WorldWideScience

Sample records for rodenticide bait stations

  1. Evaluation of systemic insecticides mixed in rodenticide baits for plague vector control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Søholt; Lodal, Jens

    1997-01-01

    Rodenticide baits containing systemic insecticides were evaluated in the laboratory for their palatability to the house rat Rattus rattus and for their toxicity against the oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis - both animals are important Vectors of plague in Africa. The test bait and a non...

  2. Evaluation of systemic insecticides mixed in rodenticide baits for plague vector control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Søholt; Lodal, Jens

    1997-01-01

    Rodenticide baits containing systemic insecticides were evaluated in the laboratory for their palatability to the house rat Rattus rattus and for their toxicity against the oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis - both animals are important Vectors of plague in Africa. The test bait and a non......-poisonous alternative were given to the rats for four days. The evaluation of the effectiveness was based on mortality and poison bait intake in percent of the total consumption. Different concentrations of technical material and different types of encapsulation of the three insecticides phoxim, fenthion and dimethoate...... were used in the tests. The rodenticide used was 0.005 % bromadiolone. For all three insecticides, a reduced intake of the poisonous bait was observed compared with the test of bromadiolone without insecticide. Based on the acceptance of the baits, the dimethoate encapsulated with beef tallow only...

  3. Design and Testing of an Agricultural Implement for Underground Application of Rodenticide Bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Malón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An agricultural implement for underground application of rodenticide bait to control the Mediterranean pocket gopher (Microtus Duodecimcostatus in fruit orchards has been designed and tested. The main objective of this research was to design and test the implement by using the finite element method (FEM and considering a range of loads generated on most commonly used furrow openers in agricultural implements. As a second step, the prototype was tested in the field by analysing the effects of forward speed and application depth on the mechanical behaviour of the implement structure. The FEM was used in the design phase and a prototype was manufactured. The structural strains on the prototype chassis under working conditions were tested by using strain gauges to validate the design phase. Three forward speeds (4.5, 5.5, and 7.0 km/h, three application depths (0.12, 0.15, and 0.17 m, and two types of soil (clayey-silty-loam and clayey-silty-sandy were considered. The prototype was validated successfully by analysing the information obtained from the strain gauges. The Von Mises stresses indicated a safety coefficient of 1.9 for the most critical load case. Although both forward speed and application depth had a significant effect on the stresses generated on the chassis, the latter parameter critically affected the structural behaviour of the implement. The effects of the application depth on the strains were linear such that strains increased with depth. In contrast, strains remained roughly constant regardless of variation in the forward speed.

  4. Broadcast application of a placebo rodenticide bait in a native Hawaiian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlevy, P.A.; Campbell, E. Wm.; Lindsey, G.D.

    2000-01-01

    This study consisted of three replicates of controlled field trials using a pelletized placebo (Ramik?? Green formulated without diphacinone) bait treated with a biological marker and broadcast at three application rates - 11.25, 22.5 and 33.75 kg/ha. We determined that Polynesian (Rattus exulans) and roof rats (Rattus rattus) consumed this bait when broadcast on the ground and assessed the optimal sowage rate to result in maximum exposure of bait to the rats while minimizing bait usage. All Polynesian rats captured in all application rates had eaten the bait. The percentage of roof rats that had eaten the bait increased with application rate, however, 22.5 kg/ha was clearly the optimal application rate. Bait degradation and invertebrate activity was documented and assessed.This study consisted of three replicates of controlled field trials using a pelletized placebo (Ramik Green formulated without diphacinone) bait treated with a biological marker and broadcast at three application rates - 11.25, 22.5 and 33.75 kg/ha. We determined that Polynesian (Rattus exulans) and roof rats (Rattus rattus) consumed this bait when broadcast on the ground and assessed the optimal sewage rate to result in maximum exposure of bait to the rats while minimizing bait usage. All Polynesian rats captured in all application rates had eaten the bait. The percentage of roof rats that had eaten the bait increased with application rate, however, 22.5 kg/ha was clearly the optimal application rate. Bait degradation and invertebrate activity was documented and assessed.

  5. Excluding feral swine, javelina and raccoons from deer bait stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we present a design and construction procedure for a physical and electric barrier fence to prevent feral swine (Sus scrofa), javelina (Pecari tajacu), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and perhaps other non-target animals from accessing or damaging bait stations designed to administer acaricide treatm...

  6. Efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests were conducted that evaluated efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) adults in Guatemala. Bait stations were exposed to outdoor conditions to determine effect of weathering on longevity as indicated by bait station age. Results of laboratory tests found that ba...

  7. Attracting, trapping and killing disease-transmitting mosquitoes using odor-baited stations - The Ifakara Odor-Baited Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Alex N

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To accelerate efforts towards control and possibly elimination of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and lymphatic filariasis, optimally located outdoor interventions could be used to complement existing intradomicilliary vector control methods such as house spraying with insecticides and insecticidal bednets. Methods We describe a new odor-baited station for trapping, contaminating and killing disease-transmitting mosquitoes. This device, named the 'Ifakara Odor-baited Station' (Ifakara OBS, is a 4 m3 hut-shaped canvas box with seven openings, two of which may be fitted with interception traps to catch exiting mosquitoes. It is baited with synthetic human odors and may be augmented with contaminants including toxic insecticides or biological agents. Results In field trials where panels of fabric were soaked in 1% pirimiphos-methyl solution and suspended inside the Ifakara OBS, at least 73.6% of Anopheles arabiensis, 78.7% of Culex and 60% of Mansonia mosquitoes sampled while exiting the OBS, died within 24 hours. When used simply as a trap and evaluated against two existing outdoor traps, Ifakara Tent trap and Mosquito Magnet-X®, the OBS proved more efficacious than the Ifakara Tent trap in catching all mosquito species found (P ®, it was equally efficacious in catching An. arabiensis (P = 0.969, but was less efficacious against Culex (P Mansonia species (P Conclusion The Ifakara OBS is efficacious against disease-carrying mosquitoes including the malaria vector, An. arabiensis and Culicine vectors of filarial worms and arboviruses. It can be used simultaneously as a trap and as a contamination or killing station, meaning most mosquitoes which escape trapping would leave when already contaminated and die shortly afterwards. This technique has potential to complement current vector control methods, by targeting mosquitoes in places other than human dwellings, but its effectiveness in the field will require cheap, long

  8. Effectiveness of rodenticides for managing invasive roof rats and native deer mice in orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Roger A; Quinn, Niamh; Davis, David H; Engeman, Richard M

    2014-05-01

    Roof rats (Rattus rattus) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are occasional pests of nut and tree fruit orchards throughout California and in many other parts of the USA and beyond. In general, the most practical and cost-effective control method for rodents in many agricultural environments is the use of rodenticides (toxic baits), but little or no information exists on the efficacy of current rodenticides in controlling roof rats and deer mice in orchards. Therefore, our goals were to develop an index of rodent activity to monitor efficacy of rodenticides and to subsequently test the efficacy of three California Department of Food and Agriculture rodenticide baits (0.005 % chlorophacinone treated oats, 0.005 % diphacinone treated oats, and 0.005 % diphacinone wax block) to determine their utility for controlling roof rats and deer mice in agricultural orchards. We determined that a general index using the number of roof rat photos taken at a minimum of a 5-min interval was strongly correlated to the minimum number known estimate of roof rats; this approach was used to monitor roof rat and deer mouse populations pre- and post-treatment. Of the baits tested, the 0.005 % diphacinone treated oats was most effective for both species; 0.005 % chlorophacinone grain was completely ineffective against roof rats. Our use of elevated bait stations proved effective at providing bait to target species and should substantially limit access to rodenticides by many non-target species.

  9. Attracting, trapping and killing disease-transmitting mosquitoes using odor-baited stations - The Ifakara Odor-Baited Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background To accelerate efforts towards control and possibly elimination of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and lymphatic filariasis, optimally located outdoor interventions could be used to complement existing intradomicilliary vector control methods such as house spraying with insecticides and insecticidal bednets. Methods We describe a new odor-baited station for trapping, contaminating and killing disease-transmitting mosquitoes. This device, named the 'Ifakara Odor-baited Station' (Ifakara OBS), is a 4 m3 hut-shaped canvas box with seven openings, two of which may be fitted with interception traps to catch exiting mosquitoes. It is baited with synthetic human odors and may be augmented with contaminants including toxic insecticides or biological agents. Results In field trials where panels of fabric were soaked in 1% pirimiphos-methyl solution and suspended inside the Ifakara OBS, at least 73.6% of Anopheles arabiensis, 78.7% of Culex and 60% of Mansonia mosquitoes sampled while exiting the OBS, died within 24 hours. When used simply as a trap and evaluated against two existing outdoor traps, Ifakara Tent trap and Mosquito Magnet-X®, the OBS proved more efficacious than the Ifakara Tent trap in catching all mosquito species found (P < 0.001). Compared to the Mosquito Magnet-X®, it was equally efficacious in catching An. arabiensis (P = 0.969), but was less efficacious against Culex (P < 0.001) or Mansonia species (P < 0.001). Conclusion The Ifakara OBS is efficacious against disease-carrying mosquitoes including the malaria vector, An. arabiensis and Culicine vectors of filarial worms and arboviruses. It can be used simultaneously as a trap and as a contamination or killing station, meaning most mosquitoes which escape trapping would leave when already contaminated and die shortly afterwards. This technique has potential to complement current vector control methods, by targeting mosquitoes in places other than human dwellings, but its effectiveness

  10. Development of virtual bait stations to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in environmentally sensitive habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-10-01

    A novel bait station referred to as a virtual bait station was developed and tested against field populations of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), at White Beach, Camp Pendleton, in Oceanside, CA. White Beach is a nesting habitat for an endangered seabird, the California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni Mearns). The beach is heavily infested with Argentine ants, one of the threats for the California least tern chicks. Conventional pest control strategies are prohibited because of the existence of the protected bird species and the site's proximity to the ocean. The bait station consisted of a polyvinyl chloride pipe that was treated on the inside with fipronil insecticide at low concentrations to obtain delayed toxicity against ants. The pipe was provisioned with an inverted bottle of 25% sucrose solution, then capped, and buried in the sand. Foraging ants crossed the treated surface to consume the sucrose solution. The delayed toxicity of fipronil deposits allowed the ants to continue foraging on the sucrose solution and to interact with their nestmates, killing them within 3-5 d after exposure. Further modification of the bait station design minimized the accumulation of dead ants in the sucrose solution, significantly improving the longevity and efficacy of the bait station. The virtual bait station exploits the foraging behavior of the ants and provides a low impact approach to control ants in environmentally sensitive habitats. It excluded all insects except ants, required only milligram quantities of toxicant, and eliminated the problem of formulating toxicants into aqueous sugar baits.

  11. Final Report: Influence of Food Availability on Black Bear Bait Station Visits in Southeastern Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes findings related to bait station techniques to assess black bear status in the Greater Okefenokee landscape, and provides guidance on how to...

  12. Field evaluation of boric acid and fipronil based bait stations against adult mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of boric acid (1%) and fipronil (0.1%) bait stations in reducing the number of laboratory-reared female Aedes aegypti and Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus mosquitoes released in outdoor screened cages was evaluated. Both toxicants reduced landing rates of the two mosquito species on a ...

  13. Poultry egg components as cereal bait additives for enhancing rodenticide based control success and trap index of house rat, Rattus rattus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neena Singla; Deepia Kanwar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the acceptance and efficacy of cereal bait containing different concentrations of poultry egg components in laboratory and poultry farms to control house rat,Rattus rattus Methods: Acceptance of cereal bait containing different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10%) of poultry egg components such as egg shell powder (ESP), egg albumin (EA) and crushed egg shell as bait additives were studied after exposing them to different groups of rats in bi-choice with bait without additive. Behaviour of rats towards cereal bait containing 2% concentration of different egg components was recorded in no-choice conditions through Food Scale Consumption Monitor. In poultry farm predominantly infested with R. rattus, acceptance and efficacy of 2%zinc phosphide bait containing 2% EA and ESP was evaluated. Trap success of single rat traps containing chapatti pieces smeared with 2% EA and 2% ESP was also evaluated in poultry farm.Results:(R. rattus). containing 2% and 5% ESP and all the three concentrations of EA compared to plain bait by female rats and that of baits containing 5% and 10% EA by male rats. In no-choice test, non-significantly higher consumption, number of bouts made and time spent towards bait containing 2% EA was found by rats of both sexes. In poultry farm, acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait containing 2% EA and ESP was significantly (P<0.05) more than 2% zinc phosphide bait without additive. No significant difference was, however, found in trap success of single rat traps containing chapatti pieces smeared with 2% concentration of EA and ESP placed in the poultry farm.Conclusions:Present data support the use of 2% egg albumin and egg shell powder in cereal bait In bi-choice tests, significantly (P<0.05) higher preference was observed for baits to enhance acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait against R. rattus. This may further help in checking the spread of rodent borne diseases to animals and humans.

  14. User behaviour, best practice and the risks of non-target exposure associated with anticoagulant rodenticide use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, David G; Shore, Richard F; Jess, Stephen; Withers, Alan; Bearhop, Stuart; Ian Montgomery, W; McDonald, Robbie A

    2011-06-01

    Usage of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) is an integral component of modern agriculture and is essential for the control of commensal rodent populations. However, the extensive deployment of ARs has led to widespread exposure of a range of non-target predatory birds and mammals to some compounds, in particular the second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs). As a result, there has been considerable effort placed into devising voluntary best practice guidelines that increase the efficacy of rodent control and reduce the risk of non-target exposure. Currently, there is limited published information on actual practice amongst users or implementation of best practice. We assessed the behaviour of a typical group of users using an on-farm questionnaire survey. Most baited for rodents every year using SGARs. Most respondents were apparently aware of the risks of non-target exposure and adhered to some of the best practice recommendations but total compliance was rare. Our questionnaire revealed that users of first generation anticoagulant rodenticides rarely protected or checked bait stations, and so took little effort to prevent primary exposure of non-targets. Users almost never searched for and removed poisoned carcasses and many baited for prolonged periods or permanently. These factors are all likely to enhance the likelihood of primary and secondary exposure of non-target species.

  15. Implementing a spinosad-based local bait station to control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in high rainfall areas of Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An 'umbrella trap' tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers.

  16. Feeding Behavior of Subadult Sixgill Sharks (Hexanchus griseus at a Bait Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan McNeil

    Full Text Available This is the first in-situ study of feeding behaviors exhibited by bluntnose sixgill sharks. Bait was placed beneath the Seattle Aquarium pier situated on the waterfront in Elliott Bay, Puget Sound, Washington at 20m of water depth. Cameras and lights were placed around the bait box to record sixgill shark presence and behavior while feeding. Analysis of feeding behavior revealed that sixgills utilize a bite comparable to many other elasmobranchs and aquatic vertebrates, have the ability to protrude their upper jaw, change their feeding behavior based on the situation, and employ sawing and lateral tearing during manipulation. The versatility of their feeding mechanism and the ability of sixgills to change their capture and food manipulation behaviors may have contributed to the species' worldwide distribution and evolutionary success.

  17. Rodenticide incidents of exposure and adverse effects on non-raptor birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Nimish B.

    2017-01-01

    Interest in the adverse effects of rodenticides on birds has focused primarily on raptors. However, non-raptor birds are also poisoned (rodenticide exposure resulting in adverse effects including mortality) by rodenticides through consumption of the rodenticide bait and contaminated prey. A literature search for rodenticide incidents (evidence of exposure to a rodenticide, adverse effects, or exposure to placebo baits) involving non-raptor birds returned 641 records spanning the years 1931 to 2016. The incidents included 17 orders, 58 families, and 190 non-raptor bird species. Nineteen anticoagulant and non-anticoagulant rodenticide active ingredients were associated with the incidents. The number of incidents and species detected were compared by surveillance method. An incident was considered to have been reported through passive surveillance if it was voluntarily reported to the authorities whereas the report of an incident found through field work that was conducted with the objective of documenting adverse effects on birds was determined to be from active surveillance. More incidents were reported from passive surveillance than with active surveillance but a significantly greater number of species were detected in proportion to the number of incidents found through active surveillance than with passive surveillance (z = 7.61, p diversity of non-raptor bird poisonings from rodenticides may increase incident reportings and can strengthen the predictions of harm characterized by risk assessments.

  18. Chemosterilant bait stations coupled with sterile insect technique: an integrated strategy to control the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Llopis, V; Vacas, S; Sanchis, J; Primo, J; Alfaro, C

    2011-10-01

    During 2008 and 2009, the efficacy of the combination of two Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), control techniques, sterile insect technique (SIT) and a chemosterilant bait station system (Adress), was tested in three crops: citrus (Citrus spp.), stone fruit (Prunus spp.), and persimmon (Diospyros spp.). Two thousand sterile males were released per ha each week in the whole trial area (50,000 ha, SIT area). For 3,600 ha, within the whole trial area, 24 Adress traps per ha were hung (SIT + Adress area). Ten SIT + Adress plots and 10 SIT plots in each of three different fruit crops were arranged to assess Mediterranean fruit fly population densities and fruit damage throughout the trial period. To evaluate the efficacy of each treatment, the male and female populations were each monitored from August 2008 to November 2009, and injured fruit was assessed before harvest. Results showed a significant reduction in the C. capitata population in plots treated with both techniques versus plots treated only with the SIT. Likewise, a corresponding reduction in the percentage of injured fruit was observed. These data indicate the compatibility of these techniques and suggest the possibility of using Adress coupled with SIT to reduce C. capitata populations in locations with high population densities, where SIT alone is not sufficiently effective to suppress fruit fly populations to below damaging levels.

  19. Using the DAS-ELISA Test to Establish an Effective Distance Between Bait Stations for Control of Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Natural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinbo; Benson, Eric P; Zungoli, Patricia A; Gerard, Patrick; Scott, Simon W

    2015-08-01

    Linepithema humile (Mayr), the Argentine ant, is an invasive pest that has spread throughout the United States and is a problem in natural and managed habitats in South Carolina. Foraging patterns and the effectiveness of liquid baits for control of this pest have been studied in urban areas. However, similar studies have not been conducted in natural areas such as parks, picnic grounds, or campsites. L. humile populations can be large and widespread, making them a major nuisance pest for visitors to these natural areas. The primary objective of this study was to determine an effective distance between bait stations for control of L. humile in a natural area. A double antibody-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) procedure was used to detect individual ants that consumed rabbit immunoglobin (IgG) protein for marking and tracking. In both lab and field conditions, there was a significant difference in the detection of IgG in ants fed protein marker mixed with sugar water compared with ants only fed sugar water. Additional field studies revealed that an individual ant could retain detectable levels of protein marker for 3 d and that an ant feeding on IgG containing bait could be detected over 15 m from the original bait source. Overall, we found that using liquid ant baits, with a placement of 20 m between stations, was effective in reducing L. humile numbers between April to October, 2012 in a natural park area of Lake Greenwood State Park, SC. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of secondary anticoagulant rodenticide toxicosis in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Maureen; Tseng, Florina

    2008-03-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides inhibit the activation of vitamin K-ependent clotting factors, resulting in fatal hemorrhage. Nontarget species are exposed to these rodenticides primarily by direct consumption of baits or secondarily by consumption of poisoned prey. The diagnosis of anticoagulant rodenticide toxicosis is more challenging in birds than in mammals because of the limited availability of laboratory tests to evaluate avian coagulation. In addition, the presenting signs in birds may differ from those commonly seen in mammals. Treatment for acute blood loss and therapy with vitamin K1 can result in a favorable outcome in birds. This report describes the presenting signs, diagnosis, and successful treatment of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with secondary anticoagulant rodenticide toxicosis.

  1. Application of grain baits to control common vole Microtus arvalis (Pallas, 1778 in alfalfa crops, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the efficacies of conventional (cholecalciferol and bromadiolone and new (sodium selenite rodenticides, applied in the grain bait formulation on the whole-grain of wheat (Triticum aestivum and triticale (Triticasecale in alfalfa crops, experiments were conducted at two sites near Belgrade, Serbia, in the spring of 2009, using a standard EPPO method. The presence of rodent populations, their spatial distribution and density indices were evaluated by pretreatment census and rodenticide efficacy by counting active holes, 14 and 28 days after treatment. The average Microtus arvalis numbers of 158/ha and 184/ha were found to cause 7.4% and 9.6% alfalfa green biomass yield decreases, respectively. Twenty-eight days after treatment, the average efficacy of grain bait formulation (on wheat and triticale grains of sodium selenite and cholecalciferol was 81%, while bromadiolone which had a higher efficiency, 85%, in the control of the common vole in alfalfa crops. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the origin of active substances, bases and associated interactions a.s x based on the efficacy-investigated grain baits did not have a statistically significant impact on the expression efficiency of the tested baits. Triticale grains can be used as carriers of active substances, sodium selenite, cholecalciferol or bromadiolone in preparation baits. Control of M. arvalis with the new rodenticide, sodium selenite, gave efficacy results about equal to that of cholecalciferol and bromadiolone and, therefore, provided a possible alternative rodenticide for vole control in alfalfa.

  2. Distribution of sea snakes in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: observations from 10 yrs of baited remote underwater video station (BRUVS) sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udyawer, Vinay; Cappo, Mike; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Heupel, Michelle R.; Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi

    2014-09-01

    The distributions of three species of sea snake (olive sea snake: Aipysurus laevis, spine-bellied sea snake: Lapemis curtus, and ornate sea snake: Hydrophis ocellatus) were estimated over 14° of latitude within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) using data from baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS). A total of 2,471 deployments of BRUVS were made in a range of locations, in sites open and closed to trawl fishing. Sightings of sea snakes were analysed alongside six spatial factors [depth, relative distance across (longitude) and along (latitude) the GBRMP, proximity to land, proximity to the nearest reef, and habitat complexity] to determine the factors that most strongly influenced the distribution and abundance of sea snakes. The results showed a strong latitudinal effect on the distribution of all three sea snake species, with the highest densities and diversities occurring in central and southern GBRMP locations, while the northern Great Barrier Reef was relatively depauperate in terms of both occurrence and diversity. Shallow inshore areas were identified as key habitats for A. laevis and L. curtus, whereas deeper offshore habitats were most important for H. ocellatus. No significant difference was found in the mean number of snakes sighted per hour between sites open and closed to trawling. There was a high degree of congruence in the distribution of sea snakes estimated from the BRUVS data and results from previous trawl and underwater visual surveys, demonstrating the utility of BRUVS to estimate distribution and relative abundance in these species of sea snake at broad spatial scales in a non-extractive manner.

  3. Modelling exposure of mammalian predators to anticoagulant rodenticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher John Topping

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anticoagulant rodenticides (AR are a widespread and effective method of rodent control but there is concern about the impact these may have on non-target organisms, in particular secondary poisoning of rodent predators. Incidence and concentration of AR in free-living predators in Denmark is very high. We postulate that this is caused by widespread exposure due to widespread use of AR in Denmark in and around buildings. To investigate this theory a spatio-temporal model of AR use and mammalian predator distribution was created. This model was supported by data from an experimental study of mice as vectors of AR, and was used to evaluate likely impacts of restrictions imposed on AR use in Denmark banning the use of rodenticides for plant protection in woodlands and tree-crops. The model uses input based on frequencies and timings of baiting for rodent control for urban, rural and woodland locations and creates an exposure map based on spatio-temporal modelling of movement of mice-vectored AR (based on Apodemus flavicollis. Simulated predator territories are super-imposed over this exposure map to create an exposure index. Predictions from the model concur with field studies of AR prevalence both before and after the change in AR use. In most cases incidence of exposure to AR is predicted to be greater than 90%, although cessation of use in woodlots and Christmas tree plantations should reduce mean exposure concentrations. Model results suggest that the driver of high AR incidence in non-target small mammal predators is likely to be the pattern of use and not the distance AR is vectored. Reducing baiting frequency by 75% had different effects depending on the landscape simulated, but having a maximum of 12% reduction in exposure incidence, and in one landscape a maximum reduction of <2%. We discuss sources of uncertainty in the model and directions for future development of predictive models for environmental impact assessment of rodenticides. The

  4. Food Preference and Foraging Activity of Ants: Recommendations for Field Applications of Low-Toxicity Baits

    OpenAIRE

    Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Addison, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Control of ants using baits of low toxicity cannot be effective without knowledge of bait distribution patterns and bait station densities, which are determined by ants' foraging activities. Furthermore, the success of toxic baits also depends upon attractiveness of bait carriers. Here, we assessed ground and vine foraging activity and food preferences for the three ant species (Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Anoplolepis custodiens (F. Smith) and Crematogaster peringueyi...

  5. Rodenticides in British barn owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, I; Wyllie, I; Freestone, P

    1990-01-01

    Out of 145 Barn Owls found dead through accidents (66%), starvation (32%), shooting (2%) and poisoning (Owls for successive periods of 1, 3 and 6 days. All six owls fed on difenacoum-dosed mice survived all three treatments, in which up to an estimated 101.7 microg of difenacoum was consumed, and the coagulation times of their blood returned to near normal in less than 5-23 days. Four of the six owls fed on brodifacoum-dosed mice died 6-17 days after the 1-day treatment, but the survivors also survived the 3-day and 6-day treatments. Those that died had each eaten 3 mice, with a combined weight of about 105g and a total brodifacoum content of about 46.07 microg, which was equivalent to a dose of 0.150-0.182 mg kg(-1) of owl body weight. After death these owls had 0.63-1.25 micro g(-1) of brodifacoum in their livers. Blood from the survivors would not coagulate at 9 days post-treatment, but did so at 16 days in one bird and between 38 and 78 days in the other. It is concluded that: (1) Barn Owls in Britain are now widely exposed to second-generation rodenticides; (2) not all owls exposed to these chemicals are likely to receive a lethal dose; (3) brodifacoum is more toxic to owls than difenacoum; and (4) while there is yet no evidence that rodenticides have had any appreciable effect on Barn Owl populations in Britain, further monitoring of residue levels and population trends in desirable.

  6. The result of bagged Pyrinuron baits for control rodent pest of forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马力; 邓刚; 张蕊

    2000-01-01

    Bagged and dispersed Pyrinuron (a self-formulated rodenticide) were tested for control of Clethrionomus rutilus and Clethrionomus rufocanus in larch plantation, Pingshan area, Heilongjiang Province from Oct. 1998 to Apr. 1999. The results showed that the bagged Pyrinuron has good result for control of the two rodent pests. The density of rodents was reduced by 90.5% after application of bagged Pyrinuron. This application method has characteristics of long residual period, bait not going mould and saving labour force.

  7. Different baits and bait amendments to attract Drosophila suzukii

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii is a major pest of soft fruits. Baited traps are widely used for monitoring and mass trapping: different commercial baits, different recipes for home-made baits as well as several literature references on attractive compounds are available. In a series of 15 laboratory experiments we compared the attractiveness of different baits for D. suzukii: the commercially available Dros’attract (Biobest Belgium NV) and the Gasser-bait (Biologische Becherfalle für die Kirschessigf...

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HUMAN RODENTICIDES POISONING IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Costa Ferreira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the epidemiological profile of human poisoning by rodenticides in Brazil and Regions, in the period 2000 to 2008. This is a descriptive epidemiological study based on secondary data from the National System of Toxic- harmacological Information. Calculations were performed in the incidence rate and fatality rate. The North and Northeast regions had the highest mortality rates for the period. Children from 1 to 4 years had high incidence in all regions except in Northeast, where teenagers were most affected. The rodenticide poisoning was more incident in urban areas and among females, and had attempt suicide as predominant circumstance. Although most cases have evolved for healing, there was almost 40% unconfirmed healing in the South region and 57% of ignored evolution in Southeast. Deaths caused by ingestion of rodenticides were below 5%. The rodenticide poisoning has remained in Brazil with a major public health problem and, despite the differences in the country, the poisoning profile did not change significantly between different regions.

  9. Modeling Exposure of Mammalian Predatorsto Anticoagulant Rodenticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John; Elmeros, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides (AR) are a widespread and effective method of rodent control but there is concern about the impact these may have on non-target organisms, in particular secondary poisoning of rodent predators. Incidence and concentration of AR in free-living predators in Denmark is ver...

  10. Food preference and foraging activity of ants: recommendations for field applications of low-toxicity baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Addison, Pia

    2014-04-10

    Control of ants using baits of low toxicity cannot be effective without knowledge of bait distribution patterns and bait station densities, which are determined by ants' foraging activities. Furthermore, the success of toxic baits also depends upon attractiveness of bait carriers. Here, we assessed ground and vine foraging activity and food preferences for the three ant species ( Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Anoplolepis custodiens (F. Smith) and Crematogaster peringueyi Emery) under field conditions. We found that L. humile's vineyard foraging activity was high and that movement of ant bait by C. peringueyi and A. custodiens in the vineyard was relatively low. Consequently, more bait stations need to be dispensed for more effective control of C. peringueyi and A. custodiens than for L. humile. Different bait densities are discussed for the various ant species. Food preference trials indicated that vineyard foraging ants preferred wet bait attractants over dry ones, making liquids the most ideal carriers for baiting these ants. Linepithema humile was attracted to 25% sugar water, while C. peringueyi was attracted to both 25% sugar water and honey. Anoplolepis custodiens was attracted to tuna but was also attracted to 25% sugar water. Thus, future bait formulations should be tailor made to suit these specific food requirements if baits are to be successful in ant pest management. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  11. Prey composition modulates exposure risk to anticoagulant rodenticides in a sentinel predator, the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geduhn, Anke; Esther, Alexandra; Schenke, Detlef; Gabriel, Doreen; Jacob, Jens

    2016-02-15

    Worldwide, small rodents are main prey items for many mammalian and avian predators. Some rodent species have pest potential and are managed with anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs). ARs are consumed by target and non-target small mammals and can lead to secondary exposure of predators. The development of appropriate risk mitigation strategies is important and requires detailed knowledge of AR residue pathways. From July 2011 to October 2013 we collected 2397 regurgitated barn owl (Tyto alba) pellets to analyze diet composition of owls on livestock farms in western Germany. 256 of them were fresh pellets that were collected during brodifacoum baiting. Fresh pellets and 742 liver samples of small mammals that were trapped during baiting in the same area were analyzed for residues of ARs. We calculated exposure risk of barn owls to ARs by comparing seasonal diet composition of owls with AR residue patterns in prey species. Risk was highest in autumn, when barn owls increasingly preyed on Apodemus that regularly showed AR residues, sometimes at high concentrations. The major prey species (Microtus spp.) that was consumed most frequently in summer had less potential to contribute to secondary poisoning of owls. There was no effect of AR application on prey composition. We rarely detected ARs in pellets (2 of 256 samples) but 13% of 38 prey individuals in barn owl nests were AR positive and substantiated the expected pathway. AR residues were present in 55% of 11 barn owl carcasses. Fluctuation in non-target small mammal abundance and differences in AR residue exposure patterns in prey species drives exposure risk for barn owls and probably other predators of small mammals. Exposure risk could be minimized through spatial and temporal adaption of AR applications (avoiding long baiting and non-target hot spots at farms) and through selective bait access for target animals.

  12. A behaviorally-explicit approach for delivering vaccine baits to mesopredators to control epizootics in fragmented landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Beasley

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread use of aerial baiting to manage epizootics among free-ranging populations, particularly in rabies management, bait acceptance and seroconversion rates often are lower than required to eliminate spread of disease. Our objectives in this study, therefore, were to evaluate the performance of stratified bait distribution models derived from resource selection functions (RSF on uptake of placebo rabies baits by raccoons (Procyon lotor and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana, as well as the probability of bait uptake as a function of proximity to bait distribution areas in fragmented agricultural ecosystems. Among 478 raccoons and 108 opossums evaluated for presence of Rhodamine B (RB across 8 sites, only 26% of raccoons and 20% of opossums exhibited marking consistent with bait consumption 14-24 days post-baiting. The effective area treated, based on 90% kernel density estimators of marked individuals, ranged from 99-240 ha larger than bait distribution zones, with RB marked individuals captured up to 753 m beyond the bait zone. Despite incorporation of RSF data into bait distribution models, no differences in uptake rates were observed between treatment and control sites. These data likely reflect the underlying constraints imposed by the loss and fragmentation of habitat on animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes, forcing individuals to optimize movements at coarse (i.e., patch-level rather than fine spatial scales in highly fragmented environments. Our data also confirm that the probability of bait acceptance decreases with increasing distance from bait zone interiors, even within the zone itself. Thus, although bait acceptance was confirmed beyond bait zone boundaries, the proportion of vaccinated individuals may comprise a small minority of the population at increasing distances from baiting interiors. These data suggest focal baiting creates a buffered area of treated individuals around bait zones or bait stations

  13. Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Section 18 Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Section 18 of Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) authorizes EPA to allow an unregistered use of a pesticide for a limited time if EPA...

  14. Rodenticide Comparative Effect of Klerat® and Zinc Phosphide for Controlling Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad VEYSI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL is a neglected disease with public health importance that is common in many rural areas of Iran. In recent years, behavioral resistance and/or bait shyness against the common rodenticide among reservoir hosts of ZCL have been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Klerat® and zinc phosphide against natural reservoir of ZCL.Methods: This survey was carried out in four villages located 45 to 95 km far from Esfahan City Esfahan province, central Iran from April to November 2011. The rodent burrows were counted destroyed and reopened holes baited around all villages. Effect of rodent control operation on the main vector density and incidence of ZCL were evaluated.Results: The reduction rate of rodent burrows after intervention calculated to be at 62.8% in Klerat® and 58.15% in zinc phosphide treated areas. Statistical analysis showed no difference between the densities of the vector in indoors and outdoors in intervention and control areas. The incidence of the disease between treated and control areas after intervention was statistically different (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Klerat® could be a suitable alternative for zinc phosphide in a specific condition such as behavior resistance or occurrence of bait shyness.

  15. Toxicity reference values for chlorophacinone and their application for assessing anticoagulant rodenticide risk to raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Lazarus, Rebecca; Schultz, Sandra; Knowles, Susan N.; Abbo, B.G.; Volker, Steven F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread use and benefit, there are growing concerns regarding hazards of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides to non-target wildlife which may result in expanded use of first-generation compounds, including chlorophacinone (CPN). The toxicity of CPN over a 7-day exposure period was investigated in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) fed either rat tissue mechanically-amended with CPN, tissue from rats fed Rozol® bait (biologically-incorporated CPN), or control diets (tissue from untreated rats or commercial bird of prey diet) ad libitum. Nominal CPN concentrations in the formulated diets were 0.15, 0.75 and 1.5 µg/g food wet weight, and measured concentrations averaged 94 % of target values. Kestrel food consumption was similar among groups and body weight varied by less than 6 %. Overt signs of intoxication, liver CPN residues, and changes in prothrombin time (PT), Russell’s viper venom time (RVVT) and hematocrit, were generally dose-dependent. Histological evidence of hemorrhage was present at all CPN dose levels, and most frequently observed in pectoral muscle and heart. There were no apparent differences in toxicity between mechanically-amended and biologically-incorporated CPN diet formulations. Dietary-based toxicity reference values at which clotting times were prolonged in 50 % of the kestrels were 79.2 µg CPN consumed/kg body weight-day for PT and 39.1 µg/kg body weight-day for RVVT. Based upon daily food consumption of kestrels and previously reported CPN concentrations found in small mammals following field baiting trials, these toxicity reference values might be exceeded by free-ranging raptors consuming such exposed prey. Tissue-based toxicity reference values for coagulopathy in 50 % of exposed birds were 0.107 µg CPN/g liver wet weight for PT and 0.076 µg/g liver for RVVT, and are below the range of residue levels reported in raptor mortality incidents attributed to CPN exposure. Sublethal responses associated

  16. Core-shell LC-MS/MS method for quantification of second generation anticoagulant rodenticides diastereoisomers in rat liver in relationship with exposure of wild rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourel, Isabelle; Damin-Pernik, Marlène; Benoit, Etienne; Lattard, Virginie

    2017-01-15

    Second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs), pesticides used worldwide to control rodent populations, exist in two diastereoisomer chemical species because they own two stereogenic centers. A core-shell LC-MS/MS multi-residue method for comprehensive quantitative analysis of the diastereoisomers of five SGARs as well as three first generation anticoagulant rodenticide molecules has been fully validated in liver of rats according to a bioanalytical guideline. A core-shell column (superficially porous particles) has been chosen for its ability to separate the diastereomers of bromadiolone, difenacoum, brodifacoum, flocoumafen and difethialone and for its robustness to rat liver extracts. The highly selective chromatographic separation of the diastereoisomers contributes to good signal to noise ratios and then enhances the sensitivity of the method compared to the ones of fully porous columns. An elution gradient has been optimized with 10mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as aqueous/organic mobile phase respectively. Triple quadrupole mass detector has been used to achieve specifity and LLOQ from 0.92 to 2.2ng/g for each diastereoisomer, or first generation anticoagulant rodenticides. Then we evidenced diastereoisomeric ratios in liver of rats issued from not controlled exposure of wild rats (Rattus norvegicus) trapped in a French Parisian park through a campaign of rodent eradication. We compared them to diastereoisomeric ratios in SGARs commercial baits that contain both isomers, and showed that one of the two diastereoiomers had nearly disappeared in liver of rats. The proportions of cis-bromadiolone and trans-difenacoum were really lowered compared to the baits: 5/7 and 9/12 rats had only trans-bromadiolone and cis-difenacoum hepatic residues respectively. Liver persistence of the two diastereoisomers of bromadiolone and difenacoum was different due to differences in their pharmacokinetics in wild rats. The new core-shell LC-MS/MS method is

  17. Short- and long-term control of Vespula pensylvanica in Hawaii by fipronil baiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Cause; Foote, David; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The invasive western yellowjacket wasp, Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure), has significantly impacted the ecological integrity and human welfare of Hawaii. The goals of the present study were (1) to evaluate the immediate and long-term efficacy of a 0.1% fipronil chicken bait on V. pensylvanica populations in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, (2) to quantify gains in efficacy using the attractant heptyl butyrate in the bait stations and (3) to measure the benefits of this approach for minimizing non-target impacts to other arthropods. RESULTS: The 0.1% fipronil chicken bait reduced the abundance of V. pensylvanica by 95 ± 1.2% during the 3 months following treatment and maintained a population reduction of 60.9 ± 3.1% a year after treatment in the fipronil-treated sites when compared with chicken-only sites. The addition of heptyl butyrate to the bait stations significantly increased V. pensylvanica forager visitation and bait take and significantly reduced the non-target impacts of fipronil baiting. CONCLUSION: In this study, 0.1% fipronil chicken bait with the addition of heptyl butyrate was found to be an extremely effective large-scale management strategy and provided the first evidence of a wasp suppression program impacting Vepsula populations a year after treatment. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry

  18. 16 CFR 238.1 - Bait advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bait advertisement. 238.1 Section 238.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.1 Bait advertisement. No advertisement containing an offer to sell a product should be...

  19. Evaluation of fipronil and imidacloprid as bait active ingredients against fungus-growing termites (Blattodea: Termitidae: Macrotermitinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, N; Evans, T A

    2017-05-03

    Fungus-growing termites (Macrotermitinae) are important pests in tropical countries. They are difficult to control with existing baiting methods, as chitin synthesis inhibitors are not effectual as active ingredients. We tested two neurotoxins, fipronil and imidacloprid, as potential bait active ingredients against Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) in Singapore. In laboratory bioassays, M. gilvus showed no preference for doses of 0-64 ppm fipronil, or for doses of 0-250 ppm imidacloprid, indicating no repellence. We tested each insecticide in toilet paper as a bait matrix in a field experiment. After 28 days, termites had eaten 5-13% of the fipronil treated toilet paper, abandoned bait and monitoring stations, contacted no new stations, and repaired poorly their experimentally damaged mounds. Termites ate no imidacloprid treated toilet paper, abandoned bait stations although contacted new stations, and repaired fully their damaged mounds. Termites ate 60-70% of the control toilet paper, remained in bait stations, and fully repaired damaged mounds. After 56 days, all five fipronil colonies were eliminated, whereas all of the imidacloprid and control colonies were healthy. The results suggest that fipronil could be an effective active ingredient in bait systems for fungus-growing termites in tropical countries.

  20. Effects of interspecific competition between two urban ant species, Linepithema humile and Monomorium minimum, on toxic bait performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Patricia; Silverman, Jules

    2005-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of interspecific competition on ant bait performance with two urban pest ants, the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), and the little black ant, Monomorium minimum (Buckley). In a laboratory study, the impact of a solid sulfluramid bait on M. minimum was diminished when L. humile were present, whereas the presence of M. minimum reduced the performance of a liquid fipronil bait against L. humile. Argentine ants were not adversely affected by sulfluramid bait at any time, whereas M. minimum was unaffected by fipronil bait until 14 d of exposure. In field studies measuring diel foraging activity, M. minimum seemed to delay L. humile foraging to food stations by approximately 30 min during summer 2001. However, L. humile subsequently recruited to food stations in very high numbers, thereby displacing M. minimum. L. humile visited food stations over an entire 24-h period, whereas M. minimum was only observed visiting food stations during daylight hours. Adjusting the timing of bait placement in the field may minimize any negative effects of interspecific competition between these two species on toxic bait performance.

  1. Intoxication of nontarget wildlife with rodenticides in northwestern Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Mark G; Poppenga, Robert H; Bryan, John A; Bain, Matt; Pitman, Jim; Keel, M Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The perception of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) both as a nuisance species and a keystone species presents a significant challenge to land, livestock, and wildlife managers. Anticoagulant and nonanticoagulant rodenticides are commonly employed to control prairie dog populations throughout their range. Chlorophacinone, and to a lesser extent zinc phosphide, are widely used in northwestern Kansas for controlling black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations. Although zinc phosphide poisoning of gallinaceous birds is not uncommon, there are few published accounts of nontarget chlorophacinone poisoning of wildlife. We report three mortality events involving nontarget rodenticide poisoning in several species, including wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), a raccoon (Procyon lotor), and an American badger (Taxidea taxus). This includes the first documentation of chlorophacinone intoxication in wild turkeys and an American badger in the literature. The extent of nontarget poisoning in this area is currently unknown and warrants further investigation.

  2. Control of Aedes albopictus with attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) and potential impact on non-target organisms in St. Augustine, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Revay, Edita E.; Müller, Gunter C; Qualls, Whitney A.; Kline, Daniel; Naranjo, Diana P.; Arheart, Kristopher L; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Yfremova, Zoya; Hausmann,Axel; Beier, John C.; Schlein, Yosef; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of bait stations and foliar applications containing attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) and eugenol to control Aedes albopictus. At the same time the potential impact of these control methods was evaluated on non-target organisms. The study was conducted at five tire sites in St. Augustine, Florida. Aedes albopictus populations were significantly reduced with ATSB-eugenol applications applied directly to non-flowering vegetation and as bait s...

  3. Current status of rodenticide intoxication in Brazil: a preliminary survey from 2009 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Papini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical control of rodents with anticoagulant products, especially derivatives of the coumarin chemical group, is legally authorised in Brazil. These products provide effective control and are safe for humans. However, the use of illegal 'rodenticides' has increased in many Brazilian cities recently, accompanied by increased numbers of suicides, homicides, and intoxications. The National Toxicology Information System (Sinitox registers the number of rodenticide intoxications, including suicides, but does not differentiate between the legal and illegal rodenticides. Intoxications by rodenticides outnumber those by illicit drugs and pesticides. A survey of data from 2005-2011 revealed an average of about 3,800 intoxications per year, about 60% of which were suicides. Many of these intoxications probably involved illegal rodenticides, some with unknown chemical compositions, which confound the data on rodenticide intoxication. This evaluation of Sinitox data highlighted the need to ensure the proper use of the term 'rodenticide' when registering intoxication cases. Intoxication by-products that are not rodenticides, but are erroneously used for this purpose, should be classified separately to improve the quality of information.

  4. Brain MR finding of {beta}-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Lee, Seung Ro; Park, Dong Woo [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    {beta}-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication can manifest as several different clinical abnormalities such as respiratory, neurologic, cardiologic and fluid-electrolyte problems. We report here on the MR findings of a case that showed symmetric cytotoxic edema in the while matter of the cerebral hemispheres after the ingestion of {beta} - fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide by a woman who was attempting suicide.

  5. 76 FR 51031 - Registration; Cancellation Order for Rodenticide Products That Have Expired

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... AGENCY Registration; Cancellation Order for Rodenticide Products That Have Expired AGENCY: Environmental... attempted to describe all the specific entities that may be affected by this action. If you have any... cancellation proceedings against similar rodenticide registrations that have not expired. See...

  6. Development of an alginate hydrogel to deliver aqueous bait for pest ant management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Jia-Wei; Hoddle, Mark S; Mulchandani, Ashok; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2017-10-01

    Insecticide sprays used for ant control cause environmental contamination. Liquid bait is a safe and effective alternative, but it requires bait stations to dispense the toxicant. We developed a biodegradable hydrogel to deliver liquid bait obviating the need for bait stations. Alginate hydrogel beads with preferred rigidity and maximum hydration in 25% sucrose solution were engineered by optimizing a crosslinking process. The moisture content of the substrate on which the beads were placed and the relative atmospheric humidity significantly influenced water loss dynamics of the hydrated hydrogel beads. Laboratory choice studies indicated that hydrated hydrogel beads had reduced palatability to foraging ants when they lost ≥50% water. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) indicated that the insecticide thiamethoxam added to sucrose solution was absorbed into the hydrogel beads. Hydrogel beads conditioned in sucrose solution with 1 mg L(-1) thiamethoxam provided complete control of all castes of Argentine ant Linepithema humile (Mayr) colony by 14 days post treatment in the laboratory trial and provided a 79% reduction in ant activity after 8 weeks in the field trial. Alginate hydrogel beads provided an effective delivery system for liquid baits laced with low concentrations of insecticide to control Argentine ants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Land Use as a Driver of Patterns of Rodenticide Exposure in Modeled Kit Fox Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M Nogeire

    Full Text Available Although rodenticides are increasingly regulated, they nonetheless cause poisonings in many non-target wildlife species. Second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide use is common in agricultural and residential landscapes. Here, we use an individual-based population model to assess potential population-wide effects of rodenticide exposures on the endangered San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica. We estimate likelihood of rodenticide exposure across the species range for each land cover type based on a database of reported pesticide use and literature. Using a spatially-explicit population model, we find that 36% of modeled kit foxes are likely exposed, resulting in a 7-18% decline in the range-wide modeled kit fox population that can be linked to rodenticide use. Exposures of kit foxes in low-density developed areas accounted for 70% of the population-wide exposures to rodenticides. We conclude that exposures of non-target kit foxes could be greatly mitigated by reducing the use of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides in low-density developed areas near vulnerable populations.

  8. Monitoring agricultural rodenticide use and secondary exposure of raptors in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J; Sharp, E; Taylor, M J; Melton, L; Hartley, G

    2013-08-01

    Despite the documented risk of secondary poisoning to non-target species by anticoagulant rodenticides there is no statutory post-approval monitoring of their use in the UK. This paper presents results from two Scottish monitoring schemes for the period 2000-2010; recording rodenticide use on arable farms and the presence of residues in raptor carcasses. More than three quarters of arable farms used anticoagulant rodenticides; predominately the second generation compounds difenacoum and bromadiolone. There was widespread exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides in liver tissues of the raptor species tested and the residues encountered generally reflected agricultural use patterns. As found in other studies, Red Kites (Milvus milvus) appeared to be particularly vulnerable to rodenticide exposure, 70 % of those sampled (n = 114) contained residues and 10 % died as a result of rodenticide ingestion. More unexpectedly, sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), which prey almost exclusively on birds, had similar exposure rates to species which prey on rodents. Although, with the exception of kites, confirmed mortality from rodenticides was low, the widespread exposure recorded is concerning. Particularly when coupled with a lack of data about the sub-lethal effects of these compounds. This raises questions regarding whether statutory monitoring of use is needed; both to address whether there are deficiencies in compliance with approval conditions or whether the recommended risk management procedures are themselves adequate to protect non-target wildlife.

  9. 16 CFR 238.0 - Bait advertising defined. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bait advertising defined. 1 238.0 Section... BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.0 Bait advertising defined. 1 1 For the purpose of this part “advertising” includes any form of public notice however disseminated or utilized. Bait advertising is an alluring...

  10. Use of anticoagulant rodenticides by pest management professionals in Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmott, Kristin; Murray, Maureen; Rutberg, Allen

    2017-01-01

    Secondary exposure to chemical rodenticides, specifically second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs), poses a threat to non-target wildlife including birds of prey. Federal regulations in the United States currently limit homeowner access to SGARs as a way of minimizing this threat. With legal access to SGARs, pest management professionals (PMPs) represent a potential linkage to non-target exposure. There is limited research focused on rodent control practices, chemical rodenticide preferences, level of concern and awareness, or opinions on rodenticide regulations as they relate to PMPs. An online survey was sent to PMP companies across Massachusetts, USA, between October and November 2015. Thirty-five responses were obtained, a 20 % response rate. The preferred rodent control method among responding PMP companies was chemical rodenticides, specifically the SGAR bromadiolone. Respondents varied in their level of concern regarding the impact of chemical rodenticides on non-target species and showed a low level of awareness regarding SGAR potency and half-life. All responding companies reported using integrated pest management (IPM) strategies, with nearly all utilizing chemical rodenticides at some point. Enhanced education focused on SGAR potency, bioaccumulation potential, exposure routes, and negative impacts on non-target wildlife may improve efforts made by PMPs to minimize risk to wildlife and decrease dependence on chemical rodenticide use. Future studies evaluating use of anticoagulant rodenticide (ARs) by PMPs and the association with AR residues found in non-target wildlife is necessary to determine if current EPA regulations need to be modified to effectively reduce the risk of SGARs to non-target wildlife.

  11. Field evaluation of a fipronil bait against subterranean termite Odontotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiu-Ying; Lei, Chao-Liang; Xue, Dong

    2006-04-01

    The subterranean termite Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki is an important pest of agronomic crops, plantations, and forestry, and it endangers earthen dikes and dams in China. A fipronil bait consisting of straw pulp and white sugar was evaluated against field colonies of O. formosanus. Triple mark-capture with Nile blue dye was used to delineate foraging territories and to estimate foraging populations of four O. formosanus colonies locating in the campus of Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China. Termite activity was monitored by number of termite workers and straw board consumption in underground monitoring stations. Consumption of bait matrix and fipronil was estimated for each testing site. The results showed that approximately 3-5 mg of fipronil could suppress foraging populations of O. formosanus containing 0.4-0.7 million foragers per colony. Baits containing fipronil seem to be a feasible alternative for controlling O. formosanus.

  12. Multi-residue determination of eleven anticoagulant rodenticides by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array/fluorimetric detection: investigation of suspected animal poisoning in the period 2012-2013 in north-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallocchio, Federica; Basilicata, Lara; Benetti, Cristiana; Angeletti, Roberto; Binato, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    Misuse or deliberate abuse of anticoagulant rodenticides (AR) may often result in incidental or malicious non-target animal poisoning. This study presents preliminary results of the analysis of 561 real suspected samples, ranging from baits to livers and stomach contents, collected at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie (official referral laboratory for the regions of north-eastern Italy), in the period 2012-2013. Samples were analyzed by a method based on a combination of liquid chromatography with diode array/fluorescence detection (HPLC-DAD/F) able to identify 11 different AR (brodifacoum, bromadiolone, chloropahacinone, coumachlor, coumafuryl, coumatetralyl, difenacoum, diphacinone, flocoumafen, pindone, warfarin). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Field evaluation of the bait toxicant chlorfluazuron in eliminating Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brenton C; Fitzgerald, Christopher J

    2003-12-01

    Two aspects of the Exterra Termite Interception and Baiting System (Ensystex, Fayetteville, NC) were evaluated in a field experiment using 13 termite mounds near Townsville, Australia. First, a cellulose-acetate powder containing either 0.05% wt:wt or 0.25% wt:wt chlorfluazuron (Requiem, Ensystex, Fayetteville, NC) was tested for its efficacy in eliminating colonies of the xylophagous mound-building subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). The moist bait matrix was replenished during the first inspection of 10 mounds (five mounds by two treatments) used in the experiment. Second, a single application of the moist bait matrix was used on three additional mounds to test termite responses and the effectiveness of 0.25% wt:wt chlorfluazuron. Although there was no evidence of repellence, there was little removal of replenished bait. Five colonies were eliminated by 0.05% wt:wt chlorfluazuron and five colonies by 0.25% wt:wt chlorfluazuron: another colony was moribund, and elimination appeared imminent. Colony decline was first suspected some 12 wk after bait application, and colony elimination was confirmed, by destructive sampling, about 5 wk later. Colony elimination may have occurred within 12 wk. One colony was an anomaly and did not succumb to the effects of the toxicant. Another colony was not eliminated because of invasion of the baiting system by ants. Ants, principally Iridomyrmex purpureus (F. Smith) group and Papyrius nitidus (Mayr) group, occurred commonly in the stations during the experiment. Microcerotermes sp. was found in five of the C. acinaciformis mounds, after colony elimination. Inspections of small sections of mounds and wooden dowels inserted into mounds were reliable methods for monitoring colony health.

  14. Accumulation of anticoagulant rodenticides in a non-target insectivore, the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowding, Claire V., E-mail: claire.dowding@naturalengland.org.u [School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG (United Kingdom); Shore, Richard F.; Worgan, Andrew [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Baker, Philip J.; Harris, Stephen [School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Studies on exposure of non-targets to anticoagulant rodenticides have largely focussed on predatory birds and mammals; insectivores have rarely been studied. We investigated the exposure of 120 European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) from throughout Britain to first- and second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs and SGARs) using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC) and liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS). The proportion of hedgehogs with liver SGAR concentrations detected by HPLC was 3-13% per compound, 23% overall. LCMS identified much higher prevalence for difenacoum and bromadiolone, mainly because of greater ability to detect low-level contamination. The overall proportion of hedgehogs with LCMS-detected residues was 57.5% (SGARs alone) and 66.7% (FGARs and SGARs combined); 27 (22.5%) hedgehogs contained >1 rodenticide. Exposure of insectivores and predators to anticoagulant rodenticides appears to be similar. The greater sensitivity of LCMS suggests that hitherto exposure of non-targets is likely to have been under-estimated using HPLC techniques. - Exposure of insectivorous hedgehogs to anticoagulant rodenticides in Britain is similar to predatory birds and mammals that specialise in eating small mammals, and hitherto exposure levels have been under-estimated using HPLC techniques.

  15. Evidence that grey seals (Halichoerus grypus use above-water vision to locate baited buoys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Fjälling

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fishing gear in the Baltic is often raided by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus. The seals remove the fish and damage the nets, or entangle themselves and drown. In order to develop ways of mitigating the seals-fisheries conflict, it is important to know exactly how the seals locate the fishing gear. A field experiment was conducted in order to clarify whether seals use their vision above water to do this. Bait (herring; Clupea harengus was attached to the anchor lines of buoys of the type that is commonly used to mark the position of fishing gear. In all, 643 buoys were set. Some of the buoys (210 were also fitted with camera traps. Weather data were collected from official weather stations nearby. Bait loss (mean 18% was significantly correlated with buoy size (P = 0.002 and wind speed (P = 0.04. There was a significant association between bait loss and seal observations near the buoys (P = 0.05. Five photos of grey seals were obtained from the camera traps. No fish-eating birds, such as cormorants or mergansers, were ever observed near the buoys or caught on camera. It was concluded that a main cause of missing bait was scavenging by grey seals, and that they did use above-water vision to locate the buoys. It was also concluded that wind strength (i.e. wave action contributed tothe bait loss. The camera trap buoys had a somewhat lower bait loss than the other buoys (P = 0.054, which was attributed to a scaring effect. Neither the number of seal observations nor the bait loss differed significantly between the 2 study areas in the experiment (P = 0.43 and P = 0.83, respectively. Bait loss was not affected by the buoy colour (red, white, or grey; P = 0.87. We suggest that the findings of this experiment could be put into practice in a seal-disturbed area by deploying a number of decoy buoys, or by hiding live buoys below the surface of the water. This would increase the cost of foraging for the seals, and hence discourage them from exploiting

  16. Exposure of stone marten (Martes foina) and polecat (Mustela putorius) to anticoagulant rodenticides: Effects of regulatory restrictions of rodenticide use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmeros, Morten; Lassen, Pia; Bossi, Rossana; Topping, Christopher J

    2017-09-08

    When anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are used to control rodent populations there is also a widespread secondary exposure of non-target predators to ARs. To reduce secondary exposure, regulatory restrictions in AR usage were tightened in Denmark in 2011. The restrictions included the cessation of AR use for plant protection and any use away from buildings, as well as limitations in private consumers' access to ARs. To quantify and evaluate the efficiency of the regulatory measures to reduce secondary exposure, we analysed ARs in liver tissue from 40 stone martens (Martes foina) and 40 polecats (Mustela putorius) collected before and 31 stone martens and 29 polecats collected after the restrictions were imposed. No declines in the prevalence ARs were detected following the regulatory restrictions in either stone marten (Before: 98%, After: 100%) or polecat (Before: 93%, After: 97%). The total AR concentration was higher in stone martens than in polecats in both sampling periods. Between the two sampling periods, the total AR concentrations in the mustelids increased (Pexposure of non-target stone martens and polecats. The temporal and spatial patterns of AR concentrations in predators indicate that chemical rodent control in and around buildings is the dominant source for the exposure of non-target predators in intensively human-dominated landscapes in Denmark. The results suggest that non-chemical methods for rodents control at buildings are necessary to prevent widespread secondary AR exposure of predators in human modified landscapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Converting Mosquito Surveillance to Arbovirus Surveillance with Honey-Baited Nucleic Acid Preservation Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flies, Emily J; Toi, Cheryl; Weinstein, Philip; Doggett, Stephen L; Williams, Craig R

    2015-07-01

    Spatially and temporally accurate information about infectious mosquito distribution allows for pre-emptive public health interventions that can reduce the burden of mosquito-borne infections on human populations. However, the labile nature of arboviruses, the low prevalence of infection in mosquitoes, the expensive labor costs for mosquito identification and sorting, and the specialized equipment required for arbovirus testing can obstruct arbovirus surveillance efforts. The recently developed techniques of testing mosquito expectorate using honey-baited nucleic acid preservation cards or sugar bait stations allows a sensitive method of testing for infectious, rather than infected, mosquito vectors. Here we report the results from the first large-scale incorporation of honey-baited cards into an existing mosquito surveillance program. During 4 months of the peak virus season (January-April, 2014) for a total of 577 trap nights, we set CO2-baited encephalitis vector survey (EVS) light traps at 88 locations in South Australia. The collection container for the EVS trap was modified to allow for the placement of a honey-baited nucleic acid preservation card (FTA™ card) inside. After collection, mosquitoes were maintained in a humid environment and allowed access to the cards for 1 week. Cards were then analyzed for common endemic Australian arboviruses using a nested RT-PCR. Eighteen virus detections, including 11 Ross River virus, four Barmah Forest virus, and three Stratford virus (not previously reported from South Australia) were obtained. Our findings suggest that adding FTA cards to an existing mosquito surveillance program is a rapid and efficient way of detecting infectious mosquitoes with high spatial resolution.

  18. Control of Aedes albopictus with attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) and potential impact on non-target organisms in St. Augustine, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revay, Edita E; Müller, Gunter C; Qualls, Whitney A; Kline, Daniel L; Naranjo, Diana P; Arheart, Kristopher L; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Yefremova, Zoya; Hausmann, Axel; Beier, John C; Schlein, Yosef; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of bait stations and foliar applications containing attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) and eugenol to control Aedes albopictus. At the same time, the potential impact of these control methods was evaluated on non-target organisms. The study was conducted at five tire sites in St. Augustine, Florida. A. albopictus populations were significantly reduced with ATSB-eugenol applications applied directly to non-flowering vegetation and as bait stations compared with non-attractive sugar baits and control. The application of ATSB made to non-flowering vegetation resulted in more significant reductions of mosquito populations compared to the application of ATSB presented in a bait station. Over 5.5% of the non-targets were stained in the flowering vegetation application site. However, when the attractive sugar bait application was made to non-flowering vegetation or presented in bait stations, the impact on non-target insects was very low for all non-target orders as only 0.6% of the individual insects were stained with the dye from the sugar solutions, respectively. There were no significant differences between the staining of mosquitoes collected in flowering vegetation (206/1000) or non-flowering vegetation (242/1000) sites during the non-target evaluation. Our field studies support the use of eugenol as an active ingredient for controlling the dengue vector A. albopictus when used as an ATSB toxin and demonstrates potential use in sub-tropical and tropical environments for dengue control.

  19. Assessment of anticoagulant rodenticide exposure in six raptor species from the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Valerón, Pilar F; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Almeida-González, Maira; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2014-07-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides are highly toxic compounds that are widely used for pest control of rodents, but that also may threaten the wildlife's health. This work aimed to assess the exposure to first- and second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) in six birds of prey species from the Canary Islands (Spain). The concentrations of seven widely used ARs were determined by LC-MS/MS in 104 liver samples of six species of birds of prey (Buteo buteo, Accipiter nisus, Falco pelegrinoides, Falco tinnunculus, Asio otus, and Tyto alba). We determined that 61% of the livers had detectable residues of at least one AR. The most frequently detected AR was bromadiolone, which was detected in 60.3% of the positive cases. The detection frequencies of these compounds varied widely, depending on the species. More than 75% of the A. nisus, T. alba, and A. otus individuals had detectable rodenticide residues in the liver. However, F. tinnunculus exhibited the highest concentrations of AR, with median values above 100 ng/g w.w. We did not detect first-generation ARs in any of the samples. When grouped, nocturnal species exhibited higher AR concentrations than diurnal species (Praptors on the Canary Islands. Our findings require authorities to ban or strictly control the use of these rodenticides in the natural environment for the conservation of raptors and other predatory species.

  20. EFFECTS OF BAITS AND BAIT ALTERNATIVES ON SLUG MORTALITY, EGG PRODUCTION, AND SEEDLING SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two non-bait slug control formulations that are not attractive to earthworms including Durham 3.5 and 7.5 (3.5 and 7.5%, metaldehyde, respectively) and SlugFest AWF (all-weather-formula, 25%, metaldehyde), a liquid spray product were investigated for their efficacy in reducing egg fecundity and slu...

  1. Comparative attractiveness of CO2-baited CDC light traps and animal baits to Phlebotomus duboscqi sandflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sichangi Kasili

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In order to understand sandfly bionomics, vector species identification,and to develop methods for sandfly control, there is a need to sample sandflies in any particularhabitat. This survey was aimed at determining the best method of sampling Phlebotomus(Phlebotomus duboscqi (Diptera: Psychodidae in the field.Methods: Different animal baits and CO2-baited CDC light traps were used to attract sandfliesreleased in an insect-proof screen-house located in the sandfly’s natural habitat in Marigat, Baringodistrict of Kenya.Results: Attraction of hungry P. duboscqi female sandflies by the goat (Capra hircis wassignificantly higher than that of hamster (Mesocricetus auretus, Nile grass rat (Arvicanthisniloticus, gerbil (Tatera robusta and chicken (Gallus domestica. However, two rodent species,A. niloticus and T. robusta did not differ significantly. A linear regression analysis of weights ofanimal baits and number of sandflies attracted revealed an insignificant result. The fluorescentdyes used to distinguish sandflies of different day experiments seemed not to influence the sandflynumbers in relation to the studied sandfly behaviour.Interpretation & conclusion: The similar attraction pattern of P. duboscqi in semi-field environmentby CO2-baited CDC light trap and the goat provides hope for solution to the problem of fastdissipating dry ice (CO2 source in the field. Goats can, therefore, also be utilized as deflectors ofvectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis from humans in zooprophylaxis in Leishmania major endemicareas where the sandfly is found.

  2. Population response of rodents to control with rodenticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.A.SHILOVA; A.V.TCHABOVSKY

    2009-01-01

    We summarize theoretical approaches and practice of rodent pest control in Russia and former USSR during last 50 years. We review literature as well as original data to understand mechanisms of rodent populations recovery after chemical control campaigns in urban areas, agricultural lands and natural foci of plague. Laboratory and field experiments indicate that inherent individual variation in behavioural, physiological and life-history traits provides survival of heterogeneous mix of individuals in residual population with increased resistance to poisonous baits and high reproductive potential that leads to fast recovery of a population. In a series of field experiments with various rodent and lagomorph species (Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Meriones unguiculatus, M.meridianus, M.tamariscinus, Ochotona pallasii) we have shown that patterns of recolonization of depopulated area and mechanisms of population recovery vary among species and depend on species-specific social organization. After control territorial and group-living species demonstrated an increase in mobility and affiliative and marking behaviour and a decrease in intraspecific aggression. The rate of recolonization of treated areas was high due to redistribution of survived individuals and immigration by neighbors. Population recovered to original level due to increased breeding performance and fecundity of both survived residents and immigrants. In contrast, socially-independent species exhibited minor changes in behaviour. Recolonization was mainly due to better survival and recruitment of youngs, so the rate of recolonization was low. Species-specificity of behavioural compensation mechanisms to control should be considered when developing ecologically based rodent management strategies[Current Zoology 55(2):81-91,2009].

  3. Toxicokinetics and coagulopathy threshold of the rodenticide diphacinone in eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, K.E.; Lazarus, Rebecca; Goldade, D.A.; Johnston, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, new regulations on second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides will likely be offset by expanded use of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticides. In the present study, eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio) were fed 10 µg diphacinone/g wet weight food for 7 d, and recovery was monitored over a 21-d postexposure period. By day 3 of exposure, diphacinone (DPN) was detected in liver (1.63 µg/g wet wt) and kidney (5.83 µg/g) and coagulopathy was apparent. By day 7, prothrombin time (PT) and Russell's viper venom time (RVVT) were prolonged, and some individuals were anemic. Upon termination of exposure, coagulopathy and anemia were resolved within 4 d, and residues decreased to hemostasis occurs rapidly

  4. Simultaneous determination of seven anticoagulant rodenticides in agricultural products by gel permeation chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito-Shida, Shizuka; Nemoto, Satoru; Matsuda, Rieko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    A sensitive and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of hydroxycoumarin-type (brodifacoum, bromadiolone, coumatetralyl, and warfarin) and indandione-type (chlorophacinone, diphacinone, and pindone) rodenticides in agricultural products by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The procedure involved extraction of the rodenticides from samples with acetone, followed by liquid-liquid partitioning with hexane/ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) and 10% sodium chloride aqueous solution, then cleanup using GPC, and finally, analysis using LC-MS/MS. High recoveries from the GPC column were obtained for all rodenticides tested using a mobile phase of acetone/cyclohexane/triethylamine (400:1600:1, v/v/v). An ODS column, which contains low levels of metal impurities, gave satisfactory peak shapes for both hydroxycoumarin- and indandione-type rodenticides in the LC-MS/MS separation. The average recoveries of rodenticides from eight agricultural foods (apple, eggplant, cabbage, orange, potato, tomato, brown rice, and soybean) fortified at 0.0005-0.001 mg/kg ranged from 76 to 116%, except for bromadiolone in orange (53%) and diphacinone in soybean (54%), and the relative standard deviations ranged from 1 to 16%. The proposed method effectively removed interfering components, such as pigments and lipids, and showed high selectivity. In addition, the matrix effects were negligible for most of the rodenticide/food combinations. The results suggest that the proposed method is reliable and suitable for determining hydroxycoumarin- and indandione-type rodenticides in agricultural products.

  5. Season and application rates affect vaccine bait consumption by prairie dogs in Colorado and Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Daniel W.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Streich, Sean P.; Brown, Nathanael L.; Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Miller, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes high rates of mortality in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.). An oral vaccine against plague has been developed for prairie dogs along with a palatable bait to deliver vaccine and a biomarker to track bait consumption. We conducted field trials between September 2009 and September 2012 to develop recommendations for bait distribution to deliver plague vaccine to prairie dogs. The objectives were to evaluate the use of the biomarker, rhodamine B, in field settings to compare bait distribution strategies, to compare uptake of baits distributed at different densities, to assess seasonal effects on bait uptake, and to measure bait uptake by nontarget small mammal species. Rhodamine B effectively marked prairie dogs' whiskers during these field trials. To compare bait distribution strategies, we applied baits around active burrows or along transects at densities of 32, 65, and 130 baits/ha. Distributing baits at active burrows or by transect did not affect uptake by prairie dogs. Distributing baits at rates of ≥65/ha (or ≥1 bait/active burrow) produced optimal uptake, and bait uptake by prairie dogs in the autumn was superior to uptake in the spring. Six other species of small mammals consumed baits during these trials. All four species of tested prairie dogs readily consumed the baits, demonstrating that vaccine uptake will not be an obstacle to plague control via oral vaccination.

  6. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, J C; Mau, R F L; Vargas, R I

    2011-08-01

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources, and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioural response of wild female oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)), melon fly (B. cucurbitae (Coquillett)), and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) to spinosad-based GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait(©) formulated to contain either 0, 1 or 2% ammonium acetate. Use of visually-attractive yellow bait stations for bait application in the field allowed for proper comparisons among bait formulations. Field cage tests were also conducted to investigate, using a comparative behavioural approach, the effects of female age and protein starvation on the subsequent response of F1 generation B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis to the same three bait formulations that were evaluated in the field. Our field results indicate a significant positive effect of the presence, regardless of amount, of AA in GF-120 for B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae. For C. capitata, there was a significant positive linear relationship between the relative amounts of AA in bait and female response. GF-120 with no AA was significantly more attractive to female C. capitata, but not to female B. dorsalis or B. cucurbitae, than the control treatment. Our field cage results indicate that the effects of varying amounts of AA present in GF-120 can be modulated by the physiological stage of the female flies and that the response of female B. cucurbitae to GF-120 was consistently greater than that of B. dorsalis over the various ages and levels of protein starvation regimes evaluated. Results are discussed in light of their applications for effective fruit fly suppression.

  7. Control of Rhagoletis indifferents using Thiamethoxam and Spinosad baits under external fly pressure and its relation to rapidity of kill and residual bait activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of western cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis indifferens Curran) using thiamethoxam in sucrose bait and spinosad bait in cherry orchards under external fly pressure and its relation to rapidity of kill and residual bait activity were studied in Washington and Utah in 2010 and 2011. Thiamethoxam ...

  8. Wild carnivore acceptance of baits for delivery of liquid rabies vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, P; Bramwell, R N; Fraser, S J; Gilmore, D A; Johnston, D H; Lawson, K F; MacInnes, C D; Matejka, F O; Miles, H E; Pedde, M A

    1990-10-01

    A series of experiments are described on the acceptance, by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and other species, of two types of vaccine-baits intended to deliver liquid rabies vaccine. The baits consisted of a cube of sponge coated in a mixture of tallow and wax, or a plastic blister-pack embedded in tallow. All baits contained tetracycline as a biological marking agent: examination of thin sections of carnivore canines under an ultraviolet microscope revealed a fluorescent line of tetracycline if an individual had eaten baits. Baits were dropped from fixed-wing aircraft flying about 100 m above ground at approximately 130 km/h. Flight lines followed the edges of woodlots midway between parallel roads. Baits were dropped at one/sec, resulting in one bait/36 m on the ground, or 17 to 25 baits per km2. Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) removed many baits, but did not appear to lower the percent of the fox population which took bait. Dropping baits only into corn and woodland to conceal baits, to reduce depredation by crows, reduced acceptance by foxes. Acceptance by foxes ranged between 37 and 68%. Meat added as an attractant did not raise acceptance. Presence, absence, color and perforations of plastic bags did not alter bait acceptance. Dispersal by juvenile foxes probably lowered the estimates of bait acceptance. It took 7 to 17 days for 80% (n = 330) of foxes to eat their first bait. The rapidity with which foxes picked up their first bait appeared more affected by unknown characteristics of years or study areas than by experimental variables. Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) also ate these baits, but acceptance was lower. Small mammals contacted baits, but rarely contacted the vaccine, which had the potential for vaccine-induced rabies in some species. Aerial distribution of baits was more cost-effective than ground distribution as practiced in Europe. This system has potential for field control of rabies, although higher acceptance will be desirable.

  9. Response of female Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad bait and polymer matrix mixture with extended residual effect in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime C; Souder, Steven K; Gomez, Luis E; Mau, Ronald F L; Vargas, Roger I

    2011-12-01

    The effectiveness of foliar applications of protein baits against pestiferous fruit flies (Tephritidae) can be adversely affected by a rapid loss of attractive volatile compounds and by rainfall due to the high water solubility of the baits. In a large coffee, Coffea arabica L., plantation in Hawaii with high and low populations of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the relative attractiveness of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait as either a 40% (vol:vol) spray solution (= GF-120 NF) or as a formulated proprietary amorphous polymer matrix (= GF-120 APM) was compared. The GF-120 APM formulations contained either, 25, 50, or 75% of GF-120 NF (wt:wt). All baits were tested in association with visually attractive yellow bait stations as a way of standardizing the evaluations. With both high and low C. capitata populations, significantly more females were attracted to the fresh sprayed GF-120 NF than to any of the three fresh GF-120 APM formulations. The attractiveness of GF-120 sprayed decreased significantly after 1 wk, whereas 1-wk-old GF-120 APM formulations were as attractive as similar fresh formulations. GF-120 APM 75% aged for 3 wk outperformed similarly-aged sprayed GF-120 NF with comparatively high C. capitata populations. With low populations, both GF-120 APM 75% and GF-120 APM 50% aged for 2 wk outperformed the similarly aged sprayed GF-120 NF. Combined findings indicate that APM mixed with either 50 or 75% GF-120 applied to bait stations can be attractive to female C. capitata for up to 3 wk longer than the standard sprayed GF-120 NF.

  10. Aerial distribution of ONRAB baits as a tactic to control rabies in raccoons and striped skunks in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosatte, R C; Donovan, D; Davies, J C; Allan, M; Bachmann, P; Stevenson, B; Sobey, K; Brown, L; Silver, A; Bennett, K; Buchanan, T; Bruce, L; Gibson, M; Beresford, A; Beath, A; Fehlner-Gardiner, C; Lawson, K

    2009-04-01

    During August 2006 and 2007, baits containing oral rabies vaccine, live adenovirus vector, known as ONRAB , were aerially distributed in SW Ontario, Canada. Bait acceptance during 2006 was 62 and 74% in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in areas baited at 150 baits/km(2) and 75 and 77% in plots baited at 300 baits/km(2). During 2007, bait acceptance for raccoons ranged between 59% and 80%, and 83% and 87%, in areas baited at 75 and 400 baits/km(2), respectively. Bait acceptance by skunks varied among plots (5-24%). Rabies virus-specific seroconversion during 2006 averaged 66 and 81% in raccoons in areas baited at 150 and 300 baits/km(2), respectively. During 2007, seroconversion by raccoons was 76 and 84% in areas baited at 75 and 400 baits/km(2), respectively. Seroconversion by skunks varied among plots (17-51%). Vaccine efficacy, as judged by the percentage of animals that consumed a bait and seroconverted, averaged 79 and 87% during 2006 for raccoons in areas baited at 150 and 300 baits/km(2), respectively, and 81 and 90% in areas baited during 2007 at 75 and 400 baits/km(2), respectively. Because tetracycline marking was poor in skunks, an estimate of vaccine efficacy was not possible. Aerial distribution of ONRAB vaccine baits seems to be a feasible tactic for controlling rabies in skunks and raccoons.

  11. Field capture of Thyanta perditor with pheromone-baited traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Alberto Laumann

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the field attractiveness of Thyanta perditor synthetic sex pheromone-baited traps, its attractivity to other stink bug species, and the response of T. perditor to a geometric isomer of the sex pheromone. Two-liter transparent plastic bottles traps were baited with rubber septa impregnated with the treatments: 1 mg of methyl-(2E,4Z,6Z-decatrienoate [(2E,4Z,6Z-10:COOMe], the male sex pheromone of T. perditor; 1 mg of (2E,4Z,6Z-10:COOMe protected from sunlight in standard PVC plumbing pipe; 1 mg of its geometric isomer [(2E,4E,6Z-10:COOMe]; and traps with rubber septa impregnated with hexane (control. The experiment was carried out in field during the soybean reproductive stages. Traps were monitored weekly, and the captures were compared to the population density estimated by the sampling cloth and visual inspection monitoring techniques. Traps baited with the sex pheromone, protected or not, were more effective in capturing T. perditor than traps baited with the isomer or the hexane. Thyanta perditor sex pheromone showed cross-attraction to other stink bug species, such as Euschistus heros, Edessa meditabunda, Piezodorus guildinii and Nezara viridula. Pheromone-baited traps can be used in population monitoring and to identify the relative composition of stink bug guilds.

  12. Adverse outcome pathway and risks of anticoagulant rodenticides to predatory wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Lazarus, Rebecca; Elliott, John E.; Shore, Richard F.; van den Brink, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Despite a long history of successful use, routine application of some anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) may be at a crossroad due to new regulatory guidelines intended to mitigate risk. An adverse outcome pathway for ARs was developed to identify information gaps and end points to assess the effectiveness of regulations. This framework describes chemical properties of ARs, established macromolecular interactions by inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase, cellular responses including altered clotting factor processing and coagulopathy, organ level effects such as hemorrhage, organism responses with linkages to reduced fitness and mortality, and potential consequences to predator populations. Risk assessments have led to restrictions affecting use of some second-generation ARs (SGARs) in North America. While the European regulatory community highlighted significant or unacceptable risk of ARs to nontarget wildlife, use of SGARs in most EU member states remains authorized due to public health concerns and the absence of safe alternatives. For purposes of conservation and restoration of island habitats, SGARs remain a mainstay for eradication of invasive species. There are significant data gaps related to exposure pathways, comparative species sensitivity, consequences of sublethal effects, potential hazards of greater AR residues in genetically resistant prey, effects of low-level exposure to multiple rodenticides, and quantitative data on the magnitude of nontarget wildlife mortality.

  13. Comparative risk assessment of the first-generation anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone to raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Eisenreich, Karen M.; Horak, Katherine E.; Volker, Steven F.; Campton, Christopher M.; Eisemann, John D.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Johnson, John J.

    2012-01-01

    New regulatory restrictions have been placed on the use of some second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides in the United States, and in some situations this action may be offset by expanded use of first-generation compounds. We have recently conducted several studies with captive adult American kestrels and eastern screech-owls examining the toxicity of diphacinone (DPN) using both acute oral and short-term dietary exposure regimens. Diphacinone evoked overt signs of intoxication and lethality in these raptors at exposure doses that were 20 to 30 times lower than reported for traditionally used wildlife test species (mallard and northern bobwhite). Sublethal exposure of kestrels and owls resulted in prolonged clotting time, reduced hematocrit, and/or gross and histological evidence of hemorrhage at daily doses as low as 0.16 mg DPN/kg body weight. Findings also demonstrated that DPN was far more potent in short-term 7-day dietary studies than in single-day acute oral exposure studies. Incorporating these kestrel and owl data into deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments indicated that the risks associated with DPN exposure for raptors are far greater than predicted in analyses using data from mallards and bobwhite. These findings can assist natural resource managers in weighing the costs and benefits of anticoagulant rodenticide use in pest control and eradication programs.

  14. Paying the pipers: Mitigating the impact of anticoagulant rodenticides on predators and scavengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John E.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Shore, Richard F.; van den Brink, Nico W.

    2016-01-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides, mainly second-generation forms, or SGARs, dominate the global market for rodent control. Introduced in the 1970s to counter genetic resistance in rodent populations to first-generation compounds such as warfarin, SGARs are extremely toxic and highly effective killers. However, their tendency to persist and accumulate in the body has led to the widespread contamination of terrestrial predators and scavengers. Commercial chemicals that are classified by regulators as persistent, bio-accumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals and that are widely used with potential environmental release, such as dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been removed from commerce. However, despite consistently failing ecological risk assessments, SGARs remain in use because of the demand for effective rodent-control options and the lack of safe and humane alternatives. Although new risk-mitigation measures for rodenticides are now in effect in some countries, the contamination and poisoning of nontarget wildlife are expected to continue. Here, we suggest options to further attenuate this problem.

  15. Click Bait: You Won’t Believe What Happens Next!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this chapter is to investigate Click Bait, one of the strategies most commonly used by online news journalists aiming to make their headlines more attractive to readers. The chapter begins by studying Social Networks and the power they give marketers in spreading information. Next, a historical context to Click Bait is presented through its origins as Yellow Journalism, a 19th century journalism trend focused on hyperbolizing news headlines in order to increase sales. Finally, Click Bait is studied as the online application of techniques like Yellow Journalism. This section analyzes semantics and some of the most popular headline construction formulas. Literature on this matter concluded that the use of certain headline construction formulas yields significant increase in click-through rates. These increases could be beneficial to the publishing organization as they increase advertising impressions, but could also be detrimental, as these hyperbolic headlines may make readers feel manipulated.

  16. The response of the Egyptian spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) and two other species of commensal rodents to anticoagulant rodenticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Wafeya; Redfern, R.

    1981-01-01

    The response of Acomys cahirinus to three anticoagulant rodenticides was investigated in the laboratory. In contrast to the other commensal rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, this species appears to be naturally very resistant to warfarin, difenacoum and brodifacoum. It is considered unlikely that anticoagulant poisons would be effective in the field for the control of A. cahirinus. PMID:7240734

  17. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad® were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida "fly free zone" protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production.

  18. Occurrence of Photobacterium leiognathi, as the bait organ symbiont in frogfish Antennarius hispidus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Chandramohan, D.

    . Occurrence of P. leiognathi as the bait organ symbiont of A. hispidus is the first report. Being very strong mimics of their surrounding, frogfishes may couple the bacterial bioluminescence originating from their bait organs with that of their camouflaging...

  19. Evaluation of Cyantraniliprole and Other Commercial Fly Baits under Laboratory and Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Parker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and field trials were performed to evaluate the attractiveness and efficacy of commercial baits (cyantraniliprole; methomyl + (Z-9-tricosene; dinotefuran + (Z-9-tricosene; imidacloprid granular + (Z-9-tricosene; and imidacloprid liquid + (Z-9-tricosene. In choice tests; flies were most attracted to cyantraniliprole bait > dinotefuran + (Z-9 > methomyl + (Z-9 bait > imidacloprid granular + (Z-9 bait > imidacloprid liquid + (Z-9 bait. Significant degradation in bait efficacy was observed after two weeks of aging excluding imidacloprid granular; which began to degrade in field conditions after one week. Cyantraniliprole; the new fly bait active ingredient in Zyrox®; had the longest time to knockdown in the laboratory tests; but on susceptible flies; achieved 95%–100% knockdown within an hour of exposure. Zyrox® was resistant to weathering for a week; and was more attractive to flies in the field when compared to methomyl + (Z-9 bait.

  20. A Comparative Study on Different Baits Used to Attract House Fly in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Hamid

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available House flies are commonly found at homes and businesses in Malaysia. Many kinds of baits are used to attract and trap these flies either by mechanical or chemical means. But all these baits are not capable of attracting flies equally. The main goal of this study is to find out the best bait that can attract house fly effectively. Two baits made in abroad and four baits made in Malaysia were selected for conducting this study because these baits are commonly used in Malaysia. Experiments were carried out by using six selected baits in food industry, fish market and poultry farm in the east coast of Malaysia. Data were collected from the field experiments continuously for six days and analysed to determine the best bait that trap the house flies very effectively. Data analysis results show that the Chinese Electronic Fly Catcher bait is the best one for trapping house flies effectively compared to other baits. Further investigation is still underway to find the volatile compound used for this Chinese Electronic Fly Catcher bait, which will help to generate new bait with the same effect.

  1. Microencapsulated bait: Does it work with Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The preference of red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta for microencapsulated (MC) pyriproxifen based corn grit baits (P-bait) was conducted in laboratory and field conditions. A positive correlation between the microencapsulation rate and water tolerance ability of P-bait was observed. A 20% in...

  2. BAIT DEVELOPMENT FOR ORAL DELIVERY OF PHARMACEUTICALS TO RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR) AND STRIPED SKUNKS (MEPHITIS MEPHITIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shylo R; Crider, Nikki J; Weyer, Grant A; Tosh, Randall D; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2016-10-01

    Oral vaccination is one tool used to control wildlife diseases. A challenge to oral vaccination is identifying baits specific to target species. The US has been conducting oral vaccination against rabies since the 1990s. Improvements in bait development will hasten disease elimination. In Colorado, we examined a novel bait for oral vaccination and offered two different flavors, sweet and fish, to captive raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) and striped skunks ( Mephitis mephitis ) to assess consumption and flavor preference and observed bait removal by target and nontarget species in the field. During captive trials, raccoons and skunks consumed 98% and 87% of offered baits, respectively. Baits contained a sachet to simulate a vaccine package. Raccoons and skunks consumed 98% and 94% of the sachets, respectively. All unconsumed sachets were punctured, suggesting that animals had oral exposure to the contents. Raccoons preferred fish-flavored bait, but skunks did not have a preference. In the field, raccoons consumed the most baits, followed by fox squirrels ( Sciurus niger ). Other rabies host species (striped skunks, red foxes [ Vulpes vulpes ], coyotes [ Canis latrans ]) had very low visitation and were never observed consuming baits. High consumption rates by raccoons and skunks in captivity and observance of raccoons consuming baits in the field suggest that these baits may be useful for oral delivery of pharmaceuticals. Further field research is warranted to determine how to best optimize bait delivery.

  3. Species-specific visitation and removal of baits for delivery of pharmaceuticals to feral swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Tyler A; Long, David B

    2007-07-01

    Within the domestic swine industry there is growing trepidation about the role feral swine (Sus scrofa) play in the maintenance and transmission of important swine diseases. Innovative disease management tools for feral swine are needed. We used field trials conducted in southern Texas from February to March 2006 to compare species-specific visitation and removal rates of fish-flavored and vegetable-flavored baits with and without commercially available raccoon (Procyon lotor) repellent (trial 1) and removal rates of baits deployed in a systematic and cluster arrangement (trial 2). During trial 1, 1) cumulative bait removal rates after four nights ranged from 93% to 98%; 2) bait removal rates by feral swine, raccoons, and collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) did not differ by treatment; and 3) coyotes (Canis latrans) removed more fish-flavored baits without raccoon repellent and white-tailed deer removed more vegetable-flavored baits without raccoon repellent than expected. During trial 2, feral swine removed fish-flavored baits distributed in a cluster arrangement (eight baits within 5 m2) at a rate greater than expected. Our observed bait removal rates illustrate bait attractiveness to feral swine. However, the diverse assemblage of omnivores in the United States compared with Australia where the baits were manufactured adds complexity to the development of a feral swine-specific baiting system for pharmaceutical delivery.

  4. Validation of the bait test with Rhododendron leaves for Phytophthora diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina Junker; Sabine Werres

    2017-01-01

    Bait tests are very helpful for diagnosis of Phytophthora in for example soil, substrate, water, sediment, and rootball samples (Werres and others 2014). By attracting the motile zoospores of the Phytophthora species with the baits these pathogens can be separated from other organisms. Bait tests are simple and cost...

  5. Efficacy of Maxforce bait for control of the Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krushelnycky, Paul D.; Reimer, Neil J.

    1998-01-01

    In an effort to develop a chemical control strategy for the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), in Haleakala National Park, Maxforce, which is formulated with 0.9% hydramethylnon, was used in test plots to determine the efficacy of the ant bait in the field. Initially, Maxforce was tested at 2 application rates: broadcast at 2.25 kg/ha (2 lb/acre) and 4.5 kg/ha (4 lb/acre). Later, the following treatments were also tested: a Maxforce and honey granule mix, Maxforce with 0.5% hydramethylnon, Maxforce with a different solvent, Maxforce distributed in exposed piles, and Maxforce distributed in covered piles. Although there were significant differences in the magnitude of ant reduction among the various treatments, all yielded the same general result. Foraging ant numbers at monitoring bait stations declined an average maximum of 97.0% in the test plots, with no plots achieving 100% reduction. At 2 mo after treatment the mean number of foraging ants was reduced by 92.1%. Nest survival in the plots appeared to be affected to a lesser degree, but could not be monitored accurately over the longer term because of the phenomenon of nest movement. A 2nd identical application 1 mo after the initial application in plots treated with Maxforce at 2.25 and 4.5 kg/ha did not result in eradication. Bait molding, quick mortality, and toxicant breakdown from UV radiation created a short exposure time to the bait and toxicant, which may have been the main obstacle to achieving eradication.

  6. Large-scale structure of brown rat (Rattus norvegicus populations in England: effects on rodenticide resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Z.H. Haniza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The brown rat (Rattus norvegicus is a relatively recent (<300 years addition to the British fauna, but by association with negative impacts on public health, animal health and agriculture, it is regarded as one of the most important vertebrate pest species. Anticoagulant rodenticides were introduced for brown rat control in the 1950s and are widely used for rat control in the UK, but long-standing resistance has been linked to control failures in some regions. One thus far ignored aspect of resistance biology is the population structure of the brown rat. This paper investigates the role population structure has on the development of anticoagulant resistance. Using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA, we examined 186 individuals (from 15 counties in England and one location in Wales near the Wales–England border to investigate the population structure of rural brown rat populations. We also examined individual rats for variations of the VKORC1 gene previously associated with resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides. We show that the populations were structured to some degree, but that this was only apparent in the microsatellite data and not the mtDNA data. We discuss various reasons why this is the case. We show that the population as a whole appears not to be at equilibrium. The relative lack of diversity in the mtDNA sequences examined can be explained by founder effects and a subsequent spatial expansion of a species introduced to the UK relatively recently. We found there was a geographical distribution of resistance mutations, and relatively low rate of gene flow between populations, which has implications for the development and management of anticoagulant resistance.

  7. Grape Juice as a Bait for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsky, Nancy D; Gill, Micah A; Mangan, Robert L

    2015-08-01

    In field tests conducted in south Florida to test grape juice as a bait for the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa Loew, high numbers of Zaprionus indianus Gupta were captured in traps with aqueous grape juice. These experiments included comparisons of grape juice bait with established A. suspensa protein-based baits (ammonium acetate + putrescine lures, or torula yeast) or wine, a bait found previously to be attractive to Z. indianus. Effects of different preservatives (polypropylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, proxel, or sodium tetraborate) and bait age were also tested. Traps with grape juice baits captured more A. suspensa than unbaited traps, but more were captured in traps with grape juice plus preservative baits and the highest numbers were captured in traps containing the established protein-based baits. In contrast, grape juice baits without preservative that were prepared on the day of deployment (0 d) or that were aged for 3-4 d in the laboratory captured the highest numbers of Z. indianus, while solutions that were aged in the laboratory for 6 or 9 d captured fewer. Although these studies found that aqueous grape juice is a poor bait for A. suspensa, we found that actively fermenting aqueous grape juice may be an effective bait for Z. indianus. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Efficacy of commercial baits and new active ingredients against firebrats and silverfish (Zygentoma: Lepismatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Steven R; Appel, Arthur G

    2012-08-01

    Commercial baits containing boric acid, hydramethynon, and indoxacarb were tested against the firebrat, Thermobia domestica (Packard), and silverfish, Lepisma saccharina L. (both Zygentoma: Lepismatidae), under laboratory conditions. Three boric acid baits were consumed in significantly smaller amounts than untreated control food and did not effectively control either species. Baits containing hydramethylnon and indoxacarb were consumed in greater amounts than boric acid baits, but were relatively ineffective, with LT50 values >9 d. Presence or absence of competitive untreated food did not consistently affect bait efficacy. A ground oat matrix was used to evaluate the potential effectiveness of abamectin, chlorfenapyr, dinotefuran, fipronil, hydramethylnon, metaflumizone, and novaluron baits. The most effective compound was chlorfenapyr. At 0.05 and 0.20% (wt:wt) rates, chlorfenapyr baits produced LT50 values, for both species, ranging from 2 to 4 d. All other compounds had LT50 values >7 d.

  9. Bait effects in sampling coral reef fish assemblages with stereo-BRUVs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey R Dorman

    Full Text Available Baited underwater video techniques are increasingly being utilised for assessing and monitoring demersal fishes because they are: 1 non extractive, 2 can be used to sample across multiple habitats and depths, 3 are cost effective, 4 sample a broader range of species than many other techniques, 5 and with greater statistical power. However, an examination of the literature demonstrates that a range of different bait types are being used. The use of different types of bait can create an additional source of variability in sampling programs. Coral reef fish assemblages at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, were sampled using baited remote underwater stereo-video systems. One-hour stereo-video recordings were collected for four different bait treatments (pilchards, cat food, falafel mix and no bait (control from sites inside and outside a targeted fishery closure (TFC. In total, 5209 individuals from 132 fish species belonging to 41 families were recorded. There were significant differences in the fish assemblage structure and composition between baited and non-baited treatments (P<0.001, while no difference was observed with species richness. Samples baited with cat food and pilchards contained similar ingredients and were found to record similar components of the fish assemblage. There were no significant differences in the fish assemblages in areas open or closed to fishing, regardless of the bait used. Investigation of five targeted species indicated that the response to different types of bait was species-specific. For example, the relative abundance of Pagrus auratus was found to increase in areas protected from fishing, but only in samples baited with pilchards and cat food. The results indicate that the use of bait in conjunction with stereo-BRUVs is advantageous. On balance, the use of pilchards as a standardised bait for stereo-BRUVs deployments is justified for use along the mid-west coast of Western Australia.

  10. A baiting system for delivery of an oral plague vaccine to black-tailed prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creekmore, Terry E; Rocke, Tonie E; Hurley, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted between July and October 1999 to identify bait preference, biomarker efficacy, and bait acceptance rates for delivering an oral plague vaccine to black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Twenty juvenile captive prairie dogs were offered alfalfa baits containing either alfalfa, alfalfa and 5% molasses, or alfalfa, 5% molasses and 4% salt. Based on the results of these trials we selected a bait containing alfalfa, 7% molasses, and 1% salt for field trials to determine bait acceptance rates by free-ranging animals. The biomarkers DuPont Blue dye, iophenoxic acid, and tetracycline hydrochloride were orally administered to captive prairie dogs to determine their efficacy. Only tetracycline proved effective as a biomarker. Two field trials were conducted at separate prairie dog colonies located at the Buffalo Gap National Grassland (Pennington County, South Dakota, USA). In Trial 1, three baits containing tetracycline were distributed around each active burrow entrance and an additional bait was placed inside the burrow (1,276 baits total). In Trial 2, baits were distributed at the same density per burrow as Trial 1, but along transects spaced 10 m apart (1,744 baits total). Trapping began 3 days after bait distribution, and 30 prairie dogs then were captured at each site to determine the percentage of animals marked. In Trial 1, 67% of the prairie dogs captured had tetracycline deposits indicative of bait consumption. In Trial 2, 83% of the prairie dogs had ingested a bait. Approximately 15% of the animals in both trials ate more than one bait. Fleas (Opisocrostis hirsutus) were found on 64 of 70 (91%) of the prairie dogs captured during this study.

  11. Indoor application of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) in combination with mosquito nets for control of pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Zachary P; Oxborough, Richard M; Tungu, Patrick K; Kirby, Matthew J; Rowland, Mark W; Irish, Seth R

    2013-01-01

    Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) sprayed onto vegetation has been successful in controlling Anopheles mosquitoes outdoors. Indoor application of ATSB has yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ATSB stations positioned indoors have the potential to kill host-seeking mosquitoes and constitute a new approach to control of mosquito-borne diseases. Insecticides were mixed with dyed sugar solution and tested as toxic baits against Anopheles arabiensis, An. Gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus in feeding bioassay tests to identify suitable attractant-insecticide combinations. The most promising ATSB candidates were then trialed in experimental huts in Moshi, Tanzania. ATSB stations were hung in huts next to untreated mosquito nets occupied by human volunteers. The proportions of mosquitoes killed in huts with ATSB treatments relative to huts with non-insecticide control treatments huts were recorded, noting evidence of dye in mosquito abdomens. In feeding bioassays, chlorfenapyr 0.5% v/v, boric acid 2% w/v, and tolfenpyrad 1% v/v, mixed in a guava juice-based bait, each killed more than 90% of pyrethroid-susceptible An. Gambiae s.s. and pyrethroid-resistant An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus. In the hut trial, mortality rates of the three ATSB treatments ranged from 41-48% against An. arabiensis and 36-43% against Cx. quinquefasciatus and all were significantly greater than the control mortalities: 18% for An. arabiensis, 7% for Cx. quinquefasciatus (pmosquito nets for controlling mosquitoes. Indoor ATSB constitute a novel application method for insecticide classes that act as stomach poisons and have not hitherto been exploited for mosquito control. Combined with LLIN, indoor use of ATSB has the potential to serve as a strategy for managing insecticide resistance.

  12. Critique on the use of the standardized avian acute oral toxicity test for first generation anticoagulant rodenticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian risk assessments for rodenticides are often driven by the results of standardized acute oral toxicity tests without regards to a toxicant's mode of action and time course of adverse effects. First generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs) generally require multiple feedings over several days to achieve a threshold concentration in tissue and cause adverse effects. This exposure regimen is much different than that used in the standardized acute oral toxicity test methodology. Median lethal dose values derived from standardized acute oral toxicity tests underestimate the environmental hazard and risk of FGARs. Caution is warranted when FGAR toxicity, physiological effects, and pharmacokinetics derived from standardized acute oral toxicity testing are used for forensic confirmation of the cause of death in avian mortality incidents and when characterizing FGARs' risks to free-ranging birds.

  13. Population genetics, community of parasites, and resistance to rodenticides in an urban brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvars-Larrive, Amélie; Pascal, Michel; Gasqui, Patrick; Cosson, Jean-François; Benoît, Etienne; Lattard, Virginie; Crespin, Laurent; Lorvelec, Olivier; Pisanu, Benoît; Teynié, Alexandre; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah; Marianneau, Philippe; Lacôte, Sandra; Bourhy, Pascale; Berny, Philippe; Pavio, Nicole; Le Poder, Sophie; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Jourdain, Elsa; Hammed, Abdessalem; Fourel, Isabelle; Chikh, Farid; Vourc'h, Gwenaël

    2017-01-01

    Brown rats are one of the most widespread urban species worldwide. Despite the nuisances they induce and their potential role as a zoonotic reservoir, knowledge on urban rat populations remains scarce. The main purpose of this study was to characterize an urban brown rat population from Chanteraines park (Hauts-de-Seine, France), with regards to haematology, population genetics, immunogenic diversity, resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides, and community of parasites. Haematological parameters were measured. Population genetics was investigated using 13 unlinked microsatellite loci. Immunogenic diversity was assessed for Mhc-Drb. Frequency of the Y139F mutation (conferring resistance to rodenticides) and two linked microsatellites were studied, concurrently with the presence of anticoagulant residues in the liver. Combination of microscopy and molecular methods were used to investigate the occurrence of 25 parasites. Statistical approaches were used to explore multiple parasite relationships and model parasite occurrence. Eighty-six rats were caught. The first haematological data for a wild urban R. norvegicus population was reported. Genetic results suggested high genetic diversity and connectivity between Chanteraines rats and surrounding population(s). We found a high prevalence (55.8%) of the mutation Y139F and presence of rodenticide residues in 47.7% of the sampled individuals. The parasite species richness was high (16). Seven potential zoonotic pathogens were identified, together with a surprisingly high diversity of Leptospira species (4). Chanteraines rat population is not closed, allowing gene flow and making eradication programs challenging, particularly because rodenticide resistance is highly prevalent. Parasitological results showed that co-infection is more a rule than an exception. Furthermore, the presence of several potential zoonotic pathogens, of which four Leptospira species, in this urban rat population raised its role in the maintenance

  14. Bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT initially misdiagnosed as acute iridocyclitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Gonul

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT is a relatively new clinical entity characterized by bilateral acute loss of iris pigment epithelium, iris transillumination, pigment dispersion in the anterior chamber, and sphincter paralysis. We report the case of a 30-year-old male who was initially diagnosed with acute iridocyclitis in a different clinic and treated with topical and systemic corticosteroids. He was referred to our clinic to seek another opinion because his symptoms did not improve. An ocular examination revealed bilateral pigment dispersion into the anterior chamber, diffuse iris transillumination, pigment dusting on the anterior lens capsule, atonic and distorted pupils, and increased intraocular pressure, suggesting a diagnosis of BAIT rather than iridocyclitis. Clinicians should be aware of the differential diagnosis of syndromes associated with pigment dispersion from iridocyclitis to avoid aggressive anti-inflammatory therapy and detailed investigation for uveitis.

  15. Bear-baiting may exacerbate wolf-hunting dog conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bump, Joseph K; Murawski, Chelsea M; Kartano, Linda M; Beyer, Dean E; Roell, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding). The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12-7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to) reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship among baiting practices, the effect of compensation on hunter behavior, and depredation

  16. Bear-baiting may exacerbate wolf-hunting dog conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K Bump

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding. The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12-7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship

  17. Susceptibility of Adult Mosquitoes to Insecticides in Aqueous Sucrose Baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    of the lack of ingestion as a result of repellency due to high survival of water-deprived control mosquitoes at 24 hr and the abundance of abdomens...Vol. 36, no. 1 Journal of Vector Ecology 59 Susceptibility of adult mosquitoes to insecticides in aqueous sucrose baits Sandra A. Allan Center for...2010 ABSTRACT: Mosquitoes characteristically feed on plant-derived carbohydrates and honeydew just after emergence and intermittently during their

  18. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC FISHMEAL POLYMER BAITS FOR THE CONTROL OF BAYLISASCARIS PROCYONIS IN FREE-RANGING RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyser, Timothy J; Johnson, Shylo R; Stallard, Melissa D; McGrew, Ashley K; Page, L Kristen; Crider, Nikki; Ballweber, Lora R; Swihart, Robert K; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-07-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of raccoons (Procyon lotor) and is a zoonotic helminth with the potential to cause severe or fatal infection. Raccoons thrive in human-dominated landscapes, and the fecal-oral transmission pathway and lack of effective treatment make B. procyonis a serious threat to public health. The distribution of medicinal baits has emerged as a socially acceptable and cost-effective method for managing disease in free-ranging wildlife. We assessed the suitability of a mass-producible anthelmintic bait for B. procyonis mitigation by evaluating the willingness of free-ranging raccoons to consume anthelmintic baits and determining whether bait consumption successfully cleared B. procyonis infections from raccoons. Anthelmintic baits were modified from standard fishmeal polymer baits, the food attractant commonly used in oral rabies vaccine baits, with the introduction of 220 mg of pyrantel pamoate into the fishmeal mixture. We captured 16 naturally infected raccoons, presented one anthelmintic bait, and monitored B. procyonis infection over 90 d by screening feces for eggs. Treatment cleared B. procyonis infections for nine of 12 raccoons that consumed >10 g of the 15 g bait. We used remote cameras to monitor in situ patterns of bait consumption for anthelmintic baits relative to standard baits. Both anthelmintic and standard baits were rapidly consumed, with no differences in the rate of consumption between bait types. However, after bait contact, raccoons demonstrated a greater willingness to consume standard baits while ignoring anthelmintic baits more frequently (P = 0.06). Initial trials of anthelmintic baits show promise, although refinement in both dose and palatability is needed. At mass production scales, the addition of pyrantel pamoate to fishmeal polymer baits would be inexpensive, potentially making anthelmintic baits a viable management option when coupled with an oral rabies vaccine or used independently

  19. Unidirectional Cross-Resistance in German Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae) Populations Under Exposure to Insecticidal Baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dangsheng; McGill, Jade; Pietri, Jose E

    2017-08-01

    Insect pests, including the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), are prone to the development of physiological resistance when exposed to a number of insecticide sprays, and cross-resistance is frequently observed. Toxic baits are often used as a primary method of controlling German cockroaches, also resulting in heavy selection pressure from insecticidal baits. In response to this pressure, cockroach populations have developed aversion to specific inert ingredients in bait. Here, we examined the effect of exposure to baits containing fipronil, indoxacarb, or hydramethylnon on the development of physiological resistance to the same and other insecticides in a number of German cockroach strains. We found that prolonged exposure to baits containing fipronil or indoxacarb increased physiological resistance to these compounds. However, no increase in physiological resistance against any insecticide was observed in response to exposure to hydramethylnon bait. Additionally, we found that exposure to fipronil bait increased cross-resistance to indoxacarb. On the other hand, exposure to indoxacarb bait did not increase cross-resistance to fipronil. Neither fipronil nor indoxacarb bait exposure increased resistance to hydramethylnon. Interestingly, the development of insecticide resistance in response to bait exposure was strain-dependent and influenced by bait palatability. Our results demonstrate that exposure to toxic baits, particularly those containing fipronil, plays a significant role in the development of insecticide resistance, including cross-resistance, in German cockroaches. Further, although insecticide resistance in response to baits is mediated by exposure through the oral route, the molecular mechanisms at play are likely different for each insecticide. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Development of an automated dispenser for the delivery of medicinal or vaccine-laden baits to raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyser, Timothy J; Redding, James V; Bevis, Crystal M; Page, L Kristen; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-04-01

    Medicinal baits are distributed to manage zoonotic diseases, including raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies, but efficient distribution strategies are needed for suburban environments. We developed an automated dispenser that transfers fishmeal polymer baits at user-specified intervals from a magazine to a receptacle fitted with a filter that exploits raccoon dexterity to limit consumption by nontarget species. We introduce the concept of automated dispensers and describe bait removal success rates for raccoons versus nontarget species. We monitored visitation with remote cameras after deploying a dispenser, programmed to present two baits per night, in three disjunct forest patches in northwest Indiana. Raccoons removed 72% of baits; nontarget, white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) removed 11%; Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) removed 9%. Bait removal success varied significantly between raccoons (76%) and opossums (21%), improving bait delivery specificity relative to hand baiting. Accumulation of baits in receptacles resulted in excess (more than one) bait consumption (39% of baits consumed by raccoons were excess), suggesting design improvements are needed to present additional baits only after previous baits have been consumed. Automated dispensers successfully sustained bait availability throughout the operational period. Subsequent research is needed to determine whether a sustained availability of baits achieved with automated dispensers is more effective for the treatment of raccoons in suburban environments than traditional distribution methods.

  1. Assessing anti-rabies baiting – what happens on the ground?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyszomirski Tomasz

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabies is one of the most hazardous zoonoses in the world. Oral mass vaccination has developed into the most effective management method to control fox rabies. The future need to control the disease in large countries (i.e. Eastern Europe and the Americas forces cost-benefit discussions. The 'Increase bait density' option refers to the usual management assumption that more baits per km2 could compensate for high fox abundance and override the imperfect supply of bait pieces to the individual fox. Methods We use a spatial simulation, which combines explicitly fox space use (tessellation polygons and aeroplane flight lines (straight lines. The number of baits actually falling into each polygon is measured. The manager's strategic options are converted into changes of the resulting bait distribution on the ground. The comparison enables the rating of the options with respect to the management aim (i.e. accessibility of baits. Results Above 5% (approx. 10% of all fox groups without any bait (at most 5 baits relate to the baiting strategy applied in the field (1 km spaced parallel flight lines, 20 baits per km2 distributed under habitat conditions comparable to middle and western Europe (fox group home-range 1 km2, 2.5 adults; reference strategy. Increasing the bait density on the same flight-line pattern neither reduces the number of under-baited fox group home-ranges, nor improves the management outcome and hence wastes resources. However, reducing the flight line distance provides a more even bait distribution and thus compensates for missed fox groups or extra high fox density. The reference strategy's bait density can be reduced when accounting for the missed fox groups. The management result with the proper strategy is likely the same but with reduced costs. Conclusion There is no overall optimal strategy for the bait distribution in large areas. For major parts of the landscape, the reference strategy will be more

  2. Influence of oral rabies vaccine bait density on rabies seroprevalence in wild raccoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Andrew C; Krogwold, Roger A; Wittum, Thomas E; Rupprecht, Charles E; Algeo, Timothy P; Slate, Dennis; Smith, Kathleen A; Hale, Robert L; Nohrenberg, Gary A; Lovell, Charles D; Niezgoda, Mike; Montoney, Andrew J; Slemons, Richard D

    2009-11-27

    The effect of different oral rabies vaccine (ORV) bait densities (75, 150, and 300 baits/km(2)) on the seroprevalence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNAs) in raccoons (Procyon lotor) was assessed at a 15% seroprevalence difference threshold in rural areas of northeast Ohio. Results (n=588 raccoons) indicated that seropositivity for RVNAs was associated with both bait density and bait campaign frequency. Associations were not detected for raccoon gender, age, or macro-habitat. The odds of being seropositive were greater for raccoons originating from 300 bait/km(2) treatment areas relative to those coming from the 75 bait/km(2) areas (odds ratio [OR]=4.4, probability [P]raccoons between sequential, semi-annual campaigns, yet cumulative ORV campaigns were associated with gradual increases in seroprevalence.

  3. Scavenging of rodent carcasses following simulated mortality due to field applications of anticoagulant rodenticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaz, Julie; Jacquot, Marion; Coeurdassier, Michaël

    2014-11-01

    Worldwide, agricultural uses of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) cause poisonings of non-target wildlife as observed in France where bromadiolone is used to control water vole outbreaks. Following bromadiolone field application, a part of the vole population may die aboveground of the treated plots and thus, can represent an important risk of secondary poisoning for scavengers. In this study, water voles were trapped in a non-treated area and their carcasses were placed aboveground in plots located in an area where a vole outbreak occurred. Then, the environmental persistence, the diurnal and nocturnal scavenging rates of water vole carcasses were assessed in autumn 2011 and in spring 2012. The diurnal scavenger species were also identified. The environmental persistence of the carcasses to reach at least a scavenging rate of 87.5 % was 0.5-1.5 day. The average rates of diurnal and nocturnal scavenging ranged from 67 to 100 % and 5 to 100 %, respectively. They depended on the composition of the scavenger community present near the monitored plots; diurnal scavenging rates being higher with corvids than with raptors. In autumn, the red kite and the common buzzard were the main scavengers in one of the plots, what suggests a high risk of poisoning for these raptors during post-nuptial migration. So, the collection of vole carcasses after treatments and the limitations of bromadiolone applications when high densities of predators/scavengers are observed could be implemented to mitigate the risks of secondary poisoning.

  4. Characterizing Golden Eagle risk to lead and anticoagulant rodenticide exposure: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Buck, Jeremy A.

    2017-01-01

    Contaminant exposure is among the many threats to Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) populations throughout North America, particularly lead poisoning and anticoagulant rodenticides (AR). These threats may act in concert with others (e.g., lead poisoning and trauma associated with striking objects) to exacerbate risk. Golden Eagles are skilled hunters but also exploit scavenging opportunities, making them particularly susceptible to contaminant exposure from ingesting tissues of poisoned or shot animals. Lead poisoning has long been recognized as an important source of mortality for Golden Eagles throughout North America. More recently, ARs have been associated with both sublethal and lethal effects in raptor species worldwide. In this review, we examine the current state of knowledge for lead and AR exposure in Golden Eagles, drawing from the broader raptor contaminant ecology literature. We examine lead and AR sources within Golden Eagle habitats, exposure routes and toxicity, effects on individuals and populations, synergistic effects, and data and information needs. Continued research addressing data needs and information gaps will help with Golden Eagle conservation planning.

  5. The occurrence of second generation anticoagulant rodenticides in non-target raptor species in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Katherine H; Reid, Malcolm; Thomas, Kevin V

    2013-04-15

    Second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) are commonly used for rodent pest control in Norway resulting in the potential exposure of non-target raptor species. In this study the occurrence of flocoumafen, difethialone, difenacoum, bromadiolone and brodifacoum was determined in the livers of five species of raptors found dead in Norway between 2009 and 2011. The SGARs brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum and flocoumafen were detected in golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) and eagle owl (Bubo bubo) livers at a total SGAR concentration of between 11 and 255 ng/g in approximately 70% of the golden eagles and 50% of the eagle owls examined in this study. In the absence of specific golden eagle and eagle owl toxicity thresholds for SGARs, a level of >100 ng/g was used as a potential lethal range, accepting that poisoning may occur below this level. Thirty percent (7/24) of the golden eagle and eagle owl livers contained total SGAR residue levels above this threshold. Further estimation of the potential mortality impact on the sampled raptor populations was not possible.

  6. Duration of Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits Toxicity against Blattella germanica Strains of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the duration of fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits toxicity against Ger-man cockroach strains in Iran during 2003-2004. In order to conduct this study, nine German cockroach strains were used. Newly emerged adult male German cockroaches starved for one scotophase (12 h, and ingested fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits for 2 h. After the given time was over, the bait was removed and replaced with mouse pellet. Mortality was re-corded at 12 intervals for 144 h (6 days. Mortality data of the replicates were pooled and was tested using probit analysis. Both gel baits were toxic to adult male German cockroaches. In the ingested bait method, the susceptible strain showed LT50 of 47.1 and 11.3 h for fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, respectively, and the average LT90 was 74.2 and 19.3 h, respec¬tively. LT50 of the feral German cockroach strains varied 14.9 h from 30.5 to 45.4 h and 4.4 h from 12.4 to 16.8 h for fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, respectively. All German cockroach strains showed a similar susceptibility to fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, compared with the susceptible laboratory strain. The steep slopes of ingested bait mortality curves indicated that the feral German cockroach strains were homogenous to fipronil and imidacloprid ingested gel baits. These results suggest that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits appear to have considerable potential as a bait for insecticide-resistant strains of German cockroach.

  7. Duration of Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits Toxicity against Blattella germanica Strains of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the duration of fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits toxicity against Ger-man cockroach strains in Iran during 2003-2004. In order to conduct this study, nine German cockroach strains were used. Newly emerged adult male German cockroaches starved for one scotophase (12 h, and ingested fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits for 2 h. After the given time was over, the bait was removed and replaced with mouse pellet. Mortality was re-corded at 12 intervals for 144 h (6 days. Mortality data of the replicates were pooled and was tested using probit analysis. Both gel baits were toxic to adult male German cockroaches. In the ingested bait method, the susceptible strain showed LT50 of 47.1 and 11.3 h for fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, respectively, and the average LT90 was 74.2 and 19.3 h, respec¬tively. LT50 of the feral German cockroach strains varied 14.9 h from 30.5 to 45.4 h and 4.4 h from 12.4 to 16.8 h for fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, respectively. All German cockroach strains showed a similar susceptibility to fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, compared with the susceptible laboratory strain. The steep slopes of ingested bait mortality curves indicated that the feral German cockroach strains were homogenous to fipronil and imidacloprid ingested gel baits. These results suggest that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits appear to have considerable potential as a bait for insecticide-resistant strains of German cockroach.

  8. BaitFisher: A Software Package for Multispecies Target DNA Enrichment Probe Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Christoph; Sann, Manuela; Donath, Alexander; Meixner, Martin; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Peters, Ralph S; Petersen, Malte; Meusemann, Karen; Liere, Karsten; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang; Misof, Bernhard; Bleidorn, Christoph; Ohl, Michael; Niehuis, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Target DNA enrichment combined with high-throughput sequencing technologies is a powerful approach to probing a large number of loci in genomes of interest. However, software algorithms that explicitly consider nucleotide sequence information of target loci in multiple reference species for optimizing design of target enrichment baits to be applicable across a wide range of species have not been developed. Here we present an algorithm that infers target DNA enrichment baits from multiple nucleotide sequence alignments. By applying clustering methods and the combinatorial 1-center sequence optimization to bait design, we are able to minimize the total number of baits required to efficiently probe target loci in multiple species. Consequently, more loci can be probed across species with a given number of baits. Using transcript sequences of 24 apoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae, Sphecidae) from the 1KITE project and the gene models of Nasonia vitripennis, we inferred 57,650, 120-bp-long baits for capturing 378 coding sequence sections of 282 genes in apoid wasps. Illumina reduced-representation library sequencing confirmed successful enrichment of the target DNA when applying these baits to DNA of various apoid wasps. The designed baits furthermore enriched a major fraction of the target DNA in distantly related Hymenoptera, such as Formicidae and Chalcidoidea, highlighting the baits' broad taxonomic applicability. The availability of baits with broad taxonomic applicability is of major interest in numerous disciplines, ranging from phylogenetics to biodiversity monitoring. We implemented our new approach in a software package, called BaitFisher, which is open source and freely available at https://github.com/cmayer/BaitFisher-package.git. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Effects of contaminants on bait acceptance by Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Eric P; Zungoli, Patricia A; Riley, Melissa B

    2003-02-01

    Three commonly used fire ant baits, Amdro (0.73% hydramethylnon [AI]), Ascend (0.011% abamectins [AI]), and Maxforce (1.0% hydramethylnon [AI]), were exposed to potential, volatile contaminants. The contaminants included the insecticides Orthene Fire Ant Killer (75.0% acephate [AI] ), Cyren (44.6% chlorpyrifos [AI]), and Tempo 2 (24.3% cyfluthrin [AI]); cigarette smoke; gasoline (unleaded, 89 octane); and fertilizer (10-10-10). Fire ant baits previously exposed for 48 h to these contaminants were analyzed using gas chromatography analysis. Orthene Fire Ant Killer, Cyren, Tempo 2, cigarette smoke, and gasoline had volatile components transferred to the baits. Baits exposed to these products were used in a field evaluation of bait acceptance by Solenopisis invicta Buren, the red imported fire ant. Uncontaminated Amdro was significantly preferred by S. invicta over Amdro contaminated by smoke, Cyren, Tempo 2, and gasoline. Uncontaminated Maxforce was significantly preferred over Maxforce contaminated by Tempo 2, Cyren, and gasoline, and uncontaminated Ascend was preferred over Tempo 2- and Cyren-contaminated Ascend. Orthene-exposed Amdro, Maxforce, and Ascend baits, and smoke-exposed Maxforce and Ascend baits were not significantly different from the control. These results indicate that volatile insecticides and products can contaminate fire ant baits. Some insecticides and products, such as gasoline, can significantly affect bait palatability and may adversely impact control.

  10. Bait preference by the Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Haleakala National Park, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krushelnycky, Paul D.; Reimer, Neil J.

    1998-01-01

    The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has proven to be a threat to native arthropod species in Haleakala National Park, Maui, HI, and is also a potential threat to the park's native flora. As it continues to expand its range, an effort has been undertaken to eradicate it, or at the least, control its spread. The 1st part of this effort focused on finding a bait carrier for subsequent toxicant-based control tests. A year-long bait preference test was implemented at each of the ant's 2 infestation sites in Haleakala National Park, in which 6 solid baits and 2 liquid baits were assessed for attractiveness and feasibility for large scale control. At both sites, a toxicant-free formulation of Maxforce, a protein-based granular bait made from ground silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.), pupae, and a 25% sugar water solution were the most attractive baits. Ants took more Maxforce (without toxicant) and sugar water than all other baits, including honey granules and a fish protein bait. Sugar water, however, is difficult to distribute over large natural areas. Maxforce was therefore concluded to be the best bait carrier for toxicant-based control at Haleakala National Park because of its attractiveness and its ease for large scale broadcast dispersal.

  11. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Buckmaster

    Full Text Available Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus. These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  12. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Tony; Dickman, Christopher R; Johnston, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV) that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  13. Bird-repellent effects on bait efficacy for control of invasive mammal pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Phil; Brown, Sam; Forrester, Guy; Booth, Lynn; Crowell, Michelle

    2015-08-01

    Repellents to reduce crop damage from birds and mammals have been investigated extensively, but their efficacy in reducing risk to non-target birds in aerial poisoning operations for control of mammal pests is less known. We assessed the impact on bait acceptability, palatability and kill efficacy for captive wild rats (Rattus rattus L.) and possums (Trichosurus vulpecula Kerr) of adding bird repellents (anthraquinone and d-pulegone) to baits used for their control in food choice trials. For possums, anthraquinone at 0.25% reduced acceptability and palatability but not the efficacy of poison baits, whereas d-pulegone at 0.17% had no significant effects. Rats showed little response to d-pulegone, but developed a marked aversion to prefeed baits containing anthraquinone at both 0.1 and 0.25%, such that almost no exposed rats ate poison baits and mortality was reduced significantly. The aversion induced by anthraquinone was generalised to the bait, as anthraquinone-exposed rats did not eat bait with only d-pulegone. Anthraquinone is not suitable for inclusion in bait for rat control at the concentrations tested, and also presents some risk to efficacy for possum control. D-pulegone would be suitable for inclusion in bait for possums and rats, but problems related to its volatility in bait manufacture and storage would need to be overcome. Further studies should focus on an alternative secondary repellent, or on establishing the maximum anthraquinone concentration that does not reduce efficacy for rats and testing whether or not that concentration is sufficient to repel native birds from baits reliably. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. A population model of the impact of a rodenticide containing strychnine on Great Basin Gophersnakes (Pituophis catenifer deserticola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Christine A; Williams, Kathleen E; Kirk, David A; Nantel, Patrick; Reed, Eric; Elliott, John E

    2016-09-01

    Strychnine is a neurotoxin and an active ingredient in some rodenticides which are placed in burrows to suppress pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) populations in range and crop land in western North America. The population level impact was modelled of the use of strychnine-based rodenticides on a non-target snake species, the Great Basin Gophersnake (Pituophis catenifer deserticola), which is a predator of pocket gopher and a Species at Risk in Canada. Using information on population density, demographics, and movement and habitat suitability for the Gophersnake living in an agricultural valley in BC, Canada, we estimated the impact of the poisoning of adult snakes on the long-term population size. To determine the area where Gophersnakes could be exposed to strychnine, we used vendor records of a rodenticide, and quantified the landcover areas of orchards and vineyards where the compound was most commonly applied. GIS analysis determined the areas of overlap between those agricultural lands and suitable habitats used by Gophersnakes. Stage-based population matrix models revealed that in a low density (0.1/ha) population scenario, a diet of one pocket gopher per year wherein 10 % of them carried enough strychnine to kill an adult snake could cause the loss of 2 females annually from the population and this would reduce the population by 35.3 % in 25 years. Under the same dietary exposure, up to 35 females could die per year in a high density (0.4/ha) population which would result in a loss of 50 % of adults in 25 years.

  15. A multi-species bait for Chagas disease vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Mota

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Triatomine bugs are the insect vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. These insects are known to aggregate inside shelters during daylight hours and it has been demonstrated that within shelters, the aggregation is induced by volatiles emitted from bug feces. These signals promote inter-species aggregation among most species studied, but the chemical composition is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present work, feces from larvae of the three species were obtained and volatile compounds were identified by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS. We identified five compounds, all present in feces of all of the three species: Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus and Triatoma brasiliensis. These substances were tested for attractivity and ability to recruit insects into shelters. Behaviorally active doses of the five substances were obtained for all three triatomine species. The bugs were significantly attracted to shelters baited with blends of 160 ng or 1.6 µg of each substance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Common compounds were found in the feces of vectors of Chagas disease that actively recruited insects into shelters, which suggests that this blend of compounds could be used for the development of baits for early detection of reinfestation with triatomine bugs.

  16. Bait Formulations of Chlorophyllin against Infected/Uninfected Lymnaea acuminata in Red and Sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of snail population is an important tool in fasciolosis control programme. In order to achive this objective the method of bait formulation containing an attractant and a molluscicide is an appropriate approach to ensure the death of host snail. Chlorophyllin bait pellets were prepared by addition of attractants starch (10 mM/serine (20 mM and Chlorophyllin 2% agar solution. These baits were used against host snail Lymnaea acuminata. The behavioral response of snail against attractant (starch/serine and chlorophyllin was examined in red and sunlight. The fraction of snail that was in contact with chlorophyllin bait in zone-3 was used as measure of attraction process. Infected snails were more attracted with red light+starch (57.7%. Uninfected snails were more attracted by red light+serine (58.0%. The molluscicidal activity of chlorophyllin against infected snails in red light (96h LC50-1.88% chlorophyllin in bait and sunlight (96h LC50-2.40% chlorophyllin in bait was more pronounced than uninfected snail in red light (96h LC50-1.76% Chlorophyllin in bait and sunlight (96h LC50-3.62% chlorophyllin in bait.

  17. Aqueous Grape Juice Bait for Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field tests were conducted in Miami, Florida to evaluate attraction of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), and Zaprionus indianus Gupta, to traps baited with aqueous grape juice solution (10%) with and without preservative. Microbial activity, which occurred in baits without preservative that were aged in t...

  18. Laboratory evaluation of insecticide-treated sugar baits for control of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascari, T M; Foil, L D

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of boric acid, imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin incorporated into sugar baits as oral toxicants for adult phlebotomine sand flies. Variable toxicity of insecticide-sugar bait solutions to adult male and female sand flies was demonstrated, based on male female median lethal concentration values of 0.10-0.08, 6.13-9.53, and 9.03-18.11 mg/liter of imidacloprid, ivermectin, and abamectin, respectively. Complete control of sand flies could not be achieved with as high as 40 g/liter of boric acid in sugar bait solution; concentrations >40 g/liter were found repellent to the sand flies. Uranine O (a fluorescent tracer dye that can be used to measure the ingestion of sugar baits by sand flies) did not interact negatively with imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin when it was combined with the insecticides in a sugar bait. Also, incorporation of imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin into sugar baits did not reduce the effect whether adult male and female sand flies fed on these sugar baits. We propose that imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin could be used to control adult sand fly populations with targeted use of insecticide-treated sugar baits.

  19. Development of a Pheromone-Assisted Baiting Technique for Argentine Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, Kevin F; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-24

    Current control measures for Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr), in urban settings typically include perimeter applications of insecticides around structures, resulting in potential problems with insecticide runoff and environmental contamination. Insecticidal baits can be an effective alternative to perimeter spray applications and are largely considered target-specific with minimal nontarget impact and environmental contamination. We report a "pheromone-assisted baiting technique" as an economically viable approach to maximize the efficacy of conventional baits targeting Argentine ants. Laboratory experiments with a commercially available gel bait indicated that foraging activity and final mortality of Argentine ants were significantly improved by incorporating (Z)-9-hexadecenal in the bait. The field study demonstrated that the pheromone-treated gel bait achieved a 74% reduction in Argentine ant activity by the end of 4 wk when it was compared with its own pretreatment value. This was a significant improvement over the untreated gel bait that provided a 42% reduction over the same period of time. The pheromone-assisted baiting technique has the potential in providing effective ant control with reduced amount of insecticides applied in the environment. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Trapping mosquitoes using milk products as odour baits in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owino Eunice A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ample evidence has shown that blood seeking mosquitoes locate their hosts by following odours produced by the hosts. Odour baited traps would therefore, provide a solution in controlling diseases spread by mosquitoes. Comparative studies were undertaken to determine the relative efficacies of two odour baits i.e. Limburger cheese and African traditional milk cream in trapping mosquitoes in the field in western Kenya. Method Comparative efficacy studies were carried out in the field using Latin square experimental designs. In the first study, a counterflow geometry (CFG trap (MM-x model; American Biophysics Corp., USA. baited with Limburger cheese, man landing catches (MLC, Centres for Disease Control (CDC light trap and an entry trap were compared. In the second study, three CFG traps baited with either Limburger cheese, African traditional milk cream or with no bait were compared and in the third study four CDC traps baited with either Limburger cheese, African traditional milk cream, light or with no bait were compared. Parameters like species, catch size, abdominal status, parity status and size of the collected mosquitoes were compared. Results A total of 1,806 mosquitoes were collected (60% An. gambiae s.l and 25% An.funestus, culicines 15%. There was no significant difference in the number of An. funestus trapped by the CFG trap baited with Limburger cheese from those trapped by the MLC (P = 0.351. The Limburger cheese baited CFG trap collected significantly more gravid An. funestus than the MLC (P = 0.022. Furthermore, when the CFG trap baited with Limburger cheese and the CFG trap baited with milk cream were compared, there was no significant difference in the number of An. funestus collected (P = 0.573. The same trend was observed in the comparison of Limburger cheese baited CDC trap and milk cream baited CDC trap. Conclusions Limburger cheese and African traditional milk cream have a potential as effective odour

  1. Effects of bait age and prior protein feeding on cumulative time-dependent mortality of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to GF-120 spinosad baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L

    2009-06-01

    A fruit fly bait to attract and kill adult fruit flies, GF-120, was tested in cages to determine effects of pretreatment diet and bait aging before use on cumulative mortality rates of Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Protein-starved and protein-fed, 9-d-old flies both experienced varying overall cumulative mortality at 4, 8, 24, and 48 h. Pretreatment diet had no significant effect on mortality. Overall mortality rates were below 10% for 4 h, 39-43% at 8 h, but mortality in all treatments increased to 89-93% by 24 h, and 99% by 48 h. In a second experiment, GF-120 baits were either freshly prepared or aged for 24 h. Subtreatments consisted of protein-fed and protein-starved flies. The 24-h-aged bait killed significantly more flies at 4 and 8 h than the freshly prepared bait. Protein-starved flies had significantly higher mortality at 4 h and marginally higher mortality at 8 h than protein-fed flies. At 24 and 48 h, there were no significant differences among treatments, and overall morality rose to 99-100% by 48 h. These results may explain differences noted in previous publications in which fruit fly mortality to GF-120 was reported as unusually low as well as reports of bait ineffectiveness for protein-fed flies. The overall impact of any initial repellency of GF-120 seems negligible as judged by overall cumulative mortality at later evaluation times.

  2. Polyacrylamide hydrogels: an effective tool for delivering liquid baits to pest ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Roper, Elray; Chin, Darren

    2014-04-01

    Ant management in urban and natural areas often relies on toxic baits. Liquid baits are highly attractive to pest ants because they mimic natural food sources such as honeydew and nectar, the principal dietary components of many ants. However, liquid bait use has been limited owing to the lack of bait dispensers that are effective, inexpensive, and easy to service. The current study evaluated the potential of water-storing crystals (polyacrylamide spheres) to effectively deliver liquid thiamethoxam baits to laboratory colonies of Argentine ants, Linepithema humile Mayr. Results of laboratory trials show that bait crystals saturated in 25% sucrose solution containing 0.007% thiamethoxam are highly attractive to Argentine ants and highly effective against all castes and life stages, including workers, queens, and brood. Fresh bait crystals were highly effective and required approximately 2 d to kill all workers and approximately 6 d to achieve complete mortality in queens and brood. Results of bait aging tests show that the crystals lose approximately 70% of moisture in 8 h and the duration of outdoor exposure has a significant effect on moisture loss and subsequently bait acceptance and bait efficacy. A gradual decrease in mortality was observed for all castes and life stages as bait age increased. In general, fresh baits and those aged for ants that obtain thiamethoxam by feeding on bait crystals effectively transfer it to untreated recipient ants. The level of secondary mortality depended on the donor:recipient ratio, with approximately 40% recipient worker mortality with the 1:5 ratio and 15% recipient worker mortality with 1:10 or 1:20 ratios. However, no queens died in any transfer tests, suggesting that multiple feedings from multiple donors may be necessary to produce queen mortality. The results of the transfer tests demonstrate the role of trophallaxis in the distribution of thiamethoxam and confirm that thiamethoxam is effectively transferred in Argentine

  3. Indoor Application of Attractive Toxic Sugar Bait (ATSB) in Combination with Mosquito Nets for Control of Pyrethroid-Resistant Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Zachary P.; Oxborough, Richard M.; Tungu, Patrick K.; Kirby, Matthew J.; Rowland, Mark W.; Irish, Seth R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) sprayed onto vegetation has been successful in controlling Anopheles mosquitoes outdoors. Indoor application of ATSB has yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ATSB stations positioned indoors have the potential to kill host-seeking mosquitoes and constitute a new approach to control of mosquito-borne diseases. Methods Insecticides were mixed with dyed sugar solution and tested as toxic baits against Anopheles arabiensis, An. Gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus in feeding bioassay tests to identify suitable attractant-insecticide combinations. The most promising ATSB candidates were then trialed in experimental huts in Moshi, Tanzania. ATSB stations were hung in huts next to untreated mosquito nets occupied by human volunteers. The proportions of mosquitoes killed in huts with ATSB treatments relative to huts with non-insecticide control treatments huts were recorded, noting evidence of dye in mosquito abdomens. Results In feeding bioassays, chlorfenapyr 0.5% v/v, boric acid 2% w/v, and tolfenpyrad 1% v/v, mixed in a guava juice-based bait, each killed more than 90% of pyrethroid-susceptible An. Gambiae s.s. and pyrethroid-resistant An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus. In the hut trial, mortality rates of the three ATSB treatments ranged from 41-48% against An. arabiensis and 36-43% against Cx. quinquefasciatus and all were significantly greater than the control mortalities: 18% for An. arabiensis, 7% for Cx. quinquefasciatus (p<0.05). Mortality rates with ATSB were comparable to those with long lasting insecticidal nets previously tested against the same species in this area. Conclusions Indoor ATSB shows promise as a supplement to mosquito nets for controlling mosquitoes. Indoor ATSB constitute a novel application method for insecticide classes that act as stomach poisons and have not hitherto been exploited for mosquito control. Combined with LLIN, indoor use of ATSB has the

  4. Indoor application of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB in combination with mosquito nets for control of pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary P Stewart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB sprayed onto vegetation has been successful in controlling Anopheles mosquitoes outdoors. Indoor application of ATSB has yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ATSB stations positioned indoors have the potential to kill host-seeking mosquitoes and constitute a new approach to control of mosquito-borne diseases. METHODS: Insecticides were mixed with dyed sugar solution and tested as toxic baits against Anopheles arabiensis, An. Gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus in feeding bioassay tests to identify suitable attractant-insecticide combinations. The most promising ATSB candidates were then trialed in experimental huts in Moshi, Tanzania. ATSB stations were hung in huts next to untreated mosquito nets occupied by human volunteers. The proportions of mosquitoes killed in huts with ATSB treatments relative to huts with non-insecticide control treatments huts were recorded, noting evidence of dye in mosquito abdomens. RESULTS: In feeding bioassays, chlorfenapyr 0.5% v/v, boric acid 2% w/v, and tolfenpyrad 1% v/v, mixed in a guava juice-based bait, each killed more than 90% of pyrethroid-susceptible An. Gambiae s.s. and pyrethroid-resistant An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus. In the hut trial, mortality rates of the three ATSB treatments ranged from 41-48% against An. arabiensis and 36-43% against Cx. quinquefasciatus and all were significantly greater than the control mortalities: 18% for An. arabiensis, 7% for Cx. quinquefasciatus (p<0.05. Mortality rates with ATSB were comparable to those with long lasting insecticidal nets previously tested against the same species in this area. CONCLUSIONS: Indoor ATSB shows promise as a supplement to mosquito nets for controlling mosquitoes. Indoor ATSB constitute a novel application method for insecticide classes that act as stomach poisons and have not hitherto been exploited for mosquito control. Combined with LLIN, indoor

  5. Trials with portable screen rooms modified for use as animal-baited net traps for mosquito collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, D P; Darsie, R F; Story, R

    1985-06-01

    Trials in Larimer County, Colorado during July and August 1984, with recreational screen rooms modified as large animal-baited mosquito traps are described. The two units tested are free-standing, portable and require no external support. In all-night trials, 462.5 mosquitoes/trap night were captured with horse bait compared with 367/trap night with CDC light traps. In 2-hour evening comparisons, mosquitoes collected per trapping period totalled 416 for horse-bait traps, 132 for light traps, and 93 for human-bait traps. Animal-baited screen rooms offer an alternative to existing methods for mosquito surveillance.

  6. Comparison of a synthetic chemical lure and standard fermented baits for trapping Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Hesler, Stephen P; Cowles, Richard S; Vogt, Heidrun; Loeb, Gregory M; Landolt, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    We determined the attractiveness of a new chemical lure compared with fermented food baits in use for trapping Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae), in Connecticut, New York, and Washington in the United States and at Dossenheim in Germany. The chemical lure (SWD lure) and food baits were compared in two types of traps: the dome trap and a cup trap. Regardless of trap type, numbers of male and female D. suzukii trapped were greater with the SWD lure compared with apple cider vinegar (ACV) baits at the Washington and New York sites, and were comparable with numbers of D. suzukii captured with a wine plus vinegar bait (W + V) at Germany site and a combination bait meant to mimic W + V at the Connecticut site. Averaged over both types of attractants, the numbers of D. suzukii captured were greater in dome traps than in cup traps in New York and Connecticut for both male and female D. suzukii and in Washington for male D. suzukii. No such differences were found between trap types at the Washington site for female and Germany for male and female D. suzukii. Assessments were also made of the number of large (>0.5 cm) and small (<0.5 cm) nontarget flies trapped. The SWD lure captured fewer nontarget small flies and more large flies compared with ACV bait in New York and fewer nontarget small flies compared with W + V in Germany, although no such differences were found in Washington for the SWD lure versus ACV bait and in Connecticut for the SWD lure versus the combination bait, indicating that these effects are likely influenced by the local nontarget insect community active at the time of trapping. In New York, Connecticut, and Germany, dome traps caught more nontarget flies compared with cup traps. Our results suggest that the four-component SWD chemical lure is an effective attractant for D. suzukii and could be used in place of fermented food-type baits.

  7. Sex-biased captures of sarcosaprophagous Diptera in carrion-baited traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Vega, Daniel; Baz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The use of carrion-baited traps is a common and widely extended practice in the study of sarcosaprophagous Diptera. However, it implies different areas of bias, one of them being the different responses of males and females to carrion bait, which results in possible biased sex ratios in the captures. In the present study, the use of carrion-baited traps revealed significant female-biased captures in the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae, whereas the collected species of the families Piophilidae, Heleomyzidae, and Ulidiidae showed different patterns in the observed sex ratios. Possible explanations according to existing literature and the types of mating behaviors of the different families are discussed.

  8. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  9. Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  10. Suspected cholecalciferol rodenticide toxicosis in avian species at a zoological institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Julie; Bradley, Gregory A

    2013-06-01

    Over a 2-month period, individual birds belonging to species in multiple avian families, including Bucerotidae, Sturnidae, Columbidae, Corvidae, and Anatidae, were presented to the Animal Care Center at the Phoenix Zoo for emergency medical care. Common clinical findings were subdued behavior, weight loss, and an inability to fly. Biochemical abnormalities commonly included high calcium and uric acid concentrations and high to high-normal phosphorus concentrations. In cases in which necropsies were done, mineralization of organs often was present, frequently of the kidneys and cardiovascular system. Because of the high calcium and phosphorus concentrations, mineralization of tissues, cases representing multiple avian species, and the recent addition of rodent bait boxes containing cholecalciferol to the zoo's pest control program, a presumptive diagnosis of cholecalciferol toxicosis was made. Treatment most commonly consisted of daily fluid diuresis. These cases demonstrate that, although cholecalciferol is considered unlikely to cause relay toxicosis, primary toxicosis still should be considered in cases with sudden onset of nonspecific signs when exposure to cholecalciferol was possible.

  11. Application of Paraffin Bait Technique to the Isolation of Nocardia asteroides from Clinical Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Randhawa, H. S.

    1969-01-01

    The principal findings of a study for further evaluating paraffin baiting as a routine laboratory diagnostic procedure in the isolation of Nocardia asteroides, the etiological agent of nocardiosis, are reported. PMID:4905040

  12. Optimising bait for pitfall trapping of Amazonian dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Charles J; Louzada, Julio; Beiroz, Wallace; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    The accurate sampling of communities is vital to any investigation of ecological processes and biodiversity. Dung beetles have emerged as a widely used focal taxon in environmental studies and can be sampled quickly and inexpensively using baited pitfalls. Although there is now a wealth of available data on dung beetle communities from around the world, there is a lack of standardisation between sampling protocols for accurately sampling dung beetle communities. In particular, bait choice is often led by the idiosyncrasies of the researcher, logistic problems and the dung sources available, which leads to difficulties for inter-study comparisons. In general, human dung is the preferred choice, however, it is often in short supply, which can severely limit sampling effort. By contrast, pigs may produce up to 20 times the volume. We tested the ability of human and pig dung to attract a primary forest dung beetle assemblage, as well as three mixes of the two baits in different proportions. Analyses focussed on the comparability of sampling with pig or human-pig dung mixes with studies that have sampled using human dung. There were no significant differences between richness and abundance sampled by each bait. The assemblages sampled were remarkably consistent across baits, and ordination analyses showed that the assemblages sampled by mixed dung baits were not significantly different from that captured by pure human dung, with the assemblages sampled by 10% and 90% pig mixes structurally most similar to assemblages sampled by human dung. We suggest that a 10:90 human:pig ratio, or similar, is an ideal compromise between sampling efficiency, inter-study comparability and the availability of large quantities of bait for sampling Amazonian dung beetles. Assessing the comparability of assemblage samples collected using different baits represents an important step to facilitating large-scale meta-analyses of dung beetle assemblages collected using non-standard methodology.

  13. Rapid Elimination of German Cockroach, Blatella germanica, by Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Baits have become popular and effective formulations against urban insect pests. Compared with re­sidual sprays toxic gel baits are used more and more frequently to control urban cockroach populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of two commercially available fipronil and imidacloprid gel bait formulations against Blattella germanica field infested in Iran.Methods:  The study was carried out in an urban area at Tehran from March 2004 to September 2005. The 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits were placed continuously in 3 residential German cockroach infested units. Pre- and post-treatment cockroach density was assessed by visual count method.Results: Pre- and post-treatment visual count of cockroaches in treatment and control areas, and percentage reduc­tion in cockroach density in treatment areas in comparison to control areas was showed that density reduction was increased with the 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits in treated areas from 1st to 9th week in compari­son to control area. After 60 days, German cockroaches eliminated completely from these areas.Conclusion: These results show that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are highly effective in field German cock­roach infested after insecticide spraying control failure German cockroach infested fields where spraying  of pyrethroid insecticides failed to control the situation and confirm previous  reports stating that avermectin and hydramethylnon are more effective than conventional insecticides in baits against cockroaches. Therefore, fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are appropriate candidates for controlling German cockroach infested dwellings in Iran where control with other insectices failed because of resistance.

  14. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Swietoslawski, J.; Swietoslawski, J

    2000-03-01

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: 'Cockroach Kill Gel' for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.

  15. Rapid Elimination of German Cockroach, Blatella germanica, by Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Baits have become popular and effective formulations against urban insect pests. Compared with re­sidual sprays toxic gel baits are used more and more frequently to control urban cockroach populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of two commercially available fipronil and imidacloprid gel bait formulations against Blattella germanica field infested in Iran. Methods:  The study was carried out in an urban area at Tehran from March 2004 to September 2005. The 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits were placed continuously in 3 residential German cockroach infested units. Pre- and post-treatment cockroach density was assessed by visual count method. Results: Pre- and post-treatment visual count of cockroaches in treatment and control areas, and percentage reduc­tion in cockroach density in treatment areas in comparison to control areas was showed that density reduction was increased with the 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits in treated areas from 1st to 9th week in compari­son to control area. After 60 days, German cockroaches eliminated completely from these areas. Conclusion: These results show that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are highly effective in field German cock­roach infested after insecticide spraying control failure German cockroach infested fields where spraying  of pyrethroid insecticides failed to control the situation and confirm previous  reports stating that avermectin and hydramethylnon are more effective than conventional insecticides in baits against cockroaches. Therefore, fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are appropriate candidates for controlling German cockroach infested dwellings in Iran where control with other insectices failed because of resistance.

  16. Were human babies used as bait in crocodile hunts in colonial Sri Lanka?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anslem de Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of live animals as bait is not an uncommon practice in hunting worldwide.  However, some curious accounts of the use of human babies as bait to lure crocodiles in sport hunting exist on the island of Sri Lanka, where sport hunting was common during the British colonial period.  Herein we compile the available records, review other records of the practice, and discuss the likelihood of the exercise actually having taken place. 

  17. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  18. Mortality and oviposition of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to different insecticide baits for varying periods in the presence and absence of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2011-02-01

    Spinosad bait is used to control western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), by killing flies before they oviposit. However, effects of different insecticide baits on management of reproductively mature flies are largely unknown. Objectives here were to determine mortality and oviposition of reproductively mature R. indifferens exposed to different insecticide baits for varying periods in the presence and absence of dried yeast extract and sucrose food. Spinosad bait (spinosad in a mix of protein, sugar, and other ingredients) was compared with acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid in sucrose or Nu-Lure + sucrose bait. When flies were exposed to treatments and then offered cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., for oviposition or when they were exposed to treatments and cherries simultaneously, both thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait resulted in higher mortality and lower oviposition than spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait. Exposures to thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait for six and 24 h were similarly effective, but 6-h exposures to spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait were less effective than 24-h exposures. There was little difference between sucrose and Nu-Lure + sucrose baits. When food was present, thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait caused greater mortality and lower oviposition than spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait, but when food was absent, patterns were less consistent. Because of its ability to kill flies sooner after it is exposed to flies when food is present or absent, thiamethoxam or imidacloprid in sucrose or Nu-Lure bait may reduce infestations in cherries more than spinosad bait when mature R. indifferens are present in orchards.

  19. Neem derivatives are not effective as toxic bait for tephritid fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A; Bezerra-Silva, G C D; Vendramim, J D; Mastrangelo, T; Forim, M R

    2013-08-01

    Neem derivatives have been widely touted as replacements for pesticides. A feasible replacement of synthetic insecticides in the management of fruit flies could be to use neem products in baits. This study evaluated the bioactivity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) derivatives in bait for adults of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The estimated LCs50 values for A. fraterculus and C. capitata were 7,522 ppm (18.40 ppm of azadirachtin) and 1,368 ppm (3.35 ppm of azadirachtin), respectively, using an aqueous extract of neem seeds in bait after 10 d of experimentation. No significant differences in the mortality of A. fraterculus and C. capitata adults exposed to baits made from different extracts and neem oil were observed after 3 h or 2 or 6 d; differences among the treatments were observed only on the 10th day of the evaluation. We conclude that neem derivatives applied as a bait spray over citrus plants did not demonstrate a toxic effect on A. fraterculus and C. capitata. The reasons for the low efficacy of the neem bait on Tephritid fruit flies are discussed.

  20. Digestion of Termiticide Bait Matrices by the Pest Termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Amit; Karl, Zachary J; Scharf, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    Termites are highly effective digesters of wood lignocellulose, which is a central factor contributing to their global status as pests of wooden structures. For the same reason, termite baits that combine cellulosic matrices with slow-acting insecticides are both effective and popular as a reduced-risk approach for termite control. This study took a novel approach for assessing digestibility of termite bait matrices and matrix components to gain potentially new insights into bait attractiveness and efficacy. The rationale behind this study is that termite baits that are more digestible should have more nutritional value to termites and thus encourage maximal feeding and trophallactic transfer of active ingredients through termite colonies. Studies were done using in vitro digestion assays with termite gut protein extracts followed by colorimetric detection of released glucose and pentose monosaccharides from test substrates. The substrates tested included two commercial bait matrices (Recruit IV and Recruit II HD), two matrix components (compressed and toasted compressed cellulose), and two natural pine woods as positive controls (southern yellow and northern pine). Overall results show equal or greater monosaccharide availability for some commercial matrices than standard pine lignocelluloses, suggesting sufficient nutritional value for the proprietary matrices. Another more prominent trend was significant intercolony variation in digestibility across substrates, possibly resulting from differences in microbiota composition, long-term diet adaptation, or both. These findings thus illuminate new nutrition-based factors that can potentially impact bait feeding, trophallactic exchange, and efficacy.

  1. Evaluation of boric acid sugar baits against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in tropical environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Diana P; Qualls, Whitney A; Müller, Gunter C; Samson, Dayana M; Roque, Deborah; Alimi, Temitope; Arheart, Kristopher; Beier, John C; Xue, Rui-De

    2013-04-01

    Attractive toxic sugar bait (active ingredient, 1% boric acid) was evaluated against Aedes albopictus Skuse populations in the laboratory, semi-field trials, and field trials in residential communities in St. Augustine, Florida. Laboratory evaluations of boric acid sugar baits applied to the plant Pentas lanceolata (Rubiaceae) demonstrated 100 and 92% mortality of A. albopictus at day 7 and 14, respectively. A semi-field study evaluating the bait application to the upperside or topside of leaves resulted in no significant difference on mortality (P>0.05). Overall combined top and bottom boric acid sugar bait application mortality at day 7 was 95% based on leaf bioassays. Field application of the boric acid sugar baits significantly (P<0.05) decreased adult A. albopictus populations up to day 21 post-treatment compared to the pre-treatment population numbers. A significant reduction in oviposition was demonstrated both at day 7 and 14 post-application (P=0.001) as monitored by ovitraps. Attractive toxic sugar bait application in tropical environments demonstrated efficacy, persistence, and feasibility in controlling A. albopictus populations.

  2. Bait type influences on catch and bycatch in tandem hoop nets set in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Stewart, David R.; Shiflet, Jeremy; Balsman, Dane; Shoup, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    Tandem hoop nets have become the primary gear for sampling channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but suffer from high incidences of bycatch, particularly aquatic turtles that usually drown as a result. We sought to determine if bait type, ZOTE© soap and ground cheese logs, would influence catch of channel catfish (CPUE and mean TL) and bycatch of fishes and aquatic turtles. We sampled with tandem hoop nets in 13 Kentucky reservoirs (5–73 ha) using a crossover design and two sampling events. We found no difference in channel catfish catch rates between bait types, but mean sizes of fish caught using ZOTE© soap were approximately 24 mm longer compared to cheese. Fish bycatch was similar between bait types, but tandem hoop nets baited with ZOTE© soap caught up to 61% fewer turtles and mortality of turtles that were captured was up to 12% lower than those baited with cheese. Depth of net set, water temperature, and Secchi depth were environmental factors measured that affected catch and bycatch, but varied among species. Using ZOTE© soap as bait in tandem hoop nets appears to be a fairly simple and straightforward method for maintaining high catch rates of channel catfish while minimizing turtle mortality.

  3. Use of herring bait to farm lobsters in the Gulf of Maine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H Grabowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecologists, fisheries scientists, and coastal managers have all called for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management, yet many species such as the American lobster (Homarus americanus are still largely managed individually. One hypothesis that has yet to be tested suggests that human augmentation of lobster diets via the use of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus as bait may contribute to recent increases in lobster landings. Currently 70% of Atlantic herring landings in the Gulf of Maine are used as bait to catch lobsters in traps throughout coastal New England. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the effects of this herring bait on the diet composition and growth rate of lobsters at heavily baited vs. seasonally closed (i.e., bait free sites in coastal Maine. Our results suggest that human use of herring bait may be subsidizing juvenile lobster diets, thereby enhancing lobster growth and the overall economic value and yield of one of the most valuable fisheries in the U.S. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study illustrates that shifting to an ecosystem approach to fisheries management should require consideration of cross-fishery interactions.

  4. Quantifying the mosquito's sweet tooth: modelling the effectiveness of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) for malaria vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John M; White, Michael T; Ghani, Azra C; Schlein, Yosef; Muller, Gunter C; Beier, John C

    2013-08-23

    Current vector control strategies focus largely on indoor measures, such as long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS); however mosquitoes frequently feed on sugar sources outdoors, inviting the possibility of novel control strategies. Attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB), either sprayed on vegetation or provided in outdoor bait stations, have been shown to significantly reduce mosquito densities in these settings. Simple models of mosquito sugar-feeding behaviour were fitted to data from an ATSB field trial in Mali and used to estimate sugar-feeding rates and the potential of ATSB to control mosquito populations. The model and fitted parameters were then incorporated into a larger integrated vector management (IVM) model to assess the potential contribution of ATSB to future IVM programmes. In the Mali experimental setting, the model suggests that about half of female mosquitoes fed on ATSB solution per day, dying within several hours of ingesting the toxin. Using a model incorporating the number of gonotrophic cycles completed by female mosquitoes, a higher sugar-feeding rate was estimated for younger mosquitoes than for older mosquitoes. Extending this model to incorporate other vector control interventions suggests that an IVM programme based on both ATSB and LLINs may substantially reduce mosquito density and survival rates in this setting, thereby substantially reducing parasite transmission. This is predicted to exceed the impact of LLINs in combination with IRS provided ATSB feeding rates are 50% or more of Mali experimental levels. In addition, ATSB is predicted to be particularly effective against Anopheles arabiensis, which is relatively exophilic and therefore less affected by IRS and LLINs. These results suggest that high coverage with a combination of LLINs and ATSB could result in substantial reductions in malaria transmission in this setting. Further field studies of ATSB in other settings are needed to assess

  5. Effect of bait and gear type on channel catfish catch and turtle bycatch in a reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartabiano, Evan C.; Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Hoop nets have become the preferred gear choice to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus but the degree of bycatch can be high, especially due to the incidental capture of aquatic turtles. While exclusion and escapement devices have been developed and evaluated, few have examined bait choice as a method to reduce turtle bycatch. The use of Zote™ soap has shown considerable promise to reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles when used with trotlines but its effectiveness in hoop nets has not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effectiveness of hoop nets baited with cheese bait or Zote™ soap and trotlines baited with shad or Zote™ soap as a way to sample channel catfish and prevent capture of aquatic turtles. We used a repeated-measures experimental design and treatment combinations were randomly assigned using a Latin-square arrangement. Eight sampling locations were systematically selected and then sampled with either hoop nets or trotlines using Zote™ soap (both gears), waste cheese (hoop nets), or cut shad (trotlines). Catch rates did not statistically differ among the gear–bait-type combinations. Size bias was evident with trotlines consistently capturing larger sized channel catfish compared to hoop nets. Results from a Monte Carlo bootstrapping procedure estimated the number of samples needed to reach predetermined levels of sampling precision to be lowest for trotlines baited with soap. Moreover, trotlines baited with soap caught no aquatic turtles, while hoop nets captured many turtles and had high mortality rates. We suggest that Zote™ soap used in combination with multiple hook sizes on trotlines may be a viable alternative to sample channel catfish and reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles.

  6. Efficacy of cyantraniliprole fly bait against housefly (Musca domestica L.) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q F; Li, X; Hunag, J B; Zhang, D M; Yuan, J Z

    2015-09-01

    Novel and effective baits are needed to manage pest housefly populations and avoid the development of insecticide resistance. In this study, we bioassayed the efficacy of Zyrox®, a novel fly bait containing a novel 0.5 % cyantraniliprole insecticide, to kill adult houseflies under laboratory conditions. We found that Zyrox® killed a significantly greater proportion of flies than the current competing fly bait, QuickBayt®, after a 24-h exposure. The cumulative mortalities of houseflies were up to 96.36 % and 92.57 % for Zyrox® and 78.88 % and 68.76 % for QuickBayt® in no-choice and choice tests, respectively. Our results suggested that there was negligible behavioral resistance to both fly baits but revealed that Zyrox® appeared to work slower than QuickBayt® (at a 3-h exposure, proportionally fewer flies were killed by Zyrox® than by QuickBayt®). Importantly, we found that the efficacy of Zyrox® did not diminish with the age of the bait (up to 90 days old). In actual knockdown time (KDT) feeding bioassay, the results showed that Zyrox® knocked down flies significantly slower (11.97 min for females; 12.30 min for males) than QuickBayt® (1.89 min for females; 2.24 min for males). These results reveal the high efficacy of Zyrox® bait to kill adult flies and suggest that it is a promising slow-action bait for management of houseflies.

  7. Bait Formulations of Chlorophyllin against Infected/Uninfected Lymnaea acuminata in Red and Sunlight

    OpenAIRE

    Navneet Kumar; Vinay Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Control of snail population is an important tool in fasciolosis control programme. In order to achive this objective the method of bait formulation containing an attractant and a molluscicide is an appropriate approach to ensure the death of host snail. Chlorophyllin bait pellets were prepared by addition of attractants starch (10 mM)/serine (20 mM) and Chlorophyllin 2% agar solution. These baits were used against host snail Lymnaea acuminata. The behavioral response of snail against attracta...

  8. Ammonium Acetate Enhances the Attractiveness of a Variety of Protein-Based Baits to Female Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime C; Souder, Steven K; Smith, Trevor R; Fox, Abbie J; Vargas, Roger I

    2015-04-01

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used by female fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally based control strategies such as food-based lures and insecticidal baits targeting pestiferous fruit fly species. In field cage studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioral response of laboratory-reared male and female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), to seven commercially available protein baits and to beer waste, a relatively inexpensive and readily available substance. Each material was tested alone or in combination with either ammonium acetate or ammonium carbonate. For the majority of baits evaluated, the presence of ammonium acetate, but not ammonium carbonate, elicited a significantly greater level of response of female C. capitata compared with the protein baits alone. The addition of ammonium acetate to selected baits increased bait attractiveness to a level comparable with that elicited by the most widely used spinosad-based protein bait, GF-120. Our findings indicate that the addition of ammonium acetate to commercially available proteinaceous baits and to beer waste can greatly improve their attractiveness to C. capitata, potentially increasing the bait's effectiveness for fruit fly monitoring and suppression. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Wildlife Interactions on Baited Places and Waterholes in a French Area Infected by Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Ariane; Philipon, Sixtine; Hars, Jean; Dufour, Barbara; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    Interactions among wildlife species are major drivers for the transmission of multi-host pathogens, such as Mycobacterium bovis, which also affect livestock. Although France is officially free from bovine tuberculosis (bTB), some areas are still harboring infection in cattle and wildlife. We aimed at characterizing the visits of susceptible wild species (badger, red deer, and wild boar) at baited places and waterholes, considered as possible hotspots for contacts. We described the visits in terms of frequency, duration, and number of individuals and studied the influence of the season. Then, we estimated the frequency of intraspecies and interspecies interactions occurring at baited places and waterholes which may lead to bTB transmission, including direct and indirect contacts through the soil or water. We used camera traps placed on baited places and waterholes on 13 locations monitored during 21 months. The number of visits, their duration, and the number of individuals per visit were analyzed by generalized linear mixed models for each targeted species. The frequency of the interspecies and intraspecies interactions was also analyzed separately. The season, the type of site (baited place or waterhole), and the location were the explanatory variables. Badgers’ visits and interactions were more frequent than for other species (mean: 0.60 visit/day and 5.42 interactions/day) especially on baited places. Red deer only visited waterholes. Wild boars visited most often baited places in spring–summer and waterholes in autumn–winter. They came in higher number than other species, especially on baited places. Direct interactions were uncommon. The most frequent interspecies interactions occurred between red deer and wild boar (mean: 4.02 interactions/day). Baited places and waterholes are important interfaces between the different wild species involved in the bTB multi-host system in this area. They can thus promote intraspecies and interspecies b

  10. Immunization of black-tailed prairie dog against plague through consumption of vaccine-laden baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E; Smith, Susan R; Stinchcomb, Dan T; Osorio, Jorge E

    2008-10-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis and, along with other wild rodents, are significant reservoirs of plague for other wildlife and humans in the western United States. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus, expressing the F1 antigen of Y. pestis, was incorporated into a palatable bait and offered to three groups (n = 18, 19, and 20) of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) for voluntary consumption, either one, two, or three times, at roughly 3-wk intervals. A control group (n = 19) received baits containing raccoon poxvirus without the inserted antigen. Mean antibody titers to Y. pestis F1 antigen increased significantly in all groups ingesting the vaccine-laden baits, whereas the control group remained negative. Upon challenge with virulent Y. pestis, immunized groups had higher survival rates (38%) than the unimmunized control group (11%). The mean survival time of groups ingesting vaccine-laden baits either two or three times was significantly higher than that of animals ingesting vaccine-laden baits just one time and of animals in the control group. These results show that oral immunization of prairie dogs against plague provides some protection against challenge at dosages that simulate simultaneous delivery of the plague bacterium by numerous (3-10) flea bites.

  11. Response of Anastrepha suspensa to liquid protein baits and synthetic lure formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epsky, Nancy D.; Kendra, Paul E.; Heath, Robert R., E-mail: Nancy.Epsky@ars.usda.go, E-mail: Paul.Kendra@ars.usda.go, E-mail: Bob.Heath@ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SHRS), Miami, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station

    2006-07-01

    Traps baited with AAPt captured more A. suspensa than traps baited with ABPt even when the ammonia release rates were similar. Reducing dosage of ammonia by 50% of the commercially available AA lure slightly increased female capture, but reducing dosage to 25% tended to decrease female capture. The 5% CPH/3% borax bait captured the same number of flies as TYB, and was more effective than 10% CPH/3% borax. Further decreasing the amount of borax added to CPH may improve its effectiveness. As has been observed in field tests, fresh TYB captures more A. suspensa than fresh Nulure/borax but this difference decreases as the bait solutions age. EAG analysis indicates that volatiles from fresh Nulure/ borax elicit a higher antennal response than TYB, but this difference decreases as the TYB solution ages. Chemical analysis will be needed to determine the nature of reduced capture by fresh Nulure/borax and to identify additional attractive chemicals emitted by these protein baits. (author)

  12. Immunization of black-tailed prairie dog against plague through consumption of vaccine-laden baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Smith, S.R.; Stinchcomb, D.T.; Osorio, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis and, along with other wild rodents, are significant reservoirs of plague for other wildlife and humans in the western United States. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus, expressing the F1 antigen of Y. pestis, was incorporated into a palatable bait and offered to three groups (n = 18, 19, and 20) of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) for voluntary consumption, either one, two, or three times, at roughly 3-wk intervals. A control group (n = 19) received baits containing raccoon poxvirus without the inserted antigen. Mean antibody titers to Y. pestis F1 antigen increased significantly in all groups ingesting the vaccine-laden baits, whereas the control group remained negative. Upon challenge with virulent Y. pestis, immunized groups had higher survival rates (38%) than the unimmunized control group (11%). The mean survival time of groups ingesting vaccine-laden baits either two or three times was significantly higher than that of animals ingesting vaccine-laden baits just one time and of animals in the control group. These results show that oral immunization of prairie dogs against plague provides some protection against challenge at dosages that simulate simultaneous delivery of the plague bacterium by numerous (3-10) flea bites. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  13. Laboratory and Field Evaluations of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Baits Against Argentine Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Michael K; Soeprono, Andrew; Wright, Sarajean; Greenberg, Les; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Boser, Christina L; Cory, Coleen; Hanna, Cause

    2015-06-01

    The development of effective baits to control the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has been problematic because foragers prefer sweet liquids, while many toxicants are insoluble in water and liquid baits are generally difficult to deliver. The incorporation of thiamethoxam and sucrose solutions into a water-absorbing polyacrylamide hydrogel provides a unique and novel carrier and method of application for liquid baits. Formulations of thiamethoxam affected the size of the hydrogels, and sucrose solutions containing 0.0003% technical thiamethoxam provided hydrogels as large as those made with 25% sucrose solution or deionized water. Concentrations of thiamethoxam as low as 0.000075% in the hydrogels provided 50% kill of workers within 3 d in a laboratory setting. In small colony studies, baiting with 0.00015 and 0.000075% thiamethoxam hydrogels provided 100% mortality of workers and queens within 8 d. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that thiamethoxam was absorbed into the interior of the polyacrylamide matrix. The water loss rates of the hydrogels were dependent upon the relative humidity. Polyacrylamide hydrogels with >50% water loss were less attractive to ants. Field studies in highly infested areas indicated that concentrations of 0.0006 or 0.0018% thiamethoxam were more effective than 0.00015%. Hydrogels may provide a cost-effective alternative to providing aqueous baits to control Argentine ants. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Assessment of toxicity and potential risk of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone using Eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Eisenreich, Karen M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Volker, Steven F.; Campton, Christopher M.; Eisemann, John D.; Johnston, John J.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, new regulatory restrictions have been placed on the use of some second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides. This action may be offset by expanded use of first-generation compounds (e.g., diphacinone; DPN). Single-day acute oral exposure of adult Eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio) to DPN evoked overt signs of intoxication, coagulopathy, histopathological lesions (e.g., hemorrhage, hepatocellular vacuolation), and/ or lethality at doses as low as 130 mg/kg body weight, although there was no dose-response relation. However, this single-day exposure protocol does not mimic the multiple-day field exposures required to cause mortality in rodent pest species and non-target birds and mammals. In 7-day feeding trials, similar toxic effects were observed in owls fed diets containing 2.15, 9.55 or 22.6 ppm DPN, but at a small fraction (<5%) of the acute oral dose. In the dietary trial, the average lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level for prolonged clotting time was 1.68 mg DPN/kg owl/week (0.24 mg/kg owl/day; 0.049 mg/owl/day) and the lowest lethal dose was 5.75 mg DPN/kg owl/week (0.82 mg/kg owl/day). In this feeding trial, DPN concentration in liver ranged from 0.473 to 2.21 μg/g wet weight, and was directly related to the daily and cumulative dose consumed by each owl. A probabilistic risk assessment indicated that daily exposure to as little as 3-5 g of liver from DPN-poisoned rodents for 7 days could result in prolonged clotting time in the endangered Hawaiian shorteared owl (Asio flammeus sandwichensis) and Hawaiian hawk (Buteo solitarius), and daily exposure to greater quantities (9-13 g of liver) could result in low-level mortality. These findings can assist natural resource managers in weighing the costs and benefits of anticoagulant rodenticide use in pest control and eradication programs.

  15. Aerial Prefeeding Followed by Ground Based Toxic Baiting for More Efficient and Acceptable Poisoning of Invasive Small Mammalian Pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morgan

    Full Text Available Introduced brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula and rat species (Rattus spp. are major vertebrate pests in New Zealand, with impacts on conservation and agriculture being managed largely through poisoning operations. Aerial distribution of baits containing sodium fluoroacetate (1080 has been refined to maximise cost effectiveness and minimise environmental impact, but this method is strongly opposed by some as it is perceived as being indiscriminate. Although ground based control enables precise placement of baits, operations are often more than twice as costly as aerial control, mainly due to the high labour costs. We investigated a new approach to ground based control that combined aerial distribution of non-toxic 'prefeed' baits followed by sparse distribution of toxic baits at regular intervals along the GPS tracked prefeeding flight paths. This approach was tested in two field trials in which both 1080 baits and cholecalciferol baits were used in separate areas. Effectiveness of the approach, assessed primarily using 'chewcards', was compared with that of scheduled aerial 1080 operations that were conducted in outlying areas of both trials. Contractors carrying out ground based control were able to follow the GPS tracks of aerial prefeeding flight lines very accurately, and with 1080 baits achieved very high levels of kill of possums and rats similar to those achieved by aerial 1080 baiting. Cholecalciferol was less effective in the first trial, but by doubling the amount of cholecalciferol bait used in the second trial, few possums or rats survived. By measuring the time taken to complete ground baiting from GPS tracks, we predicted that the method (using 1080 baits would be similarly cost effective to aerial 1080 operations for controlling possums and rats, and considerably less expensive than typical current costs of ground based control. The main limitations to the use of the method will be access to, and size of, the operational

  16. Aerial Prefeeding Followed by Ground Based Toxic Baiting for More Efficient and Acceptable Poisoning of Invasive Small Mammalian Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David; Warburton, Bruce; Nugent, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Introduced brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) and rat species (Rattus spp.) are major vertebrate pests in New Zealand, with impacts on conservation and agriculture being managed largely through poisoning operations. Aerial distribution of baits containing sodium fluoroacetate (1080) has been refined to maximise cost effectiveness and minimise environmental impact, but this method is strongly opposed by some as it is perceived as being indiscriminate. Although ground based control enables precise placement of baits, operations are often more than twice as costly as aerial control, mainly due to the high labour costs. We investigated a new approach to ground based control that combined aerial distribution of non-toxic 'prefeed' baits followed by sparse distribution of toxic baits at regular intervals along the GPS tracked prefeeding flight paths. This approach was tested in two field trials in which both 1080 baits and cholecalciferol baits were used in separate areas. Effectiveness of the approach, assessed primarily using 'chewcards', was compared with that of scheduled aerial 1080 operations that were conducted in outlying areas of both trials. Contractors carrying out ground based control were able to follow the GPS tracks of aerial prefeeding flight lines very accurately, and with 1080 baits achieved very high levels of kill of possums and rats similar to those achieved by aerial 1080 baiting. Cholecalciferol was less effective in the first trial, but by doubling the amount of cholecalciferol bait used in the second trial, few possums or rats survived. By measuring the time taken to complete ground baiting from GPS tracks, we predicted that the method (using 1080 baits) would be similarly cost effective to aerial 1080 operations for controlling possums and rats, and considerably less expensive than typical current costs of ground based control. The main limitations to the use of the method will be access to, and size of, the operational site, along with

  17. Use of fruit bait traps for monitoring of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer B. Hughes

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available There exists great interest in using fruit-feeding adult nymphalid butterflies to monitor changes in tropical forest ecosystems. We intensively sampled the butterfly fauna of mid-elevation tropical moist forest in southern Costa Rica with fruit bait traps to address a series of practical issues concerning the development of a robust, efficient sampling program. Variation in the number of captures and escapes of butterflies at the traps was better explained by the time of day than by the age of bait. Species’ escape rates varied widely, suggesting that short term, less intensive surveys aimed at determining presence or absence of species may be biased. Individuals did not appear to become "trap-happy" or to recognize the traps as food sources. Considering the tradeoff between numbers of traps and frequency of trap servicing, the most efficient sampling regime appears to be baiting and sampling the traps once every other day.

  18. Field trial on the control effect of fipronil bait against German cockroaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, Han-Il; Lee, In-Yong; Jeon, Soung-Hoo

    2006-01-01

    A field trial on the control effect of fipronil poison bait against German cockroaches (Blatella germanica) was carried out at different restaurant types in Sinchon, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Monitoring was performed applying food baited traps for 2 days per week. Reduction rates of German cockroaches by applying fipronil baits were 90.9% at Korean restaurants, 96.4% at Chinese restaurants, and 89.4% in beer hall kitchens after 4 weeks of the treatment. Overall average of the reduction rate was 93.9%. As the natural reduction rate at untreated restaurants was 11.5% after 4 weeks, a correction of the average reduction rate by applying the Abbot formula was 93.1%. PMID:16969066

  19. Observation Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  20. The Balloon Analog Insurance Task (BAIT: a behavioral measure of protective risk management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G Essex

    Full Text Available Prior methods used to assess individual differences related to risk have not focused on an important component of risk management: how willing individuals are to pay for or take actions to insure what they already have. It is not clear whether this type of protective risk management taps into the same individual differences as does risk taking propensity measured by existing risk taking tasks. We developed a novel task to assess protective risk management, the Balloon Analog Insurance Task (BAIT, which is modeled after the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART. In the BAIT, individuals are forced to decide how much money they are willing to pay in order to insure a specific fraction of their prior winnings given changing but imprecise levels of risk of monetary loss. Participants completed the BART and BAIT for real monetary rewards, and completed six self report questionnaires. The amount of insurance purchased on the BAIT was positively correlated with scores on the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale and on the Checking scale of the revised Obsessive Compulsive Inventory. Conversely, the amount of insurance purchased was negatively correlated with scores on the Domain Specific Risk Taking Questionnaire, and on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI. Furthermore, relationships between insurance purchased and these scales remained significant after controlling for the BART in linear regression analyses, and the BART was only a significant predictor for measures on one scale--the PPI. Our results reveal that behavior on the BAIT taps into a number of individual differences that are not related to behavior on another measure of risk taking. We propose that the BAIT may provide a useful complement to the BART in the assessment of risk management style.

  1. "Bait vehicle" technologies and motor vehicle theft along the southwest border.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, Chris D.

    2007-09-01

    In 2005, over 33% of all the vehicles reported stolen in the United States occurred in the four southwestern border states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, which all have very high vehicle theft rates in comparison to the national average. This report describes the utilization of 'bait vehicles' and associated technologies in the context of motor vehicle theft along the southwest border of the U.S. More than 100 bait vehicles are estimated to be in use by individual agencies and auto theft task forces in the southwestern border states. The communications, tracking, mapping, and remote control technologies associated with bait vehicles provide law enforcement with an effective tool to obtain arrests in vehicle theft 'hot spots'. Recorded audio and video from inside the vehicle expedite judicial proceedings as offenders rarely contest the evidence presented. At the same time, law enforcement is very interested in upgrading bait vehicle technology through the use of live streaming video for enhanced officer safety and improved situational awareness. Bait vehicle effectiveness could be enhanced by dynamic analysis of motor theft trends through exploitation of geospatial, timeline, and other analytical tools to better inform very near-term operational decisions, including the selection of particular vehicle types. This 'information-led' capability would especially benefit from more precise and timely information on the location of vehicles stolen in the United States and found in Mexico. Introducing Automated License Plate Reading (ALPR) technology to collect information associated with stolen motor vehicles driven into Mexico could enhance bait vehicle effectiveness.

  2. Insecticide-Treated Rodent Baits for Sand Fly Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-28

    Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Department of Entomology , Baton Rouge, LA, USA b Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine...Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA dWalter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA eUS Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya, Unit 8900, Box 6801...State University Agricultural Center, Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Entomology , 402 Life Sciences, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA. Fax: +1

  3. Interspecific and geographical differences in anticoagulant rodenticide residues of predatory wildlife from the Mediterranean region of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Perea, Jhon J; Camarero, Pablo R; Molina-López, Rafael A; Parpal, Luis; Obón, Elena; Solá, Jessica; Mateo, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    We studied the prevalence of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) in the liver of 344 individuals representing 11 species of predatory wildlife that were found dead in the Mediterranean region of Spain (Catalonia and Majorca Island). Six different ARs (brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum, flocoumafen, difethialone, warfarin) were found in the liver of 216 (62.8%) animals and >1 AR co-occurred in 119 individuals (34.6%). The occurrence of ARs was positively correlated with the human population density. Catalonia and Majorca showed similar prevalence of AR detection (64.4 and 60.4%, respectively), but a higher prevalence was found in the resident population of Eurasian scops owl (Otus scops) from Majorca (57.7%) compared to the migratory population from Catalonia (14.3%). Birds of prey had lower levels of bromadiolone than hedgehogs, whereas no difference was found for other ARs. The risk of SGAR poisoning in wild predators in NE Spain is believed to be elevated, because 23.3% of the individuals exhibited hepatic concentration of ARs exceeding 200 ng/g. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Post-Control Surveillance of Triatoma infestans and Triatoma sordida with Chemically-Baited Sticky Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Nidia; López, Elsa; González, Nilsa; Zerba, Eduardo; Tarelli, Guillermo; Masuh, Héctor

    2012-01-01

    Background Chagas disease prevention critically depends on keeping houses free of triatomine vectors. Insecticide spraying is very effective, but re-infestation of treated dwellings is commonplace. Early detection-elimination of re-infestation foci is key to long-term control; however, all available vector-detection methods have low sensitivity. Chemically-baited traps are widely used in vector and pest control-surveillance systems; here, we test this approach for Triatoma spp. detection under field conditions in the Gran Chaco. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a repeated-sampling approach and logistic models that explicitly take detection failures into account, we simultaneously estimate vector occurrence and detection probabilities. We then model detection probabilities (conditioned on vector occurrence) as a function of trapping system to measure the effect of chemical baits. We find a positive effect of baits after three (odds ratio [OR] 5.10; 95% confidence interval [CI95] 2.59–10.04) and six months (OR 2.20, CI95 1.04–4.65). Detection probabilities are estimated at p≈0.40–0.50 for baited and at just p≈0.15 for control traps. Bait effect is very strong on T. infestans (three-month assessment: OR 12.30, CI95 4.44–34.10; p≈0.64), whereas T. sordida is captured with similar frequency in baited and unbaited traps. Conclusions/Significance Chemically-baited traps hold promise for T. infestans surveillance; the sensitivity of the system at detecting small re-infestation foci rises from 12.5% to 63.6% when traps are baited with semiochemicals. Accounting for imperfect detection, infestation is estimated at 26% (CI95 16–40) after three and 20% (CI95 11–34) after six months. In the same assessments, traps detected infestation in 14% and 8.5% of dwellings, whereas timed manual searches (the standard approach) did so in just 1.4% of dwellings only in the first survey. Since infestation rates are the main indicator used for decision-making in control

  5. Sampling gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Tanzania with traps baited with synthetic oviposition pheromone and grass infusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mboera, L.E.G.; Takken, W.; Mdira, K.Y.; Pickett, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of traps baited with (5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide (the synthetic oviposition pheromone) and grass infusions in sampling a population of gravid Culex quinquefasciatus Say was conducted in Muheza, Northeast Tanzania. A counterflow geometry (CFG) trap baited with pheromone and s

  6. Effect of application rate and persistence of boric acid sugar baits applied to plants control of Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of toxic baits to kill adult Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes is a safe and potentially effective alternative to the use of synthetic chemical insecticides. This study was made to identify effective application rates for boric acid-sugar solution baits sprayed onto plant surfaces and to ...

  7. The association of bait formulation of strychnine with poisonings in nontarget species in Saskatchewan from 1975 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakley, Barry R

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the association of pre-mixed and freshly mixed strychnine baits with poisoning of nontarget animals in Saskatchewan. During years where the formulations were derived from a 2% concentrate, there was a greater than 2-fold increase in case numbers. There were approximately 3-fold fewer cases when the baits were prepared by pest control officers rather than by producers.

  8. Evaluations of dual attractant toxic sugar baits for surveillance and control of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dual attractant toxic sugar baits (D-ATSB) containing two host kairomones, L-lactic (LA) and 1-octen-3-ol (O), and fruit-based attractants were evaluated through four experiments to determine if host kairomones could a. enhance attraction of a fruit-based toxic sugar bait (ATSB), and b. increase the...

  9. Implications for operational control of adult mosquito production in cisterns and wells in St. Augustine, Florida using attractive sugar baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the use of attractive sugar baits as an effective, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly tool for integrated mosquito management programs. Mosquitoes were offered dyed sugar bait in wells and cisterns in an urban tourist area in St. Augustine, Flo...

  10. Comparison of synthetic food-based lures and liquid protein baits for capture of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field tests that were conducted in south Florida to compare capture of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), in Multilure traps baited with liquid protein baits torula yeast/borax or NuLure/borax, or with food-based synthetic lures including two component (ammonium acetate, putrescine...

  11. Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traps baited with synthetic food-based lures that include blends of ammonia, either as ammonium acetate or ammonium bicarbonate, and putrescine capture a number of Anastrepha and Bactrocera species fruit flies. However, for many of these species, more flies are captured in traps baited with the pro...

  12. Phytotoxicity of GF-120 NF Naturalyte fruit fly bait carrier on sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLury, Naomi C; Thistlewood, Howard; Routledge, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Six sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars were tested with GF-120 with spinosad (0.2 g L(-1) spinosad bait) or without it (blank bait) to understand leaf phytotoxicity observed in the field. Spinosad bait and blank bait did not differ significantly with respect to damage observed. Leaf damage was found almost exclusively at the abaxial (lower) surfaces with the doses (0, 17, 20, 25 or 40%) and cultivars tested. The effects of the blank bait on abaxial surfaces increased from 24 to 168 h, and with dose, in terms of the proportion of droplets (0.00, 0.42, 0.52, 0.75 or 0.94) and area (0.0, 18.7, 23.5, 40.5 or 91.6 mm) burned. In addition, chlorophyll was reduced with increasing dose on abaxial surfaces (SPAD = 44.6, 36.1, 34.1, 31.0, 21.5), but not on adaxial (upper) surfaces (SPAD = 44.6, 44.2, 44.0, 44.8, 44.4). The chlorophyll level in undamaged leaves (adaxial surfaces) differed by cultivar. Cherry leaves were less damaged by a 20% bait application in June (0.26) than in July (0.46) and August (0.50). Incidental insect leaf feeding at bait locations occurred at a low rate and was highest on abaxial bait surfaces. Applying GF-120 to the adaxial leaf surface, or at doses of

  13. Paradoxical exploitation of protected fishes as bait for anglers: evaluating the Lamprey bait market in Europe and developing sustainable and ethical solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L Foulds

    Full Text Available A reoccurring conservation problem is the resolution of consumptive use of threatened wildlife and is especially difficult to defend when it occurs for recreational practices. We explored the commercial capture and supply of threatened European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis to anglers, to determine the extent of exploitation and seek opportunities for improved conservation. The trade began in 1995 from England, but by 2012 involved sale of lamprey from England, The Netherlands and Estonia, including from protected populations. Lamprey are sold frozen for the capture of predatory fish, mostly in freshwater. In the year 2011/2012 9 tonnes (>90,000 lampreys of river lamprey were supplied, almost exclusively to British anglers. Although annual catches in the main English lamprey fishery (River Ouse have varied widely since 1995, catch per unit effort did not decline between 2000 and 2012. Conservation actions since 2011 have included a cap on fishing licenses, catch quotas and restricted fishing seasons. Now, 86% of lamprey bait is imported to Britain. Most bait sellers interviewed would not stock lamprey if they knew they were from threatened populations; many felt their trade would not be impacted if lamprey were not stocked. This facilitates opportunities to enter into dialogue with anglers over alternative baits to threatened lamprey. The study emphasises the need to inform stakeholders about conservation species subjected to market-driven exploitation.

  14. Paradoxical exploitation of protected fishes as bait for anglers: evaluating the Lamprey bait market in Europe and developing sustainable and ethical solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, William L; Lucas, Martyn C

    2014-01-01

    A reoccurring conservation problem is the resolution of consumptive use of threatened wildlife and is especially difficult to defend when it occurs for recreational practices. We explored the commercial capture and supply of threatened European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) to anglers, to determine the extent of exploitation and seek opportunities for improved conservation. The trade began in 1995 from England, but by 2012 involved sale of lamprey from England, The Netherlands and Estonia, including from protected populations. Lamprey are sold frozen for the capture of predatory fish, mostly in freshwater. In the year 2011/2012 9 tonnes (>90,000 lampreys) of river lamprey were supplied, almost exclusively to British anglers. Although annual catches in the main English lamprey fishery (River Ouse) have varied widely since 1995, catch per unit effort did not decline between 2000 and 2012. Conservation actions since 2011 have included a cap on fishing licenses, catch quotas and restricted fishing seasons. Now, 86% of lamprey bait is imported to Britain. Most bait sellers interviewed would not stock lamprey if they knew they were from threatened populations; many felt their trade would not be impacted if lamprey were not stocked. This facilitates opportunities to enter into dialogue with anglers over alternative baits to threatened lamprey. The study emphasises the need to inform stakeholders about conservation species subjected to market-driven exploitation.

  15. Evaluation of monitoring traps with novel bait for navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California almond and pistachio orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, Justin E; Peterson, Elonce M; Boyd, Elizabeth A

    2012-08-01

    Experiments conducted in three almond, Prunus dulcis (Rosales: Rosaceae), orchards and three pistachio, Pistacia vera (Sapindales: Anicardiaceae), orchards in 2009 and 2010, and determined that sticky bottom wing traps baited with ground pistachio mummies, or a combination of ground pistachio plus ground almond mummies, trapped more adult female navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), than did traps baited with ground almond mummies alone. During both years of this study, 2.9 and 1.8 more moths were caught in traps baited with pistachio mummies compared with traps baited with almond mummies in almond orchards and pistachio orchards, respectively. Also, traps located in pistachio orchards caught 5.9 and 8.3 times more navel orangeworm than were trapped from almond orchards in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Implications for use of this novel baited trap in almond and pistachio orchard integrated pest management programs are discussed.

  16. Heteroptera attracted to butterfly traps baited with fish or shrimp carrion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records of Heteroptera collected at butterfly traps baited with fish or shrimp carrion during collecting trips to Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru are presented. Traps consisted of a cylinder of net fabric (about 35 cm diam, 75 cm length) attached on the top and bottom to square pieces ...

  17. Capture and host strain of fall armyworm males in traps baited with different pheromone blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex pheromone traps baited with four different commercial lures that contained two, three, or four components were used to capture male fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)] in Alabama, Georgia, Florida, and Texas from 2006 – 2009. A subset of the moths collected was analyzed for thei...

  18. Stink bugs (Hemitera: Pentatomidae) in pheromone-baited traps near crop field edges in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton. Our specific objective for this 3-yr study was to use traps baited with Euschistus spp. pheromone to monitor stink bugs in habitats near cotton and peanut field edges before, during, and after crop growth and development. Plant-feedi...

  19. Evaluation of Liquid and Bait Insecticides against the Dark Rover Ant (Brachymyrmex patagonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier G. Miguelena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dark rover ants (Brachymyrmex patagonicus, Mayr are an exotic ant species native to South America that has recently spread through the southern US. We evaluated the residual activity of three liquid insecticides (indoxacarb, fipronil and lambda-cyhalothrin as potential barrier treatments against these ants. The factors we considered include the use of a porous or non-porous surface, a short or long exposure time and the changes in insecticide activity after treatment during a 90 day period. We also tested the effect of baits containing three different active ingredients (imidacloprid, sodium tetraborate and indoxacarb on colony fragments of this species for a 15 day period. Both lambda-cyhalothrin® and indoxacarb® resulted in high levels of ant mortality up to 90 days after application. The results of exposure to fipronil® resembled those from the control treatment. Application of insecticides on a porous surface and the shorter exposure time generally resulted in greater ant survival. Of the baits tested, only the imidacloprid based one decreased ant survival significantly during the evaluation period. Within three days, the imidacloprid bait produced over 50% mortality which increased to over 95% by the end of the experiment. Results from the other two bait treatments were not significantly different from the control.

  20. Aerial Application of Acetaminophen treated Baits for Control of Brown Treesnakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-22

    ejected properly from the dispenser. Another disadvantage of the dispensers was that only 144 flag-baits can be delivered before re-loading. This...Adams, and G. H. Rodda. 2009. Distribution, density, and biomass of introduced small mammals in the Southern Mariana Islands. Pac. Sci. 63: 205

  1. Influence of a mineral insecticide particle size on bait efficacy against Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas g. Shelton; Laurent Cartier; Terence L. Wagner; Christian Becker

    2007-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of termiticidal baits comprised of powdered acellulose and a mineral insecticide, cryolite crystals, in laboratory bioassays against pseudergates of Eastern subterranean termites [Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar)]. The influence of cryolite crystal size [0 (control), 0.2, and 20 pm diameter particles] on the overall mortality...

  2. Curcubitocin containing baits for Diabrotica spp. management/ Iscas contendo cucurbitacinas para o manejo de Diabrotica spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Ursi Ventura

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabrotica speciosa is a very important pest throughout Latin America, which management strategies are restrict to chemical control. We revise the usage of baits, containing semiochemicals, as management strategy for Diabrotica spp. Initially, we described the importance of baits for several orders of agricultural importance. The cucurbitacins are basic elements for Diabrotica spp. baits. These chemicals occur in some botanical families, especially Cucurbitaceae. The Carbamate insecticide Carbaril showed the best results for addition in the baits. Flowers volatile substances and pheromones also may be added to the baits to enhance attraction. Commercial baits are available for north-American species. For bait development is necessary to establish plant adherent formulations that promote the control during some weeks. We found in the literature that starch matrix may be suitable for this proposal.Diabrotica speciosa é praga de grande importância na América Latina, cujas estratégias de manejo restringem-se ao controle químico. A utilização de iscas, contendo semioquímicos como estratégia para manejo de Diabrotica spp. é revisada. Inicialmente, descreve-se a importância das iscas para diversas ordens de importância agrícola. As cucurbitacinas são elementos básicos das iscas para Diabrotica spp. Estas substâncias ocorrem em várias famílias botânicas, especialmente, Cucurbitaceae. O inseticida carbamato Carbaril apresenta os melhores resultados quando adicionado às iscas. Substâncias voláteis de flores e feromônios também podem ser adicionados às iscas e, desta forma, aumentar sua atratividade. Iscas comerciais existem para as espécies norte americanas. Para o desenvolvimento das iscas é necessário que se estabeleçam formulações aderentes às plantas que promovam o controle durante um tempo razoável no campo. Pelas informações da literatura, formulações contendo matrizes de amido podem ter estas características.

  3. Effect of trap design, bait type, and age on captures of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in berry crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Lindsy E; Nyoike, Teresia W; Liburd, Oscar E

    2014-08-01

    Field experiments were conducted in commercial southern highbush blueberries and wild blackberries to evaluate the attractiveness of different trap designs, bait types, and bait age on captures of the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). During the 2012 trap design study, the five treatments evaluated were four 1-liter clear plastic cup traps (with and without a yellow visual stimulus or odorless dish detergent) and the fifth treatment was a Pherocon AM yellow sticky card trap. Cup traps were baited with 150 ml of apple cider vinegar (ACV) and the Pherocon AM trap had a 7.4-ml glass vial containing ACV. In 2013, the Pherocon AM yellow sticky card was omitted because of low spotted wing drosophila captures in 2012. The four treatments evaluated were four 1-liter cup traps with and without a yellow visual stimulus. One cup trap (with a yellow stimulus) was baited with yeast + sugar in place of ACV and the other cup traps were baited with ACV. In both years, there were no differences in spotted wing drosophila captures among cup traps baited with ACV with and without yellow visual stimulus. However, the cup trap baited with yeast + sugar and yellow visual stimulus captured more spotted wing drosophila than the ACV-baited cup traps irrespective of visual stimulus or detergent. In another study, four baits including 1) ACV, 2) yeast + sugar mixture, 3) yeast + flour mixture (yeast, sugar, water, whole wheat flour, and ACV), and 4) wine + vinegar mixture (rice vinegar and merlot wine) were evaluated in a commercial blueberry planting using 1-liter clear plastic cup traps (as described above). The experiment was repeated in wild blackberries but the yeast + flour bait was replaced with ACV + merlot wine + sugar. Results indicated that the two yeast baits captured significantly more spotted wing drosophila and more nontarget organisms than the vinegar baits. In the final study, although we found that the attraction of ACV and

  4. Combined effect of hemipteran control and liquid bait on Argentine ant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, R J; Bambara, S B; Silverman, J

    2010-10-01

    The invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has become a worldwide problem capable of inflicting significant ecological and economic injury on urban, agricultural, and natural environments. The mobility of this pest ant has long been noted, rapidly moving nests to new food resources and then away as resources are depleted. This ant, like many pest ant species, has a special affinity for honeydew excreted by phloem-feeding Hemiptera. We investigated the effect of various hemipteran control strategies on terrapin scale densities and measured their indirect effect on local Argentine ant densities and foraging effort. We then determined whether this indirect treatment strategy improved the performance of an ant bait. We predicted that Argentine ants would move nests away from trees treated for Hemiptera and then move nests back when a liquid bait was offered, followed by a decline in ant numbers due to intake of the toxicant. A horticultural oil spray and soil application of the systemic insecticide, imidacloprid, had no effect on terrapin scale numbers. However, trunk-injected dicrotophos caused a reduction in scale and a decline in local Argentine ant nest density and canopy foraging effort. We also recorded a reduction in local Argentine ant ground foraging when large amounts of liquid bait were applied, and we found no evidence that combining dicrotophos with liquid ant bait performed better than each treatment alone. We suggest that a strategy of combined hemipteran control plus application of liquid ant bait can reduce local Argentine ant densities, when both components of this system are highly efficacious.

  5. Use of the paraffin wax baiting system for identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massengale, A R; Ollar, R A; Giordano, S J; Felder, M S; Aronoff, S C

    1999-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the primary pathogen among the Pseudomonads and is known for its minimal nutritional requirements, capacity to use paraffin as a sole carbon source, and biofilm formation. Because the ability of Pseudomonads to grow on paraffin is not commonly found among human pathogens and the primary Pseudomonas human pathogen is P. aeruginosa, we studied the adaptation of the paraffin baiting system for the growth and identification of clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. We also studied the effectiveness of combining a fluorescence assay measuring fluorescein (pyoverdin) production and oxidase test with the paraffin baiting assay for P. aeruginosa speciation. Strains were tested for the capacity to use paraffin as a sole carbon source using the paraffin baiting system with Czapek's minimal salt medium. Of 111 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates tested for using paraffin as a sole carbon source, 45% exhibited growth on paraffin at 24 h and 76.6% exhibited growth on paraffin at 48 h. The ability of the reference strains and clinical isolates were then tested for their ability to associate with the paraffin slide in the presence of an additional carbon source. Of 111 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates tested, 85 strains (76.6%), and 102 (93%) were associated with the paraffin surface at 24 and 48 h. We successfully combined fluorescence and oxidase assays with the paraffin baiting system for identification of P. aeruginosa. The simple and inexpensive paraffin baiting system is a useful method for the identification and study of P. aeruginosa suitable for both the clinical and research laboratory.

  6. Anticoagulant rodenticides on our public and community lands: spatial distribution of exposure and poisoning of a rare forest carnivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad W Gabriel

    Full Text Available Anticoagulant rodenticide (AR poisoning has emerged as a significant concern for conservation and management of non-target wildlife. The purpose for these toxicants is to suppress pest populations in agricultural or urban settings. The potential of direct and indirect exposures and illicit use of ARs on public and community forest lands have recently raised concern for fishers (Martes pennanti, a candidate for listing under the federal Endangered Species Act in the Pacific states. In an investigation of threats to fisher population persistence in the two isolated California populations, we investigate the magnitude of this previously undocumented threat to fishers, we tested 58 carcasses for the presence and quantification of ARs, conducted spatial analysis of exposed fishers in an effort to identify potential point sources of AR, and identified fishers that died directly due to AR poisoning. We found 46 of 58 (79% fishers exposed to an AR with 96% of those individuals having been exposed to one or more second-generation AR compounds. No spatial clustering of AR exposure was detected and the spatial distribution of exposure suggests that AR contamination is widespread within the fisher's range in California, which encompasses mostly public forest and park lands Additionally, we diagnosed four fisher deaths, including a lactating female, that were directly attributed to AR toxicosis and documented the first neonatal or milk transfer of an AR to an altricial fisher kit. These ARs, which some are acutely toxic, pose both a direct mortality or fitness risk to fishers, and a significant indirect risk to these isolated populations. Future research should be directed towards investigating risks to prey populations fishers are dependent on, exposure in other rare forest carnivores, and potential AR point sources such as illegal marijuana cultivation in the range of fishers on California public lands.

  7. Anticoagulant rodenticides in urban bobcats: exposure, risk factors and potential effects based on a 16-year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Armenta, Tiffany C.; Moriarty, Joanne G.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Wayne, Robert K.; Riley, Seth P. D.

    2015-01-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are increasingly recognized as a threat to nontarget wildlife. High exposure to ARs has been documented globally in nontarget predatory species and linked to the high prevalence of an ectoparasitic disease, notoedric mange. In southern California, mange associated with AR exposure has been the proximate cause of a bobcat (Lynx rufus) population decline. We measured AR exposure in bobcats from two areas in southern California, examining seasonal, demographic and spatial risk factors across landscapes including natural and urbanized areas. The long-term study included bobcats sampled over a 16-year period (1997–2012) and a wide geographic area. We sampled blood (N = 206) and liver (N = 172) to examine exposure ante- and post-mortem. We detected high exposure prevalence (89 %, liver; 39 %, blood) and for individuals with paired liver and blood data (N = 64), 92 % were exposed. Moreover, the animals with the most complete sampling were exposed most frequently to three or more compounds. Toxicant exposure was associated with commercial, residential, and agricultural development. Bobcats of both sexes and age classes were found to be at high risk of exposure, and we documented fetal transfer of multiple ARs. We found a strong association between certain levels of exposure (ppm), and between multiple AR exposure events, and notoedric mange. AR exposure was prevalent throughout both regions sampled and throughout the 16-year time period in the long-term study. ARs pose a substantial threat to bobcats, and likely other mammalian and avian predators, living at the urban-wildland interface.

  8. Effects of carbaryl-bran bait on trap catch and seed predation by ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Dennis J; DeFoliart, Linda S; Hagerty, Aaron M

    2013-04-01

    Carbaryl-bran bait is effective against grasshoppers without many impacts on nontarget organisms, but ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) may be susceptible to these baits. Carabids are beneficial in agricultural settings as predators of insect pests and weed seeds. Carabid species and their consumption of weed seeds have not been previously studied in agricultural settings in Alaska. This study examined the effect of grasshopper bran bait on carabid activity-density, as measured by pitfall trap catches, and subsequent predation by invertebrates of seeds of three species of weed. Data were collected in fallow fields in agricultural landscape in the interior of Alaska, near Delta Junction, in 2008 and 2010. Bait applications reduced ground beetle activity-density by over half in each of 2 yr of bait applications. Seed predation was generally low overall (1-10%/wk) and not strongly affected by the bait application, but predation of lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) seed was lower on treated plots in 1 yr (340 seeds recovered versus 317 seeds, on treated versus untreated plots, respectively). Predation of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers) seeds was correlated with ground beetle activity-density in 1 yr, and predation of dragonhead mint (Dracocephalum parvifolium Nutt.) seed in the other year. We conclude that applications of carbaryl-bran bait for control of grasshoppers will have only a small, temporary effect on weed seed populations in high-latitude agricultural ecosystems.

  9. 白蚁诱饵剂成型工艺的研究%Research of Shaping Craft of the Termite Bait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛东; 黄求应; 王满囷; 雷朝亮; 胡松

    2005-01-01

    The termite baits were maded by the handmade molding instrument, and the crackle degree of termite baits was regarded as the evaluation index. The shaping craft of the termite bait was studied by orthogonal method. The results of the experiment showed that the best shaping craft of the termite bait of the cane powder was:the thin cane powder, I0 % adhesive, 5 s of crush time and 200% water; while the best shaping craft of the termite bait of the pine fritter was:the thin pine fritter, 10 % adhesive,5 s of crush time and 100% water.

  10. Anticoagulant rodenticides in red-tailed hawks, Buteo jamaicensis, and great horned owls, Bubo virginianus, from New Jersey, USA, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansley, William; Cummings, Margaret; Vudathala, Daljit; Murphy, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    Liver samples from red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were analyzed for anticoagulant rodenticides. Residues of one or more second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) were detected in 81 % of red-tailed hawks and 82 % of great horned owls. The most frequently detected SGAR was brodifacoum, which was detected in 76 % of red-tailed hawks and 73 % of great horned owls. Bromadiolone was detected in 20 % of red-tailed hawks and 27 % of great horned owls. Difenacoum was detected in one great horned owl. No other ARs were detected. There were no significant differences between species in the frequency of detection or concentration of brodifacoum or bromadiolone. There was a marginally significant difference (p = 0.0497) between total SGAR residues in red-tailed hawks (0.117 mg/kg) and great horned owls (0.070 mg/kg). There were no seasonal differences in the frequency of detection or concentration of brodifacoum in red-tailed hawks. The data suggest that SGARs pose a significant risk of poisoning to predatory birds in New Jersey.

  11. Second generation anticoagulant rodenticides in predatory birds: Probabilistic characterisation of toxic liver concentrations and implications for predatory bird populations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philippe J; Mineau, Pierre; Shore, Richard F; Champoux, Louise; Martin, Pamela A; Wilson, Laurie K; Fitzgerald, Guy; Elliott, John E

    2011-07-01

    Second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) are widely used to control rodent pests but exposure and poisonings occur in non-target species, such as birds of prey. Liver residues are often analysed to detect exposure in birds found dead but their use to assess toxicity of SGARs is problematic. We analysed published data on hepatic rodenticide residues and associated symptoms of anticoagulant poisoning from 270 birds of prey using logistic regression to estimate the probability of toxicosis associated with different liver SGAR residues. We also evaluated exposure to SGARs on a national level in Canada by analysing 196 livers from great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) found dead at locations across the country. Analysis of a broader sample of raptor species from Quebec also helped define the taxonomic breadth of contamination. Calculated probability curves suggest significant species differences in sensitivity to SGARs and significant likelihood of toxicosis below previously suggested concentrations of concern (owls are exposed to SGARs to a greater extent than red-tailed hawks and the liver residue levels were also higher. Using our probability estimates of effect, we estimate that a minimum of 11% of the sampled great horned owl population is at risk of being directly killed by SGARs. This is the first time the potential mortality impact of SGARs on a raptor population has been estimated.

  12. Retention time of chlorophacinone in the tissues of black-tailed prairie dogs exposed to chlorophacinone bait

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Rozol prairie dog bait (0.005% chlorophacinone) was fed to male and female adult/subadult black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) over a 2-day period. The...

  13. Slug control in Australian canola: monitoring, molluscicidal baits and economic thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Michael A; Thomson, Linda J; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2007-09-01

    Exotic slugs have become serious pests of canola, at establishment, in Southern Australian high-rainfall cropping zones. Slugs were monitored using relatively inexpensive 300 mm x 300 mm terracotta tiles acting as refuges. An investigation was made of the effects of the time of application of chelated iron baits on the slug species Deroceras reticulatum Müller and Lehmannia nyctelia Bourguignat. Baits reduced the number of surface-active slug species. A single application at sowing provided greater efficacy than one application before sowing, and efficacy was comparable with that of two applications. Canola seedling densities showed a negative response to D. reticulatum numbers; the presence of even one individual per refuge trap reduced seedling numbers below optimum densities. Thistles and other vegetation were associated with increased numbers of slugs. European guidelines for slug monitoring and damage appear to be at least partly applicable to Australian conditions.

  14. Evaluations of dual attractant toxic sugar baits for surveillance and control of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Fiorenzano, Jodi M; Fulcher, Alice P; Seeger, Kelly E; Allan, Sandra A; Kline, Daniel L; Koehler, Philip G; Müller, Günter C; Xue, Rui-De

    2017-01-05

    Dual attractant toxic sugar baits (D-ATSB) containing two host kairomones, L-lactic (LA) and 1-octen-3-ol (O), and fruit-based attractants were evaluated through olfactory, consumption and mortality, and semi-field experiments to determine if host kairomones could first, enhance attraction of a fruit-based (attractant) toxic sugar bait (ATSB), and second, increase the efficacy of a fruit based attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB). Four combinations of LA and O were incorporated into the ATSB and evaluated in an olfactometer to determine if these combinations could enhance attraction of Aedes aegypti (L.) to the bait. Ae. albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. aegypti were used to determine bait consumption through excrement droplet counts and percent mortality, of the most attractive D-ATSB (1% LA and 1% O) from the olfactory study. Semi-field evaluations were conducted in screened portable field cages to determine if the D-ATSB applied to non-flowering plants controlled more mosquitoes than the fruit-based ATSB, and ASB. Mosquitoes were exposed to D-ATSB and the two controls for 48 h and collected with BGS traps. The catch rates of the BGS traps were compared to determine efficacy of the D-ATSB. During olfactometer evaluations of D-ATSB, Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were more attracted to 1% LA and 1% O compared to the fruit-based toxic sugar bait alone. Both species of mosquito consumed more fruit-based non-toxic bait (ASB) and ATSB than the D-ATSB. For both species, percent mortality bioassays indicated D-ATSB controlled mosquitoes, as compared to non-toxic control, but not more than the fruit based ATSB. Semi-field evaluations, BioGents sentinel traps at 48 h confirmed that ATSB (positive control) controlled Ae. albopictus, but there was no statistical difference between ASB (negative control) and the D-ATSB. No differences were observed between the mosquitoes caught in any of the experimental formulations for Ae. aegypti. L-lactic (1%) and 1-octen-3-ol (1%) added to a fruit

  15. [Effect of different baits as attractant for blowflies (Diptera) at Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Almeida, José M; Fraga, Mariana B

    2007-01-01

    It was carried out a survey of blowflies in an area of the Campus (Valonguinho) of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. The collections were performed with traps, using baits of fish (sardine), bovine liver, shrimps and banana. Were collected 6015 flies, Chrysomya megacephala and Lucilia eximia were the most frequent (50.55% and 21.52%, respectively). The flies were more abundant in February and March and the most attractive bait was fish (38.32%).

  16. Safety and immunogenicity of Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait (ONRAB) in the first us field trial in raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slate, Dennis; Chipman, Richard B; Algeo, Timothy P; Mills, Samuel A; Nelson, Kathleen M; Croson, Christopher K; Dubovi, Edward J; Vercauteren, Kurt; Renshaw, Randall W; Atwood, Todd; Johnson, Shylo; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2014-07-01

    In 2011, we conducted a field trial in rural West Virginia, USA to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a live, recombinant human adenovirus (AdRG1.3) rabies virus glycoprotein vaccine (Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait; ONRAB) in wild raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). We selected ONRAB for evaluation because of its effectiveness in raccoon rabies management in Ontario and Quebec, Canada, and significantly higher antibody prevalence rates in raccoons compared with a recombinant vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) vaccine, Raboral V-RG®, in US-Canada border studies. Raccoon rabies was enzootic and oral rabies vaccination (ORV) had never been used in the study area. We distributed 79,027 ONRAB baits at 75 baits/km(2) mostly by fixed-wing aircraft along parallel flight lines at 750-m intervals. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher at 49.2% (n=262) in raccoons after ONRAB was distributed than the 9.6% (n=395) before ORV. This was the highest antibody prevalence observed in raccoons by US Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services for areas with similar management histories evaluated before and after an initial ORV campaign at 75 baits/km(2) with Raboral V-RG. Tetracycline biomarker (TTCC) was significantly higher among antibody-positive raccoons after ONRAB baiting and was similar among raccoons before ORV had been conducted, an indication of vaccine-induced rabies virus-neutralizing antibody production following consumption of bait containing TTCC. Skunk sample size was inadequate to assess ONRAB effects. Safety and immunogenicity results supported replication of this field trial and led to a recommendation for expanded field trials in 2012 to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of ground-distributed ONRAB at 150 baits/km(2) in residential and commercial habitats in Ohio, USA and aerially distributed ONRAB at 75 baits/km(2) in rural habitats along US-Quebec border.

  17. Cow-baited tents are highly effective in sampling diverse Anopheles malaria vectors in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Laurent, Brandyce; Oy, Kolthida; Miller, Becky; Gasteiger, Elizabeth B; Lee, Eunjae; Sovannaroth, Siv; Gwadz, Robert W; Anderson, Jennifer M; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2016-08-30

    The accurate monitoring and evaluation of malaria vectors requires efficient sampling. The objective of this study was to compare methods for sampling outdoor-biting Anopheles mosquitoes in Cambodia. In the Cambodian provinces of Pursat, Preah Vihear, and Ratanakiri, six different mosquito trapping methods were evaluated: human landing collection (HLC), human-baited tent (HBT), cow-baited tent (CBT), CDC miniature light trap (LT), CDC miniature light trap baited with molasses and yeast (LT-M), and barrier fence (F) in a Latin square design during four or six consecutive nights at the height of the malaria transmission season. Using all traps, a total of 507, 1175, and 615 anophelines were collected in Pursat, Preah Vihear, and Ratanakiri, respectively. CBTs captured 10- to 20-fold more anophelines per night than the other five sampling methods. All 2297 Anopheles mosquitoes were morphologically identified and molecularly typed using standard morphological keys and sequencing the rDNA ITS2 region to distinguish cryptic species, respectively. Overall, an extremely diverse set of 27 known Anopheles species was sampled. CBTs captured the same molecular species that HLCs and the other four traps did, as well as additional species. Nine specimens representing five Anopheles species (Anopheles hyrcanus, Anopheles barbirostris sensu stricto, Anopheles barbirostris clade III, Anopheles nivipes, and Anopheles peditaeniatus) were infected with Plasmodium falciparum and were exclusively captured in CBTs. These data indicate that cow-baited tents are highly effective in sampling diverse Anopheles malaria vectors in Cambodia. This sampling method captured high numbers of anophelines with limited sampling effort and greatly reduced human exposure to mosquito bites compared to the gold-standard human landing collection.

  18. Odor-baited trap trees: a new approach to monitoring plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopy, Ronald J; Chandler, Bradley W; Dynok, Sara A; Piñero, Jaime C

    2003-06-01

    We compared a trap approach with a trap-tree approach to determine the need and timing of insecticide applications against overwintered adult plum curculios, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst.), in commercial apple orchards in Massachusetts in 2002. All traps and trap trees were baited with benzaldehyde (attractive fruit odor) plus grandisoic acid (attractive pheromone). Sticky clear Plexiglas panel traps placed at orchard borders, designed to intercept adults immigrating from border areas by flight, captured significantly more adults than similarly placed black pyramid traps, which are designed to capture adults immigrating primarily by crawling, or Circle traps wrapped around trunks of perimeter-row trees, which are designed to intercept adults crawling up tree trunks. None of these trap types, however, exhibited amounts of captures that correlated significantly with either weekly or season-long amounts of fresh ovipositional injury to fruit by adults. Hence, none appears to offer high promise as a tool for effectively monitoring the seasonal course of plum curculio injury to apples in commercial orchards in Massachusetts. In contrast, baiting branches of selected perimeter-row trees with benzaldehyde plus grandisoic acid led to significant aggregation (14-15-fold) of ovipositional injury, markedly facilitating monitoring of the seasonal course of injury to apples. A concurrent experiment revealed that addition of other synthetic fruit odor attractants to apple trees baited with benzaldehyde plus grandisoic acid did not enhance aggregation of ovipositional injury above that of this dual combination. We conclude that monitoring apples on odor-baited trap trees for fresh ovipositional injury could be a useful new approach for determining need and timing of insecticide application against plum curculio in commercial orchards.

  19. Monitoring gene flow from transgenic sugar beet using cytoplasmic male-sterile bait plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeglitz, C; Pohl, M; Bartsch, D

    2000-12-01

    One of the most discussed environmental effects associated with the use of transgenic plants is the flow of genes to plants in the environment. The flow of genes may occur through pollen since it is the reproductive system that is designed for gene movement. Pollen-mediated gene escape is hard to control in mating plants. Pollen from a wind pollinator can move over distances of more than 1000 m. To investigate the efficiency of transgenic pollen movement under realistic environmental conditions, the use of bait plants might be an effective tool. In this study, cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) sugar beets were tested with regard to their potential for monitoring transgene flow. As the pollen source, transgenic sugar beets were used that express recombinant DNA encoding viral (beet necrotic yellow vein virus) resistance, and antibiotic (kanamycin) and herbicide (glufosinate) tolerance genes. In a field trial, the effectiveness of a hemp (Cannabis sativa) stripe containment strategy was tested by measuring the frequency of pollinated CMS bait plants placed at different distances and directions from a transgenic pollen source. The results demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the containment strategy. Physiological and molecular tests confirmed the escape and production of transgenic offspring more than 200 m behind the hemp containment. Since absolute containment is unlikely to be effective, the CMS-bait plant detection system is a useful tool for other monitoring purposes.

  20. Implications for operational control of adult mosquito production in cisterns and wells in St. Augustine, FL using attractive sugar baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rudy; Revay, Edita E; Allan, Sandra A; Müller, Günter C

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the use of attractive sugar baits as an effective, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly tool for integrated mosquito management programs. Mosquitoes were offered dyed sugar bait in wells and cisterns in an urban tourist area in St. Augustine, FL. Exit traps were constructed to cover the well and cistern openings so the number of resting and emerging mosquitoes stained by feeding on the sugar bait could be monitored. Four mosquito species were collected from these structures: Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Anopheles crucians (Wiedemann), Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus (Coquillett). Overall, 90% (1482/1644) of the mosquitoes trapped were stained. In general, the number of mosquitoes stained was significantly greater in wells (Pcisterns (P<0.0001) than the numbers that were not stained by the colored bait. Based on the number of mosquitoes stained, we would have expected considerable mosquito mortality had the sugar bait contained an oral toxin. The results of this study support the concept of using attractive toxic sugar baits as an effective tool for integrated mosquito management.

  1. Effect of application rate and persistence of boric acid sugar baits applied to plants for control of Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui-De; Müller, Günter C; Kline, Daniel L; Barnard, Donald R

    2011-03-01

    The use of toxic bait to kill adult Aedes albopictus is a safe and potentially effective alternative to the use of synthetic chemical insecticides. This study was carried out to determine effective concentrations of boric acid needed in sugar bait solutions applied to plant surfaces, and to determine its residual effect in reducing adult mosquito densities. In outdoor tests in 1,100-m3 screened enclosures, landing rates of Ae. albopictus on a human subject and the number of female mosquitoes in mechanical traps were significantly reduced by a 1% boric acid bait compared with the other tested concentrations (0.25%, 0.50%, and 0.75%) and untreated control. Studies of the duration of boric acid activity on plant surfaces were made in 1.4-m3 cages in the laboratory and outdoors in 78-m3 screened enclosures. In the laboratory tests, 1% boric acid bait resulted in >96% mortality in male and female Ae. albopictus for 14 days, whereas in outdoor tests, mosquito landing rates in the treated enclosures were significantly lower than in the control enclosures for 7 days. Also, mosquito mortality responses to boric acid baits between plants with flowers and nonflowers (1.4-m3 cages in the laboratory) were not significantly different. The results of this study suggest that boric acid baits applied to plant surfaces may provide specific data related to the development of an effective point-source-based adjunct/alternative to the use of conventional adulticides for mosquito control.

  2. Environmental and bathymetric influences on abyssal bait-attending communities of the Clarion Clipperton Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Astrid B.; Neuheimer, Anna B.; Donlon, Erica; Smith, Craig R.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.

    2017-07-01

    The Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) is one of the richest manganese nodule provinces in the world and has recently become a focus area for manganese nodule mining interests. However, this vast area remains poorly studied and highly undersampled. In this study, the abyssal bait-attending fauna is documented for the first time using a series of baited camera deployments in various locations across the CCZ. A bait-attending community intermediate between those typical of the California margin and Hawaii was found in the larger CCZ area, generally dominated by rattail fishes, dendrobranchiate shrimp, and zoarcid and ophidiid fishes. Additionally, the western and eastern ends of the CCZ had different communities, with the western region characterized by decreased dominance of rattails and small shrimps and increased dominance of ophidiids (especially Bassozetus sp. and Barathrites iris) and large shrimps. This trend may be related to increasing distance from the continental margin. We also test the hypothesis that bait-attending communities change across the CCZ in response to key environmental predictors, especially topography and nodule cover. Our analyses showed that higher nodule cover and elevated topography, as quantified using the benthic positioning index (BPI), increase bait-attending community diversity. Elevated topography generally had higher relative abundances, but taxa also showed differing responses to the BPI metric and bottom temperature, causing significant community compositional change over varying topography and temperatures. Larger individuals of the dominant scavenger in the CCZ, Coryphaenoides spp., were correlated with areas of higher nodule cover and with abyssal hills, suggesting these areas may be preferred habitat. Our results suggest that nodule cover is important to all levels of the benthic ecosystem and that nodule mining could have negative impacts on even the top-level predators and scavengers in the CCZ. Additionally, there is

  3. Bait Preference of Free-Ranging Feral Swine for Delivery of a Novel Toxicant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P Snow

    Full Text Available Invasive feral swine (Sus scrofa cause extensive damage to agricultural and wildlife resources throughout the United States. Development of sodium nitrite as a new, orally delivered toxicant is underway to provide an additional tool to curtail growth and expansion of feral swine populations. A micro-encapsulation coating around sodium nitrite is used to minimize detection by feral swine and maximize stability for the reactive molecule. To maximize uptake of this toxicant by feral swine, development a bait matrix is needed to 1 protect the micro-encapsulation coating so that sodium nitrite remains undetectable to feral swine, 2 achieve a high degree of acceptance by feral swine, and 3 be minimally appealing to non-target species. With these purposes, a field evaluation at 88 sites in south-central Texas was conducted using remote cameras to evaluate preferences by feral swine for several oil-based bait matrices including uncolored peanut paste, black-colored peanut paste, and peanut-based slurry mixed onto whole-kernel corn. These placebo baits were compared to a reference food, whole-kernel corn, known to be readily taken by feral swine (i.e., control. The amount of bait consumed by feral swine was also estimated using remote cameras and grid boards at 5 additional sites. On initial exposure, feral swine showed reduced visitations to the uncolored peanut paste and peanut slurry treatments. This reduced visitation subsided by the end of the treatment period, suggesting that feral swine needed time to accept these bait types. The black-colored peanut paste was visited equally to the control throughout the study, and enough of this matrix was consumed to deliver lethal doses of micro-encapsulated sodium nitrite to most feral swine during 1-2 feeding events. None of the treatment matrices reduced visitations by nontarget species, but feral swine dominated visitations for all matrices. It was concluded that black-colored peanut paste achieved

  4. [Assessment of the impact of the biological rodenticide Biorat in populations of rodents settled in several crops of the Republic of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafaña Martín, F; Silva Pupo, M; Ruiz Blanco, J; Sánchez Rojas, L G; Campos Muñoz, A

    1999-01-01

    The impact of biological rodenticide Biorat on populations of rodents settled in some crops was determined; these crops are highly infested with Sigmodon hispidus, a very common vector in various Central American countries. The trapping technique and the appraisal of damages allowed to calculate the index of infestation which ranged from 75 to 90 percent in three crops. Twenty for to 36 kg of BIORAT were applied to 6 ha planted with Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Ipomoea batata (sweet potato) and Ananas comusus (pineapple). This action brought about that the rodent population in such crops reduced the potential damage and consequently, index of infestation was reduced by 94.6 to 98%; therefore, the residual population left amounted from 2 to 3.5%, meaning that damages were under the economic threshold. Generally speaking, the results were similar to those of other countries.

  5. Evaluation of Doxycycline-Laden Oral Bait and Topical Fipronil Delivered in a Single Bait Box to Control Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) and Reduce Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Small Mammal Reservoirs and Host-Seeking Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Marc C; Schulze, Terry L; Jordan, Robert A; Schulze, Christopher J; Ullmann, Amy J; Hojgaard, Andrias; Williams, Martin A; Piesman, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    A field trial was conducted on residential properties in a Lyme disease endemic area of New Jersey to determine the efficacy of Maxforce Tick Management System (TMS) bait boxes modified with doxycycline hyclate-laden bait to reduce the acarological risk of Lyme disease and the utility of galvanized steel shrouds to protect the bait boxes from squirrel depredation and ability to routinely service these devices. The strategy began with a 9-wk deployment against larvae followed by a 17-wk deployment against nymphs and larvae the second year. Passive application of fipronil reduced nymphal and larval tick burdens on small mammals by 76 and 77%, respectively, and nymphal tick abundance by 81% on treated properties. In addition, the percentage of infected small mammals recovered from intervention areas following treatment was reduced by 96% for Borrelia burgdorferi and 93% for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Infection prevalence in host-seeking nymphal ticks for both B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum were reduced by 93 and 61%, respectively. Results indicate that Maxforce TMS bait boxes fitted with doxycycline-impregnated bait is an effective means of reducing ticks and infection prevalence for B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum in both rodent reservoirs and questing Ixodes scapularis Say ticks. The protective shroud allows the device to be routinely serviced and protect against squirrel depredation. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Optimizing odor-baited trap methods for collecting mosquitoes during the malaria season in The Gambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Jawara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Baited traps are potential tools for removal or surveillance of disease vectors. To optimize the use of counter-flow traps baited with human odor (nylon socks that had been worn for a single day to capture wild mosquitoes in the Gambia, investigations were conducted at a field experimental site. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experiments employing Latin square design were conducted with a set of six huts to investigate the effects of the following on overnight mosquito trap catches: (1 placement of traps indoors or immediately outdoors, CO(2 supply, and presence of a human subject in the hut; (2 trap height for collecting mosquitoes immediately outdoors; (3 height and distance from hut; (4 interaction between multiple traps around a single hut and entry of mosquitoes into huts. A total of 106,600 adult mosquitoes (9.1% Anopheles gambiae s.l., 4.0% other Anopheles species were collected over 42 nights. The high numbers of An. gambiae s.l. and other mosquitoes collected by odor-baited traps required CO(2 but were largely independent of the presence of a person sleeping in the hut or of trap placement indoors or outdoors. For outdoor collection that is considered less intrusive, traps opening 15 cm above the floor of the hut veranda were more highly effective than traps at other heights or further from the hut. There was no significant evidence of saturation or competition by the traps, with multiple traps around a hut each collecting almost as many mosquitoes as single traps and no effect on the numbers of mosquitoes entering the huts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The outdoor trapping protocol is convenient to compare attractiveness of different odors or synthetic chemicals to malaria vectors and other wild mosquitoes. The finding that such traps are reliably attractive in the presence or absence of a human volunteer encourages their potential development as standardised surveillance tools.

  7. Attractive toxic sugar baits mixed with pyriproxyfen sprayed on plants against adult and larval Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Ali; Scott, Jodi M; Qualls, Whitney A; Müller, Günter C; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-07-01

    The effect of spraying a mixture of the insect growth regulator (IGR) pyriproxyfen (1 mg/liter) and either 1% boric acid sugar bait or eugenol sugar bait on croton petra plants (Codiaeum variegatum L.) was evaluated against the container-inhabiting mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse). Treatments were applied to plants and evaluated against adult and larval Ae. albopictus in the laboratory through contact and wash off experiments, respectively. The control treatment lacked an active ingredient and were treated with an attractive sugar bait. The plants treated with attractive toxic sugar baits plus the IGR resulted in 60-100% mortality of laboratory-reared adult Ae. albopictus. The pyriproxyfen solutions collected from the plant wash experiment resulted in 80-100% emergence inhibition to the exposed third- and fourth-instar larvae, compared with the untreated control. Attractive toxic sugar baits mixed with the IGR not only provide effective control of adult mosquitoes, but also provide additional control of larval mosquitoes after being washed off from the treated plants.

  8. Development of an attractant-baited trap for Oxythyrea funesta Poda (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuts, József; Imrei, Zoltán; Töth, Miklós

    2008-01-01

    In electroantennographic tests isosafrol, methyl salicylate, (+/-)-lavandulol, geraniol, (E)-anethol, and beta-ionone evoked the largest responses from antennae of female or male Oxythyrea funesta (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) adult beetles. In field trapping tests in Hungary the 1:1 blend of (+/-)-lavandulol and 2-phenylethanol attracted significantly more adult O. funesta than the single compounds. The addition of (E)-anethol, a previously described attractant for the species, was without effect. There was no difference in the responses of male or female beetles. The binary 2-phenylethanol/(+/-)-lavandulol bait described, in this study is recommended for the use in traps of O. funesta for agricultural purposes.

  9. Click bait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Jonas Nygaard; Reinecke Hansen, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This is why you should read this article. Although such an opening statement does not make much sense read in isolation, journalists often write headlines like this on news websites. They use the forward-referring technique as a stylistic and narrative luring device trying to induce anticipation...... and curiosity so the readers click (or tap on) the headline and read on. In this article, we map the use of forward-referring headlines in online news journalism by conducting an analysis of 100,000 headlines from 10 different Danish news websites. The results show that commercialization and tabloidization seem...... to lead to a recurrent use of forward-reference in Danish online news headlines. In addition, the article contributes to reference theory by expanding previous models on phoricity to include multimodal references on the web....

  10. Application of Bait Treated with the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin for the Control of Microcerotermes diversus Silv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Cheraghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera, Termitidae is considered to be the most destructive termite in Khuzestan province (Iran, and its control by conventional methods is often difficult. Biological control using entomopathogenic fungi could be an alternative management strategy. Performance of a bait matrix treated with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin, Strain Saravan (DEMI 001, against M. diversus was evaluated in this paper. The highest rate of mortality occurred at concentrations of 3.7 × 107 and 3.5 × 108 (conidia per mL. There was no significant difference between treatments, in the rate of feeding on the bait. The fungal pathogen was not repellent to the target termite over the conidial concentrations used. The current results suggest potential of such bait system in controlling termite. However the effectiveness of M. anisopliae as a component of integrated pest management for M. diversus still needs to be proven under field conditions.

  11. Efficiency of time-lapse intervals and simple baits for camera surveys of wild pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.L.; Holtfreter, R.W.; Ditchkoff, S.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Growing concerns surrounding established and expanding populations of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have created the need for rapid and accurate surveys of these populations. We conducted surveys of a portion of the wild pig population on Fort Benning, Georgia, to determine if a longer time-lapse interval than had been previously used in surveys of wild pigs would generate similar detection results. We concurrently examined whether use of soured corn at camera sites affected the time necessary for pigs to locate a new camera site or the time pigs remained at a site. Our results suggest that a 9-min time-lapse interval generated dependable detection results for pigs and that soured corn neither attracted pigs to a site any quicker than plain, dry, whole-kernel corn, nor held them at a site longer. Maximization of time-lapse interval should decrease data and processing loads, and use of a simple, available bait should decrease cost and effort associated with more complicated baits; combination of these concepts should increase efficiency of wild pig surveys. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  12. Management strategy evaluation of pheromone-baited trapping techniques to improve management of invasive sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Heather; Jones, Michael L.; Irwin, Brian J.; Johnson, Nicholas; Wagner, Michael C.; Szymanski, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    We applied a management strategy evaluation (MSE) model to examine the potential cost-effectiveness of using pheromone-baited trapping along with conventional lampricide treatment to manage invasive sea lamprey. Four pheromone-baited trapping strategies were modeled: (1) stream activation wherein pheromone was applied to existing traps to achieve 10−12 mol/L in-stream concentration, (2) stream activation plus two additional traps downstream with pheromone applied at 2.5 mg/hr (reverse-intercept approach), (3) trap activation wherein pheromone was applied at 10 mg/hr to existing traps, and (4) trap activation and reverse-intercept approach. Each new strategy was applied, with remaining funds applied to conventional lampricide control. Simulating deployment of these hybrid strategies on fourteen Lake Michigan streams resulted in increases of 17 and 11% (strategies 1 and 2) and decreases of 4 and 7% (strategies 3 and 4) of the lakewide mean abundance of adult sea lamprey relative to status quo. MSE revealed performance targets for trap efficacy to guide additional research because results indicate that combining lampricides and high efficacy trapping technologies can reduce sea lamprey abundance on average without increasing control costs.

  13. Field evaluation of baited traps for surveillance of Aedes japonicus japonicus in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrino, F; Schaffner, F; Forgia, D L; Paslaru, A I; Torgerson, P R; Mathis, A; Veronesi, E

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy of Centers for Disease Control (CDC) miniature light traps and ovitraps was tested in the outskirts of the city of Zurich in Switzerland for their use in the surveillance of Aedes (Hulecoeteomyia) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae), the invasive Asian bush mosquito. Sets of single CDC traps were run overnight (n = 18) in three different environments (forest, suburban and urban) in 3 × 3 Latin square experimental designs. Traps were baited with: (a) carbon dioxide (CO2 ); (b) CO2 plus light, or (c) CO2 plus lure blend [Combi FRC 3003 (iGu® )]. At the same locations, mosquito eggs were collected weekly using standard ovitraps baited with different infusions (oak, hay or tap water) and equipped with different oviposition substrates (a block of extruded polystyrene, a germination paper strip or a wooden stick). Data were analysed using Poisson and negative binomial general linear models. The use of light (P ovitraps compared with standing tap water (P > 0.05), and extruded polystyrene blocks were preferred as an oviposition substrate over wooden sticks (P ovitraps containing standing tap water and polystyrene oviposition blocks can be considered as efficient and simple tools for use in Ae. j. japonicus surveillance programmes. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  14. Development and laboratory evaluation of chemically-based baited ovitrap for the monitoring of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Américo D; García-Rejón, Julián E; Ríos-Delgado, Silvany; Torres-Estrada, José L

    2013-06-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is considered to be the most important dengue vector worldwide. Studies were conducted to design and evaluate a chemically-based baited ovitrap for monitoring Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions. Several known chemical attractants and three types of ovitraps (ovitraps A, B, and C) were evaluated throughout the oviposition bioassays. Oviposition responses of gravid female Ae. aegypti were evaluated to n-heneicosane, 3-methylindole (skatole), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and phenol. Female Ae. aegypti were attracted to all the evaluated compounds. Among them, n-heneicosane at a concentration of 10 ppm (mg/l), skatole from 50 to 1000 ppm, p-cresol at 100 ppm, and phenol at 50 ppm showed a significant positive oviposition response. A blend of the four chemical attractants increased the oviposition response; 67% of the eggs were deposited in the treatment compared to the control. Female Ae. aegypti were significantly more attracted to ovitrap A loaded with the four-component synthetic blend compared to the standard ovitrap in the oviposition bioassays. The compound used in ovitrap A retained its attractant property for up to three days. The chemically-based baited ovitrap may be considered as an option to be integrated during the monitoring of dengue virus vectors in México. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  15. A pull-down method with a biotinylated bait protein prepared by cell-free translation using a puromycin linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yuki; Kohno, Fumiaki; Nishigaki, Koichi; Nemoto, Naoto

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel pull-down method that dramatically reduces the cost and preparation time of a bait protein by cell-free translation with a puromycin linker. With the C-terminus of the bait protein linked to biotin through a puromycin molecule after the translation reaction and subsequent mRNA degradation by RNase, the prey protein was easily pulled down by streptavidin-coated magnetic beads in a test tube. Three fluorescent prey protein types were tested and confirmed by gel electrophoresis to be pulled down easily and rapidly, depending on their affinity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  17. Big Game Reporting Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  18. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  19. Streamflow Gaging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  20. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  1. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  2. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need...... special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  3. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  4. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  5. Newport Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Newport Research Station is the Center's only ocean-port research facility. This station is located at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center,...

  6. Station Climatic Summaries, Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    OCDS) ................................................... 077 BIRJAND 408090 8612 (OCDS) ............................................. ( 381 BUSHEHR...ALL HOURS # 2 1 0 1 0 # 0 # 1 # 1 1 CACECR-IB 080 OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMM ARY STATION: BIRJAND , IRAN STATION #: 408090 ICAO ID...082. L@ OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SIJ44ARY STATION: BIRJAND , IRAN STATION #: 408090 ICAO ID: OIMB LOCATION: 32054’N, 59016’E ELEVATION (FEET): 4823 LST

  7. Oral rabies vaccination of raccoons and striped skunks with ONRAB® baits: multiple factors influence field immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainguy, Julien; Rees, Erin E; Canac-Marquis, Pierre; Bélanger, Denise; Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Séguin, Guylaine; Larrat, Sylvain; Lair, Stéphane; Landry, François; Côté, Nathalie

    2012-10-01

    Multiple control methods have been used in North America to manage the spread of rabies caused by the raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies virus variant (RRVV). Recently, oral vaccination with ONRAB(®) vaccine baits, which contain an adenovirus rabies glycoprotein recombinant, has been made available as an additional tool for rabies control. Our objectives were to estimate rabies antibody prevalence in wild-caught raccoons and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and identify factors influencing the probability of being antibody positive at the individual level in these species, following oral rabies vaccination (ORV) campaigns in which ONRAB was distributed aerially in 2007-2009 in southern Québec, Canada. Following the aerial distribution of 43-155 ONRAB baits/km(2), the annual percentages of antibody-positive raccoons and skunks varied between 35% and 56% and 11% and 17%, respectively. In raccoons, the probability of being antibody positive was positively associated with age and density of ONRAB distributed, and influenced by the number of previous ORV campaigns conducted. Conversely, this probability was negatively associated with estimated abundance of raccoons in the trapping cell and proportion of residential areas near the raccoon capture location. None of the variables examined explained variation in the probability of being antibody positive in skunks. Our results indicate that the ONRAB density applied during ORV campaigns should be adjusted to account for variations in raccoon population density and presence of residential areas to increase the likelihood of creating an effective immunological barrier against RRVV. The high percentage of juvenile raccoons (annual mean =45 ± 3 [SE]%) and skunks (66 ± 2%) captured during post-ORV monitoring suggests that ORV campaigns should be conducted at least annually to account for the recruitment of naïve individuals into the populations. In Québec, the increasing use of ONRAB coincided with the elimination of rabies

  8. Attractiveness of MM-X traps baited with human or synthetic odor to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Spitzen, J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Jawara, M.; Milligan, P.; Galimard, A.M.S.; Beek, van T.A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to

  9. Attractive Toxic Sugar Bait (ATSB) For Control of Mosquitoes and Its Impact on Non-Target Organisms: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenzano, Jodi M.; Koehler, Philip G.; Xue, Rui-De

    2017-01-01

    Mosquito abatement programs contend with mosquito-borne diseases, insecticidal resistance, and environmental impacts to non-target organisms. However, chemical resources are limited to a few chemical classes with similar modes of action, which has led to insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. To develop a new tool for mosquito abatement programs that control mosquitoes while combating the issues of insecticidal resistance, and has low impacts of non-target organisms, novel methods of mosquito control, such as attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSBs), are being developed. Whereas insect baiting to dissuade a behavior, or induce mortality, is not a novel concept, as it was first introduced in writings from 77 AD, mosquito baiting through toxic sugar baits (TSBs) had been quickly developing over the last 60 years. This review addresses the current body of research of ATSB by providing an overview of active ingredients (toxins) include in TSBs, attractants combined in ATSB, lethal effects on mosquito adults and larvae, impact on non-target insects, and prospects for the use of ATSB. PMID:28394284

  10. Comparison of Paraffin Bait, Humic Acid Vitamin B Agar and Paraffin Agar Methods to Isolate Nocardia from Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoulinasab, M. (MSc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The Isolation of Nocardia species is complex and time-consuming, which is due to rapid growth of adjacent bacteria. Because of the importance of a specific medium with the ability of controlling intrusive microorganisms, this study aimed at comparing three laboratory methods to introduce the reliable isolation technique for Nocardia species. Material and Methods: The soil samples were collected from different regions of Tehran province, Iran, and carefully transferred to the laboratory. The samples were cultured in three different media including Paraffin Baiting,Humic acid vitamin B agar and Paraffin agar, and incubated for 3-4 weeks at 35 °C. Results: Of 110 soil samples, 31 Nocardia isolates (28.18% were obtained from the media including Paraffin Baiting, (19; 17.27%, Humic acid and vitamin B agar (4; 3.63%, and Paraffin agar, (8; 7.27%. Conclusion: because of high rate of isolation, low cost and the clearance of colonies suspected nocardia, Paraffin Bait technique is more reliable and efficient compared to the other methods. Key words: Nocardia; Soil; Paraffin Baiting; Humic Acid Vitamin B

  11. Evaluation of insecticide impregnated baits for control of mosquito larvae in land crab burrows on French Polynesian atolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeux, Frederic; Sechan, Yves; Faaruia, Marc

    2002-07-01

    Land crab burrows are larval mosquito habitats of major significance in the Pacific region. They are constituted by a sinuous tunnel leading to a chamber in contact with the water table, where mosquito larvae proliferate. Controlling larvae in these sites is difficult, because the configuration of burrows prevents the use of standard techniques. An experiment was carried out in French Polynesia to control Aedes polynesiensis Marks and Culex spp. breeding in burrows of the land crab Cardisoma carnifex (Herbst). The technique was based on the crab's behavior, which involves the crab carrying food into its burrow. It was shown that appetizing baits impregnated with an insecticide were carried by crabs into the flooded chamber of their burrows. A field treatment of burrows was carried out by sowing insecticide impregnated baits on the ground. The treatment coverage was almost perfect and the easy implementation of the technique enabled large areas to be treated in a short time. The bait was developed by compacting various flours, which easily incorporate a large variety of insecticide formulations. Although the baits can be easily stocked, a reliable insecticide is still to be found. The results indicate that our technique could be a method of choice for treating crab burrows.

  12. Capture of non-target flies (Diptera: Lauxaniidae, Chloropidae, Anthomyiidae) on traps baited with volatile chemicals in field crop habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile chemicals increased trap catch of flies from the families Lauxaniidae [Homoneura bispina (Loew) and Camptoprosopella borealis Shewell], Chloropidae (Olcella sp.) and Anthomyiidae (Delia spp.) in field crops. With cotton rolls as dispensers, baiting with 2-phenylethanol increased catch of H...

  13. Attractive Toxic Sugar Bait (ATSB) For Control of Mosquitoes and Its Impact on Non-Target Organisms: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenzano, Jodi M; Koehler, Philip G; Xue, Rui-De

    2017-04-10

    Mosquito abatement programs contend with mosquito-borne diseases, insecticidal resistance, and environmental impacts to non-target organisms. However, chemical resources are limited to a few chemical classes with similar modes of action, which has led to insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. To develop a new tool for mosquito abatement programs that control mosquitoes while combating the issues of insecticidal resistance, and has low impacts of non-target organisms, novel methods of mosquito control, such as attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSBs), are being developed. Whereas insect baiting to dissuade a behavior, or induce mortality, is not a novel concept, as it was first introduced in writings from 77 AD, mosquito baiting through toxic sugar baits (TSBs) had been quickly developing over the last 60 years. This review addresses the current body of research of ATSB by providing an overview of active ingredients (toxins) include in TSBs, attractants combined in ATSB, lethal effects on mosquito adults and larvae, impact on non-target insects, and prospects for the use of ATSB.

  14. Efficacy of a fipronil bait in reducing the number of fleas (Oropsylla spp.) infesting wild black-tailed prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poché, David M; Hartman, Daniel; Polyakova, Larisa; Poché, Richard M

    2017-06-01

    Bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis) is a deadly zoonosis with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) as a reservoir host in the United States. Systemic insecticides are a promising means of controlling the vectors, Oropsylla spp. fleas, infesting these prairie dogs, subsequently disrupting the Y. pestis cycle. The objective of this study was to conduct a field trial evaluating the efficacy of a grain rodent bait containing fipronil (0.005%) against fleas infesting prairie dogs. The study was performed in Larimer County, CO, where bait was applied to a treatment area containing a dense prairie dog population, three times over a three-week period. Prairie dogs were captured and combed for fleas during four study periods (pre-, mid-, 1(st) post-, and 2(nd) post-treatment). Results indicated the use of bait containing fipronil significantly reduced flea burden. The bait containing fipronil was determined to reduce the mean number of fleas per prairie dog >95% for a minimum of 52 days post-initial treatment application and 31 days post-final treatment application. These results suggest the potential for this form of treatment to reduce flea population density on prairie dogs, and subsequently plague transmission, among mammalian hosts across the United States and beyond. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  15. Feeding of Bait to Snail Lymnaea acuminata and Their Effect on Certain Enzyme in the Nervous Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, V K; Singh, D K

    2012-01-01

    Fascioliasis, a snail-borne parasitic zoonosis, has been recognized for a long time because of its major veterinary and human impact. Different Bait formulations were fed to the snail Lymnaea acuminata in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Snail attractant containing bait formulations was prepared from different binary combination (1 : 1 ratio) of carbohydrates (glucose, starch 10 mM) and amino acid (methionine, histidine 10 mM) in 100 ml of 2% agar solution + sublethal (20% and 60% of 24 h and 96 h LC50) doses of different molluscicides (eugenol, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, and limonene). Snails fed on bait containing sub-lethal concentration of different molluscicides and the snail attractant, causing a significant inhibition in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the nervous tissue of the vector snail L. acuminata. Maximum inhibition in ALP (20% of control) and AChE (49.49% of control) activity was observed in the nervous tissue of the L. acuminata exposed to 60% of 96 h LC50 of eugenol in the bait pellets containing starch + histidine, starch + methionine, respectively.

  16. Development of in situ and ex situ seed baiting techniques to detect mycorrhizal fungi from terrestrial orchid habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundrett, Mark C; Scade, Ailsa; Batty, Andrew L; Dixon, Kingsley W; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai

    2003-10-01

    An innovative ex situ fungal baiting method using soil collected from field sites which allows the simultaneous detection of mycorrhizal fungi for multiple terrestrial orchids is presented. This method demonstrated that coarse organic matter (> 2 mm) in the litter and topsoil was the most important reservoir of inoculum of these fungi. A new in situ seed baiting method using multi-chambered packets to simultaneously assess germination for different orchid species within soil is also introduced. These in situ and ex situ methods are compared using seed of orchids in the genera Monadenia, Microtis, Caladenia, Pterostylis and Diuris, using urban Banksia woodland sites with high or low weed cover. Both these seed baiting methods detected compatible fungi for these orchids, but common orchids germinated more frequently than those which were uncommon at the field sites. Germination rates were not significantly affected by weed cover even though adult orchids were rare in areas with high weed cover. The two new seed baiting methods vary in efficiency and applicability depending on the situation where they are used. However, the ex situ method allowed the time-course of germination to be observed, resulting in the production of more protocorms and facilitation of the isolation of mycorrhizal fungi. These techniques provide valuable new tools for detection of compatible mycorrhizal fungi to assist orchid research and conservation.

  17. Adding food baits to expand the list of insecticide classes used to manage Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii has become a major pest of fruit crops, including cherry in the western United States. We evaluated whether the addition of sugary baits could improve the efficacy of two classes of insecticides not considered to be sufficiently effective for this pest, diamides and spinosyns, in ...

  18. Oviposition in Sweet Cherry by Reproductively Mature Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Tephritidae:Diptera) Fed Spinosad and Neonicotinoid Insecticide Baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Spinosad bait is applied weekly to kill flies before they develop eggs, but its effects on oviposition by flies that are reproductively mature are unknown. ...

  19. Attractive Toxic Sugar Bait (ATSB For Control of Mosquitoes and Its Impact on Non-Target Organisms: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi M. Fiorenzano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito abatement programs contend with mosquito-borne diseases, insecticidal resistance, and environmental impacts to non-target organisms. However, chemical resources are limited to a few chemical classes with similar modes of action, which has led to insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. To develop a new tool for mosquito abatement programs that control mosquitoes while combating the issues of insecticidal resistance, and has low impacts of non-target organisms, novel methods of mosquito control, such as attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSBs, are being developed. Whereas insect baiting to dissuade a behavior, or induce mortality, is not a novel concept, as it was first introduced in writings from 77 AD, mosquito baiting through toxic sugar baits (TSBs had been quickly developing over the last 60 years. This review addresses the current body of research of ATSB by providing an overview of active ingredients (toxins include in TSBs, attractants combined in ATSB, lethal effects on mosquito adults and larvae, impact on non-target insects, and prospects for the use of ATSB.

  20. Efficacy of a square presentation of V-RG vaccine baits in red fox, domestic dog and raccoon dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, F; Guiot, A L; Schumacher, C; Maki, J; Cael, N; Barrat, J

    2008-01-01

    Oral vaccination programmes conducted in rabies infected countries from Eastern Europe and Eurasia should not be restricted to foxes but should target other major rabies vectors such as dogs and raccoon dogs as well. The objective of this experimental trial was to assess the protection induced by the vaccine by challenging these different species, which had been previously vaccinated intramuscularly with the square V-RG baits (produced in the US). Different parameters were evaluated such as attractiveness of the baits and induction of neutralising antibodies as an indicator for immunogenicity and protection after rabies challenge. The acceptability of the square bait was satisfactory in dogs, foxes and raccoon dogs, confirming previous laboratory and field studies conducted with the rectangular baits. Only one vaccinated dog out of nine seroconverted after vaccination and among them one dog died of rabies. Eight of ten vaccinated foxes seroconverted after vaccination and survived the rabies challenge. All vaccinated raccoon dogs seroconverted after challenge and all survived the challenge. These trials demonstrated that the square presentation of the V-RG vaccine was attractive, immunogenic and efficacious.

  1. Differential attraction of drosophilids to banana baits inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora uvarum within a Neotropical forest remnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R.D. Batista

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Yeasts are a necessary requisite in the diet of most Drosophila species that, in turn, may vector their dispersal in natural environments. Differential attractiveness experiments and the isolation of yeasts consumed by Drosophila may be informative for characterizing this association. Hanseniaspora uvarum is among the most common yeast species isolated from Drosophila crops, with high attractiveness to drosophilids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used to collect flies, and it allows broad sampling of almost all local Drosophila species. Pronounced differences in the field concerning Drosophila attractivity to baits seeded with these yeast species have been previously reported. However, few explicit generalizations have been set. Since late fifties, no field experiments of Drosophila attractivity were carried out in the Neotropical region, which is facing shifts in abiotic and biotic factors. Our objective is to characterize preference behavior that mediates the interaction in the wild among Neotropical Drosophila species and yeasts associated with them. We want to set a broad generalization about drosophilids attracted to these yeasts. Here we present the results of a differential attractiveness experiment we carried out in a natural Atlantic Rainforest fragment to assess the preferences of Drosophila species groups to baits inoculated with H. uvarum and S. cerevisiae. Methods Both yeast species were cultured in GYMP broth and separately poured in autoclaved mashed banana that was left fermenting. In the field, we collected drosophilids over five arrays of three different baits: non-inoculated autoclaved banana and banana inoculated with each yeast. In the laboratory the drosophilids were sorted to five sets according to their external morphology and/or genitalia: tripunctata; guarani; willistoni; exotic; and the remaining flies pooled in others. Results and Conclusions Uninoculated banana baits attracted virtually no flies

  2. Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB methods decimate populations of Anopheles malaria vectors in arid environments regardless of the local availability of favoured sugar-source blossoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beier John C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB methods are a new and promising "attract and kill" strategy for mosquito control. Sugar-feeding female and male mosquitoes attracted to ATSB solutions, either sprayed on plants or in bait stations, ingest an incorporated low-risk toxin such as boric acid and are killed. This field study in the arid malaria-free oasis environment of Israel compares how the availability of a primary natural sugar source for Anopheles sergentii mosquitoes: flowering Acacia raddiana trees, affects the efficacy of ATSB methods for mosquito control. Methods A 47-day field trial was conducted to compare impacts of a single application of ATSB treatment on mosquito densities and age structure in isolated uninhabited sugar-rich and sugar-poor oases relative to an untreated sugar-rich oasis that served as a control. Results ATSB spraying on patches of non-flowering vegetation around freshwater springs reduced densities of female An. sergentii by 95.2% in the sugar-rich oasis and 98.6% in the sugar-poor oasis; males in both oases were practically eliminated. It reduced daily survival rates of female An. sergentii from 0.77 to 0.35 in the sugar-poor oasis and from 0.85 to 0.51 in the sugar-rich oasis. ATSB treatment reduced the proportion of older more epidemiologically dangerous mosquitoes (three or more gonotrophic cycles by 100% and 96.7%, respectively, in the sugar-poor and sugar-rich oases. Overall, malaria vectorial capacity was reduced from 11.2 to 0.0 in the sugar-poor oasis and from 79.0 to 0.03 in the sugar-rich oasis. Reduction in vector capacity to negligible levels days after ATSB application in the sugar-poor oasis, but not until after 2 weeks in the sugar-rich oasis, show that natural sugar sources compete with the applied ATSB solutions. Conclusion While readily available natural sugar sources delay ATSB impact, they do not affect overall outcomes because the high frequency of sugar feeding by mosquitoes

  3. Isolation of fungi from soil using the keratin-baiting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpanya, M F; Baxter, M

    1996-11-01

    Of 236 soil samples baited with wool, some 71.2% (168) produced fungal growth. Gliocladium (25.0%), Paecilomyces (14.8%), Trichophyton (11.9%) species were the most prevalent in soil moistened with sterile distilled water (SDW) containing antibiotics. On the other hand, in soil moistened with SDW only, Trichophyton (32.6%), Paecilomyces (27.5%), Diheterospora (16.5%), Gliocladium (13.6%) and Fusarium (13.1%) species were more common. Of the known potential pathogens, the Paecilomyces and Fusarium species were frequently isolated from soil collected in parks, cleared areas, paddocks, rivers and roadsides. All five sites are areas of human and animal activity. The keratinolytic species were Microsporum cookei, M. gypseum complex, Trichophyton ajelloi and T. terrestre, which are regarded as nonpathogens with the exception of M. cookei and M. gypseum complex.

  4. Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L. Population Composition as Determined by Baited Traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Schaafsma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two established field populations of bed bugs were sampled using host-mimicking traps baited with a combination of CO2, heat and a synthetic kairomone. The proportion of first instar nymphs (between 52% and 78% of all captured insects was significantly higher than reported in previous studies, which had employed different sampling methods. The proportion of adults was correspondingly much lower than previously reported, between 5% and 7% of total capture. As many as 120 bed bugs were captured in a single trap in one night; the variation in catches between sampling locations within the same room and between days at the same location indicates that multiple nights of trapping may be required to obtain an accurate representation of population structure.

  5. Behavioural responses of the snail Lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates and amino acids in bait pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrahari, P; Singh, D K

    2010-12-01

    Snail control could play an important role in programmes against fascioliasis, especially if the methods used for molluscicide delivery could be improved, such as by the development of bait formulations containing both an effective attractant and a molluscicide, to ensure good levels of contact between the molluscicide and the target snail populations. In a recent study, the attractiveness to Lymnaea acuminata (an intermediate host of the digenean trematode Fasciola gigantica) of potential components of snail-attractant pellets was investigated. Carbohydrates (glucose, maltose, sucrose or starch, each at 10 mM) and amino acids (citrulline, tryptophan, proline or serine, each at 20 mM), were tested in aquaria, with the snails initially placed 22.5, 30 or 45 cm from an agar pellet containing the component under test. Under these conditions, starch and proline emerged as the strongest attractants for L. acuminata, followed by maltose and serine.

  6. Simple preparation of magnetic metal-organic frameworks composite as a "bait" for phosphoproteome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guobin; Zeng, Qiaoling; Jiang, Zhongwei; Deng, Wenchan; Huang, Chengzhi; Li, Yuanfang

    2017-08-15

    Phosphospecific enrichment techniques and mass spectrometry (MS) are primary tools for comprehending the cellular phosphoproteome. In this work, a rational and extremely facile route to synthesize the magnetic metal-organic frameworks (mMOFs) was employed and the prepared composite was first utilized as a "bait" for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. Typically, the mMOFs was synthesized via electrostatic self-assembly between the negatively charged Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and positively charged MIL-101(Fe). The obtained Fe3O4/MIL-101(Fe) composite possessed well-defined structures, rough surface, highly specific surface area and excellent magnetic property. To demonstrate their ability for enrichment of phosphopeptides, we applied Fe3O4/MIL-101(Fe) as a "bait" to capture the phosphopeptides from standard protein digestion and practical samples. The enriched phosphopeptides were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The MS results show that the Fe3O4/MIL-101(Fe) exhibits superior enrichment performance for phosphopeptides with low detectable concentration assessed to be 8 fmol, selectivity investigated to be 1:1000 using β-casein/bovine serum albumin mixture and enrichment recovery evaluated to be 89.8%. Based on these excellent properties, the prepared composite was used to enrich the phosphopeptides from tilapia eggs biological samples for the first time. A total number of 51 phosphorylation sites were identified from the digest of tilapia eggs proteins, suggesting the excellent potential of Fe3O4/MIL-101(Fe) composite in the practical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Field testing of different chemical combinations as odour baits for trapping wild mosquitoes in The Gambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Jawara

    Full Text Available Odour baited traps have potential use in population surveillance of insect vectors of disease, and in some cases for vector population reduction. Established attractants for human host-seeking mosquitoes include a combination of CO(2 with L-lactic acid and ammonia, on top of which additional candidate compounds are being tested. In this field study in rural Gambia, using Latin square experiments with thorough randomization and replication, we tested nine different leading candidate combinations of chemical odorants for attractiveness to wild mosquitoes including anthropophilic malaria vectors, using modified Mosquito Magnet-X (MM-X counterflow traps outside experimental huts containing male human sleepers. Highest catches of female mosquitoes, particularly of An. gambiae s.l. and Mansonia species, were obtained by incorporation of tetradecanoic acid. As additional carboxylic acids did not increase the trap catches further, this 'reference blend' (tetradecanoic acid with L-lactic acid, ammonia and CO(2 was used in subsequent experiments. MM-X traps with this blend caught similar numbers of An. gambiae s.l. and slightly more Mansonia and Culex mosquitoes than a standard CDC light trap, and these numbers were not significantly affected by the presence or absence of human sleepers in the huts. Experiments with CO(2 produced from overnight yeast cultures showed that this organic source was effective in enabling trap attractiveness for all mosquito species, although at a slightly lower efficiency than obtained with use of CO(2 gas cylinders. Although further studies are needed to discover additional chemicals that increase attractiveness, as well as to optimise trap design and CO(2 source for broader practical use, the odour-baited traps described here are safe and effective for sampling host-seeking mosquitoes outdoors and can be incorporated into studies of malaria vector ecology.

  8. Community acceptance of tsetse control baits: a qualitative study in Arua District, North West Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Kovacic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is renewed vigour in efforts to eliminate neglected tropical diseases including sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis or HAT, including attempts to develop more cost-effective methods of tsetse control. In the West Nile region of Uganda, newly designed insecticide-treated targets are being deployed over an area of ∼500 km(2. The operational area covers villages where tsetse control has not been conducted previously. The effectiveness of the targets will depend, in part, on their acceptance by the local community. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed knowledge, perceptions and acceptance of tsetse baits (traps, targets in villages where they had or had not been used previously. We conducted sixteen focus group discussions with male and female participants in eight villages across Arua District. Discussions were audio recorded, translated and transcribed. We used thematic analysis to compare the views of both groups and identify salient themes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the villages being less than 10 km apart, community members perceived deployed baits very differently. Villagers who had never seen traps before expressed fear, anxiety and panic when they first encountered them. This was related to associations with witchcraft and "ghosts from the river" which are traditionally linked with physical or mental illness, death and misfortune. By contrast, villagers living in areas where traps had been used previously had positive attitudes towards them and were fully aware of their purpose and benefits. The latter group reported that they had similar negative perceptions when tsetse control interventions first started a decade ago. Our results suggest that despite their proximity, acceptance of traps varies markedly between villages and this is related to the duration of experience with tsetse control programs. The success of community-based interventions against tsetse will therefore depend on early

  9. Sticky Traps Baited with Synthetic Aggregation Pheromone Predict Fruit Orchard Infestations of Plautia stali (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Masatoshi; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Mishiro, Koji; Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio

    2015-10-01

    The brown-winged green bug, Plautia stali Scott, mainly reproduces on Japanese cedar or cypress cones in Japanese plantation forests during summer and autumn. It often depletes its food sources in forest habitats and moves to cultivated crops in large numbers. To establish an easy method for assessing the risk of fruit orchard infestation by P. stali, we conducted a 3-yr field survey that monitored the attraction of bugs to the synthetic P. stali aggregation pheromone using a sticky trap. We used a morphological indicator, variable body size depending on food intake, to estimate the nutritional status in nymphs, which showed that nymphs attracted to the synthetic pheromone were starving. Comparisons between increasing changes in the number of stylet sheaths left on the cones by P. stali and the number of trapped nymphs show that monitoring nymphs with the pheromone-baited sticky trap is useful for inferring conditions regarding food resources in forest habitats. The trend toward trapping second instars can provide a timely overview of resource competition for cones. Trapping middle-to-late (third-fifth) instars is a warning that the cones are finally depleted and that there is a high probability that adults will leave the forests and invade the orchards. In addition, trends in trapping adults suggest that there is a potential risk of orchard infestation by the pest and predict the intensity and period of the invasion. The pheromone-baited sticky trap is an easy but useful survey tool for predicting P. stali orchard infestations. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Paraffin wax emulsion for increased rainfastness of insecticidal bait to control Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luís A F; Wise, John C; Gut, Larry J; Isaacs, Rufus

    2009-06-01

    In regions with a humid summer climate, the use of water-soluble bait to control apple maggot is often limited by rainfall. We studied increasing the rainfastness of GF-120 fruit fly bait by adding paraffin wax emulsion. First, we verified that adding 10% wax to a mixture containing 16.7% GF-120 did not reduce the mortality of female apple maggot compared with GF-120 without wax. In addition, we determined that fly mortality caused by GF-120 plus wax subjected to simulated rain was similar to that caused by GF-120 without wax not subjected to rain. Other assays showed that higher fly mortality resulted from increasing the proportion of wax from 10 to 15%, and lower mortality resulted from decreasing GF-120 from 16.7 to 10 or 5%. The availability of spinosad on or near droplets of a mixture consisting of 5, 10, or 15% GF-120 and 15% wax was determined before and after the droplets were subjected to three 15-min periods of simulated rain. We found an initial steep decline in dislodgeable spinosad and smaller decreases after subsequent periods of rain. In a small-plot field trial, fruit infestation by apple maggot in plots treated with a mixture consisting of 16.7% GF-120 and 19.2% wax was less than in plots treated with 16.7% GF-120 without wax but not less than in control plots. Overall, we found that adding paraffin wax emulsion to GF-120 increased rainfastness in laboratory bioassays, and specifically that it retained the active ingredient spinosad. However, our field data suggest that optimal rainfastness requires the development of mixtures with > 19.2% wax, which may preclude application using standard spray equipment.

  11. Validation of a new liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry ion-trap technique for the simultaneous determination of thirteen anticoagulant rodenticides, drugs, or natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourel, Isabelle; Hugnet, Christophe; Goy-Thollot, Isabelle; Berny, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the identification and quantification of anticoagulant (anti-vitamin K or AVK) compounds, including rodenticides, drugs, and natural products because no published method could be found. The proposed method is based on ion-trap technology with electrospray ionization (ESI) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) technique. Each AVK is identified by means of its retention time, precursor ion, and two product ions. Plasma samples are extracted by liquid-liquid partition on Toxi-tube B((R)). The method was validated on dog plasma and gave good results in terms of specificity, linearity, and percent recovery for the 14 AVK tested (warfarin, acenocoumarol, bromadiolone, brodifacoum, chlorophacinone, coumatetralyl, dicoumarol, difenacoum, difethialone, flocoumafen, fluindione, phenindione, and tioclomarol). The limits of detection ranged from 5 to 25 ng/mL. Intraday repeatability was good, but interday repeatability was more variable though still sufficient for our diagnostic purposes. The technique was successfully applied in a series of clinical investigations to demonstrate its applicability in various animal species and gave very high sensitivity and specificity results.

  12. Non-Coop Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Primarily National Weather Service stations assigned WBAN station IDs. Other...

  13. Oral rabies vaccination in raccoons: comparison of ONRAB® and RABORAL V-RG® vaccine-bait field performance in Québec, Canada and Vermont, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainguy, Julien; Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Slate, Dennis; Rudd, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The control of rabies in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in North America has been conducted mainly through aerial distribution of oral vaccine-baits. The effectiveness of the vaccine-bait used is therefore of prime importance for disease eradication. In a previous field comparison between the ONRAB(®) bait in the province of New Brunswick, Canada, and RABORAL V-RG(®) bait in the state of Maine, USA, the ONRAB bait produced a higher percentage of antibody-positive raccoons under nearly identical bait distribution for the two vaccines. The main objective of the present study was to conduct a similar cross-border comparison of these two vaccine-baits using raccoon sera collected during post-oral rabies vaccination monitoring in Québec, Canada, and Vermont, USA, where ONRAB and V-RG, respectively, were distributed aerially at a targeted density of 150 baits/km(2). A comparison of the equivalency of two serologic tests used in Canada and the USA was also conducted using sera from raccoons and striped skunks. Rabies virus neutralization assay (USA) yielded similar results to the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Canada), with agreement between the two tests of 92% for raccoon sera and 96% for skunk sera. With both assays, the percentage of antibody-positive raccoons was greater with ONRAB (51%, n=265) than with V-RG (38%, n=66). These new results support the conclusion from the previous study, that ONRAB vaccine-baits may be more effective for the control of rabies in raccoons.

  14. Space station, 1959 to . .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, G. V.

    1981-04-01

    Early space station designs are considered, taking into account Herman Oberth's first space station, the London Daily Mail Study, the first major space station design developed during the moon mission, and the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program of DOD. Attention is given to Skylab, new space station studies, the Shuttle and Spacelab, communication satellites, solar power satellites, a 30 meter diameter radiometer for geological measurements and agricultural assessments, the mining of the moons, and questions of international cooperation. It is thought to be very probable that there will be very large space stations at some time in the future. However, for the more immediate future a step-by-step development that will start with Spacelab stations of 3-4 men is envisaged.

  15. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  16. Amtrak Rail Stations (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  17. Evaluating the feeding preferences of West Nile virus mosquito vectors using bird-baited traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoriano Llopis, Isis; Tomassone, Laura; Grego, Elena; Serrano, Emmanuel; Mosca, Andrea; Vaschetti, Gabriella; Andrade, Daniela; Rossi, Luca

    2016-08-31

    The total contact rates (TCRs) between mosquito vectors and their potential hosts have a serious impact on disease transmission dynamics. Culex pipiens (sensu stricto) (s.s.) is considered the main vector of the West Nile Virus (WNV) in Europe and birds are the reservoir hosts. The results of our previous study showed that WNV seroreactors are significantly more prevalent among raptors compared to a range of other wild avian groups. The current study aims to assess the role of bird type (raptor vs others) and bird size on mosquito feeding preferences in a free-choice experiment using bird-baited traps. From July to September 2014, a battery of six bird-baited traps was operated in twelve mosquito capture sessions. Eight bird species, belonging to five different orders, including raptors, were used. After each session, the trapped mosquitoes were collected and identified using standard keys. Two sets of independent generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to assess mosquito vector feeding preferences (MFp) among different bird species and types. A total of 304 mosquitoes belonging to seven taxa were collected, C. pipiens being by far the most abundant (84.2 % of the total mosquito catch). Most C. pipiens were engorged (83.59 %). The selected model showed that 25.6 % of the observed variability of MFp is explained by the interaction between bird size and bird type, with C. pipiens preferring to feed on large birds, especially raptors. The proportion of engorged mosquitoes was 1.9-fold higher in large (22.88 %; range 0-42 %) than in medium-sized raptors (11.71 %; range 0-33 %), and was nearly the same in medium-sized (9.08 %; range 0-26 %) and large (8.5 %; 6-24 %) non-raptor species. Culex pipiens showed an obvious preference for large raptors, which concurs with the higher seroprevalence to WNV in our previous study. The appreciable feeding by C. pipiens on large raptors makes them useful alternative sentinels to poultry for WNV surveillance. Thus

  18. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape; Polakos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to se

  19. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  20. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  1. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  2. Meyrin Petrol Station

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note that the Meyrin petrol station will be closed for maintenance work on Tuesday 19 and Wednesday 20 December 2006. If you require petrol during this period we invite you to use the Prévessin petrol station, which will remain open. TS-IC-LO Section Tel.: 77039 - 73793

  3. Trapping of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae with odour-baited MM-X traps in semi-field conditions in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Njiru, B.N.; Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background - The successful development of odour-baited trapping systems for mosquitoes depends on the identification of behaviourally active semiochemicals, besides the design and operating principles of such devices. A large variety of 'attractants' has been identified in laboratory investigations

  4. Curative effect analysis of a large dose of vitamin K in refractory anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning%大剂量维生素K对难治性抗凝血类鼠药中毒疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the treatment effect of a large dose of vitamin K in refractory anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning. Methods:30 patients with refractory anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning were selected.They were divided into the observation group and the control group with 15 cases in each.The observation group was given 100~200 mg/d vitamin K continuous intravenous infusion.The control group was given 30~50 mg/d vitamin K continuous intravenous infusion.Results:The total effective rate(100%) of the observation group was significantly better than 80% of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:A large dose of vitamin K has significant treatment effect in refractory anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning.%目的:观察大剂量维生素K对难治性抗凝血类鼠药中毒的治疗效果。方法:收治抗凝血类鼠药中毒患者30例,分为观察组和对照组,各15例。观察组给予100~200 mg/d维生素K持续静脉滴注,对照组给予30~50 mg/d维生素K持续静脉滴注。结果:观察组总有效率100%明显优于对照组的80%(P<0.05)。结论:大剂量维生素K对难治性抗凝血类鼠药中毒的治疗效果明显。

  5. Carbon dioxide baited trap catches do not correlate with human landing collections of Anopheles aquasalis in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwat, Hélène; Andriessen, Rob; Rijk, Marjolein de; Koenraadt, Constantianus Johanna Maria; Takken, Willem

    2011-05-01

    Three types of carbon dioxide-baited traps, i.e., the Centers for Disease Control Miniature Light Trap without light, the BioGents (BG) Sentinel Mosquito Trap (BG-Sentinel) and the Mosquito Magnet® Liberty Plus were compared with human landing collections in their efficiency in collecting Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis mosquitoes. Of 13,549 total mosquitoes collected, 1,019 (7.52%) were An. aquasalis. Large numbers of Culex spp were also collected, in particular with the (BG-Sentinel). The majority of An. aquasalis (83.8%) were collected by the human landing collection (HLC). None of the trap catches correlated with HLC in the number of An. aquasalis captured over time. The high efficiency of the HLC method indicates that this malaria vector was anthropophilic at this site, especially as carbon dioxide was insufficiently attractive as stand-alone bait. Traps using carbon dioxide in combination with human odorants may provide better results.

  6. Effect of Common Species of Florida Landscaping Plants on the Efficacy of Attractive Toxic Sugar Baits Against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Kelly E; Scott, Jodi M; Muller, Gunter C; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De

    2017-06-01

    Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) was applied to 5 different types of commonly found plants in landscaping of northeastern Florida. The ATSB applications were assessed for possible plant effects and preference against Aedes albopictus in semifield evaluations. Positive and negative controls consisted of plants sprayed with attractive sugar bait (no toxicant) and plants with nothing applied. Bioassays were conducted on stems with leaf clippings and on full plants to assess any difference in mosquito mortality on the different plants. Plants utilized in these evaluations were Indian hawthorne, Yaupon holly, Japanese privet, Loropetalum ruby, and podocarpus. In both assays, no significant difference was observed in the effect of ATSBs on adult female mosquitoes based on the type of plant. ATSB could be applied to common landscape plants for adult Ae. albopictus control.

  7. The Roman stational liturgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Mieczkowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The papal stational liturgy in Rome was a particular kind of worship service from the Christian Antiquity to the XIV century. Its essential elements are four. Its always took place under the leadership of the pope or his representative. This form of liturgy was mobile: it was celebrated in different basilicas or churches of Rome. Third, the choice of church depended on the feast, liturgical seasons or commemoration being celebrated. Fourth, the stational liturgy was the urban liturgical celebration of the day. The highpoint of this system was Lent. Throughout the entire system Church of Rome manifested its own unity. The station was usually the Pope’s solemn mass in the stational church for the whole city. But on certain days in the year the Pope went in another church (collecta, from which a solemn procession was made to the stational church.

  8. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  9. Efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) against Aedes albopictus with garlic oil encapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as the active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junnila, Amy; Revay, Edita E; Müller, Gunter C; Kravchenko, Vasiliy; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-de; Allen, Sandra A; Beier, John C; Schlein, Yosef

    2015-12-01

    We tested the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) with garlic oil microencapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as active ingredient against Aedes albopictus in suburban Haifa, Israel. Two three-acre gardens with high numbers of Ae. albopictus were selected for perimeter spray treatment with ATSB and ASB (bait containing no active ingredient). Baits were colored with food dye to verify feeding of the mosquitoes. The mosquito population was monitored by human landing catches and sweep net catches in the surrounding vegetation. Experiments lasted for 44 days. Treatment occurred on day 13. The mosquito population collapsed about 4 days after treatment and continued to drop steadily for 27 days until the end of the study. At the experimental site the average pre-treatment landing rate was 17.2 per 5mins. Two days post-treatment, the landing rate dropped to 11.4, and continued to drop to an average of 2.6 during the following 26 days. During the same period, the control population was stable. Few sugar fed females (8-10%) approached a human bait and anthrone tests showed relatively small amounts of sugar within their crop/gut. Around 60-70 % of males caught near our human bait were sugar positive which may indicate that the males were feeding on sugar for mating related behavior. From the vegetation treated with the toxic bait, we recovered significantly fewer (about 10-14%) males and females stained by ATSB than at the ASB-treated control. This may indicate that the toxic baits alter the resting behavior of the poisoned mosquitoes within the vegetation. Almost no Ae. albopictus females (5.2±1.4) approached human bait after treatment with ATSB. It therefore appears that microencapsulated garlic oil is an effective pesticide against Ae. albopictus when used in an ATSB system.

  10. Bait Al-Maqdis within a historical and archaelogical context until the end of the Uamyyad period

    OpenAIRE

    Al Smadi, Taleb Abdallah [طالب عبد الله الصمادي

    2001-01-01

    This paper concentrates on three main points: a) The City of al-Quds is An Arab - Islamic City for 5000 years. It was founded by the Arab Canaanites. Archaeological and Historical evidence, such as Egyptian sources, the Execration Text, Tell al-Amarna Tablets as well as the Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian sources, clearly. Show this fact. b) Moslem and Christian historical and geographical sources emphasise the religious, historical, economic, cultural and political Status of Bait al ...

  11. Suspected metaldehyde slug bait poisoning in dogs: a retrospective analysis of cases reported to the Veterinary Poisons Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, N S; Sutton, N M; Campbell, A

    2012-09-29

    A retrospective analysis of telephone enquiries to the Veterinary Poisons Information Service found 772 cases with follow-up concerning suspected metaldehyde slug bait ingestion in dogs between 1985 and 2010. Half the enquiries occurred in the summer months. The amount and strength of the slug bait ingested was rarely known. In 56, cases the quantity consumed was estimated and was on average 229.6 grams of bait. Clinical signs developed in 77.3 per cent of dogs; common signs were convulsions, hypersalivation, twitching, hyperaesthesia, tremor, vomiting, hyperthermia and ataxia. Only 4.6 per cent of dogs developed hepatic changes, and only one developed renal impairment. The average time to onset of signs was 2.9 hours post-ingestion, with 50.3 per cent of dogs developing effects within one hour. Increased muscle activity (twitching, convulsions) lasted on average 15.2 hours. Recovery time was reported in 61 cases and occurred on average at 39.3 hours. Common treatments were gut decontamination, anticonvulsants, anaesthetics and intravenous fluids. Of the dogs that were treated with sedatives, 45.8 per cent required more than one sedative or anaesthetic agent. Methocarbamol was rarely used, probably due to unavailability. The outcome was reported in 762 dogs; 21.7 per cent remained asymptomatic, 61.7 per cent recovered and 16 per cent of dogs died or were euthanased. Where known (only six cases), the fatal dose of bait ranged from 4.2 to 26.7 g/kg (average 11.8 g/kg).

  12. Potential benefits, limitations and target product-profiles of odor-baited mosquito traps for malaria control in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredros O Okumu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traps baited with synthetic human odors have been proposed as suitable technologies for controlling malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. We investigated the potential benefits of such traps for preventing malaria transmission in Africa and the essential characteristics that they should possess so as to be effective. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An existing mathematical model was reformulated to distinguish availability of hosts for attack by mosquitoes from availability of blood per se. This adaptation allowed the effects of pseudo-hosts such as odor-baited mosquito traps, which do not yield blood but which can nonetheless be attacked by the mosquitoes, to be simulated considering communities consisting of users and non-users of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs, currently the primary malaria prevention method. We determined that malaria transmission declines as trap coverage (proportion of total availability of all hosts and pseudo hosts that traps constitute increases. If the traps are more attractive than humans and are located in areas where mosquitoes are most abundant, 20-130 traps per 1000 people would be sufficient to match the impact of 50% community-wide ITN coverage. If such traps are used to complement ITNs, malaria transmission can be reduced by 99% or more in most scenarios representative of Africa. However, to match cost-effectiveness of ITNs, the traps delivery, operation and maintenance would have to cost a maximum of US$4.25 to 27.61 per unit per year. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Odor-baited mosquito traps might potentially be effective and affordable tools for malaria control in Africa, particularly if they are used to complement, rather than replace, existing methods. We recommend that developers should focus on super-attractive baits and cheaper traps to enhance cost-effectiveness, and that the most appropriate way to deploy such technologies is through vertical delivery mechanisms.

  13. Evaluation of Oral Bait Vaccine Efficacy Against Classical Swine Fever in Village Backyard Pig Farms in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monger, V R; Stegeman, J A; Dukpa, K; Gurung, R B; Loeffen, W L A

    2016-12-01

    Control and eradication of classical swine fever (CSF) in countries with a high proportion of backyard holdings is a challenge. Conventional attenuated Chinese C-strain vaccines, though safe and effective, are difficult to use in backyard farms due to various practical reasons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the CSF oral bait vaccine in village backyard pig farms and to assess the farmers' knowledge on CSF and motivation on using oral vaccines. The pigs were fed the bait by the farmers themselves; one bait was given on day 0, followed by second bait on the next day. Seventy-three per cent (140 of 193 pigs) of vaccinated pigs had either a slight (2-fold-3-fold; 60 pigs) or significant (at least 4-fold; 80 pigs) increase of the antibody titre against CSFV. A significant increase of the antibody titres was mainly observed in pigs with no pre-vaccination titre (OR = 12, 95% CI = 4-40). The number of pigs with protective antibody titres (≥40) rose from 47 (24%) to 115 (60%) following vaccination. Only 30% of the farmers claimed to be familiar with CSF, although clinical signs they mentioned were rather unspecific and could relate to many other pig diseases. Most of the farmers claimed to be motivated to use oral vaccines if made available. The oral vaccine could be a substitute for the conventional attenuated CSF vaccines in areas where it is logistically difficult for veterinarians to visit. It may therefore be a useful tool to combat endemic CSF disease in regions where the disease continues to have a serious impact on the backyard farmers who depend on pig farming for their sustenance and livelihoods.

  14. Chemostimuli for guanylyl cyclase-D-expressing olfactory sensory neurons promote the acquisition of preferences for foods adulterated with the rodenticide warfarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Robert Kelliher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many animals have the ability to acquire food preferences from conspecifics via social signals. For example, the coincident detection of a food odor by canonical olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs and agonists of the specialized OSNs expressing the receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D (GC-D+ OSNs will promote a preference in recipient rodents for similarly odored foods. It has been hypothesized that these preferences are acquired and maintained regardless of the palatability or quality of the food. We assessed whether mice could acquire and maintain preferences for food that had been adulterated with the anticoagulant rodenticide warfarin. After olfactory investigation of a saline droplet containing either cocoa (2%, w/w or cinnamon (1%, w/w along with a GC-D+ OSN-specific chemostimulus (either of the guanylin-family peptides uroguanylin and guanylin; 1–50 nM, C57BL/6J mice exhibited robust preferences for unadulterated food containing the demonstrated odor. The peptide-dependent preference was observed even when the food contained warfarin (0.025% w/w. Repeated ingestion of warfarin-containing food over four days did not disrupt the preference, even though mice were not re-exposed to the peptide stimulus. Surprisingly, mice continued to prefer warfarin-adulterated food containing the demonstrated odor when presented with a choice of warfarin-free food containing a novel odor. Our results indicate that olfactory-mediated food preferences can be acquired and maintained for warfarin-containing foods and suggest that guanylin peptides may be effective stimuli for promoting the ingestion of foods or other edibles with low palatability or potential toxicity.

  15. Field evaluation of Mediterranean fruit fly mass trapping with Tripack as alternative to malathion bait-spraying in citrus orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediouni Ben Jemaa, J.; Bachrouch, O.; Allimi, E.; Dhouibi, M. H.

    2010-07-01

    The mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted attractant lure Tri-pack as an alternative to malathion bait-spraying (control treatment) was tested in two citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata during 2006 and 2007. Results of mass trapping trials in 2006 and 2007 indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions respect to control of 37.62% and 40.2% respectively in mandarin orange variety (Citrus reticulata) orchard compared to 36.48% and 47.29% in Washington navel orange variety (Citrus sinensis) field. Fruit damage assessment showed significant differences between the mass trapping with Tripack and malathion bait-spraying techniques in the reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures. The percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field in 2006 and in 2007 in the mandarin orange orchard. Nevertheless, in the Washington navel orange orchard, the percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field only in 2006. Thus, results obtained from this study showed that the mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted lure Tri-pack could be involved as an appropriate strategy for the control of the Medfly and is as effective as malathion bait spraying treatment without leaving pesticide residues on fruit. (Author) 40 refs.

  16. Chlorophyllin Bait Formulation and Exposure to Different Spectrum of Visible Light on the Reproduction of Infected/Uninfected Snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a waterborne disease, caused by Fasciola species. Snail Lymnaea acuminata is an intermediate host of these flukes. Control of snail population is major tool in reducing the incidences. Variation in light intensity and wavelength caused significant changes in reproduction pattern of snails. Maximum fecundity was noted with bait containing carbohydrate (starch, 468 ± 0.10/20 snails or amino acid (serine, 319 ± 0.29/20 snails as attractant. Sublethal feeding of chlorophyllin bait with starch or serine attractant to infected and uninfected snails caused significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability, and survivability. These significant changes are observed in snails exposed to different spectral band of visible light and sunlight. Maximum fecundity of 536 ± 2.0 and minimum of 89.3 ± 0.4 were noted in snails not fed with bait and exposed to sunlight and red spectral band, respectively. There was complete arrest in the fecundity of infected and uninfected snails and no survivability of uninfected snails after 48 h feeding with bait containing chlorophyllin + attractant. Minimum hatchability (9.25 ± 0.5 was noted in red light exposed, chlorophyllin + starch fed infected snails and hatching period of bait fed snails was prolonged. Conclusively, chlorophyllin bait and red light reduce reproduction capacity in snails.

  17. Chlorophyllin Bait Formulation and Exposure to Different Spectrum of Visible Light on the Reproduction of Infected/Uninfected Snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Navneet; Singh, D K; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a waterborne disease, caused by Fasciola species. Snail Lymnaea acuminata is an intermediate host of these flukes. Control of snail population is major tool in reducing the incidences. Variation in light intensity and wavelength caused significant changes in reproduction pattern of snails. Maximum fecundity was noted with bait containing carbohydrate (starch, 468 ± 0.10/20 snails) or amino acid (serine, 319 ± 0.29/20 snails) as attractant. Sublethal feeding of chlorophyllin bait with starch or serine attractant to infected and uninfected snails caused significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability, and survivability. These significant changes are observed in snails exposed to different spectral band of visible light and sunlight. Maximum fecundity of 536 ± 2.0 and minimum of 89.3 ± 0.4 were noted in snails not fed with bait and exposed to sunlight and red spectral band, respectively. There was complete arrest in the fecundity of infected and uninfected snails and no survivability of uninfected snails after 48 h feeding with bait containing chlorophyllin + attractant. Minimum hatchability (9.25 ± 0.5) was noted in red light exposed, chlorophyllin + starch fed infected snails and hatching period of bait fed snails was prolonged. Conclusively, chlorophyllin bait and red light reduce reproduction capacity in snails.

  18. Chlorophyllin Bait Formulation and Exposure to Different Spectrum of Visible Light on the Reproduction of Infected/Uninfected Snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Navneet; Singh, D. K.; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a waterborne disease, caused by Fasciola species. Snail Lymnaea acuminata is an intermediate host of these flukes. Control of snail population is major tool in reducing the incidences. Variation in light intensity and wavelength caused significant changes in reproduction pattern of snails. Maximum fecundity was noted with bait containing carbohydrate (starch, 468 ± 0.10/20 snails) or amino acid (serine, 319 ± 0.29/20 snails) as attractant. Sublethal feeding of chlorophyllin bait with starch or serine attractant to infected and uninfected snails caused significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability, and survivability. These significant changes are observed in snails exposed to different spectral band of visible light and sunlight. Maximum fecundity of 536 ± 2.0 and minimum of 89.3 ± 0.4 were noted in snails not fed with bait and exposed to sunlight and red spectral band, respectively. There was complete arrest in the fecundity of infected and uninfected snails and no survivability of uninfected snails after 48 h feeding with bait containing chlorophyllin + attractant. Minimum hatchability (9.25 ± 0.5) was noted in red light exposed, chlorophyllin + starch fed infected snails and hatching period of bait fed snails was prolonged. Conclusively, chlorophyllin bait and red light reduce reproduction capacity in snails. PMID:26925296

  19. Evaluating a portable cylindrical bait trap to capture diamondback terrapins in salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Paula F.; Haramis, Michael; Day, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) are currently in decline across much of their historical range, and demographic data on a regional scale are needed to identify where their populations are at greatest risk. Because terrapins residing in salt marshes are difficult to capture, we designed a cylindrical bait trap (CBT) that could be deployed in shallow tidal waters. From 2003 to 2006, trials were conducted with CBTs in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland (USA) to determine terrapin sex, size, and age distribution within 3 salt marsh interior habitats—open bays, tidal guts, and broken marshes—using 15 traps/habitat. Analyses based on 791 total captures with CBTs indicate that smaller terrapins, (i.e., adult male and subadult) were more prevalent within the transecting tidal guts and broken marshes, whereas the adult females were more evenly distributed among habitats, including open bays. Subadult females made up the largest percent of catch in the CBTs deployed within the 3 marsh interior habitats. During a 12-day trial in which we compared capture performance of CBTs and modified fyke nets along open shorelines during the nesting season, fyke nets outperformed CBTs by accounting for 95.2% of the 604 terrapin captures. Although the long drift leads of the fyke nets proved more effective for intercepting along-shore travel of adult female terrapins during the nesting season, CBTs provided a more effective means of live-trapping terrapins within the shallow interior marshes.

  20. [Toxocara canis eggs as bait for soil fungus in a subtropical city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanich, María Viviana; Sarmiento, María Mercedes; Giusiano, Gustavo; Mangiaterra, Magdalena; Basualdo, Juan Ángel

    2015-01-01

    The use of different isolation techniques allows the recovery of fungi based on their ability to use selective substrates. The sprinkle method is a technique for the recovery of nematophagous fungi in the soil. These fungi are natural predators of nematodes and are widely distributed in nature. To detect possible fungi with nematophagous ability in the soil of city parks in Corrientes (Argentina). The soil samples were taken from an area of ground between two trees and to no more than 2cm deep. The isolation was performed according to the sprinkle method with Toxocara canis eggs as bait. Eighteen soil samples were collected, and 6 genera and 8 species of fungi were isolated. The sprinkle method, simple and efficient, has the advantage of using a small amount of untreated soil for the isolation of fungi that can grow on the eggs of geohelminths. The genera Bipolaris, Fusarium, Purpureocillium, Curvularia, Phoma and Scytalidium were isolated in this study. No other studies describing the interaction between the genera Curvularia, Phoma and Scytalidium with nematode eggs have been found in the literature, thus more studies are required to determine what is their real action on these eggs. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Orientation of Culex mosquitoes to carbon dioxide-baited traps: flight manoeuvres and trapping efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperband, M F; Cardé, R T

    2006-03-01

    Females of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Culex tarsalis Coquillet (Diptera: Culicidae) in the host-seeking stage were released and video recorded in three dimensions in a large field wind tunnel as they flew to four kinds of CO2-baited mosquito traps. The trapping efficiency (number of mosquitoes approaching compared to the number caught) was determined for each trap type. The Encephalitis Virus Surveillance (EVS), Mosquito Magnet Freedom (MMF) and Mosquito Magnet Liberty (MML) traps captured only 13-16% of approaching Cx. quinquefasciatus females, whereas the Mosquito Magnet-X (MMX) trap captured 58%. Similar results were obtained for Cx. tarsalis. Orientation behaviour and flight parameters of mosquitoes approaching the four traps were compared. Mosquitoes spent the most time orienting to the EVS trap. Flight speed decreased as mosquitoes entered the vicinity of each trap and a large portion of their time was spent within 30 cm downwind of the traps. Flights became highly tortuous downwind of the poorly performing traps and just upwind of the MMX trap. Differences between traps and possible explanations for the superior performance of the MMX trap are considered.

  2. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  3. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  4. Development and assessment of plant-based synthetic odor baits for surveillance and control of malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent O Nyasembe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent malaria vector control measures have considerably reduced indoor biting mosquito populations. However, reducing the outdoor biting populations remains a challenge because of the unavailability of appropriate lures to achieve this. This study sought to test the efficacy of plant-based synthetic odor baits in trapping outdoor populations of malaria vectors. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDING: Three plant-based lures ((E-linalool oxide [LO], (E-linalool oxide and (E-β-ocimene [LO + OC], and a six-component blend comprising (E-linalool oxide, (E-β-ocimene, hexanal, β-pinene, limonene, and (E-β-farnesene [Blend C], were tested alongside an animal/human-based synthetic lure (comprising heptanal, octanal, nonanal, and decanal [Blend F] and worn socks in a malaria endemic zone in the western part of Kenya. Mosquito Magnet-X (MM-X and lightless Centre for Disease Control (CDC light traps were used. Odor-baited traps were compared with traps baited with either solvent alone or solvent + carbon dioxide (controls for 18 days in a series of randomized incomplete-block designs of days × sites × treatments. The interactive effect of plant and animal/human odor was also tested by combining LO with either Blend F or worn socks. Our results show that irrespective of trap type, traps baited with synthetic plant odors compared favorably to the same traps baited with synthetic animal odors and worn socks in trapping malaria vectors, relative to the controls. Combining LO and worn socks enhanced trap captures of Anopheles species while LO + Blend F recorded reduced trap capture. Carbon dioxide enhanced total trap capture of both plant- and animal/human-derived odors. However, significantly higher proportions of male and engorged female Anopheles gambiae s.l. were caught when the odor treatments did not include carbon dioxide. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: The results highlight the potential of plant-based odors and specifically linalool oxide

  5. Signal Station Inspection Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Handwritten reports resulting from detailed inspections of US Army Signal Service Stations, 1871-1889. Features reported included instrument exposure and condition,...

  6. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  7. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  8. Realtime USGS Streamflow Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Approximately 5,000 of the 6,900 U.S. Geological Survey sampling stations are equipped with telemetry to transmit data on streamflow, temperature, and other...

  9. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  10. ASOS Station Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The images contained in this library are of stations in the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) network. These images were taken between 1998-2001 for the ASOS...

  11. Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Standard/Legacy MSHR, formally identified as the DSI-9767 dataset, is the legacy dataset/report sorted by NCDC Station ID and period of record. This...

  12. Materials Test Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  13. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  14. Station Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following plan is the result of a recent initiative in Region 5 to produce general management guidance based on stated objectives for individual field stations....

  15. Maine Field Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  16. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  17. USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Regional Climate Reference Network (USRCRN) installations in 2009. Installations documented are for USRCRN pilot project stations in...

  18. Space Station Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1986-01-01

    A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

  19. Mukilteo Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research at the Mukilteo Research Station focuses on understanding the life cycle of marine species and the impacts of ecosystem stressors on anadromous and marine...

  20. TV Analog Station Transmitters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This file is an extract from the Consolidated Database System (CDBS) licensed by the Media Bureau. It consists of Analog Television Stations (see Rule Part47 CFR...

  1. Public Transit Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  2. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  3. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  4. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  5. Leadership at Antarctic Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Claseification 6. No. Pegees LEADERSHIP AT ANTARTIC STATIONS hxIs i4 5, C =r~eta(C), 17 Rfs~W (R, Udusiied U)J 7. No Refs 8. Author(s) Edocumesnt I...whether there is a "best" approach to leadership at an Antartic Station and what leadership style may have the most to offer. 3~~ __ ___ Tipesis to be

  6. LAERTIS, a multidisciplinary station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggouras, G.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Ball, A. E.; Chinowsky, W.; Fahrun, E.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Grieder, P.; Katrivanos, P.; Koske, P.; Markopoulos, E.; Minkowsky, P.; Nygren, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Przybylski, G.; Resvanis, L. K.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Tsagli, V.; Zhukov, V. A.

    2006-11-01

    LAERTIS, designed to collect environmental data from the deep-sea, is operated since 1999 and has been deployed several time at 4000 m depth at the NESTOR site. Power and data were transferred through a 30-km electro-optical cable to the Shore Station. In this report, we describe briefly the LAERTIS instrumentation and present typical data that were collected successfully during those deployment demonstrating the importance of a deep-sea station permanently connected to shore.

  7. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  8. Suitability of two carbon dioxide-baited traps for mosquito surveillance in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, R A; West, P A; Lindsay, S W

    2007-12-01

    Rapidly changing environments and an increase in human movement around the globe have contributed to a rise in new and emerging diseases, many of which are arthropod borne. The threat posed to the United Kingdom by such diseases is uncertain, and there is a real need to understand the distribution, seasonality and behaviour of potential vectors in the country. At present, there is no standard method for routine mosquito surveillance in the UK. Here we compared the catching efficiency of two carbon dioxide-baited traps, the CDC light trap and the MosquitoMagnet Pro trap, for collecting British mosquitoes. Two of each type of trap were operated at four sites in central and southern England from June to September, 2003. To determine whether trap height affected collections, three light traps were operated at 1, 2.5 and 5 m above the ground in one site in 2004. Both types of trap were efficient at catching mosquitoes, collecting 5414 mosquitoes of 16 species. MosquitoMagnet traps caught 2.7 times more mosquitoes than CDC light traps (PMosquitoMagnet traps ran continuously for up to 8 weeks, whilst the battery of a CDC light trap had to be replaced every 24 hrs. Although MosquitoMagnets collected more specimens and a greater range of mosquito species, they were considerably more expensive, prone to breakdown and incurred higher running costs than the CDC light traps. MosquitoMagnets are useful tools for collecting mosquitoes during longitudinal surveys during the summer months, whilst CDC light traps are to be preferred for rapid assessments of the presence or absence of mosquitoes, particularly the important species Culex pipiens.

  9. Monitoring Pseudococcus calceolariae (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Fruit Crops Using Pheromone-Baited Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, M Fernanda; Romero, Alda; Oyarzun, M Soledad; Bergmann, Jan; Zaviezo, Tania

    2015-10-01

    The citrophilus mealybug, Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell), is an important pest of fruit crops in many regions of the world. Recently, its sex pheromone has been identified and synthesized. We carried out field experiments with the goal of developing monitoring protocols for P. calceolariae using pheromone-baited traps. Traps checked hourly for 24 hours showed a distinct diel pattern of male flight, between 18:00 and 21:00 h. The presence of unnatural stereoisomers did not affect trap captures, with isomeric mixtures capturing similar amounts of males as the biological active isomer. Dose of isomeric mixture pheromone (0-100 µg) had a nonlinear effect on male captures, with 10, 30, and 50 µg capturing similar amounts. The effective range of pheromone traps was determined by placing traps at different distances (15, 40, and 80 m) from an infested blueberry field, loaded with 0, 1 and 25 µg of the pheromone. For all distances, 25 µg dose captured more males, and was highly attractive up to 40 m. There was a significant effect of lure age on male captures (0-150 d), with similar amount of males captured up to 90-day-old lure, and lower captures in the 150-day-old lure compared with fresh ones. We found significant positive correlations between P. calceolariae males caught in pheromone traps with female abundance and fruit infestation at harvest. Our results show the usefulness of P. calceolariae pheromones for monitoring at field level and provide information for the design of monitoring protocols.

  10. Hermit crab (Decapoda, Anomura attraction to dead gastropod baits in an infralittoral algae bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez C. B. Pezzuti

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Hermit crabs use gastropod shells as shelter and are adapted to follow chemical cues released from tissues of dead or injured gastropods as a way to find new and more adequate shells. The species composition, crab size, shell types adequacy and physical condition were compared between attracted individuals and crabs collected in previous samples. The previous sampling was carried out in five areas before each experiment. Then, five baits of crushed gastropods in nylon net bags were installed in these areas. Three samples were taken at 30min intervals, capturing all crabs within a circle of 60cm diameter. Attraction of hermit crabs was tested for four different gastropod baits to verify specificity of the chemical cues. Clibanarius antillensis, Pagurus brevidactylus and Paguristes tortugae were collected in the study area. Pagurus brevidactylus, the smallest species, turned out to be more attracted than the 2 other species. The results showed that attracted crabs utilized more gastropod shell types than that collected in previous samples, however shell utilization pattern did not differ between them. Attracted animals were slightly smaller (shield length than those collected in the previous samples but did not present significant differences in shell adequacy and condition. The four experimental baits attracted the crabs in similar ways not indicating a specific response from the crabs. The fact that attracted animals were smaller suggested that the attraction to dead gastropods might enable the acquisition of a new and larger shell and, consequently, chains of shell exchange between the attracted crabs.Ermitões utilizam conchas de gastrópodes para abrigo. Conchas novas e mais adequadas podem ser encontradas pelos ermitões pois estes são atraídos por substâncias químicas liberadas pelos tecidos de gastrópodes feridos ou mortos. A adequação, condição e tipo das conchas e a composição de espécies e o tamanho dos ermitões foram

  11. Immune response and protection in raccoons (Procyon lotor) following consumption of baits containing ONRAB®, a human adenovirus rabies glycoprotein recombinant vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L J; Rosatte, R C; Fehlner-Gardiner, C; Taylor, J S; Davies, J C; Donovan, D

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the immune response and protection conferred in raccoons (Procyon lotor) following consumption of ONRAB(®) oral rabies vaccine baits. Forty-two wild-caught, captive raccoons were each offered an ONRAB vaccine bait; 21 controls received no vaccine baits. Blood samples collected from all raccoons before treatment, and each week posttreatment for 16 wk, were assessed for the presence of rabies virus antibody. In the bait group, an individual was considered to have responded to vaccination if serum samples from three or more consecutive weeks were antibody-positive. Using this criterion, 77% (20/26) of raccoons that consumed ONRAB baits with no observed vaccine spillage (full dose) demonstrated a humoral immune response. In the group that received a partial dose (0.05-0.90 mL vaccine recovered), 50% (8/16) of raccoons responded to vaccination. Regardless of the vaccine dose received, among the 28 raccoons that responded to vaccination 18 had antibody initially detectable at week 2 and 22 remained antibody-positive for at least 10 consecutive weeks. Kinetics of the humoral immune response suggest that the best time to conduct postbaiting surveillance for evidence of vaccination would be 6-13 wk following bait deployment, with the highest antibody prevalence expected between weeks 8-10. A sub-sample of 29 raccoons (20 ONRAB, 9 controls) was challenged with raccoon rabies virus variant 350 days posttreatment. Eight of nine controls (89%) developed rabies whereas 15/20 vaccinates (75%) survived. Survival following rabies challenge was significantly higher in raccoons presented ONRAB vaccine baits.

  12. Species dependent influence of (-)-alpha-pinene on attraction of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to ethanol-baited traps in nursery agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Cañas, Luís; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-04-01

    Field-based trapping experiments were conducted in Ohio in 2003, 2004, and 2008 to determine the influence of (-)-alpha-pinene on the attraction of exotic and native ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to ethanol-baited traps. In 2003 and 2004, we determined the effect of adding an (-)-alpha-pinene ultrahigh release lure (UHR; 2 g/d at 20 degrees C) to traps baited with an ethanol UHR lure (0.39 g/d). FewerAnisandrus (Xyleborus) sayi (Hopkins) and Xyleborinus saxeseni (Ratzeburg) were collected in 2003 and 2004 from traps baited with ethanol UHR plus (-)-alpha-pinene UHR compared with ethanol UHR. (-)-alpha-Pinene also reduced the attraction of Xyloterinus politus (Say) to ethanol-baited traps in 2004. Total captures of Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) in 2003 were higher in traps baited with ethanol UHR plus (-)-alpha-pinene UHR than in traps with ethanol UHR alone but not in 2004. In 2008, captures were compared among traps baited with eight combinations of ethanol and (-)-a-pinene at both UHR and low release (LR) rates. Release rates for ethanol LR and (-)-alpha-pinene LR were 0.027 and 0.0015 g/d, respectively. (-)-alpha-Pinene UHR and (-)-alpha-pinene LR reduced the attractiveness of ethanol UHR to A. sayi and X. saxeseni. Ethanol UHR was also more attractive than ethanol LR to A. sayi and X. germanus. These findings demonstrate traps baited with ethanol alone are more effective than ethanol plus (-)-alpha-pinene for monitoring ambrosia beetle flight activity in ornamental nurseries. Ethanol release rate is also an important consideration for monitoring purposes.

  13. UMTS Network Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  14. The Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, R.; Hieatt, J.

    1984-11-01

    The configuration of the Space Station under design studies by NASA is limited only by the capabilities of the Shuttle and the purposes to which it is applied. Once the standard interlocks, launch vibration modes, and pallet designs are fixed, all other assembly of modular components, testing, and trim will be performed in space. The Station will serve for long-term experiments, as a base for planetary missions asembly, launch, and retrieval, and for loading and launching multiple satellites on an orbital transfer vehicle. Materials processing research will be carried out in the Station, as will various scientific and commercial remote sensing activities. The first operational version (1990) will require four Shuttle launches to reach an assembled mass of 70,000 kg drawing 30 kWe from solar panels and housing a crew of five. By the year 2000 the station will support 10-12 crew members in five habitat modules, will be 31 m long, will have cost $18-20 billion, and will be returning $2 billion per year. The station will be periodically reboosted to higher orbits that decay suficiently for orbiter rendezvous for supplies and assignments.

  15. Study on Effects of Bait pH Values on Termite Feeding%诱饵pH值对白蚁取食影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立祥; 胡敏; 胡胜元; 潘长春

    2014-01-01

    Phagostimulants for killing termites are baits prepared with auxiliary agents including toxicants and preservatives. The pH values of the additives are different and affect the bait pH value. In the study Macrotermes barneyi were fed with baits prepared with water solutions having different pH values,and the ratio of water solution to base material was 3:10 with the control bait prepared with water solution having pH value 7. The results showed that bait pH values affected Macrotermes barneyi feeding on baits. Consumption by Macrotermes barneyi of baits prepared with water solutions having pH value ≤4 and ≥10 was significantly lower than that of the control bait. The water solution pH value range for preparation of baits suitable to be fed on by Macrotermes barneyi was 5~9.%灭杀白蚁诱剂是由饵料中添加毒剂和防腐剂等辅剂配制而成,这些添加成份酸碱度各不相同,并且影响饵料pH值。本研究用不同pH值水溶液配制饵料饲喂黄翅大白蚁,水溶液与基料比为3颐10,用pH值为7水溶液配制饵料作对照。试验结果表明,饵料基pH值影响黄翅大白蚁对饵料取食,溶液pH值臆4和逸10时所配制的饵料,黄翅大白蚁取食饵料量显著少于对照,适宜黄翅大白蚁取食的饵料配制溶液pH区间为5耀9。

  16. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up....... A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling...

  17. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter...

  18. Combination of molluscicides with attractant carbohydrates and amino acids in bait formulation against the snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Singh, V K; Singh, D K

    2011-05-01

    Fascioliasis is an important helminth disease caused by Fasciola (F.) hepatica and F gigantica of Asia and Africa. This disease belongs to the plant-borne trematode zoonoses. Human infection has been reported in 51 different countries from 5 continents. One of the possible approaches to control this problem is to interrupt the life cycle of the parasitic trematodes by eliminating the snail. Snails attractant pellets (SAP) were prepared from binary combination of carbohydrate + amino acid (20 mM) in 2% agar solution with active molluscicidal component Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone), Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol), Carum carvi (limonene). Attraction of snails to different combinations was studied by using clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Each aquarium was divided into four concentric zones; zone-3 (central zone), zone-2 and zone-1 (middie zone) and zone-0 (outer zone) had a diameter of 13, 18, 24, and 30 cm, respectively. The behavioral responses of snails to these binary combinations of carbohydrate and amino acid in bait formulation were examined. The fraction of snails that was in contact with the SAP at different times was used as a measure of attraction. Among all the binary combination of carbohydrate+amino acid+molluscicide after 2h of experiment, highest attraction of snail (54.71%) was observed towards the SAP containing starch+histidine+limolene. Limonene+ starch+histidine containing SAP emerged as the strongest bait formulation (96h LC50 0.74%) against Lymnaea acuminata. The present study suggested that the molluscicides of plant origin could be used with varying degrees of success in bait formulation.

  19. Attractiveness of MM-X traps baited with human or synthetic odor to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yu Tong; Smallegange, Renate C; Ter, Braak Cajo J F; Spitzen, Jeroen; Van Loon, Joop J A; Jawara, Musa; Milligan, Paul; Galimard, Agnes M; Van Beek, Teris A; Knols, Bart G J; Takken, Willem

    2007-11-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to which carbon dioxide (CO2) was added were tested in four sets of experiments. In a second series of experiments, MM-X traps with 14 odor blends without CO2 were tested. A blend of ammonia and L-lactic acid with or without CO2 was used as control odor in series 1 and 2, respectively. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps were placed in a traditional house and an experimental house to monitor mosquito densities during the experiments. The MM-X traps caught a total number of 196,756 mosquitoes, with the most abundant species belonging to the genera Mansonia (70.6%), Anopheles (17.5%), and Culex (11.5%). The most abundant mosquito species caught by the CDC traps (56,290 in total) belonged to the genera Mansonia (59.4%), Anopheles (16.0% An. gambiae s.l. Giles, and 11.3% An. ziemanni Grünberg), and Culex (11.6%). MM-X traps baited with synthetic blends were in many cases more attractive than MM-X traps baited with human odors. Addition of CO2 to synthetic odors substantially increased the catch of all mosquito species in the MM-X traps. A blend of ammonia + L-lactic acid + CO, + 3-methylbutanoic acid was the most attractive odor for most mosquito species. The candidate odor blend shows the potential to enhance trap collections so that traps will provide better surveillance and possible control.

  20. Effects of GF-120 fruit fly bait concentrations on attraction, feeding, mortality, and control of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Chapman, Peter S

    2005-10-01

    Effects of different concentrations of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait on attraction and feeding responses, mortality, and control of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, were determined. In the laboratory, flies that had been exposed to sugar and yeast extract and then deprived of all food for 16-20 h were attracted to 40.0% GF-120, but not to 0.6 and 4.8% GF-120 (vol:vol). Nonstarved flies were not attracted to any concentration. Flies in the field were not attracted to 55.6% GF-120 on cherry leaves, and few flies fed on the bait. In the laboratory, males fed for shorter durations on and ingested lower amounts of 0.6% than 4.8 or 40.0% GF-120, but females fed equally on all concentrations. Spinosad in GF-120 was highly toxic to flies. Lethal concentrations50 (LC50 values) of spinosad for starved flies at 1-4 d were 1.5-0.7 ppm. When gravid flies were exposed to cherries treated with 0.6, 4.8, and 40.0% GF-120, mortality was greater at each higher concentration, but none prevented oviposition. Field spray tests comparing 0.6, 4.8, and 40.0% GF-120 in 225 ml of spray per cherry tree resulted in 79-94% lower larval infestations than in controls, but no differences were seen among the concentrations. Evidence from this study indicates that fresh 40.0% GF-120 was attractive in the laboratory but that flies were not attracted to fresh GF-120 from far distances within trees, suggesting that suppression of populations is caused in large part by flies finding the bait through normal movement over large areas.

  1. Effect of bait decomposition on the attractiveness to species of Diptera of veterinary and forensic importance in a rainforest fragment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Diego L; Soares, Thiago F; Vasconcelos, Simão D

    2016-01-01

    Insects associated with carrion can have parasitological importance as vectors of several pathogens and causal agents of myiasis to men and to domestic and wild animals. We tested the attractiveness of animal baits (chicken liver) at different stages of decomposition to necrophagous species of Diptera (Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Phoridae and Sarcophagidae) in a rainforest fragment in Brazil. Five types of bait were used: fresh and decomposed at room temperature (26 °C) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. A positive correlation was detected between the time of decomposition and the abundance of Calliphoridae and Muscidae, whilst the abundance of adults of Phoridae decreased with the time of decomposition. Ten species of calliphorids were registered, of which Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Chloroprocta idioidea showed a positive significant correlation between abundance and decomposition. Specimens of Sarcophagidae and Fanniidae did not discriminate between fresh and highly decomposed baits. A strong female bias was registered for all species of Calliphoridae irrespective of the type of bait. The results reinforce the feasibility of using animal tissues as attractants to a wide diversity of dipterans of medical, parasitological and forensic importance in short-term surveys, especially using baits at intermediate stages of decomposition.

  2. Studies on efficacy and stability of a vaccine bait containing ERA strain of rabies virus propagated in a BHK-21 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, K F; Chiu, H; Matson, M; Bachmann, P; Campbell, J B

    1992-04-01

    In a dose response study in foxes, the median protective dose of ERA BHK21 vaccine in a blister pack bait was 10(6.0) tissue culture infective doses (TCID)/mL, while artificially aged baits with titers of 10(6.3) TCID/mL induced seroconversion in 78% of foxes. There was no significant difference in the development of antibodies in foxes receiving 1, 2 or 3 mL volumes of vaccine in the bait. When baits were exposed to the elements and fed to foxes over a 21 day period, 85% of the animals seroconverted. Age, sex and the way in which the vaccine container was contacted did not appear to be factors in the responses of these animals. Juvenile foxes, approximately six months of age, were marked more readily with the tetracycline bait marker than older animals. Approximately 25% of foxes did not appear to respond well to vaccination and the titer of the vaccine was a critical factor in producing seroconversion in these animals.

  3. Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol and Carum carvi (limonene on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations feeding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and alanine 10 mM in 100 mL of 2% agar solution + sub-lethal (20% and 60% of 24h LC50 doses of different molluscicides (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene. These baits caused maximum significant reduction in free amino acid, protein, DNA, RNA levels i.e. 41.37, 23.56, 48.36 and 14.29% of control in the ovotestis of the snail, respectively. Discontinuation of feeding after treatment of 60% of 96h LC50 of molluscicide containing bait for next 72h caused a significant recovery in free amino acid, protein, DNA and RNA levels in the ovotestis of L. acuminata.

  4. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  5. 生物灭鼠新探索——制备芸香毒饵降低小鼠生育的实验研究%A New Exploration on Biological Rodenticide.Study on the Reproductive Ability of Mice Decreased by Rue Poison Bait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗霞; 杨艳芳; 秦荣; 赵东; 王建勃

    2009-01-01

    芸香(Ruta graveolens)是一种药用植物,有良好避孕效果,刺成植物灭鼠剂,为植物灭鼠剂的大批量生产和应用提供理论基础.实验把芸香全草包煎制成水煎剂,制成毒饵,孕前和孕后分别饲喂小鼠,观察体重变化、怀孕率和流产率.统计分析结果,毒饵组与对照组比,体重变化差异不显著,怀孕率明显降低,流产率明显增高.结论:芸香毒饵可以有效的抑制小鼠繁殖速度.

  6. Assessing Fish and Motile Fauna around Offshore Windfarms Using Stereo Baited Video.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross A Griffin

    Full Text Available There remains limited knowledge of how offshore windfarm developments influence fish assemblages, particularly at a local scale around the turbine structures. Considering the existing levels of anthropogenic pressures on coastal fish populations it is becoming increasingly important for developers and environmental regulators to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing fish assemblages. Improving our ability to assess such fish populations in close proximity to structures will assist in increasing this knowledge. In the present study we provide the first trial use of Baited Remote Underwater Stereo-Video systems (stereo BRUVs for the quantification of motile fauna in close proximity to offshore wind turbines. The study was conducted in the Irish Sea and finds the technique to be a viable means of assessing the motile fauna of such environments. The present study found a mixture of species including bottom dwellers, motile crustaceans and large predatory fish. The majority of taxa observed were found to be immature individuals with few adult individuals recorded. The most abundant species were the angular crab (Goneplax rhomboides and the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula. Of note in this study was the generally low abundance and diversity of taxa recorded across all samples, we hypothesise that this reflects the generally poor state of the local fauna of the Irish Sea. The faunal assemblages sampled in close proximity to turbines were observed to alter with increasing distance from the structure, species more characteristic of hard bottom environments were in abundance at the turbines (e.g. Homarus gammarus, Cancer pagarus, Scyliorhinus spp. and those further away more characteristic of soft bottoms (e.g. Norwegian Lobster. This study highlights the need for the environmental impacts of offshore renewables on motile fauna to be assessed using targeted and appropriate tools. Stereo BRUVs provide one of those

  7. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also ...

  8. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

  9. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  11. Summit Station Skiway Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    operating procedures (SOPs) for future construction and maintenance efforts. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for...Runway Construction .......................................................... 22 Appendix B: Rammsonde Instructions...13. Snow accumulation at Summit Station in the Bamboo Forest. .......................................... 13 Figure 14. Strength of Summit skiway

  12. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  13. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Influence of Trap Height and Bait Type on Abundance and Species Diversity of Cerambycid Beetles Captured in Forests of East-Central Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeelk, Thomas C; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2016-08-01

    We assessed how height of panel traps above the forest floor, and the type of trap bait used, influenced the abundance and diversity of cerambycid beetles caught in forested areas of east-central Illinois. Panel traps were suspended from branches of hardwood trees at three heights above the ground: understory (∼1.5 m), lower canopy (∼6 m), and midcanopy (∼12 m). Traps were baited with either a multispecies blend of synthesized cerambycid pheromones or a fermenting bait mixture. Traps captured a total of 848 beetles of 50 species in the cerambycid subfamilies Cerambycinae, Lamiinae, Lepturinae, and Parandrinae, and one species in the closely related family Disteniidae. The species caught in highest numbers was the cerambycine Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), represented by 349 specimens. The 17 most abundant species (mean ± 1 SD: 45 ± 80 specimens per species) included 12 cerambycine and five lamiine species. Of these most abundant species, 13 (77%) were attracted to traps baited with the pheromone blend. Only the cerambycine Eburia quadrigeminata (Say) was attracted by the fermenting bait. Three species were captured primarily in understory traps, and another five species primarily in midcanopy traps. Variation among cerambycid species in their vertical distribution in forests accounted for similar overall abundances and species richness across trap height treatments. These findings suggest that trapping surveys of native communities of cerambycids, and quarantine surveillance for newly introduced exotic species, would be optimized by including a variety of trap baits and distributing traps across vertical strata of forests.

  15. Diversity and composition of demersal fishes along a depth gradient assessed by baited remote underwater stereo-video.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Zintzen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Continental slopes are among the steepest environmental gradients on earth. However, they still lack finer quantification and characterisation of their faunal diversity patterns for many parts of the world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Changes in fish community structure and diversity along a depth gradient from 50 to 1200 m were studied from replicated stereo baited remote underwater video deployments within each of seven depth zones at three locations in north-eastern New Zealand. Strong, but gradual turnover in the identities of species and community structure was observed with increasing depth. Species richness peaked in shallow depths, followed by a decrease beyond 100 m to a stable average value from 700 to 1200 m. Evenness increased to 700 m depth, followed by a decrease to 1200 m. Average taxonomic distinctness △(+ response was unimodal with a peak at 300 m. The variation in taxonomic distinctness Λ(+ first decreased sharply from 50 to 300 m, then increased beyond 500 m depth, indicating that species from deep samples belonged to more distant taxonomic groups than those from shallow samples. Fishes with northern distributions progressively decreased in their proportional representation with depth whereas those with widespread distributions increased. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides the first characterization of diversity patterns for bait-attracted fish species on continental slopes in New Zealand and is an imperative primary step towards development of explanatory and predictive ecological models, as well as being fundamental for the implementation of efficient management and conservation strategies for fishery resources.

  16. In situ seed baiting to isolate germination-enhancing fungi for an epiphytic orchid, Dendrobium aphyllum (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Xiao-Meng; Sheng, Chun-Ling; Goodale, Uromi Manage; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Gao, Jiang-Yun

    2014-10-01

    Orchid conservation efforts, using seeds and species-specific fungi that support seed germination, require the isolation, identification, and germination enhancement testing of symbiotic fungi. However, few studies have focused on developing such techniques for the epiphytes that constitute the majority of orchids. In this study, conducted in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Yunnan, China, we used seeds of Dendrobium aphyllum, a locally endangered and medicinally valuable epiphytic orchid, to attract germination promoting fungi. Of the two fungi isolated from seed baiting, Tulasnella spp. and Trichoderma spp., Tulasnella, enhanced seed germination by 13.6 %, protocorm formation by 85.7 %, and seedling development by 45.2 % (all P seed germination promoting fungi isolated from Cymbidium mannii, also enhanced seed germination (6.5 %; P seed germination by 26.4 % (P seed imbibition, protocorm formation, and two-leaved seed development of Tulasnella inoculated seeds (P seed germination at the protocorm formation stage and that light be provided for increasing germination as well as further seedling development. Our findings suggest that in situ seed baiting can be used to isolate seed germination-enhancing fungi for the development of seedling production for conservation and reintroduction efforts of epiphytic orchids such as D. aphyllum.

  17. Influence of Fermenting Bait and Vertical Position of Traps on Attraction of Cerambycid Beetles to Pheromone Lures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joseph C H; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2016-10-01

    Because larvae of cerambycid beetles feed within woody plants, they are difficult to detect, and are readily transported in lumber and other wooden products. As a result, increasing numbers of exotic cerambycid species are being introduced into new regions of the world through international commerce, and many of these species pose a threat to woody plants in natural and managed forests. There is a great need for effective methods for detecting exotic and potentially invasive cerambycid species, and for monitoring native species for conservation purposes. Here, we describe a field experiment in east-central Illinois which tested whether attraction of beetles to a blend of synthesized cerambycid pheromones would be enhanced by volatiles from fermenting bait composed of crushed fruit, sugars, yeast, and wood chips. A second experiment tested the same treatments, but also assessed how trap catch was influenced by the vertical position of traps within forests (understory versus within the canopy). During the two experiments, 885 cerambycid beetles of 37 species were caught, with Xylotrechus colonus (F.) (subfamily Cerambycinae) being the most numerous (∼52% of total). Adults of several cerambycid species were significantly attracted by the pheromone blend, but the fermenting bait significantly enhanced attraction only for X. colonus and Graphisurus fasciatus (Degeer) (subfamily Lamiinae). Traps in the forest understory caught the greatest number of X. colonus and G. fasciatus, whereas more adults of the cerambycine Neoclytus mucronatus mucronatus (F.) were caught in the forest canopy rather than the understory.

  18. Consumption of baits containing raccoon pox-based plague vaccines protects black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E; Pussini, Nicola; Smith, Susan R; Williamson, Judy; Powell, Bradford; Osorio, Jorge E

    2010-01-01

    Baits containing recombinant raccoon poxvirus (RCN) expressing plague antigens (fraction 1 [F1] and a truncated form of the V protein-V307) were offered for voluntary consumption several times over the course of several months to a group of 16 black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). For comparison, another group of prairie dogs (n = 12) was injected subcutaneously (SC) (prime and boost) with 40 microg of F1-V fusion protein absorbed to alum, a vaccine-adjuvant combination demonstrated to elicit immunity to plague in mice and other mammals. Control animals received baits containing RCN without the inserted antigen (n = 8) or injected diluent (n = 7), and as there was no difference in their survival rates by Kaplan-Meier analysis, all of them were combined into one group in the final analysis. Mean antibody titers to Yersinia pestis F1 and V antigen increased (p plague vaccines provides significant protection against challenge at dosages that simulate simultaneous delivery of the plague bacterium by numerous flea bites.

  19. Monitoring Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) with baited bottom board traps: occurrence and seasonal abundance in honey bee colonies in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torto, Baldwyn; Fombong, Ayuka T; Arbogast, Richard T; Teal, Peter E A

    2010-12-01

    The population dynamics of the honey bee pest Aethina tumida Murray (small hive beetle) have been studied in the United States with flight and Langstroth hive bottom board traps baited with pollen dough inoculated with a yeast Kodamaea ohmeri associated with the beetle. However, little is known about the population dynamics of the beetle in its native host range. Similarly baited Langstroth hive bottom board traps were used to monitor the occurrence and seasonal abundance of the beetle in honey bee colonies at two beekeeping locations in Kenya. Trap captures indicated that the beetle was present in honey bee colonies in low numbers all year round, but it was most abundant during the rainy season, with over 80% trapped during this period. The survival of larvae was tested in field releases under dry and wet soil conditions, and predators of larvae were identified. The actvity and survival of the beetle were strongly influenced by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors. Larval survival was higher during wet (28%) than dry (1.1%) conditions, with pupation occurring mostly at 0-15 cm and 11-20 cm, respectively, beneath the surface soil during these periods. The ant Pheidole megacephala was identified as a key predator of larvae at this site, and more active during the dry than wet seasons. These observations imply that intensive trapping during the rainy season could reduce the population of beetles infesting hives in subsequent seasons especially in places where the beetle is a serious pest.

  20. Different acute toxicity of fipronil baits on invasive Linepithema humile supercolonies and some non-target ground arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Daisuke; Kuwayama, Naoki; Takeo, Azuma; Ishida, Takanobu; Mano, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Maki N; Nagai, Takashi; Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi; Sawahata, Takuo

    2015-08-01

    Fipronil is one of the most effective insecticides to control the invasive ant Linepithema humile, but its effectiveness has been assessed without considering the genetic differences among L. humile supercolonies. We hypothesized that the susceptibility of the ant to fipronil might differ among supercolonies. If so, dosage and concentration of fipronil may need to be adjusted for effective eradication of each supercolony. The relative sensitivities of four L. humile supercolonies established in Hyogo (Japan) to fipronil baits were examined based on their acute toxicity (48-h LC(50)). Toxicities of fipronil to seven ground arthropods, including four native ant species, one native isopoda, and two cockroaches were also determined and compared to that of L. humile supercolonies using species sensitivity distributions. Marked differences in susceptibility of fipronil were apparent among the supercolonies (P non-target species (330-2327 μg L(-1)) were in the same range as that of L. humile, and SSDs between the two species groups were not significantly different (t = -1.389, P = 0.180), suggesting that fipronil's insecticidal activity is practically the same for L. humile as for non-target arthropods. Therefore, if the invasive ant is to be controlled using fipronil, this would also affect the local arthropod biodiversity. Only the 'Japanese main supercolony' can be controlled with appropriate bait dosages of fipronil that would have little impact on the other species.

  1. Attraction of Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae to Yunnan Pine Logs with and without Periderm or Phloem: An Effective Monitoring Bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chun Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yunnan pine shoot beetle, Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli (Coleoptera: Scolytinae is an important pest of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis Franch in China. Experiments with host log baits were done to develop a pest monitoring system using host tree kairomone. Five Yunnan pine logs (each 10–15 cm diam. × 30-cm long in a trap-log bundle were treated by peeling periderm (outer bark off to expose the phloem, and half of each log was covered with sticky adhesive to capture any attracted adult beetles. Significantly, more beetles were attracted and caught on the periderm-peeled logs (ca 30 beetles/m2 log surface/day than on untreated control logs with adhesive (ca 2.5/m2/day. No significant differences were observed between catches on logs taken from lower or upper halves of Yunnan pines. T. yunnanensis flies mostly during the afternoon according to trap catches throughout the day. Attraction to the periderm-peeled logs decreased considerably when they were peeled further to remove the phloem, indicating phloem volatiles play a role in selection of the host by the beetle. The readily-available log baits appear useful for monitoring pine shoot beetle populations in integrated pest management programs.

  2. Growth of Ge nanofilms using electrochemical atomic layer deposition, with a "bait and switch" surface-limited reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuehai; Zhang, Qinghui; Lay, Marcus D; Stickney, John L

    2011-06-01

    Ge nanofilms were deposited from aqueous solutions using the electrochemical analog of atomic layer deposition (ALD). Direct electrodeposition of Ge from an aqueous solution is self-limited to a few monolayers, depending on the pH. This report describes an E-ALD process for the growth of Ge films from aqueous solutions. The E-ALD cycle involved inducing a Ge atomic layer to deposit on a Te atomic layer formed on Ge, via underpotential deposition (UPD). The Te atomic layer was then reductively stripped from the deposit, leaving the Ge and completing the cycle. The Te atomic layer was bait for Ge deposition, after which the Te was switched out, reduced to a soluble telluride, leaving the Ge (one "bait and switch" cycle). Deposit thickness was a linear function of the number of cycles. Raman spectra indicated formation of an amorphous Ge film, consistent with the absence of a XRD pattern. Films were more stable and homogeneous when formed on Cu substrates, than on Au, due to a larger hydrogen overpotential, and the corresponding lower tendency to form bubbles.

  3. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  4. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  5. Efficacy of different fly baits%不同诱饵对蝇类引诱效果探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 贾凤龙; 梁焯南; 张韶华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of three kinds of baits (rotten fish, rotten eggs and brown sugar-vinegar) against flies to offer the ideal option for vector monitoring. Methods Fly traps with different baits were deployed simultaneously in five experimental sites. The captured flies were identified in the laboratory. Results No significant differences in the captured species was found between the baits. Flies captured by the rotten fish, rotten eggs and brown sugar-vinegar accounted for 66.99%, 32.07% and 0.94%, respectively. Chrysomya megacephala and Musca domestica were the dominant species in the rotten fish group. Lucilia cuprina was more easily attracted by sugar-vinegar baits. Rotten eggs were more attractive to C. Megacephala and Hemipyrellia ligurriens. Calliphoridae and Muscidae were more easily attracted by rotten fish, while Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae and Anthomyiidae preferred rotten eggs. Conclusion Sugar-vinegar baits did not reflect seasonal changes as they attracted a very small number of flies. Rotten fish attracted a large number of flies from only a few species. Rotten eggs could attract a proper number of flies from a balanced collection of species, and thus could be used for fly monitoring.%目的 比较分析腐烂鱼肠鱼鳃、红糖食醋以及腐败鸡蛋3种诱饵对不同蝇种的引诱力差别,以筛选媒介蝇类监测的最佳诱饵.方法 采用诱蝇笼法,选取5个实验点同时使用3种饵料进行诱集,诱得的蝇类在实验室进行鉴定.结果 3种诱饵诱集的蝇种区别不明显,诱集个体数量上按多少排列依次为腐烂鱼肠鱼鳃饵、腐败鸡蛋饵、红糖食醋饵,分别占捕蝇总数的66.99%、32.07%和0.94%;不同诱饵诱集的优势种差别较大,腐烂鱼肠鱼鳃饵诱集的优势种为大头金蝇和家蝇,红糖食醋饵为铜绿蝇,腐败鸡蛋饵为大头金蝇和瘦叶带绿蝇;丽蝇科和蝇科趋向于被腐烂鱼肠鱼鳃饵吸引,而丽蝇科、麻蝇科和花蝇

  6. Protection of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) against plague after voluntary consumption of baits containing recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencher, J.S.; Smith, S.R.; Powell, T.D.; Stinchcomb, D.T.; Osorio, J.E.; Rocke, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis and significant reservoirs of plague for humans in the western United States. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus, expressing the F1 antigen of Y. pestis, was incorporated into a palatable bait and offered to 18 black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) for voluntary consumption; 18 negative control animals received placebo baits. Antibody titers against Y. pestis F1 antigen increased significantly (P < 0.01) in vaccinees, and their survival was significantly higher upon challenge with Y. pestis than that of negative controls (P < 0.01).

  7. Protection of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) against plague after voluntary consumption of baits containing recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencher, Jordan S; Smith, Susan R; Powell, Tim D; Stinchcomb, Dan T; Osorio, Jorge E; Rocke, Tonie E

    2004-09-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis and significant reservoirs of plague for humans in the western United States. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus, expressing the F1 antigen of Y. pestis, was incorporated into a palatable bait and offered to 18 black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) for voluntary consumption; 18 negative control animals received placebo baits. Antibody titers against Y. pestis F1 antigen increased significantly (P < 0.01) in vaccinees, and their survival was significantly higher upon challenge with Y. pestis than that of negative controls (P < 0.01).

  8. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  9. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  10. Mesocarnivore Photo Stations [ds26

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This database was established to record furbearer and raptor presence through photographs taken at camera stations. The general study area where camera stations were...

  11. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  12. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  13. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  14. Station Climatic Summaries, Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    265 MEXICO - Acapulco 768056 8403 ................................ 267 Campeche 766950 8403................271 Chetumal 767500...0 0 1 # # I I # or I OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY STATION: CHETUMAL , MEXICO STATIONS #: 767500 1CAO ID: NILC LOCATION: 18030’N, 88*18’W...0 0 0 0 0 0 # ALL HOURS I # # 1 # # # # # # 1 1 ]% OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY SUPPLEMENT STATION: CHETUMAL , MEXICO STATIONS #: 767500 ICAO ID

  15. Build Your Own Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinger, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be used to educate elementary students on the purposes and components of the International Space Station and then allow them to build their own space stations with household objects and then present details on their space stations to the rest of the group.

  16. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  17. Thermal management of space stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal management aims at making full use of energy resources available in the space station to reduce energy consumption, waste heat rejection and the weight of the station. It is an extension of the thermal control. This discussion introduces the concept and development of thermal management, presents the aspects of thermal management and further extends its application to subsystems of the space station.

  18. 47 CFR 80.519 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.519 Station identification. (a) Stations must identify transmissions by announcing in the English language the station's assigned call sign...) Marine utility stations, private coast stations, and associated hand-held radios, when...

  19. CUSTO COMPARATIVO DE CONTROLE À FORMIGA CORTADEIRA Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel 1908, EMPREGANDO-SE ISCAS GRANULADAS COMERCIAIS E UMA ISCA EXPERIMENTAL COMPARATIVE COST CONTROL OF Atta sexdens rubropilosa FOREL 1908 USING COMMERCIAL GRAIN BAITS AND AN EXPERIMENTAL BAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Lopes da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Realizou-se um experimento de controle à formiga cortadeira Atta sexdens rubropilosa FOREL 1908, nos campos da Universidade Federal de Goiás (dezembro de 1972, com a finalidade de comparar o custo de controle por sauveiro, utilizando-se uma isca granulada experimental “EAV-041-A” idealizada pelo autor, com outras iscas existentes no mercado. Foram realizados 4 tratamentos (Mirex, Isca Shell, EAV-041-A e Agroceres na base de 10 g de cada isca por m² de sauveiro, em 5 repetições, constando cada parcela de 3 formigueiros, perfazendo um total de 60. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso. Para a análise econômica dos resultados, foram utilizados os fatores: custo da isca, sua eficiência percentual e o valor da mão-de-obra requerida, para se determinar o custo médio de controle de um sauveiro extinto. Pelos valores calculados, como resultado, obteve-se o custo médio por sauveiro extinto na seguinte ordem: com a isca “EAV-04l-A” custou Cr$ 2,27; com a “Isca Shell” Cr$ 3,41; com “Agroceres” Cr$ 4,29 e com “Mirex” Cr$ 5,44, evidenciando a economia em favor da "EAV-041-A", tendo em vista o seu menor custo por quilograma (Na época em que os cálculos foram realizados, o valor cambial do Dólar era de Cr$ 6,00.

    An Experiment was conducted using a clorimated experimental bait called EAV-041-A. This experiment was conducted to determine the efficiency of EAV-041-A using the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa as the test. The experiment was executed in Goiânia, Goiás, comparing it with the commercial baits: Mirex, Isca Shell and Agroceres AG-005. Results obtained showed Mirex was superior giving 93.30% control of the nests, EAV-041-A 80.00% and Isca Shell and Agroceres both qave 73.30% control. Total cost of application was calculated based on price of the bait on

  20. Selected beetle assemblages captured in pitfall traps baited with deer dung or meat in balsam fir and sugar maple forests of central Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousseau, Pierre-Marc; Cloutier, Conrad; Hébert, Christian

    2010-08-01

    Vertebrate dung and carrion are rich and strongly attractive resources for numerous beetles that are often closely linked to them. The presence and abundance of beetles exploiting such resources are influenced by various ecological factors including climate and forest cover vegetation. We studied selected assemblages of coprophilous and necrophagous beetles in Quebec along a 115-km north-south transect in three balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) forest sites and in a fourth forest site dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall), close to the southern fir site. Beetle abundance was estimated using a sampling design comprising replicated pitfall traps baited with red deer meat or dung in each site. A total of 8,511 beetles were caught and identified to family level, 95.7% of which belonged to families with known coprophilous or necrophagous behavior. Meat-baited pitfall traps caught nearly 15 times as many beetles as dung-baited traps. All Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae, and Silphidae were identified to species to examine specific diversity variation among sites. For the beetles caught in the meat-baited traps (majority of captures), decreases in abundance and species richness were observed from south to north along the fir forest transect, with evidence of decreasing specific diversity as measured by the Shannon index of diversity. Strong differences in species assemblages were also observed between the southern maple and fir forest sites. The Silphidae and Histeridae were more abundant in the maple forest, whereas the Hydrophilidae and Ptilidae were more abundant in the fir forest.

  1. Culicoides latreille (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in brazilian amazon. V: efficiency of traps and baits and vertical stratification in the forest reserve adolpho ducke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana S. Veras

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Monthly catches were carried out during five days/month in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (Manaus, Amazonas, from February 1990 to January 1991 in order to assess the sandfly fauna of that region, evaluate the atractivity of these insects with regard to different kinds of traps and baits and to know vertical stratification of these insects. The traps and baits used in catches were: Disney traps with baits: Didelphis sp., Gallus sp. and Mesocricetus sp.; CDC light traps at three vertical levels (1m, 5m and 10m; Suspended trap (5m and Malaise trap (1m and catches on bases of tree-trunks. The most efficient type was the CDC. Malaise and Suspended did not collect specimens of Culicoides Latreille, 1809. The Disney traps with baits only attracted specimens of C. fusipalpis Wirth & Blanton, 1973. In vertical stratification, the CDC trap placed at 1m caught 898 specimens of nine species; at 5m 895 specimens were collected which belonged to 13 species; and at 10m 224 specimens of 14 species were collected. Two thousand and forty-six specimens of Culicoides were captured, being about 5,66% males and 94,34% females, which belonged to 17 different species; the most frequent were C. fusipalpis (43,05%, followed by C. pseudodiabolicus Fox, 1946 (32,79%, C. hylas Macfie, 1940 (12,31% and C. foxi Ortiz, 1950 (3,71%. The other 13 species totalized 8,15%.

  2. Toxicity Profiles and Colony Effects of Liquid Baits on Tawny Crazy Ants (plus an update on their U.S. distribution)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawny crazy ants, Nylanderia fulva, is an invasive ant that are known to readily forage on the liquid, carbohydrate rich honeydew produced by hemipterans such as aphids and scales. There is interest in developing liquid ant baits that can eliminate tawny crazy ant colonies. Preliminary and anecdot...

  3. A combination of baiting and different PCR formats, including measurement of real-time quantitative fluorescence, for the detection of Phytophthora fragariae in strawberry plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonants, P.J.M.; Gent-Pelzer, van M.P.E.; Hooftman, R.; Cooke, D.E.L.; Guy, D.C.; Duncan, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Phytophthora fragariae, the cause of strawberry red stele disease, is a quarantine pathogen in Europe. Detecting low levels of infection requires sensitive and specific methods. In the past, Dutch and English inspection services have used bait plants to test strawberry propagation stocks destined fo

  4. Laboratory efficacy test methods and criterions of cockroach baits%蜚蠊毒饵室内药效评估方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任东升; 刘京利; 宁俊艳; 刘起勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of 11 kinds of cockroach baits. Methods Ten adults of Btauella germanica (half male and half female) with feed, water and cockroach baits were put into a beaker. Three replications were made for each bait with blank control. Twenty-four hours later, the cockroach baits were taken out and the LT50, water loss rate and feeding amount were calculated. Results All of the eleven kinds of cockroach baits can kill B. germanica within 96 hours, meeting grade A of national standards (GB/T 13917.7-2009), but their LT50, water loss rate and feeding amount are quite different. Conclusion Eleven kinds of cockroach baits can effectively kill B, germanica. Comprehensive evaluation based on the needs and site conditions should be done to select the most suitable cockroach bait.%目的 探讨11种蜚蠊毒饵对德国小蠊室内药效评估方法.方法 每个烧杯放10只德国小蠊成虫,雌雄各半,放置饲料、水和灭蟑毒饵,每种毒饵重复3次,同时设空白对照;24h后取出毒饵,计算毒饵的失水率、取食量和毒饵对蜚蠊的致死中时间(LT50).结果 11种蜚蠊毒饵在96h内都可杀死德国小蠊,达到了国标A级(GB/T 13917.7-2009),但其LT50、失水率和取食量有很大差异.结论 11种蜚蠊毒饵均可有效杀灭德国小蠊,具体使用可根据需要和现场情况,综合评价选择最适合的蜚蠊毒饵.

  5. Comparison of Hydrolyzed Protein Baits and Various Grape Juice Products as Attractants for Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, F; Miranda, E; Gómez, E; Presa-Parra, E; Lasa, R

    2016-02-01

    Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew; Diptera: Tephritidae), have traditionally been trapped in citrus orchards in Mexico using protein hydrolysates as bait. Recently, CeraTrap(®), an enzymatic hydrolyzed protein, has emerged as an effective lure for monitoring A. ludens at the orchard level and is currently being used by growers in the region of Veracruz. Several studies have revealed that grape juice is highly attractive to A. ludens, and recent work supports its potential use for regulation purposes. In our study, the attraction of A. ludens to different grape products was evaluated in citrus orchards and in comparison to other Anastrepha species in an area composed of mango and chicozapote orchards. Attraction to grape lures was compared with CeraTrap and the standard protein Captor +borax trap. In general, CeraTrap was more attractive than different commercial grape products in several experiments. Only Jumex, a commercial grape juice, did not differ significantly from CeraTrap in the capture of A. ludens males and females in a citrus crop. However, several drawbacks were detected when using Jumex grape juice: 1) higher tendency to capture males, 2) less selectivity against non-targeted insects, 3) higher capture of beneficial lacewings, and iv) the need to re-bait weekly owing to lower stability. In the area containing mango and chicozapote, CeraTrap was more attractive than Captor + borax for Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina, followed by grape juice products, which were the least attractive for these fruit fly species. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effectiveness of spinosad bait sprays (GF-120) in controlling mango-infesting fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayssieres, Jean-François; Sinzogan, Antonio; Korie, Sam; Ouagoussounon, Issa; Thomas-Odjo, Agnès

    2009-04-01

    Effectiveness of GF-120 (Dow Chemical) Fruit Fly Bait containing the insecticide spinosad in controlling mango-infesting fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) was assessed by comparing treated orchards with untreated orchards. Twelve mango, Mangifera indica L., plantations located in six villages (two similar orchards per village: one orchard treated and orchard untreated) scattered in the Borgou department (northern Benin) were monitored weekly with fly traps, and the fruit was sampled twice for larval infestation at the beginning and in the middle of May in both 2006 and 2007. The two main mango fruit fly pests are Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) and Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, an invasive species that recently spread throughout West Africa. In both the 2006 and 2007 seasons, C. cosyra had the earliest peak of abundance, and the difference between treated and untreated orchards, in terms of mean number of flies trapped per week and per trap, was significant only in 2007. B. invadens populations quickly increased with the onset of the rains, from mid-May onward, with no significant difference between treated and untreated orchards. In 2006 and 2007, the larval infestation by B. invadens was significantly lower in plots treated with GF-120 than in untreated control plots. GF-120 provided an 81% reduction in the number of pupae per kilogram of fruit after weekly applications for 7 wk in 2006 and an 89% reduction after 10 wk of weekly applications in 2007. The possibility of integrating GF120 bait sprays in an integrated pest management package is discussed in relation to market requirements.

  7. Forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae mate-finding behavior is greatest at intermediate population densities: Implications for interpretation of moth capture in pheromone-baited traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya L. Evenden

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae is a native forest defoliator with a broad geographic range in North America. Forest tent caterpillars experience cyclical population changes and at high densities, repeated defoliation can cause reduced tree growth and tree mortality. Pheromone-based monitoring of forest tent caterpillar moths can provide information on spatial and temporal patterns of incipient outbreaks. Pheromone-baited trap capture of male moths correlates to the number of eggs and pupae in a population but this relationship breaks down at high population densities, when moth trap capture declines. The objective of the current study is to understand the mechanisms that reduce trap capture at high population densities. We tested two different hypotheses: 1 at high population densities, male moth orientation to pheromone sources is reduced due to competition for pheromone plumes; and 2 moths from high density populations will be in poor condition and less likely to conduct mate-finding behaviors than moths from low density populations. A field study showed non-linear effects of density on male moth capture in female-baited traps. The number of males captured increased up to an intermediate density level and declined at the highest densities. Field cage studies showed that female moth density affected male moth orientation to female-baited traps, as more males were recaptured at low than high female densities. There was no effect of male density on the proportion of males that oriented to female-baited traps. Moth condition was manipulated by varying larval food quantity. Although feeding regimes affected the moth condition (size, there was no evidence of an effect of condition on mate finding or close range mating behavior. In the field, it is likely that competition for pheromone plumes at high female densities during population outbreaks reduces the efficacy of pheromone-baited monitoring

  8. Compressor station layout considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Rainer; Ohanian, Sebouh; Lubomirsky, Matt [Solar Turbines Incorporated, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses issues that influence the decision on the arrangement of compressors and the type of equipment in gas pipeline compressor stations. Different concepts such as multiple small units versus single large units are considered, both regarding their impact on the individual station and the overall pipeline. The necessity of standby units is discussed. Various concepts for drivers (gas turbine, gas motor and electric motor) and compressors (centrifugal and reciprocating) are analyzed. The importance of considering all possible operating conditions is stressed. With the wide range of possible operating conditions for the pipeline in mind, the discussion is brought into the general context of operational flexibility, availability, reliability, installation issues, remote control, and operability of gas turbine driven centrifugal compressors compared to other solutions such as electric motor driven compressors or gas engine driven reciprocating compressors. The impact of different concepts on emissions and fuel cost is discussed. Among the assumptions in this paper are the performance characteristics of the compressor. This paper outlines how these performance characteristics influence the conclusions. (author)

  9. Field experiments of Anopheles gambiae attraction to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants in Mali to optimize strategies for malaria vector control in Africa using attractive toxic sugar bait methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bah Sekou

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on recent studies in Israel demonstrating that attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB methods can be used to decimate local anopheline and culicine mosquito populations, an important consideration is whether the same methods can be adapted and improved to attract and kill malaria vectors in Africa. The ATSB approach uses fruit or flower scent as an attractant, sugar solution as a feeding stimulant, and an oral toxin. The ATSB solutions are either sprayed on vegetation or suspended in simple bait stations, and the mosquitoes ingesting the toxic solutions are killed. As such, this approach targets sugar-feeding female and male mosquitoes. This study examines the attractiveness of African malaria vectors to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants, key biological elements of the ATSB approach for mosquito control. Methods Three field experiments were conducted at sites in Mali. The attraction of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to 26 different local fruits and seedpods was determined at a site in the semi-arid Bandiagara District of Mali. Wire mesh glue traps with fruits/seedpods suspended on skewers inside were set along a seasonal lagoon. Seven replicates of each fruit/seedpod species were tested, with a water-soaked sponge and a sugar-soaked sponge as controls. The attraction of An. gambiae s.l. to 26 different types of flowering plants was determined at a site near Mopti in Mali. The flowering plants held in a water-filled buried container were tested using the same glue traps, with controls including water only and sugar solution. Six replicates of each selected plant type were tested on transects between rice paddies. Additional studies using CDC light traps were done to determine the relative densities and periodicity of An. gambiae s.l. attraction to branches of the most highly attractive flowering plant, branches without flowers, human odor, and candescent light. Results Of the 26 fruits and seedpods tested, 6 were attractive

  10. Field experiments of Anopheles gambiae attraction to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants in Mali to optimize strategies for malaria vector control in Africa using attractive toxic sugar bait methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Günter C; Beier, John C; Traore, Sekou F; Toure, Mahamoudou B; Traore, Mohamed M; Bah, Sekou; Doumbia, Seydou; Schlein, Yosef

    2010-09-20

    Based on recent studies in Israel demonstrating that attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) methods can be used to decimate local anopheline and culicine mosquito populations, an important consideration is whether the same methods can be adapted and improved to attract and kill malaria vectors in Africa. The ATSB approach uses fruit or flower scent as an attractant, sugar solution as a feeding stimulant, and an oral toxin. The ATSB solutions are either sprayed on vegetation or suspended in simple bait stations, and the mosquitoes ingesting the toxic solutions are killed. As such, this approach targets sugar-feeding female and male mosquitoes. This study examines the attractiveness of African malaria vectors to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants, key biological elements of the ATSB approach for mosquito control. Three field experiments were conducted at sites in Mali. The attraction of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to 26 different local fruits and seedpods was determined at a site in the semi-arid Bandiagara District of Mali. Wire mesh glue traps with fruits/seedpods suspended on skewers inside were set along a seasonal lagoon. Seven replicates of each fruit/seedpod species were tested, with a water-soaked sponge and a sugar-soaked sponge as controls. The attraction of An. gambiae s.l. to 26 different types of flowering plants was determined at a site near Mopti in Mali. The flowering plants held in a water-filled buried container were tested using the same glue traps, with controls including water only and sugar solution. Six replicates of each selected plant type were tested on transects between rice paddies. Additional studies using CDC light traps were done to determine the relative densities and periodicity of An. gambiae s.l. attraction to branches of the most highly attractive flowering plant, branches without flowers, human odor, and candescent light. Of the 26 fruits and seedpods tested, 6 were attractive to An. gambiae s.l. females and males, respectively

  11. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  12. The Calern atmospheric turbulence station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabé, Julien; Ziad, Aziz; Fantéï-Caujolle, Yan; Aristidi, Éric; Renaud, Catherine; Blary, Flavien; Marjani, Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    From its long expertise in Atmospheric Optics, the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur and the J.L. Lagrange Laboratory have equipped the Calern Observatory with a station of atmospheric turbulence measurement (CATS: Calern Atmospheric Turbulence Station). The CATS station is equipped with a set of complementary instruments for monitoring atmospheric turbulence parameters. These new-generation instruments are autonomous within original techniques for measuring optical turbulence since the first meters above the ground to the borders of the atmosphere. The CATS station is also a support for our training activities as part of our Masters MAUCA and OPTICS, through the organization of on-sky practical works.

  13. Laser ranging ground station development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of ground to conduct radar range measurements of the lunar distance is discussed. The advantages of additional ground stations for this purpose are analyzed. The goals which are desirable for any new type of ranging station are: (1) full time availability of the station for laser ranging, (2) optimization for signal strength, (3) automation to the greatest extent possible, (4) the capability for blind pointing, (5) reasonable initial and modest operational costs, and (6) transportability to enhance the value of the station for geophysical purposes.

  14. Application for the Tape Station

    CERN Document Server

    Solero, A

    2003-01-01

    The Tape Station is used as an Isolde facility to observe the variations of intensity and the lifespan of certain isotopes. A Siemens Simatic FM-352-5 module controls the Tape Station in a PLC system then a DSC controls the PLC, which will be controlled the Tape station program. During the Isolde consolidation project, the Tape Station has been rebuilt, and the control system has been fully integrated in the PS control. Finally, a new application has been written in JAVA Development kit 1.4 and the PS Java environment. The main purpose of this note is to explain how to use this program.

  15. Stanwell power station project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, David R; J Dey, Christopher [University of Sidney, Sidney (Australia); Morrison, Graham L [University of New South Wales, Sidney (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) being developed for installation at the Stanwell power station in Queensland Australia. Stanwell Corporation Limited (SCL). Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd. And the universities of Sidney and New South Wales are cooperating in the project, and this first plant being partly funded by the Australian Greenhouse Office. The solar plant will be attached to a 1440 MW(e) coal fired plant. The 17000 m{sup 2} array will be the largest array in Australia, producing a peak of 13 MW of thermal energy which will offset the use of coal in the generation of electricity. It will use direct steam generation and will feed either steam or hot water at 265 Celsius degrees directly into the power station preheating cycle. The CLFR system, first developed by the University of Sidney and Solsearch Pty. Ltd., is simple and offers small reflector size, low structural cost, fixed receiver geometry. Initial installed plant costs are approximately US$1000 per kWe, but this includes the effect of high up-front design costs and the cost should drop substantially in the second and subsequent plants. [Spanish] Proyecto de la Planta Electrica Stanwell este articulo describe el Reflector Lineal Compacto Fresnel (CLFR, siglas en ingles) que se esta desarrollando para la instalacion de la planta electrica Stanwell en Queensland, Australia. La Corporacion Stanwell Limited (SCL), Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd., las universidades de Sidney y de New South Wales estan cooperando en este proyecto, y esta primera planta esta parcialmente auspiciada por la Australian Greenhouse Office. La planta solar sera anexa a una planta de carbon de 1440 MW(e). Este arreglo de 17000 m{sup 2} sera el mayor en Australia y producira un maximo de 13 MW en energia termica la cual contrarrestara el uso del carbon en la generacion de electricidad. Utilizara generacion con vapor directo y alimentara ya sea vapor o agua caliente a 265 grados

  16. Spatial and temporal exposure patterns in non-target small mammals during brodifacoum rat control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geduhn, Anke; Esther, Alexandra; Schenke, Detlef; Mattes, Hermann; Jacob, Jens

    2014-10-15

    Worldwide pest rodents on livestock farms are often regulated using anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs). Second generation ARs in particular can cause poisoning in non-target species due to their high toxicity and persistence. However, research on exposure of small mammals is rare. We systematically investigated spatial and temporal exposure patterns of non-target small mammals in a large-scale replicated study. Small mammals were trapped at different distances to bait stations on ten farms before, during and after brodifacoum (BR) bait application, and liver samples of 1178 non-target small mammals were analyzed for residues of eight ARs using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. BR residues were present in 23% out of 742 samples collected during and after baiting. We found clear spatial and temporal exposure patterns. High BR residue concentrations mainly occurred within 15m from bait stations. Occurrence and concentrations of residues significantly decreased with increasing distance. This pattern was found in almost all investigated taxa. After baiting, significantly more individuals contained residues than during baiting but concentrations were considerably lower. Residue occurrence and concentrations differed significantly among taxa, with the highest maximal residue concentrations in Apodemus species, which are protected in Germany. Although Sorex species are known to be insectivorous we regularly found residues in this genus. Residues of active agents other than brodifacoum were rare in all samples. The confirmation of substantial primary exposure in non-target small mammals close to the baiting area indicates considerable risk of secondary poisoning of predators, a pathway that was possibly underestimated until now. Our results will help to develop risk mitigation strategies to reduce risk for non-target small mammals, as well as their predators, in relation to biocidal AR usage.

  17. Sighting the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  18. Naval Weapons Station Earle Reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    surveys for their Section 110 compliance: Architectural Resources Survey, Naval Weapons Station Earle, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Louis Berger 1999...text within brackets. Berger Report 1999 Architectural Resources Survey, Naval Weapons Station Earle, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Louis Berger... architectural treatment of buildings at NWS Earle: a traditional vernacular theme with minimal decorative detailing. This so-called minimal traditional

  19. Sighting the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  20. 简述引诱剂在实蝇防治中的作用%Description the role of baits on the control of fruit fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 潘志萍

    2011-01-01

    引诱剂是实蝇类害虫监测、调查和防治中最重要的手段之一,被广泛采用.本文对实蝇引诱剂的种类与诱捕范围进行了总结,并简述了引诱剂在实蝇防治中的监测与防治作用.%One of the major measures in monitoring, investigating and controlling the fruit flies, baits are extensively adopted. In this paper, the type of fruit fly baits and trap ranges were reviewed, and summarized the role of in the monitoring and control of fruit fly.

  1. (Z)-9-Tricosene based Musca domestica lure study on a garbage dump yard using plywood sticky trap baited with fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, S T Bino; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi; Vijayashanthi, R; Pandian, Serma Saravana

    2016-03-01

    A study was undertaken to find out the efficacy of (Z)-9-Tricosene in attracting flies in a garbage dump yard using a plywood sticky glue trap with fish meal as a food bait. (Z)-9-Tricosene was dissolved in acetone or hexane before application on a filter paper strip fixed at the centre of the trap. The traps were left in areas of the garbage dump yard of high fly activity for 6 h and then the trapped flies were counted species wise. Significantly more number of Musca domestica flies were caught in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated fish meal baited traps compared to those traps without (Z)-9-Tricosene. No significant difference was noted in trap catches in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated traps between the solvents acetone and hexane. In addition Sarcophaga sp. and Chrysomyia sp. flies were also caught in the traps.

  2. Evaluation of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB)—barrier for control of vector and nuisance mosquitoes and its effect on non-target organisms in sub-tropical environments in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Qualls, Whitney A.; Müller, Günter C; Revay, Edita E.; Allan, Sandra A.; Arheart, Kristopher L; Beier, John C.; Smith, Michal L.; Scott, Jodi M.; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Hausmann,Axel; Yefremova, Zoya A.; Xue, Rui-De

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) with the active ingredient eugenol, an Environmental Protection Agency exempt compound, was evaluated against vector and nuisance mosquitoes in both laboratory and field studies. In the laboratory, eugenol combined in attractive sugar bait (ASB) solution provided high levels of mortality for Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Field studies demonstrated significant control: > 70% reduction for Aedes atlantic...

  3. Lipid-formulated bcg as an oral-bait vaccine for tuberculosis: vaccine stability, efficacy, and palatability to brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Martin L; Henderson, Ray J; Lambeth, Matthew R; Buddle, Bryce M; Aldwell, Frank E

    2009-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (Tb), due to infection with virulent Mycobacterium bovis, represents a threat to New Zealand agriculture due to vectorial transmission from wildlife reservoir species, principally the introduced Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). An oral-delivery wildlife vaccine has been developed to immunize possums against Tb, based on formulation of the human Tb vaccine (M. bovis BCG) in edible lipid matrices. Here BCG bacilli were shown to be stable in lipid matrix formulation for over 8 mo in freezer storage, for 7 wk under room temperature conditions, and for 3-5 wk under field conditions in a forest/pasture margin habitat (when maintained in weatherproof bait-delivery sachets). Samples of the lipid matrix were flavored and offered to captive possums in a bait-preference study: a combination of 10% chocolate powder with anise oil was identified as the most effective attractant/palatability combination. In a replicated field study, 85-100% of wild possums were shown to access chocolate-flavored lipid pellets, when baits were applied to areas holding approximately 600-800 possums/km(2). Finally, in a controlled vaccination/challenge study, chocolate-flavored lipid vaccine samples containing 10(8) BCG bacilli were fed to captive possums, which were subsequently challenged via aerosol exposure to virulent M. bovis: vaccine immunogenicity was confirmed, and protection was identified by significantly reduced postchallenge weight loss in vaccinated animals compared to nonvaccinated controls. These studies indicate that, appropriately flavored, lipid delivery matrices may form effective bait vaccines for the control of Tb in wildlife.

  4. Aedes japonicus japonicus and associated woodland species attracted to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light traps baited with carbon dioxide and the Traptech mosquito lure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John F; McKnight, Susan; Ferrandino, Francis J

    2012-09-01

    Twelve reported mosquito attractants, alone or in combination, and 3 different types of traps were evaluated under field conditions for their attractiveness to host-seeking and oviposition-seeking female Aedes japonicus japonicus and associated woodland species in Windsor, CT, in 2010 and 2011. This study highlights the effectiveness of combining CO2 with the TrapTech Mosquito Lure in a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) miniature light trap for collection of Ae. j. japonicus and associated woodland mammalian-feeding mosquitoes. The TrapTech Mosquito Lure is a proprietary blend of Bedoukian Research, Inc. It contained 250 mg of R-1-octen-3-ol and 1900 mg of ammonium bicarbonate, which were slowly released from a plastic disperser. On average, 567 Ae. j. japonicus individuals were collected per trap per night in the CDC miniature light traps baited with CO2 plus TrapTech Mosquito Lure. The numbers collected in this trap were 28 times and 100 times greater than the numbers of Ae. j. japonicus collected in the CDC miniature light trap baited only with CO2 and the gravid trap baited with hay infusion, 2 commonly used traps to assess abundance of Ae. j. japonicus. The average catches of other mammalian-biting species, Ae. cinereus, Ae. triseriatus, Ae. trivittatus, Ae. vexans, Anopheles punctipennis, An. quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, and Culex salinarius, were all significantly greater in the CDC miniature light trap baited with CO2 plus TrapTech Mosquito Lure than in traps with CO2 alone, but their average numbers were not as large as were those of Ae. j. japonicus. These data demonstrate that the TrapTech Mosquito Lure used in combination with CO2 in a CDC miniature light trap has potential to be a versatile and simple surveillance method for Ae. j. japonicus and other species.

  5. Field Responses of Anopheles gambiae Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Liberia using Yeast-Generated Carbon Dioxide and Synthetic Lure-Baited Light Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES, SURVEILLANCE, PREVENTION Field Responses of Anopheles gambiae Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Liberia using Yeast-Generated...and light, bed-net, tent, andodor-baited traps (Mboera 2005). TheCenters forDiseaseControl and Prevention (CDC) light trap with its typical 4Ð6 W...using paper- clips. Although primarily developed and used to attract day ßying Stegomyia ( Aedes ) mosquitoes, blends of this lureÕs primary ingredients

  6. Fish assemblages associated with natural and anthropogenically-modified habitats in a marine embayment: comparison of baited videos and opera-house traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey B Wakefield

    Full Text Available Marine embayments and estuaries play an important role in the ecology and life history of many fish species. Cockburn Sound is one of a relative paucity of marine embayments on the west coast of Australia. Its sheltered waters and close proximity to a capital city have resulted in anthropogenic intrusion and extensive seascape modification. This study aimed to compare the sampling efficiencies of baited videos and fish traps in determining the relative abundance and diversity of temperate demersal fish species associated with naturally occurring (seagrass, limestone outcrops and soft sediment and modified (rockwall and dredge channel habitats in Cockburn Sound. Baited videos sampled a greater range of species in higher total and mean abundances than fish traps. This larger amount of data collected by baited videos allowed for greater discrimination of fish assemblages between habitats. The markedly higher diversity and abundances of fish associated with seagrass and limestone outcrops, and the fact that these habitats are very limited within Cockburn Sound, suggests they play an important role in the fish ecology of this embayment. Fish assemblages associated with modified habitats comprised a subset of species in lower abundances when compared to natural habitats with similar physical characteristics. This suggests modified habitats may not have provided the necessary resource requirements (e.g. shelter and/or diet for some species, resulting in alterations to the natural trophic structure and interspecific interactions. Baited videos provided a more efficient and non-extractive method for comparing fish assemblages and habitat associations of smaller bodied species and juveniles in a turbid environment.

  7. Is the capture success of orchid bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea influenced by different baited trap designs? A case study from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Veiga Sydney

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orchid bees are increasingly applied on Neotropical biomonitoring and bioindication studies due to the relative easiness of sampling and identification when compared to other bee groups. A considerable number of orchid bee community studies have been adopting baited traps as a sampling method, especially for replication purposes. However, the trap attributes are variable, and hitherto no evaluation of different designs was carried out. Here, five attributes of baited traps were tested: trap volume, number of entrance holes, presence of landing platform, kind of landing platform, and fixation content. We use Mann-Whitney tests to access differences in richness and abundance capture rates for each trap design. We found that volume, number of entrance holes, and fixation content do not influence orchid bees capture. However, the design without landing platforms had a significantly higher capture rate for richness when compared with sanded landing platforms. On the other hand, analyzing the kind of landing platform, we detected a significantly higher richness and abundance for the trap with landing platforms glued with sand. Despite the fact that the effects of different designs tested here were very punctual, we consider that results from samples taken with different baited trap designs are comparable. Some adjustments on trap design can be done according to the particularities of future studies.

  8. Avaliação da Atividade Alimentar dos Invertebrados de Solo em Campos do Sul do Brasil – Bait-Lamina Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Podgaiski

    2011-11-01

    Abstract. The aim of this work is to inform about a pioneer bait-lamina test in the South Brazilian Campos to evaluate the soil invertebrates feeding activity which is an approaching to leaf litter decomposition rates in the ecosystems. The feeding activity was tested during two months, across 8 cm of soil depth and employing a comparison between two techniques of consumption quantification (conservative technique vs. practical technique in two different grassland areas (grazed and not grazed were described. One hundred independent sampling units (s.u. were established on each area, and in each s.u. two bait-lamina were inserted: one horizontally and another vertically. For each sampling date (9, 16, 22, 29 e 65 days of exposition, 20 s.u. were sorted and analyzed. We observed a high feeding activity from the beginning of the experiments, both in the surface and within the soil. Soil fauna feeding activity differed according to soil depth, being higher on the surface and for 6.5-8 cm deep in the soil. Both techniques lead to similar results when the two areas were compared. The grazed site showed lower invertebrate feeding activity than the site not grazed. These findings constitute a basis for future researches in Brazil, relating that the bait-lamina test can offer useful results around fifteen days of exposition.

  9. Mass trapping is as effective as ground bait sprays for the control of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies in mango orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Jorge; Flores, Salvador; Liedo, Pablo; Malo, Edi A

    2017-10-01

    Anastrepha fruit flies are considered one of the main phytosanitary problems for the fresh fruit industry in the USA, Caribbean islands and Latin America. Since 1994, the Mexican government has implemented the National Fruit Fly Program using an area-wide integrated pest management approach. In this paper, we evaluate the effectiveness of mass trapping and compare it with ground GF-120 spraying against Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha ludens populations in mango cv. Ataulfo orchards. Multilure® traps baited with Ceratrap® or Biolure® captured significantly more fruit flies than Captor 300 in field cage tests. Mass trapping and ground GF-120 spray significantly suppressed fruit fly populations compared with untreated plots. In Multilure traps placed in untreated plots, we captured significantly more fruit flies than in treated plots with mass trapping or GF-120 sprays. Plots treated with either mass trapping or GF-120 sprays reduced the percentage of infested fruit significantly compared with untreated plots. There was no difference between mass trapping and GF-120 ground bait spraying. Our results demonstrate that mass trapping was as effective as GF-120 ground spraying for the control of fruit flies in mango cv. Ataulfo orchards. The suppression effect of mass trapping was similar to GF-120 ground bait spraying. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Female moths of cotton bollworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) captured by waterbasin traps baited with synthetic female sex pheromone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-WEI SU; HONG-TUO WANG; FENG GE

    2006-01-01

    Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most important pest insects in cotton fields in China. Female moths were captured by waterbasin traps with a synthetic female sex pheromone blend in cotton fields over three Each pheromone dispenser was impregnated with 2.0 mg of pheromone blend and 0.2 mg of antioxidant dissolved with 0.1 mL of hexane, and there was a control dispenser with a similar amount of antioxidant and solvent only. Waterbasin traps were deployed in three female catch was 1.5, and more females were captured by centrally located pheromone traps.average weekly female catches of control traps was significantly lower than that in pheromone-baited traps. (iii) There were significant linear relationships between the average of the interval of traps, average weekly female catches per trap increased but average weekly female catches per hectare decreased. (v) Among the female moths captured by pheromone traps, 88.3% were mated female moths which each containing 1.46 spermatophores, while in control traps 86.9% of the mated female moths had 0.90 spermatophores. There was a significant difference between the average numbers of spermatophores of mated females in pheromone traps and in controls.

  11. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to...

  12. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at...

  13. Technical optimization of termite-killing bait bag application by orthogonal experiment%用正交试验优化白蚁诱饵包使用技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世璋; 陈立志; 张岚; 董勇; 陈冰勇; 陈静; 康勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To look for a solution to the problem of rotting baits buried in soil in the areas with high temperature and moist climate before they are found by subterraneous termites. Methods Four woodlands seriously damaged by subterraneous termites in the Cinnamomun camphora forest in Nanshan Forestry Center in Nan' an District of Chongqing City were selected as the experimental sites. Based on the requirements for the design of the orthogonal experiment in L9 (34), nine treatments were implemented in each experimental site. The interval distance between treatments was 5 meters with four bail bags used in each treatment area. Put in place, every bait bag was checked every 7 days. Four consecutive checks were done during the period of experiment, the amount of baits in each bag fed by termites and the rotten degree of the baits estimated. Results Field experiment results indicated that when the bait bags were applied in the mode of AiB3C3, which meant that dry branches of C. camphora were used to enwrap the bait bag, which was buried 2 cm under soil and the plastic membrane and soil were covered on the bait bag, the bait bags fed by termites amounted to more than 75% with no bait bag decay at 4 weeks after application. The bait bags fed by termites was less than 75% with the bait bags having varying degrees of putrefaction when the bait bags were applied in other modes in this experiment. Conclusion The technique for application of bait bags can be optimized by orthogonal experiment. This optimization is expected to greatly decrease the risk of rotting bait bags and significantly enhance the amount of bait bags fed by termites. It is suggested that this new application technique deserve to be promoted for termite control.%目的 解决高温、潮湿地区埋在地下的诱饵在黑翅土白蚁工蚁未发现前就腐烂变质的问题.方法 在重庆市南岸区南山林场的樟树林内,选择4个白蚁危害严重的区域作为试验

  14. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  15. Gravity Station Data for Portugal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 3064 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  16. Interior Alaska Gravity Station Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 9416 records. This data base was received in March 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  17. Gravity Station Data for Spain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 28493 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  18. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, William [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  19. Non-Coop Station History (Unindexed)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Documents should be compared with those in the Non-Coop Station History...

  20. Space stations systems and utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  1. Internationalization of the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottmann, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the NASA Space Station system elements whose production is under consideration by potential foreign partners. The ESA's Columbus Program declaration encompasses studies of pressurized modules, unmanned payload carriers, and ground support facilities. Canada has expressed interest in construction and servicing facilities, solar arrays, and remote sensing facilities. Japanese studies concern a multipurpose experimental module concept. Each of these foreign investments would expand Space Station capabilities and lay the groundwork for long term partnerships.

  2. Gas Compressor Station Economic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Kurz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When considering gas compressor stations for pipeline projects, the economic success of the entire operation depends to a significant extent on the operation of the compressors involved. In this paper, the basic factors contributing to the economics are outlined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between the pipeline and the compressor station. Typical scenarios are described, highlighting the fact that pipeline operation has to take into account variations in load.

  3. Gas Compressor Station Economic Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    When considering gas compressor stations for pipeline projects, the economic success of the entire operation depends to a significant extent on the operation of the compressors involved. In this paper, the basic factors contributing to the economics are outlined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between the pipeline and the compressor station. Typical scenarios are described, highlighting the fact that pipeline operation has to take into account variations in load.

  4. Conveying International Space Station Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goza, Sharon P.

    2017-01-01

    Over 1,000 experiments have been completed, and others are being conducted and planed on the International Space Station (ISS). In order to make the information on these experiments accessible, the IGOAL develops mobile applications to easily access this content and video products to convey high level concepts. This presentation will feature the Space Station Research Explorer as well as several publicly available video examples.

  5. 47 CFR 80.107 - Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-utility stations. 80.107 Section 80.107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Operating Procedures-Land Stations § 80.107 Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations. A private coast station or a marine-utility station is authorized to transmit messages necessary for...

  6. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes in authorized TV broadcast stations filed...

  7. Assessing Habitat Use by Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus from Baited Underwater Video Data in a Coastal Marine Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Terres

    Full Text Available Baited Underwater Video (BUV systems have become increasingly popular for assessing marine biodiversity. These systems provide video footage from which biologists can identify the individual fish species present. Here we explore the relevance of spatial dependence and marine park boundaries while estimating the distribution and habitat associations of the commercially and recreationally important snapper species Chrysophrys auratus in Moreton Bay Marine Park during a period when new Marine National Parks zoned as no-take or "green" areas (i.e., areas with no legal fishing were introduced. BUV studies typically enforce a minimum distance among BUV sites, and then assume that observations from different sites are independent conditional on the measured covariates. In this study, we additionally incorporated the spatial dependence among BUV sites into the modelling framework. This modelling approach allowed us to test whether or not the incorporation of highly correlated environmental covariates or the geographic placement of BUV sites produced spatial dependence, which if unaccounted for could lead to model bias. We fitted Bayesian logistic models with and without spatial random effects to determine if the Marine National Park boundaries and available environmental covariates had an effect on snapper presence and habitat preference. Adding the spatial dependence component had little effect on the resulting model parameter estimates that emphasized positive association for particular coastal habitat types by snapper. Strong positive relationships between the presence of snapper and rock habitat, particularly rocky substrate composed of indurated freshwater sediments known as coffee rock, and kelp habitat reinforce the consideration of habitat availability in marine reserve design and the design of any associated monitoring programs.

  8. Assessing Habitat Use by Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) from Baited Underwater Video Data in a Coastal Marine Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terres, Maria A; Lawrence, Emma; Hosack, Geoffrey R; Haywood, Michael D E; Babcock, Russell C

    2015-01-01

    Baited Underwater Video (BUV) systems have become increasingly popular for assessing marine biodiversity. These systems provide video footage from which biologists can identify the individual fish species present. Here we explore the relevance of spatial dependence and marine park boundaries while estimating the distribution and habitat associations of the commercially and recreationally important snapper species Chrysophrys auratus in Moreton Bay Marine Park during a period when new Marine National Parks zoned as no-take or "green" areas (i.e., areas with no legal fishing) were introduced. BUV studies typically enforce a minimum distance among BUV sites, and then assume that observations from different sites are independent conditional on the measured covariates. In this study, we additionally incorporated the spatial dependence among BUV sites into the modelling framework. This modelling approach allowed us to test whether or not the incorporation of highly correlated environmental covariates or the geographic placement of BUV sites produced spatial dependence, which if unaccounted for could lead to model bias. We fitted Bayesian logistic models with and without spatial random effects to determine if the Marine National Park boundaries and available environmental covariates had an effect on snapper presence and habitat preference. Adding the spatial dependence component had little effect on the resulting model parameter estimates that emphasized positive association for particular coastal habitat types by snapper. Strong positive relationships between the presence of snapper and rock habitat, particularly rocky substrate composed of indurated freshwater sediments known as coffee rock, and kelp habitat reinforce the consideration of habitat availability in marine reserve design and the design of any associated monitoring programs.

  9. Effectiveness of odor-baited trap trees for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) monitoring in commercial apple orchards in the northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime C; Agnello, Arthur M; Tuttle, Arthur; Leskey, Tracy C; Faubert, Heather; Koehler, Glen; Los, Lorraine; Morin, Glenn; Leahy, Kathleen; Cooley, Daniel R; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2011-10-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern and central North America. For effective management of this insect pest in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the northeastern United States and Canada, one of the greatest challenges has been to determine the need for and timing of insecticide applications that will protect apple fruit from injury by adults. In a 2004-2005 study, we assessed the efficacy and economic viability of a reduced-risk integrated pest management strategy involving an odor-baited trap tree approach to determine need for and timing of insecticide use against plum curculio based on appearance of fresh egg-laying scars. Evaluations took place in commercial apple orchards in seven northeastern U.S. states. More specifically, we compared the trap-tree approach with three calendar-driven whole-block sprays and with heat-unit accumulation models that predict how long insecticide should be applied to orchard trees to prevent injury by plum curculio late in the season. Trap tree plots received a whole-plot insecticide spray by the time of petal fall, and succeeding sprays (if needed) were applied to peripheral-row trees only, depending on a threshold of one fresh plum curculio egg-laying scar out of 25 fruit sampled from a single trap tree. In both years, level of plum curculio injury to fruit sampled from perimeter-row, the most interior-row trees and whole-plot injury in trap tree plots did not differ significantly from that recorded in plots subject to conventional management or in plots managed using the heat-unit accumulation approach. The amount of insecticide used in trap tree plots was reduced at least by 43% compared with plots managed with the conventional approach. Advantages and potential pitfalls of the bio-based trap tree approach to plum curculio monitoring in apple orchards are discussed.

  10. Comparative population assessments of Nautilus sp. in the Philippines, Australia, Fiji, and American Samoa using baited remote underwater video systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Barord

    Full Text Available The extant species of Nautilus and Allonautilus (Cephalopoda inhabit fore-reef slope environments across a large geographic area of the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans. While many aspects of their biology and behavior are now well-documented, uncertainties concerning their current populations and ecological role in the deeper, fore-reef slope environments remain. Given the historical to current day presence of nautilus fisheries at various locales across the Pacific and Indian Oceans, a comparative assessment of the current state of nautilus populations is critical to determine whether conservation measures are warranted. We used baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS to make quantitative photographic records as a means of estimating population abundance of Nautilus sp. at sites in the Philippine Islands, American Samoa, Fiji, and along an approximately 125 km transect on the fore reef slope of the Great Barrier Reef from east of Cairns to east of Lizard Island, Australia. Each site was selected based on its geography, historical abundance, and the presence (Philippines or absence (other sites of Nautilus fisheries The results from these observations indicate that there are significantly fewer nautiluses observable with this method in the Philippine Islands site. While there may be multiple possibilities for this difference, the most parsimonious is that the Philippine Islands population has been reduced due to fishing. When compared to historical trap records from the same site the data suggest there have been far more nautiluses at this site in the past. The BRUVS proved to be a valuable tool to measure Nautilus abundance in the deep sea (300-400 m while reducing our overall footprint on the environment.

  11. Attraction of the Invasive Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to Traps Baited with Semiochemical Stimuli Across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskey, Tracy C; Agnello, Arthur; Bergh, J Christopher; Dively, Galen P; Hamilton, George C; Jentsch, Peter; Khrimian, Ashot; Krawczyk, Grzegorz; Kuhar, Thomas P; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Morrison, William R; Polk, Dean F; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Shearer, Peter W; Short, Brent D; Shrewsbury, Paula M; Walgenbach, James F; Weber, Donald C; Welty, Celeste; Whalen, Joanne; Wiman, Nik; Zaman, Faruque

    2015-06-01

    A recent identification of the two-component aggregation pheromone of the invasive stink bug species, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), in association with a synergist, has greatly improved the ability to accurately monitor the seasonal abundance and distribution of this destructive pest. We evaluated the attraction of H. halys to black pyramid traps baited with lures containing the pheromone alone, the synergist methyl (2E,4E,6Z)-decatrienoate (MDT) alone, and the two lures in combination. Traps were deployed around areas of agricultural production including fruit orchards, vegetables, ornamentals, or row crops in Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia from mid-April to mid-October, 2012 and 2013. We confirmed that H. halys adults and nymphs are attracted to the aggregation pheromone season long, but that attraction is significantly increased with the addition of the synergist MDT. H. halys adults were detected in April with peak captures of overwintering adults in mid- to late May. The largest adult captures were late in the summer, typically in early September. Nymphal captures began in late May and continued season long. Total captures declined rapidly in autumn and ceased by mid-October. Captures were greatest at locations in the Eastern Inland region, followed by those in the Eastern Coastal Plain and Pacific Northwest. Importantly, regardless of location in the United States, all mobile life stages of H. halys consistently responded to the combination of H. halys aggregation pheromone and the synergist throughout the entire season, suggesting that these stimuli will be useful tools to monitor for H. halys in managed systems.

  12. ¿Es seguro para la salud humana y animal el uso de raticidas que contienen Salmonella? Is safety for human and animal health the use of Salmonella-based rodenticides?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mendoza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática para identificar publicaciones sobre la seguridad ante la exposición de raticidas que contienen Salmonella para humanos y animales. Se consideraron publicaciones a texto completo que incluían descripción de su metodología y la presentación adecuada de sus resultados. De 545 publicaciones recuperadas, 47 se revisaron a texto completo de las que se seleccionaron 12. En seis se reportan casos de salmonelosis en humanos, incluso casos fatales, asociados a la exposición a versiones anteriores de estos raticidas. El único ensayo clínico encontrado reporta una mayor frecuencia de diarrea y fiebre en el grupo que ingirió Salmonella contenida en Biorat® (presentación comercial actual; sin embargo, la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa, pero el ensayo presentó problemas metodológicos. Las cepas de Salmonella enteritidis contenidas en una versión anterior (Ratin® y en la versión actual corresponden a la misma variedad (Danysz y fagotipo (6a, y están cercanamente relacionadas según la técnica de electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado (PFGE. No se reporta efectos patógenos de esta Salmonella para las diferentes especies de animales ensayadas; sin embargo, se encontraron limitaciones en la metodología empleada. Se concluye que la Salmonella enteritidis contenida en versiones anteriores de raticidas produjo enfermedad en humanos por lo que fue prohibida su comercialización y que existiría un riesgo potencial de la versión actual por contener una bacteria muy similar y por no tener evidencia suficiente que garantice su seguridad. Son necesarios estudios bien diseñados por instituciones sin conflicto de interés, antes de su aplicación en salud pública o agricultura.We conducted a systematic search of the literature to identify publications on the safety of exposure to Salmonella-based rodenticides by humans and animals. We included full-text publications that described the methods

  13. 气相色谱-串联质谱法测定饮用水、酱油和食醋中四种杀鼠剂%Determination of four rodenticides in foods by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣维广; 刘华良; 陈蓓; 朱峰; 吉文亮; 马永建

    2013-01-01

    A method was developed for determining four rodenticides fluoroacetamide, crimidine, tetramine and pindone in some foods matrices by GC-MS/MS. The drinking water and vinegar, soy sauce were extracted and cleanup using SPE and liquid-liquid extraction respectively. They were separated by an INNOWAX (30 m× 0.25 mm ×0. 25 μm) chromatographic column. The results showed that the method had good accuracy and precision, the recoveries and relative standard deviations( RSDs) of them were 57. 2% ~102. 2% and 1. 9% ~9. 5 % in selected matrices; the minimum detection concentration of pindone was 2. 0 μg/L, and others were less than 0. 5 μg/L in water; the minimum detection concentration of pindone was 0. 1 mg/kg, and others were less than 0. 025 mg/kg in vinegar and soy sauce. The developed method was valid and provided the simultaneous confirmation and quantification of the four rodenticides in poisoning cases.%采用气相色谱串联质谱法测定饮用水、酱油和食醋中4种鼠药氟乙酰胺、鼠立死、毒鼠强和杀鼠酮的含量.饮用水样品用固相萃取(苯乙烯二乙烯苯和甲基丙稀酸甲脂聚合物固相萃取柱)富集净化;食醋和酱油样品用乙腈为提取溶剂,加入少量石墨化炭黑去除色素的快速萃取法提取净化,采用INNOWAX弹性的石英毛细管柱分析.结果表明本方法测定选定样品基质的回收率和相对标准偏差分别在57.2% ~ 102.2%,1.9% ~9.5%之间;饮用水中除去杀鼠酮的最低检测浓度为2.0 μg/L外,其他均小于0.5μg/L;食醋和酱油中杀鼠酮的最低检测浓度为0.10 mg/kg,其他均小于0.025 mg/kg.本方法适用于突发中毒事件中几种食品样品中4种鼠药的同时快速定性和准确定量.

  14. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, Richard

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station

  15. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  16. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  17. 47 CFR 78.69 - Station records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... notice was given. (v) Date and time notice was given to the Flight Service Station (Federal Aviation... SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.69 Station records. Each licensee of a CARS station shall... time of the beginning and end of each period of transmission of each channel; (b) For all stations,...

  18. Effects of Two Temperature Storage Regimes on the Efficacy of 3 Commercial Gel Baits against the German Cockroach, Blattella germanica L. (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Oz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To compare the effectiveness of 3 commercial gel bait formulations containing fipronil (Goliathã Cockroach Gel 0.05% AI, chlorpyrifos-A (Clean Baitã Gel, 2% AI, and chloropyrifos-B (Serpaã Gel 2% AI against German cock­roaches (Blattella germanica when stored at 23°C and 30° C after treatment."nMethods: Laboratory bioassays consisted of placing groups of fifteen cockroaches (a random combination of adult, mixed sex and large nymphs-stage 6 into a 5 L cylindrical plastic container with one drop of product (avg 0.10 g ± 0.01 g applied to a 76 mm x 26 mm glass microscope slide affixed to the bottom of each container (one product tested per container. Cumula­tive mortality was assessed at 6 h, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 d after application. To determine the further effects of storage tempera­ture after treatment on residual activity of the gels, a drop of each product was applied to separate glass microscope slides and stored at either 23º C (warm or 30º C (hot under dark conditions for 0, 1, 7, 14, 30, 45, 60 and 90 d after applica­tion."nResults: Freshly applied baits (day 0 containing fipronil provided complete cockroach mortality (100% within 5 d whereas chloryrifos-A and chlorpyrifos-B provided »72% and 88% mortality, respectively. Generally, cockroach mortality was greater when gels were stored at 30°C compared with 23º C."nConclusion: The fipronil gel formulation proved to be as efficacious as the chlorpyrifos gels and in some instances sur­pased the latter formulations depending on storage time and temperature by providing »90% mortality at 90 d post treat­ment.

  19. Technology and Development of Counterwork Between ASW Torpedo and Self-propulsion Acoustic Bait%反潜鱼雷与自航式声诱饵对抗技术及发展磁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆元乐; 岳崴; 王新华; 杨迎化; 张选东

    2016-01-01

    ASW torpedo is confronted with threat of submarine‐born counterwork equipment such as self‐propulsion a‐coustic bait .The paper introduces the principle of self‐propulsion acoustic bait .It also expounds the principle of scale identi‐fication ,which is the effective method for ASW torpedo to counter self‐propulsion acoustic bait .It goes deep into the princi‐ple of self‐propulsion towed acoustic bait ,which is the latest development of self‐propulsion acoustic bait .It also introduces ASW torpedo counter countermeasure .%反潜鱼雷面临潜艇发射的自航式声诱饵等对抗器材的威胁。论文介绍了自航式声诱饵的工作原理,阐述了鱼雷对抗自航式声诱饵的有效方法即目标尺度识别技术的原理。深入介绍了自航式声诱饵的新发展即自航式拖曳声诱饵的工作原理以及反潜鱼雷反对抗的新方法。

  20. Business earth stations for telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Walter L.; Rouffet, Denis

    The current status of technology for small commercial satellite-communication earth stations is reviewed on the basis of an application study undertaken in the U.S. and Europe. Chapters are devoted to an overview of satellite communication networks, microterminal design and hardware implementation, microterminal applications, the advantages of microterminals, typical users, services provided, the U.S. market for small earth stations, network operators, and the economics of satellite and terrestrial communication services. Consideration is given to the operation of a microterminal network, standards and regulations, technological factors, space-segment requirements, and insurance aspects. Diagrams, graphs, tables of numerical data, and a glossary of terms are provided.

  1. Similar reproductive status and body size of horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) attracted to carbon dioxide-baited canopy traps and a Jersey bullock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprince, D J; Hribar, L J; Foil, L D

    1992-11-01

    The reproductive status and body size of four Tabanus species collected from canopy traps baited with carbon dioxide and from a Jersey bullock were compared. Parity rates, sperm prevalence, stage of follicular development in terminal follicles of parous females, prevalence of females retaining eggs, average number of eggs retained in parous flies, and the body size of parous females did not differ significantly between sampling methods. Based on the presence of nulliparous host-seeking flies, Tabanus pallidescens Philip and T. wilsoni Pechuman can be added to the list of tabanids found to be anautogenous.

  2. Single-Station Sigma for the Iranian Strong Motion Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafarani, H.; Soghrat, M. R.

    2017-07-01

    In development of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), the residuals are assumed to have a log-normal distribution with a zero mean and a standard deviation, designated as sigma. Sigma has significant effect on evaluation of seismic hazard for designing important infrastructures such as nuclear power plants and dams. Both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties are involved in the sigma parameter. However, ground-motion observations over long time periods are not available at specific sites and the GMPEs have been derived using observed data from multiple sites for a small number of well-recorded earthquakes. Therefore, sigma is dominantly related to the statistics of the spatial variability of ground motion instead of temporal variability at a single point (ergodic assumption). The main purpose of this study is to reduce the variability of the residuals so as to handle it as epistemic uncertainty. In this regard, it is tried to partially apply the non-ergodic assumption by removing repeatable site effects from total variability of six GMPEs driven from the local, Europe-Middle East and worldwide data. For this purpose, we used 1837 acceleration time histories from 374 shallow earthquakes with moment magnitudes ranging from M w 4.0 to 7.3 recorded at 370 stations with at least two recordings per station. According to estimated single-station sigma for the Iranian strong motion stations, the ratio of event-corrected single-station standard deviation (Φ ss) to within-event standard deviation (Φ) is about 0.75. In other words, removing the ergodic assumption on site response resulted in 25% reduction of the within-event standard deviation that reduced the total standard deviation by about 15%.

  3. A comparison of commercial light-emitting diode baited suction traps for surveillance of Culicoides in northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew; Gubbins, Simon; Sanders, Christopher; Denison, Eric; Barber, James; Stubbins, Francesca; Baylis, Matthew; Carpenter, Simon

    2015-04-22

    traps are deployed at a single site. Future work should combine light wavelengths to improve trapping sensitivity and potentially enable direct comparisons with collections from hosts, although this may ultimately require different forms of baits to be developed.

  4. The Medicina Station Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfei, Alessandro; Orlati, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    General information about the Medicina Radio Astronomy Station, the 32-m antenna status, and the staff in charge of the VLBI observations is provided. In 2012, the data from geodetic VLBI observations were acquired using the Mark 5A recording system with good results. Updates of the hardware were performed and are briefly described.

  5. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  6. 77 FR 16175 - Station Blackout

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... turbine trip and unavailability of the onsite emergency ac power system). Station blackout does not... plant achieves safe shutdown by relying on components that are not ac powered, such as turbine- or..., or seismic activity and that preexisting licensing requirements specified sufficient...

  7. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  8. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  9. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  10. Barrow Meteoroloigcal Station (BMET) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2004-11-01

    The Barrow meteorology station (BMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors mounted at four different heights on a 40 m tower to obtain profiles of wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, and humidity. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility, and precipitation data.

  11. OMV Deployed From Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    In this 1986 artist's concept, the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), at right, prepares to reboost the Hubble Space Telescope after being deployed from an early Space Station configuration (left). As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  12. "Artificial intelligence" at streamgaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. B. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Two types of problems are related to collecting hydrologic data at stream gaging stations. One includes the technical/logistical questions associated with measuring and transferring data for processing. Effort spent on these problems ranges from improving devices for sensing data to using electronic data loggers.

  13. Baiting the Book Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Robyn Reeves

    1993-01-01

    It is time to stop blaming children's nonreading on innate intelligence, ethnicity, socioeconomic background, TV-watching, or other factors beyond teachers' control. Too many schools are boring kids with dull texts and basal readers. Kids read about topics that interest them and particularly enjoy mystery, adventure, humor stories. Matching…

  14. Using in situ seed baiting technique to isolate and identify endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi from seeds of a threatened epiphytic orchid, Dendrobium friedericksianum Rchb.f. (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-monrug Khamchatra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All orchids require association with mycorrhizal fungi for seed germination and development under natural conditions but their identification and feasibility are not known. The in situ seed baiting germination was examined of Dendrobium friedericksianum Rchb.f., a native threatened epiphytic orchid species, to detect fungi that promote germination. It was found that seed germination percentages were lowered by 0.1%, with a total of seven protocorms formed. Six endophytic fungi were isolated from seven protocorms in seed packets. Three binucleate Rhizoctonia-like fungal isolates which formed a teleomorphic state were morphologically identified as Tulasnella violea, Epulorhiza repen (anamorph Tulasnella and Trichosporiella multisporum. The species of Beauvaria and Fusarium which are endophyte fungi were also isolated and may play an important role for plant growth and survival of D. friedericksianum. The results in this study suggested that in situ seed baiting is beneficial for screening compatible mycorrhizal fungi to promote the growth and propagation of epiphytic orchids.

  15. Efficacy of light and nonlighted carbon dioxide-baited traps for adult sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) surveillance in three counties of Mesrata, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenauer, P J; Annajar, B B; Hanafi, H A; Abdel-Dayem, M S; El-Hossary, S S; Villinski, J

    2012-09-01

    ABSTRACT. Sand flies are important vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis, especially along coastal towns of northwestern Libya where an estimated 20,000 cases have occurred from 2004 to 2009. Host-seeking traps are an important tool for sampling sand fly populations and surveying the incidence of Leishmania major and L. tropica within a given population. We evaluated the capture efficiency of CO2-baited BG-Sentinel, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light, CDC ultraviolet light, and nonbaited CO2 CDC light traps in 3 coastal townships during June, August, September, and November 2010. A total of 3,248 sand flies, representing 8 species from 2 genera, were collected; most sand flies were identified as either Phlebotomus papatasi or P. longicuspis. Three of the traps captured significantly more sand flies compared to the BG-Sentinel baited with CO2 (P < 0.001). Three of 456 DNA pools extracted from sand flies were positive for Leishmania DNA, indicating a minimum estimated infection rate of 0.83% and 0.47% for P. papatasi and P. longicuspis, respectively.

  16. There is no magic fruit fly trap: multiple biological factors influence the response of adult Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) individuals to MultiLure traps baited with BioLure or NuLure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2009-02-01

    Field-cage experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of MultiLure traps (Better World MFG Inc., Fresno, CA) baited with NuLure (Miller Chemical and Fertilizer Corp., Hanover, PA) or BioLure (Suterra LLC, Inc., Bend, OR) in capturing individually marked Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), and West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), of both sexes. Experimental treatments involved wild and laboratory-reared flies of varying ages (2-4 and 15-18 d) and dietary histories (sugar only, open fruit, open fruit plus chicken feces, and hydrolyzed protein mixed with sugar). Data were divided into two parts: total captures over a 24-h period and trap visits/landings, entrances into interior of trap ,and effective captures (i.e., drowning in liquid bait or water) over a 5-h detailed observation period (0600-1100 hours). The response to the two baits varied by fly species, gender, physiological state, age, and strain. Importantly, there were several highly significant interactions among these factors, underlining the complex nature of the response. The two baits differed in attractiveness for A. obliqua but not A. ludens. The effect of strain (wild versus laboratory flies) was significant for A. ludens but not A. obliqua. For effect of dietary history, adults of both species, irrespective of sex, were significantly less responsive to both baits when fed on a mixture of protein and sugar when compared with adults fed the other diets. Finally, we confirmed previous observations indicating that McPhail-type traps are quite inefficient. Considering the total 24-h fly tenure in the cage, and independent of bait treatment and fly type (i.e., strain, adult diet, gender and age), of a total of 2,880 A. obliqua and 2,880 A. ludens adults released into the field cages over the entire study (15 replicates), only 564 (19.6%) and 174 (6%) individuals, respectively, were effectively caught. When only considering the 5-h detailed

  17. Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  18. Manned space stations - A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disher, J. H.

    1981-09-01

    The findings from the Skylab missions are discussed as they relate to the operations planning of future space stations such as Spacelab and the proposed Space Operations Center. Following a brief description of the Skylab spacecraft, the significance of the mission as a demonstration of the possibility of effecting emergency repairs in space is pointed out. Specific recommendations made by Skylab personnel concerning capabilities for future in-flight maintenance are presented relating to the areas of spacecraft design criteria, tool selection and spares carried. Attention is then given to relevant physiological findings, and to habitability considerations in the areas of sleep arrangements, hygiene, waste management, clothing, and food. The issue of contamination control is examined in detail as a potential major system to be integrated into future design criteria. The importance of the Skylab results to the designers of future space stations is emphasized.

  19. Tracing Utopia in 'Utopia Station'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzbart, Judith

    Art (Publication due in 2012)). But it seems to differ noticeable from the ideologically driven concept(s) of the 20th century avant-garde. The paper will suggest that we in experiments with openness and structure, with an ambivalent engagement in popular culture and everyday life, and complex double......This paper will discuss how avant-garde rhetoric and working methods are used to rethink exhibition-making in the wake of the ‘relational aesthetics’ and visual art of the 90s. With Utopia Station curated by Molly Nesbit, Hans Ulrich Obrist, and Rirkrit Tiravanija as key example, we will look...... carries the same meaning and function in a contemporary culture. Utopia Station unfolded over a long period of time, starting with different gatherings in 2002, continuing with diverse ‘stations’ at the Venice Biennial (2003), Haus der Kunst in Munich (2004), and the World Social Forum in Porte Alegre...

  20. Space Station solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  1. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  2. Station Climatic Summaries, Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    1 ARUBA Reina Beatrix 789820 Dec 86 (OCDS) --....................................... 5 ARGENTINA Buenos Alres/Ezeiza 875760 Apr 89 (CB...74 Oruro/Mendoza 852420 Feb 87 (OCDS) ...................................... 78 Potosi/ Rojas 852930 Feb 87 (OCDS...F 0 0 0 f 21-23 LST 0 0 0 0 # 0 F 1 0 0 0 F ALL HOURS # f F 0 0 # 0 F F 0 0 0 F 004 OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY STATION: REINA BEATRIX INTL

  3. Space station particulate contamination environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. R.; Clifton, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    The origin of particulate contamination on the Space Station will mostly be from pre-launch operations. The adherence and subsequent release of these particles during space flight are discussed. Particle size, release velocity, and release direction are important in determining particle behavior in the vicinity of the vehicle. The particulate environment at the principal science instrument locations is compared to the space shuttle bay environment. Recommendations for possibly decreasing the particulate contamination are presented.

  4. Package power stations for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The cheap and efficient generation of power is an essential requirement for the success and prosperity of any community and is especially important to third world countries. It is therefore logical that the more technologically advanced nations should seek to produce power stations for the developing countries. Power plant can now be designed into a packaged form that may be readily exported and commissioned. This valuable and interesting collection of papers were originally presented at a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include the developing world market for packaged power stations using indigenous fuels; multi-fuel systems for power generation; packaging, modularisation, and containerisation of equipment for power boilers for export; compact coal-fired industrial plant; rural woodburning power stations; biomass gasification based power generation technology and potential; gas fed reciprocating engine development; packaged heavy duty gas turbines for power generation; and criteria for assessing the appropriateness of package power technologies in developing countries.

  5. GIS-modelling the distribution of Rattus norvegicus in urban areas using non toxic attractive baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sacchi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract GIS supplies a useful way for analysing and modelling spatial distribution of brown rats Rattus norvegicus in urban areas, supplying maps that predict the occurrence of rats over larger areas. However, two alternative procedures can be used: landscape-based models, which use habitat variables derived from remote sensing satellites or other thematic maps, and interpolation techniques, which convert point samples of species abundance. The first procedure has been previously applied, while the second has never been used until now. In this study, we valued the effectiveness of the interpolating procedure by modelling the distribution of brown rats in a large urban area of northern Italy. During spring and autumn 2004, we positioned non toxic baits in 119 spots distributed over the whole urbanized area of the city and we generated maps of rat presence/absence for the two seasons. Brown rats were irregularly scattered over the city and concentrated mainly around rivers and ditches, as well in the historic centre, particularly where buildings suffer poor maintenance. Seasonal variation of rat occurrence was also detected. Brown rat occurrence may be reliably predicted by the interpolation procedure, which appeared to be a more efficient approach to rat distribution modelling compared with landscape-based procedures. Riassunto Modelli GIS della distribuzione di Rattus norvegicus in ambiente urbano con utilizzo di esche non tossiche. I programmi GIS rappresentano un utile strumento per analizzare e modellizzare la distribuzione del ratto delle chiaviche Rattus norvegicus nelle aree urbane, fornendo mappe in grado di predire la presenza di questa specie su vaste aree. A questo scopo possono essere impiegate due procedure alternative: i modelli basati sul paesaggio, che utilizzano le caratteristiche ambientali desunte da mappe tematiche o immagini satellitari

  6. HSIP Fire Stations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Fire Stations in New Mexico Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  7. Open System of Agile Ground Stations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  8. 47 CFR 74.783 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... made at a code speed not in excess of 20 words per minute; or (2) By arranging for the primary station... visual presentation or a clearly understandable aural presentation of the translator station's...

  9. Automatic Control of Water Pumping Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhannad Alrheeh; JIANG Zhengfeng

    2006-01-01

    Automatic Control of pumps is an interesting proposal to operate water pumping stations among many kinds of water pumping stations according to their functions.In this paper, our pumping station is being used for water supply system. This paper is to introduce the idea of pump controller and the important factors that must be considering when we want to design automatic control system of water pumping stations. Then the automatic control circuit with the function of all components will be introduced.

  10. 49 CFR 195.128 - Station piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station piping. 195.128 Section 195.128 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.128 Station piping. Any pipe to be installed in a station that...

  11. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... collection associated with the Commission's Earth Station Aboard Aircraft, Report and Order (Order), which adopted licensing and service rules for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA) communicating with Fixed...

  12. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  13. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  14. 47 CFR 22.313 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for transmission by: (1) Stations in the Cellular Radiotelephone Service; (2) General aviation ground... continuity of any public communication in progress, provided that station identification is transmitted at... carrier; (2) For general aviation airborne mobile stations in the Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service,...

  15. 47 CFR 97.203 - Beacon station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Beacon station. 97.203 Section 97.203... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.203 Beacon station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a beacon. A...

  16. A historical perspective on space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, W. Ray

    1991-01-01

    The historical development of space stations is presented through a series of various spacecraft configurations including: (1) Salut 6; (2) Skylab; (3) the Space Operations Center (SOC); (4) the Manned Science and Applications Space Platform; (5) Space Station Freedom; and (4) the Mir Space Station.

  17. 30 CFR 57.12085 - Transformer stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transformer stations. 57.12085 Section 57.12085 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.12085 Transformer stations. Transformer stations shall be enclosed to prevent...

  18. 47 CFR 90.476 - Interconnection of fixed stations and certain mobile stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interconnection of fixed stations and certain... Systems § 90.476 Interconnection of fixed stations and certain mobile stations. (a) Fixed stations and...)(11), 90.35(c)(42), and 90.267 are not subject to the interconnection provisions of §§ 90.477 and...

  19. A customer-friendly Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship of customers to the Space Station Program currently being defined by NASA. Emphasis is on definition of the Program such that the Space Station will be conducive to use by customers, that is by people who utilize the services provided by the Space Station and its associated platforms and vehicles. Potential types of customers are identified. Scenarios are developed for ways in which different types of customers can utilize the Space Station. Both management and technical issues involved in making the Station 'customer friendly' are discussed.

  20. Arduino adventures escape from Gemini station

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, James Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Arduino Adventures: Escape from Gemini Station provides a fun introduction to the Arduino microcontroller by putting you (the reader) into the action of a science fiction adventure story.  You'll find yourself following along as Cade and Elle explore Gemini Station-an orbiting museum dedicated to preserving and sharing technology throughout the centuries. Trouble ensues. The station is evacuated, including Cade and Elle's class that was visiting the station on a field trip. Cade and Elle don't make it aboard their shuttle and are trapped on the station along with a friendly artificial intellig

  1. Neutron proton crystallography station (PCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Zoe [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kovalevsky, Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Hannah [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mustyakimov, Marat [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The PCS (Protein Crystallography Station) at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a unique facility in the USA that is designed and optimized for detecting and collecting neutron diffraction data from macromolecular crystals. PCS utilizes the 20 Hz spallation neutron source at LANSCE to enable time-of-flight measurements using 0.6-7.0 {angstrom} neutrons. This increases the neutron flux on the sample by using a wavelength range that is optimal for studying macromolecular crystal structures. The diagram below show a schematic of PCS and photos of the detector and instrument cave.

  2. Weather Monitoring Station: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Dipak V. Sose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weather monitoring plays a very important role in human life hence study of weather system is necessary. Currently there are two types of the weather monitoring stations available i.e. wired and wireless. Wireless system has some advantages over the wired one hence popular now a days. The parameters are include in weather monitoring usually temperature, humidity atmospheric pressure, light intensity, rainfall etc. There are many techniques existed using different processor such as PIC, AVR, ARM etc. Analog to digital channel are used to fetch the analog output of the sensors. The wireless techniques used in the weather monitoring having GSM, FM channel, Zigbee, RF etc Protocols

  3. Evaluation of the effectiveness of light streamer tori-lines and characteristics of bait attacks by seabirds in the western North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Noriyosi; Ochi, Daisuke; Minami, Hiroshi; Yokawa, Kotaro

    2012-01-01

    To improve the effectiveness of tori-lines it is necessary to evaluate the ability of tori-lines to mitigate seabird bycatch and determine what kind of seabird species gather during line settings, attack the bait and are incidentally caught. We conducted two experiments in the western North Pacific and examined the effectiveness for seabird mitigation of light streamer tori-lines which have no long streamers but many light (short) streamers and are mainly used in the North Pacific area. Firstly, the effectiveness of two different types of tori-line (light streamer (1 m) and long streamer (up to 7 m) tori-line) and of two different colors (yellow and red) of light streamers for seabird bycatch avoidance was evaluated using 567 sets based on data from 20 offshore surface commercial longliners. No significant difference in the bycatch number between the different tori-line types and streamer colors was found. Secondly, we investigated the characteristics of the seabird bycatch in the North Pacific and the effectiveness of three different types of streamers (light, hybrid and modified light types) by detailed observations of seabird attacks using a chartered longline vessel. Although the appearance rate of albatrosses and shearwaters were 40.9% and 27.7%, Laysan albatross was the main seabird species that followed the vessel but shearwaters seldom followed the vessel and did not aggregate during line setting. In all attacks on bait observed during line settings, 81% and 7% were by albatrosses and shearwaters, respectively. In the number of primary attacks by Laysan albatrosses which attacked most aggressively of all seabirds, there were no significant differences among the tori-line types. No individuals of shearwater were caught. The results of both experiments indicated that light streamer tori-lines were as effective as tori-lines with long streamers for mitigating seabird bycatch in the North Pacific.

  4. Pheromone-baited traps for assessment of seasonal activity and population densities of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in nurseries producing ornamental plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Rebeccah A; Redak, Richard A; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2011-04-01

    Operational parameters of traps baited with the pheromones of three mealybug species were optimized in nurseries producing ornamental plants. All pheromone doses (1-320 microg) attracted Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) and Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) males, with the lowest dose (1 microg) attracting the fewest males for both species. Doses of 3.2-100 microg were as attractive to male P. longispinus as the highest dose (320 microg); doses from 10 to 320 microg were equally attractive for P. viburni males. Lures containing 25-microg doses of either pheromone had effective field lifetimes of at least 12 wk. Experiments were performed to test the efficacy of combining multiple pheromones to attract several species of mealybugs simultaneously. Lures loaded with a mixture of the pheromones of P. longispinus, P. viburni, and Planococcus citri (Risso) were as attractive to P. viburni and P. citri as lures with their individual pheromones. Response of P. longispinus to the blend was decreased by 38% compared with its pheromone as a single component. A subsequent trial with two-component blends showed that the pheromone ofP. citri was responsible for this modest decrease in P. longispinus response. This should not affect the overall efficacy of using these lures for monitoring the presence of all three mealybug species simultaneously. Pheromone traps were used to detect infestations of P. longispinus throughout the season and to track population cycles. When pheromone-baited traps for P. longispinus were compared with manual sampling, trap counts of male mealybugs were significantly correlated with mealybugs counted on plants in the vicinity of the traps.

  5. Evaluation of the effectiveness of light streamer tori-lines and characteristics of bait attacks by seabirds in the western North Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyosi Sato

    Full Text Available To improve the effectiveness of tori-lines it is necessary to evaluate the ability of tori-lines to mitigate seabird bycatch and determine what kind of seabird species gather during line settings, attack the bait and are incidentally caught. We conducted two experiments in the western North Pacific and examined the effectiveness for seabird mitigation of light streamer tori-lines which have no long streamers but many light (short streamers and are mainly used in the North Pacific area. Firstly, the effectiveness of two different types of tori-line (light streamer (1 m and long streamer (up to 7 m tori-line and of two different colors (yellow and red of light streamers for seabird bycatch avoidance was evaluated using 567 sets based on data from 20 offshore surface commercial longliners. No significant difference in the bycatch number between the different tori-line types and streamer colors was found. Secondly, we investigated the characteristics of the seabird bycatch in the North Pacific and the effectiveness of three different types of streamers (light, hybrid and modified light types by detailed observations of seabird attacks using a chartered longline vessel. Although the appearance rate of albatrosses and shearwaters were 40.9% and 27.7%, Laysan albatross was the main seabird species that followed the vessel but shearwaters seldom followed the vessel and did not aggregate during line setting. In all attacks on bait observed during line settings, 81% and 7% were by albatrosses and shearwaters, respectively. In the number of primary attacks by Laysan albatrosses which attacked most aggressively of all seabirds, there were no significant differences among the tori-line types. No individuals of shearwater were caught. The results of both experiments indicated that light streamer tori-lines were as effective as tori-lines with long streamers for mitigating seabird bycatch in the North Pacific.

  6. Environmental interactions on Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Gabriel, Stephen B.; Murphy, Gerald B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the key environment/system interactions associated with the Space Station and its companion polar platform and defines the range of test environments that will need to be simulated. These environments include the neutral atmosphere, the ionospheric plasma, natural and man-made particulates, the ambient magnetic field, the South Atlantic Anomaly, and the ram/wake environment. The system/environment interactions include glow, oxygen erosion, drag, radiation effects, induced electric fields, high-voltage solar-array effects, and EMC/EMI associated with plasma/neutral gas operations. The Space Station and its associated systems pose unique demands on the ability to simulate these effects; synergistic effects require multiple environments to be simulated simultaneously, and the long life requirements require proper scaling of the exposure time. The analysis of specific effects and the calibration or improvement of ground test techniques will likely require in situ evaluation. Qualification and acceptance testing, because of cost and the impractically of extensive on-orbit analysis/modification, will likely remain ground test objectives except in very rare cases.

  7. Testing EDM of Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirbus Ján

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to testing electrooptical distance measuring devices (EDM built in total stations, than can be used for various tasks in the contemporary geodetic works. A rich market offer and availability of these universal measuring systems with satisfying distance range, excellent accuracy and other parameters, make total stations as dominant terrestrial geodetic instruments.For succesfully applying these instruments, above all for relliable distance measurements, the stability of the modulation frequency is the most important pre-condition. In the article, therefore, there are given some methods to verify the modulation frequency stability. In addition, some ways for determining the EDM distance constant and periodical corrections of the phase measuring unit are introduced for 4 types of EDM : LEICA 1700L, TOPCON GTS6A, TOPCON GTS2, C.ZEISS ELTA50. It were also investigated their possibilities for precise distance survey. Values of the determined constants and periodical corrections are presented in Tab. 2.Based on the investigation results of the 4 EDM types and using the values m obtained for different distances S, equations of the a posteriori standard deviations in form : m = (a+b.S were derived too.

  8. Space station operating system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

    1988-01-01

    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  9. Stream Station video server system; Video saba sochi `Stream station`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A video server system Stream Station is developed for delivering moving images to the client on the VOD (video on demand) basis. In this system, video data compressed using the MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) technique are stored in a RAID (redundant arrays of independent disks) system, and is outputted as analog video data after expansion in a decoder provided at the output stage. The server system easily realizes a VOD system using the existing in-house cable TV facilities for instance for hotel rooms. The data for this purpose may be either in the MPEG1 or MPEG2 format, pictures may be simultaneously transmitted via as many as 32 channels at the maximum, and the storage holds 256 gigabytes at the maximum. It incorporates a video server architecture developed by Toshiba Corporation, and the data transfer rate from data readout to transmission is totally warranted. (translated by NEDO)

  10. STRUVE arc and EUPOS® stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasmane, Ieva; Kaminskis, Janis; Balodis, Janis; Haritonova, Diana

    2013-04-01

    The Struve Geodetic Arc was developed in Years 1816 to 1855, 200 years ago. Historic information on the points of the Struve Geodetic Arc are included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2005. Nevertheless, the sites of many points are still not identified nor included in the data bases nowadays. Originally STRUVE arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 triangulation points. Currently 34 of the original station points are identified and included in the in the UNESCO World Heritage list. identified original measurement points of the Meridian Arc are located in Sweden (7 points), Norway (15), Finland (83), Russia (1), Estonia (22), Latvia (16), Lithuania (18), Belorussia (28), Ukraine (59) and Moldova (27). In Year 2002 was initiated another large coverage project - European Position Determination System "EUPOS®". Currently there are about 400 continuously operating GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations covering EU countries Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and East European countries Ukraine and Moldavia. EUPOS® network is a ground based GNSS augmentation system widely used for geodesy, land surveying, geophysics and navigation. It gives the opportunity for fast and accurate position determination never available before. It is an honorable task to use the EUPOS® system for research of the Struve triangulation former sites. Projects with Struve arc can popularize geodesy, geo-information and its meaning in nowadays GIS and GNSS systems. Struve Arc and its points is unique cooperation cross-border object which deserve special attention because of their natural beauty and historical value for mankind. GNSS in geodesy discovers a powerful tool for the verification and validation of the height values of geodetic leveling benchmarks established historically almost 200 years ago. The differential GNSS and RTK methods appear very useful to identify vertical displacement of landscape by means of

  11. Modeling Exposure of Mammalian Predatorsto Anticoagulant Rodenticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John; Elmeros, Morten

    2016-01-01

    high. We postulate that this is caused by widespread exposure due to widespread use of AR in Denmark in and around buildings. To investigate this theory a spatio-temporal model of AR use and mammalian predator distribution was created. This model was supported by data from an experimental study of mice...... and creates an exposure map based on spatio-temporal modelling of movement of mice-vectored AR (based on Apodemus flavicollis). Simulated predator territories are super-imposed over this exposure map to create an exposure index. Predictions from the model concur with field studies of AR prevalence both before...... and after the change in AR use. In most cases incidence of exposure to AR is predicted to be greater than 90%, although cessation of use in woodlots and Christmas tree plantations should reduce mean exposure concentrations. Model results suggest that the driver of high AR incidence in non-target small...

  12. Station Program Note Pull Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Upon commencement of my internship, I was in charge of maintaining the CoFR (Certificate of Flight Readiness) Tool. The tool acquires data from existing Excel workbooks on NASA's and Boeing's databases to create a new spreadsheet listing out all the potential safety concerns for upcoming flights and software transitions. Since the application was written in Visual Basic, I had to learn a new programming language and prepare to handle any malfunctions within the program. Shortly afterwards, I was given the assignment to automate the Station Program Note (SPN) Pull process. I developed an application, in Python, that generated a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that will be used by the International Space Station Safety & Mission Assurance team here at Johnson Space Center. The application will allow its users to download online files with the click of a button, import SPN's based on three different pulls, instantly manipulate and filter spreadsheets, and compare the three sources to determine which active SPN's (Station Program Notes) must be reviewed for any upcoming flights, missions, and/or software transitions. Initially, to perform the NASA SPN pull (one of three), I had created the program to allow the user to login to a secure webpage that stores data, input specific parameters, and retrieve the desired SPN's based on their inputs. However, to avoid any conflicts with sustainment, I altered it so that the user may login and download the NASA file independently. After the user has downloaded the file with the click of a button, I defined the program to check for any outdated or pre-existing files, for successful downloads, to acquire the spreadsheet, convert it from a text file to a comma separated file and finally into an Excel spreadsheet to be filtered and later scrutinized for specific SPN numbers. Once this file has been automatically manipulated to provide only the SPN numbers that are desired, they are stored in a global variable, shown on the GUI, and

  13. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  14. ACSSB land mobile earth station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Shinichi; Ikegami, Tetsushi; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Suzuki, Shoichi; Kawahara, Hideki; Tada, Shun-Ichi

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes the performance of the land mobile earth station using the Amplitude Companded Single Sideband (ACSSB) modulation technique developed for mobile satellite communications and results of the field experiments which were conducted in rural, suburban, and urban areas. This ACSSB system uses a 3-kHz pilot tone, and the voice frequency band is from 300 to 2500 Hz. The experiments show that the required C/N0 for voice communications is 40 dBHz and the required C/N0 for pilot signal tracking is 34 dBHz. Voice quality in rural and suburban areas was degraded slightly. In urban areas shadowings due to the presence of large buildings and trees caused signal losses. A comparison of the ACSSB system with the conventional narrow-band frequency-modulation system indicates that the ACSSB system can transmit voice signals more efficiently.

  15. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  16. METALLOGRAPHIC SAMPLE PREPARATION STATION-CONSTRUCTIVE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AVRAM Florin Timotei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to present the issues involved in the case of the constructive conception of a station for metallographic sample preparation. This station is destined for laboratory work. The metallographic station is composed of a robot ABB IRB1600, a metallographic microscope, a gripping device, a manipulator, a laboratory grinding and polishing machine. The robot will be used for manipulation of the sample preparation and the manipulator take the sample preparation for processing.

  17. Snow Drift Management: Summit Station Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 6 Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Snow Drift Management Summit Station...Drift Management Summit Station Greenland Robert B. Haehnel and Matthew F. Bigl U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) Cold...Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) EP-ARC-15-33, “Monitoring and Managing Snow Drifting at Summit Station, Greenland” ERDC

  18. 阿拉山口口岸灭鼠效果回顾性分析及鼠情反弹监控的探讨%Retrospective analysis of the rodenticidal effect and rodent infestation monitoring at Alataw Pass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹小平; 叶志辉; 彭定希; 骄娃; 刘文平; 阿布都·扎伊尔

    2011-01-01

    目的 总结、评价灭鼠效果、经验和教训,为持续巩固灭鼠成果及鼠情反弹监控提供科学依据.方法 自2005年开始,在口岸城区、郊区及野外阳性点区连续5年的灭鼠、灭蚤,在城区用溴敌隆毒饵,在郊区和野外用人工捕获法、堵洞、投磷化铝和建立砖制溴敌隆毒饵站隔离防护带;将5年前、5年间和5年灭鼠后的鼠情监测结果对比分析.结果 2009年在口岸城区鼠形动物密度由5年前的9.0%降至0.2%,褐家鼠密度由20.0%降至0,染蚤率由93.3%降为0,印鼠客蚤指数由16.27降为0,原有的优势鼠种及媒介印鼠客蚤现已消退,鼠形动物密度是口岸开放20年以来的最低;在郊区灭鼠区鼠形动物密度由6.0%下降到3.0%,野外阳性点大沙鼠密度也由原来的9.0只/hm2下降到2.3只/hm2.结论 当前口岸灭鼠措施、技术和药物有效,消除了口岸鼠疫疫情发生的潜在风险;为巩固成果、监控鼠情反弹隐患,探讨了创建口岸鼠防安全五道防线屏障建设.%Objective To collect data on from previous practices for sustainable rodent control and monitoring of potential rodent infestation.Methods Rodent and flea control measures were implemented for five consecutive years in urban, rural and wild locations since 2005.Bromadiolone baits were deployed in urban areas and the pests were manually captured, holes blocked,aluminium phosphide applied and isolation belts made up of bromadiolone bait sentinels built in the suburb and field areas.Rodent infestation monitoring results before, during and after the five-year control period were compared.Results The rodent density in the urban area dropped to 0.2% in 2009 from 9.0% five years ago, the Rattus norvegicus density to 0 from 20.0%, the flea infestation rate to 0 from 93.3%, and the index of Xenopsylla cheopis to 0 from 16.27.The previously dominant species disappeared including the vector Xe.cheopis.The rodent density hit a record low this year

  19. Weather station with a web server

    OpenAIRE

    Repinc, Matej

    2013-01-01

    In this diploma thesis we present the process of making a cheap weather station using Arduino prototyping platform and its functionality. The weather station monitors current temperature, humidity of air and air pressure. The station has its own simple HTTP server that is used to relay current data in two different formats: JSON encoded data and simple HTML website. The weather station can also send data to a pre-defined server used for data collection. We implemented a web site where data an...

  20. Live From Space Station Outreach Payload Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Live from Space Station? Outreach Payload (LFSSOP) is a technologically challenging, exciting opportunity for university students to conduct significant research...

  1. China Tightens Control over Petrol Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Huiping

    2002-01-01

    @@ China has recently mounted a nationwide campaign to standardize petrol stations. Based on the reports from China Central Television, all the petrol station that have not been licensed with "Oil Products Retail Permit" issued by the provincial economic and trade commission will be halted for business operation. Such petrol stations will be allowed to resume business if they are in line with the local industrial development plan and obtain the permits after going though all the necessary formalities. The petrol stations that are not in line with the development plan will be closed before August 31,2002.

  2. Field evaluation of synthetic lure (3-methyl-1-butanol) when compared to non odor-baited control in capturing Anopheles mosquitoes in varying land-use sites in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdy, Sarah; Derfus, Kristin; Andrianjafy, Mbolatiana Tovo; Wright, Patricia C; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2015-03-07

    Malaria is the 4(th) largest cause of mortality in Madagascar. To better understand malaria transmission dynamics, it is crucial to map the distribution of the malaria vectors, mosquitoes belonging to the genus Anopheles. To do so, it is important to have a strong Anopheles-specific lure to ensure the maximum number of captures. Previous studies have isolated volatiles from the human skin microbiota and found the compound 3-methyl-1-butanol to be the most attractive to the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, in a laboratory setting; and recommended 3-methyl-1-butanol as a compound to increase An. gambiae captures in the field. To date, this compound's ability to lure wild mosquitoes in differing land-use settings has not been tested. In this study, we evaluate the role of the synthetic compound, 3-methyl-1-butanol in combination with field produced CO(2) in attracting Anopheles mosquitoes in varying land-use sites in Madagascar. CDC miniature light traps in combination with field produced CO(2) were deployed in and around six villages near Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. To test the role of 3-methyl-1-butanol in luring Anopheles mosquitoes, two traps were set in each land-use site (village, agricultural sites, and forested habitats affiliated with each village). One was baited with the synthetic odor and the other was kept as a non-baited control. While 3-methyl-1-butanol baited traps did capture An. gambiae s.l. in this study, we did not find traps baited with synthetic 3-methyl-1-butanol to be more successful in capturing Anopheles mosquitoes, (including Anopheles gambiae s.l.) than the non odor-baited control traps in any of the land-use sites examined; however, regardless of odor bait, trapping near livestock pens resulted in the capture of significantly more Anopheles specimens. A strong synthetic lure in combination with insecticide has great potential as a mosquito control. Our findings suggest that trapping mosquitoes near livestock in malaria

  3. Screening of Excipients for Preparing Tablet Bait to Protect Antherae pernyi from Katydids%柞蚕害虫螽斯防控颗粒饵剂中的赋形剂筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立石; 牛雄雷; 张惠淳; 杨金琛; 刘洪丽; 陈有嗣; 季明刚; 倪振田

    2014-01-01

    Excipient is one of the main additives in pharmaceutical formulation.In the preparation of tablet bait formulations using pesticide acephate for protection of tussah silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) against katydid,potato powder was used as nutrient material and sorbitol,agar and beeswax were used as excipient.Through measuring shape-forming ability,water retention capability and other properties of the prepared tablet bait,beeswax was found to be the best excipient.Furthermore,the dosage of excipient was optimized by taking into account the bait yield,stacking performance,water retention capability,anti-water erosion performance and average intake by katydids.When the mass ratio of beeswax to other ingredients (potato powder etc) was 0.4,the prepared bait had the maximum bait yield,excellent stacking,high water retention,anti-water erosion performance,and high intake amount by katydids.Therefore,the tablet bait prepared by using beeswax as excipient according to optimized formula is favorable for maintaining the toxicity of acephate against katydids.%赋形剂是药物制剂的主要助剂之一.在用杀虫剂乙酰甲胺磷制备防控柞蚕害虫螽斯的颗粒饵剂配方中,以马铃薯粉为营养成分,分别以山梨糖醇、琼脂和蜂蜡作为赋形剂,通过测定颗粒饵剂的成形性能和保水性能等指标,筛选蜂蜡为最佳赋形剂.进一步考察颗粒饵剂的物料收率、堆码性能、保水性能、耐水性能和螽斯平均取食量等指标,优化赋形剂蜂蜡的用量,当蜂蜡与其他辅料(马铃薯粉等)的质量比为0.4时,颗粒饵剂的物料收率达到最大值,堆码及保水、耐水性能好,螽斯的取食量也较高.以蜂蜡为赋形剂并按优化的配比制备的颗粒铒剂,有利于保持乙酰甲胺磷对螽斯的杀灭效果.

  4. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Retail Stations, Data through Quarter 4 of 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-31

    This publication includes 86 composite data products (CDPs) produced for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through the fourth quarter of 2016. These CDPs include data from retail stations only.

  5. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Retail Stations, Data Through Quarter 3 of 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-07

    This publication includes 80 composite data products (CDPs) produced in Spring 2016 for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through the third quarter of 2016. These CDPs include data from retail stations only.

  6. East Baton Rouge Fire Stations, UTM15 NAD83, LAGIC (2002) [ebr_fire_stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset consists of twenty-nine (29) geocoded points representing fire stations in East Baton Rouge parish, Louisiana. Thirty (30) fire station, disctrict, and...

  7. Thermoelectrical power stations in 1967

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medici, M. (University of Padova, Italy)

    1968-01-01

    In Italy in 1967, geothermal electric power production was 2.66% of the national energy production. The implementation of traditional and nuclear power plants is described. The trend in conventional thermoelectric power plants is characterized by ever-increasing block capacities (100-160 MW at present), they are expected to increase to 600 MW in Europe and to 1200 MW in the USA 10 years from now. Nuclear power plants with pressurized-water reactors, boiling-water reactors, and graphite-gas reactors have been built recently in Italy. Studies are being conducted in the area of high-speed reactors and breeder reactors. A description is presented of a power station using geothermal energy. At the end of 1967, geothermal power plants with an electrical capacity of 340 MW were in operation. Generally, U.S. thermoelectrical engine blocks with high productivity were used. The thermodynamic characteristics of these blocks are described in detail. The most powerful engine in the field in Italy- a turbocompressore Franco Tosi- was constructed in the ENEL central Castlenuovo Val Cecina in the Larderello region. The compressor is fed by a combined flow of steam, CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S. It is characterized by a load of 22 t/h and an input pressure of 0.0905 atm at the outlet. The absorbed power is 2.28 MW at a velocity of 50 rotations/sec. Thirty figures are presented.

  8. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report compares hydrogen station cost estimates conveyed by expert stakeholders through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculation (HSCC) to a select number of other cost estimates. These other cost estimates include projections based upon cost models and costs associated with recently funded stations.

  9. Estimating Pedestrian flows at train stations using the Station Transfer Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, J.P.A.; Dekkers, K.; De Vos, S.

    2012-01-01

    Train stations play a vital role in the door to door travel experience of train passengers. From the passengers’ value of time perspective, the station is the weakest link in total time value of the journey. Within the station the transfer function – moving between the various transport modes and wa

  10. Estimating Pedestrian flows at train stations using the Station Transfer Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, J.P.A.; Dekkers, K.; De Vos, S.

    2012-01-01

    Train stations play a vital role in the door to door travel experience of train passengers. From the passengers’ value of time perspective, the station is the weakest link in total time value of the journey. Within the station the transfer function – moving between the various transport modes and

  11. Broadcasting Stations of the World; Part II. Amplitude Modulation Broadcasting Stations According to Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Washington, DC.

    This second part of "Broadcasting Stations of the World", which lists all reported radio broadcasting and television stations with the exception of those in the United States which broadcast on domestic channels, covers amplitude modulation broadcasting stations according to frequency in ascending order. Information included covers call letters,…

  12. Broadcasting Stations of the World; Part I. Amplitude Modulation Broadcasting Stations According to Country and City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Washington, DC.

    This first part of "Broadcasting Stations of the World", which lists all reported radio broadcasting and television stations, with the exception of those in the United States which broadcast on domestic channels, covers amplitude modulation broadcasting stations. Information is indexed alphabetically by country and city. Within a city, stations…

  13. Broadcasting Stations of the World; Part III. Frequency Modulation Broadcasting Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Washington, DC.

    This third part of "Broadcasting Stations of the World", which lists all reported radio broadcasting and television stations, with the exception of those in the United States which broadcast on domestic channels, covers frequency modulation broadcasting stations. It contains two sections: one indexed alphabetically by country and city, and the…

  14. 49 CFR 236.814 - Station, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station, control. 236.814 Section 236.814..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.814 Station, control. The place where the control machine of a traffic control system is located....

  15. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    This report for the 2000 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unique basis for projects dealing...

  16. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.

    1996-08-01

    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  17. Present trends in HVDC converter station design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Lennart; Asplund, Gunnar; Bjorklund, Hans; Flisberg, Gunnar [ABB Power Systems AB, Ludvika (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    HVDC converter station technology has developed rapidly to satisfy increasing requirements during past 10 - 15 years, but there has not been any dramatic changes since thyristor valves were introduced in the mid 70s. This paper describes some recent and expected future developments, that will substantiality change and simplify future converter stations. (author) 4 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Contract for new Scottish hydro station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A£4M (US$6M) Contract has been awarded to Miller Civil Engineering Services for the construction of Scottish and Southern Energy's new 3MW hydro power station on the river Cuileig, near Ullapoot in Scotland, The plant will be the pow, er company's first new hydroelectric station since the 1960s. Construction is set to take 12 months, beginning in mid November,

  19. Modeling Array Stations in SIG-VISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, N.; Moore, D.; Russell, S.

    2013-12-01

    We add support for array stations to SIG-VISA, a system for nuclear monitoring using probabilistic inference on seismic signals. Array stations comprise a large portion of the IMS network; they can provide increased sensitivity and more accurate directional information compared to single-component stations. Our existing model assumed that signals were independent at each station, which is false when lots of stations are close together, as in an array. The new model removes that assumption by jointly modeling signals across array elements. This is done by extending our existing Gaussian process (GP) regression models, also known as kriging, from a 3-dimensional single-component space of events to a 6-dimensional space of station-event pairs. For each array and each event attribute (including coda decay, coda height, amplitude transfer and travel time), we model the joint distribution across array elements using a Gaussian process that learns the correlation lengthscale across the array, thereby incorporating information of array stations into the probabilistic inference framework. To evaluate the effectiveness of our model, we perform ';probabilistic beamforming' on new events using our GP model, i.e., we compute the event azimuth having highest posterior probability under the model, conditioned on the signals at array elements. We compare the results from our probabilistic inference model to the beamforming currently performed by IMS station processing.

  20. The white SR spectrum experimental station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancharov, A.I. E-mail: a.i.ancharov@inp.nsk.su; Evdokov, O.V.; Tolochko, B.P.; Sukhorukov, A.V.; Baru, S.E.; Savinov, G.A.; Kosov, A.V.; Sheromov, M.A.; Sikka, S.K.; Momin, S.N

    2000-06-21

    A new experimental station for working with white synchrotron radiation is described. Radiation from the bending magnet of the VEPP-4 storage ring is used. The station is destined for study of structures at high pressure by energy-dispersive and Laue diffraction methods.