra is safe and effective for more than 6 doses and if it can be used concomitantly with chemotherapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Enhancing radium solubilization in soils by citrate, EDTA, and EDDS chelating amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, C; Lozano, J C; Blanco Rodríguez, P; Tomé, F Vera

    2013-04-15

    The effect of three chelating agents (citrate, EDTA, and EDDS) on the solubilization of radium from a granitic soil was studied systematically, considering different soil pH values, chelating agent concentrations, and leaching times. For all the chelating agents tested, the amount of radium leached proved to be strongly dependent on the pH of the substrate: only for acidic conditions did the amount of radium released increase significantly relative to the controls. Under the best conditions, the radium released from the amended soil was greater by factors of 20 in the case of citrate, 18 for EDTA, and 14 for EDDS. The greatest improvement in the release of radium was obtained for the citrate amendment at the highest concentration tested (50 mmol kg(-1)). A slightly lower amount of radium was leached with EDTA at 5 mmol kg(-1) soil, but the solubilization over time was very different from that observed with citrate or EDDS. With EDTA, a maximum in radium leaching was reached on the first day after amendment, while with citrate, the maximum was attained on the fourth day. With EDDS, radium leaching increased slightly but steadily with time (until the sixth day), but the net effect for the period tested was the lowest of the three reagents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a..., americium-241 or radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources: (1) Any person in a non...

  11. Emerging role of Radium-223 in the growing therapeutic armamentarium of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciotto, Maria; Franchina, Tindara; Russo, Alessandro; Ricciardi, Giuseppina Rosaria Rita; Provazza, Giusy; Sava, Serena; Baldari, Sergio; Caffo, Orazio; Adamo, Vincenzo

    2017-06-01

    During the last few years, the therapeutic armamentarium of castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) has been enriched with the introduction of new effective therapies with proved survival benefit and quality of life gain, including cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide, and Radium-223. Areas covered: Bone metastases represent a substantial cause of morbidity in mCRPC with a high rate of related skeletal events (SREs). In case of multifocal pain due to diffuse osteoblastic metastases, treatment with bone-targeting radiopharmaceutical agents can provide palliation from pain. Radium-223, a calcium-mimetic, is the first α-particle emitting radiopharmaceutical that prolonged overall survival, delayed symptomatic skeletal events and improved quality of life in mCRPC. Expert opinion: In this therapeutic scenario, no clear evidences support the best way to sequence these available agents and there is an urgent need for prospective studies to define it. 223Ra is a firmly established therapeutic option in CRPC with symptomatic bone metastases and no visceral/bulky nodal involvement, with an undeniable advantage over new hormonal agents, given its peculiar mechanism of action. Current ongoing randomized clinical trials will clarify the optimal use of this effective therapy in the therapeutic armamentarium of CRPC either alone or combined with other new approved agents and whether there is a role in patients with asymptomatic disease.

  12. Use of carriers for to electrodeposited radium 226; Utilizacion de portadores para electrodepositar radio 226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe, J.L

    1991-10-15

    The form of the energy distribution of a monoenergetic alpha particle starting from some emitting source of these particles, it depends on the quantity of material that its cross before being detected. Some authors deposit to the radium-226 by means of direct evaporation of the solution on metallic supports, on millipore paper and by electrodeposition. Some other ones place the radium solution in scintillation liquid, to quantify it by this technique. The objective of the present work is using carriers with the same oxidation state of the radium, that is to say of 2{sup +}, for treating to be electrodeposited to the radium-226 with the biggest possible percentage for later use the alpha spectroscopy technique to quantify it. The carriers that have been used until its they are barium and zinc in form of barium chloride, zinc nitrate and zinc sulfate. The first results indicate that with the zinc solution a yield of 40% of electrodeposited radium has been reached. (Author)

  13. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, R.A.; Al-Hwaiti, M. S.; Budahn, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived 226Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (??SD) of 226Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ?? 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (< 10%) of 226Ra in the finer (< 53 ??m) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of 226Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the 226Ra. 226Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (< 10 ??m) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles. ?? 2010 US Government.

  14. Mad on radium New Zealand in the atomic age

    CERN Document Server

    Priestley, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Although New Zealander Lord Rutherford was the first to split the atom, the country has since been known around the world for its nuclear-free stance. In this engaging and accessible book, an alternative history is revealed of ""nuclear New Zealand""-when there was much enthusiasm for nuclear science and technology. From the first users of X-rays and radium in medicine to the plans for a nuclear power station on the Kaipara Harbour, this account uncovers the long and rich history of New Zealanders' engagement with the nuclear world and the roots

  15. Production of short lived radioactive beams of radium

    CERN Document Server

    Shidling, P D; van der Hoek, D J; Jungmann, K; Kruithof, W; Onderwater, C J G; Sohani, M; Versolato, O O; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W

    2009-01-01

    Short lived $^{212,213,214}$Ra isotopes have been produced at the TRI$\\mu$P facility in inverse kinematics via the fusion-evaporation reaction $^{206}$Pb+$^{12}$C at 8 MeV/u. Isotopes are separated from other reaction products online using the TRI$\\mu$P magnetic separator. The energetic radium (Ra) isotopes at the exit of the separator were converted into low energy ions with a thermal ionizer. Ra isotopes have been identified by observing their $\\alpha$ decay and life times.

  16. The radium legacy: Contaminated land and the committed effective dose from the ingestion of radium contaminated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, A N; Dale, P; Copplestone, D; Bradley, S; Ewen, H; McGuire, C; Scott, E M

    2013-09-01

    The manufacture and use of radium in the early to mid-20th century within industrial, medicinal and recreational products have resulted in a large number of contaminated sites across a number of countries with notable examples in the USA and Europe. These sites, represent a significant number of unregulated sources of potential radiological exposure that have collectively and hitherto not been well characterised. In 2007, the Radioactive Contaminated Land (RCL) Regulations came into force in the UK, providing the statutory guidance for regulators to classify and deal with RCL. Here we report on results derived from digestion experiments to estimate committed effective dose, a key aspect of the RCL Regulations, from the ingestion of radium contaminated sources that can be found in the environment. This case study includes particles, clinker and artefacts that arise from past military activities on a site that was once an airfield at Dalgety Bay on the Firth of Forth, UK. Since 2011 the number of radium contaminated finds has increased by one order of magnitude on the foreshore areas of Dalgety Bay. The increase in finds may in large part be attributed to a change in monitoring practice. A subsample of sixty sources was selected, on the basis of their activity and dimensions, and subjected to digestion in simulated stomach and lower intestine solutions. The study demonstrated that more radium-226 ((226)Ra) and lead-210 ((210)Pb; driven by Polonium solubility) are dissolved from sources in artificial 'stomach' solutions compared with 'lower intestine' solutions. The combined 'gut' solubility for (226)Ra and apparent (210)Pb varied from less than 1% to up to 35% ICRP 72 conversion factors were used to convert the activities measured in solution to committed effective dose. A little over 10% of the sources tested dissolved sufficient radioactivity to result in 100mSv committed effective dose to an infant. Using the solubility of 35% as a worst case, minimum source

  17. Studies of Stable Octupole Deformations in the Radium Region

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present project is to locate and identify states in the atomic nuclei possessing stable pearshaped octupole deformation. Such states, formally related to the structures known in molecular physics, manifest themselves as families of parity doublets in odd nuclei.\\\\ \\\\ The best possibilities for observing stable octupole deformations are offered in the Ra-region. Both theoretical calculations and experimental indications support such expectations. Such indications are the non-observation of two-phonon octupole vibrational states in the ISOLDE studies of the even-even radium nuclei, and the reversed sign of the decoupling factor of the ground state band in |2|2|5Ra observed in the single-neutron transfer reactions. In order to establish the predicted strong E1 and E3-transitions between the parity doublets in odd nuclei with stable octupole deformations it is proposed to study conversion electrons in odd-mass francium radium and radon isotopes following the @b-decay of francium and astatine. \\...

  18. One-Year Postapproval Clinical Experience with Radium-223 Dichloride in Patients with Metastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadvar, Hossein; Challa, Sudha; Quinn, David I; Conti, Peter S

    2015-06-01

    We report our 1-year postapproval clinical experience with Radium-223 dichloride for treatment of castrate-resistant prostate cancer with bone metastases. The clinical courses of the first 25 patients treated were reviewed retrospectively. Incidence of hematologic, gastrointestinal, and other adverse events were identified, including those events that led to cessation or delay in treatment. Alterations in bone pain and serum alkaline phosphatase and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were evaluated. Six patients received all 6 scheduled doses of Radium-223 dichloride, 2 completed 5 doses, 6 received 4 doses, 2 completed 3 doses, 6 patients had 2 doses, and 3 patients received one dose, for a total of 91 doses administered. Nine patients discontinued treatment after receiving at least one dose due to progressive disease, 5 required blood transfusions, 5 developed gastrointestinal symptoms, 4 reported worsening bone pain, and 1 developed dermatitis. Downward trends in serum alkaline phosphatase and PSA were seen in 11 and 5 patients, respectively. About one-quarter of cohort completed the entire six-dose treatment. Advancing soft tissue disease was the primary reason for cessation of therapy. The adverse events were mild and manageable. A decline in serum alkaline phosphatase was more common than a decline in PSA.

  19. Radium-223 in treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer with skeletal metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Matveev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 90 % of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC have radiologically confirmed skeletal metastases. Traditional treatment methods such as administration of painkillers, external beam therapy, bisphosphonates or denosumab, as well as injections of strontium-89 or samarium-153 radionuclides, have only palliative effect and in some cases can postpone development of skeletal complications. Alpha-emitter radium-223 dichloride (Ra-223; alpharadin previously is currently one of the known drugs with proven effectiveness in relation to increasing overall survival of patients with CRPC. Ra-223 was developed specifically for patients with CRPC and symptomatic skeletal metastases. The drug targets the areas of skeletal tissue remodeling. Ra-223 is the therapy of choice in patients with CRPC and skeletal metastases and without confirmed visceral metastases before and after docetaxel chemotherapy. Chemotherapy after treatment with Ra-223 is a possible and satisfactory tolerable treatment option. Combination of Ra-223 with abiraterone, enzalutamide, or denosumab is, apparently, effective and safe, but further studies are necessary.

  20. Modeling radium distribution in coastal aquifers during sea level changes: The Dead Sea case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiro, Yael; Yechieli, Yoseph; Voss, Clifford I.; Starinsky, Abraham; Weinstein, Yishai

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to studying the behavior of radium isotopes in a coastal aquifer. In order to simulate radium isotope distributions in the dynamic flow field of the Dead Sea aquifer, a multi-species density dependent flow model (SUTRA-MS) was used. Field data show that the activity of 226Ra decreases from 140 to 60 dpm/L upon entering the aquifer from the Dead Sea, and then further decreases linearly due to mixing with Ra-poor fresh water. On the other hand, an increase is observed in the activity of the shorter-lived isotopes (up to 52 dpm/L 224Ra and 31 dpm/L 223Ra), which are relatively low in Dead Sea water (up to 2.5 dpm/L 224Ra and 0.5 dpm/L 223Ra). The activities of the short lived radium isotopes also decrease with decreasing salinity, which is due to the effect of salinity on the adsorption of radium. The relationship between 224Ra and salinity suggests that the adsorption partition coefficient (K) is linearly related to salinity. Simulations of the steady-state conditions, show that the distance where equilibrium activity is attained for each radium isotope is affected by the isotope half-life, K and the groundwater velocity, resulting in a longer distance for the long-lived radium isotopes. K affects the radium distribution in transient conditions, especially that of the long-lived radium isotopes. The transient conditions in the Dead Sea system, with a 1 m/yr lake level drop, together with the radium field data, constrains K to be relatively low (226Ra cannot be explained by adsorption, and it is better explained by removal via coprecipitation, probably with barite or celestine.

  1. Compilation of spectroscopic data of Radium (Ra I and Ra II)

    CERN Document Server

    Dammalapati, U; Willmann, L

    2016-01-01

    Energy levels, wavelengths, lifetimes and hyperfine structure constants for the isotopes of the first and second spectra of radium, Ra I and Ra II have been compiled. Wavelengths and wave numbers are tabulated for 226Ra and for other Ra isotopes. Isotope shifts and hyperfine structure constants of even and odd-A isotopes of neutral radium atom and singly ionized radium are included. Experimental lifetimes of the states for both neutral and ionic Ra are also added, where available. The information is beneficial for present and future experiments aimed at different physics motivations using neutral Ra and singly ionized Ra.

  2. Modelisation and distribution of neutron flux in radium-beryllium source (226Ra-Be)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didi, Abdessamad; Dadouch, Ahmed; Jai, Otman

    2017-09-01

    Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP-6), to analyze the thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluxes, of 3 millicuries of radium-beryllium, for determine the qualitative and quantitative of many materials, using method of neutron activation analysis. Radium-beryllium source of neutron is established to practical work and research in nuclear field. The main objective of this work was to enable us harness the profile flux of radium-beryllium irradiation, this theoretical study permits to discuss the design of the optimal irradiation and performance for increased the facility research and education of nuclear physics.

  3. Gender, Politics, and Radioactivity Research in Interwar Vienna: The Case of the Institute for Radium Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Rentetzi

    2004-01-01

    .... It argues that the politics of Red Vienna and the culture of radioactivity research specific to the Viennese setting encouraged exceptional gender politics within the Institute for Radium Research in the interwar years...

  4. Availability of radium isotopes and heavy metals from scales and tailings of Polish hard coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Karsten; Michalik, Boguslaw; Wiegand, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Radium and heavy metal contaminated tailings and scales resulting from Polish hard coal mining were investigated for their mobilisation potential by using leaching methods. The main focus is set on a three-step extraction procedure proposed by BCR (Bureau Communautaire de Référence, now Standards Measurements and Testing Programme) of the European Union, which was used for investigating the availability of radium isotopes. In addition, the results of a Polish extraction procedure for the heavy metals' water solubility are presented for rough comparison. After a special treatment, the BCR-reagents were measured by gamma-spectrometry to define their radium activity concentrations; the heavy metal content in the water soluble fractions was determined by ICP-AES. The samples were collected at two different sites influenced by the discharge of pit water from hard coal mining. The tailings were taken from a former tailing pond, which now is no longer in use, but the settled material is still present. At another abandoned and meanwhile flooded tailing pond, the scales were scraped from the inside of a discharge tube. The results obtained show that there is different leaching behaviour between the radium isotopes. The tailings being characterised by surface adsorbed radium provide up to 25% of the initial (226)Ra content, (228)Ra is altogether leached up to 15%. The scales comprise stable radiobaryte (Ba[Ra]SO(4)) and can be considered as being unable to provide radium isotopes, since no trace of radium dissolution was observed. The leaching behaviour of heavy metals is similar to that of radium. Mn, Ni and Zn are dissolved by water from the tailings; the scales do not provide any.

  5. Alpha-emitter radium-223 in the management of solid tumors: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Sten

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastases, which are commonly seen in patients with advanced cancers, are a major cause of skeletal events, disability, and death. Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223; Xofigo, formerly Alpharadin), a first-in-class, alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical that selectively targets bone metastases with high-energy short-range alpha-particles, has been approved for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with symptomatic bone metastases and no known visceral metastases. Approval is based on results of the randomized phase III trial Alpharadin in Symptomatic Prostate Cancer (ALSYMPCA), in which radium-223 prolonged overall survival and time to first symptomatic skeletal event versus placebo among patients with CRPC with symptomatic bone metastases and was generally well tolerated, with low myelosuppression rates and manageable gastrointestinal adverse events. Long-term follow-up of the ALSYMPCA safety population showed that the incidence of myelosuppression remained low among patients treated with radium-223, with no additional safety issues of acute myelogenous leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, aplastic anemia, or primary bone cancer within approximately 1.5 years after treatment. The radium-223 overall survival benefit and low toxicity make it an effective, well-tolerated, and novel treatment option for CRPC and symptomatic bone metastases and opens the possibility of exploring radium-223 in the treatment of bone metastases from other cancers. A phase I clinical trial of patients with breast and prostate cancer with skeletal metastases demonstrated that radium-223 was safe and well tolerated at all therapeutically relevant dosages. Moreover, a phase IIa trial of patients with advanced breast cancer and progressive bone-dominant disease demonstrated that radium-223 targeted areas of increased bone metabolism and showed biologic activity.

  6. The fantastic history of radium: when a radioactive element becomes a magic potion; La fantastique histoire du radium: Quand un element radioactif devient potion magique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosset, Jean-Marc; Huynh, Renaud

    2011-04-18

    More than a century after its discovery, radium has never lost its symbolic power: the symbol of scientific perseverance with Marie Curie handling quintals of ore to extract this 'fabulous metal', symbol of radiations efficiency against cancer, symbol of eternity and value - like diamond, and many more. The power of such a symbol led some mercantile minds to make radium a panacea capable to cure any illness. Then between the first and the second World war, radium became a society phenomenon: popular book writers held of the magic name to imagine wild stories and the advertisers started to link it to any type of product (beverages, shoe polish, razor blades, cigarettes, cheese, condoms..). This book relates the story of this symbol over more than a century, with its successes, its excesses and sometimes its dramas. (J.S.)

  7. Radium variability produced by shelf-water transport and mixing in the western Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David F.

    1984-12-01

    — 226Ra and 228Ra exhibit significant temporal and spatial variability in the near-surface western Gulf of Mexico. Concentrations of both isotopes during March 1976 were on the order of 22 to 26% greater than those observed during February 1973. It is shown that analytical differences cannot account for this increase. Consideration of radium levels in the western Caribbean Sea indicates that there must be an internal source of radium that has a significant but temporally variable influence on near-surface radium concentrations in the western Gulf. Comparisons of radium, salinity, and temperature data from 1973 and 1976 provide evidence that advective transport and mixing of radium-rich shelf water with the interior water column of the western basin is responsible for the variability. By plotting 228Ra vs 226Ra from this region, estimates of the apparent shelf-water component in the upper water column can be made. The results indicate 36% over the northern slope, 10 to 18% in the central western Gulf, and 3 to 7% over Campeche Bank. In addition to explaining the observed short-term variations of radium in this region, this information should be useful for environmental impact assessments concerned with industrial discharges on the northern shelf.

  8. Radium variability produced by shelf-water transport and mixing in the western Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, D.F. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA). School of Oceanography)

    1984-12-01

    /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra exhibit significant temporal and spatial variability in the near-surface western Gulf of Mexico. Concentrations of both isotopes during March 1976 were approx. 22 to 26% greater than those observed during February 1973. It is shown that analytical differences cannot account for this increase. Consideration of radium levels in the western Caribbean Sea indicates that there must be an internal source of radium that has a significant but temporally variable influence on near-surface radium concentrations in the western Gulf. Comparisons of radium, salinity, and temperature data from 1973 and 1976 provide evidence that advective transport and mixing of radium-rich shelf water with the interior water column of the western basin is responsible for the variability. By plotting /sup 228/Ra vs /sup 226/Ra from this region, estimates of the apparent shelf-water component in the upper water column can be made. The results indicate 36% over the northern slope, 10 to 18% in the central western Gulf, and 3 to 7% over Campeche Bank. In addition to explaining observed short-term variations of radium in this region, this information should be useful for environmental impact assessments concerned with industrial discharges on the northern shelf.

  9. Radium variability produced by shelf-water transport and mixing in the western Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Ra-226 and Ra-228 exhibit significant temporal and spatial variability in the near-surface western Gulf of Mexico. Concentrations of both isotopes during March 1976 were on the order of 22 to 26% greater than those observed during February 1973; analytical differences cannot account for this increase. Consideration of radium levels in the western Caribbean Sea indicates that there must be an internal source of radium that has a significant but temporally variable influence on near-surface radium concentrations in the western Gulf. Comparisons of radium, salinity, and temperature data from 1973 and 1976 provide evidence that advective transport and mixing of radium-rich shelf water with the interior water column of the western basin is responsible for the variability. By plotting Ra-228 vs Ra-226 from this region, estimates of the apparent shelf-water component in the upper water column can be made. The results indicate 36% over the northern slope, 10 to 18% in the central western Gulf, and 3 to 7% over Campeche Bank. In addition to explaining the observed short-term variations of radium in this region, this information should be useful for environmental impact assessments concerned with industrial discharges on the northern shelf. 10 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  10. Haematopoietic toxicity of radium-223 in patients with high skeletal tumour burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miederer, M; Thomas, C; Beck, J; Hampel, C; Krieger, C; Baqué, P E; Helisch, A; Schreckenberger, M

    2015-01-01

    In patients with metastasized, castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treatment with radium-223 (Xofigo) is an attractive therapeutic option. In particular, patients with high tumour load seem to profit from this treatment in regard of survival and quality of live. Aim of this study was to stratify mCRPC patients according to a quantitative imaging marker derived from routine bone scans (EXINI bone) and analyze haematopoietic toxicity of Xofigo in these patients. Toxicity and oncologic outcome were investigated in a cohort of 14 patients with high tumour load. Additionally, based on a web survey, experience of toxicity in 41 high tumour load patients in Germany in 2014 was collected. In patients with a bone scan index (BSI) greater than 5, significant toxicity occurred in more patients than expected from the ALSYMPCA trial. This was associated with application of fewer cycles. Similar experiences have been made in other centers in Germany. Approximately 7% of these patients will need very long time or will not recover from grade ≥ 3 toxicity. Close follow-up of haematopoietic indices and, in case of toxicity, early termination of therapy is in particular necessary in late stage disease where limited bone marrow reserve is likely.

  11. Radium-223 chloride: a potential new treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer patients with metastatic bone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison MR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael R Harrison, Terence Z Wong, Andrew J Armstrong, Daniel J GeorgeDuke Cancer Institute, Durham, NC, USABackground: Radium-223 chloride (223Ra; Alpharadin is an alpha-emitting radioisotope that targets areas of osteoblastic metastasis and is excreted by the small intestine. When compared with beta-emitters (eg, strontium-89, samarium-153, 223Ra delivers a high quantity of energy per track length with short tissue penetration.Objective: This review describes the mechanism, radiobiology, and preclinical development of 223Ra and discusses the clinical data currently available regarding its safety and efficacy profile.Methods: Data from clinical trials including abstracts were collected and reviewed using the PubMed Database, as well as the American Society of Clinical Oncology abstract database.Conclusion: Current bone-targeted therapies fall into two main categories: antiresorptive agents (eg, zoledronic acid, denosumab, which have been shown to delay skeletal-related events, and radiopharmaceuticals (eg, samarium-153, which may have a role in pain palliation. Historically, neither antiresorptive agents nor radiopharmaceuticals have shown definitive evidence of improved overall survival or other antitumor effects in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC. Radiopharmaceuticals are limited by myelosuppresion, thrombocytopenia, and renal excretion. In a recently reported randomized Phase III trial in men with symptomatic bone-metastatic CRPC who had received or were ineligible for docetaxel chemotherapy, 223Ra treatment resulted in improved overall survival and delayed skeletal-related events. Toxicity consisted of minor gastrointestinal side effects and mild neutropenia and thrombocytopenia that were rarely severe. Pending regulatory approval, 223Ra may represent a unique and distinct option for an important subgroup of patients with mCRPC; future trials should address its use in combination or in sequence with existing and novel

  12. Radium release mechanisms during hydraulic fracturing of Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Landis, J. D.; Renock, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Wastewater co-produced with methane from Devonian Marcellus Shale is hypersaline and enriched in Ra. Recent studies find that water injected during hydraulic fracturing can leach out significant quantities of Na, Ca, Ba and Sr from solid phases in the shale over just hours to days. Here, we show with water-rock leaching experiments that the measured 226Ra/228Ra ratios of Marcellus wastewater could also derive from rapid leaching of mineral and organic phases of the shale. Radium isotopes 226Ra (t1/2 = 1600 a) and 228Ra (t1/2 = 5.8 a) are produced through radioactive decay of 238U (t1/2 = 4.5 Ga) and 232Th (t1/2 = 14 Ga), respectively. In the absence of processes that fractionate U, Th and Ra from one another, the decay rates of each parent-daughter pair become identical over 5 half-lives of the daughter radionuclide reaching a condition of secular equilibrium. Water-rock interaction may induce pronounced deviations from secular equilibrium in the water phase, however. Such is the case during hydraulic fracturing, where Ra is soluble and mobile, and is orphaned from insoluble U and Th parents. Once 226Ra and 228Ra are mobilized no fractionation between these isotopes is expected during their transport to the surface. Thus the 226Ra/228Ra ratio in wastewater provides a fingerprint of Ra source(s). Leaching Marcellus Shale with pure water under anoxic conditions releases mainly 228Ra from clays; extraction of 228Ra from radiation damaged sites is likely the dominant contributing mechanism. Using a novel isotope dilution technique we find that 90% of the Ra released in pure water partitions back onto rock (possibly clays). In comparison, leaching with high ionic strength solutions induces the release of 226Ra from mainly organics; the breakdown of organic matter in these solutions may be the driving mechanism controlling 226Ra release in solution. Radium released by high ionic strength solutions strongly partitions into water and results in the development of leachates

  13. Effect of radium-223 dichloride on symptomatic skeletal events in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases: results from a phase 3, double-blind, randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Oliver; Coleman, Robert; Nilsson, Sten; Heinrich, Daniel; Helle, Svein I; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Fosså, Sophie D; Chodacki, Aleš; Wiechno, Paweł; Logue, John; Widmark, Anders; Johannessen, Dag Clement; Hoskin, Peter; James, Nicholas D; Solberg, Arne; Syndikus, Isabel; Vogelzang, Nicholas J; O'Bryan-Tear, C Gillies; Shan, Minghua; Bruland, Øyvind S; Parker, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    . Symptomatic skeletal events occurred in 202 (33%) of 614 patients in the radium-223 group and 116 (38%) of 307 patients in the placebo group. Time to first symptomatic skeletal event was longer with radium-223 than with placebo (median 15·6 months [95% CI 13·5-18·0] vs 9·8 months [7·3-23·7]; hazard ratio [HR]=0·66, 95% CI 0·52-0·83; p=0·00037). The risks of external beam radiation therapy for bone pain (HR 0·67, 95% CI 0·53-0·85) and spinal cord compression (HR=0·52, 95% CI 0·29-0·93) were reduced with radium-233 compared with placebo. Radium-223 treatment did not seem to significantly reduce the risk of symptomatic pathological bone fracture (HR 0·62, 95% CI 0·35-1·09), or the need for tumour-related orthopaedic surgical intervention (HR 0·72, 95% CI 0·28-1·82). Radium-223 should be considered as a treatment option for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and symptomatic bone metastases. Algeta and Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Specific activities of radium-226 in vegetables grown in Na Mom District, Songkhla Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angkunrat, S.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific activity of radium-226 in 13 types of vegetables grown in Namom district, Songkhla province, were analyzed using a low background gamma-ray spectrometer. The analyzed vegetables included Ivy Gourd, Yellow Cassia, White Popinac, Yard Long Bean, Rice, Peanut, Egg Plant, Spineless Amaranth, Swamp Cabbage, Mustart, Chinese Cabbage, Collards and Cucumbers. The control vegetables were taken from Bangklum district, 40 km south of Namom district. The samples were weighed, dried in an oven and finally burnt to ash in a furnace before being analyzed for a gamma ray of 186.2 keV emitted from Radium-226. The results showed that the geometrical means of specific activity of radium-226 of vegetables grown in Pijit, Namom, Klongrang and Thungkamin sub-district and over the Namom district were 1082, 1220, 1457, 1253 and 1250 mBq/kg, respectively. The highest and lowest values were 7882 and 26 mBq/kg, found in Ivy Gourd and Yard Long Bean, respectively. The high specific activities of radium-226 in vegetables were found to be distributed uniformly in the area. This probably indicated the source of radium-226 was also distributed uniformly in the shallow granitic bedrock throughout the area. We concluded that the radium-226 contents in vegetables grown in Namom district depended on the absorbability of alkaline earth metals in vegetables themselves, geographic features and radium content in natural water in the area. The estimated annual effective dose averaged over Namom district was 21 μSv. Consumption of Ivy Gourd may receive the maximum annual effective dose of 132 μSv.

  15. Mineral composition and heavy metal contamination of sediments originating from radium rich formation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzowski, Zbigniew; Michalik, Bogusław

    2015-03-01

    Radium rich formation water is often associated with fossil fuels as crude oil, natural gas and hard coal. As a result of fossil fuels exploitation high amount of such water is released into environment. In spite of the high radium content such waters create a serious radiation risk neither to humans nor biota directly. First and foremost due to very high mineralization they are not drinkable at all. But after discharge chemical and physical conditions are substantially changed and sediments which additionally concentrated radium are arising. Due to features of technological processes such phenomenon is very intensive in underground coal mining where huge volume of such water must be pumped into surface in order to keep underground galleries dry. Slightly different situation occurs in oil rigs, but finally also huge volume of so called process water is pumped into environment. Regardless their origin arising sediments often contain activity concentration of radium isotopes exceeding the clearance levels set for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) (Council Directive, 2013). The analysis of metals and minerals content showed that besides radioactivity such sediments contain high amount of metals geochemically similar to radium as barium, strontium and lead. Correlation analysis proved that main mechanism leading to sediment creation is co-precipitation radium with these metals as a sulfate. The absorption on clay minerals is negligible even when barium is not present in significant quantities. Owing to very low solubility of sulfates radium accumulated in this way should not migrate into environment in the neighborhood of a site where such sediment were deposited. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Behaviour of Radium in coastal marine water of India - Behaviour of Radium in coastal marine environment of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, S.K.; Sartandel, S.; Tripathi, R.M. [Environmental Radioactivity measurement Section, Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    In the recent years, there has also been an increased recognition of the radiological significance of non-nuclear process of natural radioactivity in particular {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb produced, for example by Phosphate processing plants, offshore oil and gas installations and ceramic industries etc. Keeping this in mind, special distribution of radium was carried out to generate region specific values of Radium. The Indian Ocean differs from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in its limited northward extent, to only 25 deg. N. Indian subcontinent divides the Indian ocean in the north into two tropical basin namely Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal both being located within same latitude and being under the direct influence of monsoon. For measurements of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra concentration in the coastal marine waters of India, MnO{sub 2} impregnated cartridge based in-situ pre-concentration technique was applied by passing 1000 liters of seawater at thirty locations covering Arabian Sea in the west of India and Bay of Bengal in the east. {sup 226}Ra was estimated using gamma ray peak of its daughter radionuclides {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb while {sup 228}Ra was estimated from its daughter {sup 228}Ac. {sup 214}Pb emissions occur at 295 and 352 keV; {sup 214}Bi has an emission at 609 keV. For {sup 228}Ac gamma emissions at 911 keV, 968 keV and 338 keV were used. In the coastal waters, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra concentration was observed to be in the range of 0.69 to 4.10 mBql{sup -1} and 0.70 to 8 Bq m{sup -3} respectively with an average of 1.52 and 4.53 Bq m{sup -3}. The concentration of {sup 228}Ra was observed to be more than {sup 226}Ra in all the locations. The activity ratio of {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra in coastal marine water from the Bay of Bengal showed a ratio varying from 0.8 to 2.4 with a mean of 2.1.In the present study, activity ratio varies from 1.9 to 2.4 at Karaikkal. But the regions of Rameswaram and

  17. Co-precipitation of radium with barium and strontium sulfate and its impact on the fate of radium during treatment of produced water from unconventional gas extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tieyuan; Gregory, Kelvin; Hammack, Richard W; Vidic, Radisav D

    2014-04-15

    Radium occurs in flowback and produced waters from hydraulic fracturing for unconventional gas extraction along with high concentrations of barium and strontium and elevated salinity. Radium is often removed from this wastewater by co-precipitation with barium or other alkaline earth metals. The distribution equation for Ra in the precipitate is derived from the equilibrium of the lattice replacement reaction (inclusion) between the Ra(2+) ion and the carrier ions (e.g., Ba(2+) and Sr(2+)) in aqueous and solid phases and is often applied to describe the fate of radium in these systems. Although the theoretical distribution coefficient for Ra-SrSO4 (Kd = 237) is much larger than that for Ra-BaSO4 (Kd = 1.54), previous studies have focused on Ra-BaSO4 equilibrium. This study evaluates the equilibria and kinetics of co-precipitation reactions in Ra-Ba-SO4 and Ra-Sr-SO4 binary systems and the Ra-Ba-Sr-SO4 ternary system under varying ionic strength (IS) conditions that are representative of brines generated during unconventional gas extraction. Results show that radium removal generally follows the theoretical distribution law in binary systems and is enhanced in the Ra-Ba-SO4 system and restrained in the Ra-Sr-SO4 system by high IS. However, the experimental distribution coefficient (Kd') varies widely and cannot be accurately described by the distribution equation, which depends on IS, kinetics of carrier precipitation and does not account for radium removal by adsorption. Radium removal in the ternary system is controlled by the co-precipitation of Ra-Ba-SO4, which is attributed to the rapid BaSO4 nucleation rate and closer ionic radii of Ra(2+) with Ba(2+) than with Sr(2+). Carrier (i.e., barite) recycling during water treatment was shown to be effective in enhancing radium removal even after co-precipitation was completed. Calculations based on experimental results show that Ra levels in the precipitate generated in centralized waste treatment facilities far

  18. Health Economics and Radium-223 (Xofigo®) in the Treatment of Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC): A Case History and a Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norum, Jan; Traasdahl, Erik R; Totth, Arpad; Nieder, Carsten; Olsen, Jan Abel

    2015-07-30

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common cancer in Western countries. Recent advances in the treatment of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) have caused significant pressure on health care budgets. We aimed to exemplify this dilemma presenting an example, radium-223 (Xofigo®), and review the literature. A 74-year-old man diagnosed with mCRPC was referred to our department in October 2014 for radium-223 therapy. We faced the following dilemma: is radium-223 standard therapy? Is it cost-effective? Medline was searched employing the following search criteria: "radium-223", "alpharadin", "Xofigo" and "prostate". Exclusion and inclusion criteria were applied. Guidelines and cost-effectiveness analyses were focused. We also searched the websites of ASCO, ESMO and ISPOR. The web was searched, using Yahoo and Google search engines, for Health Technology Assessments (HTAs). 181 publications were identified in the Medline database. Only four studies included the word "cost", three "economics" and none "budget" in heading or abstract. None of the publications were thorough of cost analysis (cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, cost-minimizing or cost-of-illness analysis). Six HTAs and eight national guidelines were identified. The cost per quality adjusted life years was indicated €80.000-94,000. HTAs concluded reimbursement being not recommendable or no ultimate statement could be made. One pointed towards a limited use with caution. Guidelines were based on data from randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Health economics was not considered when guidelines were made. Most HTAs concluded this therapy not cost-effective or there was insufficient data for final conclusions. Licensing and reimbursement processes should be run simultaneously.

  19. Retention of radium from thermal waters on sand filters and adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elejalde, C. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)]. E-mail: inpelsac@bi.ehu.es; Herranz, M. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Legarda, F. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Romero, F. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Quimica y del Medio Ambiente, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Baeza, A. [Dpto. de Fisica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2007-06-18

    This study was focussed on laboratory experiences of retention of radium from one thermal water on sand filters and adsorbents, trying to find an easy method for the elimination in drinkable waters polluted with this natural radio-nuclide. A thermal water from Cantabria (Spain) was selected for this work. Retention experiences were made with columns of 35 mm of diameter containing 15 cm layers of washed river sand or 4 cm layers of zeolite A3, passing known volumes of thermal water at flows between 4 and 40 ml/min with control of the retained radium by determining the amount in the water after the treatment. The statistical analysis of data suggests that retention depends on the flow and the volume passed through the columns. As additional adsorbents were used kaolin and a clay rich in illite. Jar-test experiences were made agitating known weights of adsorbents with the selected thermal water, with addition of flocculants and determination of radium in filtrated water after the treatment. Data suggest that retention is related to the weight of adsorbent used, but important quantities of radium seem remain in solution for higher amounts of adsorbents, according to the statistical treatment of data. The elution of retained radium from columns or adsorbents, previously used in experiences, should be the aim of a future research.

  20. Determination of radon and radium concentrations in drinking water samples around the city of Kutahya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Latife; Cetinkaya, Hakan; Murat Saç, Müslim; Içhedef, Mutlu

    2013-08-01

    The concentration of radium and radon has been determined in drinking water samples collected from various locations of Kutahya city, Turkey. The water samples are taken from public water sources and tap water, with the collector chamber method used to measure the radon and radium concentration. The radon concentration ranges between 0.1 and 48.6±1.7 Bq l(-1), while the radium concentration varies from a minimum detectable activity of water, humidity, pressure, elevation and the coordinates of the sampling points have also been measured and recorded. The annual effective dose from radon and radium due to typical water usage has been calculated. The resulting contribution to the annual effective dose due to radon ingestion varies between 0.3 and 124.2 μSv y(-1); the contribution to the annual effective dose due to radium ingestion varies between 0 and 143.3 μSv y(-1); the dose contribution to the stomach due to radon ingestion varies between 0.03 and 14.9 μSv y(-1). The dose contribution due to radon inhalation ranges between 0.3 and 122.5 μSv y(-1), assuming a typical transfer of radon in water to the air. For the overwhelming majority of the Kutahya population, it is determined that the average radiation exposure from drinking water is less than 73.6 µSv y(-1).

  1. Natural radium and radon tracers to quantify water exchange and movement in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher G.; Baskaran, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Radon and radium isotopes are routinely used to quantify exchange rates between different hydrologic reservoirs. Since their recognition as oceanic tracers in the 1960s, both radon and radium have been used to examine processes such as air-sea exchange, deep oceanic mixing, benthic inputs, and many others. Recently, the application of radon-222 and the radium-quartet (223,224,226,228Ra) as coastal tracers has seen a revelation with the growing interest in coastal groundwater dynamics. The enrichment of these isotopes in benthic fluids including groundwater makes both radium and radon ideal tracers of coastal benthic processes (e.g. submarine groundwater discharge). In this chapter we review traditional and recent advances in the application of radon and radium isotopes to understand mixing and exchange between various hydrologic reservoirs, specifically: (1) atmosphere and ocean, (2) deep and shallow oceanic water masses, (3) coastal groundwater/benthic pore waters and surface ocean, and (4) aquifer-lakes. While the isotopes themselves and their distribution in the environment provide qualitative information about the exchange processes, it is mixing/exchange and transport models for these isotopes that provide specific quantitative information about these processes. Brief introductions of these models and mixing parameters are provided for both historical and more recent studies.

  2. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of this...

  3. 10 CFR 31.12 - General license for certain items and self-luminous products containing radium-226.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... no more than 100 items are used or stored at the same location at any one time. (5) Small radium..., radium bath salts, and healing pads. (2) Intact timepieces containing greater than 0.037 megabecquerel (1... information relating to the general license within 30 calendar days of the date of the request, or other time...

  4. A study of radium bioaccumulation in freshwater mussels, Velesunio angasi, in the Magela Creek catchment, Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Brazier, Jenny; Humphrey, Chris; Ryan, Bruce; Esparon, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    Freshwater mussels, Velesunio angasi, along Magela Creek in Australia's Northern Territory were examined to study radionuclide activities in mussel flesh and to investigate whether the Ranger Uranium mine is contributing to the radium loads in mussels downstream of the mine. Radium loads in mussels of the same age were highest in Bowerbird Billabong, located 20 km upstream of the mine site. Variations in the ratio of [Ra]:[Ca] in filtered water at the sampling sites accounted for the variations found in mussel radium loads with natural increases in calcium (Ca) in surface waters in a downstream gradient along the Magela Creek catchment gradually reducing radium uptake in mussels. At Mudginberri Billabong, 12 km downstream of the mine, concentration factors for radium have not significantly changed over the past 25 years since the mine commenced operations and this, coupled with a gradual decrease of the (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios observed along the catchment, indicates that the (226)Ra accumulated in mussels is of natural rather than mine origin. The (228)Th/(228)Ra ratio has been used to model radium uptake and a radium biological half-life in mussels of approximately 13 years has been determined. The long biological half-life and the low Ca concentrations in the water account for the high radium concentration factor of 30,000-60,000 measured in mussels from the Magela Creek catchment.

  5. RADIUM IN MARYLAND COASTAL PLAIN GROUND WATER: AN EMERGING ISSUE RESULTING FROM A MULTI-AGENCY STUDY OF CARCINGENS IN WELL WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1997, radium-226 plus radium-228 concentrations as high as 66 picocuries per liter were detected in domestic well-water samples from the (Cretaceous) Potomac Group and Magothy Formation in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Furthermore, radium-224 was found to be a major component...

  6. Standards of radium-226: from Marie Curie to the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursey, B M; Collé, R; Coursey, J S

    2002-01-01

    In the early part of the 20th century, the pioneers of radioactivity research, led by Marie Curie, Ernest Rutherford and Stefan Meyer, formed a Commission internationale des étalons de radium. The Commission made arrangements for the preparation and intercomparisons of the international standards of radium, which were identified as the Paris standard and the Vienna standard. Otto Hönigschmid from Vienna prepared a first set of international secondary standards in 1912 and a second set in 1934. In both instances, these secondary standards were compared by gamma-ray measurements with the Paris and Vienna standards. The usage of these international standards of radium in the 20th century is described.

  7. Ion neutralisation mass-spectrometry route to radium monofluoride (RaF)

    CERN Document Server

    Isaev, T A; Willmann, L; Berger, R

    2013-01-01

    The diatomic molecule radium monofluoride (RaF) has recently been proposed as a versatile probe for physics beyond the current standard model. Herein, a route towards production of a RaF molecular beam via radium ions is proposed. It takes advantage of the special electronic structure expected for group 2 halides and group 2 hydrides: The electronic ground state of neutral RaF and its monocation differ in occupation of a non-bonding orbital of $\\sigma$ symmetry. This implies similar equilibrium distances and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers in the two charge states and thus favourable Franck--Condon factors for neutralisation without dissociation in neutralising collisions. According to the calculated ionisation energy of RaF, charge exchange collisions of RaF$^+$ with sodium atoms are almost iso-enthalpic, resulting in large cross-sections for the production of neutral radium monofluoride.

  8. Human-health effects of radium: an epidemiolgic perspective of research at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbings, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The topic of health effects of radium has recently been considerably broadened by the identification of multiple myeloma as a specific outcome of bone-seeking radionuclides, and by evidence that the incidence of breast cancer may be significantly increased by radium exposure. All soft-tissue tumors are now suspect, especially leukemias. Concepts of dose-response need to be broadened to include the concept of risk factors, or, if one prefers, of susceptible subgroups. Biological factors relating to radium uptake and retention require study, as do risk factors modifying risk of both the clasical tumors, osteosarcoma and nasal sinus/mastoid, and the more recently suspect soft-tissue tumors. The history, organization, and current research activities in epidemiology at Argonne National Laboratory are described, and findings of the last decade and a half reviewed. Plans for future research are briefly discussed.

  9. Study of water mixing in the coastal waters of the western Taiwan Strait based on radium isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Wu; Jiang, Yuwu; Liu, Guangshan; Wang, Fenfen; Zhang, Yusheng

    2016-02-01

    Radium is considered to be a useful tracer for studying the physical processes of seawater. In this work, three naturally occurring radium isotopes, (224)Raex, (226)Ra and (228)Ra, were measured in the coastal zone of the western Taiwan Strait during the summer seasons. Based on the distributions of the three radium isotopes and the salinity, we conclude that the water mixing pattern in the study area in summer consists of diluted water flowing from the Jiulong River to the open sea towards the east and southeast, and open sea seawater flowing inward from south to north. The submarine ground water discharges in the estuarine region, as suggested by the radium and salinity data. The residence times of the Jiulong River estuary, ranging from 7 to 49 d, were estimated using the radium isotope pairs (224)Raex and (226)Ra. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sustainable agricultural use of natural water sources containing elevated radium activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripler, Effi; Haquin, Gustavo; Koch, Jean; Yehuda, Zehava; Shani, Uri

    2014-06-01

    Relatively elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radium isotopes ((226)Ra, (228)Ra and (224)Ra) are found in two main aquifers in the arid southern part of Israel, in activity concentrations frequently exceeding the limits set in the drinking water quality regulations. We aimed to explore the environmental implications of using water containing Ra for irrigation. Several crops (cucumbers, melons, radish, lettuce, alfalfa and wheat), grown in weighing lysimeters were irrigated at 3 levels of (226)Ra activity concentration: Low Radium Water (LRW)<0.04 Bq L(-1); High Radium Water (HRW) at 1.8 Bq L(-1) and (3) Radium Enriched Water (REW) at 50 times the concentration in HRW. The HYDRUS 1-D software package was used to simulate the long-term (226)Ra distribution in a soil irrigated with HRW for 15 years. Radium uptake by plants was found to be controlled by its activity in the irrigation water and in the soil solution, the physical properties of the soil and the potential evapotranspiration. The (226)Ra apeared to accumulate mainly in the leaves of crops following the evapotranspiration current, while its accumulation in the edible parts (fruits and roots) was minimal. The simulation of 15 years of crop irrigation by HYDERUS 1-D, showed a low Ra activity concentration in the soil solution of the root zone and a limited downward mobility. It was therefore concluded that the crops investigated in this study can be irrigated with the natural occurring activity concentration of (226)Ra of 0.6-1.6 Bq L(-1). This should be accompanied by a continuous monitoring of radium in the edible parts of the crops. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental study of radium partitioning between anorthite and melt at 1 atm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S; Burnett, D; Asimow, P; Phinney, D; Hutcheon, I

    2007-03-08

    We present the first experimental radium mineral/melt partitioning data, specifically between anorthite and a CMAS melt at atmospheric pressure. Ion microprobe measurement of coexisting anorthite and glass phases produces a molar D{sub Ra} = 0.040 {+-} 0.006 and D{sub Ra}/D{sub Ba} = 0.23 {+-} 0.05 at 1400 C. Our results indicate that lattice strain partitioning models fit the divalent (Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra) partition coefficient data of this study well, supporting previous work on crustal melting and magma chamber dynamics that has relied on such models to approximate radium partitioning behavior in the absence of experimentally determined values.

  12. Central nervous system tumors and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Semkiw, W.

    1988-01-01

    Among the female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of brain or central nervous system tumors. A significant excess did appear, however, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumors outside the brain was observed, and is consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, which are coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. 12 refs., 11 tabs.

  13. An intercomparison of the radium mass standards of the UK and the USSR: 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, S. A.; Cross, P.; Christmas, P.; Kholnova, E. A.; Yudin, M. F.; Gubkin, E. S.

    1992-10-01

    A comparison of national radium standards of the UK and the USSR as part of bilateral cooperation in the field of activity measurements is presented. The measurement methods for calorimetric and ionometric comparisons are described. Tables show: observed counting rates in the 1764 keV photopeak together with calculated source transmissions; analysis of individual uncertainty components arising in the determination of the radium content of X5; and calculated mean energy components. The results of all measurements, decay corrected to a common reference time of 1 Jan. 1989, are tabulated, and show that good agreement between the various methods of measurement employed in the intercomparison was achieved.

  14. Measurement of radium and thorium isotopes in environmental samples by alpha-spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Álvarez, María José; Sánchez, F.

    1995-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02035979 A new method for the determination of low-level radium and thorium isotopes in environmental samples by α-spectrometry is described. Thorium and radium isotopes were chemically separated from the same sample, by using the same tracer (229Th). Two different ways were explored for the concentration process in water samples, obtaining a chemical yield for Ra isotopes between 70–90% in both cases using KMnO...

  15. Clival keloid after nasopharyngeal radium irradiation masquerading as skull base malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanumuri, Vivek V; Raikundalia, Milap D; Khan, Mohemmed N; Husain, Qasim; Vasquez, Alejandro; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2014-08-01

    Nonchordomatous lesions of the clivus are rare entities. Nasopharyngeal radium irradiation (NRI) treatment consists of application of radium to the posterior nasopharynx near the orifice of the Eustachian tubes, an area adjacent to the clivus. Here we present a unique case of a patient with a history of NRI 70 years prior to presentation with a space-occupying clival lesion suspicion for a skull-based malignancy. This lesion was resected using an endoscopic endonasal approach. Histopathological analysis revealed a clival keloid, an entity not previously reported in the literature. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Dosimetric characterization of two radium sources for retrospective dosimetry studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candela-Juan, C., E-mail: ccanjuan@gmail.com [Radiation Oncology Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026, Spain and Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Karlsson, M. [Division of Radiological Sciences, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping SE 581 85 (Sweden); Lundell, M. [Department of Medical Physics and Oncology, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm SE 171 76 (Sweden); Ballester, F. [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Tedgren, Å. Carlsson [Division of Radiological Sciences, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping SE 581 85, Sweden and Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm SE 171 16 (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: During the first part of the 20th century, {sup 226}Ra was the most used radionuclide for brachytherapy. Retrospective accurate dosimetry, coupled with patient follow up, is important for advancing knowledge on long-term radiation effects. The purpose of this work was to dosimetrically characterize two {sup 226}Ra sources, commonly used in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century, for retrospective dose–effect studies. Methods: An 8 mg {sup 226}Ra tube and a 10 mg {sup 226}Ra needle, used at Radiumhemmet (Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden), from 1925 to the 1960s, were modeled in two independent Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport codes: GEANT4 and MCNP5. Absorbed dose and collision kerma around the two sources were obtained, from which the TG-43 parameters were derived for the secular equilibrium state. Furthermore, results from this dosimetric formalism were compared with results from a MC simulation with a superficial mould constituted by five needles inside a glass casing, placed over a water phantom, trying to mimic a typical clinical setup. Calculated absorbed doses using the TG-43 formalism were also compared with previously reported measurements and calculations based on the Sievert integral. Finally, the dose rate at large distances from a {sup 226}Ra point-like-source placed in the center of 1 m radius water sphere was calculated with GEANT4. Results: TG-43 parameters [including g{sub L}(r), F(r, θ), Λ, and s{sub K}] have been uploaded in spreadsheets as additional material, and the fitting parameters of a mathematical curve that provides the dose rate between 10 and 60 cm from the source have been provided. Results from TG-43 formalism are consistent within the treatment volume with those of a MC simulation of a typical clinical scenario. Comparisons with reported measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters show differences up to 13% along the transverse axis of the radium needle. It has been estimated that

  17. Effective radium concentration in agricultural versus forest topsoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Girault, Frédéric; Bouquerel, Hélène; Bollinger, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    Effective radium-226 activity concentration (ECRa), the radon-222 source term, was measured in the laboratory with 724 topsoil samples collected over a ∼110 km(2) area located ∼20 km south of Paris, France. More than 2100 radon accumulation experiments were performed, with radon concentration measured using scintillation flasks, leading to relative uncertainties on ECRa varying from 10% for ECRa = 2 Bq⋅kg(-1) to less than 6% for ECRa > 5 Bq⋅kg(-1). Small-scale dispersion, studied at one location with 12 samples, and systematically at 100 locations with three topsoils separated by 1 m, was of the order of 7%, demonstrating that a single soil sample is reasonably representative. Agricultural topsoils (n = 540) had an average (arithmetic) ECRa of 8.09 ± 0.11 Bq⋅kg(-1), and a range from 2.80 ± 0.22 to 19.5 ± 1.1 Bq⋅kg(-1), while forest topsoils (n = 184), with an average of 3.21 ± 0.14 Bq⋅kg(-1) and a range from 0.45 ± 0.12 to 9.09 ± 0.55 Bq⋅kg(-1), showed a clear systematic reduction of ECRa when compared with the closest agricultural soil sample. Large-scale organization of ECRa was impressive for agricultural topsoils, with homogeneous domains of several kilometers size, characterized by smooth variations smaller than 10%. These patches emerged despite heavy human remodeling; they are controlled by the main geographical units, but do not necessarily coincide with them. Valleys were characterized by larger dispersion and less organization. This study illustrates how biosphere and anthroposphere modify the soil distribution inherited from geological processes, an important baseline needed for the study of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the observed depletion of forest topsoils suggests an atmospheric radon signature of deforestation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radium isotopes as a tracer of sediment-water column exchange in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, W.J.; Thomas, H.; Pätsch, J.; Omar, A.; Schrum, C.; Daewel, U.; Brenner, H.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Sediment-water column exchange plays an important role in coastal biogeochemistry. We utilize short-lived radium isotopes (224Ra and 223Ra) to understand and quantify the dominant processes governing sediment-water column exchange throughout the North Sea. Our comprehensive survey, conducted in

  19. Radium isotopes as a tracer of sediment-water column exchange in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, W. J.; Thomas, H.; Paetsch, J.; Omar, A. M.; Schrum, C.; Daewel, U.; Brenner, H.; de Baar, H. J. W.

    Sediment-water column exchange plays an important role in coastal biogeochemistry. We utilize short-lived radium isotopes (Ra-224 and Ra-223) to understand and quantify the dominant processes governing sediment-water column exchange throughout the North Sea. Our comprehensive survey, conducted in

  20. A review of the potential for radium from luminising activities to migrate in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A C; Toque, C

    2005-06-01

    During the first half of the twentieth century, radium, mixed with other components, was used to luminise many items, including watches, clocks, dials and meters. On many sites, and in particular MoD sites, luminised instruments and paint were disposed of by burning and burial. This paper presents a review of the potential for radium from such sites to migrate in the environment. The most likely mechanisms of migration of radium from former luminising sites in the UK are surface-water erosion and transport, and the action of animals and people. Plant uptake or rainsplash followed by cropping of the plants is another possible mechanism, but the extent of impact is uncertain. The migration of significant quantities of radium through soils or rocks, or due to landsliding or wind transport, is considered to be of minimal importance to most UK sites. A low pH, high salinity (in particular of group II metals) or reducing groundwater would need to be present for migration through soils/rocks to occur and such conditions are unlikely to be present in most shallow aquifer systems in the UK. To reduce the potential for migration to occur it is recommended that luminising wastes at ground surface are removed or covered, that controls are put in place to limit animal activity and that human entry to former luminising sites is restricted.

  1. From the lost radium files: misadventures in the absence of training, regulation, and accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronowitz, Jesse N; Lubenau, Joel O

    2012-11-15

    Radium was the foundation of brachytherapy in the early decades of the 20th century. Despite being a most precious and perilous substance, it was mislaid with surprising frequency. This essay explores how it was lost, the efforts taken to recover it, and measures instituted to prevent mishandling. Review of contemporary literature, government publications, archives, and lay press. Radium is a particularly dangerous substance because of its long half-life, its gaseous daughter (radon), and the high-energy emissions of its decay products. Despite the hazard, it was unregulated for most of the century. Any physician could obtain and administer it, and protocols for safe handling were generally lacking. Change came with appreciation of the danger, regulation, mandated training, and the institution of a culture of accountability. Unfortunately, careless management of medical radionuclides remains a global hazard. Responsible stewardship of radioactive material was not a high priority, for practitioners or the federal government, for much of the 20th century. As a result, large quantities of radium had gone astray, possibly subjecting the general public to continued radiation exposure. Lessons from the radium era remain relevant, as medical radionuclides are still mishandled. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radium-223 behandling af knoglemetastaser ved kastrationsrefraktær prostatacancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jann; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    The alpha emitter Radium-223 ((22)3Ra-Cl2) is a bone-seeking radionuclide studied as a new treatment for patients with bone metastases from hormone refractory prostate cancer. More than 1,000 patients have been included in clinical phase I-III tests showing significant reduction in alkaline...

  3. Compilation of Spectroscopic Data of Radium (Ra I and Ra II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dammalapati, U.; Jungmann, K.; Willmann, L.

    2016-01-01

    Energy levels, wavelengths, lifetimes, and hyperfine structure constants for the isotopes of the first and second spectra of radium, Ra I and Ra II, have been compiled. Wavelengths and wavenumbers are tabulated for 226Ra and for other Ra isotopes. Isotope shifts and hyperfine structure constants of

  4. Radon and radium concentration in water from North-West of Romania and the estimated doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, M; Benea, V; Niţă, D C; Papp, B; Burghele, B D; Bican-Brişan, N; Cosma, C

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, the measurements of radon were carried out using the LUK-VR system based on radon gas measurements with Lucas cells. The radium concentration in water was determined, with the same device, immediately after was established the radon equilibrium with radium. The results presented here are from a survey carried out in the N-W region of Transylvania (Romania) in which were investigated the radon concentrations in natural (spring, well and surface) and drinking (tap) waters. The results showed radon concentrations within the range of 0.4-187.3 Bq l(-1) with an average value of 15.9 Bq l(-1) whereas radium concentration varied between 0.05 and 0.825 Bq l(-1) with an average value of 0.087 Bq l(-1) for all types of water covered within this survey. The corresponding annual effective ingestion dose due to radon and radium from water was determined from drinking water used by the population inhabiting the area. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Radium-223 treatment of bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jann; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    The alpha emitter Radium-223 ((22)3Ra-Cl2) is a bone-seeking radionuclide studied as a new treatment for patients with bone metastases from hormone refractory prostate cancer. More than 1,000 patients have been included in clinical phase I-III tests showing significant reduction in alkaline...

  6. Radium-226 in vegetation and substrates at inactive uranium mill sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marple, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a study of the content of radium-226 in plants growing on inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the Four Corners Region of the southwestern United States and in plants grown under greenhouse conditions with minimal surficial contamination are reported. Field plant samples and associated substrates were analyzed from two carbonate tailings sites in the Grants Mineral Belt of New Mexico. Radium activities in air-cleaned samples ranged from 5 to 368 pCi/g (dry weight) depending on species and location: activities in plants growing on local soils averaged 1.0 pCi/g. The talings and local soils contain 140 to 1400 pCi/g and 2.1 pCi/g, respectively. An evaluation of cleaning methods on selected samples showed that from 17 to 79% of the radium activity measured in air-cleaned samples was due to surficial contamination, which varied with species and location. A survey of 18 inactive uranium mill sites in the Four Corners Region was performed. Radium activity in plant tissues from nine species ranged from 2 to 210 pCi/g on bare tailings and from 0.3 to 30 pCi/g on covered tailings The radium content in most of the soil overburdens on the covered tailings piles was 10 to 17 pCi/g. An experiment was performed to measure radium-226 uptake by two species grown on tailings covered with a shallow (5 cm) soil layer. A grass, Sporobolus airoides (alkali sacaton) and a shrub, Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush), were studied. The tailings were a mixture of sands and slimes from a carbonate pile. The tailings treatments were plants grown in a soil cover over tailings; the controls were plants grown only in soil. Three soil types, dune sand, clay loam, and loam, were used. The radium activity of the plant tissue from the tailings treatment compared to that of the appropriate control was 1 to 19 times greater for the grass and 4 to 27 times greater for the shrub.

  7. Uranium and radium in water samples around the Nikola Tesla B lignite-fired power plant - Obrenovac, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Zora S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of natural radionuclide content in 23 water samples collected in the vicinity of the Nikola Tesla B thermal power plant, Serbia. All samples were analyzed for 226Ra and uranium isotopes (238U, 234U activity using radiochemical methods and alpha spectrometry. Obtained results show that the activity concentrations for uranium and radium in the water around the thermal power plant are low when compared to those from areas across Serbia with their enhanced natural uranium and radium content. No important radiological hazard related to uranium and radium activity stored in heap was found.

  8. High porewater exchange in a mangrove-dominated estuary revealed from short-lived radium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Noori, Mahmood; Santos, Isaac R.; Tait, Douglas R.; Reading, Michael J.; Sanders, Christian J.

    2017-10-01

    We hypothesise that mangroves play an important role in groundwater exchange processes in sub-tropical and tropical estuarine waters. To investigate this, multiple high resolution time series measurements of radium across a tidal estuary (Coffs Creek, NSW, Australia) were performed as well as a spatial survey in both bottom and surface layers. Results from the spatial survey revealed increasing radium concentrations in parts of the estuary surrounded by mangroves. The average radium concentration in estuary areas lined with mangroves was 2.5 times higher than the average concentration at the mouth of the estuary and 6.5-fold higher than upstream freshwater areas. Additionally, the area enriched in radium coincided with low dissolved oxygen concentrations, implying that porewater exchange may drive anoxia. A radium mass balance model based on 223Ra and 224Ra isotopes at different sections of the estuary confirmed higher porewater exchange rates from areas fringed with mangrove vegetation. Estimated porewater exchange rates were 27.8 ± 5.3 and 13.6 ± 2.1 cm d-1 (0.8 ± 0.1 and 0.4 ± 0.1 m3 s-1) based on 223Ra and 224Ra isotopes, respectively. The average saline porewater exchange was ∼ 10-fold larger than the upstream surface freshwater inputs to the estuary. We suggest that mangrove environments within subtropical estuaries are hotspots for porewater exchange due to the complex belowground structure of crab burrows and the effect of tidal pumping. Because porewater exchange releases carbon and nitrogen from coastal sediments, development and modification of mangrove areas in subtropical estuaries have a significant effect on coastal biogeochemical cycles.

  9. Radium isotopes in the Polish Outer Carpathian mineral waters of various chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Nguyen Dinh; Lucyna, Rajchel; Jakub, Nowak; Paweł, Jodłowski

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the activity concentrations of radium isotopes ((226)Ra, (228)Ra) and chemical compositions of above 70 mineral water samples collected from several dozens of springs and boreholes localized in the Polish Outer Carpathians. The activity concentrations of both radium isotopes clearly increase with the increase of water TDS, but decrease when the SO(4)(2-) content increases. These concentrations vary in the broad interval from a few to near 1000 mBq/L. The coefficient of the linear correlation between concentrations of these isotopes amounts to 0.85, and the activity ratio (226)Ra/(228)Ra is >1 for chloride-sodium waters, being ≈1 for hydrogen-carbonate and <1 for the sulfate ones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiochemical determination and separation or total radium, 226Ra and 224Ra; Analisis Radioquimico de Radio total, Radio-226 y Radio-224

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, J. A.; Gonzalez, J. A.; Pablo, M. A. de

    1987-07-01

    Radiochemical purification and separation of radium has been carried out and the determination of total radium solubilized in aqueous samples has been studied assuming that all the alpha emitters of the sample have their origin in the 226Ra and elements of its desintegration chain. Also, the activities of 22Ra and 226 Ra have been evaluated separately doing a measurement after the chemical separation of the radium and another one 10 days after. (Author) 9 refs.

  11. Determining Radium-226 concentration from Radon-222 emanation in building materials: a theoretical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Rafael C.; Perna, Allan F.N.; Narloch, Danielle C.; Del Claro, Flavia; Correa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A., E-mail: baarreth@gmail.com, E-mail: allan_perna@hotmail.com, E-mail: daninarloch@hotmail.com, E-mail: aviadelclaro@gmail.com, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com, E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento Academico de Fisica e Departamento Academico de Construcao Civil

    2017-07-01

    It was developed an improved theoretical model capable to estimate the radium concentration in building materials solely measuring the radon-222 concentration in a con ned atmosphere. This non-destructive technique is not limited by the size of the samples, and it intrinsically includes back diffusion. The resulting equation provides the exact solution for the concentration of radon-222 as a function of time and distance in one dimension. The effective concentration of radium-226 is a fit parameter of this equation. In order to reduce its complexity, this equation was simplified considering two cases: low diffusion in the building material compared to the air, and a building material initially saturated with radon-222. These simplified versions of the exact one dimension solution were used to t experimental data. Radon-222 concentration was continuously measured for twelve days with an AlphaGUARD{sup TM} detector, located at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics at Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR). This model was applied to two different materials: cement mortar and concrete, which results were respectively (15:7 ±8:3) Bq=kg and (10:5±2:4) Bq=kg for the radium-226 effective concentration. This estimation was confronted with the direct measurements of radium in the same materials (same sources) using gamma-ray spectrometry, fulfilled at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), which results were respectively (13:81±0:23) Bq=kg and (12:61±0:22) Bq=kg. (author)

  12. Radium isotopes in Cayuga Lake, New York: Indicators of inflow and mixing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, T.F.

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring radium isotopes (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra) were measured in lake and tributary water of Cayuga Lake, New York, during the course of a vernal inflow event in the spring of 2001. A large influx of groundwater, probably from a carbonate aquifer, entered the lake at its extreme southern end early in the vernal inflow event and spread northward, covering an extensive part of the southern end of the lake. The low 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio of this water mass, compared with bulk lake water, allowed its identification through time. Estimates of mixing with bulk lake water were calculated from changes in the 226Ra content. Groundwater inflow to the lake around the delta of a major tributary was detected on the basis of 223Ra and 224Ra activity of lake and tributary water. Inflow of a water mass to the surface of the lake was also detected using 223Ra and 224Ra activity. The integrity of this water mass was monitored using short-lived radium isotopes. Suspended sediment in the lake water is a source of the short-lived radium isotopes 223Ra (???2 ?? 10 -4 dpm L-1) and 224Ra (???3 ?? 10 -3 dpm L-1), but bottom sediments are a more significant source of 228Ra. Radium isotopes can be valuable new tools in limnological investigations, allowing detection and monitoring of events and processes such as water inflow and mixing, determining sources of inflowing water, and monitoring introduced water masses as they move within the lake.

  13. Using natural distributions of short-lived radium isotopes to quantify groundwater discharge and recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krest, J.M.; Harvey, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Radium activity in pore water of wetland sediments often differs from the amount expected from local production, decay, and exchange with solid phases. This disequilibrium results from vertical transport of radium with groundwater that flows between the underlying aquifer and surface water. In situations where groundwater recharge or discharge is significant, the rate of vertical water flow through wetland sediment can be determined from the radium disequilibrium by a combined model of transport, production, decay, and exchange with solid phases. We have developed and tested this technique at three sites in the freshwater portion of the Everglades by quantifying vertical advective velocities in areas with persistent groundwater recharge or discharge and estimating a coefficient of dispersion at a site that is subject to reversals between recharge and discharge. Groundwater velocities (v) were determined to be between 0 and -0.5 cm d-1 for a recharge site and 1.5 ?? 0.4 cm d-1 for a discharge site near Levee 39 in the Everglades. Strong gradients in 223Ra and 224Ra usually occurred at the base of the peat layer, which avoided the problems of other tracers (e.g., chloride) for which greatest sensitivity occurs near the peat surface - a zone readily disturbed by processes unrelated to groundwater flow. This technique should be easily applicable to any wetland system with different production rates of these isotopes in distinct sedimentary layers or surface water. The approach is most straightforward in systems where constant pore-water ionic strength can be assumed, simplifying the modeling of radium exchange.

  14. Determining factors in the elimination of uranium and radium from groundwaters during a standard potabilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad s/n 10071 Caceres (Spain)], E-mail: ymiralle@unex.es; Salas, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad s/n 10071 Caceres (Spain); Legarda, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Pais Vasco, Alameda de Urquijo s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    We studied the physico-chemical and radioactive characteristics of four waters of subsurface origin. They were chosen for having the highest natural radioactivity levels of waters for human consumption in the Autonomous Community of Extremadura, Spain Their activity levels for alpha emitting radionuclides are between 120 and 19 300 mBq L{sup -1}, all exceeding the 100 mBq L{sup -1} threshold established in the European Union above which radioactive isotopes that are present in water should be investigated to determine which corrective action, if any, is needed. These waters were used to compare the efficiency in eliminating their uranium and radium content of two potabilization processes - one the standard chlorination-only process used by their respective municipalities, and the other a procedure consisting of coagulation, flocculation, settling, filtration, and chlorination stages, specifically designed to maximize the elimination of their natural radioactive content. The results showed the uranium and radium elimination efficiencies to depend strongly on the water's hydrogencarbonate, calcium, and magnesium ion concentrations. In particular, with increasing concentrations of any of these ions, the uranium elimination efficiency fell from 90% to 60% at its optimal working pH, pH = 6, while the radium elimination efficiency rose from 50% to 90% at its optimal working pH, pH = 10.

  15. Radon exhalation rates and effective radium contents of the soil samples in Adapazarı, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuş, Adem, E-mail: adem.kus@ogr.sakarya.edu.tr [Sakarya University, Physics Department, Sakarya (Turkey); Yakut, Hakan, E-mail: hyakut@sakarya.edu.tr; Tabar, Emre, E-mail: etabar@sakarya.edu.tr [Sakarya University, Physics Department, Sakarya (Turkey); Sakarya University,Biyomed. Manyet.& Yarıiletken Malz. Araş. ve Uyg. Merkezi, Sakarya (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    In this study effective radium content and radon exhalation rates in soil samples collected from Adapazarı district of Sakarya, Turkey have been measured using LR-115 type-II plastic track detectors by closed-can technique for the first time. The obtained effective radium contents are found to vary from 6.66 to 34.32 Bqkg{sup −1} with a mean value of 18.01 Bqkg{sup −1}. The radon exhalation rates measured in terms of mass and area of soil samples are found to vary from 50.35-259.41 mBqkg{sup −1}h{sup −1} with a mean value of 136.12 mBqkg{sup −1}h{sup −1} and 1035.18-5333.39 mBqm{sup −2}h{sup −1} with a mean value of mBqm{sup −2}h{sup −1}. All the measurements show that the values of radium content are under the safe limit recommended by Organization for Cooperation and Development.

  16. RADIUM AND RADON EXHALATION RATE IN SOIL SAMPLES OF HASSAN DISTRICT OF SOUTH KARNATAKA, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesha, B G; Narayana, Y

    2016-10-01

    The radon exhalation rate was measured in 32 soil samples collected from Hassan district of South Karnataka. Radon exhalation rate of soil samples was measured using can technique. The results show variation of radon exhalation rate with radium content of the soil samples. A strong correlation was observed between effective radium content and radon exhalation rate. In the present work, an attempt was made to assess the levels of radon in the environment of Hassan. Radon activities were found to vary from 2.25±0.55 to 270.85±19.16 Bq m(-3) and effective radium contents vary from 12.06±2.98 to 1449.56±102.58 mBq kg(-1) Surface exhalation rates of radon vary from 1.55±0.47 to 186.43±18.57 mBq m(-2) h(-1), and mass exhalation rates of radon vary from 0.312±0.07 to 37.46±2.65 mBq kg(-1) h(-1). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Rapid determination of radium-224/226 in seawater sample by alpha spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lijuan; Yang, Yonggang; Luo, Maoyi; Ma, Yan; Dai, Xiongxin

    2017-05-01

    A new radiochemical separation method has been developed for rapid determination of alpha-emitting radium isotopes in seawater samples. This method can be applied for the measurement of (226)Ra in seawater samples when (224)Ra is used as tracer for chemical recovery correction. Likewise, (226)Ra can also be added as tracer for the determination of (224)Ra in seawater sample. In the method, radium is first pre-concentrated with hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO) and is purified by combined anion/cation exchange column chromatographic separation. The radium in the eluate is then co-precipitated with HTiO, dissolved in 9 M H2SO4, and followed through a BaSO4 micro-precipitation step to prepare a thin-layer counting source to determine the activities of (224)Ra/(226)Ra by alpha spectrometry. Replicate spike and blank samples were measured to evaluate the performance of the procedure. The minimum detectable activity concentration was determined to be 0.5 mBq·L(-1) for (226)Ra and 0.4 mBq·L(-1) for (224)Ra in 1 L of seawater sample with a counting time of 48 h. The method is a promising candidate for rapid measurement for alpha-emitting Ra isotopes in a large population of environment water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigating the potential use of radium isotopes to trace hydraulic fracturing pollution in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, A.; Knee, K.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking' to extract petroleum and natural gas from shale deposits has become much more prevalent. There are currently over 25,000 natural gas wells in the U.S., not all presently active, and permits to date allow projections of more drilling until 2020. Many fracking wells are located in close proximity to streams, and anecdotal evidence suggests that fracking and related activities may lead to surface water pollution. However, little data about the environmental impacts of hydraulic fracturing on streams has been collected. This project investigates the novel use of radium and radon, which are widely used to trace groundwater discharge into coastal waters, as indicators of fracking waste. We measured radium, radon, pH, conductivity, Secchi depth, and dissolved metal concentrations in 20 stream sites near fracking wells in western Pennsylvania and 10 comparable sites where fracking does not take place in western Maryland. We assessed broad differences in water quality between Pennsylvania (fracking) and Maryland (control) sites and investigated correlations between these water quality parameters and intensity of fracking. If radium or radon shows promise as a tracer of fracking pollution, we can also use it to better understand how widespread environmental pollution from fracking is and how this pollution is transported in order to detect spills or inadequate treatment at wastewater facilities.

  19. Determining factors in the elimination of uranium and radium from groundwaters during a standard potabilization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, A; Salas, A; Legarda, F

    2008-11-15

    We studied the physico-chemical and radioactive characteristics of four waters of subsurface origin. They were chosen for having the highest natural radioactivity levels of waters for human consumption in the Autonomous Community of Extremadura, Spain Their activity levels for alpha emitting radionuclides are between 120 and 19300 mBq L(-1), all exceeding the 100 mBq L(-1) threshold established in the European Union above which radioactive isotopes that are present in water should be investigated to determine which corrective action, if any, is needed. These waters were used to compare the efficiency in eliminating their uranium and radium content of two potabilization processes - one the standard chlorination-only process used by their respective municipalities, and the other a procedure consisting of coagulation, flocculation, settling, filtration, and chlorination stages, specifically designed to maximize the elimination of their natural radioactive content. The results showed the uranium and radium elimination efficiencies to depend strongly on the water's hydrogencarbonate, calcium, and magnesium ion concentrations. In particular, with increasing concentrations of any of these ions, the uranium elimination efficiency fell from 90% to 60% at its optimal working pH, pH=6, while the radium elimination efficiency rose from 50% to 90% at its optimal working pH, pH=10.

  20. Influence of natural radium contamination of barium chloride on the determination of radium isotopes in the water samples using α/β liquid scintillation spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Chau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of radium isotopes in drinking water by liquid scintillation technique requires some reagents that are used for separating radium from water samples. One of the main reagents is BaCl2·H2O. This paper presents the study of this compound and shows that barium chloride reagent is naturally contaminated with226Ra. The 226Ra activity concentration in BaCl2·H2O reagent produced by chemical companies from Poland and other countries is equal to a few dozen Bq/kg. Furthermore, 14 mL of 0.10 M BaCl2·H2O solution is the optimum amount which should be used for the chemical procedure. At the optimum amount of barium chloride and 2-hour measurement, the detection limit of 226Ra and 228Ra of the liquid scintillation counting method is equal to 5 and 30 mBq per sample, respectively.

  1. Use of radium isotopes to determine the age and origin of radioactive barite at oil-field production sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, R.A.; Otton, J.K.; Budahn, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Radium-bearing barite (radiobarite) is a common constituent of scale and sludge deposits that form in oil-field production equipment. The barite forms as a precipitate from radium-bearing, saline formation water that is pumped to the surface along with oil. Radioactivity levels in some oil-field equipment and in soils contaminated by scale and sludge can be sufficiently high to pose a potential health threat. Accurate determinations of radium isotopes (226Ra+228Ra) in soils are required to establish the level of soil contamination and the volume of soil that may exceed regulatory limits for total radium content. In this study the radium isotopic data are used to provide estimates of the age of formation of the radiobarite contaminant. Age estimates require that highly insoluble radiobarite approximates a chemically closed system from the time of its formation. Age estimates are based on the decay of short-lived 228Ra (half-life=5.76 years) compared to 226Ra (half-life=1600 years). Present activity ratios of 228Ra/226Ra in radiobarite-rich scale or highly contaminated soil are compared to initial ratios at the time of radiobarite precipitation. Initial ratios are estimated by measurements of saline water or recent barite precipitates at the site or by considering a range of probable initial ratios based on reported values in modern oil-field brines. At sites that contain two distinct radiobarite sources of different age, the soils containing mixtures of sources can be identified, and mixing proportions quantified using radium concentration and isotopic data. These uses of radium isotope data provide more description of contamination history and can possibly address liability issues. Copyright ?? 2000 .

  2. Estonian waterworks treatment plants: clearance of residues, discharge of effluents and efficiency of removal of radium from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotti, F; Caldognetto, E; Forte, M; Nuccetelli, C; Risica, S; Rusconi, R

    2013-12-01

    Considerable levels of radium were detected in a certain fraction of the Estonian drinking water supply network. Some of these waterworks have treatment systems for the removal of (mainly) iron and manganese from drinking water. Three of these waterworks and another one equipped with a radium removal pilot plant were examined, and a specific study was conducted in order to assess the environmental compatibility of effluents and residues produced in the plants. (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations were analysed in both liquid (backwash water) and solid (sand filter and sediment) materials to evaluate their compliance, from the radiological point of view, with current Estonian legislation and international technical documents that propose reference levels for radium in effluents and residues. Also with regard to water treatment by-products, a preliminary analysis was done of possible consequences of the transposition of the European Basic Safety Standards Draft into Estonian law. Radium removal efficiency was also tested in the same plants. Iron and manganese treatment plants turned out to be scarcely effective, whilst the radium mitigation pilot plant showed a promising performance.

  3. Analysis of the severe complications of irradiation of carcinoma of the uterine cervix: treatment with intracavitary radium and parametrial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, A.; Hamberger, A.D.; Seski, J.C.

    1981-08-01

    Between January 1967 and December 1974, 254 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix were treated with either intracavitary radium and parametrial irradiation or 2000 rad whole pelvis irradiation followed by intracavitary radium and parametrial irradiation. In general, these patients had tumors of relatively limited volume and vaginal and uterine anatomy that was favorable for intracavitary radium. Not all patients had a lymphangiogram performed prior to irradiation. Of those who did, only patients with negative lymphangiograms are included in this analysis. All patient had a minimum follow-up of four years. The absolute four year survival rate for this group of patients was 86%. Only 6.3% of patients died of disease. The incidence of severe complications was 7.5%. Complications were associated with a high number of milligram hours of radium plus a high dose of external irradiation, in combination with either asymmetry of the radium system and/or history of previous pelvic inflammatory disease, pelvic surgery, or diverticulosis.

  4. Analysis of ovarian dose of women employed in the radium watch dial industry: A macrodosimetric and microdosimetric approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeske, J.C. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Radiation and Cellular Oncology; Stinchcomb, T.G. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Schieve, L. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics; Keane, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental, Safety and Health Div.

    1999-01-01

    In the 1920s, painters in the radium watch dial industry frequently tipped their brushes with their tongues resulting in the ingestion of radium-226 and/or radium-228. Earlier dosimetric studies (1950--1990) attempted to correlate the magnitude of biological effects (e.g., increased cancer incidence) with variations in radium uptake. Recently, there is a renewed interest on the part of epidemiologists studying additional possible effects (e.g., low birthrate and sex ratio). The goal of this work is to review and update the determination of dose to the ovaries from both external and internal radiation hazards in an attempt to correlate ovarian dose with these additional possible effects. The dose to the ovaries can be attributed to four major sources: (1) external gamma irradiation from the containers of radium paint; (2) alpha and (3) beta particle emissions due to sources which decay within the ovaries; and (4) internal gamma irradiation released throughout the body. Data obtained in earlier dosimetric studies on the quantity of Ra-226 and/or Ra-228 ingested were used in this study. Dose is estimated on a macroscopic scale by calculating the average dose deposited within the entire ovary. In addition, a microdosimetric analysis is performed which considers the statistical variation of energy deposited within individual oocyte nuclei. Sources of uncertainty, and the use of these data in new epidemiological studies are discussed.

  5. Assessment of the potential environmental fate and effects of oil-field discharge waters containing {sup 226}radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, A.W.; Hill, S.L.; Bergman, H.L. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Zoology and Physiology

    1994-12-31

    The naturally occurring radionuclide, radium-226, has been detected in oil production waters in all regions of the country. A produced water discharge into the Loch Katrina wetland in Park County, WY was investigated with respect to the transport and fate of radium in surface waters. The 866-acre Loch Katrina wetland complex is sustained primarily by oil-field produced waters and provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. While the short-term benefits of this discharge are indisputable, the long-term hazards posed by the transport of radium from deep aquifers to surface waters are not well understood. Guidelines regulating the management of radium-contaminated sediments in receiving waters or settling ponds in Wyoming have yet to be established. The purpose of this study was to provide information to regional regulatory agencies and the oil and gas industry in the development of guidelines and procedures for managing radium and other naturally occurring radioactive materials. The authors will report the results of the sampling survey of produced waters, sediment and biota performed in the Loch Katrina wetland complex in Wyoming.

  6. Evolving treatment approaches for the management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer – role of radium-223

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherji D

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Deborah Mukherji,1 Imane El Dika,1 Sally Temraz,1 Mohammed Haidar,2 Ali Shamseddine11Department of Hematology/Oncology, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, LebanonAbstract: Radium-223 is a first-in-class alpha particle-emitting radiopharmaceutical approved for the treatment of bone metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Radium-223 is administered intravenously with no requirement for complex shielding and specifically targets areas of bone metastasis. In a randomized placebo-controlled Phase III study, treatment with radium-223 was shown to improve overall survival, time to skeletal-related events, and health-related quality of life. Apart from radium-223, the cytotoxic chemotherapy agents docetaxel and cabazitaxel, androgen biosynthesis inhibitor abiraterone acetate, novel anti-androgen enzalutamide, and immunotherapy sipuleucel-T have also been shown to improve survival of men with advanced prostate cancer in Phase III trials. This review will outline current treatment approaches for advanced prostate cancer with a focus on the role of radium-223 in changing treatment paradigms.Keywords: Alpharadin, alpha-emitting radionuclide, bone metastasis

  7. Whole-Body and Microenvironmental Localization of Radium-223 in Naïve and Mouse Models of Prostate Cancer Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou, Diane S; Ulmert, David; Doucet, Michele; Hobbs, Robert F; Riddle, Ryan C; Thorek, Daniel L J

    2016-05-01

    Bone-metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (bmCRPC) represents a lethal stage of the most common noncutaneous cancer in men. The recent introduction of Radium-223 dichloride, a bone-seeking alpha particle (α)-emitting radiopharmaceutical, demonstrates statistically significant survival benefit and palliative effect for bmCRPC patients. Clinical results have established safety and efficacy, yet questions remain regarding pharmacodynamics and dosing for optimized patient benefit. We elucidated the biodistribution of (223)Ra as well as interaction with the bone and tumor compartments in skeletally mature mice (C57Bl/6 and CD-1, n = 3-6) and metastasis models (LNCaP and PC3, n = 4). Differences in uptake were evaluated by µCT and histological investigation. Novel techniques were leveraged on whole-mount undecalcified cryosections to determine microdistribution of Radium-223. All statistical tests were two-sided. (223)Ra uptake in the bones (>30% injected activity per gram) at 24 hours was also accompanied by non-negligible remnant activity in the kidney (2.33% ± 0.36%), intestines (5.73% ± 2.04%), and spleen (10.5% ± 5.9%) Skeletal accumulation across strains did not correspond with bone volume or surface area but instead to local blood vessel density (P = .04). Microdistribution analysis by autoradiography and α camera revealed targeting of the ossifying surfaces adjacent to the epiphyseal growth plate. In models of PCa metastasis, radioactivity does not localize directly within tumors but instead at the apposite bone surface. Osteoblastic and lytic lesions display similar intensity, which is comparable with uptake at sites of normal bone remodeling. Profiling the macro- and microdistribution of (223)Ra in healthy and diseased models has important implications to guide precision application of this emerging α-therapy approach for bmCRPC and other bone metastastic diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Geological and hydrogeochemical controls on radium isotopes in groundwater of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Mahmoud I; Lin, Jiajia; Poghosyan, Armen; Abouelmagd, Abdou; Sultan, Mohamed I; Sturchio, Neil C

    2017-09-20

    Radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) were analyzed in 18 groundwater samples from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) and the shallow alluvial aquifers overlying the basement complex of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. Groundwater samples from deep Nubian aquifer wells (total depths 747 to 1250m) have (226)Ra and (228)Ra activities ranging from 0.168 to 0.802 and 0.056 to 1.032Bq/L, respectively. The shallower Nubian aquifer wells (63 to 366m) have (226)Ra and (228)Ra activities ranging from 0.033 to 0.191 and 0.029 to 0.312Bq/L, respectively. The basement shallow alluvial aquifers have (226)Ra and (228)Ra activities ranging from 0.014 to 0.038 and 0.007 to 0.051Bq/L, respectively. Combined Ra activities in most wells were generally in excess of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the European Union (EU), and the World Health Organization (WHO) maximum contaminant levels (MCL) for drinking water. Radium in groundwater is produced mainly by decay of parent nuclides in the aquifer solids, and observed activities of dissolved Ra isotopes result from a combination of alpha-recoil, adsorption/desorption, co-precipitation/dissolution processes. The observed correlation between Ra activities and salinity indicates that adsorption/desorption processes may be the dominant factor controlling Ra mobility in Sinai groundwater. Radium activities in central and northern Sinai are generally higher than those in southern Sinai, consistent with a gradual increase in salinity and water-rock interaction with increasing groundwater age. Barite is approximately saturated in the groundwater and may limit maximum dissolved Ra concentration. The results of this study indicate that Sinai groundwater should be used with caution, possibly requiring Ra removal from water produced for domestic and agricultural consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in prostate-specific antigen, markers of bone metabolism and bone scans after treatment with radium-223.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nome, Ragnhild; Hernes, Eivor; Bogsrud, Trond Velde; Bjøro, Trine; Fosså, Sophie D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess treatment-related changes in prostate-specific antigen (PSA), total and bone alkaline phosphatase (total ALP, bone ALP), and changes on conventional bone scans in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) with bone metastases who received six cycles of radium-223 (Ra-223). Changes in PSA, total ALP and bone ALP (≥30% increase or decrease), and changes on bone scans were assessed before and after six monthly cycles of Ra-223 therapy (50 kBq/kg body weight) in 14 patients with mCRPC with bone metastases and four patients on placebo. Post-treatment PSA increased by at least 30% in 11 out of 14 patients and remained stable in three. Total ALP and bone ALP decreased in six and nine patients, respectively. In 10 out of 12 evaluable patients the uptake on post-treatment bone scan was reduced in lesions with high pretreatment uptake, in 11 patients accompanied by the development of new or expanded bone lesions. FACBC position emission tomography/computed tomography scans confirmed the growth of new or expanded bone metastases in two patients. These observations support the notion that Ra-223 kills tumour cells in metastases surrounded by highly proliferating osteoblasts, consistent with the reported survival benefit. The radiation effect in small tumour deposits not surrounded by increased osteoblast activity seems, however, insufficient, thus allowing continuous tumour growth. Long-lasting PSA reductions are the exception rather than the rule during Ra-223 treatment, whereas alkaline phosphatases decrease more frequently. To improve the overall anticancer effect, Ra-223 might be a valuable component of combination treatment.

  10. Accumulation of uranium, cesium, and radium by microbial cells: bench-scale studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II

    1982-07-01

    This report describes bench-scale studies on the utilization of microbial cells for the concentration and removal of uranium, radium, and cesium from nuclear processing waste streams. Included are studies aimed at elucidating the basic mechanism of uranium uptake, process development efforts for the use of a combined denitrification-uranium removal process to treat a specific nuclear processing waste stream, and a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 226/Ra from existing waste solutions.

  11. [Radium-223 treatment of bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Jann; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2014-07-21

    The alpha emitter Radium-223 ((22)3Ra-Cl2) is a bone-seeking radionuclide studied as a new treatment for patients with bone metastases from hormone refractory prostate cancer. More than 1,000 patients have been included in clinical phase I-III tests showing significant reduction in alkaline phosphatase- and PSA level and prolonged survival. Adverse events are usually mild to moderate and comprise gastrointestinal and myelotoxic symptoms. Intravenously administered (22)3Ra-Cl2 (half-life 11.4 days) will likely be given every four weeks for six treatments to out-patients.

  12. Treatment landscape of metastatic prostate cancer: the role of radium-223.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermine, Alexandre; Machiels, Jean-Pascal

    2017-02-01

    The landscape of metastatic prostate cancer has changed recently with the availability of six new molecules showing an overall survival benefit. The development of compounds able to decrease the rate of complications from bone metastasis has also led to improvements in overall morbidity associated with this disease. In this paper, we briefly review the currently available drugs indicated in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer, focusing on the place of the radiopharmaceutical agent radium-223 and its very unique mechanism of action and safety profile.

  13. A rapid method for alpha-spectrometric analysis of radium isotopes in natural waters using ion-selective membrane technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkl, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2003-10-01

    An alpha-spectrometric method for the rapid determination of radium isotopes (223Ra, 224Ra and 226Ra) in environmental samples is presented. Using Empore Radium Rad Disks complete separation of the target radionuclides is achieved. The high selectivity of these Rad Disks allows the straightforward use of 225Ra as yield tracer. Chemical yield is up to 92 +/- 9%. The chemical procedure can be accomplished within 5h. Alpha-sources show energy resolution in the range of typically 26-40 keV (FWHM). Despite minimal thickness of the sources no significant radon (Rn) losses can be observed.

  14. Tumorigenesis in the U.S. radium luminizers: How unsafe was this occupation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.G.

    1994-05-01

    Dose-response data are presented from the U.S. female workers who were exposed to radium through the painting of luminous dials and who subsequently had their skeletal burdens measured by whole-body counting and radon breath analyses. Lognormal data analyses were done for radium-induced bone sarcomas and head carcinomas after the populations of the respective doses were first determined to be lognormally distributed. The calculated geometric mean and standard deviation for each dose population were used to construct lognormal distributions that subsequently could be used for intercomparisons. To date, a total of 1,391 female luminizers with average estimated skeletal doses below 10 Gy have not shown bone sarcomas or head carcinomas. A primary purpose of this paper is to support the case that {sup 226.228}Ra is one of the radionuclide sources that exemplify in humans a {open_quote}threshold{close_quotes} dose or a dose below which there should be little concern for tumorigenesis.

  15. Crystal structure of radium sulfate: An X-ray powder diffraction and density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyskin, Artem V.; Ylmen, Rikard; Lagerkvist, Petra; Ramebäck, Henrik; Ekberg, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Radium-barium sulfate (Ra0.76Ba0.24SO4) powder was examined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) technique and its crystal structure was optimized using Density Functional Theory (DFT). XRD data show that radium and barium sulfate form a solid solution and that Ra0.76Ba0.24SO4 is orthorhombic and isostructural with pure RaSO4, barite (BaSO4), celestite (SrSO4) and anglesite (PbSO4), crystallizing in the space group Pmna (No. 62). The unit cell parameters of the Ra0.76Ba0.24SO4 crystal have been determined using Rietveld refinement and were extrapolated to unit cell parameters of the pure RaSO4 phase using Vegard's law: a=9.129(8), b=5.538(3), c=7.313(5) Å. DFT geometry optimization was used to derive atomic coordinates and interatomic distances in both Ra0.76Ba0.24SO4 and pure RaSO4. The experimental and DFT geometry optimization results obtained in this work are in good agreement with each other, and furthermore with literature data.

  16. Preconcentration of radium isotopes from natural waters using MnO2 Resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, D S; Burnett, W C; Nour, S; Horwitz, P; Bond, A

    2003-10-01

    We have characterized "MnO2 Resin," a new resin developed by the PG Research Foundation, for radium adsorption over wide ranges of pH, reaction times and salt concentrations. We show that the sorption of 133Ba (used as a proxy for Ra) is highly dependent on pH with the most useful range from pH 4 to 8. The surface layers of the Mn oxides apparently become more positively charged under acidic conditions (below pH 4), which prevents diffusion of positively charged alkaline earth species (e.g. Ba2+, Ra2+) into the sorption sites. Adsorption at higher pH is thought to be inhibited because of carbonate complexation. We found that the sorption characteristics for radium onto MnO2 Resin are especially favorable for low-salinity waters but the sorption is still very satisfactory for highly salted solutions (KD=2.8x10(4) in both cases) but with slower kinetics. For analytical purposes, both column and pump experiments showed high recoveries with no measurable discrimination between Ra and Ba regardless of flow rates in fresh water. Seawater tests showed that recoveries of Ra and Ba are lower than fresh water at elevated flow rates with Ra adsorption higher than Ba at flow rates above 10 ml/min.

  17. Packaging radium, selling science: boxes, bottles and other mundane things in the world of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentetzi, Maria

    2011-07-01

    This article discusses the intersection of science and culture in the marketplace and explores the ways in which radium quack and medicinal products were packaged and labelled in the early twentieth century US. Although there is an interesting growing body of literature by art historians on package design, historians of science and medicine have paid little to no attention to the ways scientific and medical objects that were turned into commodities were packaged and commercialized. Thinking about packages not as mere containers but as multifunctional tools adds to historical accounts of science as a sociocultural enterprise and reminds us that science has always been part of consumer culture. This paper suggests that far from being receptacles that preserve their content and facilitate their transportation, bottles and boxes that contained radium products functioned as commercial and epistemic devices. It was the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act that enforced such functions. Packages worked as commercial devices in the sense that they were used to boost sales. In addition, 'epistemic' points to the fact that the package is an artefact that ascribes meaning to and shapes its content while at the same time working as a device for distinguishing between patent and orthodox medicines.

  18. Radium and uranium levels in vegetables grown using different farming management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, D.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil)], E-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br; Ribeiro, F.C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN), Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 200, Cidade Universitaria Recife, PE, CEP 50740-540 (Brazil); Conti, C.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil); Loureiro, F.A. [Estacao Experimental de Nova Friburgo, Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Pesagro (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Vegetables grown with phosphate fertilizer (conventional management), with bovine manure fertilization (organic management) and in a mineral nutrient solution (hydroponic) were analyzed and the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in lettuce, carrots, and beans were compared. Lettuce from hydroponic farming system showed the lowest concentration of radionuclides 0.51 for {sup 226}Ra, 0.55 for {sup 228}Ra and 0.24 for {sup 238}U (Bq kg{sup -1} dry). Vegetables from organically and conventionally grown farming systems showed no differences in the concentration of radium and uranium. Relationships between uranium content in plants and exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil were found, whereas Ra in vegetables was inversely correlated to the cation exchange capacity of soil, leading to the assumption that by supplying carbonate and cations to soil, liming may cause an increase of U and a decrease of radium uptake by plants. The soil to plant transfer varied from 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -2} for {sup 238}U and from 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra.

  19. Measurement of enhanced radium isotopes in oil production wastes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmaksız, A; Ağuş, Y; Bulgurlu, F; Bulur, E; Öncü, T; Özkök, Y Ö

    2015-03-01

    Gamma dose rates of oil production equipment and wastes were measured externally by survey meter. They were found to be between 0.2 μSv h(-1) and 25.7 μSv h(-1). Activity concentrations of radium isotopes in crude oil, scale, sludge, contaminated soil and water samples were determined by gamma spectrometric method. Activity concentrations of (224)Ra, (226)Ra and (228)Ra in samples varied from MDA to 132,000 Bq kg(-1). Radium isotopes enriched up to 14,667 times in scale samples. The highest value of (226)Ra was found to be 35,122 ± 1,983 Bq kg(-1) for sludge samples. Activity concentrations of a considerable number of samples were found to be higher than the exemption level recommended by IAEA. Measurement results revealed that oil production wastes caused soil contamination up to 70,483 Bq kg(-1). They may pose a radiological risk for workers and members of the public. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mobility of radium and uranium in an uranium mill tailings deposit; Mobilite du radium et de l`uranium dans un site de stockage de residus issus du traitement de minerais d`uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassot, S. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de l`Environnement et des Installations]|[Besancon Univ., 25 (France)

    1997-03-01

    In France, the extraction of uranium for nuclear power plants has generated more than 60 millions tons of residues. They are disposed at the surface and contain still more than 70 % of the initial activity of the ores due to the presence of uranium 238 daughters like thorium 230, radium 226 and lead 210. When water percolates through the tailings, the radioelements can migrate until they reach the geosphere. The radioelements rate coming from such a disposal depends on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the site and on the physicochemical processes which control the mobility of the radioelements. Therefore, we have studied the geochemical behaviour of radium and uranium at the Lengenfeld site in Germany. Analysis of the residues has allowed us to reconstituted the history of the site. The disposal was probably the result of an alkaline treatment applied to a mixture of granitic and sedimentary ores. Moreover, this analysis has permitted us to determine the nature of the mineral phases which can sorb the radioelements (clays, carbonate phases and iron oxo-hydroxides). For some of them, a mechanism of sorption was proposed and the associated constants were determined. Applying geochemical codes to our results has shown which solids control the solution composition and has also permitted us to estimate the distribution of radium between the solid and solution phases. From these data, the beginning of a prediction of the radium mobility evolution with time, at the Lengenfeld site, has been carried out. (authors) 50 refs.

  1. Roentgenologic diagnostics of capsular ligament lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, C.J.; Jaeger, M.

    1981-10-01

    The X-ray diagnostic is of obvious importance and relevance in the detection of acute or old capsular ligament lesions of the limb joint. On the one hand it serves as the plain radiograph (roentgenogram without contrast medium) for the assessment of osseous secondary lesions, for the documentation of luxationary positions of the joint partners, and in old capsular ligament lesions for the detection of an already existing arthrosis. On the other hand the X-ray images are of main importance, which are made from the hand-held limb in order to permit a comparison of the two sides, and which beyond the clinical detection of a joint instability indicate the extent and the direction of this instability and which also document it, and which allow in adolescents to recognize a separation of the epiphysis as an alternative to the capsular ligament rupture. Only in particular cases arthrography can provide some additional information, so for example in the case of an isolated syndesmosis rupture, ruptures of the rosette of the rotator muscle or of a damaged triangular disk in the hand. Angiography is only required in cases of traumatic luxations of the knee in order to exclude an intimal lesion of the popliteal artery.

  2. Roentgenologic features of the Meckel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaenen, U.; Herva, R.

    1983-09-21

    The Meckel syndrome is an autosomal recessive lethal malformation syndrome. The main features are multicystic dysplastic kidneys, microcephaly with occipital encephalocele and polydactyly. This paper describes 6 new cases, with special reference to skeletal findings in postmortem total body radiographs Microcephaly with an occipital bone defect and encephalocele or hydrocephaly (1/6), short upper extremities, bell-shaped thorax with abdominal distension and postaxial polydactyly in the hands and feet were constant findings in these cases.

  3. Management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: A focus on radium-223: Opinions and suggestions from an expert multidisciplinary panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldari, Sergio; Boni, Giuseppe; Bortolus, Roberto; Caffo, Orazio; Conti, Giario; De Vincentis, Giuseppe; Monari, Fabio; Procopio, Giuseppe; Santini, Daniele; Seregni, Ettore; Valdagni, Riccardo

    2017-05-01

    Radium-223, a calcium mimetic bone-seeking radionuclide that selectively targets bone metastases with alpha particles, is approved for the treatment of men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and symptomatic bone metastases. In patients with mCRPC, treatment with radium-223 has been associated with survival benefit, regardless of prior docetaxel use, and also has a positive impact on symptomatic skeletal events and quality of life. Radium-223 is best suited for patients with symptomatic mCRPC and bone-predominant disease and no visceral metastases, and may lead to better outcomes when given early in the course of the disease. An expert multidisciplinary panel convened in Milan, Italy to review the current best-evidence literature on radium-223 and to convey their personal expertise with the use of radium-223 and identify possible strategies for best practice. This article summarizes the best available evidence for the use of radium-223, discusses the essential role of the multidisciplinary team in delivering effective treatment for mCRPC, clarifies pre- and post-treatment evaluation and monitoring, and outlines future scenarios for radium-223 in the treatment of men with MCRPC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. A brief history of the American radium industry and its ties to the scientific community of its early twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    Federally funded remedial action projects are presently underway in New Jersey and Colorado at sites containing 226Ra and other radionuclides from radium-uranium ore extraction plants that operated during the early twentieth century. They are but the latest chapter in the story of an American industry that emerged and perished in the span of three decades. Major extraction plants were established in or near Denver (CO), Pittsburgh (PA), and New York City (NY) to process radium from ore that came largely from the carnotite deposits of western Colorado and eastern Utah. The staffs of these plants included some of the finest chemists and physicists in the nation, and the highly-refined radium products found a variety of uses in medicine and industry. The discovery of high-grade pitchblende ores in the Belgian Congo and the subsequent opening of an extraction plant near Antwerp, Belgium, in 1992, however, created an economic climate that put an end to the American radium industry. The geologic, chemical, and engineering information gathered during this era formed the basis of the uranium industry of the later part of the century, while the tailings and residues came to be viewed as environmental problems during the same period.

  5. Sequential chemical treatment of radium species in TENORM waste sludge produced from oil and natural gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Afifi, E M; Awwad, N S; Hilal, M A

    2009-01-30

    This paper is dedicated to the treatment of sludge occurring in frame of the Egyptian produced from oil and gas production. The activity levels of three radium isotopes: Ra-226 (of U-series), Ra-228 and Ra-224 (of Th-series) in the solid TENORM waste (sludge) were first evaluated and followed by a sequential treatment for all radium species (fractions) presented in TENORM. The sequential treatment was carried out based on two approaches 'A' and 'B' using different chemical solutions. The results obtained indicate that the activity levels of all radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224) of the environmental interest in the TENORM waste sludge were elevated with regard to exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. GOV/2715/Vienna, 1994]. Each approach of the sequential treatment was performed through four steps using different chemical solutions to reduce the activity concentration of radium in a large extent. Most of the leached radium was found as an oxidizable Ra species. The actual removal % leached using approach B was relatively efficient compared to A. It is observed that the actual removal percentages (%) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 using approach A are 78+/-2.8, 64.8+/-4.1 and 76.4+/-5.2%, respectively. Whereas in approach A, the overall removal % of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to approximately 91+/-3.5, 87+/-4.1 and 90+/-6.2%, respectively.

  6. Analysis of radium-226 in high salinity wastewater from unconventional gas extraction by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tieyuan; Bain, Daniel; Hammack, Richard; Vidic, Radisav D

    2015-03-03

    Elevated concentration of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in wastewater generated from Marcellus Shale gas extraction is of great concern due to potential environmental and public health impacts. Development of a rapid and robust method for analysis of Ra-226, which is the major NORM component in this water, is critical for the selection of appropriate management approaches to properly address regulatory and public concerns. Traditional methods for Ra-226 determination require long sample holding time or long detection time. A novel method combining Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) with solid-phase extraction (SPE) to separate and purify radium isotopes from the matrix elements in high salinity solutions is developed in this study. This method reduces analysis time while maintaining requisite precision and detection limit. Radium separation is accomplished using a combination of a strong-acid cation exchange resin to separate barium and radium from other ions in the solution and a strontium-specific resin to isolate radium from barium and obtain a sample suitable for analysis by ICP-MS. Method optimization achieved high radium recovery (101 ± 6% for standard mode and 97 ± 7% for collision mode) for synthetic Marcellus Shale wastewater (MSW) samples with total dissolved solids as high as 171,000 mg/L. Ra-226 concentration in actual MSW samples with TDS as high as 415,000 mg/L measured using ICP-MS matched very well with the results from gamma spectrometry. The Ra-226 analysis method developed in this study requires several hours for sample preparation and several minutes for analysis with the detection limit of 100 pCi/L with RSD of 45% (standard mode) and 67% (collision mode). The RSD decreased to below 15% when Ra-226 concentration increased over 500 pCi/L.

  7. Effective radium concentration in topsoils contaminated by lead and zinc smelters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girault, Frédéric, E-mail: girault@ipgp.fr [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS, Paris, France. (France); Perrier, Frédéric; Poitou, Charles; Isambert, Aude [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS, Paris, France. (France); Théveniaut, Hervé; Laperche, Valérie [Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, Orléans, France. (France); Clozel-Leloup, Blandine [Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, Villeurbanne, France. (France); Douay, Francis [Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo Environnement, ISA Lille, Lille, France. (France)

    2016-10-01

    Trace elements (TE) are indicative of industrial pollution in soils, but geochemical methods are difficult to implement in contaminated sites with large numbers of samples. Therefore, measurement of soil magnetic susceptibility (MS) has been used to map TE pollutions, albeit with contrasted results in some cases. Effective radium concentration (EC{sub Ra}), product of radium concentration by the emanation factor, can be measured in a cost-effective manner in the laboratory, and could then provide a useful addition. We evaluate this possibility using 186 topsoils sampled over about 783 km{sup 2} around two former lead and zinc smelters in Northern France. The EC{sub Ra} values, obtained from 319 measurements, range from 0.70 ± 0.06 to 12.53 ± 0.49 Bq·kg{sup −1}, and are remarkably organized spatially, away from the smelters, in domains corresponding to geographical units. Lead-contaminated soils, with lead concentrations above 100 mg·kg{sup −1} < 3 km from the smelters, are characterized on average by larger peak EC{sub Ra} values and larger dispersion. At large scales, away from the smelters, spatial variations of EC{sub Ra} correlate well with spatial variations of MS, thus suggesting that, at distance larger than 5 km, variability of MS contains a significant natural component. Larger EC{sub Ra} values are correlated with larger fine fraction and, possibly, mercury concentration. While MS is enhanced in the vicinity of the smelters and is associated with the presence of soft ferrimagnetic minerals such as magnetite, it does not correlate systematically with metal concentrations. When multiple industrial and urban sources are present, EC{sub Ra} mapping, thus, can help in identifying at least part of the natural spatial variability of MS. More generally, this study shows that EC{sub Ra} mapping provides an independent and reliable assessment of the background spatial structure which underlies the structure of a given contamination. Furthermore, EC{sub Ra

  8. Ecotoxicity evaluation of an amended soil contaminated with uranium and radium using sensitive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M. M.; Lopes, J.; Magalhães, M. C. F.; Santos, E.

    2012-04-01

    In the centre-north granitic regions of Portugal, during the twenty century radium and uranium were exploited from approximately 60 mines. The closure of all uranium mines, in 2001, raised concerns regarding the possible chemical and radiological effects on the inhabitants health around the mine areas. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of organic amendments and organic hydroxiapatite in the ecotoxicity reduction of agricultural soils contaminated with uranium and radium, by germination and growth tests of two sensitive plants (Lactuca sativa L. and Zea mays L.). Pot experiments, under controlled conditions, were undertaken during two months of incubation at 70% of the soil water-holding capacity. Fluvisol from Urgeiriça region containing large concentration of Utotal (635 mg/kg) and 226Ra (2310 Bq/kg) was used. The soil available fraction, extracted with ammonium acetate, corresponds to 90% and 25% of total concentration of Utotal and 226Ra, respectively. Fine ground bone (FB) and sheep manure (OM) single or mixtures were used as amendments. Four treatments, plus control were carried out in triplicate: (A) soil+40 Mg/ha of FB; (B) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM; (C) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM+40 Mg/ha of FB; (D) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM+20 Mg/ha of FB. After the incubation moist soils were kept at 4-5 °C and subsamples were used for leachates extraction following DIN 38414-S4 method. Maize and lettuce seeds were sown in filter paper moistened with the leachates aqueous solutions and in the moist soil for germination and growth tests. Seedlings after three days of germination were used for growth tests in hydroponic, during seven days, using the leachates. Five seeds per replicate were used. Soil presented: pH(H2O)=5.15, EC=7.3 µS/cm; and Corgnic=12.5 g/kg. After two months of incubation soil pH increased to a maximum of 6.53 in amended samples, and EC showed a dramatic increase when compared to the control (0.398 dS/m), from 1.5 dS/m (treatment-A) to 4.7 d

  9. Simultaneous Separation of Actinium and Radium Isotopes from a Proton Irradiated Thorium Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastren, Tara; Radchenko, Valery; Owens, Allison; Copping, Roy; Boll, Rose; Griswold, Justin R; Mirzadeh, Saed; Wyant, Lance E; Brugh, Mark; Engle, Jonathan W; Nortier, Francois M; Birnbaum, Eva R; John, Kevin D; Fassbender, Michael E

    2017-08-15

    A new method has been developed for the isolation of (223,224,225)Ra, in high yield and purity, from a proton irradiated (232)Th matrix. Herein we report an all-aqueous process using multiple solid-supported adsorption steps including a citrate chelation method developed to remove >99.9% of the barium contaminants by activity from the final radium product. A procedure involving the use of three columns in succession was developed, and the separation of (223,224,225)Ra from the thorium matrix was obtained with an overall recovery yield of 91 ± 3%, average radiochemical purity of 99.9%, and production yields that correspond to physical yields based on previously measured excitation functions.

  10. Radium 223 dichloride: a multidisciplinary approach to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsò, Elisa; Boni, Giuseppe; Galli, Luca; Ricci, Sergio; Farnesi, Azzurra; Mazzarri, Sara; Cianci, Claudia; Mariani, Giuliano; Falcone, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The role of nuclear medicine physicians in the multidisciplinary team for the management of patients with prostate cancer has been restricted because of a lack of available tools. The only drugs approved to relieve pain related to bone metastases were β-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. These drugs did not prove to prolong survival when used as single agent and resulted associated with important adverse events. This situation has changed with the introduction of radium 223 because of evidence of improved survival in patients, the good safety profile and the opportunity to avoid clonal selection of tumor cells. Cooperation among physicians involved in cancer management will lead to improvements in the treatment of bone metastases due to prostate cancer and is thought to extend to other tumor types.

  11. Imaging and dosimetry for radium-223: the potential for personalized treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flux, Glenn D

    2017-08-01

    Radium-223 ((223)Ra) offers a new option for the treatment of bone metastases from prostate cancer. As cancer treatment progresses towards personalization, the potential for an individualized approach is exemplified in treatments with radiotherapeutics due to the unique ability to image in vivo the uptake and retention of the therapeutic agent. This is unmatched in any other field of medicine. Currently, (223)Ra is administered according to standard fixed administrations, modified according to patient weight. Although gamma emissions comprise only 1% of the total emitted energy, there are increasing reports that quantitative imaging is feasible and can facilitate patient-specific dosimetry. The aim of this article is to review the application of imaging and dosimetry for (223)Ra and to consider the potential for treatment optimization accordingly, in order to ensure clinical and cost effectiveness of this promising agent.

  12. Low Level Gamma Spectroscopy Measurements of Radium and Cesium in Lucerne (Medicago Sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokapić, S.; Bikit, I.; Mrđa, D.; Vesković, M.; Slivka, J.; Mihaljev, Ž.; Ćupić, Ž.

    2007-04-01

    Nineteen years after Chernobyl nuclear accident, activity concentration of 137Cs still could be detected in food and soil samples in Central and Eastern Europe. In this paper radiation levels of radium and cesium in Lucerne will be presented. It is a perennial plant with a deep root system and it is widely grown throughout the world as forage for cattle. The samples of Lucerne were taken from twelve different locations in Vojvodina in the summer period July-September 2004. The samples were specially dried on the air and after that ground, powdered and mineralized by method of dry burning on the temperature of 450°C. Gamma spectrometry measurements of the ash were performed by means of actively shielded germanium detector with maximal background reduction. For cesium 137Cs 10 mBq/kg order of magnitude detection limits were achieved.

  13. Long-term investigation of the risk of malignant diseases following intravenous radium-224 treatment for ankylosing spondylitis; Langzeituntersuchung zum Risiko maligner Erkrankungen nach intravenoeser Behandlung des Morbus Bechterew mit Radium-224

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Tobias L. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Allgemeine Orthopaedie und Tumororthopaedie, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany); Nekolla, Elke A. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Neuherberg (Germany); Wick, Roland R. [Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie, Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen, Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Background and purpose: in German-speaking countries, the intravenous treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with radium-224 ({sup 224}Ra) was common between the late 1940s and 2005. In this long-term investigation, the risk of malignant diseases following intravenous {sup 224}Ra treatment for AS was assessed. Patients and methods: in a prospective long-term study, 1,471 patients with AS who were treated with {sup 224}Ra between 1948 and 1975 have been followed together with a control group of 1,324 AS patients treated neither with radioactive drugs nor with X-rays. Standardized questionnaires to evaluate the patients' health status were used. Observed numbers of malignant diseases were compared with those of the control group as well as with expected numbers for a normal population. Results: After 26 years of follow-up, causes of death have been certified for 1,006 patients of the exposure group (control group: 1,072 patients). Significantly increased rates of myeloid leukemia (12 cases observed vs. 2.9 expected; p < 0.001), kidney cancer (18 vs. 9.1; p < 0.01), thyroid cancer (4 vs. 1.2; p = 0.03) and borderline significantly increased rates of cancer of female genital organs (10 vs. 5.6; p = 0.06) were found in the exposure group in contrast to no significant increases of these diseases in the control group. Rates of pulmonary and gastrointestinal malignancies were not increased. Lymphatic leukemia (exposure group: 8 vs. 2.7; p < 0.01; control group: 7 vs. 3; p = 0.03) was significantly elevated due to a high rate of chronic lymphatic leukemia in both, the exposure as well as the control group. Conclusion: treatment of AS with {sup 224}Ra led to increased incidences of myeloid leukemia and malignancies of kidneys, thyroid and female genital organs. Although this kind of therapy is now abandoned, there is a need for close follow-up of patients who received it. (orig.)

  14. Submarine groundwater discharge from the South Australian Limestone Coast region estimated using radium and salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, S; Taylor, A R; Herpich, D; Hancock, G J

    2015-02-01

    The Tertiary Limestone Aquifer (TLA) is one of the major regional hydrogeological systems of southern Australia. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) of freshwater from the TLA occurs through spring creeks, beach springs and diffusively through beach sands, but the magnitude of the total flux is not known. Here, a range of potential environmental tracers (including temperature, salinity, (222)Rn, (223)Ra, (224)Ra, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (4)He) were measured in potential sources of SGD and in seawater along a 45 km transect off the coastline to evaluate SGD from the TLA. Whilst most tracers had a distinct signature in the sources of water to the coastline, salinity and the radium quartet had the most distinct SGD signal in seawater. A one-dimensional advection-dispersion model was used to estimate the terrestrial freshwater component of SGD (Qfw) using salinity and the recirculated seawater component (Qrsw) using radium activity in seawater. Qfw was estimated at 1.2-4.6 m(3) s(-1), similar in magnitude to previously measured spring creek discharge (∼3 m(3) s(-1)) for the area. This suggests that other terrestrial groundwater discharge processes (beach springs and diffuse discharge through beach sands) were no more than 50% of spring creek discharge. The largest component of total SGD was Qrsw, estimated at 500-1000 m(3) s(-1) and possibly greater. The potential for wave, storm, or buoyancy-driven porewater displacement from the seafloor could explain the large recirculation flux for this section of the Southern Ocean Continental Shelf. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measuring low radium activity concentration in water with RAD7 by means of evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Marussig, Camila G.T.; Paschuk, Sergei; Zambianchi Junior, Pedro; Correa, Janine N.; Perna, Allan Felipe Nunes; Martin, Aline, E-mail: jaquelinekappke@gmail.com, E-mail: mila_garciatb@hotmail.com, E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com, E-mail: zambianchi@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com, E-mail: allan_perna@hotmail.com, E-mail: nocamartin@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Preliminary activity measurements of low radium concentration in mineral water by using RAD7 equipment showed high values of statistical errors. Therefore, the need to develop a new protocol for measuring and proofing the evaporation test for radium measurements in water is in place. This study evaluates the possibility of using RAD7 equipment to measure Ra-226 activity in equilibrium with Rn-222 present in water samples. The technique involves evaporation process so as to increase the Ra-226 concentration in the sample in a controlled manner and thus reduce statistical errors. Two samples were compared, 10 L sample of distilled water and a 7.75 L sample of known concentration (0.1 Bq/L). The evaporation was carried out starting with different initial volumes for both samples: 500 mL, 1000 mL, 2000 mL, 4000 mL and a 250 mL sample not subject to evaporation. All samples reached a final volume of approximately 250 mL. After evaporation, the samples were stored for 30 days until secular equilibrium was achieved between Ra-226 and Rn-222. The values obtained, by using RAD7 detector, for distilled water, as expected, are near zero averaging 0.021 ± 0.016 Bq/L. The average value found in the water of known concentration was 0.099 ± 0.011 Bq/L, also close to the expected 0.1 Bq/L. The conclusion is that the application of an evaporation process is efficient and the proposed methodology is a proven alternative to decrease the statistical errors. (author)

  16. Radium isotopes and their environmental implications in the Changjiang River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ni; Du, Jinzhou; Duan, Zonglian; Deng, Bing; Zhang, Jing

    2015-04-01

    Radium (Ra) isotopes are widely used to trace water motion and nutrient transport in coastal oceans. To enhance our understanding of Ra behavior from river to ocean, this study examines 226Ra and 228Ra activity concentrations in the water column, suspended particulate matter and river bed surface sediments along the middle and lower Changjiang River (CJR) basin based on two cruises in 2006 and 2008. The results show that the Ra activity concentrations in the CJR basin are comparable with other rivers in the world. Higher Ra activity concentrations and lower 228Ra/226Ra activity ratios are detected in the tributaries (i.e., in the Dongting and Poyang Lakes) than in the mainstream. The comparison of pre-Three Gorges Dam (TGD) data (taken in 1984) and post-TGD data (this work) illuminates the effect that a major dam has on radium transport within the river and into the estuary. We estimate a riverine 226Ra flux of 1.04 ± 0.08 TBq yr-1. Extended Ra datasets collected in the estuary and the East China Sea show that the dissolved and sedimentary Ra activity concentrations are higher in the estuary but lower in the sea, whereas the particulate Ra activity concentrations are larger in the river. This finding indicates significant Ra desorption from particulate to dissolved phase in the brackish estuary where riverborne materials are filtered and trapped. Overall, these results help to elucidate Ra transport from river to ocean and assist further application of Ra isotopes in land-ocean interaction studies, such as submarine groundwater discharge, mixing and diffusion processes, and determination of water mass and/or current structures in the estuarine and coastal zones.

  17. EPA Method: Rapid Radiochemical Method for Americium-241, Radium-226, Plutonium-238/-239, Radiostronium, and Isotopic Uranium in Water for Environmental Restoration Following Homeland Security Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAM lists this method for the qualitative determination of Americium-241, Radium-226, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239 and isotopic uranium in drinking water samples using alpha spectrometry and radiostrontium using beta counting.

  18. Applications of radon and radium isotopes to determine submarine groundwater discharge and flushing times in Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatje, Vanessa; Attisano, Karina Kammer; de Souza, Marcelo Friederichs Landim; Mazzilli, Barbara; de Oliveira, Joselene; de Araújo Mora, Tamires; Burnett, William C

    2017-08-16

    Todos os Santos Bay (BTS) is the 2nd largest bay in Brazil and an important resource for the people of the State of Bahia. We made measurements of radon and radium in selected areas of the bay to evaluate if these tracers could provide estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and flushing times of the Paraguaçu Estuary and BTS. We found that there were a few areas along the eastern and northeastern shorelines that displayed relatively high radon and low salinities, indicating possible sites of enhanced SGD. A time-series mooring over a tidal cycle at Marina do Bonfim showed a systematic enrichment of the short-lived radium isotopes (223)Ra and (224)Ra during the falling tide. Assuming that the elevated radium isotopes were related to SGD and using measured radium activities from a shallow well at the site, we estimated groundwater seepage at about 70 m(3)/day per unit width of shoreline. Extrapolating to an estimated total shoreline length provided a first approximation of total (fresh + saline) SGD into BTS of 300 m(3)/s, about 3 times the average river discharge into the bay. Just applying the shoreline lengths from areas identified with high radon and reduced salinity results in a lower SGD estimate of 20 m(3)/s. Flushing times of the Paraguaçu Estuary were estimated at about 3-4 days based on changing radium isotope ratios from low to high salinities. The flushing time for the entire BTS was also attempted using the same approach and resulted in a surprisingly low value of only 6-8 days. Although physical oceanographic models have proposed flushing times on the order of months, a simple tidal prism calculation provided results in the range of 4-7 days, consistent with the radium approach. Based on these initial results, we recommend a strategy for refining both SGD and flushing time estimates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spectra of barium, radium, and element 120; application of the combined correlation potential, singles-doubles, and configuration interaction ab initio method

    CERN Document Server

    Ginges, J S M

    2015-01-01

    We apply a version of the recently developed approach combining the correlation potential, linearized singles-doubles coupled-cluster, and the configuration interaction methods to the spectra of the heavy alkaline earths barium, radium, and element 120. Quantum electrodynamics radiative corrections are included. We have found unprecedented agreement between ab initio theory and experiment for the spectra of barium and radium, and we make accurate predictions for missing and unreliable data for all three atoms.

  20. Radium content of oil- and gas-field produced waters in the northern Appalachian Basin (USA)—Summary and discussion of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, E.L.; Engle, M.A.; Kirby, C.S.; Kraemer, T.F.

    2011-01-01

    Radium activity data for waters co-produced with oil and gas in New York and Pennsylvania have been compiled from publicly available sources and are presented together with new data for six wells, including one time series. When available, total dissolved solids (TDS), and gross alpha and gross beta particle activities also were compiled. Data from the 1990s and earlier are from sandstone and limestone oil/gas reservoirs of Cambrian-Mississippian age; however, the recent data are almost exclusively from the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale. The Marcellus Shale represents a vast resource of natural gas the size and significance of which have only recently been recognized. Exploitation of the Marcellus involves hydraulic fracturing of the shale to release tightly held gas. Analyses of the water produced with the gas commonly show elevated levels of salinity and radium. Similarities and differences in radium data from reservoirs of different ages and lithologies are discussed. The range of radium activities for samples from the Marcellus Shale (less than detection to 18,000 picocuries per liter (pCi/L)) overlaps the range for non-Marcellus reservoirs (less than detection to 6,700 pCi/L), and the median values are 2,460 pCi/L and 734 pCi/L, respectively. A positive correlation between the logs of TDS and radium activity can be demonstrated for the entire dataset, and controlling for this TDS dependence, Marcellus shale produced water samples contain statistically more radium than non-Marcellus samples. The radium isotopic ratio, Ra-228/Ra-226, in samples from the Marcellus Shale is generally less than 0.3, distinctly lower than the median values from other reservoirs. This ratio may serve as an indicator of the provenance or reservoir source of radium in samples of uncertain origin.

  1. A study on heavy radioactive pollution: Radon and Radium in streams and drinking water of Ramsar region by measured Prassi system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Inhalation of radon gas 222Rn, which is a decay product of 226Ra, and its decay products accounts for typically about half of the effective doses received by public from all natural sources of ionizing radiation. Radon alpha particles can initiate a series of molecular and cellular events that culminates in the development of lung and other cancers. Also, 226Ra in the environment is widely distributed, being present in various concentrations in waters, soils and rocks. When radium is ingested, the majority of material is rapidly excreted. However, since radium is chemically similar to calcium, a significant fraction is absorbed into the bloodstream and deposited mainly in the skeleton. So, presence of these radioactive contaminants in water is dangerous and many studies especially about radon have been done in this area. For these reasons and becauses some areas of Ramsar, a city in northern Iran in mazandaran province, have been among the highest known background radiation levels in the world we measured radon and radium concentrations in water sources of Ramsar region. In this study, Radon and radium concentrations of the 22 streams and 20 drinking water samples were measured by PRASSI system. According to the data, the arithmetic mean of radon concentration for all samples was 3.030 ± 1.122 Bq/l. Similarly, arithmetic mean of radium for all samples was 0.185 ± 0.055 Bq/l. Also 1 sample of streams and 1 sample of drinking water showed radon concentration higher than 10Bq/l as normal level. Radium-226 alone, in 11 samples of streams and 8 samples of drinking water had concentrations higher than 0.185Bq/l as normal level for the combined Radium-226 and Radium-228.

  2. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy; Radium-Aufreinigung zur Herstellung von Actinium-225 am Zyklotron fuer die Alpha-Immuntherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Sebastian Markus

    2014-09-23

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  3. Uptake of uranium, thorium and radium isotopes by plants growing in dam impoundment Tasotkel and the Lower Shu region (Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveyeva, Ilona; Burkitbayev, Mukhambetkali [al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan). Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology; Jacimovic, Radojko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Planinsek, Petra; Smodis, Borut [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-04-01

    The activity concentrations of isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium-226 in dominant species of plants (Xantium strumarium, Phragmites communis, Artemisia nitrosa and Artemisia serotina) growing on the territories contaminated by uranium industry of Kazakhstan (close to dam impoundment Tasotkel and the Lower Shu region) are presented. The obtained data showed the significant variations of activity concentrations of isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium-226 in above ground parts. The concentrations of most of the investigated radionuclides in the root system are higher than in the aboveground parts; it can be explained by root barrier. It was found that the highest root barrier has Xantium strumarium, especially for uranium isotopes. The concentration ratios of radionuclides were calculated, and as the result it was found that the highest accumulation ability in the investigated region has Artemisia serotina.

  4. Stage IB carcinoma of the cervix, the Norwegian radium hospital, 1968--1970: results of treatment annd major complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martimbeau, P.W.; Kjorstad, K.E.; Kolstad, P.

    1978-06-15

    Different methods of treatment have been debated over the years for Stage IB carcinoma of the cervix, especially in view of the results and complications. We have reviewed the experience of the Norwegian Radium Hospital for carcinoma of the cervix, Stage IB, for the years 1968, 1969, and 1970; most of the patients receive preoperative intrauterine and intravaginal radium, followed by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy; if the nodes are involved, they also receive external pelvic irradiation. During this period, 437 patients had Stage IB; the 5 year survival was 80.2 per cent (not corrected). We focused our attention on lymphedema following such a method of treatment; of 402 patients operated upon, 23.4% developed lymphedema ranging from mild to moderate to severe; 20 patients (5%) had severe lymphedema; factors involved are analyzed.

  5. [Precarious matters. The radium economy, episteme of risk and the emergence of tracer technique in national socialism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schwerin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Following the traces of radioactive material is--as scholars have recently shown--a valuable historical approach in order to evaluate the material 'factor' of science in action. Even though the origins of materials like radium and artificial isotopes are quite different, their circulation is interconnected. A material pathway can be drawn from the radium industry to the scientific rise of artificial isotopes as indicator substances in the 1930s, continuing to the building of networks by German scientists working for the war efforts. Also, this pathway reveals the role of radiation protection in establishing that material culture. Finally, the dynamics of material traces and institutional linkages is shown by the tracer work of biophysicists and radiation biologists working at the Genetic Department of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research in Berlin and at the Institut de Chimie Nucléaire at Paris, which at that time was occupied by German troops.

  6. Environmental magnetism and effective radium concentration: the case study of the painted cave of Pech Merle, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isambert, Aude; Girault, Frédéric; Perrier, Frédéric; Bouquerel, Hélène; Bourges, François

    2017-04-01

    Painted caves, showing testimony of prehistoric art, are nowadays subject to intense attention to understand the conditions of stability and avoid degradation. The preservation of cultural sequences and archaeological artefacts represents especially a crucial issue in the case of caves opened to visitors. For this purpose, a better knowledge of these preserved environments that imprint paleoenvironmental conditions at the time of deposition is needed. In this context, different environmental parameters of the Pech Merle cave, in France, are currently actively monitored including temperature, hygrometry, and gas measurements such as CO2 and radon-222 (decay product of radium-226). This temporal monitoring needs to be complemented by a detailed characterisation of the site, including petrophysical and mineralogical properties. To better constrain the environmental and paleoenvironmental context, more than 100 samples including soils, sediments, rocks and speleothems were collected inside and outside the cave area. We report here magnetic properties of powdered samples (low-field susceptibility, hysteresis parameters, and saturation magnetization) coupled with effective radium concentration (ECRa) measurements. We observe that magnetic susceptibility, which ranges over 5 orders of magnitude from calcareous rocks to topsoils and argillaceous filling deposits, correlates well with ECRa values. This correlation, previously observed (Girault et al., 2016) in very different geological contexts, could be interpreted as a common concentration of sources, also indicating a signature of natural samples to the contrary of anthropic environments disturbed by human activities, in which case the association is blurred. This study demonstrates the general interest of combining two different parameters - here low-field magnetic susceptibility and effective radium concentration determined using non-destructive techniques in the field and in the laboratory - to physically characterize

  7. Combining airborne thermal infrared images and radium isotopes to study submarine groundwater discharge along the French Mediterranean coastline

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Bejannin; Pieter van Beek; Thomas Stieglitz; Marc Souhaut; Joseph Tamborski

    2017-01-01

    Study region: The French Mediterranean coastline, which includes karstic springs discharging into coastal seas and coastal lagoons. Study focus: We investigated submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), an important vector for many chemical elements that may impact the quality of the coastal environment. First, we acquired airborne thermal infrared (TIR) images to detect terrestrial groundwater inputs. Then we report in situ data (salinity; temperature; radium isotopes). We use these data i) ...

  8. Measuring the radium quartet (228Ra, 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra) in seawater samples using gamma spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, P; Souhaut, M; Reyss, J-L

    2010-07-01

    Radium isotopes are widely used in marine studies (eg. to trace water masses, to quantify mixing processes or to study submarine groundwater discharge). While 228Ra and 226Ra are usually measured using gamma spectrometry, short-lived Ra isotopes (224Ra and 223Ra) are usually measured using a Radium Delayed Coincidence Counter (RaDeCC). Here we show that the four radium isotopes can be analyzed using gamma spectrometry. We report 226Ra, 228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra activities measured using low-background gamma spectrometry in standard samples, in water samples collected in the vicinity of our laboratory (La Palme and Vaccarès lagoons, France) but also in seawater samples collected in the plume of the Amazon river, off French Guyana (AMANDES project). The 223Ra and 224Ra activities determined in these samples using gamma spectrometry were compared to the activities determined using RaDeCC. Activities determined using the two techniques are in good agreement. Uncertainties associated with the 224Ra activities are similar for the two techniques. RaDeCC is more sensitive for the detection of low 223Ra activities. Gamma spectrometry thus constitutes an alternate method for the determination of short-lived Ra isotopes. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Long term changes in the concentration of radium in discharge waters of coal mines and Upper Silesian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chałupnik, Stanisław; Wysocka, Małgorzata; Janson, Ewa; Chmielewska, Izabela; Wiesner, Marta

    2017-05-01

    According to the latest guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, 2016), coal mining is one of the most important contributors to occupational exposure. Coal mining contributes about 45% of the total annual collective dose obtained by workers due to the exposure at places of working. One of the sources of exposure in mining are formation brines with elevated concentrations of natural radionuclides, the most common are radium (226)Ra and (228)Ra. Radium isotopes often occur in formation waters in underground collieries in the Upper Silesian region (USCB) in Poland. Significant amounts of radium remain underground in the form of radioactive deposits created as a result of spontaneous deposition or water treatment. This phenomenon leads to the increase of radiation hazard for miners. The remaining activities of (226)Ra and (228)Ra are released into the rivers with mine effluents, causing the contamination of bottom sediments and river banks. The results of radioactivity monitoring of effluents and river waters are presented here to illustrate a trend of long-term changes in environmental contamination, caused by mining industry in the Upper Silesian Region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Uranium and radium-226 in the environment of the post-uranium mining areas in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardas, M.; Suplinska, M.; Ciupek, K. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    The work carried out under the project NCBiR - 'Technologies Supporting Development of Safe Nuclear Power Engineering'; Task 3: Meeting the Polish nuclear power engineering's demand for fuel - fundamental aspects. Depending on location, environmental components may have different concentration levels of radionuclides. Main source of uranium and radium in the natural environment is atmospheric precipitation of the material resulting weathering and erosion of older rocks, enhanced due to human activity by fertilizers used in agriculture and fossil fuel combustion. The waste heaps and dumps, especially derived from post-uranium mining and phosphate fertilizer industry are the another source of uranium and radium in the environment. Our studies include post-uranium mining areas (inactive mines and waste dumps) and those adjacent meadows and grassland at the area of the Giant Mountains (Karkonosze Mountains) in the south-west Poland. Samples of soil and mineral material from mine shafts, water samples from ponds, streams and small rivers and vegetation samples (grass, alfalfa, birch leaves) were analyzed. Also, similar samples from agricultural regions of Poland were examined as a reference level. Uranium isotopes were determined by radiochemical method (ion exchange and extraction) and activity measurement using alpha spectrometry. Concentration of {sup 226}Ra was determined radiochemically using emanation method. For the validation of the method, determinations of uranium isotopes and radium-226 in reference samples were performed. Depending on location, the different levels of activity concentration of analyzed radionuclides were detected. Samples from the mine shafts and dumps, both water and soil, were characterized by the activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra even by several orders higher than outside of those areas. The concentrations of the radionuclides in the areas located in further distances from mine and dumps are similar to

  11. Effect of radium-223 dichloride (Ra-223) on hospitalisation: An analysis from the phase 3 randomised Alpharadin in Symptomatic Prostate Cancer Patients (ALSYMPCA) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Christopher; Zhan, Lin; Cislo, Paul; Reuning-Scherer, Jonathan; Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Nilsson, Sten; Sartor, Oliver; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Coleman, Robert E

    2017-01-01

    Symptomatic skeletal events (SSEs) commonly occur in patients with bone metastases, often leading to hospitalisations and decreased quality-of-life. In the ALSYMPCA trial, radium-223 significantly improved overall survival (hazard ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58-0.83, P radium-223 (218/589; 37.0%) versus placebo patients (133/292; 45.5%) had at least one hospitalisation event (P = 0.016). However, mean number of hospitalisation events per patient was similar (radium-223 0.69 versus placebo 0.79, P = 0.226), likely due to the significantly longer follow-up time for radium-223 (7.82 months versus 6.92 months for placebo; P radium-223 (4.44 versus 6.68, respectively, P = 0.004). The reduction in hospitalisation days with radium-223 was observed both before first SSE (2.35 days versus 3.36 days, respectively) and after SSE (7.74 days versus 9.19 days, respectively). Our data suggest that this reduced hospital days along with the survival benefit and reduction in time to SSEs with radium-223 treatment may contribute to improvements in health-related quality-of-life in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases (ALSYMPCA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00699751.). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of technological solutions for removal of radium discharged to sea from offshore oil and gas installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, Dag Oeistein [Primus.inter.pares AS, Kongsberggata 20, NO-0468 Oslo (Norway); Hylland, Ketil [University of Oslo (Norway); Andersen, Knut Inge [Statoil ASA (Norway); Sidhu, Rajdeep Singh [Institute for Energy Technology - IFE (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    On the Norwegian sector of the North-Sea the oil- and gas-producing fields Troll B and C are the main contributors to radium discharged to the sea (190 GBq/a {sup 226}Ra and 150 GBq/a {sup 228}Ra). Thus, to observe effects caused by the emission of radioactivity and to consider remedial action one should focus on these two installations. Both installations are now operated by Statoil. In a previous comprehensive study of the speciation of discharged radium the conclusion was that it is impossible to detect any effect from radiation doses. The incremental doses due to the emissions were found to be in the nSv-range. The study covered precipitation by sulfate in the sea water, absorption on organic and inorganic materials, uptake in cod eggs and in juvenile cod, effect on sediment living organisms, background levels of pelagic fish and in sediments, and modeling of the distribution in the water column as well the distribution along the coastal stream. Despite the lack of radiation effects, an assessment of possible technological solution for removal of the radium has been undertaken. Such methods must meet the severe requirements imposed by the oil recovery process at Troll B and C: High produced water rates (>1000 m{sup 3}/h), high salinity and content of water soluble carboxylic acids originating from the crude oil, in addition to a relatively high content of barium (3 550 tonnes/a). For implementation on an offshore installation the footprint and weight of the equipment would have to be as low as possible. It is also imperative that the radiation doses to operators are as low as possible. This puts strict requirements on the shielding of the absorbents accumulating {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra. No commercially available methods were identified, but one new conceptual method based on absorption of radium on barite has been proposed. Barite is also a good shielding material. Tests performed at Institute for Energy Technology show, however, that the kinetics of the

  13. Radium-226 and barium as tracers of water masses in the North Atlantic (GA01-GEOTRACES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Emilie; Sanial, Virginie; Charette, Matthew; Henderson, Paul; Jacquet, Stéphanie; García-Ibáñez, Maribel; Pérez, Fiz; Lherminer, Pascale; Souhaut, Marc; Jeandel, Catherine; Lacan, François; van Beek, Pieter

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we report concentrations of radium-226 (226Ra, t1/2=1602 y) and barium determined along the GEOVIDE section conducted in the North Atlantic (May-July 2014; Portugal-Greenland-Canda) in the framework of the international GEOTRACES program. A high vertical resolution (up to 22 depths per station) was achieved by analyzing small volumes (˜10 L) of seawater for 226Ra using a radon emanation technique. We will present the distribution of 226Ra activities and barium concentrations in contrasting biogeochemical regions of the North Atlantic (Iberian margin, West European Basin, Reykjanes Ridge, Irminger Sea, Greenland margin and Labrador Sea). These regions strongly differ in terms of boundary inputs, biogeochemistry and deep water formation. We observe a linear correlation between 226Ra and barium along the GEOVIDE section, which results from the dominantly conservative behavior of the two tracers. However, deviations from the linear correlation between 226Ra and Ba are found in several places. The potential causes for such deviations are investigated. Optimum multi-parameter (OMP) analysis was thus used to distinguish the relative importance of physical transport (i.e., water mass mixing) from non-conservative processes (sedimentary, river or hydrothermal inputs; uptake by particles) on the 226Ra and Ba distribution in the North Atlantic.

  14. Optical emission of 223 Radium: in vitro and in vivo preclinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Federico; De Sanctis, Francesco; Spinelli, Antonello E

    2017-10-20

    223 Radium (223 Ra) is widely used in Nuclear medicine to treat patients with osseous metastatic prostate cancer. In clinical practice 223 Ra cannot be imaged directly, however gamma photons produced by its short-lived daughter nuclides can be captured by conventional gamma cameras. In this work we show that 223 Ra and its short-lived daughter nuclides can be detected with optical imaging techniques. The light emission of 223 Ra was investigated in vitro using different setups in order to clarify the mechanism of light production. The results demonstrate that the luminescence of the 223 Ra chloride solution, usually employed in clinical treatments, is compatible with Cerenkov luminescence having an emission spectrum that is almost indistinguishable from Cerenkov radiation one. This study proves that luminescence imaging can be successfully employed to detect 223 Ra in vivo in mice by imaging whole body 223 Ra biodistribution and more precisely its uptake in bones. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Packaging and Disposal of a Radium-beryllium Source using Depleted Uranium Polyethylene Composite Shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith Rule; Paul Kalb; Pete Kwaschyn

    2003-02-11

    Two, 111-GBq (3 Curie) radium-beryllium (RaBe) sources were in underground storage at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) since 1988. These sources originated from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) where they were used to calibrate neutron detection diagnostics. In 1999, PPPL and BNL began a collaborative effort to expand the use of an innovative pilot-scale technology and bring it to full-scale deployment to shield these sources for eventual transport and burial at the Hanford Burial site. The transport/disposal container was constructed of depleted uranium oxide encapsulated in polyethylene to provide suitable shielding for both gamma and neutron radiation. This new material can be produced from recycled waste products (depleted uranium and polyethylene), is inexpensive, and can be disposed with the waste, unlike conventional lead containers, thus reducing exposure time for workers. This paper will provide calculations and information that led to the initial design of the shielding. We will also describe the production-scale processing of the container, cost, schedule, logistics, and many unforeseen challenges that eventually resulted in the successful fabrication and deployment of this shield. We will conclude with a description of the final configuration of the shielding container and shipping package along with recommendations for future shielding designs.

  16. PACKAGING AND DISPOSAL OF A RADIUM BERYLLIUM SOURCE USING DEPLETED URANIUM POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITE SHIELDING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RULE,K.; KALB,P.; KWASCHYN,P.

    2003-02-23

    Two, 111 GBq (3 Curie) radium-beryllium (RaBe) sources were in underground storage at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) since 1988. These sources originated from Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) where they were used to calibrate neutron detection diagnostics. In 1999, PPPL and BNL began a collaborative effort to expand the use of an innovative pilot-scale technology and bring it to full-scale deployment to shield these sources for eventual transport and burial at the Hanford Burial site. The transport/disposal container was constructed of depleted uranium oxide encapsulated in polyethylene to provide suitable shielding for both gamma and neutron radiation. This new material can be produced from recycled waste products (DU and polyethylene), is inexpensive, and can be disposed with the waste, unlike conventional lead containers, thus reducing exposure time for workers. This paper will provide calculations and information that led to the initial design of the shielding. We will also describe the production-scale processing of the container, cost, schedule, logistics, and many unforeseen challenges that eventually resulted in the successful fabrication and deployment of this shield. We will conclude with a description of the final configuration of the shielding container and shipping package along with recommendations for future shielding designs.

  17. Radium and barium removal through blending hydraulic fracturing fluids with acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondash, Andrew J; Warner, Nathaniel R; Lahav, Ori; Vengosh, Avner

    2014-01-21

    Wastewaters generated during hydraulic fracturing of the Marcellus Shale typically contain high concentrations of salts, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), and metals, such as barium, that pose environmental and public health risks upon inadequate treatment and disposal. In addition, fresh water scarcity in dry regions or during periods of drought could limit shale gas development. This paper explores the possibility of using alternative water sources and their impact on NORM levels through blending acid mine drainage (AMD) effluent with recycled hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFFs). We conducted a series of laboratory experiments in which the chemistry and NORM of different mix proportions of AMD and HFFF were examined after reacting for 48 h. The experimental data combined with geochemical modeling and X-ray diffraction analysis suggest that several ions, including sulfate, iron, barium, strontium, and a large portion of radium (60-100%), precipitated into newly formed solids composed mainly of Sr barite within the first ∼ 10 h of mixing. The results imply that blending AMD and HFFF could be an effective management practice for both remediation of the high NORM in the Marcellus HFFF wastewater and beneficial utilization of AMD that is currently contaminating waterways in northeastern U.S.A.

  18. Design for planning the cleanup of formerly used radium-contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelker, A. H.

    1978-04-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning of radium-contaminated facilities no longer in use have received increased attention in recent years. However, planning cost-effective cleanup solutions that are acceptable to the major groups concerned with nuclear waste management has proved to be a significant stumbling block. The decision maker must objectively and efficiently consider trade-offs between various concerns, choose an appropriate solution, and convince an uneasy public that properly decontaminated and decommissioned facilities can be safe for future unrestricted use. Fortunately, new procedures to assist the decision maker in performing these duties are evolving, and this report suggests how these procedures can be adapted to a proposed planning process for the decontamination and decommissioning of formerly used sites. The proposed process has the attributes of continuity of responsibility, centralized authority, sensitivity to diverse concerns, flexibility, consensus seeking, alternative plan generation, and objectivity. Special emphasis is placed on means of opening the decision-making process to broader participation by interested parties and on generation of alternatives.

  19. Radium geochemistry in Na-Cl type groundwater in Niigata Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Junpei; Satake, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Taijiro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2010-03-01

    Radium isotopes in 23 Na-Cl type groundwater sampled mainly from deep wells in Niigata Prefecture, which is the site of the largest oil- and gas-fields in Japan, were measured along with U isotopes, chemical components and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios to elucidate the distribution and behavior of Ra in a brackish environment underground. Also analyzed were U and Th isotopes in 38 rock samples collected from outcrops at 17 locations. Ra-226 concentrations (8.86-1637 mBq kg(-1)) of groundwater samples roughly correlated with total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations and other alkaline earth contents. Their (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios (0.32-5.2) were similar to or higher than the (232)Th/(238)U activity ratios (0.6-1.7) in the rocks. The most likely transport mechanism of Ra isotopes into groundwater was due to their alpha-recoil from the solid phase, probably from the water-rock interface where Th isotopes had accumulated, and adsorption/desorption reaction based on the increase in (226)Ra contents with TDS. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lasercooled radium monofluoride: A molecular all-in-one probe for new physics

    CERN Document Server

    Isaev, T A

    2013-01-01

    The particular advantages of using diatomic molecule radium monofluoride (RaF) as a versatile molecular probe for physics beyond the Standard Model are highlighted. i) RaF was previously suggested as being potentially amenable to direct cooling with lasers. As shown in the present work, RaF's energetically lowest electronically excited state is of ${}^{2}\\Pi$ symmetry (in contrast to BaF), such that no low-lying ${}^{2}\\Delta$ state prevents efficient optical cooling cycles. ii) The effective electric field acting on the unpaired electron in the electronic ground state of RaF is estimated larger than in YbF, from which the best restrictions on the electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) were obtained experimentally. iii) Favourable crossings of spin-rotational levels of opposite parity in external magnetic fields exist, which are important for the measurement of the nuclear anapole moment of nuclei with a valence neutron. Thus, RaF appears currently as one of the most attractive candidates for investigation of...

  1. Investigation of rare nuclear decays with BaF$_2$ crystal scintillator contaminated by radium

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, P; Cappella, F; Caracciolo, V; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Di Marco, A; Incicchitti, A; Poda, D V; Polischuk, O G; Tretyak, V I

    2014-01-01

    The radioactive contamination of a BaF$_2$ scintillation crystal with mass of 1.714 kg was measured over 101 hours in the low-background DAMA/R&D set-up deep underground (3600 m w.e.) at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of INFN (LNGS, Italy). The half-life of $^{212}$Po (present in the crystal scintillator due to contamination by radium) was measured as $T_{1/2}(^{212}$Po) = 298.8$\\pm$0.8(stat.)$\\pm$1.4(syst.) ns by analysis of the events' pulse profiles. The $^{222}$Rn nuclide is known as 100% decaying via emission of $\\alpha$ particle with $T_{1/2}$ = 3.82 d; however, its $\\beta$ decay is also energetically allowed with $Q_\\beta = 24\\pm21$ keV. Search for decay chains of events with specific pulse shapes characteristic for $\\alpha$ or for $\\beta/\\gamma$ signals and with known energies and time differences allowed us to set, for the first time, the limit on the branching ratio of $^{222}$Rn relatively to $\\beta$ decay as $B_\\beta 8.0$ y). Half-life limits of $^{212}$Pb, $^{222}$Rn and $^{226}$Ra rel...

  2. Real-Time Scintigraphic Assessment of Intravenous Radium-223 Administration for Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Chadwick L.; Monk, J. Paul; Murrey, Douglas A.; Hall, Nathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Radium-223 (223Ra) dichloride is an approved intravenous radiotherapy for patients with osseous metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In addition to the therapeutic alpha radiation, there is additional 223Ra radiation generated which produces photons that can be imaged with conventional gamma cameras. No studies have evaluated real-time and quality imaging during intravenous 223Ra administration to verify systemic circulation and exclude 223Ra extravasation at the injection site. A retrospective review was performed for fifteen 223Ra administrations for CRPC patients which were imaged using a large field of view portable gamma camera (LFOVPGC) for the purposes of quality control and patient safety. Dynamic imaging of the chest was performed before, during, and after the 223Ra administration to verify systemic circulation, per institutional clinical protocol. Before and after 223Ra administration, a static image was obtained of the intravenous access site. Dynamic imaging of the chest confirmed systemic administration early during the 1-minute injection period for all patients. There were no cases of focal 223Ra extravasation at the site of intravenous access. These results verify that systemic 223Ra administrations can be quantified with real-time imaging using an LFOVPGC. This simple approach can confirm and quantify systemic circulation of 223Ra early during injection and exclude focal extravasation for the purposes of quality control. PMID:25789312

  3. Radium isotopes assess water mixing processes and its application in the Zhujiang River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyi; Xu, Bochao; Yu, Zhigang; Li, Xiuqin; Nan, Haiming; Jian, Huimin; Jiang, Xueyan; Diao, Shaobo; Gao, Maosheng

    2017-09-01

    Radium (Ra) isotopes are useful for tracing water mass transport and examining estuarine hydrological dynamics. In this study, several hydrological parameters, nutrients, chlorophyll- a (chl- a), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and Ra isotopes (223Ra, 224Ra and 226Ra) of surface waters of the Zhujiang (Pearl) River estuary (ZRE) were measured. This was done for both winter (December) and summer (July) seasons, to quantitatively understand the seasonal characteristics of river plume flow rate and trajectories, as well as the ecological response. The results show that Ra concentrations in summer were higher than in winter, especially 224Ra (about 2-5 times higher). The spatial distribution of three Ra isotopes and relative Ra water ages indicated that river water mainly flushed out of ZRE through the western side in winter, where the water transport was about 5 days faster than in the eastern zone. In summer, diluted river water expended to the east side, resulting in fairly similar water ages for both sides of the river mouth. Although nutrients were higher during the summer season, lower chl- a concentrations indicated that reduced primary production might be caused by high SPM (low light penetration). The results obtained from this study will provide knowledge needed for effectively developing and managing the ZRE.

  4. Radium and radon in water supplies from the Texas Gulf coastal aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cech, I.; Lemma, M.; Prichard, H.M.; Kreitler, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    A sampling of the domestic water for two isotopes of the uranium (U)-238 series, radium (Ra)-226 and radon (Rn)-222, was conducted in parts of the Texas Gulf Coast to understand the distribution patterns of these radioisotopes in residential and commercial water supplies. Samples were obtained from consumers' taps, as well as at well heads to evaluate variation due to location and depth of water sources. Computer mapping and statistical analyses were used to depict patterns of Ra and Rn distribution. The concentrations varied depending on water source. No measurable Ra or Rn were found in surface water supplies, whereas up to 23 pCi l/sup -1/ of Ra and 3300 pCi l/sup -1/ of Rn were observed in some of the wells in northwest and southwest Harris County. The Rn concentrations were observed to increase with depth, but for Ra peak concentrations were found between 180 and 320 m below the surface. High concentrations of Ra and Rn were associated with wells developed on the flanks of piercement-type salt domes, along faults, and near streams

  5. Management of high-grade bone sarcomas over two decades: The Norwegian Radium Hospital experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hege Aksnes, Liv; Sundby Hall, Kirsten; Folleraas, Gunnar; Stenwig, Anna Elisabeth; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Taksdal, Ingeborg; Winderen, Mette; Bruland, Oeyvind Sverre; Saeter, Gunnar [The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo (Norway)

    2006-02-15

    All cases of high-grade osteosarcoma (OS) (n=196) and Ewing's sarcoma of bone (ES) (n=56) treated at the Norwegian Radium Hospital in the period 1980-1999 were analyzed retrospectively. They were allocated to consecutive ten-year periods by their time of diagnosis. Patient and tumour characteristics have been relatively stable. Eighty percent of all patients received surgical treatment and the amputation rate decreased from 64% to 23%. The percentage of patients receiving chemotherapy has remained around 80%. The use of radiotherapy in primary treatment decreased gradually from 33% to 18%. Sarcoma specific survival (SSS) at five years for all patients increased significantly from 39% to 53%. Similar trends for improvement were seen for both OS and ES. In multivariate analysis, independent prognostic factors for improved SSS were non-metastatic disease at diagnosis, age under 40, extremity tumours, small tumours and treatment from 1995 onwards. No major new treatment options have emerged over these 20 years. The improved outcome appears partly to be due to refinements in the use of existing modalities and improved quality and integration of multidisciplinary approaches. Improved formalized organisation of the sarcoma group and annual audited reports of its patient and research activity may also have contributed to improved focus and performance.

  6. 228Ra, 226Ra, 224Ra and 223Ra in potential sources and sinks of land-derived material in the German Bight of the North Sea: implications for the use of radium as a tracer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, C.; Hanfland, C.; Regnier, P.; Van Cappellen, P.; Schlüter, M.; Knauthe, U.; Stimac, I.; Geibert, W.

    2011-01-01

    Activities of the naturally occurring radium nuclides 228Ra, 226Ra, 224Ra and 223Ra were determined in waters of the open German Bight and adjacent nearshore areas in the North Sea, in order to explore the potential use of radium isotopes as natural tracers of land–ocean interaction in an

  7. Ação do radium sôbre o vírus da Coriomeningite linfocitária benigna Radium effect upon the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guilherme Lacorte

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz parte de uma seqüência iniciada em 1953 com a verificação do efeito dos raios X sôbre o vírus da gripe em que observamos que os mesmos, em doses fracas, tem aumentado o seu poder patogênico para camundongos. Posteriormente, verificamos a ação do radium sôbre o vírus da gripe e da poliomielite. Neste último caso, o vírus irradiado mostrou-se ativo durante maior número de dias. Nas pesquisas aqui referidas, submetemos o vírus da coriomeningite linfocitária benigna a ação do radium, usando quatro agulhas de 1 mg desse elemento em dispositivo que idealizamos para êste fim. Depois de irradiada, foi a suspensão de vírus diluida a 10*-1, 10*-2 e 10*-3 para as inoculações em camundongos, juntamente com as diluições testemunhas. Observamos que o vírus resistiu pelo menos 264 dias, à temperatura de 4ºC. Quanto às alterações do poder patogênico provocadas pelo radium verificamos que o mesmo não se altera após 24 horas de irradiação. Diminue após 8 dias para aumentar, de modo seguro, após 20 e 33 dias. Iguala-se ao testemunha depois de 78 dias.In the present paper the authors refered the experiments made with the lymphocytic chriomeningitis virus. We strain, after exposition to 4 tubes of 1 mg of radium. The virus suspension was put into the Carrel flask in a layer of 0,1 cm. The titrations of the irradiated virus suspension were made after 24 hours, 8, 20, 33, 78, 85, 120, 264, 292, 387 and 535 days. the virus was still active after 264 days, not after 292 days. The virus irradiated during 24 hours presented the same pathogenicity form mice than the control but after 8 days it was lesser and after 20 and 33 days it was enchanced (Graphic 10. After 78 days the pathogenic power was the same for the irradiated virus and the control.

  8. Producing a problem? Effects of produced water contaminants (PAHs, radium-226, barium and scale inhibitor) on the copepod Calanus finmarchicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel Jensen, Louise [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Fram Centre, 9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Halvorsen, Elisabeth; Gammelsaeter Hallanger, Ingeborg [UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, P.O. box 6050 Langnes, 9037 Tromsoe (Norway); Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Brooks, Steven [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo (Norway); Hansen, Bjoern Henrik [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Marine Environmental Technology, Brattoerkaia 17B, 7010 Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    In the Barents Sea region new petroleum fields are discovered yearly and the extraction of petroleum products are expected to increase in the upcoming years. Despite enhanced technology and stricter governmental legislation, establishing the petroleum industry in the Barents Sea will introduce a new source of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) to the area as some discharges of produced water will be allowed. Whether the presence of produced water poses a risk to the Arctic marine life remains to be examined. We examined effects on the copepod species Calanus finmarchicus after exposure to several compounds found in produced water. A mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkyl phenols commonly found in produced water was used as a proxy of the organic fraction of the produced water (hereafter termed APW (Artificial Produced Water)). In addition, exposures were done using radium-226 (proxy for NORM), barium (proxy for metals) and a scale inhibitor (SI -4470, M-I SWACO, Schlumberger Norge AS). Short-term screening tests on a range of concentrations of all compounds were run to assess the hatchability of the eggs and early survival of the nauplii. Long-term experiments were carried out with exposure concentrations at realistic levels found in the vicinity of known discharge points. The copepod C. finmarchicus is considered a keystone species in the Barents Sea ecosystem as it represents the major pathway of energy transfer from lower to higher trophic levels. We have examined sub-lethal effects on early life stages and on adult females. The hatchability of the eggs was not affected by concentrations well above realistic environmental levels. However, the instant mortality of the hatched larvae increased with higher concentrations of barium, scale inhibitor and APW, though not with higher radium-226 concentration. When examining the long-term growth of the nauplii, we found that the survival was poor in the APW treatment, and in the barium

  9. Pain, PSA flare, and bone scan response in a patient with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with radium-223, a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Megan A; George, Daniel J

    2015-05-07

    Radium-223 has been shown to improve overall survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases. The bone scan response to radium-223 has only been described in one single center trial of 14 patients, none of whom achieved the outstanding bone scan response presented in the current case. In this case report, we describe a 75 year-old white man with extensively pre-treated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and symptomatic bone metastases who experienced a flare in pain and prostate-specific antigen, followed by dramatic clinical (pain), biochemical (prostate-specific antigen), and imaging (bone scan) response. The flare phenomena and bone scan response we observed have not previously been described with radium-223. This case suggests that the degree and duration of bone scan response may be predictive of overall survival benefit.

  10. Radium equivalent in clays extracted in Northeast cities of Brazil and used in civil construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Eduardo E.N.; Junior, Jose Araujo S.; Amaral, Romilton S.; Santos, Josineide M.N.; Rojas, Lino A.V.; Fernandez, Zahily H., E-mail: eduardo.eudes@ufpe.br, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: josineide.santos@ufpe.br, E-mail: lino.valcarcel@ufpe.br, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    The Earth's crust may have different levels of natural radioactivity as a consequence of the different types of minerals that form its composition. Exploration activities of natural sources may have a high radiometric impact for the radionuclides of the natural series and contributes to radionuclides transitions to others areas. The distribution of natural radioactive elements {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K in rock and soil is not uniform and as a consequence all building materials contain amounts of natural radioactive substances. This study aimed to establish the calculation of the Equivalent Radium Activity (Ra{sub Eq}) in brickwork's clays in the adjacent area to the uranium deposits in Northeast Brazil cities in the states of Paraiba and Rio Grande do Norte. The analyses were performed using the non-destructive method HPGe-Be gamma spectrometry. Twenty-eight samples were collected from ten brickworks in the cities of Sao Jose do Sabugi and Santa Luzia, in Paraiba State and Santana do Serido and Parelhas, in Rio Grande do Norte State. The activities of RaEq ranged from 84.5 to 747.8 Bq/kg with an average of 334.0 Bq/kg. Approximately 29% of the analyzed samples had activities of RaEq above the limit defined by UNSCEAR (the limit is 370 Bq/kg), where the clays must have its sources of extraction monitored, respecting the radioecological protection rules. From the qualification of the samples, it has been certified that the radionuclides present in this study are exclusively of natural origin. (author)

  11. Extraction of (223)Radium by haemodialysis after treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großer, Oliver Stephan; Wissel, Heiko; Wallbaum, Thekla; Genseke, Philipp; Kupitz, Dennis; Ricke, Jens; Ruf, Juri; Amthauer, Holger

    2017-06-13

    (223)Radium-dichloride ((223)Ra) administration is an upcoming therapeutic option in patients with castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer (mCRPC), whose renal and faecal excretion of (223)Ra has been primarily estimated from data of a phase-I clinical trial in patients with normal renal function. In the rare case of concomitant renal insufficiency requiring haemodialysis (HD), an estimation of the contamination of dialysate would be beneficial. The excretion of (223)Ra and its concentration in the dialysate in a patient with mCRPC and end-stage renal disease was examined for six consecutive treatment cycles. Dialysate samples were measured using a commercial system with NaI-scintillation detector. HD showed a residual activity level in the remaining dialysate. The excreted activity was a median of 46.1 kBq (range = 42.0- 83.4 kBq) and 11.2 kBq (range = 8.4- 19.9 kBq) for the first (24 h post injection p.i.) and second HD (96 h p.i.), respectively. The activity concentration decreased significantly from a median of 4.18 kBq/l (range = 2.98-5.14 kBq/l) to 0.85 kBq/l (range = 0.69- 1.31 kBq/l, p handling has to be followed to fulfil the radiation protection regulations.

  12. Remediating radium contaminated legacy sites: Advances made through machine learning in routine monitoring of "hot" particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Adam; Tyler, Andrew; Smith, Leslie; Dale, Paul; Davies, Mike

    2015-07-15

    The extensive use of radium during the 20th century for industrial, military and pharmaceutical purposes has led to a large number of contaminated legacy sites across Europe and North America. Sites that pose a high risk to the general public can present expensive and long-term remediation projects. Often the most pragmatic remediation approach is through routine monitoring operating gamma-ray detectors to identify, in real-time, the signal from the most hazardous heterogeneous contamination (hot particles); thus facilitating their removal and safe disposal. However, current detection systems do not fully utilise all spectral information resulting in low detection rates and ultimately an increased risk to the human health. The aim of this study was to establish an optimised detector-algorithm combination. To achieve this, field data was collected using two handheld detectors (sodium iodide and lanthanum bromide) and a number of Monte Carlo simulated hot particles were randomly injected into the field data. This allowed for the detection rate of conventional deterministic (gross counts) and machine learning (neural networks and support vector machines) algorithms to be assessed. The results demonstrated that a Neural Network operated on a sodium iodide detector provided the best detection capability. Compared to deterministic approaches, this optimised detection system could detect a hot particle on average 10cm deeper into the soil column or with half of the activity at the same depth. It was also found that noise presented by internal contamination restricted lanthanum bromide for this application. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Radium concentration factors in passionfruit (Passiflora foetida) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, Peter; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Parry, David; Martin, Paul

    2013-12-01

    In this study, uptake of Ra from soil into the edible fruit of the wild passionfruit species Passiflora foetida was investigated, using selective extraction from the soil samples. A wide range of environmental exposure conditions were represented by the locations that were sampled, including both natural soils, and soils influenced by past and present uranium mining activities. The bioavailable (226)Ra fraction in soils was found to be a better predictor of (226)Ra fruit activity concentrations than the total soil activity concentration, or any of the other fractions studied. Concentration Factors (CFs) derived using the bioavailable fraction varied by only a factor of 7 between different locations, whereas CFs derived using other fractions and total soil varied by up to two orders of magnitude. CFs were highest for those soils containing the lowest concentrations of Mg, Ca and Ba, and approached a saturation value at higher soil concentrations. This finding suggests that group II elements influence radium uptake, most likely the result of increased pressure on the plant to take up essential nutrient group II elements from soil with the lower concentrations, with Ra being taken up as an analogue element. It is also possible that at higher concentrations of bioavailable Ca and Mg in the soil, these ions will outcompete Ra for adsorption sites in the soil and/or on the root surfaces. The study also shows that (228)Ra can potentially be a significant contributor to ingestion doses and should also be considered when assessing committed effective doses from the ingestion of fruits. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental and modeling studies on sorption and diffusion of radium in bentonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachi, Y; Shibutani, T; Sato, H; Yui, M

    2001-02-01

    The sorption and desorption behavior of radium on bentonite and purified smectite was investigated as a function of pH, ionic strength and liquid to solid ratio by batch experiments. The distribution coefficients (Kd) were in the range of 10(2) to > 10(4) ml g-1 and depended on ionic strength and pH. Most of sorbed Ra was desorbed by 1 M KCl. The results for purified smectite indicated that Ra sorption is dominated by ion exchange at layer sites of smectite, and surface complexation at edge sites may increase Ra sorption at higher pH region. Reaction parameters between Ra and smectite were determined based on an interaction model between smectite and groundwater. The reaction parameters were then used to explain the results of bentonite by considering dissolution and precipitation of minerals and soluble impurities. The dependencies of experimental Kd values on pH, ionic strength and liquid to solid ratio were qualitatively explained by the model. The modeling result for bentonite indicated that sorption of Ra on bentonite is dominated by ion exchange with smectite. The observed pH dependency was caused by changes of Ca concentration arising from dissolution and precipitation of calcite. Diffusion behavior of Ra in bentonite was also investigated as a function of dry density and ionic strength. The apparent diffusion coefficients (Da) obtained in compacted bentonite were in the range of 1.1 x 10(-11) to 2.2 x 10(-12) m2 s-1 and decreased with increasing in dry density and ionic strength. The Kd values obtained by measured effective diffusion coefficient (De) and modeled De were consistent with those by the sorption model in a deviation within one order of magnitude.

  15. Evaluation of internal alpha radiation exposure and subsequent infertility among a cohort of women formerly employed in the radium dial industry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieve, L. A.; Davis, F.; Roeske, J.; Handler, A.; Freels, S.; Stinchcomb, T.; Keane, A.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Univ. of Chicago; DePaul Univ.

    1997-02-01

    This study examined the effect of internal exposure to {alpha}-particle radiation on subsequent fertility among women employed in the radium dial industry prior to 1930, when appreciable amounts of radium were often ingested through the practice of pointing the paint brush with the lips. The analysis was limited to women for whom a radium body burden measurement had been obtained and who were married prior to age 45 (n=603). Internal radiation dose to the ovary was calculated based on initial intakes of radium-226 and radium-228, average ovarian mass, number and energy of {alpha} particles emitted, fraction of energy absorbed with in the ovary, effective retention integrals and estimated photon irradiation. Time between marriage and pregnancy, number of pregnancies and number of live births served as surrogates for fertility. Radiation appeared to have no effect on fertility at estimated cumulative ovarian dose equivalents below 5 Sv; above this dose, however, statistically significant declines in both number of pregnancies and live births were observed. These trends persisted after multivariable adjustment for potential confounding variables and after exclusion of subjects contributing a potential classification or selection bias to the study. Additionally, the high-dose group experienced fewer live births than would have been expected based on population rates. There were no differences in time to first pregnancy between high- and low-dose groups. These results are consistent with earlier studies of {gamma}-ray exposures and suggest that exposure to high doses of radiation from internally deposited radium reduces fertility rather than inducing sterility.

  16. Radiological assessment of water treatment processes in a water treatment plant in Saudi Arabia: Water and sludge radium content, radon air concentrations and dose rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jaseem, Q.Kh., E-mail: qjassem@kacst.edu.sa [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Almasoud, Fahad I. [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Ababneh, Anas M. [Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Islamic University in Madinah, Al-Madinah, P.O. Box 170 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Hobaib, A.S. [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-09-01

    There is an increase demand for clean water sources in Saudi Arabia and, yet, renewable water resources are very limited. This has forced the authorities to explore deep groundwater which is known to contain large concentrations of radionuclides, mainly radium isotopes. Lately, there has been an increase in the number of water treatment plants (WTPs) around the country. In this study, a radiological assessment of a WTP in Saudi Arabia was performed. Raw water was found to have total radium activity of 0.23 Bq/L, which exceeds the international limit of 0.185 Bq/L (5 pCi/L). The WTP investigated uses three stages of treatment: flocculation/sedimentation, sand filtration and reverse osmosis. The radium removal efficiency was evaluated for each stage and the respective values were 33%, 22% and 98%. Moreover, the activity of radium in the solid waste generated from the WTP in the sedimentation and sand filtrations stages were measured and found to be 4490 and 6750 Bq/kg, respectively, which exceed the national limit of 1000 Bq/kg for radioactive waste. A radiological assessment of the air inside the WTP was also performed by measuring the radon concentrations and dose rates and were found in the ranges of 2–18 Bq/m{sup 3} and 70–1000 nSv/h, respectively. The annual effective dose was calculated and the average values was found to be 0.3 mSv which is below the 1 mSv limit. - Highlights: • Radiological assessment of groundwater treatment plant was performed. • Radium Removal efficiency was calculated for different stages during water treatment. • Radium concentrations in sludge were measured and found to exceed the national limit for radioactive waste. • Air radon concentrations and dose rates were monitored in the water treatment plant. • The Reverse Osmosis (RO) unit was found to record the highest air radon concentrations and dose rates.

  17. Radium-based estimates of cesium isotope transport and total direct ocean discharges from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Charette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Radium has four naturally occurring isotopes that have proven useful in constraining water mass source, age, and mixing rates in the coastal and open ocean. In this study, we used radium isotopes to determine the fate and flux of runoff-derived cesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP. During a June 2011 cruise, the highest cesium (Cs concentrations were found along the eastern shelf of northern Japan, from Fukushima south, to the edge of the Kuroshio Current, and in an eddy ~ 130 km from the FNPP site. Locations with the highest cesium also had some of the highest radium activities, suggesting much of the direct ocean discharges of Cs remained in the coastal zone 2–3 months after the accident. We used a short-lived Ra isotope (223Ra, t1/2 = 11.4 d to derive an average water mass age (Tr in the coastal zone of 32 days. To ground-truth the Ra age model, we conducted a direct, station-by-station comparison of water mass ages with a numerical oceanographic model and found them to be in excellent agreement (model avg. Tr = 27 days. From these independent Tr values and the inventory of Cs within the water column at the time of our cruise, we were able to calculate an offshore 134Cs flux of 3.9–4.6 × 1013 Bq d−1. Radium-228 (t1/2 = 5.75 yr was used to derive a vertical eddy diffusivity (Kz of 0.7 m2 d−1 (0.1 cm2 s−1; from this Kz and 134Cs inventory, we estimated a 134Cs flux across the pycnocline of 1.8 × 104 Bq d−1 for the same time period. On average, our results show that horizontal mixing loss of Cs from the coastal zone was ~ 109 greater than vertical exchange below the surface mixed layer. Finally, a mixing/dilution model that utilized our Ra-based and oceanographic model water mass ages produced a direct ocean discharge of 134Cs from the FNPP of 11–16 PBq at the time of the peak release in early April 2011. Our results can be used to calculate discharge of other water-soluble radionuclides that were released

  18. An analysis of bone and head sinus cancers in radium dial painters using a two-mutation carcinogenesis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leenhouts, H.P. [National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands). E-mail: Henk.Leenhouts at rivm.nl; Brugmans, M.J.P. [National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2000-06-01

    Bone and head sinus cancer incidence after ingestion of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra by radium dial painters is analysed using a two-mutation clonal expansion model for radiation carcinogenesis, taking into account the retention and radiation patterns of these nuclides in the body. The best fit is obtained for compact bone retention and efficient diffusion of {sup 222}Rn to the bone cavities and radiation action on both mutation rates of the cancer model, as found in a similar analysis of bone sarcomas after {sup 226}Ra injection in beagles. The model parameters of the best fit are consistent with cellular radiobiological data and a previous analysis of lung cancer in uranium miners. Due to the low background incidence of bone and head sinus cancer, the resulting dose-effect relationships for these cancers are linear-quadratic with radium ingestion and alpha radiation dose. These results do not support a threshold dose concept, but the risks at low doses calculated by the model come out to about a factor 10 lower than using a linear extrapolation of the data to low doses, a procedure currently applied by ICRP and EPA. Furthermore, the model results indicate radiation risks at low doses to be related with background cancer incidence between relative and absolute radiation risk projections. The results, which are dependent on the model assumptions, might be more generally applicable for bone seekers and will therefore need further study to arrive at better radiation risk estimations. (abstract)

  19. Multistage cancer models of bone cancer induction in beagles and mice by radium and plutonium, compared to humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijwaard, H.; Brugmans, M. [RIVM-National Inst. for Public Health and the Environment, Lab. for Radiation Research, MA Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    Two-mutation carcinogenesis models of mice injected with Pu-239 and Ra-226 have been derived as an extension of previous modellings of beagle dogs injected with Pu-239 and Ra-226 and dial painters that ingested radium. In all cases the data could be fitted adequately using no more than five free model parameters. Apart from three parameters for the background, these include two dose-related parameters: a linear mutation coefficient that is equal in both mutational steps and a usually non-zero cell-killing coefficient in the second mutational step. After a simple scaling the animal models compare reasonably well with each other and with the model for the radium dial painters. From the toxicity ratio of beagle models for Pu-239 and Ra-226, together with the human model for Ra-226, an approximate model for the exposure of humans to Pu-239 has been constructed. Relative risk calculations with this approximate model are in good agreement with epidemiological findings for the plutonium-exposed Mayak workers. This promising result may indicate new possibilities for estimating risks for humans from animal experiments. (orig.)

  20. Age validation of canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) using two independent otolith techniques: lead-radium and bomb radiocarbon dating.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, A H; Kerr, L A; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A; Lundstrom, C C; Stanley, R D

    2007-11-04

    Canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) have long been an important part of recreational and commercial rockfish fishing from southeast Alaska to southern California, but localized stock abundances have declined considerably. Based on age estimates from otoliths and other structures, lifespan estimates vary from about 20 years to over 80 years. For the purpose of monitoring stocks, age composition is routinely estimated by counting growth zones in otoliths; however, age estimation procedures and lifespan estimates remain largely unvalidated. Typical age validation techniques have limited application for canary rockfish because they are deep dwelling and may be long lived. In this study, the unaged otolith of the pair from fish aged at the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada was used in one of two age validation techniques: (1) lead-radium dating and (2) bomb radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) dating. Age estimate accuracy and the validity of age estimation procedures were validated based on the results from each technique. Lead-radium dating proved successful in determining a minimum estimate of lifespan was 53 years and provided support for age estimation procedures up to about 50-60 years. These findings were further supported by {Delta}{sup 14}C data, which indicated a minimum estimate of lifespan was 44 {+-} 3 years. Both techniques validate, to differing degrees, age estimation procedures and provide support for inferring that canary rockfish can live more than 80 years.

  1. Uranium and radium activities measurements and calculation of effective doses in some drinking water samples in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oum Keltoum Hakam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As a way of prevention, we have measured the activities of uranium and radium isotopes (234U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra for 30 drinking water samples collected from 11 wells, 9 springs (6 hot and 3 cold, 3 commercialised mineral water, and 7 tap water samples. Methods: Activities of the Ra isotopes were measured by ultra-gamma spectrometry using a low background and high efficiency well type germanium detector. The U isotopes were counted in an alpha spectrometer.Results: The measured Uranium and radium activities are similar to those published for other non-polluting regions of the world. Except in one commercialised gaseous water sample, and in two hot spring water samples, the calculated effective doses during one year are inferior to the reference level of 0.1 mSv/year recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Conclusion: These activities don't present any risk for public health in Morocco. The sparkling water of Oulmes is occasionally consumed as table water and waters of warm springs are not used as main sources of drinking water.  

  2. Uranium, radium and thorium in soils with high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, MCNP-generated efficiencies, and VRF non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Robert; Riper, Kenneth Van; Lasche, George

    2017-09-01

    A new method for analysis of uranium and radium in soils by gamma spectroscopy has been developed using VRF ("Visual RobFit") which, unlike traditional peak-search techniques, fits full-spectrum nuclide shapes with non-linear least-squares minimization of the chi-squared statistic. Gamma efficiency curves were developed for a 500 mL Marinelli beaker geometry as a function of soil density using MCNP. Collected spectra were then analyzed using the MCNP-generated efficiency curves and VRF to deconvolute the 90 keV peak complex of uranium and obtain 238U and 235U activities. 226Ra activity was determined either from the radon daughters if the equilibrium status is known, or directly from the deconvoluted 186 keV line. 228Ra values were determined from the 228Ac daughter activity. The method was validated by analysis of radium, thorium and uranium soil standards and by inter-comparison with other methods for radium in soils. The method allows for a rapid determination of whether a sample has been impacted by a man-made activity by comparison of the uranium and radium concentrations to those that would be expected from a natural equilibrium state.

  3. Uranium, radium and thorium in soils with high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, MCNP-generated efficiencies, and VRF non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metzger Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for analysis of uranium and radium in soils by gamma spectroscopy has been developed using VRF (“Visual RobFit” which, unlike traditional peak-search techniques, fits full-spectrum nuclide shapes with non-linear least-squares minimization of the chi-squared statistic. Gamma efficiency curves were developed for a 500 mL Marinelli beaker geometry as a function of soil density using MCNP. Collected spectra were then analyzed using the MCNP-generated efficiency curves and VRF to deconvolute the 90 keV peak complex of uranium and obtain 238U and 235U activities. 226Ra activity was determined either from the radon daughters if the equilibrium status is known, or directly from the deconvoluted 186 keV line. 228Ra values were determined from the 228Ac daughter activity. The method was validated by analysis of radium, thorium and uranium soil standards and by inter-comparison with other methods for radium in soils. The method allows for a rapid determination of whether a sample has been impacted by a man-made activity by comparison of the uranium and radium concentrations to those that would be expected from a natural equilibrium state.

  4. Long term investigation of late effects in ankylosing spondylitis patients treated with radium-224

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, R.R. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, Inst. of Radiobiology, Neuherberg (Germany); Nekolla, E.A. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), Neuherberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    An epidemiological study has been carried out on 1462 ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients followed since 1971 at the GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health. The aim of the study was to ascertain the late health effects occurring in these patients who had received repeated intravenous injections of the short lived {alpha}-emitter {sup 224}radium between 1948 and 1975 (excluding patients treated additionally with X-rays). The then usual therapeutic protocol consisted of a total of 10 to 12 injections of 1.036 MBq (28 {mu}Ci) of {sup 224}Ra each, given at weekly intervals. This resulted in a cumulative {alpha}-dose of 0.56 to 0.67 Gy to the marrow-free skeleton (bone surface dose: {proportional_to} 5.5 Gy) of a 70-kg-man (standard man). These patients have been followed together with a control group of 1324 ankylosing spondylitis patients not treated with radioactive drugs and/or X-rays. Up to August 2004, causes of death have been ascertained for 913 exposed patients and 971 controls (mean follow-up time {proportional_to} 26 yr in the exposed group or {proportional_to} 24 yr in the control group). In the exposed group there has been a total of 251 malignant diseases (vs. 277.0 expected cases) and 233 cases (vs. 302.4 exp.) among the controls. In the exposure group 16 cases of kidney cancer (vs. 8.7 cases expected, p = 0.02), 6 cases of liver cancer (vs. 3.3 exp., p = 0.12), and 4 cases of thyroid cancer (vs. 1.1 exp., p = 0.03) were observed. The most striking observation, however, were the 16 cases of leukaemia in the exposure group (vs. 6.5 cases expected, p = 0.001) compared to only 10 cases of leukaemia in the control group (vs. 7.1 cases expected, p = 0.2). Further subclassification of the leukaemias demonstrated a high increase of myeloid leukaemia in the exposure group (10 cases obs. vs. 2.8 cases exp., p <0.001), and particularly, of myeloid leukaemia (7 cases observed vs. 1.7 expected, p = 0.002), whereas in the control group the number

  5. Linearity assumption in soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium and radium in Helianthus annuus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, P. Blanco [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Tome, F. Vera [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail: fvt@unex.es; Fernandez, M. Perez [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Lozano, J.C. [Laboratorio de Radiactividad Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-05-15

    The linearity assumption of the validation of soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra was tested using Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower) grown in a hydroponic medium. Transfer of natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra was tested in both the aerial fraction of plants and in the overall seedlings (roots and shoots). The results show that the linearity assumption can be considered valid in the hydroponic growth of sunflowers for the radionuclides studied. The ability of sunflowers to translocate uranium and {sup 226}Ra was also investigated, as well as the feasibility of using sunflower plants to remove uranium and radium from contaminated water, and by extension, their potential for phytoextraction. In this sense, the removal percentages obtained for natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra were 24% and 42%, respectively. Practically all the uranium is accumulated in the roots. However, 86% of the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration in roots was translocated to the aerial part.

  6. Competition between pairing correlations and deformation from the odd-even mass staggering of francium and radium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreim, S.; Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Borgmann, Ch.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Cocolios, T. E.; Gottberg, A.; Herfurth, F.; Kowalska, M.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Lunney, D.; Manea, V.; Mendonca, T. M.; Naimi, S.; Neidherr, D.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L.; Stora, Th.; Wienholtz, F.; Wolf, R. N.; Zuber, K.

    2014-08-01

    The masses of Fr222,224,226-233 and Ra233,234 have been determined with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at the ISOLDE facility at CERN, including the previously unknown mass and half-life of Fr233. We study the evolution of the odd-even staggering of binding energies along the francium and radium isotopic chains and of its lowest-order estimator, Δ3(N). An enhancement of the staggering of Δ3(N) is observed towards neutron number N =146, which points to contributions beyond pairing correlations. These contributions are investigated in the Hartree-Fock and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approaches, emphasizing the connections to the single-particle level density and nuclear deformation.

  7. A consistent two-mutation model of bone cancer for two data sets of radium-injected beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijwaard, H.; Brugmans, M.J.P.; Leenhouts, H.P. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2002-09-01

    A two-mutation carcinogenesis model has been applied to model osteosarcoma incidence in two data sets of beagles injected with {sup 226}Ra. Taking age-specific retention into account, the following results have been obtained: (1) a consistent and well-fitting solution for all age and dose groups, (2) mutation rates that are linearly dependent on dose rate, with an exponential decrease for the second mutation at high dose rates, (3) a linear-quadratic dose-effect relationship, which indicates that care should be taken when extrapolating linearly, (4) highest cumulative incidences for injection at young adult age, and highest risks for injection doses of a few kBq kg{sup -1} at these ages, and (5) when scaled appropriately, the beagle model compares fairly well with a description for radium dial painters, suggesting that a consistent model description of bone cancer induction in beagles and humans may be possible. (author)

  8. Remediating radium contaminated legacy sites: Advances made through machine learning in routine monitoring of “hot” particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Adam, E-mail: a.l.varley@stir.ac.uk [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Tyler, Andrew, E-mail: a.n.tyler@stir.ac.uk [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Smith, Leslie, E-mail: l.s.smith@cs.stir.ac.uk [Department of Computing Science and Mathematics, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Dale, Paul, E-mail: paul.dale@sepa.org.uk [Scottish Environmental Protection Agency, Radioactive Substances, Strathallan House, Castle Business Park, Stirling FK9 4TZ (United Kingdom); Davies, Mike, E-mail: Mike.Davies@nuvia.co.uk [Nuvia Limited, The Library, Eight Street, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RL (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    The extensive use of radium during the 20th century for industrial, military and pharmaceutical purposes has led to a large number of contaminated legacy sites across Europe and North America. Sites that pose a high risk to the general public can present expensive and long-term remediation projects. Often the most pragmatic remediation approach is through routine monitoring operating gamma-ray detectors to identify, in real-time, the signal from the most hazardous heterogeneous contamination (hot particles); thus facilitating their removal and safe disposal. However, current detection systems do not fully utilise all spectral information resulting in low detection rates and ultimately an increased risk to the human health. The aim of this study was to establish an optimised detector-algorithm combination. To achieve this, field data was collected using two handheld detectors (sodium iodide and lanthanum bromide) and a number of Monte Carlo simulated hot particles were randomly injected into the field data. This allowed for the detection rate of conventional deterministic (gross counts) and machine learning (neural networks and support vector machines) algorithms to be assessed. The results demonstrated that a Neural Network operated on a sodium iodide detector provided the best detection capability. Compared to deterministic approaches, this optimised detection system could detect a hot particle on average 10 cm deeper into the soil column or with half of the activity at the same depth. It was also found that noise presented by internal contamination restricted lanthanum bromide for this application. - Highlights: • Land contaminated with radium is hazardous to human health. • Routine monitoring permits identification and removal of radioactive hot particles. • Current alarm algorithms do not provide reliable hot particle detection. • Spectral processing using Machine Learning significantly improves detection.

  9. Assessment of radium-226 bioavailability and bioaccumulation downstream of decommissioned uranium operations, using the caged oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiramanaden, Cheryl I E; Orr, Patricia L; Russel, Cynthia K

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the integrated effects of several geochemical processes that control radium-226 ((226) Ra) mobility in the aquatic environment and bioaccumulation in in situ caged benthic invertebrates. Radium-226 bioaccumulation from sediment and water was evaluated using caged oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) deployed for 10 d in 6 areas downstream of decommissioned uranium operations in Ontario and Saskatchewan, Canada. Measured (226) Ra radioactivity levels in the retrieved oligochaetes did not relate directly to water and sediment exposure levels. Other environmental factors that may influence (226) Ra bioavailability in sediment and water were investigated. The strongest mitigating influence on (226) Ra bioaccumulation factors was sediment barium concentration, with elevated barium (Ba) levels being related to use of barium chloride in effluent treatment for removing (226) Ra through barite formation. Observations from the present study also indicated that (226) Ra bioavailability was influenced by dissolved organic carbon in water, and by gypsum, carbonate minerals, and iron oxyhydroxides in sediment, suggestive of sorption processes. Environmental factors that appeared to increase (226) Ra bioaccumulation were the presence of other group (II) ions in water (likely competing for binding sites on organic carbon molecules), and the presence of K-feldspars in sediment, which likely act as a dynamic repository for (226) Ra where weak ion exchange can occur. In addition to influencing bioavailability to sediment biota, secondary minerals such as gypsum, carbonate minerals, and iron oxyhydroxides likely help mitigate (226) Ra release into overlying water after the dissolution of sedimentary barite. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:507-517. © 2014 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  10. Pertinence of an epidemiological study to estimate the sanitary consequences of the contamination by radium of the kindergarten situated at the 12 Chomel street (Paris 7.); Pertinence d'une etude epidemiologique pour estimer les consequences sanitaires de la contamination par du radium de la halte garderie situee au 12 rue Chomel (Paris 7.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germonneau, P.; Pirard, P. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint Maurice (France)

    2000-12-01

    On the base of available exposure data and actual models of risk evaluation, the results do not allow to think that a leukemia risk or death by lung cancer attributable to ionizing radiation exposure could be detectable by an epidemiological study in the population of children having frequented the day nursery contaminated by radium. (N.C.)

  11. Radium isotope ((223)Ra, (224)Ra, (226)Ra and (228)Ra) distribution near Brazil's largest port, Paranaguá Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Thais H; de Oliveira, Joselene; Sanders, Christian J; Carvalho, Franciane; Sanders, Luciana M; Machado, Eunice C; Sá, Fabian

    2016-10-15

    This work investigates the (223)Ra, (224)Ra, (226)Ra and (228)Ra isotope distribution in river, estuarine waters and sediments of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC). The stratification of the Ra isotopes along water columns indicate differing natural sources. In sediments, the radium isotope activities was inversely proportional to the particle size. The highest concentrations of (223)Ra, (224)Ra, (226)Ra and (228)Ra in the water column were found in the bottom more saline waters and towards the inner of the estuary. These relatively high concentrations towards the bottom of the estuary may be attributed to the influence of tidally driven groundwater source and desorption from particles at the maximum turbidity zone. The apparent river water ages from the radium isotope ratios, (223)Ra/(224)Ra and (223)Ra/(228)Ra, indicate that the principal rivers that flow into the estuary have residence times from between 6 and 11days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Formerly utilized MED/AEC Sites Remedial Action Program. Radiological survey of the former VITRO Rare Metals Plant, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. Final report. [Plant to extract radium and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    This 18-acre site was used from 1911 to 1922 to extract radium from carnotite ore, from 1930 to 1942 to extract radium and uranium salts from onsite residues and carnotite ore, and from 1942 to 1957 to recover uranium from various ores and scrap materials. The radiological survey was conducted in two phases, Phase I included measurement of radon and radon daughter concentrations in onsite buildings; concentrations measured in this part of the survey were all above guideline levels. Phase II consisted of measurement of surface contamination levels on the site, external gamma radiation levels at 1 m above surfaces on and near the site, radionuclide concentrations in surface and subsurface soil and water on and near the site, and radon concentrations in air at offsite locations. The results of the second phase of the survey indicate that large quantities of the radioactive wastes generated during radium and uranium recovery operations still remain on the site. Radium-bearing wastes are present in soil beneath or adjacent to each of the buildings on the site and in the top few feet of soil over almost the entire site, with some areas being contaminated to a depth of 16 ft or more. Alpha contamination levels, beta--gamma dose rates, and external gamma radiation levels in some areas of the buildings and outdoors on the site are above current federal guidelines concerning the release of property for unrestricted use. Concentrations of /sup 226/Ra in water in holes drilled on the site are above the maximum permissible concentration (MPC/sub w/). Also, measurements made offsite show that contamination from the site has spread to nearby offsite locations, and that there is significant atmospheric transport of /sup 222/Rn from the site.

  13. Modern head and neck brachytherapy: from radium towards intensity modulated interventional brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Intensity modulated brachytherapy (IMBT) is a modern development of classical interventional radiation therapy (brachytherapy), which allows the application of a high radiation dose sparing severe adverse events, thereby further improving the treatment outcome. Classical indications in head and neck (H&N) cancers are the face, the oral cavity, the naso- and oropharynx, the paranasal sinuses including base of skull, incomplete resections on important structures, and palliation. The application type can be curative, adjuvant or perioperative, as a boost to external beam radiation as well as without external beam radiation and with palliative intention. Due to the frequently used perioperative application method (intraoperative implantation of inactive applicators and postoperative performance of radiation), close interdisciplinary cooperation between surgical specialists (ENT-, dento-maxillary-facial-, neuro- and orbital surgeons), as well interventional radiotherapy (brachytherapy) experts are obligatory. Published results encourage the integration of IMBT into H&N therapy, thereby improving the prognosis and quality of life of patients. PMID:25834586

  14. Application of ground bone and sheep manure on soils from two contaminated sites and influence on oat growth, uranium and radium uptake and translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M. M.; Pacheco, A.; Santos, E.; Magalhães, M. C. F.

    2012-04-01

    Past radium and uranium exploitation and processing in Urgeiriça mine and radium processing in Barracão (centre-north of Portugal) led to soils and waters contamination. Most of the soils, located in rural areas, are cultivated for vegetables, fruit trees, and/or pasturage, and the waters used for soils irrigation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the capacity of organic amendments and hydroxiapatite to reduce the soil available fraction of Utotal and 226Ra in soils of two areas after four months of incubation. Influence on oat growth, uranium and radium uptake and translocation was also studied. Pot experiments, under controlled conditions, were undertaken during four months of incubation at 70% of the soil water-holding capacity. Urgeiriça (Urg) and Barracão (Brc) soils containing large concentrations of Utotal (635 and 189 mg/kg, respectively), and 226Ra (2310 and 1770 Bq/kg, respectively) were used. The available fraction of these elements, extracted with ammonium acetate, corresponds to: 90 and 20% of total concentration of uranium and radium, respectively, for Urgeiriça soil, and 19 and 43% of total concentration of uranium and radium, respectively, for Barracão soil. Fine ground bone (FB), sheep manure (OM), and vermicompost (V) single or mixtures were used as amendments. Control (soil) and treatments were made in triplicate: (T1) soil+96 g FB/kg of soil; (T2) soil+168 g OM/kg of soil; (T3) soil+168 g OM/kg of soil+96 g FB/kg of soil; (T4) soil+168 g V/kg of soil. After incubation, soil subsamples were analysed for pH, electric conductivity (EC), and available fractions of Utotal and 226Ra. The remaining soils were used for oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivation. Soils had pH 5.15 (Urg) and 6.04 (Brc), and EC 57.3 µS/cm (Urg) and 36.3 µS/cm (Brc). After incubation soil pH increased to a maximum of 6.82 (Urg) and 7.10 (Brc) in amended samples, and EC showed a large increase (15-19 times) when compared to the control. A decrease of the available

  15. Nuclear structure studies of neutron-rich heavy nuclei by mass measurements of francium and radium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbusch, Marco [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Collaboration: ISOLTRAP-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The mass is a unique property of an atomic nucleus reflecting its binding energy and thus the sum of all interactions at work. Precise measurements of nuclear masses especially of short-lived exotic nuclides provide important input for nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics, tests of the Standard Model, and weak interaction studies. The Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE/CERN has been set up for precision mass measurements and continuously improved for accessing more exotic nuclides. The mass uncertainty is typically δm / m=10{sup -8} and the accessible half-life has been reduced to about 50 ms. In this contribution, the results of a measurement campaign of neutron-rich francium and radium isotopes will be presented, i.e. the masses of the isotopic chain of {sup 224-233}Fr and {sup 233,234}Ra, one of the most neutron-rich ensemble obtainable at ISOL facilities. The mass {sup 234}Ra denotes the heaviest mass ever measured with ISOLTRAP. Experimental data in the neutron-rich, heavy mass region is of great interest for studies of structural evolution far from stability, especially because the knowledge from nuclear mass models is scarce. The impact of the new data on the physics in this mass region as well as recent technical developments of ISOLTRAP are discussed.

  16. Using radium isotope fingerprinting to quantify iron release and distribution from different Celtic Sea shelf sediment types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, A. L.; Birchill, A.; Klar, J. K.; Homoky, W. B.; Lohan, M. C.; Statham, P. J.; Thomas, A.; Geibert, W.

    2016-02-01

    Continental shelf sediments represent a major source of essential trace elements to the world's oceans, and are of notable importance in cycling of the micronutrient iron (Fe). However, considerable uncertainties remain concerning the release of such micronutrients, including the overall flux of Fe from sediments, seasonal variation in this flux, and in particular the influence of sediment type. This study used naturally occurring isotopes of the radioactive element radium (Ra) to quantify sedimentary flux. Like Fe, Ra is released from sediments into pore waters. Each of the four isotopes decay at different known rates, facilitating the use of Ra as a tracer of source, diffusion into the overlying water column, and subsequent advection and mixing for multiple time and length scales. We measured Ra and Fe concentrations across spring, summer and autumn in Celtic Sea shelf waters, at sites spanning a range of sediment lithologies from mud to sand. Short-lived Ra isotopes reveal significant horizontal gradients in waters overlying different sediment types, despite vigorous vertical mixing during winter. In addition to the spatial distribution of Ra isotopes, we studied the coupled release of Fe and Ra from different sediments with ex situ incubations. Together with pore water measurements, this experimental approach can explain much of the observed broad-scale spatial variation. We further discuss seasonal variation in these inventories, and explore the implications for release of Fe (and other dissolved species) from continental shelf sediments on a larger scale.

  17. Radium isotopes in Estonian groundwater: measurements, analytical correlations, population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, M; Rusconi, R [ARPA Lombardia (Environmental Protection Agency of Lombardia), via Juvara 22, 20129 Milan (Italy); Bagnato, L [Department of Quantitative Methods for Business and Economic Sciences, University of Milan-Bicocca, Piazza dell' Ateneo Nuovo 1, 20126 Milan (Italy); Caldognetto, E; Trotti, F [ARPAV (Environmental Protection Agency of Veneto), via Dominutti 8, 37135 Verona (Italy); Risica, S, E-mail: m.forte@arpalombardia.it [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Technology and Health Department, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2010-12-01

    In some areas of Estonia, groundwater contains a significant number of natural radionuclides, especially radium isotopes, which may cause radiation protection concern depending on the geological structure of the aquifer. Indeed, the parametric value of 0.1 mSv y{sup -1} for the total indicative dose established by European Directive 98/83/EC, adopted as a limit value in Estonian national legislation, is often exceeded. A Twinning Project between Estonia and Italy was carried out within the framework of the Estonian Transition Facility Programme, sponsored by the European Union. Its aims were to assess the radiological situation of Estonian groundwater and related health consequences. The first step was a study of Estonian aqueducts and the population served by them, and a thorough analysis of the radiological database for drinking water, from which the relevant effective doses for the population were obtained. Particular attention was devoted to doses to children and infants. Correlations between the chemical parameters were investigated, in order to suggest the best possible analytical approach. Lastly, a monitoring strategy, i.e. sampling points and sampling frequencies, was proposed.

  18. Radium isotopes in Estonian groundwater: measurements, analytical correlations, population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, M; Bagnato, L; Caldognetto, E; Risica, S; Trotti, F; Rusconi, R

    2010-12-01

    In some areas of Estonia, groundwater contains a significant number of natural radionuclides, especially radium isotopes, which may cause radiation protection concern depending on the geological structure of the aquifer. Indeed, the parametric value of 0.1 mSv y⁻¹ for the total indicative dose established by European Directive 98/83/EC, adopted as a limit value in Estonian national legislation, is often exceeded. A Twinning Project between Estonia and Italy was carried out within the framework of the Estonian Transition Facility Programme, sponsored by the European Union. Its aims were to assess the radiological situation of Estonian groundwater and related health consequences. The first step was a study of Estonian aqueducts and the population served by them, and a thorough analysis of the radiological database for drinking water, from which the relevant effective doses for the population were obtained. Particular attention was devoted to doses to children and infants. Correlations between the chemical parameters were investigated, in order to suggest the best possible analytical approach. Lastly, a monitoring strategy, i.e. sampling points and sampling frequencies, was proposed.

  19. Contribution to the geochemical knowledge of the uranium-radium and thorium families in the southern Vosges. Applications of some results in the prospecting of uranium deposits; Contribution a la connaissance geochimique des familles uranium-radium et du thorium dans les Vosges meridionales. Application de certains resultats en prospection des gisements d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurain, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    This work's aim is to lead to a more accurate knowledge of the geochemistry of the Uranium-Radium and Thorium families in the Southern Vosges and to apply some of the results to the prospecting of uraniferous deposits: It has been showed: a bond between Calcium-Magnesium and Uranium-Thorium in the calco-alkaline granites. The host minerals of Uranium and Thorium are hornblende, biotite, titanite and epidote. a concentration of Uranium, at present time with secular disequilibrium in a thermal zone where the satellite mineralizations form an epithermal paragenesis. a disequilibrium of the Uranium-Radium family in the supergene minerals of the lead (phosphate and vanadate) showing the present circulations of Uranium. a bond between the radon grade of the spring waters and Uranium-Radium of the rocks. Such a relation allow to realize a prospecting method based on the determination of radioactive gases from the cold spring-waters of a common country. (author) [French] L'etude presentee ici a pour but de conduire a une connaissance plus precise de la geochimie des familles Uranium-Radium et Thorium dans les Vosges meridionales et d'appliquer certains resultats a la prospection des gites uraniferes. Il a ete mis en evidence: une liaison Calcium-Magnesium et Uranium-Thorium dans des granites calco-alcalins. Les mineraux hotes de l'Uranium et du Thorium sont: la hornblende, la biotite, le sphene, l'epidote. une concentration actuelle de l'Uranium en desequilibre seculaire dans une zone thermale ou les mineralisations satellites constituent une paragenese epithermale. un desequilibre de la famille Uranium-Radium dans des mineraux supergenes du plomb (phosphates et vanadates) prouvant les circulations actuelles de l'Uranium. une liaison entre la teneur en Radon des eaux de sources et celle en Uranium-Radium des roches. Une telle liaison permet de realiser une methode de prospection fondee sur le dosage du gaz radioactif des eaux de sources

  20. Efficacy and safety of radium-223 dichloride in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and symptomatic bone metastases, with or without previous docetaxel use: a prespecified subgroup analysis from the randomised, double-blind, phase 3 ALSYMPCA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Peter; Sartor, Oliver; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Johannessen, Dag Clement; Helle, Svein I; Logue, John; Bottomley, David; Nilsson, Sten; Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Fang, Fang; Wahba, Mona; Aksnes, Anne-Kirsti; Parker, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    Primary results from the phase 3 ALSYMPCA trial showed that radium-223 dichloride (radium-223), a targeted α-emitter, improved overall survival compared with placebo and was well tolerated in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and symptomatic bone metastases. We did a prespecified subgroup analysis from ALSYMPCA to assess the effect of previous docetaxel use on the efficacy and safety of radium-223. In the phase 3, randomised, double-blind ALSYMPCA trial, patients with symptomatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, at least two symptomatic bone metastases, no known visceral metastases, and who were receiving best standard of care were randomly assigned (2:1) via an interactive voice response system to receive six injections of radium-223 (50 kBq/kg intravenously) or matching placebo, with one injection given every 4 weeks. Patients had either received previous docetaxel treatment or were unsuitable for or declined docetaxel; previous docetaxel use (yes or no) was a trial stratification factor. We investigated the effect of previous docetaxel use on radium-223 treatment for the primary endpoint of overall survival, the main secondary efficacy endpoints, and safety. Efficacy analyses were done for the intention-to-treat population; safety analyses were done for the safety population. The trial has been completed and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00699751. Randomisation took place between June 12, 2008, and Feb 1, 2011. 526 (57%) of 921 randomly assigned patients had received previous docetaxel treatment (352 in the radium-223 group and 174 in the placebo group) and 395 (43%) had not (262 in the radium-223 group and 133 in the placebo group). Radium-223 prolonged median overall survival compared with placebo, irrespective of previous docetaxel use (previous docetaxel use, hazard ratio [HR] 0·70, 95% CI 0·56-0·88; p=0·002; no previous docetaxel use, HR 0·69, 0·52-0·92; p=0·01). The benefit of radium-223 compared with

  1. Roentgenologic assessment of spondylolisthesis. Pt. 2. An evaluation of progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielson, B.; Frennered, K.; Selvik, G.; Irstam, L.

    Different degrees of artificial L5-S1 spondylolisthesis were created using a lumbar specimen. Lateral radiographs were obtained of each, with the specimen tilted and/or rotated. The true spondylolisthesis was determined stereophotogrammetrically. The slip, measured on the radiographs, was calculated according to two methods modified from BOXALL et coll. (2). No significant difference in accuracy was found between these two methods. The difference in calculated slip between examinations needs to be at least 20 per cent of the sagittal length of L5 to be regarded as a true progression. A true progress of slip of less than 20 per cent is difficult to detect with statistical certainty.

  2. Radium and radon isotope investigations as tool for aquifer diagnostics considering the geochemical and hydrochemical conditions in the ground water aquifer; Radium- und Radon-Isotopen-Untersuchungen als Hilfsmittel fuer die Aquiferdiagnose unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der geochemischen und hydrochemischen Verhaeltnisse im Grundwasserleiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Stephanie

    2014-12-12

    The thesis was aimed to the development of methods for enhanced interpretation of the hydraulic conditions in a groundwater aquifer based on the determination of the Rn-222/Ra-226 ration. Further investigations concerned rocks and rock surfaces (secondary minerals) with respect to the solubility and the mobility of radium in the ground water. The samples were withdrawn in the region of the continental deep borehole (KTB Oberpfalz) and the Czech Republic (Egergraben).

  3. Natural Radium Isotopes in Particulate and Dissolved Phases of Seawater and Rainwater at the West Coast Peninsular Malaysia Caused by Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Azlin Nik Ariffin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The concentration levels of natural radium isotopes such as 226Ra and 228Ra were measured in the atmospheric samples including rainwater, total suspended solids (TSSrw and marine environment samples collected around the Kapar coal-fired power plant from September 2006 to February 2008. Activity concentration of 228Ra and 226Ra in rainwater showed the higher concentrations compared to the seawater. The mean activities of 226Ra and 228Ra in rainwater at Kapar were 20.45±4.50 mBq/L and 74.82±25.38 mBq/L, respectively. Meanwhile the levels in total suspended solids (TSSrw of rainwater showed 226.99±52.57 Bq/kg for 226Ra and 439.92±186.17 Bq/kg for 228Ra. The measurements of radium isotopes concentration in rainwater at coal-fired power plant in Kapar are found in relation to their sources and application as tracers in lower atmosphere. The mean value of pH in rainwater during this study is pH 5.51 slightly acidic as lowest value for the standard of clean rainwater. Radium in seawater also strong adsorption onto total suspended solids with the distribution coefficient, Kd values of 228Ra and 226Ra ranged from 0.054 × 104 to 163.90 × 104 L/g and between 0.49 × 104 to 191.54 × 104 L/g, respectively.

  4. Dosimetry of radium equivalent in construction material of brick works in Sao Jose do Sabugi City - Paraiba, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Eduardo Eudes Nobrega de; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Spacov, Isabel Cristina Guerra; Fernandez, Zahily Herrero, E-mail: eduardo.eudes@ufpe.br, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: neideden@hotmail.com, E-mail: isabelspacov@gmail.com, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioecologia

    2015-07-01

    The earth's crust has in its composition the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) that may have increased concentration due to activities of exploration and extraction of environmental resources. The civil construction is an economic activity that requires the use of much of the natural resources, such as the raw material of brick works, like clays, mainly used for the production of bricks and tiles. These construction materials may contain high levels of natural radioactive elements, even with concentrations higher than the limits established, given that the levels vary according to the composition of rocks and soil, due to the geological formation and may result in increased exposure of humans to natural radioactive activities. In this context, the radioecological dosimetry is defined in terms of Radium Equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), that ensure radiometric conditions for the use of material derived from clays before its final application in housing construction, an initiative that ensures the radioecological safety of population. Thus, this study aimed to establish the calculation of Ra{sub eq} in the raw material of brick works located in Sao Jose do Sabugi city, state of Paraiba, in an area adjacent to the uranium deposits of Espinharas, to estimate the risks associated with primordial radionuclides attributed to TENORM activities (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) from the extraction and use of clay as a raw material in the manufacture of bricks and tiles. Analyses were performed by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry, with HPGe-Be detector, assuming the state of secular radioactive equilibrium. The results ranged from 183.2 to 747.78 Bq/kg, with an average of 494.6 Bq/kg which exceeded the limit of 370 Bq/kg established by UNSCEAR for construction materials. Some samples obtained values exceeded by up the double this limit, suggesting control and radiometric certification for application of this material

  5. Tracking suspended particle transport via radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) through the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Richard N; Burnett, William C; Opsahl, Stephen P; Santos, Isaac R; Misra, Sambuddha; Froelich, Philip N

    2013-02-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can carry metals, nutrients, and pollutants downstream which can become bioactive in estuaries and coastal marine waters. In river systems with multiple sources of both suspended particles and contamination sources, it is important to assess the hydrologic conditions under which contaminated particles can be delivered to downstream ecosystems. The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River system in the southeastern United States represents an ideal system to study these hydrologic impacts on particle transport through a heavily-impacted river (the Chattahoochee River) and one much less impacted by anthropogenic activities (the Flint River). We demonstrate here the utility of natural radioisotopes as tracers of suspended particles through the ACF system, where particles contaminated with arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) have been shown to be contributed from coal-fired power plants along the Chattahoochee River, and have elevated concentrations in the surficial sediments of the Apalachicola Bay Delta. Radium isotopes ((228)Ra and (226)Ra) on suspended particles should vary throughout the different geologic provinces of this river system, allowing differentiation of the relative contributions of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers to the suspended load delivered to Lake Seminole, the Apalachicola River, and ultimately to Apalachicola Bay. We also use various geochemical proxies ((40)K, organic carbon, and calcium) to assess the relative composition of suspended particles (lithogenic, organic, and carbonate fractions, respectively) under a range of hydrologic conditions. During low (base) flow conditions, the Flint River contributed 70% of the suspended particle load to both the Apalachicola River and the bay, whereas the Chattahoochee River became the dominant source during higher discharge, contributing 80% of the suspended load to the Apalachicola River and 62% of the particles entering the estuary. Neither of these hydrologic

  6. Evaluation of Ra, Th, K and radium equivalent activity in sand samples from Camburi Beach, Vitoria, Espirito Santos, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: lfbarros@ipen.br, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Camburi beach, in the city of Vitoria, Espirito Santo State. Brazil, is a naturally high background region in Brazil. The beach sands contain monazite, ilmenite and other accessory minerals rich in {sup 226}Ra, {sup 23}'2Th and {sup 40}K. As these radionuclides are the main natural contributors to external exposure from gamma rays, the knowledge of the sands radioactivity content plays an important role in radiation protection. In this work, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K activities concentrations, together with the radium equivalent activity, Ra{sub eq.} were determined in some selected sand samples from a single location at Camburi beach, known for the high level of radioactivity. The sand samples collected monthly from January to December 2011, were dried and sealed in standard 100 mL HPDE polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma-spectrometry after a 4 weeks ingrowth period, in order to allow the secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 23}'2Th series. Preliminary results, without considering samples self-attenuation, show activities concentrations in the range from 12 {+-} 1 Bq kg{sup -1} to 1022 {+-} 30 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 35 {+-} 1 Bq kg{sup -1} to 5731 {+-} 134 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and 18 {+-} 4 Bqkg{sup -1} to 430 {+-} 21 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. The Ra{sub eq}, presented values ranging from 63 Bq kg{sup -1} to 9250 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  7. Uranium and radium activities in samples of aquifers of the main cities of the Estado de Chihuahua; Actividades de uranio y radio en muestras de agua subterranea de las principales ciudades del Estado de Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba, L.; Colmenero S, L.; Montero C, M.E. [CIMAV, Av. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 120, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: lourdes.villalba@cimav.edu.mx

    2003-07-01

    The natural uranium is in four valence states +3, +4, +5 and +6 being the hexavalent state the more soluble, which plays an important role in the transport of the uranium in the environment. The high concentrations of uranium in water not only in near waters to uranium mines, but also are in some mineral waters or in waters that are extracted of deep wells as it happens in the State of Chihuahua, where the underground waters are the fundamental source of consumption. The radium is a disintegration product of the uranium, the radio content in water is considered the second source of natural radioactivity. The distribution of radium in water is in function of the uranium content present in the aquifer. It was determined the uranium and radium content in samples of underground water of the main cities of the State of Chihuahua according to their number of inhabitants. The extraction methods for uranium and sulfates precipitation of Ba-Ra by means of the addition of barium carriers for the radium were used. The measures of the activities of uranium and radium were carried out by means of a portable liquid scintillation detector trade mark Thiathler-OY HIDEX. The obtained results have demonstrated that the content of uranium and radium in dissolution are in most of the sampling wells above the permissible maximum levels that manage the Mexican regulations. The high contents of uranium and radio can be attributed since to the influence of the geologic substrate characteristic of the zone in the State of Chihuahua they exist but of 50 uranium deposits. (Author)

  8. Uranium, radium and thorium in soils with high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, MCNP-generated efficiencies, and VRF non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger Robert; Riper Kenneth Van; Lasche George

    2017-01-01

    A new method for analysis of uranium and radium in soils by gamma spectroscopy has been developed using VRF (“Visual RobFit”) which, unlike traditional peak-search techniques, fits full-spectrum nuclide shapes with non-linear least-squares minimization of the chi-squared statistic. Gamma efficiency curves were developed for a 500 mL Marinelli beaker geometry as a function of soil density using MCNP. Collected spectra were then analyzed using the MCNP-generated efficiency curves and VRF to dec...

  9. Submarine groundwater discharge revealed by radium isotopes (Ra-223 and Ra-224 near a paleochannel on the Southern Brazilian continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Kammer Attisano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD has been recognized as an important component of the ocean-continent interface. The few previous studies in Brazil have focused on nearshore areas. This paper explores SGD on the Southern Brazilian Continental Shelf using multiple lines of evidence that include radium isotopes, dissolved nutrients, and water mass observations. The results indicated that SGD may be occurring on the Continental Shelf in the Albardão region, near a paleochannel located 50 km offshore. This paleochannel may thus be a preferential pathway for the delivery of nutrient- and metal-enriched groundwater and porewater into continental shelf waters.

  10. A unique drug distribution process for radium Ra 223 dichloride injection and its implication for product quality, patient privacy, and delineation of professional responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Raymond N

    2014-11-01

    On May 15, 2013, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals announced that it had received marketing approval for the therapeutic radioactive medication radium Ra 223 dichloride injection (Xofigo; Ra 223). The product acquisition and distribution process for hospital-based nuclear pharmacies and nuclear medicine services is unlike any other. The product is distributed as a low-risk compounded sterile preparation through a single compounding nuclear pharmacy located in Denver, Colorado, pursuant to a prescription. This model for drug distribution and delivery to the user institution has implications for product quality, patient privacy, and delineation of professional responsibilities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Dissolution of [²²⁶Ra]BaSO₄ and partial separation of ²²⁶Ra from radium/barium sulfate: A new treatment method for NORM waste from petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Abdullah, Jamal; Al Masri, M S; Amin, Yusr

    2016-01-01

    Complete dissolution of [(226)Ra]BaSO4 precipitate was successfully performed using NaNO2 as a reducing agent in acidic solution at room temperature. Results showed a significant effect of acid and NaNO2 concentrations and temperature on the dissolution efficiency. The method was successfully used for separation of radium from NORM scale samples from the petroleum industry; sufficient volume reduction of NORM waste was achieved. The obtained (226)Ra solution was purified using two separation methods. The dissolution method can be of great interest in the development of radiochemical analysis of radium isotopes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimating groundwater discharge in the coastal lagoons of La Palme and Salses-Leucate along the French Mediterranean coastline by using radium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Pieter; Tamborski, Joseph; Bejannin, Simon; Souhaut, Marc; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi; Stieglitz, Thomas; Claude, Christelle; Radakovitch, Olivier; Lacan, François; Crispi, Olivier; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Conan, Pascal; Caparros, Jocelyne; Guéneuguès, Audrey; Monin, Christophe; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Anschutz, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Although submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been investigated in many places of the world, very few studies were conducted along the French Mediterranean coastline, despite presence of several well-known karstic springs. Almost no information is available on the fluxes of water and chemical elements associated with these systems and on their potential impact on the geochemical cycling and ecosystems of the coastal zones. In this study, we report airborne thermal infrared (TIR) images that allowed us to locate fresh groundwater inputs in the coastal lagoons of La Palme and Salses-Leucate. The four radium isotopes (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra) were analyzed in these coastal lagoons and along transects conducted on board RV NEREIS II between the coast and offshore (between 200 m and 8 km). We also analyzed major elements, nutrients (nitrates, phosphates and silicates), DIC, DOC, DON, DOP, as well as several trace elements in these water samples. A mass balance of radium isotopes was used to quantify SGD fluxes and to determine the fluxes of nutrients and other chemical species associated with SGD. Ra isotopes were also used to estimate the residence time of the waters in the lagoons.

  13. Combining radon, short-lived radium isotopes and hydrodynamic modeling to assess submarine groundwater discharge from an anthropized semiarid watershed to a Mediterranean lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudron, Paul; Cockenpot, Sabine; Lopez-Castejon, Francisco; Radakovitch, Olivier; Gilabert, Javier; Mayer, Adriano; Garcia-Arostegui, José Luis; Martinez-Vicente, David; Leduc, Christian; Claude, Christelle

    2015-06-01

    In highly anthropized watersheds, surface water tributaries may carry unexpected high quantities of radon and radium to coastal lagoons. Investigating submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) with radionuclide tracers is therefore a complex task. In order to quantify SGD and decipher the influence of the different water sources, we combined a radon (222Rn) and short-lived radium (223Ra, 224Ra) survey with the hydrodynamic modeling of a lagoon. We applied it to the Mar Menor lagoon (SE Spain) where surface water tributaries and undocumented emissaries carry water from groundwater drainage and brines from groundwater desalinization. We identified the areas of influence of the plume of radionuclides from the river, located major areas of SGD and proposed a location for two submarine emissaries. Porewater, i.e. interstitial water from underlying sediments, was found to be the most representative SGD end member, compared to continental groundwater collected from piezometers. Mass balances in winter and summer seasons provided yearly SGD fluxes of water of 0.4-2.2 ṡ 108 m3/y (222Rn), 4.4-19.0 ṡ 108 m3/y (224Ra) and 1.3 ṡ 108 m3/y (223Ra, measured in winter only). Tidal pumping was identified as a main driver for recirculated saline groundwater, while fresh submarine groundwater discharge from the aquifer ranged between 2% and 23% of total SGD.

  14. Accumulation of radium in ferruginous protein bodies formed in lung tissue: association of resulting radiation hotspots with malignant mesothelioma and other malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Eizo; Makishima, Akio; Hagino, Kyoko; Okabe, Kazunori

    2009-01-01

    While exposure to fibers and particles has been proposed to be associated with several different lung malignancies including mesothelioma, the mechanism for the carcinogenesis is not fully understood. Along with mineralogical observation, we have analyzed forty-four major and trace elements in extracted asbestos bodies (fibers and proteins attached to them) with coexisting fiber-free ferruginous protein bodies from extirpative lungs of individuals with malignant mesothelioma. These observations together with patients’ characteristics suggest that inhaled iron-rich asbestos fibers and dust particles, and excess iron deposited by continuous cigarette smoking would induce ferruginous protein body formation resulting in ferritin aggregates in lung tissue. Chemical analysis of ferruginous protein bodies extracted from lung tissues reveals anomalously high concentrations of radioactive radium, reaching millions of times higher concentration than that of seawater. Continuous and prolonged internal exposure to hotspot ionizing radiation from radium and its daughter nuclides could cause strong and frequent DNA damage in lung tissue, initiate different types of tumour cells, including malignant mesothelioma cells, and may cause cancers. PMID:19644223

  15. EVALUATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OF URANIUM, THORIUM, AND RADIUM ASSOCIATED WITH PRODUCED FLUIDS, PRECIPITATES, AND SLUDGES FROM OIL, GAS, AND OILFIELD BRINE INJECTION WELLS IN MISSISSIPPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Swann; John Matthews; Rick Ericksen; Joel Kuszmaul

    2004-03-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are known to be produced as a byproduct of hydrocarbon production in Mississippi. The presence of NORM has resulted in financial losses to the industry and continues to be a liability as the NORM-enriched scales and scale encrusted equipment is typically stored rather than disposed of. Although the NORM problem is well known, there is little publically available data characterizing the hazard. This investigation has produced base line data to fill this informational gap. A total of 329 NORM-related samples were collected with 275 of these samples consisting of brine samples. The samples were derived from 37 oil and gas reservoirs from all major producing areas of the state. The analyses of these data indicate that two isotopes of radium ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra) are the ultimate source of the radiation. The radium contained in these co-produced brines is low and so the radiation hazard posed by the brines is also low. Existing regulations dictate the manner in which these salt-enriched brines may be disposed of and proper implementation of the rules will also protect the environment from the brine radiation hazard. Geostatistical analyses of the brine components suggest relationships between the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, between the Cl concentration and {sup 226}Ra content, and relationships exist between total dissolved solids, BaSO{sub 4} saturation and concentration of the Cl ion. Principal component analysis points to geological controls on brine chemistry, but the nature of the geologic controls could not be determined. The NORM-enriched barite (BaSO{sub 4}) scales are significantly more radioactive than the brines. Leaching studies suggest that the barite scales, which were thought to be nearly insoluble in the natural environment, can be acted on by soil microorganisms and the enclosed radium can become bioavailable. This result suggests that the landspreading means of scale disposal

  16. Proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proton beam therapy; Cancer - proton therapy; Radiation therapy - proton therapy; Prostate cancer - proton therapy ... that use x-rays to destroy cancer cells, proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called ...

  17. The contribution of Maria Sklodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie to Nuclear and Medical Physics. A hundred and ten years after the discovery of radium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantis, Aristidis; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil; Papadimitriou, Athanasios; Androutsos, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    This review aims to commemorate the life, and the accomplishments of Pierre and Marie Curie in Physics and in Medicine. Although they are primarily known for their discoveries of the elements of radium and polonium, which took place two years after the discovery of radioactivity by Henry Becquerel, Pierre's discovery of the piezo-electric phenomenon, his research on crystal symmetry, magnetism and paramagnetic substances, are equally important. With the discovery of the two radioactive elements, Pierre and Marie Curie established the new field of Nuclear Physics. It is not an over-statement to say that their discovery contributed much to our modern way of life. Marie received the Nobel Prize twice and later she became the first woman to become member of the French Academy of Sciences. Today, both Pierre and Marie Curie rest in Panthéon, in Paris.

  18. Radium, Thorium and Radioactive Lead Isotopes in Groundwaters: Application to the in Situ Determination of Adsorption-Desorption Rate Constants and Retardation Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswami, S.; Graustein, William C.; Turekian, Karl K.; Dowd, John F.

    1982-12-01

    Five groundwater samples taken from different Hydrogeologie settings in Connecticut were analyzed for major cation chemistry and the concentration of U and Th decay series nuclides 238U, 234Th, 226Ra, 222Rn, 210Pb, 210Po, 232Th, 228Ra, 228Th, and 224Ra. The concentration of 222Rn in the waters ranged between 103 and 104 dpm l-1 and was three to four orders of magnitude greater than that of the short-lived alpha daughters 224Ra, 228Ra, and 234Th, even though the rates of supply of these four nuclides to solution are expected to be similar. We infer that sorption removes radium and thorium from these groundwaters on a time scale of 3 minutes or less. The (224Ra/228Ra) and (234Th/228Th) activity ratios in these waters indicate that desorption of these nuclides occurs on a time scale of a week or less and that equilibrium between solution and surface phases is established. In situ retardation factors for radium, thorium, and lead may therefore be calculated directly from the isotopic data; values range from 4,500 to 200,000. Neither sorption time scales nor retardation factors are strongly dependent on the nuclide or on hydrogeology of the aquifer. Since our study includes nuclides with diverse chemical properties, we suggest that other uncomplexed heavy metals and transuranic elements will also behave in a manner similar to those measured here. The approach presented here should therefore find application in developing site-specific models of the transport of radioactive or stable elemental waste through water-saturated media.

  19. Cancer and Radiation Therapy: Current Advances and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, Rajamanickam; Lee, Kuo Ann; Yeo, Richard; Yeoh, Kheng-Wei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years remarkable progress has been made towards the understanding of proposed hallmarks of cancer development and treatment. However with its increasing incidence, the clinical management of cancer continues to be a challenge for the 21st century. Treatment modalities comprise of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. Radiation therapy remains an important component of cancer treatment with approximately 50% of all cancer patients receiving radiation therapy during their course of illness; it contributes towards 40% of curative treatment for cancer. The main goal of radiation therapy is to deprive cancer cells of their multiplication (cell division) potential. Celebrating a century of advances since Marie Curie won her second Nobel Prize for her research into radium, 2011 has been designated the Year of Radiation therapy in the UK. Over the last 100 years, ongoing advances in the techniques of radiation treatment and progress made in understanding the biology of cancer cell responses to radiation will endeavor to increase the survival and reduce treatment side effects for cancer patients. In this review, principles, application and advances in radiation therapy with their biological end points are discussed. PMID:22408567

  20. Assessment of the radium-barium co-precipitation and its potential influence on the solubility of Ra in the near-field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, Fidel; Merino, Joan; Bruno, Jordi (Amphos XXI Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2008-08-15

    Radium 226 is one of the main contributors to radiological dose in some of the scenarios contemplated in the recent SR Can safety assessment. The relative contribution of the 226Ra dose is clearly dependent on the source term value for this radionuclide, which is directly connected to its solubility behaviour. Most of the source term calculations performed for this radionuclide pessimistically assume that its solubility is controlled by the individual solubility of RaSO{sub 4}(s), the most insoluble phase under near field conditions, while the abundant information from early radiochemical research, natural system studies and anthropogenic systems would indicate that Ra(II) is mainly associated to BaSO{sub 4}(s) precipitation. In this work we have investigated the extensive literature concerning the mechanisms and processes controlling the co-precipitation/solid solution formation behaviour of the Ra(II)/Ba(II) sulphate system. We have also established the necessary thermodynamic moles to model the solubility behaviour in the vicinity of the spent fuel system. Calculations using an ATM-104 fuel at 40 MWd/kg U show that barium and radium inventories per canister progressively grow with time after deposition, most of the barium is produced in the initial 500 years. In the unlikely event of a contact of sulphate-containing groundwaters with the fuel, Ba(II) will precipitate as BaSO{sub 4}(s). The production of 226Ra reaches its peak some 300,000 years after deposition. This substantial time gap indicates that most of the BaSO{sub 4}(s) will be present when and if radium is released from the fuel, even if some Ra(II) and Ba(II) will be released contemporaneously. Two potential scenarios have been addressed from the mechanistic point of view. In the event of a simultaneous release of Ra with Ba, the former will be readily incorporated into the precipitating BaSO{sub 4} to build a Ra Ba sulphate solid solution. All the existing evidence indicates, that in this case, the

  1. Improving the inverse modeling of a trace isotope: how precisely can radium-228 fluxes toward the ocean and submarine groundwater discharge be estimated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Le Gland

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Radium-228 (228Ra, an almost conservative trace isotope in the ocean, supplied from the continental shelves and removed by a known radioactive decay (T1∕2 = 5. 75 years, can be used as a proxy to constrain shelf fluxes of other trace elements, such as nutrients, iron, or rare earth elements. In this study, we perform inverse modeling of a global 228Ra dataset (including GEOSECS, TTO and GEOTRACES programs, and, for the first time, data from the Arctic and around the Kerguelen Islands to compute the total 228Ra fluxes toward the ocean, using the ocean circulation obtained from the NEMO 3.6 model with a 2° resolution. We optimized the inverse calculation (source regions, cost function and find a global estimate of the 228Ra fluxes of 8.01–8. 49 × 1023 atoms yr−1, more precise and around 20 % lower than previous estimates. The largest fluxes are in the western North Atlantic, the western Pacific and the Indian Ocean, with roughly two-thirds in the Indo-Pacific Basin. An estimate in the Arctic Ocean is provided for the first time (0.43–0.50  ×  1023 atoms yr−1. Local misfits between model and data in the Arctic, the Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio regions could result from flaws of the ocean circulation in these regions (resolution, atmospheric forcing. As radium is enriched in groundwater, a large part of the 228Ra shelf sources comes from submarine groundwater discharge (SGD, a major but poorly known pathway for terrestrial mineral elements, including nutrients, to the ocean. In contrast to the 228Ra budget, the global estimate of SGD is rather unconstrained, between 1.3 and 14. 7 × 1013 m3 yr−1, due to high uncertainties on the other sources of 228Ra, especially diffusion from continental shelf sediments. Better precision on SGD cannot be reached by inverse modeling until a proper way to separate the contributions of SGD and diffusive release from sediments at a global scale is found.

  2. Improving the inverse modeling of a trace isotope: how precisely can radium-228 fluxes toward the ocean and submarine groundwater discharge be estimated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gland, Guillaume; Mémery, Laurent; Aumont, Olivier; Resplandy, Laure

    2017-07-01

    Radium-228 (228Ra), an almost conservative trace isotope in the ocean, supplied from the continental shelves and removed by a known radioactive decay (T1/2 = 5. 75 years), can be used as a proxy to constrain shelf fluxes of other trace elements, such as nutrients, iron, or rare earth elements. In this study, we perform inverse modeling of a global 228Ra dataset (including GEOSECS, TTO and GEOTRACES programs, and, for the first time, data from the Arctic and around the Kerguelen Islands) to compute the total 228Ra fluxes toward the ocean, using the ocean circulation obtained from the NEMO 3.6 model with a 2° resolution. We optimized the inverse calculation (source regions, cost function) and find a global estimate of the 228Ra fluxes of 8.01-8. 49 × 1023 atoms yr-1, more precise and around 20 % lower than previous estimates. The largest fluxes are in the western North Atlantic, the western Pacific and the Indian Ocean, with roughly two-thirds in the Indo-Pacific Basin. An estimate in the Arctic Ocean is provided for the first time (0.43-0.50 × 1023 atoms yr-1). Local misfits between model and data in the Arctic, the Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio regions could result from flaws of the ocean circulation in these regions (resolution, atmospheric forcing). As radium is enriched in groundwater, a large part of the 228Ra shelf sources comes from submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), a major but poorly known pathway for terrestrial mineral elements, including nutrients, to the ocean. In contrast to the 228Ra budget, the global estimate of SGD is rather unconstrained, between 1.3 and 14. 7 × 1013 m3 yr-1, due to high uncertainties on the other sources of 228Ra, especially diffusion from continental shelf sediments. Better precision on SGD cannot be reached by inverse modeling until a proper way to separate the contributions of SGD and diffusive release from sediments at a global scale is found.

  3. Uptake of Radium-223 Dichloride and Early [18F]NaF PET Response Are Driven by Baseline [18F]NaF Parameters: a Pilot Study in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letellier, Arthur; Johnson, Alison C; Kit, Nicolas How; Savigny, Jean-François; Batalla, Alain; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Aide, Nicolas

    2017-10-12

    The purpose of this study is to identify predictive factors on baseline [ 18 F]NaF positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) of early response to radium-223 dichloride after 3 cycles of treatment in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. Analysis of 152 metastases was performed in six consecutive patients who underwent [ 18 F]NaF PET/CT at baseline and for early monitoring after 3 cycles of radium-223 dichloride. All metastases depicted on whole-body [ 18 F]NaF PET/CT were contoured and CT (density in Hounsfield units, sclerotic, mixed, or lytic appearance) as well as [ 18 F]NaF [maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ), SUV mean , and lesion volume (V 18F-NaF )] patterns were recorded. Tumor response was defined as percentage change in SUV max and SUV mean between baseline and post-treatment PET. Bone lesions were defined as stable, responsive, or progressive, according to thresholds derived from a recent multicentre test-retest study in [ 18 F]NaF PET/CT. Total [ 18 F]NaF uptake in metastases, defined as MATV × SUV mean , was correlated to uptake of radium-223 on biodistribution scintigraphy performed 7 days after the first cycle of treatment. Among metastases, 116 involved the axial skeleton and 36 the appendicular skeleton. Lesions were sclerotic in 126 cases and mixed in 26 cases. No lytic lesion was depicted. ROC analysis showed that SUV max and SUV mean were better predictors of lesion response than V 18F-NaF and density on CT (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively). SUV max and SUV mean were predictors of individual tumor response in separate multivariate models (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). CT pattern (mixed versus sclerotic) and lesion density were independent predictors only when assessing response with delta SUV max (P = 0.002 and 0.007, respectively). A good correlation between total [ 18 F]NaF uptake within metastases and their relative radium-223 uptake assessed by two observers 7

  4. Submarine groundwater discharge estimation in an urbanized embayment in Hong Kong via short-lived radium isotopes and its implication of nutrient loadings and primary production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Moore, W S; Lee, Chun Ming

    2014-05-15

    (224)Ra and (223)Ra are adopted as tracers to qualify submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Tolo Harbor, a highly urbanized embayment in Hong Kong. Based on the sampling data, a two-layered radium mass balance model is used to estimate lateral SGD and bottom SGD. Total SGD is estimated to be 1.2-3.0 cm d(-1), including lateral SGD of 5.7-7.9 cm d(-1) and bottom SGD of 0.3-2.0 cm d(-1). Fresh SGD is estimated to be (2.1-5.5) × 10(5)m(3)d(-1). Nutrient fluxes (mold(-1)) from SGD are estimated to be (3-7.4) × 10(4) (dissolved inorganic nitrogen), (2.4-6.2) × 10(2) (dissolved inorganic phosphate) and (6.5-16) × 10(4) (dissolved silicate). Primary productivity is estimated to be (1.5-15) × 10(6)gCd(-1), 2-53% of which is supported by SGD-induced phosphate fluxes. The study indicates that SGD is a significant source of nutrients to coastal waters and may cause an obvious increase of primary production. These findings must be considered in future coastal ecological management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of radium isotopes in environmental samples by gamma spectrometry, liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry: a review of analytical methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guogang; Jia, Jing

    2012-04-01

    Radium (Ra) isotopes are important from the viewpoints of radiation protection and environmental protection. Their high toxicity has stimulated the continuing interest in methodology research for determination of Ra isotopes in various media. In this paper, the three most routinely used analytical techniques for Ra isotope determination in biological and environmental samples, i.e. low-background γ-spectrometry, liquid scintillation counting and α-spectrometry, were reviewed, with emphasis on new methodological developments in sample preparation, preconcentration, separation, purification, source preparation and measurement techniques. The accuracy, selectivity, traceability, applicability and minimum detectable activity (MDA) of the three techniques were discussed. It was concluded that the MDA (0.1mBqL(-1)) of the α-spectrometry technique coupled with chemical separation is about two orders of magnitude lower than that of low-background HPGe γ-spectrometry and LSC techniques. Therefore, when maximum sensitivity is required, the α-spectrometry technique remains the first choice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluations of Radionuclides of Uranium, Thorium, and Radium Associated with Produced Fluids, Precipitates, and Sludges from Oil, Gas, and Oilfield Brine Injection Wells in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericksen, R.L.

    1999-10-28

    There is an unsurpassed lack of scientific data with respect to the concentrations and isotopic compositions of uranium, thorium, and radium in the produced formation fluids (brine), precipitates, and sludges generated with the operation of oil and gas wells in Mississippi. These radioactive elements when contained in the formation fluids have been given the term NORM, which is an acronym for naturally occurring radioactive materials. When they are technologically enhanced during oil and gas production activities resulting in the formation of scale (precipitates) and sludges they are termed TENORM (technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials). As used in this document, NORM and TENORM will be considered equivalent terms and the occurrence of NORM in the oilfield will be considered the result of production operations. As a result of the lack of data no scientifically sound theses may be developed concerning the presence of these radionuclides in the fluid brine, precipitate (scale), or sludge phases. Over the period of just one year, 1997 for example, Mississippi produced over 39,372,963,584 liters (10,402,368,186 gallons or 247,675,433 barrels) of formation water associated with hydrocarbon production from 41 counties across the state.

  7. Evaluation of Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 activities concentrations and radium equivalent index in several Brazilian economic wall paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Leandro M.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: lmfonseca@ipen.br, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The titanium dioxide used as the white pigment in paints is produced from the processing of ilmenite minerals. As monazite, the main ilmenite radioactive contaminant, contains 1 to 20% thorium dioxide and also some uranium traces, so, eventually, wall paints can contain radioactivity. Activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were determined in 15 Brazilian economic wall paints samples, by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The activities concentrations in the studied samples ranged from 1.3 ± 0.2 Bq/kg to 23.4 ± 0.7 Bq/kg for {sup 226}Ra; from 2.5 ± 0.4 Bq/kg to 45.8 ± 1.5 Bq/kg for {sup 232}Th and from 5.8 ± 2.1 Bq/kg to 157 ± 22 Bq/kg for {sup 40}K. The radium equivalent index, calculated from the {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K concentrations, varied from 1.30 Bq/kg up to 95.9 Bq/kg, below the value of 370 Bq/kg recommended by OECD for a safety use in residential building applications. (author)

  8. Radium-223-Dichloride in Castration Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer—Preliminary Results of the Response Evaluation Using F-18-Fluoride PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalevi Kairemo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome after Radium-223-dichloride (223RaCl2 treatment of patients with skeletal metastases of castration resistant prostate cancer using whole-body 18F-Fluoride PET/CT. Sodium 18F-fluoride [18F]-NaF PET/CT was performed prior the treatment of 223RaCl2, after the first cycle and after the sixth cycle. The skeletal metastases were analyzed quantitatively using modified PET response evaluation PERCIST criteria. The patients were also analyzed for S-PSA. All ten patients responded in [18F]-NaF scans after 6 cycles, but interim analysis after the 1st cycle did not give additional information about the outcome. The S-PSA decrease correlated with [18F]-NaF response, only 1 patient demonstrated progressive disease, i.e., >25% increase in S-PSA values during 223RaCl2. Our results (although preliminary suggest that 18F-Fluoride PET/CT is useful in the follow-up of castration resistant prostate cancer with skeletal metastases.

  9. Emerging targeted therapies for castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo eAdamo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, few therapeutic options were available for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC. Since 2010, four new molecules with a demonstrated benefit (sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone and denosumab have been approved in this setting, and to-date several other agents are under investigation in clinical trials. The purpose of this review is to present an update of targeted therapies for CRPC. Presented data are obtained from literature and congress reports updated until December 2011. Targeted therapies in advanced phases of clinical development include novel hormone-therapeutic, intracellular molecular pathways inhibiting, anti-angiogenic, bone microenvironment targeting and immunotherapeutic agents. Radium-223 and MDV3100 demonstrated a survival advantage in phase III trials and the road for their introduction in clinical practice is rapidly ongoing. Results are also awaited for phase III studies currently underway or planned with new drugs given as monotherapy (TAK-700, cabozantinib, tasquinimod, PROSTVAC-VF, ipilimumab or in combination with docetaxel (custirsen, aflibercept, dasatinib, zibotentan. Optimal timing, right combination and/or sequencing of emerging therapies as well as use of more sensitive biological markers to individualize therapies for CRPC remain challenging and studies to investigate these aspects are needed.

  10. Development of separation technology for the removal of radium-223 from targeted thorium conjugate formulations. Part I: purification of decayed thorium-227 on cation exchange columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenvik, Janne Olsen; Dyrstad, Knut; Kristensen, Solveig; Ryan, Olav B

    2017-02-01

    Targeted thorium conjugates (TTCs) are being explored as a potential future platform for specific tumor targeting pharmaceuticals. In TTCs, the alpha emitting radionuclide thorium-227 ((227)Th) with a half-life of 18.697 d is labeled to targeting moieties, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The amount of daughter nuclide radium-223 ((223)Ra, t1/2 = 11.435 d) will increase during manufacture and distribution, and so a technology for purification is required to assure an acceptable level of (223)Ra is administrated to the patient. Since (223)Ra is the only progeny of (227)Th with a long half-life (days), the progenies of (223)Ra will have a very limited stay in the formulation once (223)Ra is removed. The focus in this study has, therefore, been on the removal of (223)Ra. In this study, the sorption and separation of (223)Ra (radium(II)) and (227)Th (thorium(IV)) on cation exchange columns has been evaluated as a purification method of decayed (227)Th (i.e. prior to radiolabelling of a mAb and formation of TTC). The goal is to minimize the sorption of (227)Th and maximize the sorption of (223)Ra. Statistical experimental design with formulation and process parameters, including buffered formulations comprising citrate and acetate, at various concentrations and pH, presence of free radical scavenger and chelator, and resin amount have been evaluated for impact on the purification process. The studies have been interpreted by the aid of multivariate data analysis. The correlations between design of experimental variables and sorption are summarized by regression models. The predictive accuracy of radionuclide sorption was given by standard deviation and 95% confidence intervals originating from statistical cross validation. Experimental results and statistical models for citrate-buffered formulations verified reproducible and acceptable sorption levels of (223)Ra and (227)Th under selected conditions. For acetate-buffered formulations, prediction of (227)Th

  11. Radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) in Na-Cl type groundwaters from Tohoku District (Aomori, Akita and Yamagata Prefectures) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Jumpei; Zhang, Jing; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2014-11-01

    A total of 28 Na-Cl type groundwater samples were collected from Aomori, Akita and Yamagata Prefectures, in the Tohoku District of Japan, and their radium isotope ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) concentrations were measured along with their chemical components and stable isotope ratios (δ(2)H and δ(18)Os). The (226)Ra concentrations in groundwater samples varied widely, ranging from 8.8 to 1587 mBq kg(-1). These concentrations showed an increasing tendency with the increase of the total dissolved solid (TDS) contents. The (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios were in the range from 0.3 to 4.2, with most data being around 0.5-2. These ratios were within those of (232)Th/(238)U found in granitic and related rocks and so on in Japan, indicating that Ra isotopes mainly ejected into the groundwater by the alpha-recoil process. The relationship between (226)Ra and other parameters suggested that Ra isotopes in groundwater samples in this study were mainly constrained by adsorption-desorption reactions depending on salinity with wide variation. Clear correlation between (226)Ra-Ca, (226)Ra-Sr, (226)Ra-Ba and (226)Ra-TDS observed in sulfate-free groundwater samples indicated that Ra isotopes of them were constrained by adsorption-desorption reactions depending on salinity under reducing condition. In contrast, relationship of (226)Ra-Ca, (226)Ra-Sr, (226)Ra-Ba and (226)Ra-TDS in sulfate-containing groundwater samples varied widely, and then, removal or enhanced mobility of Ra isotopes of them were observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family therapy Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that can help family members improve communication and resolve conflicts. Family therapy is usually provided ...

  13. Assessment of ethylene dibromide, dibromochloropropane, other volatile organic compounds, radium isotopes, radon, and inorganic compounds in groundwater and spring water from the Crouch Branch and McQueen Branch aquifers near McBee, South Carolina, 2010-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, James E.; Campbell, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Public-supply wells near the rural town of McBee, in southwestern Chesterfield County, South Carolina, have provided potable water to more than 35,000 residents throughout Chesterfield County since the early 1990s. Groundwater samples collected between 2002 and 2008 in the McBee area by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) officials indicated that groundwater from two public-supply wells was characterized by the anthropogenic compounds ethylene dibromide (EDB) and dibromochloropropane (DBCP) at concentrations that exceeded their respective maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). Groundwater samples from all public-supply wells in the McBee area were characterized by the naturally occurring isotopes of radium-226 and radium-228 at concentrations that approached, and in one well exceeded, the MCL for the combined isotopes. The local water utility installed granulated activated carbon filtration units at the two EDB- and DBCP-contaminated wells and has, since 2011, shut down these two wells. Groundwater pumped by the remaining public-supply wells is currently (2014) centrally treated at a water-filtration plant.

  14. A theoretical model for the production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by photon-induced transmutation of Ra-226.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, G; Fan Liu, Sau; Allen, B J

    2006-09-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. We are investigating the reduction of radium by transmutation on a small scale by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy photons from a medical linear accelerator (linac) to produce Ra-225, which subsequently decays to Ac-225, which can be used as a generator to produce Bi-213 for use in 'targeted alpha therapy' for cancer. This paper examines the possibility of producing Ac-225 with a linac using an accurate theoretical model in which the bremsstrahlung photon spectrum at 18 MV linac electron energy is convoluted with the corresponding photonuclear cross sections of Ra-226. The total integrated yield can then be obtained and is compared with a computer simulation. This study shows that at 18 MV, the photonuclear reaction on Ra-226 can produce low activities of Ac-225 with a linac. However, a high power linac with high current, pulse length and frequency is needed to produce practical amounts of Ac-225 and a useful reduction of Ra-226.

  15. Influence of chronic low-dose/dose-rate high-LET irradiation from radium-226 in a human colorectal carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Nguyen T K; Sokeechand, Bibi S H; Seymour, Colin B; Mothersill, Carmel E

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate potential damages of chronic environmentally relevant low-dose/dose-rate high-LET irradiation from a naturally occurring alpha-emitting radionuclide (radium-226, (226)Ra) on a human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 p53(+/+) cell line. Clonogenic survival assays and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) measurement with a sensitive fluorescent MMP probe JC-1 were performed in HCT116 p53(+/+) cells chronically exposure to low doses/dose rates of (226)Ra with high-LET. Comparisons were made with the human non-transformed keratinocyte HaCaT cell line and acute low-dose direct low-LET gamma radiation. The chronic low-dose/dose-rate alpha radiation (CLD/DRAR) did not reduce the clonogenic survival of HCT116 p53(+/+) cells over the period of 70 days of exposure. Only one significant reduction in the HCT116 p53(+/+) cells' clonogenic survival was when cells were grown with 10,000mBq/mL (226)Ra for 40 days and progeny cells were clonogenically assessed in the presence of 10,000mBq/mL (226)Ra. The cumulative doses that cells received during this period ranged from 0.05 to 46.2mGy. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) dropped initially in both HCT116 p53(+/+) and HaCaT cells in response to CLD/DRAR. The MMP in HCT116 p53(+/+) cells recovered more quickly at all dose points than and that in HaCaT cells until the end of the exposure period. The highest dose rate of 0.66mGy/day depolarized the HaCaT's mitochondria more consistently during the exposure period. The faster recovery status of the MMP in HCT116 p53(+/+) cells than that in HaCaT cells was also observed after exposure to acute low-dose gamma rays. Overall, it was found that CLD/DRAR had little impact on the MMP of human colorectal cancer and keratinocyte cell lines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of separation technology for the removal of radium-223 from targeted thorium conjugate formulations. Part II: purification of targeted thorium conjugates on cation exchange columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenvik, Janne Olsen; Dyrstad, Knut; Kristensen, Solveig; Ryan, Olav B

    2017-09-01

    Tumor targeting pharmaceuticals will play a crucial role in future pharma pipelines. The targeted thorium conjugate (TTC) therapeutic platform could provide real benefit to patients, whereby targeting moieties like monoclonal antibodies are radiolabelled with the alpha-emitting radionuclide thorium-227 ((227)Th, t1/2 = 18.7 days). A potential problem could be the accumulation of the long-lived daughter nuclide radium-223 ((223)Ra, t1/2 = 11.4 days) in the drug product during manufacturing and distribution. Therefore, the level of (223)Ra must be standardized before administration to the patient. The focus in this study has been the removal of (223)Ra, as the other progenies will have a very limited stay in the formulation. In this study, the purification of TTCs labeled with decayed (227)Th has been explored. Columns packed with a strong cation exchange resin have been used to sequester (223)Ra. The separation of TTC from (223)Ra has been evaluated as influenced by both formulation and process parameters with a design of experiments (DOE) study; including citrate or acetate buffer, pH, buffer concentration, presence or absence of pABA + EDTA, resin amount and sodium chloride concentration. The aim was to achieve a separation with high sorption of (223)Ra and accompanying low TTC sorption. The results were analyzed by multivariate analysis. Four regression models of TTC and (223)Ra sorption from citrate and acetate buffered formulations were developed. The predictive accuracy of sorption in the four statistical models was given by standard deviations and confidence intervals. The TTC sorption in citrate and acetate buffered formulations was affected by the identical variables and the variation in TTC sorption was comparable for the two models. However, the DOE variables had a significantly stronger impact on the (223)Ra sorption in citrate buffered formulations than the (223)Ra sorption in acetate buffer. An optimal separation with a TTC sorption

  17. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginal lining gets thinner, dryer, and less elas- tic. Vaginal dryness may cause pain during sexual intercourse . ... when a woman starts taking hormone therapy. Some research suggests that for women who start combined therapy ...

  18. Insulin Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Resources Drugs, Procedures & Devices Prescription Medicines Insulin Therapy Insulin Therapy Share Print When you digest food, your ... you eat into glucose (a form of sugar). Insulin allows this glucose to enter all the cells ...

  19. Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene therapy Overview Gene therapy involves altering the genes inside your body's cells in an effort to treat or stop disease. Genes contain your ... that don't work properly can cause disease. Gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds a new ...

  20. Prolonged therapy with cabazitaxel in an octogenarian with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sumanta K.; Stein, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    In the phase III TROPIC trial, cabazitaxel in combination with prednisone was compared to mitoxantrone with prednisone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant disease (mCRPC) that had received previous therapy with docetaxel. Cabazitaxel therapy was associated with an improvement in overall survival (the primary endpoint of the study), leading to its FDA approval for use in this setting. Although cabazitaxel was the first agent approved in the post-docetaxel space, several other agents have entered (or are probably soon to enter) the therapeutic armamentarium, including abiraterone, MDV3100, and radium-223. As such, the oncologist is faced with the issue of balancing the risks and benefits of diverse therapies in this setting in the absence of comparative data. Although the difficulties associated with cytotoxic therapy may cause both the patient and physician to delay use of cabazitaxel after docetaxel, we present a case to illustrate that the agent can be well tolerated and efficacious even in the very elderly. Our patient, an octogenarian with mCRPC and evidence of progression after 10 cycles of docetaxel, has tolerated 24 cycles of cabazitaxel to date with disease stabilization and minimal toxicity. Herein, we discuss considerations in selecting appropriate post-docetaxel therapies in an increasingly complex therapeutic landscape. PMID:22575202

  1. What Is Music Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is ...

  2. Proceedings of the 9. international conference on health effects of incorporated radionuclides emphasis on radium, thorium, uranium and their daughter products - HEIR 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeh, U.; Roth, P.; Paretzke, H.G. (eds.) [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The ninth international conference on 'Health Effects of Incorporated Radionuclides - Emphasis on Radium, Thorium, Uranium and their Daughter Products' HEIR 2004 was held at GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany, from November 29 until December 1, 2004. The growing popularity of this topic among the scientific community, especially the radiation protection community, was demonstrated by the largest number of participants in comparison to the earlier conferences. In all, there were 157 participants from 20 different countries of the world. In the conference 62 scientific and 12 poster presentations were included in 13 sessions. The scope of the conference covered studies related to the long-term follow-up of thorotrast subjects in Japan, Germany and Portugal, and also of the subjects exposed to Ra-224 for the treatment of bone tuberculosis and ankylosing spondylitis. The studies and discussions on these topics are important in view of the large number of liver cancers observed in the thorotrast patients and the number of bone cancers in the cases treated with Ra-224. A growth stunting was also observed for the subjects who received the Ra-224 injections early in their lives. Besides atom bomb survivors, the data from thorotrast patients could well help towards a better understanding of the health effects of irradiations. In addition to the scientific presentations on the above topics, there were a number of presentations on the incidence of lung cancer from radon exposure of miners and plutonium exposures causing lung cancer among the Mayak workers in the Russian Federation. Other stimulating presentations were on the tissue damaging mechanisms of alpha particles, having very high L.E.T., and also the related radiation weighting factor in comparison to beta and gamma radiations. There were also interesting presentations on the topics of uncertainties involved in the internal dose assessment from radiation exposure and

  3. Progress in emerging therapies for advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudard, Stéphane

    2013-05-01

    The landscape of prostate cancer treatment is rapidly changing as extensive research into potential therapies yields new options. In this article, the literature is reviewed to identify emerging therapies for advanced prostate cancer. Emphasis is placed on agents that have been approved in the United States of America (USA) and the European Union, or that have reached phase III clinical studies. Several new therapies have been approved in recent years across different stages of the natural history of the disease. Degarelix, a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist, has been approved for reducing testosterone to castrate levels in hormone-sensitive disease. No new agents have been approved for use in combination with docetaxel chemotherapy, the current standard of care for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. One immunotherapy, sipuleucel-T, has been approved (USA only) in the pre-docetaxel setting. Cabazitaxel, a next-generation taxane, and abiraterone acetate, an inhibitor of androgen biosynthesis, have both been approved as second-line agents following chemotherapy. Enzalutamide (MDV3100), an androgen receptor antagonist, has been shown to increase overall survival in the post-chemotherapy setting in metastatic disease. Denosumab, an antibody-based bone-targeted agent, has been approved for the prevention of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases. Radium-223 chloride, an α-emitting radiopharmaceutical, is likely to gain approval soon following promising results in a phase III trial. Clinical studies involving other promising agents are ongoing. The emergence of these therapies adds to the growing armamentarium against prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sweat Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    A study combined group sweating and group counseling. Four adolescent boys with disruptive behavior disorders participated in 12 sweat therapy sessions. They reported the sessions useful for sharing personal concerns and receiving assistance with problem solving. Three boys showed improvement in self-esteem. Advantages of sweat therapy over other…

  5. Intravenous Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliart, Barbara

    Intended for teaching licensed practical nurses, this curriculum guide provides information related to the equipment and skills required for nursing care of patients needing intravenous (IV) therapy. It also explains the roles and responsibilities of the licensed practical nurse with regard to intravenous therapy. Each of the 15 instructional…

  6. Poetry Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ronald V.

    Poetry therapy is the method of therapy based on the principle that a poem is a special medium for expressing emotions and that this expression can have psychotherapeutic value. A survey taken in 1973 showed there were over 400 therapists treating 3,500 drug addicts, alcoholics, and mental retardates around the country. Poetry therapists…

  7. Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy is one of the most precise and advanced forms of radiation treatment available. How Proton Therapy is Delivered The patient is positioned on a table with a head frame or face mask covering the head. As the cyclotron smashes atoms, the protons released are directed toward ...

  8. Retroperitoneal and extrapelvic spread of suppurative process during intestinal perforation (clinical roentgenologic data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shniger, N.U.; Krivosheina, I.L. (Ministerstvo Putej Soobshcheniya SSSR, Moscow)

    Clinical and radiologic examinations of 17 patients with rectal and colonic perforation with further spread of suppurative process in the retroperitoneal space and beyond the pelvis has been carried out. Surgical and pathological comparisons show that the fistulas go along the fascial-muscular sheaths and vessels. Large intestinal fistulas are divided by their character into simple complete and incomplete and complex complete and incomplete. Use of irrigoscopy is advisable along with fistulography for proper diagnosis. In such cases radiologic examination plays a decisive role in the diagnosis revision, development of the therapeutic approach, and the confirmation of the process intensity.

  9. [Unilateral locking of cervical facet joints. Frequency and value of roentgenologic signs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, E; Schwarz, N

    1993-10-01

    Unilateral locking of cervical facet joints is often misdiagnosed and inadequately treated, because it is not readily detected on plain radiographs. Primary radiographs of 17 patients were analysed to evaluate radiographical signs with reference to frequency and significance. Direct signs of locking were present in no more than 53% of cases. Of these, an abrupt change in laminar space width, seen in 88.2%, proved to be the most reliable sign. Displacement of the spinous processes above and below the lesion was found in the same percentage of cases, but it carries less diagnostic weight. While present in all cases, anterolisthesis is only diagnostic if additional oblique views show evidence of lateralized cervical anterolisthesis. Clearly less reliable indirect signs included: the bow tie sign (29.4%), dehiscence of the spinous processes (23.5%), differences in the sagittal diameters of the vertebral bodies above and below the lesion (35.2%), double facet contour (47%) and tilting of the cranial segment of the cervical spine away from the locked facets (58.8%). Abnormalities of disc shape were not seen on a.-p. projections. Those detectable in axial views are irrelevant to locking, as are empty facets. If more than one indirect sign is present and if unilateral locking is suspected but cannot be established unequivocally even on additional oblique views, computed tomography is indicated, because reduction continues to be the first step in the management of fresh injuries.

  10. Early roentgenological grading of femoral shortening is correlated to the late outcome after femoral neck fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernefalk, L. [Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine]|[Country Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology; Granstroem, P. [Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine]|[Country Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology; Messner, K. [Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine]|[Country Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology

    1995-05-01

    Using orthoradiography, the distance between the centre of the femoral head and the intercondylar notch was assessed at regular intervals in 144 patients who were followed for a 2-year period after osteosynthesis of a femoral neck fracture. Late complications, such as segmental collapse and non-union, occurred in 27% of the patients. The degree of femoral shortening was significantly correlated to the incidence of late complications. At 1 month, femoral shortening of more than 5 mm was observed in 85% of patients who developed late complications, and in only 5% of patients without such complications. Thus, the observation of a shortening of more than 5 mm predicted a greater than 6-fold increase of the incidence of late complications. The prognostic accuracy of this observation 1 month after treatment was 92%. (orig.).

  11. Roentgenologic assessment of spondylolisthesis. Pt. 1. A study of measurement variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielson, B.; Frennered, K.; Irstam, L.

    Variations when measuring slip and lumbar index were studied in three lumbar specimens with different degrees of artificially created L5-S1 spondylolysthesis. Lateral radiographs were obtained with the specimens tilted and/or rotated mimicking an every-day examination situation. Slip and lumbar index were measured; slip was estimated according to a measuring method advocated by Boxall et coll. but slightly modified by us. Six radiologistis evaluated each film independently. The magnitude of interobserver and intraobserver errors and variations due to positioning was found to be equally large-about 15 per cent each. Although the total measurement variation was not equal to the sum of errors involved, radiologic evaluation of degree of spondylolisthesis was found to be highly unreliable.

  12. [Roentgenologic and morphologic studies of experimental tibial-plateau fractures (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niethard, F U; Plaue, R

    1976-06-18

    Experimental tibial-plateau fractures had been produced to a series of 12 knee joints of corpses. The knee-joints had been exposed to vertical pressure in an extended position. The exerted pressure and the achieved deformation had been noted down in a diagram. The following radiological and morphological examination of the specimen showed that clear impressed fractured had arrived in case of a small deformation, whereas stronger compression had always caused combinated impression and split fractures. Impressions up to a depth of 3 to 5 mm cannot be proved radiologically. A certain unknown figure must be reckoned with in cases of distorsions of the knee-joint without a striking radiological finding. This will, however, hardly involve therapeutic consequences, because the carrying capacity of the tibial condyle will not be considerably reduced by such small impressions, and there is no fear of a further impression under load.

  13. Hand Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Therapy Email to a friend * required fields From * ... ensure a healthy style of work. Find a Hand Therapist Search for a hand therapist in your ...

  14. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy, including: Fatigue Hair loss Skin changes Swelling/edema Nausea Sexual effects (reduced desire) Blood clots Your ... American Brain Tumor Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. Ste 550 Chicago, IL 60631 © 2014 American Brain ...

  15. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapists have graduate degrees and can demonstrate their competence in sex therapy by becoming credentialed by the ... ways to resolve your concerns and improve your communication and intimacy. Talking about sex and intimacy may ...

  16. Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes colon and rectal changes infertility joint changes lymphedema mouth changes secondary cancer There is a slight risk of developing cancer from radiation therapy. Following radiation treatment for cancer, you should be ...

  17. Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or improve your body's ability to fight disease. Gene therapy holds promise for treating a wide range of diseases, such as cancer, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, hemophilia and AIDS. Researchers are still studying how and ...

  18. Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biofeedback for learning to promote relaxation and increase oxygen flow to muscles (Schwartz & Schwartz, 1993) ; hypnotherapy for relaxation and pain relief (Hammond, 1991); magnet therapy for pain relief (Vallbona et al., 1997) ; and ...

  19. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Be extra careful not to spend time with children or pregnant women. Internal Radiation Therapy Makes You Give Off Radiation With systemic radiation, your body fluids ( urine , sweat, and saliva ) will give off radiation for a while. With ...

  20. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  1. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Information for Families and Caretakers from The Progeria Research Foundation Written ... accelerated aging in children. Children with Progeria need Physical Therapy (PT) and Occupational Therapy (OT) as often as ...

  2. Emerging therapies to prevent skeletal morbidity in men with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Philip J; Lee, Richard J; Smith, Matthew R

    2011-09-20

    Skeletal morbidity is a prominent burden to men with advanced prostate cancer throughout the natural history of the disease. Bone metastases can cause pain and greatly elevate the risk for fractures and other structural complications. Distinct from the problem of metastases, treatment-related osteoporosis and associated fragility fractures are potential complications of androgen-deprivation therapy. Bone-targeted therapies for prostate cancer have therefore been the focus of considerable research and drug development efforts. The osteoclast is a validated therapeutic target in the management of prostate cancer. Osteoclast inhibition with zoledronic acid (a bisphosphonate) or with denosumab (a monoclonal antibody to RANK ligand) reduces risk for skeletal events in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer metastatic to bone. Osteoclast inhibition with any of several bisphosphonates improves bone mineral density, a surrogate for osteoporotic fracture risk. Denosumab and toremifene (a selective estrogen receptor modulator) have each been shown to reduce osteoporotic fracture risk among men receiving androgen-deprivation therapy. Beta-emitting radiopharmaceuticals reduce pain due to metastatic disease. Investigations involving alpha-emitting radium-223, endothelin-A receptor antagonists atrasentan and zibotentan, proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase (SRC) inhibitor dasatinib, and tyrosine kinase inhibitor cabozantinib (XL184) are ongoing in clinical trials and are also discussed.

  3. Maintenance Therapy in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Center Home > Resources > Maintenance Therapy Go Back Maintenance Therapy Email Print + Share The term "maintenance therapy" ... are referred to as "maintenance therapies." Why is Maintenance Therapy Needed in IBD? Both Crohn's disease and ...

  4. Family therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Altamash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Another major force not letting us succeed in the treatment of diabetes remains right inside the patients home, their family members. Hence, it is important to know the perception of the close family members about this simple and strong tool in diabetes, ′insulin′. The drug is nearing its century, it has not fully being accepted gracefully even in todays electronic savvy society. So, we need to strongly discover the reason for its non-acceptance, while trials are out inventing new drugs. One vital thing that can change this attitude is increasing the understanding of this drug, insulin in depth to close people around the patient, the ′family′. Underestimating family′s perception about disease and treatment for diabetes is detrimental to both diseased and the doctor. This consists of a biopsychosocial model; biological, psychological and social factors. Family forms the most important part of it. The strategies in family therapy include psychodynamic, structural, strategic, and cognitive-behavioral component. Diabetes has and will continue to rise, so will be the treatment options. From the clinicians side its to fix fasting first but from patients its fix family first. Family therapy demonstrates the importance of insulin initiation and maintenance in insulin naive patients, and continuation for others. The specific needs of such patients and their impact on family life are met with family therapy. Who needs family therapy? Benefits of family therapy and a case based approach is covered.

  5. Art Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibeke; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Based on a Jungian approach, this article will introduce an integrative model to therapeutic change using art therapy methods as practical tools, with the aim of improving quality of life and in the prevention of depression. In a research study involving six participants, painting, clay...... work and drumming were used together with imagination and personal dialogues linked to the artwork. These art therapy processes attempted to combine the participant’s experience of inner and outer reality. The effect of gaining more knowledge about their inner reality using dreams and symbols......, was that participants gained a new understanding about their personal life. In addition, some participants were able to continue to use art therapy experiences as selfdevelopmental tools after the research study terminated. Jung’s description of the interactive relationship between the two living parts of the psyche...

  6. Music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung...... und Entwicklung Music Therapy Annual. Research and Development. 2005 (1), pp. 25-40. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden....

  7. Dance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Marcia B.

    1980-01-01

    Dance therapy deals with personal growth via body-mind interaction. A change in movement expression is believed to result in a personality or behavior change. The therapist is trained to become sensitive to movement expression as it relates to the psychological, motor, and cognitive development of the child. (JN)

  8. [Corporal therapy in sexual therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonierbale, M

    1977-12-01

    The use of corporal therapy in treating sexual problems is discussed. The erotic zones of the body are established very early in infancy. The central nervous system continues to develop 6 months after birth in human beings. Experiments done with rats show that rats that are stimulated by noise, handling, etc., develop denser and more numerous nerve cells. Touch, rhythm, and facial expression are established as the interface with the self's erotic image (established in infancy) and the world. Corporal therapy can modify the physiological functioning of the libido. It is also necessary that one accept one's sociocultural identity. Relational massage, bioenergy, and relaxation are 3 types of corporal therapy used to ameliorate sexual problems.

  9. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Music therapists work with children and adults with developmental ...

  10. Narrative therapy, family therapy and history

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This article was inspired by listening to the interesting plenary on the influence of narrative therapy on family therapy at the AFT annual conference in Manchester in September 2008. One of the issues raised concerned the historical connections between narrative therapy and the broader family therapy field. The contributors seemed keen to avoid a split between narrative therapy and the broader family therapy field and, instead, to find connections but this issue seemed difficult to negotiate...

  11. Antiproton therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Knudsen, Helge V; Bassler, Niels; Alsner, Jan; Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen; DeMarco, John J; Doser, Michael; Hajdukovic, Dragan; Hartley, Oliver; Iwamoto, Keisuke S; Jäkel, Oliver; Kovacevic, Sandra; Møller, Søren Pape; Overgaard, Jens; Petersen, Jørgen B; Ratib, Osman; Solberg, Timothy D; Vranjes, Sanja; Wouters, Bradly G

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the most important means we have for the treatment of localised tumours. It is therefore essential to optimize the technique, and a lot of effort goes into this endeavour. Since the proposal by Wilson in 1946 [R.R. Wilson, Radiology use of fast protons, Radiology 47 (1946) 487.] that proton beams might be better than photon beams at inactivating cancer cells, hadron therapy has been developed in parallel with photon therapy and a substantial knowledge has been gained on the effects of pions, protons and heavy ions (mostly carbon ions). Here we discuss the recent measurements by the CERN ACE collaboration of the biological effects of antiprotons, and argue that these particles very likely are the optimal agents for radiotherapy.

  12. [Functional therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lima, G R

    1977-03-01

    This article attempts to present and explain the therapy for the most common gynecological and nongynecological problems caused by oral contraception (OC). Carcinogenic side effects include vulvar and cervical cancer, which can be treated with cryosurgery, breast cancer, usually treated either by termination of OC, or by additional hormonal therapy, endometritis, and endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma, a result of the action of progesterone on tissues continuously stimulated by estrogen. Endocrinal aspects of OC include all menopausal syndromes, most dermatological side effects, such as acne and hirsutism, nonpuerperal galactorrhea, usually due to hyperprolactinemia, and which responds very well to treatment with bromocriptine, and infections such as herpes genitalis, candida albicans, and others. OC can also cause vulvar distrophy, to be treated with testosterone propionate, and anovulation, which responds very well to treatment with clomiphene.

  13. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfi, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    may cause detrimental long-term effects. Three studies have examined the effect of music therapy procedural support (MTPS) under needle procedures. Consequently, this study aims at examining the effects of MTPS in an RCT. Moreover, the study addresses clinical aspects of the applied MT intervention...... and provides research-based clinical tools. Methods 41 children (1 to 10 years) were enrolled and underwent a single PIVA procedure. The children were randomly assigned to either an MT or a comparable control group receiving PIVA. In addition, the music therapy (MT) group received individualised MTPS (i.......e. music alternate engagement) before, during, and after PIVA. The intervention was performed by a trained music therapist and comprised preferred songs, improvised songs/music, and instrument playing. The study was carried out in accordance with the rules in force regarding research ethics and clinical MT...

  14. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondalen, Gro; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2012-01-01

    Music therapy (MT) is most commonly defined as an intervention where “the therapist helps the client to promote health, using music experiences and the relationships developing through them” (Bruscia 1998). Also other definitions of MT agree that a therapeutic relationship is important for a music...... intervention to be considered MT. Other interventions that “use music for health-related goals, but in ways that do not qualify as music therapy” (Gold 2009), may be described as music medicine, or simply as music listening. In this text we elaborate on an overview chapter covering some of the different major...... music therapy orientations/models (Guided Imagery and Music, Nordoff-Robbins, Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-behavioral etc), their theoretical foundations and their practical approaches to health and wellbeing or ‘health musicking’. The relational context – the interplay of (expressive as well as receptive...

  15. MUSIC THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Archana Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Music Therapy is an established health profession in which music is used within a therapeutic relationship to address to physical, emotional, cognitive and social needs of individuals. After assessing the strength and needs of each client, the qualified music therapist provides the indicated treatment including creating, singing, moving to and/or listening to music. Through musical involvement in therapeutic context, clients, abilities are strengthened and transfer to other areas of their liv...

  16. Types of hormone therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor for regular checkups when taking HT. Alternative Names HRT- types; Estrogen replacement therapy - types; ERT- types of hormone therapy; Hormone replacement therapy - types; Menopause - types of hormone therapy; HT - types; Menopausal hormone ...

  17. About Occupational Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if}} {{{tweet}}} About Occupational Therapy What Is Occupational Therapy? Occupational therapy practitioners ask, "What matters to you?" not, " ... about our science-driven and evidence-based profession. Occupational Therapy: Improving Function While Controlling Costs 4 4 The ...

  18. Radiation Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Radiation Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Radiation Therapy Print A ... have many questions and concerns about it. About Radiation Therapy In radiation therapy, high-energy radiation from ...

  19. Ra-224 Labeling of Calcium Carbonate Microparticles for Internal α-Therapy: Preparation, Stability and Biodistribution in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrøm, Sara; Malenge, Marion; Jorstad, Ida Sofie; Napoli, Elisa; Bruland, Øyvind S; Bønsdorff, Tina B; Larsen, Roy H

    2018-01-29

    Internal therapy with α-emitters should be well suited for micrometastatic disease. Radium-224 emits multiple α-particles through its decay and has a convenient 3.6 days half-life. Despite its attractive properties, the use of 224 Ra has been limited to bone-seeking applications because it cannot be stably bound to a targeting molecule. Alternative delivery systems for 224 Ra are therefore of considerable interest. In this study, calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) microparticles are proposed as carriers for 224 Ra, designed for local therapy of disseminated cancers in cavitary regions, such as peritoneal carcinomatosis. CaCO 3 microparticles were radiolabeled by precipitation of 224 Ra on the particle surface, resulting in high labeling efficiencies for both 224 Ra and daughter 212 Pb and retention of more than 95 % of these nuclides for up to one week in vitro. The biodistribution after intraperitoneal administration of the 224 Ra-labeled CaCO 3 microparticles in immunodeficient mice revealed that the radioactivity mainly remained in the peritoneal cavity. In addition, the systemic distribution of 224 Ra was found to be strongly dependent on the amount of administered microparticles, with a reduced skeletal uptake of 224 Ra with increasing dose. The results altogether suggest that the 224 Ra-labeled CaCO 3 microparticles have promising properties for use as a localized internal α-therapy of cavitary cancers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. From palliative therapy to prolongation of survival: (223)RaCl2 in the treatment of bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepe, Knut; Shinto, Ajit

    2016-07-01

    Patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer often have multiple bone metastases. The resulting bone pain is associated with reduced life quality, increased cost of therapy and impairment of overall survival. Trials with bone-targeting β-emitters have mostly showed an effect on alleviation of bone pain along with prolongation in survival, documented in only a limited number of patients. A randomized phase III trial (ALSYMPCA) using the α-emitter (223)RaCl2 (Xofigo®) showed for the first time, a longer overall survival of 3.6 months in treated patients as a sign of an antitumor effect. The time to first skeletal-related events was also significantly longer in the therapy group compared with placebo. Because of the short range of α-emitter, the bone marrow toxicity of radium therapy is low, and so this radionuclide could also be a candidate for combination with chemotherapy. The elimination of (223)RaCl2 is mainly through the gastrointestinal tract and side effects are mainly in this area. The procedure is similar to treatment with other bone-seeking agents and consists of six administrations of 50 kBq/kg bodyweight Xofigo®, repeated every 4 weeks. At present Xofigo® is only approved for hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

  1. Ordination of environmental data using principal component analysis: the case of the radium isotopes (Ra-226 and Ra-28) in surface waters in an area associated with NORM/TENORM mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Antunes, Marcos M., E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: antunes@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil SA, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios. Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica; Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: kelecom@uol.com.b [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Marinha; Carmo, Roberto F., E-mail: rfcarmo@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil SA, Caetite, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Concentracao de Uranio. Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica; Oliveira, Gabriela T. de [Centro Universitario de Sao Joao da Boa Vista (UNIFAE), SP (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The radium isotopes Ra-226 and Ra-228 were analyzed in surface water at six points, during eighteen months, from June 2006 to December 2007, in the neighborhood of a mine of phosphate associated with uranium in the region of Santa Quiteria, state of Ceara, Brazil. The soluble fraction (which passes through filter of 0.45 micron) and the particulate fraction (which is retained on the 0.45 micron filter) were analyzed using the Principal Component Analysis, PCA, a method for ranking environmental data, and were analyzed also by F test for testing the difference between radionuclides and the difference between the two analyzed fractions. The PCA has identified four groups of samples. Results of Ra-226 in soluble fraction are grouped in the negative part of axis 1 (Factor 1) and axis 2 (Factor 2). Results of Ra-228 in particulate fraction are grouped in the positive part of axis 1 (Factor 1) and in the negative part of axis 2. Results of Ra-226 in soluble fraction are grouped along the positive part of axis 1 (Factor 1). Finally, results of Ra-228 in the particulate fraction are grouped in the positive part of axis 1 (Factor 1) and axis 2 (Factor 2). This last group has two discrepant points (01 and 06). There is no statistical difference between the two analyzed fractions but there are statistical differences between analyzed radionuclides. Therefore, three conclusions can be identified: The use of PCA with radionuclides and analyzed fractions as parameters permits the grouping of collecting data by their environmental similarities; the mean concentration of Ra-226 was statistically higher than that of Ra-228; and there is no statistical difference between soluble and particulate fractions. (author)

  2. [Gestalt therapy.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, J; Poupard, D

    1978-01-01

    The authors describe Gestalt Therapy. They retrace its fundamental theoretical axes. These are psychoanalysis, character analysis, the german Gestalt theory of perception, existentialism, and the Orient. Some principal concepts are then elaborated more fully such as the cycle of awareness, desensitization, excitation anxiety and the five defense mechanisms: retroflection, introjection, projection, deflection, and confluence. The nature and goals of the therapeutic process are also described before the presentation of some techniques specific to this approach such as enactment and role playing. Finally, certain basic Gestalt rules, which aim at facilitating and intensifying the communication process among group members, are enunciated.

  3. Nutritional Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Julie

    2016-03-01

    This article provides the reader with steps needed to accurately assess patient nutrition behaviors that contribute to weight gain, inability to lose weight, or inability to sustain weight loss. Evidence-based approaches in nutrition therapy that can create the daily energy deficit needed to produce 1/2 to 2 pounds of weight loss per week, and the strategies to create the energy deficit, are presented. To optimize health, long-term weight loss maintenance is needed. The benefits of using a multidisciplinary team approach in treating obesity are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Deciding about hormone therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to continue seeing your doctor for regular checkups. Alternative Names HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT- deciding; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding; Menopause - deciding; HT - deciding; Menopausal hormone therapy - deciding; MHT - ...

  5. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  6. Dystonia: Physical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Online Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Physical Therapy Physical therapy may be an important component of treating dystonia ... everyday tasks, Since dystonia is a neurological disorder, physical therapy does not treat the dystonia directly but rather ...

  7. Laser therapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000905.htm Laser therapy for cancer To use the sharing features on ... Lasers are also used on the skin. How Laser Therapy is Used Laser therapy can be used to: ...

  8. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Late for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias Occupational Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Occupational Therapy Print A A ... for some kids. continue Kids Who Might Need Occupational Therapy According to the AOTA, kids with these medical ...

  9. Music therapy and depression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Assche, E; De Backer, J; Vermote, R

    2015-01-01

    .... This is the reason why music therapy is also used to treat depression. To examine the efficacy of music therapy and to report on the results of recent research into the value of music therapy as a treatment for depression...

  10. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  11. SU-F-T-57: Delivered Activity Accuracy of Radium 223 Dichloride Injections, When Being Administrated for Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer, Symptomatic Bone Metastases. The Impact of Residual Activity in the Spent Syringe and Dispensing Accuracy of Ra 223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, G [Marsden Medical Physics Associates, Denville, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the delivered activity accuracy of Radium 223 dichloride injections, when being administrated for castration – resistant prostate cancer, symptomatic bone metastases. The impact of residual activity in the spent syringe and dispensing accuracy of Ra 223. Methods: The administration is by slow intravenous injection over 1 minute followed by double flushing of the 10 mL syringe and IV with saline. Eighty (80) procedures was used to investigate variations in the activity from the amount prescribed (µCi) = 1.35 × Patient weight Kg. The Activity dispensed into a 10mL syringe using a NIST traceable Capintec CRC-25R Chamber and a cross calibrated capintec CRC-15R to measure activity in the syringe immediately before and after administration Results: The patients weight range from 121Ib to 235lb and doses ranging 74.25 µCi to 144.2 µCi. The deviation of dispensed dose vs Prescribed dose average +2.1% with a range of −1.1% to +5.7%. The Dose measured before administration ranges 79.3 µCi to 154.9 µCi. Deviation from the dispensed dose was show to average +2.9% with a range of −0.8% to +7.3%. The average residual dose post injection was 2.5 µCi or 2.2% of the pre injection activity. Ranging from 0.9 µCi to 6.2 µCi, 0.7% to 5.4% respectively. Subtracting the residual activity from that measured activity before injection and comparing it to prescription dose was shown to have an average variation of +2.7% with a range of −0.8% to 7.4%. Conclusion: The case resulted in the 6.2 µCi maximum residual dose had two syringes. A small, 82.8 µCi activity, case resulted in the 7.4% maximum variation in measures less residual verses prescription dose. The average +2.1 % dispenses activity of Ra 223 over the prescription dosage was seen to counteract the average 2.2% residual dosage found to remain in the syringe.

  12. Advanced prostate cancer – patient survival and potential impact of enzalutamide and other emerging therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel NK

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nihar K Patel, Antoine Finianos, Kristen D Whitaker, Jeanny B Aragon-Ching Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: The advent of exponential growth of novel agents tested and approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC has brought about a need for understanding of the mechanism of action, side-effects, and clinical efficacy of these drugs as they relate to these patients. This review will provide a synopsis of the treatment landscape in mCRPC as varying agents such as abiraterone acetate, cabazitaxel, sipuleucel-T, radium, and selected emerging agents are presented. A distinct focus on the utilization of enzalutamide, its mechanism of action, key pivotal trials that brought about its US Food and Drug Administration approval, as well as patient-focused perspectives and clinical implications are discussed herein. Keywords: metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, enzalutamide, systemic therapies

  13. Endobronchial ablative therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Joseph C; Musani, Ali I

    2013-09-01

    Endobronchial ablative therapies are used to address a variety of malignant and benign airway lesions. By utilizing endobronchial ablative techniques patients with symptomatic airway lesions may receive significant symptom improvement, improved quality of life, and improved life expectancy. Endobronchial ablative therapies include laser, electrocautery, argon plasma coagulation, cryotherapy, brachytherapy, and photodynamic therapy. The choice to use one therapy versus another depends on technical and patient specific factors. This article reviews indications and contraindications for each therapy, discusses details related to each endobronchial ablative therapy, complications of endobronchial ablative therapies, and briefly discusses practical consideration with endobronchial ablative therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nominal standard dose and tumor standard dose. Tables for radiation therapy planning and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuisk, H; Khan, F M

    1975-01-01

    The method of treatment planning for a predetermined NSD value is described in detail using various example-problems. The Fret tables allow the finding of the total number of fractions needed (NT) for the NSD. This is done through the NSD/d ratio, d standing for the fractional dose in rad. The Fret tables are for 1 to 7 fractions-per-week treatment schedules. The corresponding value of T (elapsed days) are shown for different week days of the therapy initiation with their respective Fret and NSD/d values. The handling of the rest and multi-rest periods is described. A method of finding the NSD value for a treatment which has reached the maximum connective tissue tolerance is described, covering even the most complex treatment plans. Fret-tumor tables for NSD-tumor and their use are described by appropriate example-problems. Ret equivalent therapy planning through direct NSD methods (Fret tables) and through an approximation method (tables provided) is described and the usage demonstrated by example-problems. The usage of parallel opposing and multiple portals is evaluated in ret-dose values (peripheral radiobiologic effect) and certain conclusions drawn to guide the therapist. These show in which situations all portals per session should be used and when alternate portals are more beneficial. The effect of portal weighting is included in this analysis. The application of ELLIS' NSD method for radium therapy is described. If, in the future, any changes in the power factors of the present NSD formula become necessary, the basic handling of the NSD problems described in this manuscript will remain unchanged. The values obtained from these tables can then be adjusted by the appropriate factors.

  15. Physical Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Physical Therapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Physical Therapy Print en español Terapia física Physical Therapy Basics Doctors often recommend physical therapy (PT) for ...

  16. Art Therapy Verses Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of my paper is to identify the difference between psychotherapy and art therapy. Then to introduce a technique within the field of art therapy that is relevant to neuro-plasticity Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy. The paper identifies the importance of the amygdala and the hippocampus within the role of art therapy. Supporting…

  17. Music therapy in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Šírová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with the subject of music therapy in a special kindergarten for the children with combined disabilities. In the theoretical part it clarifies the concept and principle of music therapy and characterizes the types of disabilities that occur at researched clients. As a research method were used observation and interviews with three music therapists from the institution. KEYWORDS Music therapy, preschool education, special pedagogy, group music therapy,individual music therapy, p...

  18. Occupational therapy students' perceptions of occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Merrill June; Rodger, Sylvia; Hall, Anna R

    2012-10-01

    An understanding of students' perceptions of occupational therapy on entry is required to recognise how professional socialisation occurs through curriculum. Findings pertain to a qualitative study investigating students' perceptions of occupational therapy upon entry to two occupational therapy programmes in Australia. Students commencing Bachelor of Occupational Therapy and Masters of Occupational Therapy Studies programmes participated in the study (n = 462). A purpose-designed questionnaire was distributed to students in the first lecture of each programme. Preliminary analysis comprised identification of keywords/phrases and coding categories were generated from patterns of keywords. Frequency counts and percentages of keywords/phrases within categories were completed. Students' responses were categorised as 'what' occupational therapists do; 'how' they do it; 'why' they do it; and 'who' they work with. In 'what' occupational therapists do students frequently described 'helping' people. Both undergraduate and graduate entry masters students used the term 'rehabilitation' to describe how occupational therapy is done, with graduate entry students occasionally responding with 'through occupation' and 'modifying the environment'. Students perceived the 'why' of occupational therapy as getting back to 'everyday activities', with some students emphasising returning to 'normal' activities or life. Regarding the 'who' category, students also thought occupational therapists worked with people with an 'injury' or 'disability'. Students entered their occupational therapy programmes with perceptions consistent with the general public's views of occupational therapy. However, graduate entry students exposed to a pre-reading package prior to entry had more advanced occupational therapy concepts than undergraduate students. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  19. Radium isotopes in the Ulsan Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Seong [Department of Oceanography, Chungnam National University, Gung-dong 220, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: leejs728@nfrda.re.kr; Kim, Kee Hyun [Department of Oceanography, Chungnam National University, Gung-dong 220, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Duck Soo [Department of Oceanography, Chungnam National University, Gung-dong 220, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    In order to estimate the fluxes of Ra isotopes, we measured {sup 224}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 228}Ra activities in the Ulsan Bay mixing zone. The convex upwards curvature of the plot of Ra isotope activities versus salinity for the mixing zone suggests that Ra isotopes are supplied from particles entering the mixing zone from both the river and bottom sediments. This addition increases the estuarine flux of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra to the outer sea by factors of 15 and 95 over the flux attributable to Ra dissolved in the riverine water alone. In order to estimate the residence time of the water in Ulsan Bay, we applied a mass balance model to the distribution of {sup 224}Ra and {sup 226}Ra activities in the Ulsan Bay mixing zone with the inflow from the Taehwa River. The obtained residence times of the waters in the Ulsan Bay were estimated to be 6.8-11.4 d. The waters in the upper part of the estuary have long residence times whereas those in the lower part, in contact with the open sea, have shorter residence times. The mean residence time of the water in the Ulsan Bay was estimated to be 9.1 d.

  20. Radium in baggerspecie afkomstig uit het Rijnmondgebied

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard H; Overwater RMW; Glastra P; Nissan LA; LSO

    2003-01-01

    In 2002 zijn wederom havenspeciemonsters verzameld in de Rotterdamse havens en in de Nieuwe Waterweg. Van 25 monsters is het 226Ra-gehalte bepaald. Zoals ook in eerdere meetcampagnes is vastgesteld, worden hoge radiumgehalten gevonden in de omgeving van de voormalige lozingspunten van de

  1. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, M.D.; Durbin, P.W.; Howard, B.; Lipsztein, J.; Rundo, J.; Still, E.T.; Willis, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra, and /sup 228/Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior.

  2. Chinese-English Electronics and Telecommunications Dictionary. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    ttttflOt- x-ray spectrograph x-ray output roentgenoscopy roentgenology therapy tube .11 02 03 04 05 x-ray photograph; x-ray 06 picture...Intermedia’ i • aer 07 median error 08 neutral phase 09 Intermediate group selector 10 l Intermediate film system 11 mean carrier 12

  3. [Rifapex, a new antituberculosis agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, G B; Krasnov, V A; Reĭkhrud, T A; Tsybanev, A A

    2009-01-01

    Clinico-roentgenologic and bacteriologic efficacy and safety of rifapex (rifapentin) were investigated in the complex therapy of 90 patients with newly recorded drug-susceptible tuberculosis. Pifapex was shown to be effective in the treatment of the patients during the acute phase of the disease, during the treatment completeness and during the short preoperative period.

  4. Gout: Value of bone scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, J.P.; Cardenas, R.; Bell, L.; Gonzalez Griego, J.

    1986-12-01

    11 male patients with gout were studied by means of bone scintigraphy with /sup 99m/TcMDP. This diagnostic method rendered possible the diagnosis of clinically or roentgenologically occult bone involvement. Bone scintigraphy may be useful procedure to monitor therapy of gout.

  5. Music Therapy and Music Therapy Research. Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This response to Keynote by Prof. Even Ruud (N)"Music Education and Music Therapy seeks to define these two areas with specific focus on tools and methods for analysis of music as these methods are developed in music therapy. This includes that the music therapist, the music and the client create...

  6. Brief Therapy: Ronny G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Louis A.

    1983-01-01

    Uses a case study to illustrate brief therapy with a parent and presents some implications for the school psychologist. Brief therapy is an active, focused, incisive intervention especially useful with children referred because of emotional adjustment problems. (Author/JAC)

  7. Virtual particle therapy centre

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Particle therapy is an advanced technique of cancer radiation therapy, using protons or other ions to target the cancerous mass. This advanced technique requires a multi-disciplinary team working in a specialised centre. 3D animation: Nymus3D

  8. Adlerian Play Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottman, Terry; Warlick, Jayne

    1990-01-01

    Describes Adlerian method of play therapy. Claims Adlerian therapy represents an integration of the concepts and techniques of individual psychology into a method of using play to help troubled children. (Author/ABL)

  9. Targeted therapies for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... so they cannot spread. How Does Targeted Therapy Work? Targeted therapy drugs work in a few different ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  10. Genes and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  11. Depigmentation therapies in vitiligo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Divya; Kumari, Rashmi; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Depigmentation therapy in vitiligo is an option in those with extensive vitiligo who have failed to respond to medical therapy and have obvious cosmetic disfigurement due to intervening patchy pigmented areas...

  12. Immune Therapies for Neuroblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Navid, Fariba; Armstrong, Michael; Barfield, Raymond C

    2009-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, a solid tumor arising from developing cells of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common extracranial tumor in children. The prognosis for high-risk neuroblastoma remains poor with conventional treatment, and new approaches are therefore being explored to treat this disease. One such alternative therapy that holds promise is immune therapy. We review here the recent advances in 4 types of immune therapy – cytokine, vaccine, antibody, and cellular therapy – to treat neu...

  13. Evaluation of Inter Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This article (revised conference lecture from the 10th World Congress of Music Therapy, Oxford July 2002)) emphasizes the evaluation of the training of Inter Therapy for music therapy students at the MA training at Aalborg University. The students take turns in being client and therapist within...

  14. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  15. Music Therapy for Seniors

    OpenAIRE

    SLUNEČKOVÁ, Petra

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the use of music therapy in the lives of seniors. The target of this thesis is to map the possibilities of using music therapy ways with seniors and to recommend a suitable music therapy resources on the basis of the research and evaluation of obtained dates. The theoretical part describes the term "the music therapy", e.g. concept, definition, types and forms, the development of music therapy, the history, methods and techniques. This age group is defined in t...

  16. [Music therapy and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, E; De Backer, J; Vermote, R

    2015-01-01

    Music therapy is a predominantly non-verbal psychotherapy based on music improvisation, embedded in a therapeutic relationship. This is the reason why music therapy is also used to treat depression. To examine the efficacy of music therapy and to report on the results of recent research into the value of music therapy as a treatment for depression. We reviewed the literature on recent research into music therapy and depression, reporting on the methods used and the results achieved, and we assessed the current position of music therapy for depression in the context of evidence-based scientific research. A wide variety of research methods was used to investigate the effects of using music therapy as a psychotherapy. Most studies focused usually on the added value that music therapy brings to the standard form of psychiatric treatment, when administered with or without psychopharmacological support. Music therapy produced particularly significant and favourable results when used to treat patients with depression. Current research into music therapy and depression points to a significant and persistent reduction in patients' symptoms and to improvements in their quality of life. However, further research is needed with regard to the best methods of illustrating the effects of music therapy.

  17. Hendee's radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlicki, Todd; Starkschall, George

    2016-01-01

    The publication of this fourth edition, more than ten years on from the publication of Radiation Therapy Physics third edition, provides a comprehensive and valuable update to the educational offerings in this field. Led by a new team of highly esteemed authors, building on Dr Hendee’s tradition, Hendee’s Radiation Therapy Physics offers a succinctly written, fully modernised update. Radiation physics has undergone many changes in the past ten years: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become a routine method of radiation treatment delivery, digital imaging has replaced film-screen imaging for localization and verification, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is frequently used, in many centers proton therapy has become a viable mode of radiation therapy, new approaches have been introduced to radiation therapy quality assurance and safety that focus more on process analysis rather than specific performance testing, and the explosion in patient-and machine-related data has necessitated an ...

  18. Radiation Therapy: Professions in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Professions in Radiation Therapy Radiation Oncologist Therapeutic Medical Physicist Radiation Therapist Dosimetrist Radiation Oncology Nurse Social Worker Dietitian Radiation Oncologist Radiation oncologists are physicians who oversee the ...

  19. Radon therapy; Radon in der Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruck, Kaija [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz

    2017-04-01

    Radon therapies are used since more than 100 years in human medicine. Today this method is controversially discussed due to the possible increase of ionizing radiation induced tumor risk. Although the exact mode of biological radiation effect on the cell level is still not known new studies show the efficiency of the radon therapy without side effect for instance for rheumatic/inflammatory or respiratory disorders.

  20. [Physical therapy in osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnjidić, Zoja

    2010-01-01

    Physical therapy has an important role in treating rheumatic diseases; its goal is to reduced pain, swelling and to keep joints mobile. The properly manage osteoarthritis is nonpharmacological and pharmacological modalities. Physical therapy applied as a remedy for osteoarthritis is a part of multimodal therapy. The basis for physical therapy management is determined by the recommendation of the physical therapeutic science and evidence-based medicine. When making a decision about application of different methods of treatment in physical therapy, it is important to correctly diagnose a structural transformation and functional problem. Systematic review of the scientific, evidence-based, international concensus recommendations for the management of the osteoarthritis published between 2000 and 2010 were identified high-quality evidence therapy practice that is efficient and effective in increasing movement capability function, and reduce pain, disability, medical intake and improved physical function for patients with osteoarthritis

  1. Nuclear medicine therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Eary, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    One in three of the 30 million Americans who are hospitalized are diagnosed or treated with nuclear medicine techniques. This text provides a succinct overview and detailed set of procedures and considerations for patient therapy with unsealed radioactivity sources.  Serving as a complete literature reference for therapy with radiopharmaceuticals currently utilized in practice, this source covers the role of the physician in radionuclide therapy, and essential procedures and protocols required by health care personnel.

  2. Electroconvulsive therapy revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, S D; Smith, C; Smith, E M; Miller, J M

    1991-05-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains an extremely valuable tool in the treatment of certain psychiatric disorders. Despite the sensationalism of the past decade, ECT is the treatment of choice in severe depression that is unresponsive to other therapies or in patients who are overtly suicidal. In addition, ECT is particularly valuable in the elderly population, who are at risk for serious complications from the side effects associated with drug therapy. This report describes a case of recurrent depression in which ECT was successfully used.

  3. Radiopharmaceuticals in the elderly cancer patient: Practical considerations, with a focus on prostate cancer therapy: A position paper from the International Society of Geriatric Oncology Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, John O; Gillessen, Silke; Wirth, Manfred; Dale, William; Aapro, Matti; Oyen, Wim J G

    2017-05-01

    Molecular imaging using radiopharmaceuticals has a clear role in visualising the presence and extent of tumour at diagnosis and monitoring response to therapy. Such imaging provides prognostic and predictive information relevant to management, e.g. by quantifying active tumour mass using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). As these techniques require only pharmacologically inactive doses, age and potential frailty are generally not important. However, this may be different for therapy involving radionuclides because the radiation can impact normal bodily function (e.g. myelosuppression). Since the introduction of Iodine-131 as a targeted therapy in thyroid cancer, several radiopharmaceuticals have been widely used. These include antibodies and peptides targeting specific epitopes on cancer cells. Among therapeutic bone seeking agents, radium-223 ((223)Ra) stands out as it results in survival gains in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and symptomatic bone metastases. The therapeutic use of radiopharmaceuticals in elderly cancer patients specifically has received little attention. In elderly prostate cancer patients, there may be advantages in radionuclides' ease of use and relative lack of toxicity compared with cytotoxic and cytostatic drugs. When using radionuclide therapies, close coordination between oncology and nuclear medicine is needed to ensure safe and effective use. Bone marrow reserve has to be considered. As most radiopharmaceuticals are cleared renally, dose adjustment may be required in the elderly. However, compared with younger patients there is less, if any, concern about adverse long-term radiation effects such as radiation-induced second cancers. Issues regarding the safety of medical staff, care givers and the wider environment can be managed by current precautions. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ulcers Heart disease Heatstroke Hepatitis Migraine Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Spinal cord injury Sports injury Stroke Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is generally a safe procedure. Complications are rare. ...

  5. [Morita therapy over history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usa, Shinichi

    2003-01-01

    At Sansei Hospital in Kyoto we performed Morita Therapy not only for Japanese clients but also foreign clients from several countries, like Germany, Switzerland, U.S.A., China, Korea, India and Indonesia. We could treat those foreign clients using Morita Therapy with good success although they came from various cultural backgrounds. One of the characteristic Approaches of Morita Therapy was that it avoided the conceptualization of self-consciousness and self image as a subjective fiction established by abstract and logical thinking. Secondary Morita Therapy moves clients to deal with activities in real life. These 2 approaches help clients not to be involved in symptom development or fixation mechanisms and break through self-centeredness. At the first stage of Morita Therapy, namely in the bed rest period clients can experience his psychic state as if he were a just born baby. The founder of Gestalt Therapy, Frederick S. Perls experienced by himself Morita Therapy. During bed rest therapy he behaved as if he were a baby. This behavior came out not from conscious abstract and logical thinking but from spontaneous "pre-conscious" state of mind. Morita called this "Jun-na-kokoro" (Pure mind). Morita knew that neurotic symptoms come out from those abstract and logical thinking which could lead to fixation of symptoms so that therapy principle might be the de-centralization of self and the pure mind experience which is found in our daily life and also in daily life of foreign people from various cultural backgrounds.

  6. Photodynamic therapy: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, V F; Vasiliu, V; Dima, S V

    1998-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising local treatment modality based on the selective accumulation of a photosensitizer in malignant tissues and the subsequent irradiation with laser light. Photodynamic therapy of malignant tumors includes biological, photochemical and photophysical processes. These processes involve: (a) absorption of photosensitizing agent; (b) selective retention of the photosensitizer in tumors and (c) irradiation of sensitized tumor by laser radiation. This report provides a review of photosensitizers, photochemistry, subcellular targets, side effects and laser involved in photodynamic therapy. In addition, gradual increase in knowledge related to in vitro and in vivo mechanisms of action of PDT, as well as some clinical applications of photodynamic therapy are presented.

  7. Neutron Therapy Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutron Therapy Facility provides a moderate intensity, broad energy spectrum neutron beam that can be used for short term irradiations for radiobiology (cells)...

  8. Medical Art Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgul Aydin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Art therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses art materials. Art therapy combines traditional psychotherapeutic theories and techniques with an understanding of the psychological aspects of the creative process, especially the affective properties of the different art materials. Medical art therapy has been defined as the clinical application of art expression and imagery with individuals who are physically ill, experiencing physical trauma or undergoing invasive or aggressive medical procedures such as surgery or chemotherapy and is considered as a form of complementary or integrative medicine. Several studies have shown that patients with physical illness benefit from medical art therapy in different aspects. Unlike other therapies, art therapy can take the patients away from their illness for a while by means of creative activities during sessions, can make them forget the illness or lost abilities. Art therapy leads to re-experiencing normality and personal power even with short creative activity sessions. In this article definition, influence and necessity of medical art therapy are briefly reviewed.

  9. Therapy with radionuclides. Radionuklid-Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Hotze, A.L. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin)

    1992-12-01

    Radioiodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases is a well-established procedure in Nuclear Medicine. However, the therapeutic use of radioisotopes in other diseases is relatively unknown among our refering physicians. The therapeutic effects of intraarticular (rheumatoid arthritis) and intracavitary (pleural and peritoneal carcinosis) applications yields good results. The radiophosphorus therapy in polycythemia vera rubra has always to be considered as an alternative to chemotherapy. The use of analgetics may be reduced by pain therapy of bone metastasis by injection of bone-seeking beta emitters like Rh-186 HEDP. Other procedures like therapeutic application of meta-iodo-benzylguanidine in neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma resulted in at least remissions of the disease. Radioimmunotherapy needs further evaluation before it can be recommended as a routine procedure. (orig.).

  10. Development of Technology for Image-Guided Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    the effect of Calypso ra diotransponders on the dose distribution were presented in poster form at the American Radium Society Meeting. The poster is...lies  with how the Polycom RMX bridge  handles  incoming calls from Walter Reed Bethesda. The issue is still  being investigated.       b) Remote

  11. Pediatric Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathom-Radocy, Wanda B.

    This book on music therapy includes relevant medical, psychological, and developmental information to help service providers, particularly music therapists, and parents to understand children with disabilities. The first two chapters describe the process of assessment and delineation of goals in music therapy that leads to the design of the music…

  12. Boganmeldelse - Music Therapy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2006-01-01

    . Alligevel følger her en anbefaling af bogen: for musikterapeuter er det en bog, man ikke kommer uden om. Music Therapy Research, på dansk Musikterapiforskning, er en gennemrevideret, ja faktisk nyudgivelse, af bogen Music Therapy Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives, som udkom i 1995. Også...

  13. Therapy in Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costonis, Maureen Needham, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of articles on the subject of movement therapy. It can be used as a set of supplementary readings for an academic course in dance therapy or a psychiatric residency program. It includes an exhaustive bibliography on this field for students and practioners in this field. Four principal themes have been selected as a…

  14. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  15. History of gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Thomas; Parker, Nigel; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-08-10

    Two decades after the initial gene therapy trials and more than 1700 approved clinical trials worldwide we not only have gained much new information and knowledge regarding gene therapy in general, but also learned to understand the concern that has persisted in society. Despite the setbacks gene therapy has faced, success stories have increasingly emerged. Examples for these are the positive recommendation for a gene therapy product (Glybera) by the EMA for approval in the European Union and the positive trials for the treatment of ADA deficiency, SCID-X1 and adrenoleukodystrophy. Nevertheless, our knowledge continues to grow and during the course of time more safety data has become available that helps us to develop better gene therapy approaches. Also, with the increased understanding of molecular medicine, we have been able to develop more specific and efficient gene transfer vectors which are now producing clinical results. In this review, we will take a historical view and highlight some of the milestones that had an important impact on the development of gene therapy. We will also discuss briefly the safety and ethical aspects of gene therapy and address some concerns that have been connected with gene therapy as an important therapeutic modality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Speech therapy after thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wing-Hei Viola; Wu, Che-Wei

    2017-10-01

    Common complaints of patients who have received thyroidectomy include dysphonia (voice dysfunction) and dysphagia (difficulty swallowing). One cause of these surgical outcomes is recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Many studies have discussed the effectiveness of speech therapy (e.g., voice therapy and dysphagia therapy) for improving dysphonia and dysphagia, but not specifically in patients who have received thyroidectomy. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to discuss issues regarding speech therapy such as voice therapy and dysphagia for patients after thyroidectomy. Another aim was to review the literature on speech therapy for patients with recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis after thyroidectomy. Databases used for the literature review in this study included, PubMed, MEDLINE, Academic Search Primer, ERIC, CINAHL Plus, and EBSCO. The articles retrieved by database searches were classified and screened for relevance by using EndNote. Of the 936 articles retrieved, 18 discussed "voice assessment and thyroidectomy", 3 discussed "voice therapy and thyroidectomy", and 11 discussed "surgical interventions for voice restoration after thyroidectomy". Only 3 studies discussed topics related to "swallowing function assessment/treatment and thyroidectomy". Although many studies have investigated voice changes and assessment methods in thyroidectomy patients, few recent studies have investigated speech therapy after thyroidectomy. Additionally, some studies have addressed dysphagia after thyroidectomy, but few have discussed assessment and treatment of dysphagia after thyroidectomy.

  17. Narrative Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, William M.; Keenan, Robert

    1997-01-01

    States that narrative family therapy is informed by social constructionism and postmodern worldviews, and is a relatively significant departure from mainstream psychotherapy. Discusses the use of narrative family therapy. Uses the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden as an example. (MKA)

  18. Therapy of Lies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Conversion therapy comes in many forms, ranging from informal chats with counselors to aggressive physical coercion, but all are based on the belief that a gay male or a lesbian can be changed "back" to heterosexual behavior. It is not just alarmed parents who turn to this therapy. Many LGBT individuals seek out such treatment in an effort to…

  19. Art Therapy: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Linda, Comp.; Schmal, Marilyn Strauss, Comp.

    The bibliography on art therapy presents 1175 citations (1940-1973) drawn from searches of the medical indexes, computer systems of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Mental Health, other bibliographies, Centre International de Documentation Concernant les Expressions Plastiques, and the American Journal of Art Therapy.…

  20. Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... Information Translations Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Expand Section Radiation Therapy - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  1. Social Action Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores intersections among art, action, and community. It describes sociopolitical aspects of the author's art therapy work with survivors of repressive regimes living in Brazil, China, and Denmark and considers ways that unique historical and social processes influenced her conceptualization and practice of social action art therapy.

  2. Delineating the Effects of Tumor Therapies on Prostate Cancer Using Small Animal Imaging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    methylthiosemicarbazone), Cu-ATSM, labeled with a positron- emitting isotope of copper (60Cu, 61Cu, 62Cu or 64Cu) has been shown, in vitro and in vivo, to be 0 0.1...Cancer Res. 1990;50:3339-3344. 24. Crabtree HG, Cramer W. The action of radium on cancer cells I. II. Some factors determining the...susceptibility of cancer cells to radium . Proc R Soc Ser B. 1933;113:238-250. 25. Gray LH, Conger AD, Ebert M, Hornsey S, Scott OC. Concentration of oxygen

  3. Animal-Assisted Therapy and Occupational Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Gena; Stella, Tiffany; Wilkison, Megan; Szczech Moser, Christy; Hoelzel, Allison; Hendricks, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The use of animals for therapeutic purposes has been documented in the literature for centuries. This review will highlight evidence of the benefits of animal-assisted therapy as well as provide a plethora of resources for therapists interested in learning more about how animals can provide restorative benefits for their clients.

  4. Music therapy in dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Crellin, Nadia; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recent reviews on music therapy for people with dementia have been limited to attempting to evaluate whether it is effective, but there is a need for a critical assessment of the literature to provide insight into the possible mechanisms of actions of music therapy. This systematic review......, five studies investigated hormonal and physiological changes, and five studies focused on social and relational aspects of music therapy. The musical interventions in the studies were diverse, but singing featured as an important medium for change. Conclusions Evidence for short-term improvement...... in mood and reduction in behavioural disturbance was consistent, but there were no high-quality longitudinal studies that demonstrated long-term benefits of music therapy. Future music therapy studies need to define a theoretical model, include better-focused outcome measures, and discuss how the findings...

  5. Music therapy improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Kuzma

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the technique of music therapy – music therapy improvisation is introduced. In this form of music therapy the improvising partners share meaning through the improvisation: the improvisation is not an end in itself: it portrays meaning that is personal, complex and can be shared with the partner. The therapeutic work, then, is meeting and matching the client's music in order to give the client an experience of "being known", being responded through sounds and being able to express things and communicate meaningfully. Rather than the client playing music, the therapy is about developing the engagement through sustained, joint improvisations. In music therapy, music and emotion share fundamental features: one may represent the other, i.e., we hear the music not as music but as dynamic emotional states. The concept of dynamic structure explains why music makes therapeutic sense.

  6. [Navigated retinal laser therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernt, M; Ulbig, M; Kampik, A; Neubauer, A S

    2013-08-01

    Navigated laser therapy introduces for the first time computerized assistance systems for retinal laser therapy. The Navilas system offers high precision and safety and provides additional benefits regarding standardization of planning, execution, documentation and quality assurance. The current focus of clinical application for navigated laser therapy besides laser treatment after retinal vein occlusion and panretinal laser photocoagulation in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is diabetic macular edema. Recent data indicate that combined initial anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) and navigated macular laser therapy allows achievement and maintenance of treatment success with a minimum number of interventions. Despite very promising results the current assessment of navigated laser therapy is still limited by the evidence available worldwide.

  7. Pharmacological therapy for amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupam; Nagpal, Ritu; Mittal, Sanjeev Kumar; Bahuguna, Chirag; Kumar, Prashant

    2017-01-01

    Amblyopia is the most common cause of preventable blindness in children and young adults. Most of the amblyopic visual loss is reversible if detected and treated at appropriate time. It affects 1.0 to 5.0% of the general population. Various treatment modalities have been tried like refractive correction, patching (both full time and part time), penalization and pharmacological therapy. Refractive correction alone improves visual acuity in one third of patients with anisometropic amblyopia. Various drugs have also been tried of which carbidopa & levodopa have been popular. Most of these agents are still in experimental stage, though levodopa-carbidopa combination therapy has been widely studied in human amblyopes with good outcomes. Levodopa therapy may be considered in cases with residual amblyopia, although occlusion therapy remains the initial treatment choice. Regression of effect after stoppage of therapy remains a concern. Further studies are therefore needed to evaluate the full efficacy and side effect profile of these agents. PMID:29018759

  8. Pain in photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Tampa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy is a modern treatment with applications in several medical specialties, which has been intensely studied in the last years. The main indications in dermatology are actinic keratosis, superficial basal cell carcinoma and Bowen's disease- common skin disorders in which photodynamic therapy proved its efficacy. At present, the use of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of other skin disorders is profoundly researched. Pain is the most common and redoubtable adverse effect of photodynamic therapy and it is the most important factor affecting the patient's adherence to treatment. The aim of this article is to look over the most recent medical studies regarding pain in PDT, with emphasis on the factors affecting the occurrence of pain and the most recent strategies for controlling photodynamic therapy- related pain.

  9. Medical therapy in acromegaly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sherlock, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by excess secretion of growth hormone (GH) and increased circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations. The disease is associated with increased morbidity and premature mortality, but these effects can be reduced if GH levels are decreased to <2.5 μg\\/l and IGF-1 levels are normalized. Therapy for acromegaly is targeted at decreasing GH and IGF-1 levels, ameliorating patients\\' symptoms and decreasing any local compressive effects of the pituitary adenoma. The therapeutic options for acromegaly include surgery, radiotherapy and medical therapies, such as dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor ligands and the GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant. Medical therapy is currently most widely used as secondary treatment for persistent or recurrent acromegaly following noncurative surgery, although it is increasingly used as primary therapy. This Review provides an overview of current and future pharmacological therapies for patients with acromegaly.

  10. Proton therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Proton Therapy Physics goes beyond current books on proton therapy to provide an in-depth overview of the physics aspects of this radiation therapy modality, eliminating the need to dig through information scattered in the medical physics literature. After tracing the history of proton therapy, the book summarizes the atomic and nuclear physics background necessary for understanding proton interactions with tissue. It describes the physics of proton accelerators, the parameters of clinical proton beams, and the mechanisms to generate a conformal dose distribution in a patient. The text then covers detector systems and measuring techniques for reference dosimetry, outlines basic quality assurance and commissioning guidelines, and gives examples of Monte Carlo simulations in proton therapy. The book moves on to discussions of treatment planning for single- and multiple-field uniform doses, dose calculation concepts and algorithms, and precision and uncertainties for nonmoving and moving targets. It also exami...

  11. Accelerators for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    2000-05-30

    The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas, or carbon, oxygen and neon ions is relatively new. Accelerators for hadron therapy are far from standardized, but the use of hadron therapy as an alternative to conventional radiation has led to significant improvements and refinements in conventional treatment techniques. This paper presents the rationale for radiation therapy, describes the accelerators used in conventional and hadron therapy, and outlines the issues that must still be resolved in the emerging field of hadron therapy.

  12. Immune Therapies for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navid, Fariba; Armstrong, Michael; Barfield, Raymond C.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, a solid tumor arising from developing cells of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common extracranial tumor in children. The prognosis for high-risk neuroblastoma remains poor with conventional treatment, and new approaches are therefore being explored to treat this disease. One such alternative therapy that holds promise is immune therapy. We review here the recent advances in 4 types of immune therapy – cytokine, vaccine, antibody, and cellular therapy – to treat neuroblastoma. We present preclinical research and clinical trials on several promising candidates such as IL-12, dendritic cell vaccines, anti-GD2 antibodies, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. An optimal treatment plan for neuroblastoma will most likely involve multimodal approaches and combinations of immune therapies. PMID:19342881

  13. Systemic Cancer Therapy:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ostario Palumbo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last half of the century, advances in the systemic therapy of cancer, including chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy have been responsible for improvements in cancer related mortality in developed countries even as the population continues to age. Although such advancements have yet to benefit all cancer types, systemic therapies have led to an improvement in overall survival in both the adjuvant and metastatic setting for many cancers. With the pressure to make therapies available as soon as possible, the side-effects of systemic therapies, in particular long-term side-effects are not very well characterized and understood. Increasingly, a number of cancer types are requiring long-term and even lifelong systemic therapy. This is true for both younger and older patients with cancer and has important implications for each subset. Younger patients have an overall greater expected life-span, and as a result may suffer a greater variety of treatment related complications in the long-term, whereas older patients may develop earlier side-effects as a result of their frailty. Because the incidence of cancer in the world will increase over the next several decades and there will be more people living with cancer, it is important to have an understanding of the potential side effects of new systemic therapies. As an introductory article, in this review series, we begin by describing some of the major advances made in systemic cancer therapy along with some of their known side-effects and we also make an attempt to describe the future of systemic cancer therapy.

  14. Supportive therapy for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lucy A; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Adams, Clive E

    2015-04-14

    Supportive therapy is often used in everyday clinical care and in evaluative studies of other treatments. To review the effects of supportive therapy compared with standard care, or other treatments in addition to standard care for people with schizophrenia. For this update, we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's register of trials (November 2012). All randomised trials involving people with schizophrenia and comparing supportive therapy with any other treatment or standard care. We reliably selected studies, quality rated these and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we estimated the risk ratio (RR) using a fixed-effect model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where possible, we undertook intention-to-treat analyses. For continuous data, we estimated the mean difference (MD) fixed-effect with 95% CIs. We estimated heterogeneity (I(2) technique) and publication bias. We used GRADE to rate quality of evidence. Four new trials were added after the 2012 search. The review now includes 24 relevant studies, with 2126 participants. Overall, the evidence was very low quality.We found no significant differences in the primary outcomes of relapse, hospitalisation and general functioning between supportive therapy and standard care.There were, however, significant differences favouring other psychological or psychosocial treatments over supportive therapy. These included hospitalisation rates (4 RCTs, n = 306, RR 1.82 CI 1.11 to 2.99, very low quality of evidence), clinical improvement in mental state (3 RCTs, n = 194, RR 1.27 CI 1.04 to 1.54, very low quality of evidence) and satisfaction of treatment for the recipient of care (1 RCT, n = 45, RR 3.19 CI 1.01 to 10.7, very low quality of evidence). For this comparison, we found no evidence of significant differences for rate of relapse, leaving the study early and quality of life.When we compared supportive therapy to cognitive behavioural therapy CBT), we again found no significant differences in primary

  15. 75 FR 50880 - TRICARE: Non-Physician Referrals for Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ..., Occupational Therapy, and Speech Therapy AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Defense. ACTION: Final... engage in referrals of beneficiaries to the Military Health System for physical therapy, occupational..., occupational therapy, and speech therapy without having the patient see a physician. This rule will align...

  16. Massage therapy research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2016-08-01

    In this review, massage therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects on varying conditions including prenatal depression, preterm infants, full-term infants, autism, skin conditions, pain syndromes including arthritis and fibromyalgia, hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including Parkinson's and dementia. Although many of the studies have involved comparisons between massage therapy and standard treatment control groups, several have compared different forms of massage (e.g. Swedish versus Thai massage), and different active therapies such as massage versus exercise. Typically, the massage therapy groups have experienced more positive effects than the control or comparison groups. This may relate to the massage therapy providing more stimulation of pressure receptors, in turn enhancing vagal activity and reducing cortisol levels. Some of the researchers have assessed physical, physiological and biochemical effects, although most have relied exclusively on self-report measures. Despite these methodological problems and the dearth of research from the U.S., the massage therapy profession has grown significantly and massage therapy is increasingly practiced in traditional medical settings, highlighting the need for more rigorous research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Helicobacter pylori: Novel Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Drouin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The ideal therapy for Helicobacter pylori would cure the infection without resulting in the development of antibiotic resistance. Current therapies have variable cure rates; the reasons for treatment failure include bacterial resistance and poor compliance. Some antibiotics, such as furazolidone, may be affordable agents to treat this infection worldwide. New proton pump inhibitors, such as rabeprazole, can potentiate antibiotics. Nutriceuticals and probiotics demonstrate interesting in vitro activity against H pylori. Children rarely have symptoms to this infection and, therefore, are a suitable group in which to assess different nonaggressive therapies.

  18. Medical Therapy of Acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Plöckinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the present status of medical therapy of acromegaly. Indications for permanent postoperative treatment, postirradiation treamtent to bridge the interval until remission as well as primary medical therapy are elaborated. Therapeutic efficacy of the different available drugs—somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs, dopamine agonists, and the GH antagonist Pegvisomant—is discussed, as are the indications for and efficacy of their respective combinations. Information on their mechanism of action, and some pharmakokinetic data are included. Special emphasis is given to the difficulties to define remission criteria of acromegaly due to technical assay problems. An algorithm for medical therapy in acromegaly is provided.

  19. Radiation therapy in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidel, Janean L

    2010-04-01

    Although the diagnosis of cancer is relatively uncommon in horses, tumors do occur in this species. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are traditional cancer treatments in all species. In equine patients, surgery has often been the only treatment offered; however, not all tumors can be controlled with surgery alone. In small animal oncology, newer and better therapies are in demand and available. Radiation therapy is often used to control or palliate tumors locally, especially to satisfy clients who demand sophisticated treatments. The large size of equine patients can make radiation therapy difficult, but it is a valuable tool for treating cancer and should not be overlooked when treating horses.

  20. Feminist music therapy pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahna, Nicole; Swantes, Melody

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed 188 music therapy educators regarding their views and use of feminist pedagogy and feminist music therapy. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to determine how many music therapy educators used feminist pedagogy and (b) to determine if there was a relationship between......) participatory learning, (b) validation of personal experience/development of confidence, (c) political/social activism, and (d) critical thinking/ open-mindedness. The results revealed that 46% (n = 32) of participants identified as feminist music therapists and 67% (n = 46) of participants identified as using...

  1. Therapy and Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... system of rewards and reinforcement of positive behavior.Psychoanalysis. This type of treatment encourages you to think ... work, marriage and family therapy, rehabilitation counseling, and psychoanalysis. Your family doctor can help you choose the ...

  2. Music therapy in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avers, Laura; Mathur, Ambika; Kamat, Deepak

    2007-09-01

    The soothing effects of music have been well described over the centuries and across cultures. In more recent times, studies have shown the beneficial effects of music in alleviating symptoms in a wide variety of clinical and psychologic conditions. Music therapy has been primarily used as an intervention to control emotional states, in pain management, cognitive processing, and stress management. Stress is associated with increased production of the stress hormone cortisol, which is known to suppress immune responses. Several studies in the past few decades have demonstrated a positive effect of music therapy on reducing stress or increasing immune responses, or both. Music therapy should therefore be considered as a valuable addition to standard pharmacologic therapeutic modalities in enhancing the immune response and lowering stress levels in such conditions. This article reviews the role of music as a therapeutic modality and the future for music therapy, particularly in pediatrics.

  3. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  4. Botulinum Toxin Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AADA Health System Reform Principles Drug pricing and availability CVS dermatologic formulary restrictions Access to compounded medications ... Botulinum toxin therapy: Overview Also called botulinum rejuvenation Brand names: Botox® Cosmetic, Dysport®, MYOBLOC®, and XEOMIN® When ...

  5. Music therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbers, Sonja; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Freeman, Ruth E; Spreen, Marinus; Ket, Johannes Cf; Vink, Annemiek C; Maratos, Anna; Crawford, Mike; Chen, Xi-Jing; Gold, Christian

    2017-11-16

    Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder that is characterised by persistent low mood, diminished interest, and loss of pleasure. Music therapy may be helpful in modulating moods and emotions. An update of the 2008 Cochrane review was needed to improve knowledge on effects of music therapy for depression. 1. To assess effects of music therapy for depression in people of any age compared with treatment as usual (TAU) and psychological, pharmacological, and/or other therapies.2. To compare effects of different forms of music therapy for people of any age with a diagnosis of depression. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR; from inception to 6 May 2016); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; to 17 June 2016); Thomson Reuters/Web of Science (to 21 June 2016); Ebsco/PsycInfo, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Embase, and PubMed (to 5 July 2016); the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Guideline Clearing House, and OpenGrey (to 6 September 2016); and the Digital Access to Research Theses (DART)-Europe E-theses Portal, Open Access Theses and Dissertations, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database (to 7 September 2016). We checked reference lists of retrieved articles and relevant systematic reviews and contacted trialists and subject experts for additional information when needed. We updated this search in August 2017 and placed potentially relevant studies in the "Awaiting classification" section; we will incorporate these into the next version of this review as appropriate. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing music therapy versus treatment as usual (TAU), psychological therapies, pharmacological therapies, other therapies, or different forms of music therapy for reducing depression. Two review

  6. Whole breast radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11, 2016. www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp/breast-treatment-pdq . Accessed September 13, 2016. National Cancer Institute. Radiation therapy and you: support for people who have cancer. Cancer.gov Web ...

  7. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is exposed to radiation. Whether IMRT leads to improved control of tumor growth and better survival compared ... treatments. Some patients may receive radiation therapy and chemotherapy at the same time. The timing of radiation ...

  8. Occupational therapy evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM) serves to guide occupational therapists in their professional reasoning. The OTIPM prescribes evaluation of task performance based on both self-report and observation. Although this approach seems ideal, many clinicians raise...

  9. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... Colorectal Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Brain ...

  10. Nicotine replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Before you start using a nicotine replacement product, here are some things to know: The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher the dose you may need to ...

  11. Complementary and Integrative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... imagery • Meditation and prayer • Qi gong • Reflexology • Reiki • Yoga Whole medical systems use many types of therapies. Examples include: Ayurveda, homeopathic medicine and traditional Chinese medicine. Safety of ...

  12. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Migraine Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Spinal cord injury Sports injury Stroke Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic Risks Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is generally a safe procedure. Complications are rare. ...

  13. Radiation therapy -- skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000735.htm Radiation therapy - skin care To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. When you have radiation treatment for cancer, you may have some changes ...

  14. Topical therapies for rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nally, Jennie B; Berson, Diane S

    2006-01-01

    Therapeutic options for rosacea include topical agents, oral therapies, laser and light treatments, and surgical procedures. Topical therapies play a critical role in the treatment of patients with papulopustular rosacea and erythematotelangiectatic rosacea, and have the ability to effectively minimize certain manifestations of the disease, including papules, pustules, and erythema. The 3 primary agents for the topical treatment of rosacea are metronidazole, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur. Each of these therapies is approved for the treatment of rosacea and has been validated by multiple studies. Additional topical therapies including benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, retinoids, topical steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and permethrin are not approved for the treatment of rosacea and play variable roles in the management of this condition.

  15. Neuroimaging and electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Tom G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, a number of neuroimaging studies of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been conducted to elucidate the working action of this highly efficacious treatment modality. The technologies used are single photon emission tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic...... resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and quantitative electroencephalography. METHODS: A PubMed literature search with focus on clinical studies was made from the inception of the database until December 2013 using the search terms electroconvulsive therapy and neuroimaging. RESULTS: Early...

  16. Helicobacter pylori: Novel Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Drouin

    1999-01-01

    The ideal therapy for Helicobacter pylori would cure the infection without resulting in the development of antibiotic resistance. Current therapies have variable cure rates; the reasons for treatment failure include bacterial resistance and poor compliance. Some antibiotics, such as furazolidone, may be affordable agents to treat this infection worldwide. New proton pump inhibitors, such as rabeprazole, can potentiate antibiotics. Nutriceuticals and probiotics demonstrate interesting in vitro...

  17. [Therapy-resistant pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestmann, Andreas; Schäfer, Stephan Christian; Geiser, Thomas

    2014-10-15

    We report the case of a 72 year old patient with B-symptoms and a persistent pulmonary infiltrate despite an antibiotic therapy. Buds of granulation tissue were found by transbronchial biopsy proving an organizing pneumonia. B-Symptoms and pulmonary infiltrate were improved immediately by a therapy with steroids. Even though there were reasons for a secondary organizing pneumonia due to a known chronic lymphocytic leukemia and a pneumonia treated four months before, we consider a cryptogenic organizing pneumonia as most probable.

  18. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  19. Journal of Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Proton Therapy (JPT is an international open access, peer-reviewed journal, which publishes original research, technical reports, reviews, case reports, editorials, and other materials on proton therapy with focus on radiation oncology, medical physics, medical dosimetry, and radiation therapy.No article processing/submission feeNo publication feePeer-review completion within 3-6 weeksImmediate publication after the completion of final author proofreadDOI assignment for each published articleFree access to published articles for all readers without any access barriers or subscriptionThe views and opinions expressed in articles are those of the author/s and do not necessarily reflect the policies of the Journal of Proton Therapy.Authors are encouraged to submit articles for publication in the inaugural issue of the Journal of Proton Therapy by online or email to editor@protonjournal.comOfficial Website of Journal of Proton Therapy: http://www.protonjournal.org/

  20. Fertility and cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, L.C.

    1979-05-01

    With increased survival of increasing numbers of cancer patients as a result of therapy, the consequences, early and late, of the therapies must be realized. It is the treating physician's duty to preserve as much reproductive potential as possible for patients, consistent with adequate care. With radiotherapy this means shielding the gonads as much as possible, optimal but not excessive doses and fields, oophoropexy, or sperm collection and storage prior to irradiation. With chemotherapy it means the shortest exposure to drugs consistent with best treatment and prior to therapy the collection and storage of sperm where facilities are available. At present this is still an experimental procedure. Artificial insemination for a couple when the male has received cancer therapy is another alternative. Finally, it is the responsibility of physicians caring for patients with neoplasms to be knowledgeable about these and all other effects of therapy so that patients may be counseled appropriately and understand the implications of therapy for their life.

  1. Humanistic therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Rachel; Davies, Philippa; Caldwell, Deborah; Moore, Theresa HM; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different humanistic therapy models (person-centred, gestalt, process-experiential, transactional analysis, existential and non-directive therapies) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, cognitive-behavioural) for acute depression. PMID:25278809

  2. Adenovirus Vectors for Gene Therapy, Vaccination and Cancer Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, William S. M.; Toth, Karoly

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are the most commonly employed vector for cancer gene therapy. They are also used for gene therapy and as vaccines to express foreign antigens. Adenovirus vectors can be replication-defective; certain essential viral genes are deleted and replaced by a cassette that expresses a foreign therapeutic gene. Such vectors are used for gene therapy, as vaccines, and for cancer therapy. Replication-competent (oncolytic) vectors are employed for cancer gene therapy. Oncolytic vector...

  3. Anticytokine therapy for osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, M B

    2001-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease that involves degeneration of articular cartilage, weakening of the subchondral bone and limited intra-articular inflammation manifested by synovitis. Since the pathogenesis of OA involves multiple aetiologies, including mechanical, biochemical and genetic factors, it has been difficult to identify unique targets for therapy. Current pharmacological interventions focus primarily on improving symptoms. The rationale for the use of anticytokine therapy in OA is based on evidence from studies in vitro and in vivo that interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are the predominant pro-inflammatory and catabolic cytokines involved in the initiation and progression of articular cartilage destruction. Since the increased levels of catabolic enzymes, prostaglandins, nitric oxide (NO) and other markers in OA fluids and tissues appear to be related to elevated levels of IL-1 and TNF-alpha, therapies that interfere with the expression or actions of these cytokines are most promising. Other cytokines that are anti-inflammatory and are often detected, paradoxically, in OA tissues are also potential therapeutic agents for counteracting the cartilage destruction in OA. Identification of methods for early diagnosis is of key importance, since therapeutic interventions aimed at blocking or reversing structural damage will be more effective when there is the possibility of preserving normal homeostasis. At later stages, cartilage tissue engineering with or without gene therapy will also require anticytokine therapy to block damage to newly repaired cartilage. This review will focus on experimental approaches currently under study that may lead to elucidation of effective strategies for therapy in OA, with special emphasis on anticytokine therapy.

  4. Manual therapy for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondras, M A; Linde, K; Jones, A P

    2002-01-01

    A variety of manual therapies with similar postulated biologic mechanisms of action are commonly used to treat patients with asthma. Manual therapy practitioners are also varied, including physiotherapists, respiratory therapists, chiropractic and osteopathic physicians. A systematic review across disciplines is warranted. To evaluate the evidence for the effects of manual therapies for treatment of patients with bronchial asthma. Trials were searched in computerized general (EMBASE, CINAHL and MEDLINE) and specialized databases (Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, Cochrane Rehabilitation Field, ICL, and MANTIS). In addition, bibliographies from included studies were assessed, and authors of known studies were contacted for additional information about published and unpublished trials. Date of most recent search: February 2002. Trials were included if they: (1) were randomised; (2) included asthmatic children or adults; (3) examined one or more types of manual therapy; and (4) included clinical outcomes. All three reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using a standard form. From 393 unique citations, 59 full text articles were retrieved and evaluated, which resulted in nine citations to five RCTs (290 patients) suitable for inclusion. Trials could not be pooled statistically because studies that addressed similar interventions used disparate patient groups or outcomes. The methodological quality of one of two trials examining chiropractic manipulation was good and neither trial found significant differences between chiropractic spinal manipulation and a sham manoeuvre on any of the outcomes measured. Quality of the remaining three trials was poor. One small trial compared massage therapy with a relaxation control group and found significant differences in many of the lung function measures obtained. However, this trial had poor reporting characteristics and the data have yet to be confirmed. One small trial compared chest

  5. Manual therapy for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondras, M A; Linde, K; Jones, A P

    2005-04-18

    A variety of manual therapies with similar postulated biologic mechanisms of action are commonly used to treat patients with asthma. Manual therapy practitioners are also varied, including physiotherapists, respiratory therapists, chiropractic and osteopathic physicians. A systematic review across disciplines is warranted. To evaluate the evidence for the effects of manual therapies for treatment of patients with bronchial asthma. We searched for trials in computerized general (EMBASE, CINAHL and MEDLINE) and specialized databases (Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, Cochrane Rehabilitation Field, Index to Chiropractic Literature (ICL), and Manual, Alternative and Natural Therapy (MANTIS)). In addition, we assessed bibliographies from included studies, and contacted authors of known studies for additional information about published and unpublished trials. Date of most recent search: August 2004. Trials were included if they: (1) were randomised; (2) included asthmatic children or adults; (3) examined one or more types of manual therapy; and (4) included clinical outcomes with observation periods of at least two weeks. All three reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using a standard form. From 473 unique citations, 68 full text articles were retrieved and evaluated, which resulted in nine citations to three RCTs (156 patients) suitable for inclusion. Trials could not be pooled statistically because studies that addressed similar interventions used disparate patient groups or outcomes. The methodological quality of one of two trials examining chiropractic manipulation was good and neither trial found significant differences between chiropractic spinal manipulation and a sham manoeuvre on any of the outcomes measured. One small trial compared massage therapy with a relaxation control group and found significant differences in many of the lung function measures obtained. However, this trial had poor reporting characteristics and the data

  6. Hormone therapy in acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chembolli Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  7. Therapy of hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildmeister, W.

    1982-03-22

    The etiology of hyperthyroidism is still largely unknown and therefore no causal therapy of this condition is possible. Antithyroid drug treatment is usually carried out with thiocarbamides. When an euthyroid state is achieved synthetic thyroid hormones are added. Pregnancy and iodine contamination (after exposure to contrast medium) require individual treatment. In this paper the advantages, indications and contraindications are discussed as well as supportive drug therapy necessary in specific cases. Radioiodine therapy is reserved for patients over 35 years of age; the individual dose is calculated according to the size of the thyroid gland and the iodine uptake. Disadvantageous is the late onset of therapeutic efficiency, the small effect on the size of goitre and the exposure to radiation. A patient should be operated upon in an euthyroid state, i.e. after preoperative drug therapy. Operations are normally performed on individuals with a coexistent goitre or where antithyroid drugs or radioiodine therapy are contraindicated. Paresis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and hypoparathyroidism are rare complications. 3 to 4 g of thyroid tissues should remain. Of great importance in all cases are precise diagnostics both before and after commencing treatment and adequate follow up.

  8. Rescue therapies for seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poukas, Valeriya S; Pollard, John R; Anderson, Christopher Todd

    2011-08-01

    Most medical therapies for epilepsy consist of daily (or multiple-daily) dose, fixed-schedule, pharmacologic oral agents. Despite adherence, many patients continue to experience seizures. Various products have been discovered, designed, and marketed to serve as seizure-abortant therapies. These agents can be administered rapidly, as a "rescue" therapy, once a clinical seizure or cluster of seizures starts. Rescue medications are given as needed in an attempt to disrupt progression of a given seizure, and forestall what would otherwise be a more prolonged or more severe clinical event. Seizure-abortants also serve to aid in the management of seizure emergencies, such as prolonged, repetitive seizures, or status epilepticus. These compounds are not appropriate for all patients. Nevertheless, they do provide therapeutic benefit to several groups of patients: 1) those who perceive the onset of their seizures and have time to perform a self-intervention, 2) patients' caregivers who administer the therapy when they witness the onset of an ictal event, and 3) patients who are in the midst of an out-of-the-hospital seizure emergency (a seizure cluster or status epilepticus). In this article we will review currently available and future rescue therapies for seizures: US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved and FDA nonapproved drugs, nonpharmacologic behavioral treatments, the vagus nerve stimulator and the NeuroPace RNS® System (Mountain View, CA).

  9. Depigmentation therapies in vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Depigmentation therapy in vitiligo is an option in those with extensive vitiligo who have failed to respond to medical therapy and have obvious cosmetic disfigurement due to intervening patchy pigmented areas. Various aspects of this therapy such as the cost, treatment time, course, permanency of depigmentation, side effects, and the possibility of repigmentation should first be discussed with the patient. At present, there is no ideal depigmenting therapy available, but many agents in the market have been in use for many years. Monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone (MBEH is the mainstay and Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved in USA but takes many months to depigment and is associated with local side effects and risk of repigmentation. Other agents which are also used are 4-methoxy phenol and 88% phenol. Physical therapies for depigmentation include Q-switched ruby and alexandrite lasers and cryotherapy. Second-line agents which can be explored for depigmentation include imatinib mesylate, imiquimod, and diphencyprone. Many possible experimental agents are being explored like various phenol derivatives, melanoma vaccines, interferon gamma, busulfan, etc. A major lacuna still exists in this area and a lot more research is desirable to give satisfactory cosmesis to these patients with extensive vitiligo.

  10. Monitoring Antiplatelet Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Rachel; Judge, Heather M; Storey, Robert F

    2017-04-01

    The increasing use of antiplatelet therapy, particularly aspirin and oral P2Y12 inhibitors, in the prevention and management of arterial thrombosis, has stimulated extensive pharmacodynamic studies and research into tailored antiplatelet regimens. Many different methodologies have been studied for monitoring antiplatelet drugs and some are now well validated and used in clinical practice. However, clinical studies of tailored antiplatelet therapy have not convincingly demonstrated a benefit of this approach in patients treated with aspirin and clopidogrel, coupled with the fact that more potent antiplatelet therapies have more consistent effects compared with clopidogrel and so may reduce the rationale for monitoring. On the other hand, the optimum timing of urgent surgery after cession of oral antiplatelet therapy may be informed by platelet function testing. This review discusses the different methodologies that have been used to monitor the effects of antiplatelet therapy and highlights the current position of platelet function testing in clinical practice. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Factors affecting {sup 223}Ra therapy: clinical experience after 532 cycles from a single institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etchebehere, Elba C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Campinas State University (Unicamp), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Campinas (Brazil); Milton, Denai R. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Biostatistics, Houston, TX (United States); Araujo, John C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Swanston, Nancy M.; Macapinlac, Homer A.; Rohren, Eric M. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to identify baseline features that predict outcome in {sup 223}Ra therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 110 patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with {sup 223}Ra. End points were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), bone event-free survival (BeFS), and bone marrow failure (BMF). The following parameters were evaluated prior to the first {sup 223}Ra cycle: serum levels of hemoglobin (Hb), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status, pain score, use of chemotherapy, and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). During/after {sup 223}Ra we evaluated: the total number of radium cycles (Ra{sub Tot}), the PSA doubling time (PSA{sub DT}), and the use of chemotherapy, EBRT, abiraterone, and enzalutamide. A significant reduction of ALP (p < 0.001) and pain score (p = 0.041) occurred throughout the {sup 223} Ra cycles. The risk of progression was associated with declining ECOG status [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.79; p < 0.001] and decrease in PSA{sub DT} (HR = 8.22; p < 0.001). Ra{sub Tot}, ALP, initial ECOG status, initial pain score, and use of abiraterone were associated with OS (p ≤ 0.008), PFS (p ≤ 0.003), and BeFS (p ≤ 0.020). Ra{sub Tot}, ALP, initial ECOG status, and initial pain score were significantly associated with BMF (p ≤ 0.001) as well as Hb (p < 0.001) and EBRT (p = 0.009). On multivariable analysis, only Ra{sub Tot} and abiraterone remained significantly associated with OS (p < 0.001; p = 0.033, respectively), PFS (p < 0.001; p = 0.041, respectively), and BeFS (p < 0.001; p = 0.019, respectively). Additionally, Ra{sub Tot} (p = 0.027) and EBRT (p = 0.013) remained significantly associated with BMF. Concomitant use of abiraterone and {sup 223}Ra seems to have a beneficial effect, while the EBRT may increase the risk of BMF. (orig.)

  12. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  13. Laser therapy for periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efanov, O. I.

    2001-04-01

    An investigation was made of applying pulsed (lambda) equals 0.89 micrometers laser radiation in the treatment for early diagnosed periodontitis. The investigation was made on 65 patients (47 patients constituted the experimental group and 18 patients constituted a control group) affected by periodontitis. Clinical and functional tests revealed that laser therapy produced a string effect on the course of the illness. It reduced bleeding, inflammation, and pruritus. However, it did not produce an affect on electroexcitation. Biomicroscopic examinations and periodontium rheography revealed that the gingival blood flow became normal after the course of laser therapy. The capillary permeability and venous congestion decreased, which was confirmed by the increased time of vacuum tests, raised gingival temperature, reduced tissue clearance, and increased oxygen tension. Apart from that, laser therapy subsided fibrinolysis, proteolytic tissue activity, and decreased the exudative inflammation of periodontium.

  14. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, William C

    2014-01-01

    Summary The 21st century dental practice is quite dynamic. New treatment protocols and new materials are being developed at a rapid pace. Ozone dental therapy falls into the category of new treatment protocols in dentistry, yet ozone is not new at all. Ozone therapy is already a major treatment modality in Europe, South America and a number of other countries. What is provided here will not be an exhaustive scientific treatise so much as a brief general introduction into what dentists are now doing with ozone therapies and the numerous oral/systemic links that make this subject so important for physicians so that, ultimately, they may serve their patients more effectively and productively. PMID:25363268

  15. Music Therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Professional development and recognition is an 'old' issue in music therapy but still a relevant, complex and crucial one. Burning questions regarding professionalisation are at the forefront of most music therapy associations’ agendas across Europe and beyond, and feed back directly to the work...... of the EMTC. Considering the wider political, socio-economic, cultural and disciplinary aspects of professionalisation, different development pathways impact directly on music therapy practice, training, ethics, professional collaboration and employment conditions. Although a number of endeavours have been...... implemented regarding music therapy’s professional development and recognition in different countries, documentation and sharing of such endeavours on international level has been limited and scattered. Drawing from the EMTC’s work since the early ‘90s, as well as from colleagues’ experiences (and struggles...

  16. Hormonal therapy for acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rosalyn; Clarke, Shari; Thiboutot, Diane

    2008-09-01

    Acne affects more than 40 million people, of which more than half are women older than 25 years of age. These women frequently fail traditional therapy and have high relapse rates even after isotretinoin. Recent advances in research have helped to delineate the important role hormones play in the pathogenesis of acne. Androgens such as dihydrotestosterone and testosterone, the adrenal precursor dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estrogens, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factors may all contribute to the development of acne. Hormonal therapy remains an important part of the arsenal of acne treatments available to the clinician. Women dealing with acne, even those without increased serum androgens, may benefit from hormonal treatments. The mainstays of hormonal therapy include oral contraceptives and antiandrogens such as spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, or flutamide. In this article, we discuss the effects of hormones on the pathogenesis of acne, evaluation of women with suspected endocrine abnormalities, and the myriad of treatment options available.

  17. Cell Therapy in Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrof, Gabriela; Abdul-Wahab, Alya; McGrath, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing the regenerative capacity of keratinocytes and fibroblasts from human skin has created new opportunities to develop cell-based therapies for patients. Cultured cells and bioengineered skin products are being used to treat patients with inherited and acquired skin disorders associated with defective skin, and further clinical trials of new products are in progress. The capacity of extracutaneous sources of cells such as bone marrow is also being investigated for its plasticity in regenerating skin, and new strategies, such as the derivation of inducible pluripotent stem cells, also hold great promise for future cell therapies in dermatology. This article reviews some of the preclinical and clinical studies and future directions relating to cell therapy in dermatology, particularly for inherited skin diseases associated with fragile skin and poor wound healing. PMID:24890834

  18. [Therapy of childhood schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, C

    1977-01-01

    Due to the multifacet genesis and variability of clinical phenomenology, the therapy of childhood schizophrenia must be multidimensional. Formerly applied techniques like electroshock- and insulin-therapy are now replaced by pharmaco-therapy, primarily with phenothiazines, butyrophenones and chlorprothixens. The dosage depends on age, body weight or body surface. Because of extrapyramidal motor side effects, combinations with anticholinergic drugs may be necessary. Psychopharmaco-therapy alone, however, is insufficient. High emphasis must be placed on psychotherapy and educational guidance and counselling of the psychotic child. Participation in play groups, sports, muscial activities, arts and crafts, and acting helps make it possible to improve communication behaviour and to transform aggressive anxiety defense into stabilized control of emotions and impulses. In addition to successive integration of the psychotic child into small groups, play therapy with the single child is meaningful. In this case, a constant and confidential relation between therapist and child is extremely important and only possible if the therapist attempts to place himself into the magic-animistic phantasies of the psychotic child. He has first to learn the psychotic language of his patient in order to support more reality-oriented behaviour processes of the child's thinking, preceiving and performing later on. In this manner, the magic-omnipotent phantasies can be dissolved and an increasing orientation of the child toward reality can be encouraged. This involves strengthening and support of non-pathological ego-functions and initiation of a new level of ego-functioning. Such an integrated developmental concept can best be realized through play therapy.

  19. Fokale Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosen A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Die EAU bezeichnet die fokale Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms als die therapeutische Option mit dem größten Zukunftspotenzial, auch wenn es sich dabei derzeit nicht um ein Standardverfahren handelt. Sie vermag bei Patienten mit einem niedrigmalignen, fokal begrenzten Prostatakarzinom die Lücke zu schließen zwischen potenzieller Übertherapie durch die radikalen Standardverfahren und der onkologischen Unsicherheit einer ,,Active surveillance“. Dieser Überblick gibt den derzeitigen Kenntnisstand bei der fokalen Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms wieder.

  20. Spa therapy in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeba Riyaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spa therapy constitutes the use of mineral springs and thermal mud to soothe and heal various ailments. Like the mineral springs, seas and oceans are also important centers for spa therapy of which the most important is Dead Sea (DS. DS has been famous for thousands of years for its miraculous curative and cosmetic properties. Intensive research is going on using DS minerals in a wide range of dermatological conditions especially psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, vitiligo and other eczemas and several papers have been published in various international and pharmacological journals.