WorldWideScience

Sample records for rock salt brine

  1. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

    1985-07-01

    Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Exploration and Practice of Rock Salt Brine Well Associated with Gas%卤井盐岩伴生气治理探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莉霞; 刘川

    2014-01-01

    根据我公司不同时期对卤井盐岩伴生气治理的探索实践,从卤井盐岩伴生气治理的必要性出发,浅析废气处理装置在伴生有尚且不具备综合利用价值的硫化氢、天然气等可燃气体的盐岩矿山应用的可行性、运行原理及成效分析。%Based on the practice and exploration on the management of rock salt birne well associated gas by our company and starting from the necessity of the treatment of rock salt brine well associated gas, thsi paper analyzes the feasibility, operating principal and effectiveness of using waste gas treatment plant in the rock salt mine associated with hydrogen sulfide ,natural gas and other combustible gases which have no comprehensive utilization value.

  3. Modelling of the reactive transport for rock salt-brine in geological repository systems based on improved thermodynamic database (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W.; Alkan, H.; Xie, M.; Moog, H.; Sonnenthal, E. L.

    2009-12-01

    for both Pitzer ion-interaction parameters and thermodynamic equilibrium constants. The reliability of the parameters is as important as the accuracy of the modelling tool. For this purpose the project THEREDA (www.thereda.de)was set up. The project aims at a comprehensive and internally consistent thermodynamic reference database for geochemical modelling of near and far-field processes occurring in repositories for radioactive wastes in various host rock formations. In the framework of the project all data necessary to perform thermodynamic equilibrium calculations for elevated temperature in the system of oceanic salts are under revision, and it is expected that related data will be available for download by 2010-03. In this paper the geochemical issues that can play an essential role for the transport of radioactive contaminants within and around waste repositories are discussed. Some generic calculations are given to illustrate the geochemical interactions and their probable effects on the transport properties around HLW emplacements and on CO2 generating and/or containing repository systems.

  4. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

    2005-11-04

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower

  5. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  6. Brine Inclusions Migration in Intact Salt Crystals under Thermal Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporuscio, F.; Boukhalfa, H.

    2013-12-01

    The behavior of water contained in rock salt under the influence of thermal gradients is critical to the performance of salt as a medium for the disposal of nuclear waste. Water contained in salt can be present as discrete inclusions within intact salt crystals, at the interface between salt crystals and aggregates, and also as hydration water and structural water present in accessory minerals present in salt. Water content in pure halite salt usually rages from 0.1 to 0.5 wt. % but is significantly higher in clay rich salt, for which water content can be up to several wt. %. Under the influence of thermal gradients brine inclusions and water associated to the accessory mineral is mobilized. Previous investigations have shown brine inclusions tend to move towards the heat source through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot face of the brine inclusion and its precipitation at the colder side of the inclusion. Uncertainties remain on the exact parameters that define the rate of brine migration and whether it truly migrates to towards the heat source. We performed studies under controlled thermal gradients to examine the behavior of brine inclusions in single salt crystals obtained from the underground salt mine at the Waste Isolation Power Plant (WIPP). We found that the behavior of the brine inclusions under thermal gradients is dependent on the thermal gradient magnitude and the nature of the inclusion. Full inclusions (liquid only) migrate predominantly towards the heat source, but when the inclusions are large and close to the surface they fracture the salt and release water near the surface. Inclusions that migrate towards the heat source migrate through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion and its deposition along the migration path. SEM analysis of the migration pathways shows that brine migrates through the creation of a network of square shaped hollow channels of about 10 micron diameter

  7. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  8. Permeability to brine of crushed salt rock for waste isolation, considering long-term pressure variation of overlying strata and dissolution processes. Final report; Durchlaessigkeitsverhalten von Steinsalzversatz gegenueber Laugen unter Beruecksichtigung von zeitlich veraenderlichen Ueberlagerungsdruecken und Loesungsvorgaengen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, H. [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany); Conen, O. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Haefner, F.; Bruck, J. v. der [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    It cannot be excluded that there will be ingress of brines to underground isolation plants for nuclear and chemical toxic wastes. The transport mechanisms in the waste repository are much determined by the perviousness of the backfilling and the sealing material used after waste emplacement in salt rock mine shafts. The critical quantity is the permeability, both for inflow of brine into the bedded waste areas, and for contaminated brine squeeze-out mechanisms. The project research work was to establish the mass transfer parameters for calculating the transport mechanisms in backfilled and sealed shafts. Using near-reality simulation of conditions, the time-dependent influence of pressure variations of overlying strata, humidity and salt/brine interactions on the permeability was examined and quantified. (orig./CB) [German] In Endlagern fuer nukleare und chemotoxische Abfaelle im Salinar kann der Zutritt von Laugen nicht prinzipiell ausgeschlossen werden. Die Transportvorgaenge innerhalb des Endlagers werden wesentlich von der Durchlaessigkeit der Versatzmaterialien und der Verschluesse bestimmt. Die bestimmende Groesse, sowohl fuer den Laugenzufluss in die Einlagerungsbereiche als auch fuer das Auspressen kontaminierter Lauge aus dem Endlager, ist dabei die Permeabilitaet. Ziel der hier vorgestellten Arbeiten war es, Stofftransportparameter fuer die Berechnung von Ausbreitungsvorgaengen in den verfuellten Bereichen eines salinaren Endlagers bereitzustellen. Unter Simulation realitaetsnaher Bedingungen wurde der Einfluss von zeitabhaengigem Ueberlagerungsdruck (Gebirgsdruck), Feuchte und die Wechselwirkung von Salz/Lauge auf das Durchlaessigkeitsverhalten untersucht und quantifiziert. (orig.)

  9. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-03-18

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (..nu.. ..-->.. 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard.

  10. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  11. Percolation and Physical Properties of Rock Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarzadeh, S.; Hesse, M. A.; Prodanovic, M.

    2015-12-01

    Textural equilibrium controls the distribution of the liquid phase in many naturally occurring porous materials such as partially molten rocks and alloys, salt-brine and ice-water systems. In these materials, pore geometry evolves to minimize the solid-liquid interfacial energy while maintaining a constant dihedral angle, θ, at solid-liquid contact lines. A characteristic of texturally equilibrated porous media, in the absence of deformation, is that the pore network percolates at any porosity for θ60°. However, in ductile polycrystalline materials including rock salt, the balance between surface tension and ductile deformation controls the percolation of fluid pockets along grain corners and edges. Here we show sufficiently rapid deformation can overcome this threshold by elongating and connecting isolated pores by examining a large number of accessible salt samples from deep water Gulf of Mexico. We first confirm the percolation threshold in static laboratory experiments on synthetic salt samples with X-ray microtomography. We then provide field evidence on existence of interconnected pore space in rock salt in extremely low porosities, significantly below the static percolation threshold. Scaling arguments suggest that strain rates in salt are sufficient to overcome surface tension and may allow percolation. We also present the first level-set computations of three-dimensional texturally equilibrated melt networks in realistic rock fabrics. The resulting pore space is used to obtain the effective physical properties of rock, effective electrical conductivity and mechanical properties, with a novel numerical model.

  12. 溶浸作用下难溶盐岩力学特性弱化及细观机制研究%MECHANICAL PROPERTY WEAKENING AND THE MESO-MECHANISM OF HARD DISSOLVED SALT ROCK SOAKED IN BRINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓琴; 梁卫国; 于艳梅; 张传达; 于伟东; 赵阳升

    2014-01-01

    The internal meso-structure development of rock material contributes a lot to its macroscopic mechanical properties. The mechanical properties weakening mechanism and internal meso-structure development of typical glauberite soaked in brine are studied;and the mechanism of mechanical properties weakening is revealed. It is found that under the actions of swelling and disintegration of hydrophilic mineral in the cement of the rock,the dissolution of sulfate,the ion exchange and the chloride ion erosion damage,etc.,the porosity of glauberite soaked in brine is changed nonlinearly with the solution concentration and soaking time. So,the mechanical properties weakens. The strength weakening coefficient decreases to 0.1-0.2 after the glauberite being soaked in brine for 20 d. Because of the water effect and hydration,the argillaceous content contained in the glauberite would swell or disintegrate. So the deformation of glauberite shows the characteristics of strain softening and ductile from the original brittle behavior. The meso-structure development results also show that the pores in glauberite soaked in brine develop more slowly than that in pure water. The pores development rate in fresh water is several to hundreds of times as that in brine. The porosity of glauberite soaked in water for 48h increases to 16.62%,which is 9 times of that of natural state. And the porosity of glauberite soaked in half saturated solution for 48 h is 3 times of its natural state. However,the porosity of glauberite soaked in saturated solution for the same time has an increase of only 2.8%. The change of porosity is mainly due to dissolution and hydration of sulfate in the glaubetire,the water effect and cement of hydrophilic minerals(mainly glimmerton and smectite contents) swelling. These are definite reasons for the mechanical property weakening of the glauberite. The research results are significant either for study of physico-mechanical properties of the glauberite or for in situ

  13. Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenks, G.H.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1981-12-01

    This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references.

  14. Numerical model of halite precipitation in porous sedimentary rocks adjacent to salt diapirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyuan; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Pengyun

    2017-10-01

    Salt diapirs are commonly seen in the North Sea. Below the Zechstein Group exist possibly overpressured salt-anhydrite formations. One explanation as to the salt precipitation in areas with salt diapirs is that salt cementation is thermally driven and occurs strongly in places adjacent to salt diapirs. This paper assumes that the sealing effect of the cap rock above the salt formations is compromised and overpressured fluids, carrying dissolved minerals such as anhydrite (CaSO4) and salt mineral components (NaCl of halite), flow into the porous sedimentary layers above the salt formations. Additionally, a salt-diapir-like structure is assumed to be at one side of the model. The numerical flow and heat transport simulator SHEMAT-Suite was developed and applied to calculating the concentrations of species, and dissolution and precipitation amounts. Results show that the overpressured salt-anhydrite formations have higher pressure heads and the species elements sodium and chlorite are transported into porous sediment rocks through water influx (saturated brine). Halite can precipitate as brine with sodium and chlorite ions flows to the cooler environment. Salt cementation of reservoir rocks leads to decreasing porosity and permeability near salt domes, and cementation of reservoir formations decreases with growing distance to the salt diapir. The proposed approach in this paper can also be used to evaluate precipitation relevant to scaling problems in geothermal engineering.

  15. Salted herring brine as a coating or additive for herring (Clupea harengus) products — A source of natural antioxidants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertos, Irene; Gringer, Nina; Rico, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise herring brine and assess its use as natural antioxidant in herring preservation. Herring brines from different marinated products (brine from fillet-ripened spice-cured herring SC, traditional barrel-salted spice-cured herring TSp and brine from...

  16. Laboratory monitoring of CO2 migration within brine-saturated reservoir rock though complex electrical impedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirichek, O.; Ghose, R.; Heller, H.K.J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the ability of complex electrical measurements to monitor the CO2 front propagation within brine-saturated reservoir rock. A laboratory facility has been developed to perform CO2-brine substitution experiments under reservoir conditions. In the present study, CO2 is injected into a br

  17. Antioxidative low molecular weight compounds in marinated herring (Clupea harengus) salt brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Safafar, Hamed; du Mesnildot, Axelle;

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at unravelling the antioxidative capacity of low molecular weight compounds (LMWC) (peptides, amino acids and phenolic acids) present in salt brines from the marinated herring production. Brines were fractionated into <10 kDa fractions using dialysis and further into 94 fractions...

  18. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Blanco-Martin, Laura [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Molins, Sergi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Trebotich, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone “Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures” (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  19. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

  20. Physical Properties Data for Rock Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    In certain other deposits, brines may probable extension of the Louann Salt of Jurassic age have originated as magmatic or artesian ground waters...1978). (1211 Clynne, M.A. and Potter, R.W., United States Geological (871 Reference (271, p. 108. Survey, Menlo Park , CA, unpublished data (1978...Properties of Park , Calif., 79 pp. (1965). [AD 625 568] Some Organic Liquids and of Fifteen of the Alkali Halides," [601 Laboratory for Insulation

  1. Nonlinear Analysis of Cavities in Rock Salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, N. S.; Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The paper covers some material and computational aspects of the rock mechanics of leached cavities in salt. A material model is presented in which the instantaneous stiffness of the salt is obtained by interpolation between the unloaded state and a relevant failure state. The model enables predic...

  2. Rheology of rock salt for salt tectonics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yuan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of salt tectonics is a rapidly evolving field; however, the constitutive equations to model long-term rock salt rheology in nature still remain controversial. Firstly, we built a database about the strain rate versus the differential stress through collecting the data from salt creep experiments at a range of temperatures (20–200 °C in laboratories. The aim is to collect data about salt deformation in nature, and the flow properties can be extracted from the data in laboratory experiments. Moreover, as an important preparation for salt tectonics modeling, a numerical model based on creep experiments of rock salt was developed in order to verify the specific model using the Abaqus package. Finally, under the condition of low differential stresses, the deformation mechanism would be extrapolated and discussed according to microstructure research. Since the studies of salt deformation in nature are the reliable extrapolation of laboratory data, we simplified the rock salt rheology to dislocation creep corresponding to power law creep (n = 5 with the appropriate material parameters in the salt tectonic modeling.

  3. Mathematical Simulation of Evaporating Brine by Solar Radiation for the Production of Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Z.Zhang; C.D.Li; 等

    1993-01-01

    A computer simulation model of salt pan is presented.The transient behavior and the effects of various parameters of the salt pans,such as the depth of the brine layer,the absorptance of the soil surface,the thermal properties of the soil beneath the brine layer and the depth of the underground water table,on the evaporation process of salt pans are discussed.The effects of extra insulation layer and the intensity of solar radiation are also examined.

  4. Brine Shrimp Ecology In The Great Salt Lake, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.

    1995-01-01

    Hypersaline lakes are noted for their simple communities which facilitate understanding ecological interactions (Williams et al. 1990; Wurtsbaugh 1992; Jellison and Melack 1988). Nevertheless, we still cannot easily predict how environmental changes will effect the population dynamics in these lakes, at least in part because even these simple ecosystems may be more complex than we .realize. Many hypersaline lakes are dominated by the brine shrimp Artemia spp. The production of brine shrimp is...

  5. Geochemical simulation of the formation of brine and salt minerals based on Pitzer model in Caka Salt Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Xingqi; CAI; Keqin; YU; Shengsong

    2004-01-01

    The geochemical simulation of the formation of brine and salt minerals based on Pitzer model was made in Caka Salt Lake. The evolution of the mixed surface-water and the mineral sequences were calculated and compared with the hydrochemical compositions of the brine and the salt minerals of the deposit in Caka Salt Lake. The results show that the formation temperature of the lake is between 0℃ and 5℃, which is well identical with other studies. The mixing of salt-karst water with the surface waters, neglected by the former researchers, is very important to the formation of the lake, indicating that the initial waters resulting in the formation of the lake are multi-source. It is the first time to use Pitzer model in China for making geochemical simulation of the formation and evolution of inland salt lake and satisfactory results have been achieved.

  6. 井矿盐卤水中硫酸钙颗粒沉降过程研究%Study on sedimentation process of calcium sulfate particles in well rock salt brine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学魁; 李富华; 唐娜; 杜威; 张蕾; 程鹏高

    2017-01-01

    测定了硫酸钙颗粒在不同颗粒浓度和卤水浓度中沉降高度与时间的关系,测量的实际值与理论值做了对比,并分析了硫酸钙颗粒浓度和卤水浓度对硫酸钙颗粒沉降速率的影响.结果表明:沉降速率随硫酸钙颗粒浓度和卤水浓度的增加而减小;实验中的实际值远远小于理论值;硫酸钙颗粒浓度从5%(体积分数,下同)增至20%时,介质浓度高的沉降速率下降快;卤水浓度升高时,颗粒浓度高的沉降速率下降快.在纯水中,硫酸钙颗粒浓度为5%时,硫酸钙的沉降速率为19.1 mm/min.在卤水质量浓度为360 g/L、硫酸钙颗粒浓度为20%时,硫酸钙颗粒的沉降速度仅为0.33 mm/min.%The relationship between the settling height and time of calcium sulfate particles in different particle concentrat ions and brine concentrations was determined,the measured actual values and the theoretical values were compared.The effects of calcium sulfate particle concentrations and brine concentrations on the sedimentation rate of calcium sulfate particles were analyzed.Results showed that the deposition rate decreased along with the increasing of the concentrations of calcium sulfate granules and brine.The actual values in the experimnent were much smaller than the theoretical values.When the calcium sulfate particle concentration increased from 5% to 20% (volume fraction,same below),the sedimentation rate of the high concentration was decreased much more rapidly.As the brine concentration increasing,the sedimentation rate of high calcium sulfate particles was decreased quickly.The sedimentation rate was 19.10 mm/min in fresh water when the concentration of calcium sulfate particles was 5%.The sedimentation rate of calcium sulfate particles was only 0.33 mm/min when the mass concentration of brine was 360 g/L and the concentration of calcium sulfate was 20%.

  7. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  8. Meltability and Stretchability of White Brined Cheese: Effect of Emulsifier Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Abu-Alruz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was based on the hypothesis that by adding low concentrations of emulsifier salts, may specifically act on the cross linking bonds of the protein matrix, to the original brine (storage medium it would be possible to induce meltability and stretchability in white brined cheese. Approach: A new apparatus for measuring the actual stretchability was designed and constructed; measurements on different cheese samples proved its validity and reliability to measure stretchability. The apparatus was used to evaluate the effect of five types of emulsifier salts under different processing conditions. Results: It was found that by adding 0.2% (w/w Puromelt C1 or Monosodium phosphate to the brine of white brined cheese, higher levels of stretchability and meltability were induced after 2-4 weeks of storage. Conclusion: Addition of emulsifying salts was proved to be effective method in inducing meltability and stretchability of white brined cheese. Type of salt, its concentration, type of cheese and soaking time are factors that should be controlled to attain the optimum results.

  9. Wettability from Capillarity of CO2-Brine-Rock Systems at Reservoir Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Niu, Ben; Krevor, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    The wettability of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of carbon sequestration in subsurface geological formations. Recent contact angle measurement studies have reported sensitivity in wetting behaviour of this system to pressure, temperature and brine salinity. We report results of an investigation into the impact of reservoir conditions on wetting through direct observations of their impact on the capillary strength of the system. Eight capillary pressure characteristic curves were measured using CO2 and brine in a single fired Berea sandstone at pressures (5 to 20 MPa), temperatures (25 to 50 °C) and ionic strengths (0 to 5 M kg-1 NaCl) representative of subsurface reservoirs. A ninth measurement using an N2-water system provided a benchmark for capillarity with a strongly water wet system. The semi-dynamic capillary pressure core flooding technique was used with in situ saturation monitoring. In all cases, the capillarity of the system, scaled by the interfacial tension, were equivalent to the N2-water system within measurement uncertainty. Thus reservoir conditions did not have a significant impact on the capillary strength of the CO2-brine system through a variation in wetting. Two steady-state relative permeability measurements with CO2 and brine and one with N2 and brine similarly show little variation between conditions, consistent with the observation that the CO2-brine-sandstone system is strongly water wetting and invariant across a wide range of reservoir conditions.

  10. Geochemistry of Brines from Salt Ore Deposits in Western Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马万栋; 马海州; 谭红兵; 董亚萍; 张西营; 孙国芳

    2004-01-01

    In the geological evolution of the Tarim Basin, many transgressions and relictions happened. So there have been plentiful sources of salt. Moreover, because of uttermost drought, a lot of salt has been deposited. It is possible to find potash salt in this area. In our fieldwork, we have found salt and brine in western Tarim Basin. Based on a geological survey and the characteristics of sedimentary facies and paleogeography, this paper deals with the geochemical parameters and discusses the possibility of formation of potash salt in terms of the chemical analyses of samples collected from western Tarim Basin. Results of brine analysis lead to some conclusions: most of these salt brines have eluviated from very thick halite beds, mainly chloride-type salt and this kind of halite does not reach the stage of potash deposition in all aspects; WKSL (Wukeshalu) occupies a noticeable place, and we should attach importance to this district because there have been some indicators of the occurrence of potash deposits as viewed from the contents of Br and K. Finally, low Br contents are recognized in the Tarim Basin as a result of salt aggradation, and this point of view has been proved by the results of this experiment and the data available. It cannot depend upon the index of Br to judge the evolution stage of halite. We must look for other facies of potash except marine facies.

  11. Determination of the protein content in brine from salted herring using near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, V.T.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Bro, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy in the spectral range of 1000-2500 nm, was measured directly on brine from barrel salted herring, to investigate the potential of NIR as a fast method to determine the protein content. A principal component analysis performed on the NIR spectra shows two...... clearly indicate that NIR spectroscopy has a potential as a fast and noninvasive method for assessing the protein content in brine from barrel salted herring, which again may be used as an indicator for the ripening quality of barrel salted herring....... groups, separating the first 100 days of storage from the storage time exceeding 100 days. A partial least-squares regression model between selected regions of the NIR spectra and the protein content yields a correlation coefficient of 0.93 and a prediction error (RMSECV) of 0.25 g/100 g. The results...

  12. Design calculations for a combined ventilation and brine injection experiment at the Grimsel Rock Laboratory, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finsterle, S.; Pruess, K.

    1993-07-01

    A combined ventilation and brine injection test is planned at the Grimsel Test Site. The objective of the experiment is to study the transport of liquid and gas in the vicinity of a ventilated drift in order to evaluate the impact of the drying process on the characterization of the rock matrix. The proposed test sequence includes a desaturation-resaturation cycle. In addition, brine and fresh water will be injected from a borehole as trace electrolytes in order to better track the propagation of the individual phases. Results of design calculations using the TOUGH2 code show that injection of brine may significantly influence the unsaturated flow behavior by changing the pressure and saturation distribution around the borehole. Transport velocity is predicted to be very slow, requiring several months for the brine to reach the draft wall. However, the presence of preferential flow paths may reduce travel time and alter brine content and saturation distribution so that certain sensors may respond earlier or not at all.

  13. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  14. Investigating the sealing capacity of a seal system in rock salt (DOPAS project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantschik, Kyra; Moog, Helge C.; Czaikowski, Oliver; Wieczorek, Klaus [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    This paper describes research and development work on plugging and sealing repositories, an issue of fundamental importance for the rock salt option which represents one of the three European repository options, besides the clay rock and the crystalline rock options. The programme aims at providing experimental data needed for the theoretical analysis of the long-term sealing capacity of concrete- based sealing materials. In order to demonstrate hydro-mechanical material stability under representative load scenarios, a comprehensive laboratory testing programme is carried out. This comprises investigation of the sealing capacity of the combined seal system and impact of the so-called excavation-damaged zones (EDZ) as well as investigation of the hydro-chemical long-term stability of the seal in contact with different brines under diffusive and advective conditions. This paper presents experimental approaches and preliminary results from laboratory investigations on salt concrete and combined systems as obtained to date.

  15. Chemical analysis of the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt deposit | Binega ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical analysis of the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt deposit. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... in common and table salt set by the Ethiopian Quality and Standards Authority. However, during excavation together with the rock salt some soil, mud and other contaminants are found that require further ...

  16. Brine migration test report: Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, A.J.; Eckert, J.; Kalia, H.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a summary of Brine Migration Tests which were undertaken at the Asse mine of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) under a bilateral US/FRG agreement. This experiment simulates a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are selected test data (for the first 28 months of operation) on the following: brine migration rates, thermomechaical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), borehole gas pressures, and borehole gas analyses. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of pretest salt properties are included in this report. The operational phase of these experiments was completed on October 4, 1985, with the commencement of cooldown and the start of posttest activities. 7 refs., 68 figs., 48 tabs.

  17. Modeling Coupled THMC Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-14

    In this report, we present FY2014 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. LBNL’s work on the modeling of coupled THMC processes in salt was initiated in FY2012, focusing on exploring and demonstrating the capabilities of an existing LBNL modeling tool (TOUGH-FLAC) for simulating temperature-driven coupled flow and geomechanical processes in salt. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. we provide more details on the FY2014 work, first presenting updated tools and improvements made to the TOUGH-FLAC simulator, and the use of this updated tool in a new model simulation of long-term THM behavior within a generic repository in a salt formation. This is followed by the description of current benchmarking and validations efforts, including the TSDE experiment. We then present the current status in the development of constitutive relationships and the dual-continuum model for brine migration. We conclude with an outlook for FY2015, which will be much focused on model validation against field experiments and on the use of the model for the design studies related to a proposed heater experiment.

  18. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization.

  19. Brine and Gas Flow Patterns Between Excavated Areas and Disturbed Rock Zone in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for a Single Drilling Intrusion that Penetrates Repository and Castile Brine Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ECONOMY,KATHLEEN M.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; VAUGHN,PALMER

    1999-10-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is located in southeastern New Mexico, is being developed for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Waste disposal will take place in panels excavated in a bedded salt formation approximately 2000 ft (610 m) below the land surface. The BRAGFLO computer program which solves a system of nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow, was used to investigate brine and gas flow patterns in the vicinity of the repository for the 1996 WIPP performance assessment (PA). The present study examines the implications of modeling assumptions used in conjunction with BRAGFLO in the 1996 WIPP PA that affect brine and gas flow patterns involving two waste regions in the repository (i.e., a single waste panel and the remaining nine waste panels), a disturbed rock zone (DRZ) that lies just above and below these two regions, and a borehole that penetrates the single waste panel and a brine pocket below this panel. The two waste regions are separated by a panel closure. The following insights were obtained from this study. First, the impediment to flow between the two waste regions provided by the panel closure model is reduced due to the permeable and areally extensive nature of the DRZ adopted in the 1996 WIPP PA, which results in the DRZ becoming an effective pathway for gas and brine movement around the panel closures and thus between the two waste regions. Brine and gas flow between the two waste regions via the DRZ causes pressures between the two to equilibrate rapidly, with the result that processes in the intruded waste panel are not isolated from the rest of the repository. Second, the connection between intruded and unintruded waste panels provided by the DRZ increases the time required for repository pressures to equilibrate with the overlying and/or underlying units subsequent to a drilling intrusion. Third, the large and areally extensive DRZ void volumes is a

  20. Evidence of sealing and brine distribution at grain boundaries in natural fine-grained Halite (Qum Kuh salt fountain, Central Iran): implications for rheology of salt extrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Urai, Janos L.; de Bresser, J. H. P.

    2010-05-01

    When grain boundary movement is stopped, surface energy related forces reassert themselves driving the system to its equilibrium conditions ([2], [6], [7], [8]). This could result in growth of islands and shrinking of channels and hence in healing the boundary by internal redistribution of fluid and solid in the contact region. Such islands are proposed to grow preferentially close to the contact rim and promote the healing of the grain-grain contact, which in turn prevents transport in or out the boundary region and thus traps the fluids in isolated inclusions. This contribution is focused on observation of grain boundary microstructures in natural mylonitic rocksalt collected from the distal part of Kum-Quh salt fountain (central Iran) in order to give unprecedented insight of grain boundary microstructures using argon-beam cross-sectioning to prepare high quality polished surfaces suitable for high-resolution SEM imaging. The possibility to use our SEM under cryogenic conditions allows also imaging the in-situ distribution of fluids. Results show that brine at grain boundaries occurs as thick layers (> µm in scale) corresponding to cross-sectioned wetted triple junction tubes, as filling at triple junction and as array of isolated fluids inclusions at grain-grain contacts. Close observations at islands contacts suggest the presence of a very thin fluid film (crystals filling the void space and decoupled from surrounding crystals by a thin brine layer. In parallel to this microstructural study, we deformed the same samples in order to simulate the simple shear flow at very low mean stress as in the salt fountain. First results suggest a complicated rheology. Samples loaded at σ Journal of Structural Geology. [2] Ghoussoub J., and Leroy Y.M. (2001), Solid-fluid phase transformation within grain boundaries during compaction by pressure solution, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 49, 737 2385-2430. 738 [3] Jackson, M.P.A., (1985). Natural strain in diapiric and glacial rock

  1. Accelerated processing of dry-cured ham. Part I. Viability of the use of brine thawing/salting operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, José M; Grau, Raúl; Ibáñez, J B; Pagán, María J; Flores, Mónica; Toldrá, Fidel; Fito, Pedro

    2006-04-01

    In a previous study, the brine thawing/salting operation using frozen hams as raw material was proposed in order to obtain accelerated processing of dry-cured hams. The time needed to reach the same NaCl concentration on a dry weight basis and the same NaCl concentration in the ham liquid phase for the deeper areas at the end of the post-salting stage were determined. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the brine thawing/salting operation on the whole dry-cured ham manufacturing process, using the traditional thawing and salting methods as control. The obtained results indicate that although a strong reduction in the thawing, salting and post-salting stages is obtained by using brine thawing/salting, the time needed in the dry-curing and maturing phases increases compared to those traditionally processed, probably due to the absence of pile salting and thus the reduction in the thickness of the ham piece as a consequence of the ham pressing. From the composition and microbiological point of view, no significant differences were observed among the hams processed by the different treatments.

  2. Effect of acidification and salt concentration on two black brined olives from Sicily (cv moresca and giarraffa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, F. V.; Piscopo, A.; Poiana, M.

    2010-07-01

    In the present work the effects of different brining treatments on mature table olives during natural fermentation were evaluated. The considered olive cultivars are typical of Sicily: Moresca and Giarraffa. They were harvested at pigmented state. The carpological data revealed their good quality as table olives. Natural fermentation was performed with or without acidification up to pH 4, and at 8% and 15% salt concentrations. The physical, chemical and microbiological changes in olives and brines were monitored throughout the processing period. The acidification affected and selected the microbial population and maintained the low pH necessary for the hygienic safety of the product. In fact, in Moresca brines,the lactic acid bacteria totally disappeared after 60 days of fermentation while in Giarraffa they maintained their presence in the brines up to 180 days with a value between 10{sup 4} UFC/mL and 106 UFC/mL, depending on the salt concentration. The microbial population was also affected by the polyphenol content, which was different between the cultivars. The color of olive fruits was greatly influenced by acidification and less by salt concentration. The addition of salt showed a different influence on the studied cultivars, in fact only the chemical analyses of Giarraffa showed a significant difference between the two levels of salt concentration. (Author) 19 refs.

  3. Effect of Dihedral Angle and Porosity on Percolating-Sealing Capacity of Texturally Equilibrated Rock Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarzadeh, S.; Hesse, M. A.; Prodanovic, M.; Gardner, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Salt deposits in sedimentary basins have long been considered to be a seal against fluid penetration. However, experimental, theoretical and field evidence suggests brine (and oil) can wet salt crystal surfaces at higher pressures and temperatures, which can form a percolating network. This network may act as flow conduits even at low porosities. The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of dihedral angle and porosity on the formation of percolating paths in different salt network lattices. However, previous studies considered only simple homogeneous and isotropic geometries. This work extends the analysis to realistic salt textures by presenting a novel numerical method to describe the texturally equilibrated pore shapes in polycrystalline rock salt and brine systems. First, a theoretical interfacial topology was formulated to minimize the interfacial surface between brine and salt. Then, the resulting nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations was solved using the Newton-Raphson method. Results show that the formation of connected fluid channels is more probable in lower dihedral angles and at higher porosities. The connectivity of the pore network is hysteretic, because the connection and disconnection at the pore throats for processes with increasing or decreasing porosities occur at different porosities. In porous media with anisotropic solids, pores initially connect in the direction of the shorter crystal axis and only at much higher porosities in the other directions. Consequently, even an infinitesimal elongation of the crystal shape can give rise to very strong anisotropy in permeability of the pore network. Also, fluid flow was simulated in the resulting pore network to calculate permeability, capillary entry pressure and velocity field. This work enabled us to investigate the opening of pore space and sealing capacity of rock salts. The obtained pore geometries determine a wide range of petrophysical properties such as permeability and

  4. Multiphase fluid-rock reactions among supercritical carbon dioxide, brine, aquifer, and caprock: relevance to geologic sequestration of carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaszuba, J. P. (John P.); Janecky, D. R. (David R.); Snow, M. G. (Marjorie G.)

    2004-01-01

    The reactive behavior of a multiphase fluid (supercritical CO{sub 2} and brine) under physical-chemical conditions relevant to geologic storage and sequestration in a carbon repository is largely unknown. Experiments were conducted in a flexible cell hydrothermal apparatus to evaluate multiphase fluid-rock (aquifer plus caprock) reactions that may impact repository integrity.

  5. Salt resistance genes revealed by functional metagenomics from brines and moderate-salinity rhizosphere within a hypersaline environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirete, Salvador; Mora-Ruiz, Merit R; Lamprecht-Grandío, María; de Figueras, Carolina G; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; González-Pastor, José E

    2015-01-01

    Hypersaline environments are considered one of the most extreme habitats on earth and microorganisms have developed diverse molecular mechanisms of adaptation to withstand these conditions. The present study was aimed at identifying novel genes from the microbial communities of a moderate-salinity rhizosphere and brine from the Es Trenc saltern (Mallorca, Spain), which could confer increased salt resistance to Escherichia coli. The microbial diversity assessed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed the presence of communities that are typical in such environments and the remarkable presence of three bacterial groups never revealed as major components of salt brines. Metagenomic libraries from brine and rhizosphere samples, were transferred to the osmosensitive strain E. coli MKH13, and screened for salt resistance. Eleven genes that conferred salt resistance were identified, some encoding for well-known proteins previously related to osmoadaptation such as a glycerol transporter and a proton pump, whereas others encoded proteins not previously related to this function in microorganisms such as DNA/RNA helicases, an endonuclease III (Nth) and hypothetical proteins of unknown function. Furthermore, four of the retrieved genes were cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis and they also conferred salt resistance to this bacterium, broadening the spectrum of bacterial species in which these genes can function. This is the first report of salt resistance genes recovered from metagenomes of a hypersaline environment.

  6. Corrosion damage at storage tanks for salt brine; Korrosionsschaeden an Lagertanks fuer Salzlake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkert, A.; Mietz, J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM) Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    A tank made of stainless steel type X2CrNiMo17-12-2 for intermediate storage of salt brine for cheese production revealed significant pitting corrosion effects shortly after commissioning although comparable units have shown positive long-term behaviour. By means of electrochemical laboratory tests it could be demonstrated that the observed pitting corrosion was caused by the use of an oxidizing agent for desinfection purposes. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] An einem Tankbehaelter aus dem Werkstoff X2CrNiMo17-12-2, der zur Zwischenlagerung von Salzlake fuer die Kaeseherstellung dient, wurden trotz langjaehriger positiver Erfahrungen an vergleichbaren Anlagen bereits kurze Zeit nach der Inbetriebnahme Lochkorrosionserscheinungen festgestellt. Durch entsprechende elektrochemische Laboruntersuchungen konnte gezeigt werden, dass die vorgefundene Lochkorrosion durch den Einsatz eines Oxidationsmittels zu Desinfektionszwecken verursacht wurde. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Radiation chemistry of salt-mine brines and hydrates. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenks, G.H.; Walton, J.R.; Bronstein, H.R.; Baes, C.F. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Certain aspects of the radiation chemistry of NaCl-saturated MgCl/sub 2/ solutions and MgCl/sub 2/ hydrates at temperatures in the range of 30 to 180/sup 0/C were investigated through experiments. A principal objective was to establish the values for the yields of H/sub 2/ (G(H/sub 2/)) and accompanying oxidants in the gamma-ray radiolysis of concentrated brines that might occur in waste repositories in salt. We concluded that G(H/sub 2/) from gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated, deaerated atmosphere above the solution is between 0.48 and 0.49 over most of the range 30 to 143/sup 0/C. The yield is probably somewhat lower at the lower end of this range, averaging 0.44 at 30 to 45/sup 0/C. Changes in the relative amounts of MgCl/sub 2/ and NaCl in the NaCl-saturated solutions have negligible effects on the yield. The yield of O/sub 2/ into the same atmosphere averages 0.13, independent of the temperature and brine composition, showing that only about 50% of the radiolytic oxidant that was formed along with the H/sub 2/ was present as O/sub 2/. We did not identify the species that compose the remainder of the oxidant. We concluded that the yield of H/sub 2/ from a gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated atmosphere containing 5 to 8% air in He may be greater than the yield in deaerated systems by amounts ranging from 0% for temperatures of 73 to 85/sup 0/C, to about 30 and 40% for temperatures in the ranges 100 to 143/sup 0/C and 30 to 45/sup 0/C, respectively. We did not establish the mechanism whereby the air affected the yields of H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/. The values found in this work for G(H/sub 2/) in deaerated systems are in approximate agreement with the value of 0.44 for the gamma-irradiation yield of H/sub 2/ in pure H/sub 2/O at room temperature. They are also in agreement with the values predicted by extrapolation from the findings of previous researchers for the value for G(H/sub 2/) in 2 M NaCl solutions

  8. Internally Pressurized Spherical and Cylindrical Cavities in Rock Salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    1978-01-01

    -linear zone and the volume reduction. Results are given for cavities in rock salt, and a comparison with measured stress concentrations is used to support the assumption of a hydrostatic stress state in undisturbed salt formations. Finally a method to estimate convergence due to creep is outlined....

  9. Chemistry of brines in salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico: a preliminary investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    We present here analyses of macro- and microscopic (intracrystalline) brines observed within the WIPP facility and in the surrounding halite, with interpretations regarding the origin and history of these fluids and their potential effect(s) on long-term waste storage. During excavation, several large fluid inclusions were recovered from an area of highly recrystallized halite in a thick salt bed at the repository horizon (2150 ft below ground level). In addition, 52 samples of brine ''weeps'' were collected from walls of recently excavated drifts at the same stratigraphic horizon from which the fluid inclusion samples are assumed to have been taken. Analyses of these fluids show that they differ substantially in composition from the inclusion fluids and cannot be explained by mixing of the fluid inclusion populations. Finally, holes in the facility floor that filled with brine were sampled but with no stratographic control; therefore it is not possible to interpret the compositions of these brines with any accuracy, except insofar as they resemble the weep compositions but with greater variation in both K/Mg and Na/Cl ratios. However, the Ca and SO/sub 4/ values for the floor holes are relatively close to the gypsum saturation curve, suggesting that brines filling floor holes have been modified by the presence of gypsum or anhydrite, possibly even originating in one or more of the laterally continuous anhydrite units referred to in the WIPP literature as marker beds. In conclusion, the wide compositional variety of fluids found in the WIPP workings suggest that (1) an interconnected hydrologic system which could effectively transport radonuclides away from the repository does not exist; (2) brine migration studies and experiments must consider the mobility of intergranular fluids as well as those in inclusions; and (3) near- and far-field radionuclide migration testing programs need to consider a wide range of brine compositions rather than a

  10. Organic geochemistry and brine composition in Great Salt, Mono, and Walker Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Orem, William H.; Eugster, Hans P.

    1989-11-01

    Samples of Recent sediments, representing up to 1000 years of accumulation, were collected from three closed basin lakes (Mono Lake, CA, Walker Lake, NV, and Great Salt Lake, UT) to assess the effects of brine composition on the accumulation of total organic carbon, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon, humic acid structure and diagenesis, and trace metal complexation. The Great Salt Lake water column is a stratified Na-Mg-Cl-SO 4 brine with low alkalinity. Algal debris is entrained in the high density (1.132-1.190 g/cc) bottom brines, and in this region maximum organic matter decomposition occurs by anaerobic processes, with sulfate ion as the terminal electron acceptor. Organic matter, below 5 cm of the sediment-water interface, degrades at a very slow rate in spite of very high pore-fluid sulfate levels. The organic carbon concentration stabilizes at 1.1 wt%. Mono Lake is an alkaline (Na-CO 3-Cl-SO 4) system. The water column is stratified, but the bottom brines are of lower density relative to the Great Salt Lake, and sedimentation of algal debris is rapid. Depletion of pore-fluid sulfate, near l m of core, results in a much higher accumulation of organic carbon, approximately 6 wt%. Walker Lake is also an alkaline system. The water column is not stratified, and decomposition of organic matter occurs by aerobic processes at the sediment-water interface and by anaerobic processes below. Total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon concentrations in Walker Lake sediments vary with location and depth due to changes in input and pore-fluid sulfate concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies ( 13C) of humic substances and dissolved organic carbon provide information on the source of the Recent sedimentary organic carbon (aquatic vs. terrestrial), its relative state of decomposition, and its chemical structure. The spectra suggest an algal origin with little terrestrial signature at all three lakes. This is indicated by the ratio of aliphatic to

  11. A preliminary investigation on lanthanoids, thorium and uranium in brine and deposit of a salt lake in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Teruyuki [Musashi Inst. of Tech., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Lab.; Yui, Mitsuaki; Kikawada, Yoshikazu; Oi, Takao

    1998-06-01

    A brine sample and two deposit samples of a salt lake in China were analyzed for their contents of lanthanoids (Ln`s), thorium and uranium by neutron activation analysis. Five Ln`s were determined at sub ppb levels. Th and U contents were at about the same levels as those of Ln`s. The lanthanoid abundance patterns (Ln pattern) of the three samples are similar to each other, each having a negative slope in the light Ln region. There seems no substantial difference in distribution between the solution (brine) and solid (deposit) phases among Ln`s. (author)

  12. Microbial biodiversity in Alpine Permo-Triassic rock salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radax, C.; Wieland, H.; Pfaffenhuemer, M.; Leuko, S.; Rittmann, S.; Weidler, G.; Gruber, C.; Stan-Lotter, H.

    2003-04-01

    Alpine Permo-Triassic rock salt (age 200-250 million years) was shown several times to contain living extremely halophilic Archaea. These organisms might stem from ancient populations that became entrapped and persisted in the rock salt since then. For this reason, rock salt is considered a promising model system for the search for bacterial extraterrestrial life. In our studies on biodiversity in Alpine rock salt, we employed both culture-dependent and culture-independent, PCR-based methods. The latter approach indicated the presence of at least 12 distinct sequence types (phylotypes) in our samples, all of which belonged to the extremely halophilic Archaea. None of the recovered sequences was identical to sequences from databases, suggesting the avoidance of contaminants during experimental procedures. Two phylotypes could be assigned to taxonomically described members of this family; the remaining ten phylotypes appeared only remotely related to known genera of the extremely halophilic Archaea. In contrast, attempts to isolate organisms from the same sample on 15 different growth media so far yielded only two groups of isolates that could be differentiated based on their 16S rRNA genes. One group was very similar to Halococcus strains that we frequently isolated from Alpine rock salt; the other group was closely correlated to one of our novel phylotypes. Analyses of whole cell protein patterns allowed to further differentiate the latter group into two different subgroups that could not be distinguished at the molecular level. These results show that both culture-dependent and culture-independent strategies have to be applied in order to obtain a more complete view of microbial biodiversity in Permo-Triassic rock salt: culture-independent methods yield information on the gross microbial diversity in rock salt, whereas subtle differences can currently only be registered between cultivated strains.

  13. GEOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF CO₂-BRINE-ROCK INTERACTIONS OF THE KNOX GROUP IN THE ILLINOIS BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoksoulian, Lois; Berger, Peter; Freiburg, Jared; Butler, Shane; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    study suggests only limited potential for the release of United States Environmental Protection Agency regulated inorganic contaminants into potable water sources. Short-term core flood experiments further verify that the carbonate reactions occurring in Knox Group reservoir samples reach equilibrium rapidly. The core flood experiments also lend insight to pressure changes that may occur during CO₂ injection. The Maquoketa Shale experiments reveal that this rock is initially chemically reactive when in contact with CO₂ and brine. However, due to the conservative nature of silicate and clay reaction kinetics and the rapid equilibration of carbonate reactions that occur in the shale, these reactions would not present a significant risk to the competency of the shale as an effective seal rock.

  14. Brine Migration from a Flooded Salt Mine in the Genesee Valley, Livingston County, New York: Geochemical Modeling and Simulation of Variable-Density Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Richard M.; Misut, Paul E.; Langevin, Christian D.; Parkhurst, David L.

    2009-01-01

    migrated beyond the collapse area, while simulations of pumping indicate that further upward migration of brine and saline water is now prevented by groundwater withdrawals under the brine-mitigation project. Geochemical modeling indicates that additional land subsidence as a result of anhydrite dissolution in the collapse area is not a concern, as long as the rate of brine pumping is less than the rate of upward flow of brine from the flooded mine. The collapse area above the flooded salt mine is within a glacially scoured bedrock valley that is filled with more than 150 meters of glacial drift. A confined aquifer at the bottom of the glacial sediments (referred to as the lower confined aquifer, or LCA) was the source of most of the water that flooded the mine. Two rubble chimneys that formed above the roof collapses in 1994 hydraulically connect the flooded mine to the LCA through 180 meters of sedimentary rock. From 1996 through 2006, water levels in the aquifer system recovered and the brine-displacement rate ranged from 4.4 to 1.6 liters per second, as estimated from land-surface subsidence above the mine. A zone of fracturing within the bedrock (the deformation zone) formed around the rubble chimneys as rock layers sagged toward the mine cavity after the roof collapses. Borehole geophysical surveys have identified three saline-water-bearing fracture zones in the bedrock: at stratigraphic contacts between the Onondaga and Bertie Limestones (O/B-FZ) and the Bertie Limestone and the Camillus Shale (B/C-FZ), and in the Syracuse Formation (Syr-FZ). The only outlets for brine displaced from the mine are through the rubble chimneys, but some of the brine could be diverted laterally into fracture zones in the rocks that lie between the mine and the LCA. Inverse geochemical models developed using PHREEQC indicate that halite brine in the flooded mine is derived from a mixture of freshwater from the LCA (81 percent), saline water from bedrock fracture zones (16 per

  15. Magnetic coupling at perovskite and rock-salt structured interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matvejeff, M., E-mail: mikko.matvejeff@picosun.com [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8581 Chiba (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, Kemistintie 1, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Ahvenniemi, E. [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, Kemistintie 1, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Takahashi, R.; Lippmaa, M. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8581 Chiba (Japan)

    2015-10-05

    We study magnetic coupling between hole-doped manganite layers separated by either a perovskite or a rock-salt barrier of variable thickness. Both the type and the quality of the interface have a strong impact on the minimum critical barrier thickness where the manganite layers become magnetically decoupled. A rock-salt barrier layer only 1 unit cell (0.5 nm) thick remains insulating and is able to magnetically de-couple the electrode layers. The technique can therefore be used for developing high-performance planar oxide electronic devices such as magnetic tunnel junctions and quantum well structures that depend on magnetically and electronically sharp heterointerfaces.

  16. Study of TL response in heavily irradiated rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, X.; Dies, X. (Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. de Tecniques Energetiques); Cuevas, C. de las (Barcelona Univ. (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    Within the framework of the CEC R and D Programme ''Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste'', the study of the generation of radiation damage in heavily irradiated rock salt is being carried out. This work describes the experiments carried out for the validation of the TL techniques, in the assessment of the phenomena related to the energy absorbed by the rock salt, due to the high levels of irradiation. The samples analysed are natural rock salt coming from the Sallent mine (Spain). The chemical composition of the rocks is, in all cases, higher than 90% NaCl, having small amounts of SO[sub 4], Mg, K, Br and Sr as major impurities. A first set of irradiations was performed at the laboratory with a source of [sup 137]Cs. The doses reached were lower than 20Gy. A second set of irradiations was performed at an industrial facility with a source of [sup 60]Co, achieving doses up to 2.5 MGy. Afterwards the irradiated samples were analysed with TL and optical absorption techniques. The results have facilitated a study of the glow curves, their evolution in time and the influence of the chemical composition, the absorbed dose, and the absorbed dose rate. These experiments have increased knowledge of the behaviour of heavily irradiated rock salt. (Author).

  17. Specific Investigations Related to Salt Rock Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vons, L. H.; Zelikson, A.; Charo, L.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper results are given of work in various countries in rather unrelated areas of research. Nevertheless, since the studies have been undertaken to better understand salt behaviour, both from mechanical and chemical points of view, some connection between the studies can be found. Studies...

  18. Specific Investigations Related to Salt Rock Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vons, L. H.; Zelikson, A.; Charo, L.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper results are given of work in various countries in rather unrelated areas of research. Nevertheless, since the studies have been undertaken to better understand salt behaviour, both from mechanical and chemical points of view, some connection between the studies can be found. Studies...

  19. Impacts of harvesting on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sura, Shayna A; Belovsky, Gary E

    2016-03-01

    Selective harvesting can cause evolutionary responses in populations via shifts in phenotypic characteristics, especially those affecting life history. Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) cysts in Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA are commercially harvested with techniques that select against floating cysts. This selective pressure could cause evolutionary changes over time. Our objectives are to (1) determine if there is a genetic basis to cyst buoyancy, (2) determine if cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality have changed over time, and (3) to examine GSL environmental conditions over time to distinguish whether selective harvesting pressure or a trend in environmental conditions caused changes in cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality. Mating crosses between floating and sinking parental phenotypes with two food concentrations (low and high) indicated there is a genetic basis to cyst buoyancy. Using cysts harvested from 1991-2011, we found cyst buoyancy decreased and nauplii mortality increased over time. Data on water temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll a concentration in GSL from 1994 to 2011 indicated that although water temperature has increased over time and chlorophyll a concentration has decreased over time, the selective harvesting pressure against floating cysts is a better predictor of changes in cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality over time than trends in environmental conditions. Harvesting of GSL A. franciscana cysts is causing evolutionary changes, which has implications for the sustainable management and harvesting of these cysts. Monitoring phenotypic characteristics and life-history traits of the population should be implemented and appropriate responses taken to reduce the impacts of the selective harvesting.

  20. Brine formation via deliquescence by salts found near Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: Laboratory experiments and field observational results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, R. V.; Wong, J.; Dickson, J. L.; Levy, J. S.; Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    The observed darkening of water tracks near Don Juan Pond (DJP) as well as the formation of wet patches elsewhere in the McMurdo Dry Valleys is attributed at least partially to deliquescence, a process by which salts absorb atmospheric water vapor and form brine, coupled with liquid-phase growth when the atmospheric relative humidity exceeds the water activity. Here we perform laboratory experiments to investigate the temperature and relative humidity conditions necessary for deliquescence to occur in calcium chloride-rich sediments collected from the DJP watershed. We use a Raman microscope equipped with an environmental cell to study both deliquescence and efflorescence (recrystallization) of the soluble salt component of DJP soils between -30 and +15 °C. In this temperature range, we find that the soluble salt component of the DJP sediments begins to deliquesce between 19 and 46% RH, slightly higher than the deliquescence relative humidity of the primary pure component, calcium chloride. We find a limited hysteresis between deliquescence and efflorescence, but much greater supersaturation of the salt brine can occur at temperatures above 0 °C. The relative humidity conditions were varied either slowly (over ∼8 h) to observe near-equilibrium phases or rapidly (over work can help predict when deliquescence could be actively occurring in the soils near Don Juan Pond and explain darkening of the salt pan after a high humidity period. In tandem with field data, our experimental results suggest that brines can be generated near Don Juan Pond via deliquescence frequently during the southern summer and autumn. Additionally, the soluble salts may persist in the aqueous phase continuously for several months during the southern summer. This work also suggests that salt deliquescence could be impacting the year-round hydrological cycle of the DJP watershed. Steep-sloped water tracks found near DJP have been suggested as a terrestrial analog for recurring slope lineae on

  1. Salt resistance genes revealed by functional metagenomics from brines and moderate-salinity rhizosphere within a hypersaline environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador eMirete

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypersaline environments are considered one of the most extreme habitats on earth and microorganisms have developed diverse molecular mechanisms of adaptation to withstand these conditions. The present study was aimed at identifying novel genes involved in salt resistance from the microbial communities of brines and the rhizosphere from the Es Trenc saltern (Mallorca, Spain. The microbial diversity assessed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed the presence of communities that are typical in such environments. Metagenomic libraries from brine and rhizosphere samples, were transferred to the osmosensitive strain Escherichia coli MKH13, and screened for salt resistance. As a result, eleven genes that conferred salt resistance were identified, some encoding for well known proteins previously related to osmoadaptation as a glycerol and a proton pump, whereas others encoded for proteins not previously related to this function in microorganisms as DNA/RNA helicases, an endonuclease III (Nth and hypothetical proteins of unknown function. Furthermore, four of the retrieved genes were cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis and they also exhibited salt resistance in this bacterium, broadening the spectrum of bacterial species where these genes can operate. This is the first report of salt resistance genes recovered from metagenomes of a hypersaline environment.

  2. Possible salt mine and brined cavity sites for radioactive waste disposal in the northeastern southern peninsula of Michigan. [Seven possible sites are considered on the basis of listed criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landes, K.K.; Bourne, H.L.

    1976-05-31

    A reconnaissance report on the possibilities for disposal of radioactive waste covers Michigan only, and is more detailed than an earlier one involving the northeastern states. Revised ''ground rules'' for pinpointing both mine and dissolved salt cavern sites for waste disposal include environmental, geologic, and economic factors. The Michigan basin is a structural bowl of Paleozoic sediments resting on downwarped Precambrian rocks. The center of the bowl is in Clare and Gladwin Counties, a short distance north of the middle of the Southern Peninsula. The strata dip toward this central area, and some stratigraphic sequences, including especially the salt-containing Silurian section, increase considerably in thickness in that direction. Lesser amounts of salt are also present in the north central part of the Lower Peninsula. Michigan has been an oil and gas producing state since 1925 and widespread exploration has had two effects on the selection of waste disposal sites: (1) large areas are leased for oil and gas; and (2) the borehole concentrations, whether producing wells, dry holes, or industrial brine wells that penetrated the salt section, should be avoided. Two types of nuclear waste, low level and high level, can be stored in man-made openings in salt beds. The storage facilities are created by (1) the development of salt mines where the depths are less than 3000 ft, and (2) cavities produced by pumping water into a salt bed, and bringing brine back out. The high level waste disposal must be confined to mines of limited depth, but the low level wastes can be accommodated in brine cavities at any depth. Seven potential prospects have been investigated and are described in detail.

  3. Fermentation cover brine reformulation for cucumber processing with low salt to reduce the incidence of bloaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reformulation of cucumber fermentation cover brines containing calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride (NaCl) was explored as a mean to minimize the incidence of bloater defect. This study particularly focused on cover brine supplementation with calcium hydroxide, NaCl, and acids to enhance buff...

  4. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping.

  5. Effect of Brine Composition on Wettability Alteration and Oil Recovery from Oil-wet Carbonate Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purswani, P.; Karpyn, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Brine composition is known to affect the effectiveness of waterflooding during enhanced oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs. Recent studies have identified Mg2+, Ca2+ and SO42- as critical ions, responsible for incremental oil recovery via wettability alteration. To investigate the underlying mechanism of wettability alteration and, to evaluate the individual contribution of these ions towards improving oil recovery, a series of coreflooding experiments are performed. Various characterization techniques like zeta potential (ZP), drop angle analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) analysis are performed to evaluate the surface interactions taking place at the carbonate core samples, brine solution and crude oil interfaces. Total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity measurements confirm the ionic strength of the brine samples. Acid number calculations, ZP and contact angle measurements confirm the initial oil-wetting state of the core. ICP MS analysis of the effluent brine, confirm the relationship between the ionic interactions and oil recovery.

  6. Bead Evaporator for Complete Water and Salt Recovery from Brine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A microgravity-compatible Brine Evaporation and Mineralization System (BEMS) is proposed for 100% water recovery from highly contaminated wastewater as well as water...

  7. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  8. Shielding factors of ions in rock-salt crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michihiro, Y.; Mahan, G. D.

    1997-11-01

    The calculation of the quadrupole shielding factor of closed-shell ions in crystalline solids with rock-salt structure is done based on the self-consistent-field local-density approximation, modified Sternheimer equation, and spherical solid model. A significant reduction of the values of the quadrupole shielding factor is found for the anions, and the amount of the reduction is different in different crystals.

  9. Evaluation of greek-style black table olives in salt varying brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrakis, C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available hree fermentation processes with black table-olives were tested. Olives were placed in: a 16 %(w/v concentration of NaCl, (traditional treatment, b a buffer of CH3COOH (0.05M and Ca(OH2, (0.025M without any NaCl and initial pH 4.7, and c a buffer of CH3COOH (0.05M and Ca(OH2 (0.025M containing 12.8 % (w/v NaCl, and pH 4.3. Isolation, identification and enumeration of predominant microorganisms from fruits and brines sampled during the fermentation periods as well as color, intensity, texture and sensory evaluation tests of the final products were conducted. The third fermentation process, (c, yielded a product with low salt content no presence of spoilage microflora or other alterations during the fermentation period, with significantly better final texture and color, and higher acceptability among the consumers (PSe han ensayado tres procesos para la elaboración de aceitunas negras de mesa. Los frutos se colocaron en: a una salmuera con una concentración de sal del 16 % (w/w, proceso tradicional; b en una solución tampón compuesta de CH3COOH (0.05M y Ca(OH2 (0.025M , sin NaCl y con un pH inicial de 4.3; c una solución tampón compuesta de CH3COOH (0.05M y Ca(OH2 (0.025M,conteniendo 12.8 % (w/w NaCl y un pH de 4.3. Se realizó el aislamiento, identificación y el recuento de los micoorganismos predominantes, tanto del fruto como de las salmueras, durante la fermentación. Asimismo, se estudió el color, textura y las características organolépticas de los productos finales. El tercer tipo de proceso fermentativo, tipo c, dio lugar a un producto con baja sal, ausencia de microorganismos alterantes o de cualquier otra alteración, dando una textura y un color significativamente mejor y resultando con una mayor aceptación entre los consumidores (p<0.05 en comparación con los otros dos tipos ensayados. Como consecuencia, se propone el mismo como una modificación del proceso tradicional de elaboración de aceitunas negras naturales de mesa.

  10. The Influence of the MRSP on the Freezing and Evaporation Processes of the Magnesium Sulfate Subtype Salt Lake Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghai Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new concept, which is the mass fraction ratio of sulfate and potassium ions (MRSP, for the magnesium sulfate subtype salt lake, which is calculated using the metastable phase diagram. We also studied the trend of the MRSP values with the temperature and the influence of the MRSP values on the evaporation process. The experimental results indicated that the MRSP value showed significantly negative trend with decrease of refrigerated temperature. Moreover, when the MRSP value of the objective brine is reduced to less than or equal to the Specific Value by freezing operation, the great changes of crystal morphology and stage of K+ and SO42- will take place, which makes the sequence of salts precipitation of the freezing-evaporation different from the direct-evaporation.

  11. Constitutive Modeling of the Thermomechanical Behavior of Rock Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, A.

    2016-12-01

    For the safe disposal of heat-generating high-level radioactive waste in rock salt formations, highly reliable numerical simulations of the thermomechanical and hydraulic behavior of the host rock have to be performed. Today, the huge progress in computer technology has enabled experts to calculate large and detailed computer models of underground repositories. However, the big ad­van­ces in computer technology are only beneficial when the applied material models and modeling procedures also meet very high demands. They result from the fact that the evaluation of the long-term integrity of the geological barrier requires an extra­polation of a highly nonlinear deforma­tion behavior to up to 1 million years, while the underlying experimental investigations in the laboratory or in situ have a duration of only days, weeks or at most some years. Several advanced constitutive models were developed and continuously improved to describe the dependences of various deformation phenomena in rock salt on in-situ relevant boundary conditions: transient and steady-state creep, evolution of damage and dilatancy in the DRZ, failure, post-failure behavior, residual strength, damage and dilatancy reduction, and healing. In a joint project series between 2004 and 2016, fundamental features of the advanced models were investigated and compared in detail with benchmark calculations. The study included procedures for the determination of characteristic salt-type-specific model parameter values and for the performance of numerical calculations of underground structures. Based on the results of this work and on specific laboratory investigations, the rock mechanical modeling is currently developed further in a common research project of experts from Germany and the United States. In this presentation, an overview about the work and results of the project series is given and the current joint research project WEIMOS is introduced.

  12. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 4. Baseline rock properties: salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    Salt has long been considered a possible repository medium for nuclear waste disposal. This report is a result of a literature survey to determine rock mass properties of a generic salt. The properties of bedded salt deposits from three different areas are considered, namely, the Salina basin, the Permia basin and the Paradox basin. Dome salts are also considered. Because of the special characteristics of salt, especially, its self-healing properties, the rock-mass properties are similar to the intact properties.

  13. Effect of gas field production and CO2 injection on brine flow and salt precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeve, D.; Tambach, T.J.; Hofstee, C.; Plug, W.J.; Maas, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports modeling of gas field produc-tion and CO2 injection from a theoretical reser-voir based on characteristics of the P18 gas field in the Dutch offshore, which consists of four geological deposits with different petrophysical properties. We especially focus on the brine flow during

  14. Effect of CO2 injection on brine flow and salt precipitation after gas field production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambach, T.J.; Loeve, D.; Hofstee, C.; Plug, W.J.; Maas, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports modeling of gas field production and CO2 injection in a theoretical reservoir based on characteristics of the P18 gas field in the Dutch offshore, which consists of four geological deposits with different petrophysical properties. We especially focus on the brine flow during and

  15. Actinide Sorption in a Brine/Dolomite Rock System: Evaluating the Degree of Conservatism in Kd Ranges used in Performance Assessment Modeling for the WIPP Nuclear Waste Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Reed, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM is the only operating nuclear waste repository in the US and has been accepting transuranic (TRU) waste since 1999. The WIPP is located in a salt deposit approximately 650 m below the surface and performance assessment (PA) modeling for a 10,000 year period is required to recertify the operating license with the US EPA every five years. The main pathway of concern for environmental release of radioactivity is a human intrusion caused by drilling into a pressurized brine reservoir below the repository. This could result in the flooding of the repository and subsequent transport in the high transmissivity layer (dolomite-rich Culebra formation) above the waste disposal rooms. We evaluate the degree of conservatism in the estimated sorption partition coefficients (Kds) ranges used in the PA based on an approach developed with granite rock and actinides (Dittrich and Reimus, 2015; Dittrich et al., 2015). Sorption onto the waste storage material (Fe drums) may also play a role in mobile actinide concentrations. We will present (1) a conceptual overview of how Kds are used in the PA model, (2) technical background of the evolution of the ranges and (3) results from batch and column experiments and model predictions for Kds with WIPP dolomite and clays, brine with various actinides, and ligands (e.g., acetate, citrate, EDTA) that could promote transport. The current Kd ranges used in performance models are based on oxidation state and are 5-400, 0.5-10,000, 0.03-200, and 0.03-20 mL g-1 for elements with oxidation states of III, IV, V, and VI, respectively. Based on redox conditions predicted in the brines, possible actinide species include Pu(III), Pu(IV), U(IV), U(VI), Np(IV), Np(V), Am(III), and Th(IV). We will also discuss the challenges of upscaling from lab experiments to field scale predictions, the role of colloids, and the effect of engineered barrier materials (e.g., MgO) on transport conditions. Dittrich

  16. Mathematical Modelling for Micropiles Embedded in Salt Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rădan (Toader Georgiana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of the mathematical modelling for the micropiles foundation of an investement objective located in Slanic, Prahova county. Three computing models were created and analyzed with software, based on Finite Element Method. With Plaxis 2D model was analyzed the isolated micropile and the three-dimensional analysis was made with Plaxis 3D model, for group of micropiles. For the micropiles foundation was used Midas GTS-NX model. The mathematical models were calibrated based with the in-situ tests results for axially loaded micropiles, embedded in salt rock. The paper presents the results obtained with the three software, the calibration and validation models.

  17. Antioxidant activities and functional properties of protein and peptide fractions isolated from salted herring brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taheri, Ali; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    to delay iron catalyzed lipid oxidation in 5% fish oil in water emulsions and the 10–50kDa fraction was the best. These results show the potential of proteins and peptide fractions recovered from waste water from the herring industry as source of natural antioxidants for use in food products.......In the present study proteins isolated from herring brine, which is a by-product of marinated herring production were evaluated for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Herring brine was collected from the local herring industry and proteins were precipitated by adjusting the p......H to 4.5 and the obtained supernatant was further fractionated by using ultrafiltration membranes with molecular weight cut offs of 50, 10 and 1kDa. The obtained >50kDa, 50–10kDa, 10–1kDa fractions and pH precipitated fraction were studied for their functional properties and antioxidant activity...

  18. Effect of acidification and salt concentration on two black brined olives from Sicily (cv moresca and giarraffa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo, Flora V.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the effects of different brining treatments on mature table olives during natural fermentation were evaluated. The considered olive cultivars are typical of Sicily: Moresca and Giarraffa. They were harvested at pigmented state. The carpological data revealed their good quality as table olives. Natural fermentation was performed with or without acidification up to pH 4, and at 8% and 15% salt concentrations. The physical, chemical and microbiological changes in olives and brines were monitored throughout the processing period. The acidification affected and selected the microbial population and maintained the low pH necessary for the hygienic safety of the product. In fact, in Moresca brines,the lactic acid bacteria totally disappeared after 60 days of fermentation while in Giarraffa they maintained their presence in the brines up to 180 days with a value between 104 UFC/mL and 106 UFC/mL, depending on the salt concentration. The microbial population was also affected by the polyphenol content, which was different between the cultivars. The color of olive fruits was greatly influenced by acidification and less by salt concentration. The addition of salt showed a different influence on the studied cultivars, in fact only the chemical analyses of Giarraffa showed a significant difference between the two levels of salt concentration.

    En el presente trabajo, los efectos de diferentes tratamientos con salmuera en aceitunas de mesa maduras durante su fermentación natural fueron evaluados. Los cultivos de aceitunas considerados son típicos de Sicilia: Moresca y Giarraffa. Ellas son cosechadas en su estado maduro. Los datos carpológicos revelan su buena calidad como aceituna de mesa. La fermentación natural fue realizada con y sin acidificación hasta pH 4, y a una concentración de sal del 8% y 15%. Cambios físicos, químicos y microbiológicos de las aceitunas y salmueras a través de todo el

  19. Tolerance to cadmium and cadmium-binding ligands in Great Salt Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasekara, S.; Drown, D.B.; Sharma, R.P.

    1986-02-01

    Information on the accumulation of cadmium in cytosolic proteins of Great Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was obtained from animals collected directly from the lake and also from animal hatched and maintained in three sublethal concentrations of cadmium (0.5, 2.0, 5.0 ppm) in saltwater aquaria. Brine shrimp growth under these conditions was monitored by measuring body lengths during a 7-day exposure period. Heat-stable, cadmium-binding ligands were isolated and identified by Sephadex G-75 chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cadmium was found to be equally distributed between high and low molecular weight proteins in animals collected from the lake and the 0.5 ppm cadmium group. There was also a slight growth stimulation noted in the 0.5-pm group. Higher cadmium incorporation was noted in low molecular weight fractions with increasing cadmium concentration in the exposure media. Low molecular weight fractions were also found to have high uv absorption characteristics at 250 nm and low absorption at 280 nm. Molecular weight of the cadmium-binding ligands was found to be 11,000 as estimated by the gel filtration method. De novo synthesis of this protein was increased as a function of cadmium concentration in the media. However, slow accumulation of cadmium in other protein fractions was also noticed in higher cadmium exposure groups, suggesting the existence of possible tolerance mechanisms in brine shrimp exposed to suspected acute cadmium concentrations.

  20. Experimental investigation of CO{sub 2}-brine-rock interactions at elevated temperature and pressure: Implications for CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep-saline aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Koksalan, Tamer; Palandri, James L. [U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    Deep-saline aquifers are potential repositories for excess CO{sub 2}, currently being emitted to the atmosphere from anthropogenic activities, but the reactivity of supercritical CO{sub 2} with host aquifer fluids and formation minerals needs to be understood. Experiments reacting supercritical CO{sub 2} with natural and synthetic brines in the presence and absence of limestone and plagioclase-rich arkosic sandstone showed that the reaction of CO{sub 2}-saturated brine with limestone results in compositional, mineralogical, and porosity changes in the aquifer fluid and rock that are dependent on initial brine composition, especially dissolved calcium and sulfate. Experiments reacting CO{sub 2}-saturated, low-sulfate brine with limestone dissolved 10% of the original calcite and increased rock porosity by 2.6%. Experiments reacting high-sulfate brine with limestone, both in the presence and absence of supercritical CO{sub 2}, were characterized by the precipitation of anhydrite, dolomitization of the limestone, and a final decrease in porosity of 4.5%. However, based on favorable initial porosity changes of about 15% due to the dissolution of calcite, the combination of CO{sub 2} co-injection with other mitigation strategies might help alleviate some of the well-bore scale and formation-plugging problems near the injection zone of a brine disposal well in Paradox Valley, Colorado, as well as provide a repository for CO{sub 2}. Experiments showed that the solubility of CO{sub 2} is enhanced in brine in the presence of limestone by 9% at 25 {sup o}C and 6% at 120 {sup o}C and 200 bar relative to the brine itself. The solubility of CO{sub 2} is enhanced also in brine in the presence of arkosic sandstone by 5% at 120 {sup o}C and 300 bar. The storage of CO{sub 2} in limestone aquifers is limited to only ionic and hydraulic trapping. However, brine reacted with supercritical CO{sub 2} and arkose yielded fixation and sequestration of CO{sub 2} in carbonate mineral phases

  1. Concepts and Technologies for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Rock Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernt Brewitz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, rock salt was selected to host a repository for radioactive waste because of its excellent mechanical properties. During 12 years of practical disposal operation in the Asse mine and 25 years of disposal in the disused former salt mine Morsleben, it was demonstrated that low-level wastes (LLW and intermediate-level wastes (ILW can be safely handled and economically disposed of in salt repositories without a great technical effort. LLW drums were stacked in old mining chambers by loading vehicles or emplaced by means of the dumping technique. Generally, the remaining voids were backfilled by crushed salt or brown coal filter ash. ILW were lowered into inaccessible chambers through a borehole from a loading station above using a remote control.Additionally, an in-situ solidification of liquid LLW was applied in the Morsleben mine. Concepts and techniques for the disposal of heat generating high-level waste (HLW are advanced as well. The feasibility of both borehole and drift disposal concepts have been proved by about 30 years of testing in the Asse mine. Since 1980s, several full-scale in-situ tests were conducted for simulating the borehole emplacement of vitrified HLW canisters and the drift emplacement of spent fuel in Pollux casks. Since 1979, the Gorleben salt dome has been investigated to prove its suitability to host the national final repository for all types of radioactive waste. The “Concept Repository Gorleben” disposal concepts and techniques for LLW and ILW are widely based on the successful test operations performed at Asse. Full-scale experiments including the development and testing of adequate transport and emplacement systems for HLW, however, are still pending. General discussions on the retrievability and the reversibility are going on.

  2. Simulated flow of groundwater and brine from a flooded salt mine in Livingston County, New York, and effects of remedial pumping on an overlying aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Richard M.; Miller, Todd S.; Kappel, William M.; Misut, Paul E.; Langevin, Christian D.; Parkhurst, David L.; deVries, M. Peter

    2012-01-01

    Two ceiling collapses in the Retsof salt mine near Geneseo in upstate New York in spring 1994 resulted in the upward propagation of two columns of rubble through 600 feet of overlying shale and carbonate bedrock. This upward propagation formed a hydraulic connection between the lower confined aquifer (LCA) and the mine and allowed water from the aquifer and bedrock fracture zones that intersected the rubble columns to flow into the mine at a rate of 18,000 gallons per minute (gal/min) . All salt mining ceased in September 1995, and the mine was completely flooded by January 1996. The flow of water from the lower confined aquifer into the mine caused widespread drawdowns, and water levels in the aquifer declined by as much as 400 feet near the collapse area and by more than 50 feet at wells 7 miles to the north and south. Within 3 to 4 weeks of the collapses, water levels in about a dozen domestic and industrial wells had declined severely, and some wells went dry. Water levels in at least 58 wells in the lower and middle confined aquifers were affected by mine flooding. Groundwater in the upper unconfined aquifer and surface water in streams were unaffected by water-level drawdown, but channels of the Genesee River and Beards Creek were altered by land subsidence related to the mine collapse. Water levels recovered from 1996 through 2006, but the mine is now filled with about 15 billion gallons of saturated halite brine. The weight of the overlying rock and sediment is expected to cause the salt beds to deform and fill the mine cavity during the next several hundred years; this in turn could displace as much as 80 percent of the brine and cause it to move upward through the rubble chimneys, rendering the LCA unusable as a source of water supply. Saline water was detected in the LCA in 2002 but was found to be derived primarily from fractures in the limestone and shale units between the mine and the LCA, rather than from the mine. In September 2006, the mine company

  3. Brines as Sources of Long-term Subsurface Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, T. C.; Hunt, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    Concentrated salt solutions, i.e. brines, are source terms for environmental contaminants released into surface waters and groundwaters. Brines arise from both natural and industrial processes such as natural salt deposits, solid rocket fuel production, landfill leachates, nuclear fuel reprocessing, and acid rock drainage. Additionally, many of the in-situ remediation fluids that have been implemented at the pilot or the field scale are also classified as brines. While brines are miscible with water, mixing processes are slow in the subsurface and this constrains the dilution of contaminants present within brines and the delivery of remediation fluids to sites where reactions are needed. The mixing of brines during their vertical migration through aquifers is determined by aquifer permeability as well as differences in density and viscosity between the brine and the ambient groundwater. The stability criterion for brine displacement was predicted in 1952 by Hill and the resulting dispersion at the mixing front is quantified by a compilation of literature data and the acquisition of new experimental data. As brines sink through aquifers, they become emplaced in less accessible locations where mass transfer models predict that contaminants within brines are slowly released into flowing groundwater. For radioactive wastes and environmental contaminants with very low acceptable concentrations, groundwater quality can be impacted for decades. Field data from a cooling water disposal site suggest that a dense brine is likely still present as a source term 40 years after waste disposal was stopped. Overall, analysis of pollution sources, quantification of transport processes, generalization of laboratory data, and limited evaluation of field data indicate that brines represent long-term sources of groundwater contamination and that source control has not been seriously addressed.

  4. On the physico-chemical characteristics of brines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Analyses of the natural brines form the salt lakes, salt pans and the artificial brines obtained after the solar desalination of seawater respectively, showed wide differences in their physico-chemical characteristics. The natural brines are markEd...

  5. The impact of reservoir conditions and rock heterogeneity on multiphase flow in CO2-brine-sandstone systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krevor, S. C.; Reynolds, C. A.; Al-Menhali, A.; Niu, B.

    2015-12-01

    Capillary strength and multiphase flow are key for modeling CO2 injection for CO2 storage. Past observations of multiphase flow in this system have raised important questions about the impact of reservoir conditions on flow through effects on wettability, interfacial tension and fluid-fluid mass transfer. In this work we report the results of an investigation aimed at resolving many of these outstanding questions for flow in sandstone rocks. The drainage capillary pressure, drainage and imbibition relative permeability, and residual trapping [1] characteristic curves have been characterized in Bentheimer and Berea sandstone rocks across a pressure range 5 - 20 MPa, temperatures 25 - 90 C and brine salinities 0-5M NaCl. Over 30 reservoir condition core flood tests were performed using techniques including the steady state relative permeability test, the semi-dynamic capillary pressure test, and a new test for the construction of the residual trapping initial-residual curve. Test conditions were designed to isolate effects of interfacial tension, viscosity ratio, density ratio, and salinity. The results of the tests show that, in the absence of rock heterogeneity, reservoir conditions have little impact on flow properties, consistent with continuum scale multiphase flow theory for water wet systems. The invariance of the properties is observed, including transitions of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid to a supercritical fluid, and in comparison with N2-brine systems. Variations in capillary pressure curves are well explained by corresponding changes in IFT although some variation may reflect small changes in wetting properties. The low viscosity of CO2at certain conditions results in sensitivity to rock heterogeneity. We show that (1) heterogeneity is the likely source of uncertainty around past relative permeability observations and (2) that appropriate scaling of the flow potential by a quantification of capillary heterogeneity allows for the selection of core flood

  6. 钙型卤水不净化MVR制高纯盐案例分析%Creating Value From Salt Cavern Brine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯金海; 夏洛特•贝瑟尔

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a case study of a NaCl salt crystallization system in the United States with feed brine evacuated from a deposit to be utilized as a gas storage cavern. The main process technology is a single-stage HPK. Salt Crystallizer designed to process the brine to an end product of a specified quality and crystal size. The product salt is marketed for use in the food and textile industries.The design of the system is unique in that the process does not require pretreatment of the brine. Based on the analysis of the brine, it was determined that the client’s purity requirements could be achieved by direct feed into the Crystallizer system without brine softening upstream of the process. Eliminating the need for pretreatment reduces the initial capital expenditure for the plant and minimizes on-going operational costs for chemicals and manpower. Operational data is provided within that demonstrates the performance of the crystallization system in terms of salt production, salt purity, and cleaning frequency.%文章提供了一个在美国的钙型卤水生产氯化钠结晶系统案例,料液卤水来自一个即将作为天然气储存洞穴。主要工艺技术是利用一个单级HPD MVR制盐结晶器,未经卤水净化,生产纯度99.85%且粒径分布窄的盐。该系统设计独特,不需要卤水净化。取消卤水净化环节可以降低系统的投资和运行成本。该系统不仅成本低,而且在线率高。

  7. Magnesium salts as compounds of the preparation of magnesium oxide from Tunisian natural brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behij Souheil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium oxide is one of the most important magnesium compounds used in industry. The production of MgO is often done from calcined magnesium carbonate or from natural magnesium saline solutions (sea water and brines. In the case of these solutions, magnesium oxide is precipitated after the addition of a strong base (eg. Ammonia. Magnesium hydroxide is calcined after its separation from the excess resulting from the strong base through filtration. Thus, magnesia qualities may differ depending on several physical parameters and particularly on the nature of the compound. Consequently, two different compounds were selected: magnesium chloride and magnesium sulphate which can be recovered from Tunisian natural brines. Three physical factors were considered: calcination temperatures, precipitation temperatures and calcination time of Mg(OH2. The decomposition of Mg(OH2 was investigated by DTA/TGA. Mass losses vary in the range (23.0%-29.9%. Starting decomposition temperatures are between 362°C and 385°C. The MgO produced from MgSO4 under 1000°C within 48 hours of calcination time and with 40°C as a reaction temperature for Mg(OH2 shows a good crystallinity and is of a cristallyte size of 86.3 nm and has a specific surface area equal to 16.87 m2g-1. Finally, morphological differences between MgO agglomerates at different temperatures were observed by SEM. Consequently, magnesium sulphate as precursor for preparing MgO is selected.

  8. Magnetic and mineralogical properties of salt rocks from the Zechstein of the Northern German Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Frances C.; Schmidt, Volkmar; Schramm, Michael; Mertineit, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic properties of rocks are often studied to characterize composition and fabric of rocks. For salt rocks, the basic relationships between their magnetic properties and composition, which are necessary to interpret rock magnetic data, are not yet established. Therefore, we studied different types of natural salt rock and pure salt minerals. We measured their magnetic properties (magnetic susceptibility, IRM acquisition curves, FORC diagrams, temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility) and used analytical methods such as microscopy, XRD and ICP-OES to understand the relationship between magnetic properties and mineralogy. Salt rocks mainly consist of the diamagnetic minerals halite, carnallite, sylvine and anhydrite with negative magnetic susceptibilities. The magnetic susceptibilities of pure synthetic NaCl and KCl single crystals, show values of -14.5 × 10-6 SI and -13.5 × 10-6 SI, respectively. In contrast, in natural salt rocks higher magnetic susceptibility values were measured. The magnetic susceptibility of the samples investigated in this study shows a general increase from light rock salt (max. -10 × 10-6 SI) over carnallitite (max. 134 × 10-6 SI) to red sylvinite (max. 270 × 10-6 SI). Whole rock analyses suggests that increased magnetic susceptibility can be attributed to paramagnetic and ferromagnetic minerals that are contained within the insoluble residue. The magnetic susceptibility is mainly controlled by magnetite and phyllosilicates. Its measurement can therefore be used to detect subtle changes in the content of these minerals.

  9. Simulation of NaCl and KCl mass transfer during salting of Prato cheese in brine with agitation: a numerical solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bona

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The association of dietary NaCl with arterial hypertension has led to a reduction in the levels of this salt in cheeses. For salting, KCl has been used as a partial substitute for NaCl, which cannot be completely substituted without affecting product acceptability. In this study a sensorially adequate saline solution (NaCl/KCl was simultaneously diffused during salting of Prato cheese in brine with agitation. The simultaneous multicomponent diffusion during the process was modeled with Fick’s second generalized law. The system of partial differential equations formed was solved by the finite element method (FEM. In the experimental data concentration the deviation for NaCl was of 7.3% and for KCl of 5.4%, both of which were considered acceptable. The simulation of salt diffusion will allow control and modulation of salt content in Prato cheese, permitting the prediction of final content from initial conditions.

  10. Spectral Evidence for Hydrated Salts in Seasonal Brine Flows on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, L.

    2015-12-01

    Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) are narrow, low-reflectance features forming on present-day Mars that have been hypothesized to be due to the transient flow of liquid water. RSL extend incrementally downslope on steep, warm slopes, fade when inactive, and reappear annually over multiple Mars years as monitored by the HiRISE camera on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). In the southern mid-latitudes of Mars, RSL are observed to form most commonly on equator facing slopes, but in equatorial regions RSL often "follow the sun", forming and growing on slopes that receive the greatest insolation during a particular season. The temperature on slopes where RSL are active typically exceeds 250 K and often but not always exceeds 273 K, although sub-surface temperatures would be colder. These characteristics suggest a possible role of salts in lowering the freezing point of water, allowing briny solutions to flow. Confirmation of this wet origin hypothesis for RSL would require either (i) detection of liquid water absorptions on the surface, or (ii) detection of hydrated salts precipitated from that water. The mineralogical composition of RSL and their surroundings can be investigated using orbital data acquired by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) also on board MRO, which acquires spectral cubes with 544 spectral channels in the visible to near-infrared range of ~0.36 μm to 3.92 μm [13], within which both liquid water and hydrated salts have diagnostic absorption bands at ~1.4 μm, ~1.9 μm, ~3.0 μm. Additionally, hydrated salts may have combination of overtones at other wavelengths from 1.7 μm to 2.4 μm. We present results from examination of individual pixels containing RSL at four different sites that confirm the hypothesis that RSL are due to present-day activity of briny water.

  11. The Thermal Damage Properties of Mudstone, Gypsum and Rock Salt from Yingcheng, Hubei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of temperature on the surface thermal damage of rock salt, gypsum and mudstone from the Yingcheng salt mine, China were investigated by the surface crack growth and propagation tests at different temperatures. We found that: (a high temperature could strengthen the rock salt molecular thermal motion and weaken the cohesion among the rock salt grains, so that the grain boundaries were more prone to slip and thus develop into cracks; (b high temperature could make the water molecules evaporate from rock specimens, which should change the physical properties of gypsum and mudstone; and (c high temperature had a significant effect on the interface between rock salt and gypsum and mudstone, therefore it should be easy to produce cracks with white or light yellow cumulate powder here. The surface crack growth and propagation of the rock salt, gypsum and mudstone have a positive correlation with the temperature by stereo microscope and the method of binary images, which could observe the surface thermal damage properties. Finally, the fractal dimension of the rock salt surface cracks was calculated based on fractal theory, and the evolution of the surface thermal damage was found from 50 to 260 °C.

  12. 高原盐湖盐藻和卤虫资源的开发和利用%Development and Utilization of Salt Algae (Dunaliella salina) and Brine Shrimp (Artemia spp.) in the Plateau Salt Lake of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印象初; 印红; 周可新; 张道川; 施鉴屏

    2001-01-01

    叙述了我国高原盐湖的名称、地理位置、面积、水深、海拔和盐湖类型等基本情况;盐湖中盐藻和卤虫的种类、生物学和生态学特性。并对它们的经济价值和开发利用作了初步的讨论。%In the paper, the name, geographical position, area, depth ofwater, altitude, brine type of salt lake from Plateau; ecology, biology and economy of salt algae (Dunaliella salina) and brine shrimp (Artemia spp.) are described. The development and utilization of the sources of salt lake are preliminarily discussed.

  13. Combating iodine and iron deficiencies through the double fortification of fish sauce, mixed fish sauce, and salt brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavasit, Visith; Nopburabutr, Preeyacha; Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee

    2003-06-01

    Two iodine and seven iron compounds were tested for use in the fortification of pure fish sauce, mixed fish sauce, and salt brine for cooking as a means to combat iodine and iron deficiencies. Ferrous sulfate, sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ferric ammonium citrate, and ferrous lactate were combined with potassium iodide with no effect on sensory quality. Product shelf-life testing revealed that no iron or iodine losses occurred during a three-month storage period. Although the color of most products darkened, the color was not significantly different from that of nonfortified products after two to three months. Sensory home-use tests revealed that the fortified products were acceptable to highly acceptable, with only 1.2% to 8.2% of the dishes cooked using the fortified products being reported as discolored. The cost of fortification was minimal, at 0.13 to 2.73 baht per bottle (750 ml) (42 baht = US$1). Consequently, these products show a potential for inclusion in national programs for the prevention of micronutrient deficiencies in Asian countries where fish sauce and its products are routinely consumed.

  14. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.

    2003-11-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  15. Draft Test Plan for Brine Migration Experimental Studies in Run-of-Mine Salt Backfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reed, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-02

    The primary objective of the experimental effort described here is to aid in understanding the complex nature of liquid, vapor, and solid transport occurring around heated nuclear waste in bedded salt. In order to gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that (a) hydrological and physiochemical parameters and (b) processes are correctly simulated. The experiments proposed here are designed to study aspects of the system that have not been satisfactorily quantified in prior work. In addition to exploring the complex coupled physical processes in support of numerical model validation, lessons learned from these experiments will facilitate preparations for larger-scale experiments that may utilize similar instrumentation techniques.

  16. VARIATIONS IN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF CHLORINE IN EVAPORATION-CONTROLLED SALT LAKE BRINES OF QAIDAM BASIN,CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The variations in the isotopic compositions of chlorine in evaporation-controlled saline lake brines were determined by using an improved procedure for precise measurement of chlorine isotopes based on Cs2Cl+ ion by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The results showed that variation in δ37Cl values in these evaporation-controlled brines are attributable to evaporation of brine accompanied by the deposition of saline minerals. The isotopic fractionation of chlorine between the deposited saline mineral and the co-existing brine caused the variation of δ37Cl values in the brine. In general the isotopic fractionation of chlorine in nature indicates enrichment of 37Cl in the solid phase relative to 35Cl. The reverse isotopic fractionation of chlorine in which 35Cl is enriched in the solid phase, was observed to some extent during quick deposition under laboratory conditions as well as in nature. The mechanism of isotopic fractionation of chlorine during evaporation deposition was studied.

  17. Numerical Simulation on Open Wellbore Shrinkage and Casing Equivalent Stress in Bedded Salt Rock Stratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most salt rock has interbed of mudstone in China. Owing to the enormous difference of mechanical properties between the mudstone interbed and salt rock, the stress-strain and creep behaviors of salt rock are significantly influenced by neighboring mudstone interbed. In order to identify the rules of wellbore shrinkage and casings equivalent stress in bedded salt rock stratum, three-dimensional finite difference models were established. The effects of thickness and elasticity modulus of mudstone interbed on the open wellbore shrinkage and equivalent stress of casing after cementing operation were studied, respectively. The results indicate that the shrinkage of open wellbore and equivalent stress of casings decreases with the increase of mudstone interbed thickness. The increasing of elasticity modulus will reduce the shrinkage of open wellbore and casing equivalent stress. Research results can provide the scientific basis for the design of mud density and casing strength.

  18. Numerical simulation on open wellbore shrinkage and casing equivalent stress in bedded salt rock stratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Zhang, Linzhi; Zhao, Jinzhou

    2013-01-01

    Most salt rock has interbed of mudstone in China. Owing to the enormous difference of mechanical properties between the mudstone interbed and salt rock, the stress-strain and creep behaviors of salt rock are significantly influenced by neighboring mudstone interbed. In order to identify the rules of wellbore shrinkage and casings equivalent stress in bedded salt rock stratum, three-dimensional finite difference models were established. The effects of thickness and elasticity modulus of mudstone interbed on the open wellbore shrinkage and equivalent stress of casing after cementing operation were studied, respectively. The results indicate that the shrinkage of open wellbore and equivalent stress of casings decreases with the increase of mudstone interbed thickness. The increasing of elasticity modulus will reduce the shrinkage of open wellbore and casing equivalent stress. Research results can provide the scientific basis for the design of mud density and casing strength.

  19. Study on Mechanical Features of Brazilian Splitting Fatigue Tests of Salt Rock

    OpenAIRE

    Weichao Wang; Mengmeng Wang; Xiliang Liu

    2016-01-01

    The microtest, SEM, was carried out to study the fracture surface of salt rock after the Brazilian splitting test and splitting fatigue test were carried out with a servo-controlled test machine RMT-150B. The results indicate that the deviation of using the tablet splitting method is larger than that of using steel wire splitting method, in Brazilian splitting test of salt rock, when the conventional data processing method is adopted. There are similar deformation features in both the convent...

  20. Effects of brine migration on waste storage systems. Final report. [Thermomechanical effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, E.S.; Nickell, R.E.

    1979-05-15

    Processes which can lead to mobilization of brine adjacent to spent fuel or nuclear waste canisters and some of the thermomechanical consequences have been investigated. Velocities as high as 4 x 10/sup -7/ m s/sup -1/ (13 m y/sup -1/) are calculated at the salt/canister boundary. As much as 40 liters of pure NaCl brine could accumulate around each canister during a 10-year storage period. Accumulations of bittern brines would probably be less, in the range of 2 to 5 liters. With 0.5% water, NaCl brine accumulation over a 10-year storage cycle around a spent fuel canister producing 0.6 kW of heat is expected to be less than 1 liter for centimeter-size inclusions and less than 0.5 liter for millimeter-size inclusions. For bittern brines, about 25 years would be required to accumulate 0.4 liter. The most serious mechanical consequence of brine migration would be the increased mobility of the waste canister due to pressure solution. In pressure solution enhanced deformation, the existence of a thin film of fluid either between grains or between media (such as between a canister and the salt) provides a pathway by which the salt can be redistributed leading to a marked increase in strain rates in wet rock relative to dry rock. In salt, intergranular water will probably form discontinuous layers rather than films so that they would dominate pressure solution. A mathematical model of pressure solution indicates that pressure solution will not lead to appreciable canister motions except possibly in fine grained rocks (less than 10/sup -4/ m). In fine grained salts, details of the contact surface between the canister and the salt bed may lead to large pressure solution motions. A numerical model indicates that heat transfer in the brine layer surrounding a spent fuel canister is not conduction dominated but has a significant convective component.

  1. Abundance of lanthanoids in rock salts determined by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Teruyuki; Nozaki, Tetsuya [Musashi Inst. of Tech., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Lab.; Yui, Mitsuaki; Kikawada, Yoshikazu; Oi, Takao

    1998-06-01

    Contents of lanthanoids (Ln`s) of rock salts have been measured by the neutron activation analysis. Original salt samples were treated in advance of neutron irradiation so that Ln`s were enriched and amounts of interfering nuclides were reduced. The contents of Ln`s were at ppt-sub ppb levels and were comparable with or slightly lower than those of solar salts. The Ln abundance patterns of the salts were those with relative depletion in the heavy Ln`s, thus having negative slopes. It was indicated that, when salt deposit was formed, Ln`s were taken up by anhydrite more preferentially than by halite. (author)

  2. Influence of deformation on the fluid transport properties of salt rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peach, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    While the fluid transport properties of rocks are well understood under hydrostatic conditions, little is known regarding these properties in rocks undergoing crystal plastic deformation. However, such data are needed as input in the field of radioactive waste disposal in salt formations. They are a

  3. Influence of deformation on the fluid transport properties of salt rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peach, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    While the fluid transport properties of rocks are well understood under hydrostatic conditions, little is known regarding these properties in rocks undergoing crystal plastic deformation. However, such data are needed as input in the field of radioactive waste disposal in salt formations. They are a

  4. Variations in isotopic compositions of chlorine in evaporation-controlled salt lake brines of Qaidam Basin, China

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Xiao, Ying-kai; Liu, Wei-guo; Zhou, Y.M.; Wang, Yun-hui; Shirodkar, P.V.

    The variations in the isotopic compositions of chlorine in evaporation-controlled saline lake brines were determined by using an improved procedure for precise measurement of chlorine isotopes based on Cs sub(2) Cl sup(+) ion by thermal ionization...

  5. Geo Mechanical Analysis of Casing Failure in Bedded Rock Salt Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongtao Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many bedded rock salt resources in China which are serviced as the hosts of underground natural gas storages. For the relatively thin nature of bedded rock salt and the local presence of other sedimentary rock formations, the design and safety evaluation of well completion casing take greater challenges to the engineers than that of casing in other type formations, i.e., limestone and carbonatite. The 2D and 3D geomechanical models of casing-cement sheath-rock salt are established in the paper based on the field data to obtain the creep loads in casing and find the main reasons causing casing failure. In addition, the effects of non-salt layer dip angle, friction factor between salt and non-salt layers and non-salt layer thickness, etc., on the stresses and deformations of casing are studied. The comprehensive results show hoop creep loads are the main reasons causing casing failure rather than radial creep loads. The cement sheath can improve the safety and optimize force state of casing even in perfect wellbore, which disagrees with Willson’s view that the cement sheath can be neglected in a salt formation wellbore with high quality. The non-uniform factor of radial creep loads in cement sheath is slightly smaller than that of original in-situ stresses, while that of radial creep loads in casing is greatly smaller than it. The stresses and deformations of casing increase with increasing thickness of non-salt layer and decrease with the increase of friction factor. When the non-salt layer dip angle is with a value of 50 deg, the stresses and deformations achieve the max and subsequently decrease.

  6. Experimental investigation of two-phase flow in rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malama, Bwalya [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howard, Clifford L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This Test Plan describes procedures for conducting laboratory scale flow tests on intact, damaged, crushed, and consolidated crushed salt to measure the capillary pressure and relative permeability functions. The primary focus of the tests will be on samples of bedded geologic salt from the WIPP underground. However, the tests described herein are directly applicable to domal salt. Samples being tested will be confined by a range of triaxial stress states ranging from atmospheric pressure up to those approximating lithostatic. Initially these tests will be conducted at room temperature, but testing procedures and equipment will be evaluated to determine adaptability to conducting similar tests under elevated temperatures.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Two-Phase Flow in Rock Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malama, Bwalya; Howard, Clifford L.

    2014-07-01

    This Test Plan describes procedures for conducting laboratory scale flow tests on intact, damaged, crushed, and consolidated crushed salt to measure the capillary pressure and relative permeability functions. The primary focus of the tests will be on samples of bedded geologic salt from the WIPP underground. However, the tests described herein are directly applicable to domal salt. Samples being tested will be confined by a range of triaxial stress states ranging from atmospheric pressure up to those approximating lithostatic. Initially these tests will be conducted at room temperature, but testing procedures and equipment will be evaluated to determine adaptability to conducting similar tests under elevated temperatures.

  8. Vacancy Structures and Melting Behavior in Rock-Salt GeSbTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Xue-Peng; Shen, Zhen-Ju; Li, Xian-Bin; Wang, Chuan-Shou; Chen, Yong-Jin; Li, Ji-Xue; Zhang, Jin-Xing; Zhang, Ze; Zhang, Sheng-Bai; Han, Xiao-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Ge-Sb-Te alloys have been widely used in optical/electrical memory storage. Because of the extremely fast crystalline-amorphous transition, they are also expected to play a vital role in next generation nonvolatile microelectronic memory devices. However, the distribution and structural properties of vacancies have been one of the key issues in determining the speed of melting (or amorphization), phase-stability, and heat-dissipation of rock-salt GeSbTe, which is crucial for its technological breakthrough in memory devices. Using spherical aberration-aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and atomic scale energy-dispersive X-ray mapping, we observe a new rock-salt structure with high-degree vacancy ordering (or layered-like ordering) at an elevated temperature, which is a result of phase transition from the rock-salt phase with randomly distributed vacancies. First-principles calculations reveal that the phase transition is an energetically favored process. Moreover, molecular dynamics studies suggest that the melting of the cubic rock-salt phases is initiated at the vacancies, which propagate to nearby regions. The observation of multi-rock-salt phases suggests another route for multi-level data storage using GeSbTe.

  9. The effects of naturally occurring impurities in rock salt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alina-Mihaela Badescu; Alexandra Saftoiu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect that naturally occurring impurities in salt mines have both on effective permittivity of the medium and on radio wave propagation at ∼200 MHz. The effective permittivity is determined based on the dielectric properties of salt and the characteristics of the main impurities. We conclude that at such frequencies the scattering is negligible compared to absorptions. The effect of trapped water in different forms is also evaluated.

  10. Quantification of sub-resolution porosity in carbonate rocks by applying high-salinity contrast brine using X-ray microtomography differential imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingyang; Al-Khulaifi, Yousef; Blunt, Martin J.; Bijeljic, Branko

    2016-10-01

    Characterisation of the pore space in carbonate reservoirs and aquifers is of utmost importance in a number of applications such as enhanced oil recovery, geological carbon storage and contaminant transport. We present a new experimental methodology that uses high-salinity contrast brine and differential imaging acquired by X-ray tomography to non-invasively obtain three-dimensional spatially resolved information on porosity and connectivity of two rock samples, Portland and Estaillades limestones, including sub-resolution micro-porosity. We demonstrate that by injecting 30 wt% KI brine solution, a sufficiently high phase contrast can be achieved allowing accurate three-phase segmentation based on differential imaging. This results in spatially resolved maps of the solid grain phase, sub-resolution micro-pores within the grains, and macro-pores. The total porosity values from the three-phase segmentation for two carbonate rock samples are shown to be in good agreement with Helium porosity measurements. Furthermore, our flow-based method allows for an accurate estimate of pore connectivity and a distribution of porosity within the sub-resolution pores.

  11. Halophilic archaea cultivated from surface sterilized middle-late eocene rock salt are polyploid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salla T Jaakkola

    Full Text Available Live bacteria and archaea have been isolated from several rock salt deposits of up to hundreds of millions of years of age from all around the world. A key factor affecting their longevity is the ability to keep their genomic DNA intact, for which efficient repair mechanisms are needed. Polyploid microbes are known to have an increased resistance towards mutations and DNA damage, and it has been suggested that microbes from deeply buried rock salt would carry several copies of their genomes. Here, cultivable halophilic microbes were isolated from a surface sterilized middle-late Eocene (38-41 million years ago rock salt sample, drilled from the depth of 800 m at Yunying salt mine, China. Eight unique isolates were obtained, which represented two haloarchaeal genera, Halobacterium and Halolamina. We used real-time PCR to show that our isolates are polyploid, with genome copy numbers of 11-14 genomes per cell in exponential growth phase. The ploidy level was slightly downregulated in stationary growth phase, but the cells still had an average genome copy number of 6-8. The polyploidy of halophilic archaea living in ancient rock salt might be a factor explaining how these organisms are able to overcome the challenge of prolonged survival during their entombment.

  12. Uniaxial creep as a control on mercury intrusion capillary pressure in consolidating rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leigh, Christi D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The nature of geologic disposal of nuclear waste in salt formations requires validated and verified two - phase flow models of transport of brine and gas through intact, damaged, and consolidating crushed salt. Such models exist in oth er realms of subsurface engineering for other lithologic classes (oil and gas, carbon sequestration etc. for clastics and carbonates) but have never been experimentally validated and parameterized for salt repository scenarios or performance assessment. Mo dels for waste release scenarios in salt back - fill require phenomenological expressions for capillary pressure and relative permeability that are expected to change with degree of consolidation, and require experimental measurement to parameterize and vali date. This report describes a preliminary assessment of the influence of consolidation (i.e. volume strain or porosity) on capillary entry pressure in two phase systems using mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP). This is to both determine the potent ial usefulness of the mercury intrusion porosimetry method, but also to enable a better experimental design for these tests. Salt consolidation experiments are performed using novel titanium oedometers, or uniaxial compression cells often used in soil mech anics, using sieved run - of - mine salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as starting material. Twelve tests are performed with various starting amounts of brine pore saturation, with axial stresses up to 6.2 MPa (%7E900 psi) and temperatures to 90 o C. This corresponds to UFD Work Package 15SN08180211 milestone "FY:15 Transport Properties of Run - of - Mine Salt Backfill - Unconsolidated to Consolidated". Samples exposed to uniaxial compression undergo time - dependent consolidation, or creep, to various deg rees. Creep volume strain - time relations obey simple log - time behavior through the range of porosities (%7E50 to 2% as measured); creep strain rate increases with temperature and applied stress as

  13. Radiation defects and energy storage in natural polycrystalline rock salt. Results of an in-situ test in the Permian rock salt of the Asse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, H.; Rothfuchs, T. [Institut fuer Tieflagerung, Braunschweig (Germany); Celma, A.G.; Haas, J.B.M. de [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (Netherlands); Pederson, L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Radiation damage development and the corresponding energy storage in pure undeformed single crystals have frequently been studied in laboratory experiments, however little is known of irradiation experiments on natural rock salt (polycrystalline, deformed and impure) under geological conditions. The relevance of these parameters to the defect formation was revealed by a joint United States/Federal Republic of Germany in-situ test in the Asse Mine. Natural rock salt was heated and irradiated using Co-60 sources. Calculations of the amount of halite expected to be decomposed by radiolysis during the experiment were performed using the 1985 version of the Jain-Lidiard model. Qualitative agreement between theory and analyses was found for all the performed analyses. Quantitative and qualitative deviations of the natural samples behaviour from that of single undeformed crystals were observed and attributed to the influence of sulfatic admixtures, polycrystallinity and strain on radiation damage development and anneal. Special chemical methods, such as iodometric titration and uv-visible spectroscopy were applied in order to measure the hypochlorite ion, which forms in irradiated salt. Composite samples located closet to the Co-60 source averaged 0,4 micromoles neutral chlorine atoms per gram salt, a factor of two more than from other positions. Uv-vis analyses revealed more than a factor of ten greater neutral chlorine concentrations in coloured halite. Similarly, optical absorption measurements indicated a factor of ten difference in sodium metal colloid concentrations.

  14. Spanish participation in the Haw Project: Laboratory investigations on Gamma irradiation effects in rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, C. de las; Miralles, L.; Teixidor, P.; Garcia Veigas, J.; Dies, X.; Ortega, X.; Pueyo, J.J.

    1993-12-31

    In order to prove the safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt rock, a five years test disposal of thirty highly radioactive radiation sources is planned in the Asse salt mine, in the Federal Republic of Germany. The thirty radiation sources consist of steel canisters containing the vitrified radionuclides Caesium 137 and Strontium 90 in quantities sufficient to cover the bandwidth of heat generation and gamma radiation of real HAW. The radiation sources will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two galleries at the 800 m level. Two electrical heater tests were already started in November 1988 and are continuosly surveyed in respect of the rock mass. Also the handling system necessary for the emplacement of the radioactive canisters was developed and succesfully tested. A laboratory investigation programme on radiation effects in salt is being performed in advance to the radioactive canister emplacement. This programme includes the investigation of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Part of this programme has been carried out since 1988 at the University of Barcelona, basically what refers to colloidal sodium determinations by light absorption measurements and microstructural studies on irradiated salt samples. For gamma dose and dose rate measurements in the test field, measuring systems consisting of ionisation chambers as well as solid state dosemeters were developed and tested. Thermomechanical computer code validation is performed by calculational predictions and parallel investigation of the stress and displacement fields in the underground test field.

  15. Dynamic subsidence prediction of ground surface above salt cavern gas storage considering the creep of rock salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new model is proposed to predict the dynamic subsidence of ground surface above salt cavern gas storage during the leaching and storage, which takes into account the creep of rock salt. In the model, the extended form of Gaussian curve is adopted to figure out the shape of subsidence areas. The corresponding theoretical formulas are derived. In addition, parameters are studied to investigate the surface subsidence as a function of the salt ejection rate, internal pressure, buried depth, diameter, height, running time, etc. Through an example, the subsidence of the salt cavern gas storage located at Jiangsu of China obtained by the new model was compared with those by Peter A F formula, Schober & Sroka formula and FLAC3D through simulation. The results showed the proposed model is precise and correct, and can meet the actual engineering demands. The surface subsidence is equidirectional with the increase of salt ejection rate, depth, diameter, height, and running time, but reverse to the increase of internal pressure. The depth, diameter, running time and internal pressure have great effects on the subsidence, whereas the salt ejection rate and height have little influences on it.

  16. The role of advection and dispersion in the rock matrix on the transport of leaking CO2-saturated brine along a fractured zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nawaz; Wörman, Anders; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    CO2 that is injected into a geological storage reservoir can leak in dissolved form because of brine displacement from the reservoir, which is caused by large-scale groundwater motion. Simulations of the reactive transport of leaking CO2aq along a conducting fracture in a clay-rich caprock are conducted to analyze the effect of various physical and geochemical processes. Whilst several modeling transport studies along rock fractures have considered diffusion as the only transport process in the surrounding rock matrix (diffusive transport), this study analyzes the combined role of advection and dispersion in the rock matrix in addition to diffusion (advection-dominated transport) on the migration of CO2aq along a leakage pathway and its conversion in geochemical reactions. A sensitivity analysis is performed to quantify the effect of fluid velocity and dispersivity. Variations in the porosity and permeability of the medium are found in response to calcite dissolution and precipitation along the leakage pathway. We observe that advection and dispersion in the rock matrix play a significant role in the overall transport process. For the parameters that were used in this study, advection-dominated transport increased the leakage of CO2aq from the reservoir by nearly 305%, caused faster transport and increased the mass conversion of CO2aq in geochemical reactions along the transport pathway by approximately 12.20% compared to diffusive transport.

  17. Geohydromechanical Processes in the Excavation Damaged Zone in Crystalline Rock, Rock Salt, and Indurated and Plastic Clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Bernier, Frederic; Davies, Christophe

    2004-06-20

    The creation of an excavation disturbed zone or excavation damaged zone is expected around all man-made openings in geologic formations. Macro- and micro-fracturing, and in general a redistribution of in situ stresses and rearrangement of rock structures, will occur in this zone, resulting in drastic changes of permeability to flow, mainly through the fractures and cracks induced by excavation. Such an EDZ may have significant implications for the operation and long-term performance of an underground nuclear waste repository. Various issues of concern need to be evaluated, such as processes creating fractures in the excavation damaged zone, the degree of permeability increase, and the potential for sealing or healing (with permeability reduction) in the zone. In recent years, efforts along these lines have been made for a potential repository in four rock types-crystalline rock, salt, indurated clay, and plastic clay-and these efforts have involved field, laboratory, and theoretical studies. The present work involves a synthesis of the ideas and issues that emerged from presentations and discussions on EDZ in these four rock types at a CLUSTER Conference and Workshop held in Luxembourg in November, 2003. First, definitions of excavation disturbed and excavation damaged zones are proposed. Then, an approach is suggested for the synthesis and intercomparison of geohydromechanical processes in the EDZ for the four rock types (crystalline rock, salt, indurated clay, and plastic clay). Comparison tables of relevant processes, associated factors, and modeling and testing techniques are developed. A discussion of the general state-of-the-art and outstanding issues are also presented. A substantial bibliography of relevant papers on the subject is supplied at the end of the paper.

  18. Analysis of Abnormal Phenomena in High Magnesium Boron Containing Salt Brine System%高镁含硼盐卤体系反常现象解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌志明; 崔香梅; 郑绵平

    2012-01-01

    Such phenomena as "supersaturated solubility", "salt formation by dilution" and "solubility increase of homonymy ion" exist in high magnesium boron containing salt brine system. Our research indicates that the magnesium chloride solution is neutral with medium or low concentration. It shows acidic property with high concentration and the pH value is lower than 4.5 when saturated. But many types of magnesium borate minerals are alkaline ones with pH value higher than 8.0. We know in general acid and base could hardly co-exist in an aqueous solution, but magnesium borate and magnesium chloride in high magnesium boron containing salt brine system do owing to the possession of the homonymy ion. The above mentioned abnormal phenomena can be satisfactorily interpreted with special acidity change of magnesium chloride solution and some related phase chemistry data.%高镁含硼盐卤体系中存在“过饱和溶解度”、“稀释成盐”和同名离子“增溶”等反常现象.研究发现:氯化镁溶液在中低浓度时显中性,在高浓度时显酸性,饱和时pH值小于4.5.而各种镁硼酸盐基本都是pH值大于8.0的碱性矿物.水溶液中酸碱难共存,但镁硼酸盐与氯化镁却因具有相同离子而能够在高镁含硼盐卤体系中共存.结合氯化镁溶液特殊酸度变化规律与相关相化学数据可较圆满的解释高镁含硼盐卤体系中的反常现象.

  19. Probabilistic Analysis of a Rock Salt Cavern with Application to Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Elham; Khaledi, Kavan; Miro, Shorash; König, Diethard; Schanz, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the failure probability of storing renewable energy in the form of hydrogen or compressed air in rock salt caverns. The validation of the short- and long-term integrity and stability of rock salt cavern is a prerequisite in their design process. The present paper provides a reliability-based analysis of a typical renewable energy storage cavern in rock salt. An elasto-viscoplastic creep constitutive model is implemented into a numerical model of rock salt cavern to assess its behavior under different operation conditions. Sensitivity measures of different variables involved in the mechanical response of cavern are computed by elementary effect global sensitivity method. Subset simulation methodology is conducted to measure the failure probability of the system with a low computational cost. This methodology is further validated by a comparison with a Monte Carlo-based probabilistic analysis. The propagation of parameter uncertainties and the failure probability against different failure criteria are evaluated by utilizing a Monte Carlo-based analysis. In this stage, the original finite element model is substituted by a surrogate model to further reduce the computational effort. Finally, a reliability analysis approach is employed to obtain the minimum admissible internal pressure in a cavern.

  20. Study on Mechanical Features of Brazilian Splitting Fatigue Tests of Salt Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The microtest, SEM, was carried out to study the fracture surface of salt rock after the Brazilian splitting test and splitting fatigue test were carried out with a servo-controlled test machine RMT-150B. The results indicate that the deviation of using the tablet splitting method is larger than that of using steel wire splitting method, in Brazilian splitting test of salt rock, when the conventional data processing method is adopted. There are similar deformation features in both the conventional splitting tests and uniaxial compression tests. The stress-strain curves include compaction, elasticity, yielding, and failure stage. Both the vertical deformation and horizontal deformation of splitting fatigue tests under constant average loading can be divided into three stages of “loosening-tightness-loosening.” The failure modes of splitting fatigue tests under the variational average loading are not controlled by the fracturing process curve of the conventional splitting tests. The deformation extent of fatigue tests under variational average loading is even greater than that of conventional splitting test. The tensile strength of salt rock has a relationship with crystallization conditions. Tensile strength of thick crystal salt rock is lower than the bonded strength of fine-grain crystals.

  1. New scenario for the accumulation and release of radiation damage in rock salt and related materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, H.W. den; Vainshtein, D.I.; Dubinko, V.I.; Turkin, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Rock salt might be a promising geological medium for a radioactive waste repository. However, we have observed that even a basically stable compound such as NaCl may become unstable after heavy irradiation. As a result of the irradiation, dislocations, Na and Cl2 precipitates and large voids are pro

  2. Conservação de filés de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus em salga seca e salga úmida Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus preservation by means of dry salting and saturated brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Aiura

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Acompanhou-se o desenvolvimento dos processos da salga em salmoura saturada (salga úmida e salga seca de filés de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e avaliaram-se algumas características indicativas de qualidade do produto durante a estocagem. Os processos foram acompanhados por 156 horas na salga úmida e por 96 horas na salga seca, e os filés salgados foram estocados, respectivamente, por 60 e 45 dias à temperatura ambiente. Os teores máximos de cloreto nos filés (14% foram atingidos com 72 horas na salga úmida e com 36 horas na salga seca. Os filés de tilápia salgados em salmoura mantiveram as características próprias do produto por um período de 45 dias, e os submetidos à salga seca apresentaram baixo teor de umidade (6% e alta concentração de extrato etéreo (4,6%. Recomenda-se somente o processo de salga em salmoura saturada como forma de conservação dos filés de tilápia-do-nilo.The processes of salting of Nile tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus submitted to saturated brine and dry salting were observed, and some characteristics that indicate the quality of the product during the storage were evaluated. The brine saturated process was followed up to 156 hours and the dry salting was followed up to 96 hours. When the salting finished, fillets were stored for 45 (dry salting and 60 days (saturated brine, respectively. The highest values for chloride in fillets (14% were reached within 72 hours in brine salting and 36 hours in dry salting. The tilapia fillets salted in brine kept the proper characteristics of the product for a period of 45 days and the fillets submitted to dry salting showed low moisture ratios (6% and a high concentration of lipids (4.6%. Thereby, it is only recommended the salting process in saturated brine to be used as a mean of conservation for Nile tilapia fillets.

  3. Impact of rock salt creep law choice on subsidence calculations for hydrocarbon reservoirs overlain by evaporite caprocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marketos, G.; Spiers, C. J.; Govers, R.

    2016-06-01

    Accurate forward modeling of surface subsidence above producing hydrocarbons reservoirs requires an understanding of the mechanisms determining how ground deformation and subsidence evolve. Here we focus entirely on rock salt, which overlies a large number of reservoirs worldwide, and specifically on the role of creep of rock salt caprocks in response to production-induced differential stresses. We start by discussing available rock salt creep flow laws. We then present the subsidence evolution above an axisymmetric finite element representation of a generic reservoir that extends over a few kilometers and explore the effects of rock salt flow law choice on the subsidence response. We find that if rock salt creep is linear, as appropriate for steady state flow by pressure solution, the subsidence response to any pressure reduction history contains two distinct components, one that leads to the subsidence bowl becoming narrower and deeper and one that leads to subsidence rebound and becomes dominant at later stages. This subsidence rebound becomes inhibited if rock salt deforms purely through steady state power law creep at low stresses. We also show that an approximate representation of transient creep leads to relatively small differences in subsidence predictions. Most importantly, the results confirm that rock salt flow must be modeled accurately if good subsidence predictions are required. However, in practice, large uncertainties exist in the creep behavior of rock salt, especially at low stresses. These are a consequence of the spatial variability of rock salt physical properties, which is practically impossible to constrain. A conclusion therefore is that modelers can only resort to calculating bounds for the subsidence evolution above producing rock salt-capped reservoirs.

  4. A fractional derivative approach to full creep regions in salt rock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, H. W.; Wang, C. P.; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Based on the definition of the constant-viscosity Abel dashpot, a new creep element, referred to as the variable-viscosity Abel dashpot, is proposed to characterize damage growth in salt rock samples during creep tests. Ultrasonic testing is employed to determine a formula of the variable viscosity...... coefficient, indicating that the change of the variable viscosity coefficient with the time meets a negative exponent law. In addition, by replacing the Newtonian dashpot in the classical Nishihara model with the variable-viscosity Abel dashpot, a damage-mechanism-based creep constitutive model is proposed...... rock. Furthermore, a sensitivity study is carried out, showing the effects of stress level, fractional derivative order and viscosity coefficient exponent on creep strain of salt rock. It is indicated that the fractional derivative creep model proposed in the paper provides a precise description...

  5. Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Impact of brine acidification on hatchability, survival and reproduction of Artemia parthenogenetica and Artemia franciscana in salt ponds, Bohai Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Liying; Deng, Yuangao; Wang, Jing; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Van Stappen, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    We studied the effect of pH (pH 5, 6, 7 and 8) on the hatching percentage, survival and reproduction of Artemia strains in Bohai Bay salt ponds. Strains included parthenogenetic Artemia from Bohai Bay (BHB), Artemia franciscana from San Francisco Bay, and A. franciscana artificially produced in salt ponds in Vietnam. The latter was included as a potential inoculum for biological management of salt ponds. The hatching percentage of cysts after 24 h and the survival rate of the tested Artemia strains were significantly reduced when exposed to a culture medium at pH 5 for 18 d ( PArtemia to 48 h acid exposure varied with developmental stage, increasing in the following order: juvenile, nauplii, pre-adult, with maximum tolerance in adults. All strains of Artemia tested could not reproduce at pH 5. At pH levels from pH 6-8, a higher pH generally resulted in a shorter brood interval and enhanced ovoviviparity. Hence, we suggest that brine acidification has a negative impact on Artemia populations in the Bohai Bay saltworks. Inoculation of Artemia with either local parthenogenetic Artemia or exotic A. franciscana should be feasible at pH 7-8.

  7. Distillation Brine Purification for Resource Recovery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater processing systems for space generate residual brine that contains water and salts that could be recovered to life support consumables. The project assessed the use of ion-exchange resins to selectively remove salts from wastewater treatment brines. The resins were then regenerated for additional use. The intention would be to generate a Na/K and CI rich or purified brine that would then be processed into high value chemicals, such as acids, bases, and/or bleach.

  8. Numerical Modelling of Dissolving and Driving Exploitation of Potash Salt in the Qarhan Playa——A Coupled Model of Reactive olute Transport and Chemical Equilibrium in a Multi-component Underground Brine System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenpeng; LIU Zhenying

    2008-01-01

    Firstly, the macroscopic chemical equilibrium state of a series of chemical reactions between intercrystal brine and its media salt layer (salt deposit) in Qarhan Salt Lake was studied by using the Pitzer theory. The concept of macroscopic solubility product and its relation with accumulated ore dissolving ratio were presented, which are used in the numerical model of dissolving and driving exploitation of potassium salt in Qarhan Salt Lake. And secondly, with a model forming idea oftransport model for reacting solutes in the multi-component fresh groundwater system in porous media being a reference, a two-dimensional transport model coupled with a series of chemical reactions in a multi-component brine porous system (salt deposits) was developed by using the Pitzer theory.Meanwhile, the model was applied to model potassium/magnesium transport in Qarhan Salt Lake in order to study the transfer law of solid and liquid phases in the dissolving and driving process and to design the optimal injection/abstraction strategy for dissolving and capturing maximum Potassium/Magnesium in the mining of salt deposits in Qarhan Salt Lake.

  9. The origin of the Cerro Prieto geothermal brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Thompson, J.M.; Coplen, T.B.; Nehring, N.L.; Janik, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal brine may have originated from mixing of Colorado River water with seawater evaporated to about six times its normal salinity. This mixture circulated deeply and was heated by magmatic processes. During deep circulation, Li, K, Ca, B, SiO2 and rare alkalis were transferred from rock minerals to the water, and Mg, SO4, and a minor quantity of Na were transferred to the rock. Similar alteration of seawater salt chemistry has been observed in coastal geothermal systems and produced in laboratory experiments. After heating and alteration the brine was further diluted to its present range of composition. Oxygen isotopes in the fluid are in equilibrium with reservoir calcite and have been affected by exploitation-induced boiling and dilution. ?? 1981.

  10. Preliminary results from the experimental study of CO{sub 2}-brine-rock interactions at elevated T and P: implications for the pilot plant for CO{sub 2} storage in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galarza, C.; Buil, B.; Pena, J.; Martin, P.L.; Gomez, P.; Garralon, A. [CIEMAT, Unidad de Geologia Ambiental Aplicada, Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    A new experimental program has been carried out in order to study CO{sub 2}-brine-rock interactions susceptible to take place in conditions close to those expected in the pilot plant that is being developed in Spain (a carbonate reservoir located at more than 800 m depth, with 15% porosity, and a salinity of the native brine between 20 - 90 g/L). The combination of preliminary experimental and numerical modeling (PHREEQC) results suggests that the main geochemical processes are calcite dissolution and anhydrite precipitation. (authors)

  11. Petrophysical examination of CO₂-brine-rock interactions-results of the first stage of long-term experiments in the potential Zaosie Anticline reservoir (central Poland) for CO₂ storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowski, Radosław; Wdowin, Magdalena; Manecki, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was determination of experiment-induced alterations and changes in the properties of reservoir rocks and sealing rocks sampled from potential reservoir for CO₂. In the experiment, rocks submerged in brine in specially constructed reactors were subjected to CO₂ pressure of 6 MPa for 20 months at room temperature. Samples of Lower Jurassic reservoir rocks and sealing rocks (sandstones, claystones, and mudstones) from the Zaosie Anticline (central Poland) were analysed for their petrophysical properties (specific surface area, porosity, pore size and distribution) before and after the experiment. Comparison of the ionic composition the brines before and after the experiment demonstrated an increase in total dissolved solids as well as the concentration of sulphates and calcium ions. This indicates partial dissolution of the rock matrix and the cements. As a result of the reaction, the properties of reservoir rocks did not changed significantly and should not affect the process of CO₂ storage. In the case of the sealing rocks, however, the porosity, the framework density, as well as the average capillary and threshold diameter increased. Also, the pore distribution in the pore space changed in favour of larger pores. The reasons for these changes could not be explained by petrographic characteristics and should be thoroughly investigated.

  12. Long-Term Interactions of Full-Scale Cemented Waste Simulates with Salt Brines (KIT Scientific Reports ; 7721)

    OpenAIRE

    Kienzler, Bernhard [Hrsg.; Borkel, Christoph; Metz, Volker; Schlieker, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Since 1967 radioactive wastes have been disposed of in the Asse II salt mine in Northern Germany. A signifi-cant part of these wastes originated from the pilot reprocessing plant WAK in Karlsruhe and consisted of cemented NaNO3 solutions bearing fission products, actinides, as well as process chemicals. With respect to the long-term behavior of these wastes, the licensing authorities requested leaching experiments with full scale samples in relevant salt solutions which were performed since 1...

  13. Mineralogical and microstructural investigations of fractures in Permian z2 potash seam and surrounding salt rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertineit, Michael; Grewe, Wiebke; Schramm, Michael; Hammer, Jörg; Blanke, Hartmut; Patzschke, Mario

    2017-04-01

    Fractures occur locally in the z2 potash seam (Kaliflöz Staßfurt). Most of them extend several centimeter to meter into the surrounding salt rocks. The fractures are distributed on all levels in an extremely deformed area of the Morsleben salt mine, Northern Germany. The sampling site is located within a NW-SE trending synclinal structure, which was reverse folded (Behlau & Mingerzahn 2001). The samples were taken between the -195 m and - 305 m level at the field of Marie shaft. In this area, more than 200 healed fractures were mapped. Most of them show opening widths of only a few millimeters to rarely 10 cm. The fractures in rock salt are filled with basically polyhalite, halite and carnallite. In the potash seam, the fractures are filled with kainite, halite and minor amounts of carnallite and polyhalite. In some cases the fracture infill changes depending on the type of surrounding rocks. There are two dominant orientations of the fractures, which can be interpreted as a conjugated system. The main orientation is NE-SW trending, the dip angles are steep (ca. 70°, dip direction NW and SE, respectively). Subsequent deformation of the filled fractures is documented by a strong grain shape fabric of kainite, undulatory extinction and subgrain formation in kainite, and several mineral transformations. Subgrain formation in halite occurred in both, the fracture infill and the surrounding salt rocks. The results correlate in parts with investigations which were carried out at the close-by rock salt mine Braunschweig-Lüneburg (Horn et al. 2016). The development of the fractures occurred during compression of clayey salt rocks. However, the results are only partly comparable due to different properties (composition, impurities) of the investigated stratigraphic units. Further investigations will focus on detailed microstructural and geochemical analyses of the fracture infill and surrounding salt rocks. Age dating of suitable minerals, e.g. polyhalite (Leitner et al

  14. Preliminary state-of-the-art survey: mining techniques for salt and other rock types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    This is a systematic review of the state-of-the-art of underground mining and excavation technology in the U.S. as applied to salt, limestone, shale, and granite. Chapter 2 covers the basic characteristics of these rock types, the most frequently used underground mining methods, shaft and slope entry construction, equipment, and safety and productivity data. Chapters 3 and 4 summarize underground salt and limestone mining in the U.S. Chapter 5 shows that large amounts of thick shale exist in the U.S., but little is mined. Chapter 6 discusses underground excavations into granite-type rocks. Suggestions are given in the last chapter for further study. (DLC)

  15. Measurements of the Suitability of Large Rock Salt Formations for Radio Detection of High Energy Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Gorham, P W; Odian, A; Williams, D; Besson, D; Frichter, G; Tantawi, S G; Gorham, Peter; Saltzberg, David; Odian, Allen; Williams, Dawn; Besson, David; Frichter, George; Tantawi, Sami

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility that large rock salt formations might be suitable as target masses for detection of neutrinos of energies about 10 PeV and above. In neutrino interactions at these energies, the secondary electromagnetic cascade produces a coherent radio pulse well above ambient thermal noise via the Askaryan effect. We describe measurements of radio-frequency attenuation lengths and ambient thermal noise in two salt formations. Measurements in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in an evaporite salt bed in Carlsbad, NM yielded short attenuation lengths, 3-7 m over 150-300 MHz. However, measurements at United Salt's Hockley mine, located in a salt dome near Houston, Texas yielded attenuation lengths in excess of 250 m at similar frequencies. We have also analyzed early ground-penetrating radar data at Hockley mine and have found additional evidence for attenuation lengths in excess of several hundred meters at 440 MHz. We conclude that salt domes, which may individually contain...

  16. Mechanical behavior of New Mexico rock salt in triaxial compression up to 200/sup 0/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawersik, W. R.; Hannum, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    An extensive experimental program is being conducted to determine the mechanical behavior of New Mexico rock salt in support of the structural design of a Radioactive Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this initial report, three groups of tests are discussed to identify the relative and site-specific importance of deviator stress, confining pressure (mean stress), temperature, time (loading rate), and stress path. The three groups of experiments consist of (1) hydrostatic loading, (2) conventional triaxial compression tests (sigma/sub 1/ > sigma/sub 2/ = sigma/sub 3/ = const.), and (3) variable stress path tests including experiments at approximately constant sigma/sub 1/ and at constant mean stress. All data were generated on 100 mm diameter specimens. The rock salt exhibited nonlinear response under all loading conditions, practically zero initial elastic limit and an apparent inseparability of permanent deformations into time-independent and time-dependent components. Pressure and temperature did not alter the elastic constants but affected the principal strain ratio, the ratio volumetric strain/shear strain, rock salt ductility, and the ultimate stress. In particular, low pressure and temperature permitted pronounced dilatancy and loss in load bearing ability. Under such conditions the volumetric strains reach sizable fractions of the shear strains. Pressure remained important even at high temperature because it influenced the rate of shearing. Load path and stress history may be significant under deviatoric loading conditions and for large variations in pressure.

  17. Impact of rock salt creep law choice on subsidence calculations for hydrocarbon reservoirs overlain by evaporite caprocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marketos, G.; Spiers, C.J.; Govers, R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate forward modeling of surface subsidence above producing hydrocarbons reservoirs requires an understanding of the mechanisms determining how ground deformation and subsidence evolve. Here we focus entirely on rock salt, which overlies a large number of reservoirs worldwide, and specifically

  18. Chlorine-rich amphibole in deep layered gabbros as evidence for brine/rock interaction in the lower oceanic crust: a microstructural and experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin, Adriana; Koepke, Juergen; Almeev, Renat; Ildefonse, Benoit; Wolff, Paul Eric

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of amphiboles in the lower oceanic crust indicates the presence of water during rock formation or alteration, either in the parental melt or in reacting hydrothermal fluids. Amphibole-rich high temperature metamorphic veins and magmatic dykes are found in MOR-associated layered olivine gabbros from Wadi Wariyah of the deep palaeocrust of the Sumail ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman. These veins contain different types of amphiboles: pargasite, hornblende, actinolite and Cl-rich pargasite. In some cases, amphibole grains are zoned and contain a range of compositions, from pargasite formed at magmatic conditions to Cl-rich pargasite formed at subsolidus conditions. Pargasite and ferropargasite are found containing up to 5 wt% Cl (1.4 a.p.f.u.). This variety of amphibole compositions occurring in layered gabbros evidences a complex history of brine/rock interaction and hydrothermal cooling at the base of the oceanic crust. However, the precise origin of these amphibole- and Cl-rich veins associated to hydrothermal activity is still poorly understood. We investigated the formation of Cl-rich amphibole by means of a microstructural study using EBSD (electron backscattered diffraction) and, in addition, an experimental simulation of hydrothermal processes affecting amphibole formation in gabbro at subsolidus conditions. The microstructural EBSD study on natural gabbro from Oman confirms that the hydrothermally-formed amphiboles (hornblende, actinolite, Cl-pargasite) are epitactic in relation to high-temperature pargasite areas adjacent to them. This implies a coherent process, where magmatic pargasite formed initially was subsequently transformed by a Cl-rich hydrothermal brine and fluid at decreasing temperatures, ranging from the magmatic regime down to greenschist facies. Experiments were performed with a starting material of millimetre-sized pargasite pieces (with Cl content pressure of 200 MPa, and oxygen fugacity of QFM+1. Our experimental results show

  19. System and process for production of magnesium metal and magnesium hydride from magnesium-containing salts and brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Peter B.; Nune, Satish K.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Koech, Phillip K.; Adint, Tyler T.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Liu, Jian

    2016-11-22

    A system and process are disclosed for production of consolidated magnesium metal products and alloys with selected densities from magnesium-containing salts and feedstocks. The system and process employ a dialkyl magnesium compound that decomposes to produce the Mg metal product. Energy requirements and production costs are lower than for conventional processing.

  20. System and process for production of magnesium metal and magnesium hydride from magnesium-containing salts and brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrail, Peter B.; Nune, Satish K.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Koech, Phillip K.; Adint, Tyler T.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Liu, Jian

    2016-11-22

    A system and process are disclosed for production of consolidated magnesium metal products and alloys with selected densities from magnesium-containing salts and feedstocks. The system and process employ a dialkyl magnesium compound that decomposes to produce the Mg metal product. Energy requirements and production costs are lower than for conventional processing.

  1. Effect of evaporation and freezing on the salt paragenesis and habitability of brines at the Phoenix landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenousy, Amira; Hanley, Jennifer; Chevrier, Vincent F.

    2015-07-01

    The WCL (Wet Chemistry Lab) instrument on board the Phoenix Lander identified the soluble ionic composition of the soil at the landing site. However, few studies have been conducted to understand the parent salts of these soluble ions. Here we studied the possible salt assemblages at the Phoenix landing site using two different thermodynamic models: FREZCHEM and Geochemist's Workbench (GWB). Two precipitation pathways were used: evaporation (T > 0 °C using both FREZCHEM and GWB) and freezing (T evaporation-showed some common minerals that precipitated regardless of the ionic initial concentration. These ubiquitous minerals are magnesium chlorate hexahydrate Mg(ClO3)2ṡ6H2O, potassium perchlorate (KClO4) and gypsum (CaSO4ṡ2H2O). Other minerals evidence specific precipitation pathway. Precipitation of highly hydrated salts such as meridianiite (MgSO4ṡ11H2O) and MgCl2ṡ12H2O indicate freezing pathway, while precipitation of the low hydrated salts (anhydrite, kieserite and epsomite) indicate evaporation. The present hydration states of the precipitated hydrated minerals probably reflect the ongoing thermal processing and recent seasonally varying humidity conditions at the landing site, but these hydration states might not reflect the original depositional conditions. The simulations also showed the absence of Ca-perchlorate in all models, mainly because of the formation of two main salts: KClO4 and gypsum which are major sinks for ClO-4 and Ca2+ respectively. Finally, in consideration to the Martian life, it might survive at the very low temperatures and low water activities of the liquids formed. However, besides the big and widely recognized challenges to life posed by those extreme environmental parameters (especially low water activity), another main challenge for any form of life in such an environment is to maintain contact with the small droplets of the stable liquids in the regolith and to interact with life in other isolated droplets.

  2. Live (Rose-bengal stained) foraminifera from deep-sea anoxic salt brine in the Eastern Mediterranean: toward understanding limit of life for single-celled eukaryotes (foraminifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazato, H.; Ohkawara, N.; Iwasaki, A.; Nomaki, H.; Akoumianaki, I.; Tokuyama, H.

    2012-04-01

    What is a limit of life for the eukaryotes? Eukaryotes are thought to adapt and evolve under oxic environmental conditions. Recently, there are many exceptions for this hypothesis, as many eukaryotes including metazoan groups are found in anoxic environmental conditions. We found many rose-bengal stained foraminifera from a deep-hypersaline anoxic basin (DHAB) in the eastern Mediterranean. During KH06-04 cruise, we conducted oceanographic research at Medée Lake, the largest DHAB, that is located 100km southwest of Crete Island in the eastern Mediterranean. The lake situates at 2920m in water depth. Depth of saline water is 120m in maximum. Both water and sediment samplings were carried out both with Niskin bottles and multiple corer attached to camera watching sampling system at three sites, inside of the lake (CS), the edge of the lake (OMS) and the normal deep-sea floor (RS). Temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen concentrations at central saline lake are 15.27 oC, 328PSU, and 0.0 ml/L, respectively. Strong smell of hydrogen sulfide was detected from the lake sediment. Subsamples were conducted for multiple core samples using 3 subcores(φ 2.9cm) from each core tube (φ 8.2cm). Sediment samples were fixed with 4% formalin Rose Bengal solution on board. In laboratory, samples were washed with 32μm sieve. Rose Bengal stained specimens were picked under binocular stereomicroscope (Zeiss Stemi SV11) for surface 0.5cm layer, and identified with inverted microscope (Nikon ECLIPSE TE300). In total, 26 species belonging to 9 genera were identified from three sites. Six species belonging to two genera were identified in the center of the salt brine. Only a few species are common among three sites, even though the numbers of common species were 10 between OMS and RS sites. In DHAB, spherical organic-walled species, such as allogromiid and psammosphaerid, are dominant. In contrast, tube-like chitinous foraminifera, such as Resigella, Conicotheca and Nodellum, are

  3. Preparation of Basic Magnesium Chloride Whiskers from Xuwen Salt Field Brine%徐闻盐场苦卤制备碱式氯化镁晶须

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴健松; 梁海群

    2015-01-01

    The basic magnesium chloride whiskers with good whisker quality and smooth surface were synthesized by liquid precipitation reaction method using Xuwen salt field brine as raw materials and sodi-um hydroxide as the precipitant.The phase, purity, structure of crystal morphology, crystal growth orien-tationof whiskers samples were characterized by elementary analysis, X-ray diffraction ( XRD) , scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy ( HRTEM) .The SEM analysis revealed that the basic magnesium chloride whiskers showed fine dispersive capability, and the distribution of particle sizes was uniformity.The basic magnesium chloride whiskers with a well-defined shape as well as well straight whisker could be obtained under the following conditions:reaction tempera-ture of 35 ℃, and reaction time of 50 h.The preparation method is simple, and the production cost is low in this work.It is thus expected to use Xuwen salt field brine to a large-scale experiment.%以广东徐闻盐场苦卤为原料,氢氧化钠为沉淀剂,采用液相沉淀法制备了晶形好、分散性好的碱式氯化镁晶须。通过元素分析、 XRD、 SEM及HRTEM测试等手段分别表征了产品的纯度、属性、形貌特征及晶体生长取向。实验发现当反应温度T=35℃,反应时间t=50 h时可获得直晶率好、分散性好的碱式氯化镁晶须。扫描电镜示碱式氯化镁晶须粒度分布均匀、分散性好。本实验不仅生产工艺简单,且生产成本低,可望利用徐闻盐场苦卤进一步中试。

  4. Heart transaminase in the rock crab, Cancer irroratus, exposed to cadmium salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, E.; Collier, R.S.; Karolus, J.J.; Givens, S.

    1976-01-01

    When rock crabs, Cancer irroratus, were exposed for 4 days to 1 ppM cadmium as the chloride salt, aspartate aminotransferase activity in heart muscle preparations increased significantly over heart AAT in the control crabs. When crabs were exposed to 1 ppM cadmium as the nitrate salt in analogous experiments, however, the heart AAT was slightly depressed, but not to a significant degree. That the nitrate salt of cadmium did not produce the same effect as the chloride salt underscores the importance of the form in which a metal occurs in the environment. Metal ions bind to various ligands, metabolic and otherwise, to an extent largely dependent upon the nature of their immediate chemical association. The results reported here clearly indicate that cadmium is more toxic as the chloride salt than as the nitrate. Data indicate that some enzymes in metal exposed animals may develop a degree of tolerance to higher-than-normal concentrations of cations, a tolerance that may lessen the necessary sensitivity to biochemical modulators, such as magnesium.

  5. Origin of salt giants in abyssal serpentinite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Vittorio; Carbone, Serafina; Manuella, Fabio C.; Hovland, Martin; Rueslåtten, Håkon; Johnsen, Hans-K.

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide marine salt deposits ranging over the entire geological record are generally considered climate-related evaporites, derived from the precipitation of salts (mainly chlorides and sulfates) from saturated solutions driven by solar evaporation of seawater. This explanation may be realistic for a salt thickness ≤100 m, being therefore inadequate for thicker (>1 km) deposits. Moreover, sub-seafloor salt deposits in deep marine basins are difficult to reconcile with a surface evaporation model. Marine geology reports on abyssal serpentinite systems provide an alternative explanation for some salt deposits. Seawater-driven serpentinization consumes water and increases the salinity of the associated aqueous brines. Brines can be trapped in fractures and cavities in serpentinites and the surrounding `country' rocks. Successive thermal dehydration of buried serpentinites can mobilize and accumulate the brines, forming highly saline hydrothermal solutions. These can migrate upwards and erupt onto the seafloor as saline geysers, which may form salt-saturated water pools, as are currently observed in numerous deeps in the Red Sea and elsewhere. The drainage of deep-seated saline brines to seafloor may be a long-lasting, effective process, mainly occurring in areas characterized by strong tectonic stresses and/or igneous intrusions. Alternatively, brines could be slowly expelled from fractured serpentinites by buoyancy gradients and, hence, separated salts/brines could intrude vertically into surrounding rocks, forming salt diapirs. Serpentinization is an ubiquitous, exothermic, long-lasting process which can modify large volumes of oceanic lithosphere over geological times. Therefore, buried salt deposits in many areas of the world can be reasonably related to serpentinites.

  6. Deformation and transport processes in salt rocks : An experimental study exploring effects of pressure and stress relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhammad, Nawaz

    2015-01-01

    The presence of evaporitic formations in sedimentary basins, often dominated by the salt mineral halite, is of great influence on the structural style developed during tectonic events. On a somewhat smaller scale, salt rocks often host a variety of deep solution mined caverns, which are increasingly

  7. Accelerator Measurments of the Askaryan Effect in Rock Salt: A Roadmap Toward Teraton Underground Neutrino Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorham, P.

    2004-12-15

    We report on further SLAC measurements of the Askaryan effect: coherent radio emission from charge asymmetry in electromagnetic cascades. We used synthetic rock salt as the dielectric medium, with cascades produced by GeV bremsstrahlung photons at the Final Focus Test Beam. We extend our prior discovery measurements to a wider range of parameter space and explore the effect in a dielectric medium of great potential interest to large scale ultra-high energy neutrino detectors: rock salt (halite), which occurs naturally in high purity formations containing in many cases hundreds of cubic km of water-equivalent mass. We observed strong coherent pulsed radio emission over a frequency band from 0.2-15 GHz. A grid of embedded dual-polarization antennas was used to confirm the high degree of linear polarization and track the change of direction of the electric-field vector with azimuth around the shower. Coherence was observed over 4 orders of magnitude of shower energy. The frequency dependence of the radiation was tested over two orders of magnitude of UHF and microwave frequencies. We have also made the first observations of coherent transition radiation from the Askaryan charge excess, and the result agrees well with theoretical predictions. Based on these results we have performed detailed and conservative simulation of a realistic GZK neutrino telescope array within a salt-dome, and we find it capable of detecting 10 or more contained events per year from even the most conservative GZK neutrino models.

  8. Steady-State Creep of Rock Salt: Improved Approaches for Lab Determination and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, R.-M.; Salzer, K.; Popp, T.; Lüdeling, C.

    2015-11-01

    Actual problems in geotechnical design, e.g., of underground openings for radioactive waste repositories or high-pressure gas storages, require sophisticated constitutive models and consistent parameters for rock salt that facilitate reliable prognosis of stress-dependent deformation and associated damage. Predictions have to comprise the active mining phase with open excavations as well as the long-term development of the backfilled mine or repository. While convergence-induced damage occurs mostly in the vicinity of openings, the long-term behaviour of the backfilled system is dominated by the damage-free steady-state creep. However, because in experiments the time necessary to reach truly stationary creep rates can range from few days to years, depending mainly on temperature and stress, an innovative but simple creep testing approach is suggested to obtain more reliable results: A series of multi-step tests with loading and unloading cycles allows a more reliable estimate of stationary creep rate in a reasonable time. For modelling, we use the advanced strain-hardening approach of Günther-Salzer, which comprehensively describes all relevant deformation properties of rock salt such as creep and damage-induced rock failure within the scope of an unified creep ansatz. The capability of the combination of improved creep testing procedures and accompanied modelling is demonstrated by recalculating multi-step creep tests at different loading and temperature conditions. Thus reliable extrapolations relevant to in-situ creep rates (10^{-9} to 10^{-13} s^{-1}) become possible.

  9. Long-term cement corrosion in chloride-rich solutions relevant to radioactive waste disposal in rock salt - Leaching experiments and thermodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bube, C.; Metz, V.; Bohnert, E.; Garbev, K.; Schild, D.; Kienzler, B.

    Low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are frequently solidified in a cement matrix. In a potential repository for nuclear wastes, the cementitious matrix is altered upon contact with solution and the resulting secondary phases may provide for significant retention of the radionuclides incorporated in the wastes. In order to assess the secondary phases formed upon corrosion in chloride-rich solutions, which are relevant for nuclear waste disposal in rock salt, leaching experiments were performed. Conventional laboratory batch experiments using powdered hardened cement paste in MgCl2-rich solutions were left to equilibrate for up to three years and full-scale cemented waste products were exposed to NaCl-rich and MgCl2-rich solutions for more than twenty years, respectively. Solid phase analyses revealed that corrosion of hardened cement in MgCl2-rich solutions advanced faster than in NaCl-rich solutions due to the extensive exchange of Mg from solution against Ca from the cementitious solid. Thermodynamic equilibrium simulations compared well to results at the final stages of the respective experiments indicating that close to equilibrium conditions were reached. At high cement product to brine ratios (>0.65 g mL-1), the solution composition in the laboratory-scale experiments was close to that of the full-scale experiments (cement to brine ratio of 2.5 g mL-1) in the MgCl2 systems. The present study demonstrates the applicability of thermodynamic methods used in this approach to adequately describe full-scale long-term experiments with cemented waste simulates.

  10. Bonding preference of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in niobium-based rock-salt structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Akira; Takei, Takahiro; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Wada, Satoshi; Magome, Eisuke; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

    2013-09-03

    Carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen are essential components in solid-state materials. However, understanding their preference on the bonding to metals has not been straightforward. Here, niobium carbide, nitride, and oxide with simple rock-salt-based structures were analyzed by first-principles calculations and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. We found that an increase in the atomic number from carbon to oxygen formed fewer and shorter bonds to metals with better hybridization of atomic orbitals. This can provide a simple guiding principle for understanding the bonding and designing carbides, nitrides, oxides, and mixed-anion compounds.

  11. Vacancy Structures and Melting Behavior in Rock-Salt GeSbTe

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zhang; Xue-Peng Wang; Zhen-Ju Shen; Xian-Bin Li; Chuan-Shou Wang; Yong-Jin Chen; Ji-Xue Li; Jin-Xing Zhang; Ze Zhang; Sheng-Bai Zhang; Xiao-Dong Han

    2016-01-01

    Ge-Sb-Te alloys have been widely used in optical/electrical memory storage. Because of the extremely fast crystalline-amorphous transition, they are also expected to play a vital role in next generation nonvolatile microelectronic memory devices. However, the distribution and structural properties of vacancies have been one of the key issues in determining the speed of melting (or amorphization), phase-stability, and heat-dissipation of rock-salt GeSbTe, which is crucial for its technological...

  12. Forensic Analysis of the May 2014 West Salt Creek Rock Avalanche in Western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, J. A.; Baum, R. L.; Allstadt, K.; Kochevar, B. F.; Schmitt, R. G.; Morgan, M. L.; White, J. L.; Stratton, B. T.; Hayashi, T. A.; Kean, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The rain-on-snow induced West Salt Creek rock avalanche occurred on May 25, 2014 on the northern flank of Grand Mesa. The avalanche was rare for the contiguous U.S. because of its large size (59 M m3) and high mobility (Length/Height=7.2). To understand the avalanche failure sequence, mechanisms, and mobility, we conducted a forensic analysis using large-scale (1:1000) structural mapping and seismic data. We used high-resolution, Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) imagery as a base for our field mapping and analyzed seismic data from 22 broadband stations (distances avalanche exerted on the earth and tracked these forces using curves in the avalanche path. Our results revealed that the rock avalanche was a cascade of landslide events, rather than a single massive failure. The sequence began with a landslide/debris flow that started about 10 hours before the main avalanche. The main avalanche lasted just over 3 minutes and traveled at average velocities ranging from 15 to 36 m/s. For at least two hours after the avalanche ceased movement, a central, hummock-rich, strike-slip bound core continued to move slowly. Following movement of the core, numerous shallow landslides, rock slides, and rock falls created new structures and modified topography. Mobility of the main avalanche and central core were likely enhanced by valley floor material that liquefied from undrained loading by the overriding avalanche. Although the base was likely at least partially liquefied, our mapping indicates that the overriding avalanche internally deformed predominantly by sliding along discrete shear surfaces in material that was nearly dry and had substantial frictional strength. These results indicate that the West Salt Creek avalanche, and probably other long-traveled avalanches, could be modeled as two layers: a liquefied basal layer; and a thicker and stronger overriding layer.

  13. Assessing Radium Activity in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    The high volumes and salinity associated with shale gas produced water can make finding suitable storage or disposal options a challenge, especially when deep well brine disposal or recycling for additional well completions is not an option. In such cases, recovery of commodity salts from the high total dissolved solids (TDS) of the brine wastewater may be desirable, yet the elevated concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides such as Ra-226 and Ra-228 in produced waters (sometimes substantially greater than the EPA limit of 5 pCi/L) may concentrate during these steps and limit salt recovery options. Therefore, assessing the potential presence of these Ra radionuclides in produced water from shale gas reservoir properties is desirable. In this study, we seek to link U and Th content within a given shale reservoir to the expected Ra content of produced brine by accounting for secular equilibrium within the rock and subsequent release to Ra to native brines. Produced brine from a series of Antrim shale wells and flowback from a single Utica-Collingwood shale well in Michigan were sampled and analyzed via ICP-MS to measure Ra content. Gamma spectroscopy was used to verify the robustness of this new Ra analytical method. Ra concentrations were observed to be up to an order of magnitude higher in the Antrim flowback water samples compared to those collected from the Utica-Collingwood well. The higher Ra content in Antrim produced brines correlates well with higher U content in the Antrim (19 ppm) relative to the Utica-Collingwood (3.5 ppm). We also observed an increase in Ra activity with increasing TDS in the Antrim samples. This Ra-TDS relationship demonstrates the influence of competing divalent cations in controlling Ra mobility in these clay-rich reservoirs. In addition, we will present a survey of geochemical data from other shale gas plays in the U.S. correlating shale U, Th content with produced brine Ra content. A goal of this study is to develop a

  14. 当雄错盐湖卤水提钾盐田日晒工艺扩大试验研究%Scale-up Study on Potassium Extraction from Dangxiongcuo Salt Lake Brine by Evaporating Ponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍倩; 郑绵平; 乜贞; 卜令忠

    2013-01-01

    The exploitation of potassium salt from the special modern salt lake full with potassium, lithium and boron in Tibet will be a beneficial supplement for the demand of China. This paper first adopted the method of evaporation, crystallization and step-by-step separation to cany out the scale-up study on the potassium extraction from the carbonate-type brine of Dangxiongcuo salt lake by the multi-stage evaporating ponds. Through the chemical analysis and the material-balance calculation for the whole evaporation process of brine, the salt-forming type and the salt-deposition stage of important inorganic elements like the potassium, boron and others, as well as the enrichment regularity of lithium, rubidium and other rare elements can be determined. And the mixed salt with the higher grade of potassium and the higher concentrated mother brine have been obtained ultimately. In addition, the experimental data obtained in this research will provide the basis for the industrial extraction of potassium from Dangxiongcuo salt lake brine in the near future.%西藏现代钾锂硼特种盐湖的钾盐开发将对我国钾盐需求形成有利补充.本文首次采用蒸发结晶、分步分离的方法,进行了当雄错盐湖碳酸盐型卤水提钾多级盐田日晒工艺扩大试验研究.通过对卤水蒸发析盐全过程做化学分析和物料衡算,确定了钾、硼等重要无机元素的成盐类型和析盐阶段,以及锂、铷等稀有元素的富集规律,最终获得了较高品位钾混盐和高浓母卤,并取得了大量第一手数据资料,为今后实现当雄错盐湖卤水钾盐资源的产业化开发提供了切实可靠的中试基础和设计参考.

  15. Origin and evolution of oilfield brines from Tertiary strata in western Qaidam Basin: Constraints from 87Sr/86Sr, δD, δ18O, δ34S and water chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Qishun; MA Haizhou; LAI Zhongping; TAN Hongbing; LI Tingwei

    2010-01-01

    Chemistry of major and minor elements, 87Sr/86Sr, δD, δ18O and δ34S of brines were measured from Tertiary strata and Quaternary salt lakes in the western Qaidam Basin. The water chemistry data show that all oilfield brines are CaCl2 type. They were enriched in Ca2+, B3+, Li+, Sr2+, Br-, and were depleted in Mg2+, SO42-, which indicated that these brines had the characteristics of deeply circulated water. The relationship between δD and δ18O shows that all data of these brines decline towards the Global Meteoric Water Line (GWL) and Qaidam Meteoric Water Line (QWL), and that the intersection between oilfield brines and Meteoric Water Lines was close to the local spring and fresh water in the piedmont in the western Qaidam Basin. The results suggest that oilfield brines has initially originated from meteoric water, and then might be affected by water-rock metamorphose, because most oilfield brines distribute in the range of metamorphosing water. The 87Sr/86Sr values of most oilfield brines range from 0.71121 to 0.71194, and was less than that in salt lake water (>0.712), but close to that of halite in the study area. These imply that salt dissolution occurred in the process of migration. In addition, all oilfield brines have obviously much positive δ34S values (ranging from 26.46‰ to 54.57‰) than that of salt lake brines, which was caused by bacterial sulfate reduction resulting in positive shift of δ34S value and depleteed SO42- in oilfield brines. Combined with water chemical data and δD, δ18O, 87Sr/86Sr, δ34S values, we concluded that oilfield brines mainly originate from the deeply circulated meteoric waters, and then are affected by salt dissolution, water-rock metamorphose, sulfate reduction and dolomitization during the process of migration. These processes alter the chemical compositions of oilfield brines and accumulate rich elements (such as B, Li, Sr, Br, K and so on) for sustainable utilization of salt lake resources in the Qaidam Basin.

  16. Accelerator Measurements of the Askaryan effect in Rock Salt: A Roadmap Toward Teraton Underground Neutrino Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gorham, P W; Field, R C; Guillian, E; Milincic, R; Walz, D; Williams, D

    2004-01-01

    We report on further SLAC measurements of the Askaryan effect: coherent radio emission from charge asymmetry in electromagnetic cascades. We used synthetic rock salt as the dielectric medium, with cascades produced by GeV bremsstrahlung photons at the Final Focus Test Beam. We extend our prior discovery measurements to a wider range of parameter space and explore the effect in a dielectric medium of great potential interest to large scale ultra-high energy neutrino detectors: rock salt (halite), which occurs naturally in high purity formations containing in many cases hundreds of cubic km of water-equivalent mass. We observed strong coherent pulsed radio emission over a frequency band from 0.2-15 GHz. A grid of embedded dual-polarization antennas was used to confirm the high degree of linear polarization and track the change of direction of the electric-field vector with azimuth around the shower. Coherence was observed over 4 orders of magnitude of shower energy. The frequency dependence of the radiation was...

  17. Measurements of Coherent Cherenkov Radiation in Rock Salt: Implications for GZK Neutrino Underground Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Milincic, R; Saltzberg, D; Field, R C; Guillian, G; Walz, D; Williams, D

    2005-01-01

    We report on further SLAC measurements of the Askaryan effect: coherent radio emission from charge asymmetry in electromagnetic cascades. We used synthetic rock salt as the dielectric medium, with cascades produced by GeV bremsstrahlung photons at the Final Focus Test Beam. We extend our prior discovery measurements to a wider range of parameter space and explore the effect in a dielectric medium of great potential interest to large scale ultra-high energy neutrino detectors: rock salt. We observed strong coherent pulsed radio emission over a frequency band from 0.2-15 GHz. A grid of embedded dual-polarization antennas was used to confirm the linear polarization and track the change of direction of the electric-field vector around the shower. Coherence was observed over 4 orders of magnitude of shower energy. The frequency dependence of the radiation was tested over two orders of magnitude of UHF and microwave frequencies. Based on these results we have performed a simulation of a realistic GZK neutrino teles...

  18. Microstructures in naturally deformed Upper Rotliegend salt rocks from Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Mareike; Hammer, Jörg; Mertineit, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Permian and Meso-/Cenozoic salt formations are represented in wide parts of the German geologic underground (Reinhold & Hammer 2016). They are of interest for cavern storage of oil and gas as well as of renewable energies (in form of compressed air or hydrogen). For industrial exploration purposes, more detailed data about the composition, barrier properties, as well as the genesis and deformation of the rocks is needed. In central Northern Germany, salt rocks from the Upper Rotliegend are implemented in diapir structures together with salt formations from the Zechstein. Rotliegend salt rocks are characterized by halite that contains patches of detrital material which account for 5 to 60 vol.% of the rock. They show a characteristic red to purple color. Drill cores containing Rotliegend halite rocks from different locations were investigated in this study by using petrographical and microstructural methods. The halite shows different fabric types: (i) euhedral to hypidiomorphic grains with grain sizes up to several millimeters, (ii) polygonal grains with smaller grain sizes between 0.1 and 3 mm, and (iii) fibrous halite. Halite grain boundaries are decorated with fluid inclusions, especially around the contact to detrital material. Subgrains in halite are abundant in all investigated samples and show average sizes between 140 µm and 217 µm. These correspond to average differential stresses of 1 MPa to 1.45 MPa (Carter et al. 1993, Schléder & Urai 2005). The detrital material consists of clasts of quartz, feldspar, mica, carbonates and metal oxides with grain sizes of clay to silt fraction. In some samples, the detrital components show internal deformation by folding and fracturing. Depending on the location, different quantities of authigenic evaporite minerals, like carbonate and anhydrite, formed. Fractures are filled with halite, anhydrite and celestine. The different types of halite fabric are an indication of locally different deformational behavior of the

  19. In-situ fracture mapping using geotomography and brine tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deadrick, F.J.; Ramirez, A.L.; Lytle, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently assessing the capabilities of high resolution geophysical methods to characterize geologic sites for the disposal of high level nuclear waste. A successful experiment has recently been performed in which salt water tracers and high frequency electromagnetic waves were utilized to map rock mass fracture zones in-situ. Multiple cross-borehole EM transmissions were used to generate a tomographic image of the fractured rock region between two boreholes. The tomographs obtained correlate well with conventional wireline geophysical logs which can be used to infer the location of fractured zones in the rock mass. This indirect data suggests that the geotomography and brine tracer technique may have merit in mapping fractured zones between boreholes.

  20. Electronic and Optical Properties of Rock-Salt A1N under High Pressure via First-Principles Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; CHEN Xiang-Rong; CAI Ling-Cang; GOU Qing-Quan

    2008-01-01

    Electronic and optical properties of rock-salt A1N under high pressure are investigated by first -principles method based on the plane-wave basis set. Analysis of band structures suggests that the rock-salt AIN has an indirect gap of 4.53 eV, which is in good agreement with other results. By investigating the effects of pressure on the energy gap, the different movement of conduction band at X point below and above 22.5 GPa is predicted. The optical properties including dielectric function, absorption, reflectivity, and refractive index are also calculated and analyzed. It is found that the rock-salt AIN is transparent from the partially ultra-violet to the visible light area and hardly does the transparence affected by the pressure. Furthermore, the curve of optical spectrum will shift to high energy area (blue shift) with increasing pressure.

  1. Rock salt mass in the Paleoproterozoic sequence of the Onega trough in Karelia (from the Onega parametric well data)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A. F.; Khakhaev, B. N.; Petrov, O. V.; Gorbachev, V. I.; Tarkhanov, G. V.; Tsvetkov, L. D.; Erinchek, Yu. M.; Akhmedov, A. M.; Krupenik, V. A.; Sveshnikova, K. Yu.

    2010-11-01

    A thick (200 m) rock salt mass covering Late Archean granitoids was exposed for the first time in the Early Proterozoic volcanogenic-sedimentary formations in the Onega trough of the east Baltic Shield by the Onega parametric well. The mineral composition of salts, their geochemical features, and the isotopic composition of carbonate carbon and oxygen have been studied. After fluid inclusions present in salts, their metamorphism temperature and isotopic composition of helium and argon were determined. The obtained results give evidence of the fact that rock salts and magnesites associated with them were formed in an evaporate basin with participation of deep crustal processes. The age of the underlying granitoids (2.716 ± 9 Ma) is determined using the Pb—Pb method.

  2. Potash brines in the Great Salt Lake Desert, Utah: Chapter B in Contributions to economic geology (short papers and preliminary reports), 1927: Part I - Metals and nonmetals except fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, T.B.

    1927-01-01

    During and immediately after the war the brines of the Salduro Marsh, in the Great Salt Lake Desert, were a source of considerable potash for the domestic supply. Although no potash has been produced from these brines in the last few years, a continued interest in the area has been shown by a large number of filings, in different parts of the desert, under the potash law of October 2, 1917 (40 Stat. 297), and the regulations issued under that law by the Department of the Interior on March 21, 1918, in Circular 594 (46 L. D. 323).As the basis for appropriate action on these permit, lease, and patent filings the Department of the Interior required information concerning the mode of occurrence, distribution, and general characteristics of the potassium-bearing brines in this region. Field investigation was accordingly undertaken for the primary purpose of satisfying these requirements.The work was done by the Geological Survey and the General Land Office in cooperation with the Bureau of Mines. The Bureau of Mines furnished an autotruck and a mechanic, who also assisted in the field work, and, for a period of a month, a mine rescue car, which permitted the establishment of headquarters in parts of the desert far from sources of supplies and water. The General Land Office surveyed the boundaries of townships over the desert and located the drill holes from which samples of brine were taken.The writer directed the work for the Geological Survey, and the analyses of the samples of brine were made in the Survey's chemical laboratory. The greater part of the field work was done between April 17 and July 7, 1925, and the work was finished during the two periods August 17-26 and September 30 to October 2. Adverse weather throughout the season hindered the work.

  3. Authigenic K-feldspar in salt rock (Haselgebirge Formation, Eastern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    The crystallisation of authigenic quartz under low temperature, saline conditions is well known (Grimm, 1962). Also the growth of low temperature authigenic feldspar in sediments is a long known phenomenon (Kastner & Siever, 1979; Sandler et al., 2004). In this study we intend to show that halite (NaCl) is a major catalyser for authigenic mineral growth. During late Permian (c. 255-250 Ma), when the later Eastern Alps were located around north of the equator, the evaporites of the Haselgebirge Formation were deposited (Piller et al., 2004). The Haselgebirge Fm. consists in salt mines of a two-component tectonite of c. 50 % halite and 50 % sedimentary clastic and other evaporite rocks (Spötl 1998). Most of the clastic rocks are mud- to siltstones ("mudrock"). During this study, we investigated rare sandstones embedded in salt rock form four Alpine salt mines. Around 40 polished thin sections were prepared by dry grinding for thin section analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The sandstones consist mainly of quartz, K-feldspar, rock fragments, micas, accessory minerals and halite in the pore space. They are fine grained and well sorted. Mudrock clasts in sandstone were observed locally, and also coal was observed repeatedly. Asymmetric ripples were found only in the dimension of millimeters to centimeters. Euhedral halite crystals in pores indicate an early presence of halite. During early diagenesis, authigenic minerals crystallized in the following chronological order. (1) Where carbonate (mainly magnesite) occurred, it first filled the pore space. Plant remains were impregnated with carbonate. (2) Halite precipitated between the detritic sandstone grains. Carbonate grains can be completely embedded in halite. (3) K-feldspar and quartz grains usually expose a detritic core and a later grown euhedral inclusion free rim. Euhedral rims of K-feldspar often also enclose a halite core. K-feldspar replaced the pre-existing halite along former grain boundaries of

  4. Thermal properties of rock salt and quartz monzonite to 573{sup 0}K and 50-MPa confining pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, W.B.; Abey, A.E.

    1981-03-18

    Measurements of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal linear expansion have been made on two rock types, a rock salt and a quartz monzonite, at temperatures from 300 to 573{sup 0}K and confining pressures from 10 to 50 MPa. The samples were taken from deep rock formations under consideration as possible sites for a nuclear waste repository - the rock salt from a domal salt formation at Avery Island, Louisiana, and the quartz monzonite from the Climax Stock, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The testing temperature and pressures are meant to bracket conditions expected in the repository. In both rock types, the thermal properties show a strong dependence upon temperature and a weak or non-dependence upon confining pressure. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity both decrease with increasing temperature in approximately linear fashion for samples which have not been previously heated. At 50 MPa in both rocks this decrease closely matches the measured or expected intrinsic (crack-free) behavior of the material. Preliminary indications from the quartz monzonite suggest that conductivity and diffusivity at low pressure and temperature may decrease as a result of heat treatment above 400{sup 0}K.

  5. Application of low solid mud in salt saturated brine in the construction of Directional Butted Wells%低固相饱和盐水泥浆在盐矿定向对接井施工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘东懿

    2016-01-01

    In salt layer in the construction of directional butted wells, drilling mud not only has good anti salt, anti calcium, high temperature resistance, must also be with good rheology, lubricity and stability. Low solid saturated brine mud is mainly used in gypsum salt interbed, by adjusting the PGs slurry lfuid loss control, strictly controlling the clay content, maintaining its good rheology and viscosity, controlling pH value of saturated brine mud in the range of 9 to 11, and do a good job in a timely adjustment of mud additives.%在盐矿层内施工定向对接井,要求钻井泥浆不仅具有良好的抗盐、抗钙、抗高温能力,也必须具有良好的流变性、润滑性和稳定性。本文介绍了低固相饱和盐水泥浆在盐矿定向对接井施工中的应用情况。

  6. Experimental deformation of coarse-grained rock salt to high strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linckens, J.; Zulauf, G.; Hammer, J.

    2016-08-01

    The processes and deformation mechanisms (e.g., dislocation creep, pressure solution, grain boundary sliding, and recrystallization) of rock salt are still a matter of debate. In order to fill this gap, high strain constriction experiments at 345°C, atmospheric pressure and a strain rate of 10-7 s-1 have been conducted on natural halite cuboids (60 × 60 × 45 mm) from the Morsleben mine of Northern Germany. Most samples were almost single crystals and contain a small amount of smaller grains (10-26%). The grain boundaries are decorated with fluid inclusions. The experiments were stopped at different final strains (ɛy = z of 10, 20, 30, and 40%) corresponding to a maximum strain (ɛx) range of 20-170%. The halite is deformed by dislocation creep, and the size of developed subgrains corresponds to the applied stress. The combined Schmid factor and subgrain boundary analysis indicate that slip was largely accommodated by the {110} slip systems, with possible minor contribution by slip on the {100} slip systems. Some of the deformed samples show evidence of grain boundary migration. In addition, subgrains with small misorientations form that result in large cumulative misorientations within a single grain (>40°). However, no subgrain rotation recrystallization is observed (i.e., misorientation angles are <10°). All the experiments show strain hardening, suggesting that recrystallization by grain boundary migration was not extensive and did not reset the microstructure. The experiments show that high finite strain in coarse-grained relatively dry rock salt can be accommodated by dislocation creep, without extensive dynamic recrystallization.

  7. Analysis on metallogenic characteristic and resource potential of salt lake brine lithium deposits in the global%全球盐湖卤水型锂矿床成矿特征与资源潜力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋舒; 邱景智; 邵鹤楠; 许虹

    2015-01-01

    全球锂矿资源78%赋存于盐湖卤水中,本文总结了全球盐湖卤水型锂矿床的分布特征和成矿规律,认为有断层活动的封闭盆地、干旱的气候和新生代地质活动是形成盐湖卤水型锂矿床的必要条件。在此基础上,在全球(除中国外)范围内,提出了内华达州锂矿潜力区和安第斯高原锂矿潜力区2个盐湖卤水型锂矿床的成矿潜力区,并建议中国企业应重点瞄准安第斯高原锂矿潜力区开展境外锂矿的勘探开发投资。%The 78% of lithium resources in the world store in the salt lake brine ,and the paper analyzed the distribution characteristics and metallogenic regularities of salt lake brine lithium deposits .The paper considered that the closed basin with fault activities ,the dry climate and the tectonic activities in Cenozoic were the essential formation conditions of salt lake brine lithium deposits .On this basis ,Nevadaa and Andes mineralizing potential area on the global scale(except China) were presented ,meanwhile that the suggestions for the overseas prospecting of Chinese companies were presented for aiming at Andes prospective area .

  8. Stabilization of rock salt ZnO nanocrystals by low-energy surfaces and Mg additions : A first-principles study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Rik S.; Fang, Changming M.; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Van Blaaderen, Alfons; Van Huis, Marijn A.

    2015-01-01

    Whereas bulk zinc oxide (ZnO) exhibits the wurtzite crystal structure, nanoscale ZnO was recently synthesized in the rock salt structure by addition of Mg. Using first-principles methods, we investigated two stabilization routes for accessing rock salt ZnO. The first route is stabilization by Mg add

  9. Gas Permeation Models for Dilatant Deformation of Rock Salt under Deviatoric Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenter Pusch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Permeability of 30 rock salt cores were measured under various deviatoric stress conditions. A triaxial cell was designed and built to measure the hydraulic properties such as the pore volume and permeability during the compression experiments. To determine variations in the pore volume, a high precision pump was used and the pore volume changes as well as the gas permeabilities were recorded continuously as a function of time and stresses. A permeability reduction in the compression stage is not obvious although the decrease of pore volume appears to be a controlling phenomenon of the compression. Similarly to previous studies, a spontaneous increase in the permeability was observed shortly after the dilatancy boundary was exceeded, separating the compression from the dilatant deformation phase. At the end of the dilatant deformation, the permeability reaches a plateau value which afterward remains approximately a constant for low stress rates up to the fracture pressure. This allows the percolation of gas along the extended grain boundaries of the salt crystals and through the inter-crystalline flow paths and yields an increase of the permeability of 3 to 6 tens of order. Combined acoustic emission measurements performed with 8 sensors showed that the percolation begins equally throughout the core at the same time. The dilatancy and permeability are found to be controlled by many factors,most importantly by the minimal principal stresses. The end porosities of the stressed cores were correlated with the permeability in the form of a Kozeny-Carman type relationship. Semi-empirical and percolation flow models were applied to match the observed flow characteristics of cores with corresponding properties of the excavation damaged zone in the Asse salt mine.

  10. Building the 3D Geological Model of Wall Rock of Salt Caverns Based on Integration Method of Multi-source data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongzhi, WANG; hui, WANG; Lixia, LIAO; Dongsen, LI

    2017-02-01

    In order to analyse the geological characteristics of salt rock and stability of salt caverns, rough three-dimensional (3D) models of salt rock stratum and the 3D models of salt caverns on study areas are built by 3D GIS spatial modeling technique. During implementing, multi-source data, such as basic geographic data, DEM, geological plane map, geological section map, engineering geological data, and sonar data are used. In this study, the 3D spatial analyzing and calculation methods, such as 3D GIS intersection detection method in three-dimensional space, Boolean operations between three-dimensional space entities, three-dimensional space grid discretization, are used to build 3D models on wall rock of salt caverns. Our methods can provide effective calculation models for numerical simulation and analysis of the creep characteristics of wall rock in salt caverns.

  11. Primary Analysis on Rock Salt Sedimentary Facies Area of Dawenkou Basin in Tai'an City%泰安市大汶口盆地岩盐沉积相区探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树淇; 郝瑞娥; 王浩

    2015-01-01

    Dongxiang depression Is a structural depression located in the west of Dawenkou basin.Favoura-ble structural conditions,ancient climate,geographical conditions,and the surrounding rich source formed rock salt deposit in the basin.Regional tectonic evolution caused sedimentary range and the concentration differences of brine.Thus,rock salt sedimentary facies have a certain evolution.The main tendency is a-long the direction of SWW from the northwest to the midwest of Dongxiang depression.The sedimentary thickness changes as well.%东向洼地是位于大汶口凹陷西部的构造洼地,有利的构造条件、古气候古地理条件、周边丰富的物源,形成了盆地内的岩盐矿床。区域构造演化,造成洼地内构造沉积幅度、卤水浓度差异,从而岩盐沉积相也有了一定的演化,主要趋势为沉积中心自沉积中心自东向洼地西北部沿走向 SWW 向向洼地中西部转移,沉积厚度也随之变化。

  12. Clinopyroxene application in petrogenesis identification of volcanic rocks associated with salt domes from Shurab (Southeast Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Falahaty

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is located in the Shurab area that is about 50 Km Southeast of Qom. Volcanic rocks of the Shurab area have basaltic composition that is associated with salt and marl units. Igneous rocks of the Shurab area have not been comprehensively studied thus far. Clinopyroxene composition of volcanic rocks, and especially the phenocrysts show Magma chemistry and can help to identify magma series (Lebas, 1962; Verhooge, 1962; Kushiro, 1960, Leterrier et al., 1982, tectonic setting (Leterrier et al., 1982; Nisbet and Pearce, 1977 as well as temperature formation and pressure of rock formation. Some geologists have estimated temperature of clinopyroxene formation by clinopyroxene composition (Adams and Bishop, 1986 and clinopyroxene-olivine couple. So, clinopyroxene is used in this study in order to identify magma series, tectonic setting, plus the temperature and pressure of volcanic rocks of the Shurab. Material and method Clinopyroxene analyses were conducted by wavelength-dispersive EPMA (JEOL JXA-8800R at the Cooperative Centre of Kanazawa University (Japan. The analyses were performed under an accelerating voltage of 15 kV and a beam current of 20 nA. The ZAF program was used for data corrections. Natural and synthetic minerals of known composition were used as standards. The Fe3+ content in minerals was estimated by Droop method (Droop, 1987. Discussion In the Shurab area, the volcanic rocks area with basaltic composition are located 50 km Southeast of Qom. Their age is the early Oligocene and they are associated with the salty marl units of the Lower Red Formation (LRF. The hand specimens of the studied rocks look green. These rocks are intergranular, microlitic, porphyric, vitrophyric and amygdaloidal and they consist of olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase. Accessory minerals contain sphene, apatite and opaque. According to Wo-En-Fs diagram (Morimoto, 1988, clinopyroxenes indicate diopside composition. Clinopyroxenes are

  13. Experimental biological effects assessment associated with on-shore brine discharge from the creation of gas storage caverns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintino, Victor; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Freitas, Rosa; Ré, Ana

    2008-09-01

    Most of the studies on biological and ecological effects associated with brine discharge into the marine environment are related to the operation of desalination plants, for the production of freshwater. In this study we analysed the biological effects of a brine effluent from a completely different source, produced from the lixiviation of rock salt caves, for the creation of natural gas storage caverns. Lethal and sub-lethal endpoints following exposure to the brine were studied in a range of macrofauna species characteristic of the soft and hard bottom habitats in the vicinity of the discharge area, namely the isopod Eurydice pulchra, the annelids Sabellaria alveolata and Ophelia radiata, the sea-urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. In a first series of experiments, brine, with salinity above 300, was diluted in distilled water to a salinity value close to that of the seawater in the discharge area (salinity 36) and, surprisingly, none of the exposed species was able to survive or develop into viable larvae. A second series of experiments exposed the species to brine diluted with seawater, simulating more realistic discharge circumstances. All the tested species at all the measured endpoints (adult survival, larval abnormal development, sperm fertilization success) showed negative biological effects in brine solutes always at a lower salinity than that of a salinity control obtained with concentrated seawater. The sub-lethal experiments with larval development of P. lividus, S. alveolata and M. galloprovincialis, and the fertilization success of P. lividus gave EC 50 values for the brine solute with salinity in the range of 40.9-43.5, whereas the EC 50 values for the concentrated seawater were in the range of salinity 44.2-49.0. It is hypothesised that differences in the ionic composition of the brine cause the inability of the species to tolerate the exposure to brine.

  14. Assessment of Contaminated Brine Fate and Transport in MB139 at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Systems Analysis and Research Dept.; Malama, Bwalya [Sandia National Lab., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Performance Assessment Dept.

    2014-07-01

    Following the radionuclide release event of February 14, 2014 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), actinide contamination has been found on the walls and floor in Panel 7 as a result of a release in Room 7 of Panel 7. It has been proposed to decontaminate Panel 7 at the WIPP by washing contaminated surfaces in the underground with fresh water. A cost-effective cleanup of this contamination would allow for a timely return to waste disposal operations at WIPP. It is expected that the fresh water used to decontaminate Panel 7 will flow as contaminated brine down into the porosity of the materials under the floor – the run-of-mine (ROM) salt above Marker Bed 139 (MB139) and MB139 itself – where its fate will be controlled by the hydraulic and transport properties of MB139. Due to the structural dip of MB139, it is unlikely that this brine would migrate northward towards the Waste-Handling Shaft sump. A few strategically placed shallow small-diameter observation boreholes straddling MB139 would allow for monitoring the flow and fate of this brine after decontamination. Additionally, given that flow through the compacted ROM salt floor and in MB139 would occur under unsaturated (or two-phase) conditions, there is a need to measure the unsaturated flow properties of crushed WIPP salt and salt from the disturbed rock zone (DRZ).

  15. 西台吉乃尔盐湖采卤渠及周边稳定性分析%Analysis of the stability of brine channel and the surrounding in Xitaijinair Salt Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 李国荣; 朱海丽

    2015-01-01

    Salt lake chemical industry is the pillar industry in Qinghai province.Taking the Xitaiji-nair Salt Lake as an example,the stability of goaf in the salt lake was investigated.According to the corresponding parameters obtained by saline soil physical mechanics experiment,model was built by applying FLAC2D on the specific positions of the salt lake.Combining the model and field survey, the stability of the Xitaijinair Salt Lake brine channels is stable under the natural condition.%以西台吉乃尔盐湖为例,对盐湖开采后的采空区稳定性进行研究.通过盐湖盐渍土物理力学实验获取相应参数,应用FLAC2D对盐湖特定部位进行建模,结合实地考察对西台吉乃尔盐湖采卤渠及其周边稳定性进行分析,得出在自然情况下采空区处于稳定的结论.

  16. Modeling brine-rock interactions in an enhanced geothermal systemdeep fractured reservoir at Soultz-Sous-Forets (France): a joint approachusing two geochemical codes: frachem and toughreact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, Laurent; Spycher, Nicolas; Xu, Tianfu; Vuataz,Francois-D.; Pruess, Karsten.

    2006-12-31

    The modeling of coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in geothermal systems is complicated by reservoir conditions such as high temperatures, elevated pressures and sometimes the high salinity of the formation fluid. Coupled THC models have been developed and applied to the study of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) to forecast the long-term evolution of reservoir properties and to determine how fluid circulation within a fractured reservoir can modify its rock properties. In this study, two simulators, FRACHEM and TOUGHREACT, specifically developed to investigate EGS, were applied to model the same geothermal reservoir and to forecast reservoir evolution using their respective thermodynamic and kinetic input data. First, we report the specifics of each of these two codes regarding the calculation of activity coefficients, equilibrium constants and mineral reaction rates. Comparisons of simulation results are then made for a Soultz-type geothermal fluid (ionic strength {approx}1.8 molal), with a recent (unreleased) version of TOUGHREACT using either an extended Debye-Hueckel or Pitzer model for calculating activity coefficients, and FRACHEM using the Pitzer model as well. Despite somewhat different calculation approaches and methodologies, we observe a reasonably good agreement for most of the investigated factors. Differences in the calculation schemes typically produce less difference in model outputs than differences in input thermodynamic and kinetic data, with model results being particularly sensitive to differences in ion-interaction parameters for activity coefficient models. Differences in input thermodynamic equilibrium constants, activity coefficients, and kinetics data yield differences in calculated pH and in predicted mineral precipitation behavior and reservoir-porosity evolution. When numerically cooling a Soultz-type geothermal fluid from 200 C (initially equilibrated with calcite at pH 4.9) to 20 C and suppressing mineral

  17. Lithium brines: A global perspective: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, LeeAnn; Hynek, Scott; Bradley, Dwight C.; Boutt, David; Labay, Keith A.; Jochens, Hillary; Verplanck, Philip L.; Hitzman, Murray W.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium is a critical and technologically important element that has widespread use, particularly in batteries for hybrid cars and portable electronic devices. Global demand for lithium has been on the rise since the mid-1900s and is projected to continue to increase. Lithium is found in three main deposit types: (1) pegmatites, (2) continental brines, and (3) hydrothermally altered clays. Continental brines provide approximately three-fourths of the world’s Li production due to their relatively low production cost. The Li-rich brine systems addressed here share six common characteristics that provide clues to deposit genesis while also serving as exploration guidelines. These are as follows: (1) arid climate; (2) closed basin containing a salar (salt crust), a salt lake, or both; (3) associated igneous and/or geothermal activity; (4) tectonically driven subsidence; (5) suitable lithium sources; and (6) sufficient time to concentrate brine. Two detailed case studies of Li-rich brines are presented; one on the longest produced lithium brine at Clayton Valley, Nevada, and the other on the world’s largest producing lithium brine at the Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  18. 深井岩盐卤水地热能综合利用研究%Study on Comprehensive Utilization of Deep Geothermal Brine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜明

    2016-01-01

    本文对卤水携带的地热能进行了分析研究,在岩盐卤水井下处理的基础上,根据亨利定律P=EX,提出了携带地热卤水经"闪蒸"浓缩降温后,再与制盐蒸发冷凝水进行换热,使冷凝水中的热量转移至浓缩卤水中,提高温度后再进入制盐系统制盐. 这为深井岩盐地热与制盐冷凝水潜热综合利用提供了一种全新的思路与方法.%This paper analyzes and researches the geo thermal energy which is carrying by brine, and on the basis of the underground rock salt brine treatment, according to the Henry's law (P = EX), put forward carrying geothermal brine after "flash"condensed cooling and heat exchange with high evaporation condensation water, can make the condensed water in the heat transferred to the concentrated brine, raise the temperature and then put it into the salt making system. It provides a new thinking and method for the comprehensive utilization of deep geothermal brine and the latent heat of salt making condensation water.

  19. The distribution of soluble radionuclide-relevant trace elements between salt minerals and saline solutions; Die Verteilung loeslicher Radionuklid-relevanter Spurenelemente zwischen Salzmineralen und salinaren Loesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, Ina

    2015-07-16

    The research platform ENTRIA (Disposal options for radioactive residues Interdisciplinary analyses and development of evaluation principles) includes the sub-project ''Final disposal in deep geological formations without any arrangements for retrieval''. This approach considers rock salt (beside clay and granite) as host rock formation for disposal of heat-producing long-live waste. Most rock salt formations contain Mg-rich brines derived from highly evolved sea water evaporation processes now included in the rock salt mass. If such brines get access to metal-canister corrosion will allow release of soluble nuclides to the brine. In this scenario, it cannot be excluded that contaminated brines leave the deep seated disposal area and move along geological or technical migration pathways towards the rock salt/cap rock contact. The temperature of the brine will drop from near 80 C to 25 or 30 C. The deceasing temperature of the brine causes precipitation of magnesian chloride and sulfate phase in equilibrium with the brine. In order to understand the salt precipitation and the retention mechanism of dissolved trace elements experiments have been set up which allow formation of sylvite, carnallite, kainite, and hydrous Mg-sulphates under controlled conditions. The retention capacity of crystallizing salt minerals based occurring in magnesian brine solutions at decreasing temperature within a salt dome is best measured as the distribution coefficient D. This concept assumes incorporation of trace elements into the lattice of salt minerals. The distribution coefficients of the trace elements, Rb, Cs, Co, Ni, Zn, Li and B between sylvite, carnallite, kainite, and MgSO{sub 4} phases have been determined at experimental temperatures of 25, 35, 55 and 83 C. The results clearly indicate the following range of distribution coefficients (D): Sylvite D > 1 Rb and Br, D < 1 Co, Ni, Zn, Li and B, Carnallite D > 1 Rb and Cs, D < 1 Co, Ni, Zn, Li and B, Kainite D

  20. Dynamic Adsorption of Uranium From Salt Lake Brine Using Hydrous Titanium Oxide%用水合氧化钛从模拟盐湖卤水中动态吸附铀的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许影; 成弘; 邓锦勋; 王立民

    2016-01-01

    Extracting uranium from simulative saline lake brine using hydrous titanium oxide composed by PVA ,silica gel and titanic sulfate was researched . The dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments were done .The results show that the the hydrous titanium oxide has good adsorption property and stability in the simulative saline lake brine .The recovery rate of uranium is more than 80 percent in the 3 times circulation .The desorption effect of uranium from the loading HTO using 2 BV saturated salt water and 7 BV water is the best ,dynamic desorption rate is more than 99 percent .The hydrous titanium oxide can resist chloride interference and can be used to extract uranium from saline lake brine .%研究了用聚乙烯醇(PVA )、硅胶和硫酸钛为主要原料合成的水合氧化钛从模拟盐湖卤水中提取铀,分别进行了动态吸附与淋洗试验。结果表明:在模拟盐湖卤水中,水合氧化钛有较好的稳定性和吸附铀的性能,3次吸附循环中,铀回收率都在80%以上;负载树脂用饱和氯化钠溶液+清水淋洗,效果较好,动态淋洗率在99%以上。水合氧化钛有较好的耐氯根干扰能力,将其用于从盐湖卤水中提取铀的前景较好。

  1. The Triple Salt Sr14[Ta4N13][TaN4]O-A Nitridotantalate Oxide with 19-fold Rock Salt Superstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörsching, Matthias; Daiger, Martin; Hoch, Constantin

    2017-02-21

    A new structure motif in nitridometalate chemistry is the tetracatena-nitridotantalate anion [Ta4N13](19-). It occurs in the crystal structure of the triple salt Sr14[Ta4N13][TaN4]O (monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 15.062(2) Å, b = 7.2484(6) Å, c = 24.266(3) Å, and β = 97.280(10)(o)) together with ortho-tantalate and isolated oxide anions. Synthesis followed a new approach with employment of Sr surplus and reductive conditions aimed at the preparation of subvalent compounds. The new structure type was established on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and also Rietveld refinement. It is a complex superstructure of the rock salt structure type with Ta and Sr atoms forming the face-centered cubic packing and N and O atoms occupying 18/19 of the octahedral voids. We discuss structure and stability of the triple salt with respect to other known nitridometalates and the use of this triple salt for preparative access toward new metal-rich compounds in this field.

  2. Heavy Metal Contamination and Salt Efflorescence Associated With Decorative Landscaping Rocks, Las Vegas, Nevada: The Need for Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek, S. A.; Buck, B. J.; Brock, A. L.

    2004-12-01

    Las Vegas, Nevada is one of the fastest growing cities in the United States. Faced with water restrictions, decorative rock xeroscaping has become a very popular form of landscaping. Currently, there are no regulations controlling the geochemistry of the decorative rocks that can be used for these purposes. In this study, we examined three sites containing two different decorative rock products. The landscaping rocks, underlying soil, and surface salt crusts were analyzed to determine their mineralogy and chemistry. Methods of analysis include scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP), thin section analysis, and laser particle size analysis (LPSA). Preliminary results indicate the presence of halite (NaCl), bloedite (Na2Mg(SO4)2 4H2O), a hydrated magnesium sulfate, and possibly copper sulfate and copper chloride mineral phases in the surface salt crusts. Both copper minerals are regarded as hazardous substances by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); these agencies have established minimum exposure limits for human contact with these substances. Copper sulfate and copper chloride are not naturally occurring minerals in the soils of the Las Vegas Valley, and analyses indicate that their formation may be attributed to the mineralogy of the decorative landscaping rocks. Further testing is needed to characterize this potential health hazard; however the preliminary results of this study demonstrate the need for regulations controlling the geochemistry of decorative rocks used for urban landscaping.

  3. New Treatment Process of Mother Liquor in Vacuum Salt Making with Gypsum Brine%石膏型卤水真空制盐母液处理新工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍保民

    2013-01-01

    The treatment process of mother liquor in the 600,000 t/y vacuum salt project of Yulin Salt Chemical Co. CNSIC is introduced. The horizontal spiral centrifuge is adopted to separate the thickened gypsum mother liquor and then the clear liquid is back to the salt making system. The thickened gypsum slurry is to be used as the oringinal material of non-burnt bricks after wash and pressure filtration. The clear liquid after pressure filtration is injected into brine well. This process is an approach to developing circular economy and creating environmental friendly and resource saving enterprise.%介绍了中盐榆林盐化有限公司60万吨/年真空制盐项目的母液处理工艺。首先采用卧螺离心机离心分离增稠制盐石膏母液,离心得到的清液返回制盐系统。增稠后的石膏经洗涤压滤后作免烧砖原料,压滤清液注井采卤。此工艺走出了一条发展循环经济、创建环保节约型企业的道路,取得了非常理想的效果。

  4. Development of mechanical-hydraulic models for the prediction of the long-term sealing capacity of concrete based sealing materials in rock salt. Project Titel LASA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaikowski, Oliver; Dittrich, Juergen; Hertes, Uwe; Jantschik, Kyra; Wieczorek, Klaus; Zehle, Bernd

    2016-08-15

    The research work leading to these results has received funding from the German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) under contract no. 02E11132. This report presents the current state of laboratory investigations and modelling activities related to the LASA project. The work is related to the research and development of plugging and sealing for repositories in salt rock and is of fundamental importance for the salt option which represents one of the three European repository options in addition to the clay rock and the crystalline rock options.

  5. 岩盐的蠕变变形规律及参数试验研究%Experimental Study on Creep Deformation Properties and Parameters of Rock Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林斌

    2013-01-01

    以娄庄盐矿第16层岩盐为研究对象,采用单试件多级加载方式,试验研究了该岩盐的单轴蠕变变形特征。结果表明,岩盐的蠕变变形可以采用形如y=a(1-e-bx )的指数函数描述,蠕变参数a和b可以用蠕变应力σ的幂函数来描述。岩盐的长期强度约为瞬时单轴强度的68%。%The 16th layer of rock salt in Louzhuang salt mine is an object of study.The properties of uniaxial creep deformation of the rock salt are studied by the method of exerting multistage loads in single sample of rock salt.The results show that the creep properties of rock salt can be described by the function as y=a(1-e-bx ),at the same time,the creep parameters of a and b are also described by power function of σ.The long-term strength of rock salt is just about 68% to the instantaneous strength.

  6. Chemical composition and distribution of lithium-rich brines in salar de Uyuni and nearby salars in southwestern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericksen, G.E.; Vine, J.D.; Raul, Ballon A.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary investigations at Salar de Uyuni and the nearby salars (salt pans) of Coipasa and Empexa in the southern part of the Bolivian Altiplano show the presence of widespread lithium-rich brines. Widely scattered brine samples from Salar de Uyuni, which has an area of about 9000 km2 and is the largest salt pan on earth, show lithium values ranging from 80 to 1500 ppm. High values of 300-700 ppm are most prevalent in an area of about 2500 km2 in the east-central and southeastern part of the salar. A few brine samples in small areas in Coipasa and Empexa Salars have values ranging from 170 to 580 ppm Li. All the brines are essentially saturated with halite and are moderately high in sulfate (5000-15,000 ppm SO4) but low in carbonate (Altiplano during late Pleistocene time, augmented by saline material carried to the salars by streams since final drying of this lake. Thermal springs associated with rhyolitic volcanic rocks of Quaternary age may have been a major source of the lithium. ?? 1978.

  7. Ice Control with Brine on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars

    meant that six salt barns could be phased out. This made it possible to revise the staff's duty roster and thus meet the rest hour demands raised by the health and safety at work acts. Successful pre-salting is, of course, dependent on reliable weather forecasts and on staff well trained in the art...... traffic flow the spread rate of pure sodium chloride (and thus the environmental impact) in the pre-salting operations was cut back by more than one third. Compared to neighbouring counties the use of salt is less than fifty percent per square meter. In addition, supply of brine from two mixer-plants...

  8. Ice Control with Brine on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars

    During the years 1996-2006, the Division of Highways and Transportation in the former county of Funen gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine as de-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor...

  9. Efficacy of nanolime in restoration procedures of salt weathered limestone rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, Silvestro A.; La Russa, Mauro F.; Aloise, Piergiorgio; Belfiore, Cristina M.; Macchia, Andrea; Pezzino, Antonino; Crisci, Gino M.

    2014-03-01

    Salt crystallisation process is one of the most powerful weathering agents in stone materials, especially in the coastal areas, where sea-spray transports large amount of salts on the stone surface. The consolidation of such degraded stone material represents a critical issue in the field of restoration of cultural heritage. In this paper, the nanolime consolidation behaviour in limestone degraded by salt crystallization has been assessed. For this purpose, a stone material taken from a Sicilian historical quarry and widely used in the eastern Sicilian Baroque architecture has been artificially degraded by the salt crystallization test. Then degraded samples have been treated with NanoRestore®, a suspension of nanolime in isopropyl alcohol. To evaluate the consolidating effectiveness, the peeling test and point load test were performed. Moreover, mercury intrusion porosimetry has been executed to evaluate the variations induced by treatment, while colorimetric measurements have been aimed to assess aesthetical issues.

  10. Geophysical and geochemical signatures of Gulf of Mexico seafloor brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Joye

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical, temperature, and discrete depth-stratified geochemical data illustrate differences between an actively venting mud volcano and a relatively quiescent brine pool in the Gulf of Mexico along the continental slope. Geophysical data, including laser-line scan mosaics and sub-bottom profiles, document the dynamic nature of both environments. Temperature profiles, obtained by lowering a CTD into the brine fluid, show that the venting brine was at least 10°C warmer than the bottom water. At the brine pool, two thermoclines were observed, one directly below the brine-seawater interface and a second about one meter below the first. At the mud volcano, substantial temperature variability was observed, with the core brine temperature being either slightly (~2°C in 1997 or substantially (19°C in 1998 elevated above bottom water temperature. Geochemical samples were obtained using a device called the "brine trapper" and concentrations of dissolved gases, major ions and nutrients were determined using standard techniques. Both brines contained about four times as much salt as seawater and steep concentration gradients of dissolved ions and nutrients versus brine depth were apparent. Differences in the concentrations of calcium, magnesium and potassium between the two brine fluids suggests that the fluids are derived from different sources or that brine-sediment reactions are more important at the mud volcano than the brine pool. Substantial concentrations of methane and ammonium were observed in both brines, suggesting that fluids expelled from deep ocean brines are important sources of methane and dissolved inorganic nitrogen to the surrounding environment.

  11. 层状盐岩力学特性与蠕变机理研究%Research on Mechanics Properties and Creep Mechanism of Layered Salt Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐月生; 陈建忠; 王永志

    2012-01-01

    对层状盐岩力学特性进行实验与分析,获取相应的力学特征参数,是盐岩地下溶腔蠕变特性数值模拟的必要步骤,是数值计算中力学模型的组成要素。本文通过单轴压缩、三轴压缩和压缩蠕变等实验,获取层状盐岩短期强度特性和长期蠕变特性的力学特征参数,为盐岩蠕变模拟提供必要的参数支持。在此基础上,本文对层状盐岩蠕变机理进行分析,并将对盐岩蠕变率方程进行解析,为构建盐岩蠕变本构模型作铺垫。%the mechanics properties of layered rock is tested and analyzed to obtain the corresponding mechanics characteristic parameters.This is the necessary step of numerical simulation of the creep properties of salt rock in underground cavity and the composing element of the mechanics model in numerical calculation.This essay,via the tests such as single-axis compression,three-axis compression,compression creep,etc.,obtains the mechanics characteristic parameters of the short-term intensity characteristics and long-term creep characteristics of layered salt rock to provide necessary parameter support to salt rock creep simulation.On the basis of this,this essay analyzes the creep mechanism of layered salt rock and parses the equation of salt rock creep rate to lay foundation for the construction of salt rock creep constitutive?model.

  12. Measurements of radio propagation in rock salt for the detection of high-energy neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Amy; Goodhue, Abigail; Miki, Christian; Nichol, Ryan; Saltzberg, David

    2009-02-01

    We present measurements of the transmission of radio/microwave pulses through salt in the Cote Blanche salt mine operated by the North American Salt Company in St. Mary Parish, Louisiana. These results are from data taken in the southwestern region of the 1500 ft (457 m) deep level of the mine on our third and most recent visit to the mine. We transmitted and received a fast, high-power, broadband pulse from within three vertical boreholes that were drilled to depths of 100 ft (30 m) and 200 ft below the 1500 ft level using three different pairs of dipole antennas whose bandwidths span 125-900 MHz. By measuring the relative strength of the received pulses between boreholes with separations of 50 and 169 m, we deduce the attenuation of the signal attributed to the salt medium. We fit the frequency dependence of the attenuation to a power law and find the best fit field attenuation lengths to be 93±7m at 150 MHz, 63±3m at 300 MHz, and 36±2m at 800 MHz. This is the most precise measurement of radio attenuation in a natural salt formation to date. We assess the implications of this measurement for a future neutrino detector in salt.

  13. Fate of injected CO2 in the Wilcox Group, Louisiana, Gulf Coast Basin: Chemical and isotopic tracers of microbial-brine-rock-CO2 interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Lee Zhi Yi, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    The “2800’ sandstone” of the Olla oil field is an oil and gas-producing reservoir in a coal-bearing interval of the Paleocene–Eocene Wilcox Group in north-central Louisiana, USA. In the 1980s, this producing unit was flooded with CO2 in an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project, leaving ∼30% of the injected CO2 in the 2800’ sandstone post-injection. This study utilizes isotopic and geochemical tracers from co-produced natural gas, oil and brine to determine the fate of the injected CO2, including the possibility of enhanced microbial conversion of CO2 to CH4 via methanogenesis. Stable carbon isotopes of CO2, CH4 and DIC, together with mol% CO2 show that 4 out of 17 wells sampled in the 2800’ sandstone are still producing injected CO2. The dominant fate of the injected CO2appears to be dissolution in formation fluids and gas-phase trapping. There is some isotopic and geochemical evidence for enhanced microbial methanogenesis in 2 samples; however, the CO2 spread unevenly throughout the reservoir, and thus cannot explain the elevated indicators for methanogenesis observed across the entire field. Vertical migration out of the target 2800’ sandstone reservoir is also apparent in 3 samples located stratigraphically above the target sand. Reservoirs comparable to the 2800’ sandstone, located along a 90-km transect, were also sampled to investigate regional trends in gas composition, brine chemistry and microbial activity. Microbial methane, likely sourced from biodegradation of organic substrates within the formation, was found in all oil fields sampled, while indicators of methanogenesis (e.g. high alkalinity, δ13C-CO2 and δ13C-DIC values) and oxidation of propane were greatest in the Olla Field, likely due to its more ideal environmental conditions (i.e. suitable range of pH, temperature, salinity, sulfate and iron concentrations).

  14. Se EXAFS study of the elevated wurtzite to rock salt structural phase transition in CdSe nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, S.H.; Alivisatos, A.P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-09-01

    High pressure Se EXAFS data has been obtained on 2.7 nm radius CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals. This system is observed to undergo a solid-solid phase transition at 6.5 GPa which is approximately twice the reported value for bulk CdSe. In combination with high pressure optical absorption experiments, EXAFS data can be used to identify the high-pressure phase structure as rock salt. EXAFS data can be fit with equations of state to yield pressure volume curves. Resultant values of bulk modulus and its derivative with respect to pressure are B{sub o} = 37 {plus_minus} 5 GPa and B{sub o}{prime} = 11 {plus_minus} 3. A thermodynamic model for the data is presented in which the internal energy in each phase is modified by a surface energy term. Differences in surface energy are used to explain the elevation in phase transition pressure. The model can be used to estimate a value for the surface energy in the rock salt phase; 1.9 {plus_minus} 0.3 N/m is obtained in comparison to 0.9 {plus_minus} 0. 1 N/m for the wurtzite phase.

  15. Map data and Unmanned Aircraft System imagery from the May 25, 2014 West Salt Creek rock avalanche in western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jeffrey A.; Baum, Rex L.; Allstadt, Kate; Kochevar, Bernard; Schmitt, Robert G.; Morgan, Matthew L.; White, Jonathan L.; Stratton, Benjamin T.; Hayashi, Timothy A.; Kean, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    On May 25, 2014, a rain-on-snow induced rock avalanche occurred in the West Salt Creek Valley on the northern flank of Grand Mesa in western Colorado. The avalanche traveled 4.6 km down the confined valley, killing 3 people. The avalanche was rare for the contiguous U.S. because of its large size (54.5 Mm3) and long travel distance. To understand the avalanche failure sequence, mechanisms, and mobility, we mapped landslide structures, geology, and ponds at 1:1000-scale. We used high-resolution, Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) imagery from July 2014 as a base for our field mapping. Here we present the map data and UAS imagery. The data accompany an interpretive paper published in the journal Geosphere. The full citation for this interpretive journal paper is: Coe, J.A., Baum, R.L., Allstadt, K.E., Kochevar, B.F., Schmitt, R.G., Morgan, M.L., White, J.L., Stratton, B.T., Hayashi, T.A., and Kean, J.W., 2016, Rock avalanche dynamics revealed by large-scale field mapping and seismic signals at a highly mobile avalanche in the West Salt Creek Valley, western Colorado: Geosphere, v. 12, no. 2, p. 607-631,  doi:10.1130/GES01265.1. 

  16. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  17. 井矿盐生产节能减排浅析%Analysis of energy saving and emission reduction in well and rock salt production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱旭初

    2014-01-01

    文章依据井矿盐生产的实际情况,从工艺、设备、操作、管理4个方面分析了井矿盐生产节能减排的具体措施和办法。%The management of specific measures and methods of energy saving and emission reduction in well and rock salt production was studied from the four aspects of process such as emission, equipment, operation,management based on the actual situations of well and rock salt industry production.

  18. Measurements of radio propagation in rock salt for the detection of high-energy neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Connolly, Amy; Miki, Christian; Nichol, Ryan; Saltzberg, David

    2008-01-01

    We present measurements of the transmission of radio/microwave pulses through salt in the Cote Blanche salt mine operated by the North American Salt Company in St. Mary Parish, Louisiana. These results are from data taken in the southwestern region of the 1500 ft. (457 m) deep level of the mine on our third and most recent visit to the mine. We transmitted and received a fast, high-power, broadband pulse from within three vertical boreholes that were drilled to depths of 100 ft. (30 m) and 200 ft. below the 1500 ft. level using three different pairs of dipole antennas whose bandwidths span 125 to 900 MHz. By measuring the relative strength of the received pulses between boreholes with separations of 50 m and 169 m, we deduce the attenuation of the signal attributed to the salt medium. We fit the frequency dependence of the attenuation to a power law and find the best fit field attenuation lengths to be 93 \\pm 7 m at 150 MHz, 63 \\pm 3 m at 300 MHz, and 36 \\pm 2 m at 800 MHz. This is the most precise measuremen...

  19. Concerning the gas presence in salt rocks of the second potassium stratum of the mine field of the IV RU of the Starobinsk deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bylino, L.V.; Nesterova, T.Y.; Yevtushenko, Y.A.

    1981-01-01

    Because of the operational entry of the fourth mine field of the Starobinsk deposit, the necessity arose of studying the composition and volume of microincluded gases in order to determine the total gas presence in the potassium strata and to predict its explosive danger. The microinclusions of gases were studied in samples selected from the salt rocks of a normal section and the zones of the positioning of sylvinite layers through a method of solution of the samples and analysis of the liberated gas in chromatographs. It is established that salt rocks of the placement zones are different in the content of the microinclusions of the gases from the rocks of the normal section. A specific feature of the microinclusions of gases in the presence of helium and hydrogen, whose increased volumes are characteristic for sylvinites of the upper and lower sylvinite layers. Noted is a regularity in the relation between the helium and hydrogen in the normal section of the second potassium layer from the increased contents of these gases in the upper sylvinite layer with a subsequent reduction in their volumes to the traces in the basement rock salt. In the rock salt of the sylvinite layer, placement zones methane is detected in the very same volumes as in the sylvinites, while in the intermediate and basement rock salt, traces of it are only sometimes noted. The obtained materials will be used in the development of prerequisites for the deduction and study of the explosive zones within the mine field of the IV RU of the Starobinsk deposit.

  20. Simulation of rock salt dissolution and its impact on land subsidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zidane

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Extensive land subsidence can occur due to subsurface dissolution of evaporites such as halite and gypsum. This paper explores techniques to simulate the salt dissolution forming an intrastratal karst, which is embedded in a sequence of carbonates, marls, anhydrite and gypsum. A numerical model is developed to simulate laminar flow in reactive fractures. The numerical model is based on the laminar steady state Stokes flow equation, and the advection dispersion transport equation coupled with the dissolution equation. The flow equation is solved using the nonconforming Crouzeix–Raviart (CR finite element approximation for the Stokes equation. For the transport equation, a combination between Discontinuous Galerkin Method and Multipoint Flux Approximation Method is proposed. The numerical effect of the dissolution is considered by using a dynamic mesh variation that increases the size of the mesh based on the amount of dissolved salt. The numerical method is applied to a 2-D geological cross section representing a Horst and Graben structure in the Tabular Jura of north-western Switzerland. It simulates salt dissolution within the geological section and predicts the amount of vertical dissolution as an indicator of subsidence that could occur. Simulation results showed that the highest dissolution amount is observed near the normal fault zones, and therefore the highest subsidence rates are expected above fault zones.

  1. Lithium isotope geochemistry and origin of Canadian shield brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomley, D J; Chan, L H; Katz, A; Starinsky, A; Clark, I D

    2003-01-01

    Hypersaline calcium/chloride shield brines are ubiquitous in Canada and areas of northern Europe. The major questions relating to these fluids are the origin of the solutes and the concentration mechanism that led to their extreme salinity. Many chemical and isotopic tracers are used to solve these questions. For example, lithium isotope systematics have been used recently to support a marine origin for the Yellowknife shield brine (Northwest Territories). While having important chemical similarities to the Yellowknife brine, shield brines from the Sudbury/Elliot Lake (Ontario) and Thompson/Snow Lake (Manitoba) regions, which are the focus of this study, exhibit contrasting lithium behavior. Brine from the Sudbury Victor mine has lithium concentrations that closely follow the sea water lithium-bromine concentration trajectory, as well as delta6Li values of approximately -28/1000. This indicates that the lithium in this brine is predominantly marine in origin with a relatively minor component of crustal lithium leached from the host rocks. In contrast, the Thompson/Snow Lake brine has anomalously low lithium concentrations, indicating that it has largely been removed from solution by alteration minerals. Furthermore, brine and nonbrine mine waters at the Thompson mine have large delta6Li variations of approximately 30/1000, which primarily reflects mixing between deep brine with delta6Li of -35 +/- 2/1000 and near surface mine water that has derived higher delta6Li values through interactions with their host rocks. The contrary behavior of lithium in these two brines shows that, in systems where it has behaved conservatively, lithium isotopes can distinguish brines derived from marine sources.

  2. Probabilistic methods as a tool aiding dimensioning drift and shaft seals for a repository in rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen; Plischke, Elmar; Li, Xiaoshuo [TU Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Disposal Research (IELF)

    2015-07-01

    For repositories in rock salt, demonstrating the integrity of drift and shaft seals is an indispensable part of the long-term safety case. In this study, probabilistic methods are applied to assess the fictitious abutment length for a shaft seal and the effective permeability of a drift seal (dam), i.e. the integral entity for the whole structure including contact zone and damaged salt zone. For the seal permeability, the question arises how to derive it based on permeability measurements with a limited number of samples due to cost restrictions. Furthermore, it is of interest which conclusions can be derived regarding the minimum length of drift seals if the failure probability should be smaller than e.g. 10{sup -4}. Based on numerical experiments it was demonstrated that small-scale measurements can be upscale using known averaging methods. This suggests that dimensioning can be carried out based on cautions average estimates and the required reliability statement (e.g. about a failure probability smaller than e.g. 10{sup -4}) can be derived for realistic dam lengths. However, due to the limited amount of data available there are remaining uncertainties concerning the underlying model assumptions.

  3. Measurement of a Phase of a Radio Wave Reflected from Rock Salt and Ice Irradiated by an Electron Beam for Detection of Ultra-High-Energy Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Chiba, Masami; Tanikawa, Takahiro; Yano, Hiroyuki; Yabuki, Fumiaki; Yasuda, Osamu; Chikashige, Yuichi; Kon, Tadashi; Shimizu, Yutaka; Watanabe, Souichirou; Utsumi, Michiaki; Fujii, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    We have found a radio-wave-reflection effect in rock salt for the detection of ultra-high energy neutrinos which are expected to be generated in Greisen, Zatsepin, and Kuzmin (GZK) processes in the universe. When an UHE neutrino interacts with rock salt or ice as a detection medium, a shower is generated. That shower is formed by hadronic and electromagnetic avalanche processes. The energy of the UHE neutrino shower converts to thermal energy through ionization processes. Consequently, the temperature rises along the shower produced by the UHE neutrino. The refractive index of the medium rises with temperature. The irregularity of the refractive index in the medium leads to a reflection of radio waves. This reflection effect combined with the long attenuation length of radio waves in rock salt and ice would yield a new method to detect UHE neutrinos. We measured the phase of the reflected radio wave under irradiation with an electron beam on ice and rock salt powder. The measured phase showed excellent consis...

  4. A Variable-Parameter Creep Damage Model Incorporating the Effects of Loading Frequency for Rock Salt and Its Application in a Bedded Storage Cavern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Linjian; Wang, Mingyang; Zhang, Ning; Fan, Pengxian; Li, Jie

    2017-09-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the effects of the loading frequency on the time-dependent behavior and damage properties of rock salt under confining stress states. Axial two-stage irreversible deformation based on the loci of the minimum load of each cycle was observed, and this observation was similar to the result of conventional creep tests under static loads. The unloading modulus decreased exponentially with respect to time, and the damage variable was represented in terms of the decay of the material stiffness. To account for the effects of the loading frequency on the time-dependent degradation of rock salt, a unified damage evolution equation was formulated based on the experimental results. A creep damage model of rock salt was proposed by introducing non-stationary modular components into the Burgers viscoelastic model. Numerical simulation was performed using the newly developed model to evaluate the stability and serviceability of a storage cavern in a bedded salt formation under various loading scenarios. The simulated results indicate that a lower injection-withdrawal frequency results in a greater volume convergence rate and a wider dilatancy region of the storage cavern. Additionally, the stress concentration and dilatancy of the surrounding rock mass extend much deeper into the mudstone interbeds than into other regions of the cavern.

  5. Geophysical and geochemical signatures of Gulf of Mexico seafloor brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Joye

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical, temperature, and discrete depth-stratified geochemical data illustrate differences between an actively venting mud volcano and a relatively quiescent brine pool in the Gulf of Mexico along the continental slope. Geophysical data, including laser-line scan mosaics and sub-bottom profiles, document the dynamic nature of both environments. Temperature profiles, obtained by lowering a CTD into the brine fluid, show that the venting brine was at least 10°C warmer than the bottom water. At the brine pool, thermal stratification was observed and only small differences in stratification were documented between three sampling times (1991, 1997 and 1998. In contrast, at the mud volcano, substantial temperature variability was observed, with the core brine temperature being slightly higher than bottom water (by 2°C in 1997 but substantially higher than bottom water (by 19°C in 1998. Detailed geochemical samples were obtained in 2002 using a device called the 'brine trapper' and concentrations of dissolved gases, major ions and nutrients were determined. Both brines contained about four times as much salt as seawater and steep concentration gradients of dissolved ions and nutrients versus brine depth were apparent. Differences in the concentrations of calcium, magnesium and potassium between the two brine fluids suggest that the fluids are derived from different sources, have different dilution/mixing histories, or that brine-sediment reactions are more important at the mud volcano. Substantial concentrations of methane, ammonium, and silicate were observed in both brines, suggesting that fluids expelled from deep ocean brines are important sources of these constituents to the surrounding environment.

  6. Preparation of Al-Si Master Alloy by Electrochemical Reduction of Volcanic Rock in Cryolite Molten Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aimin; Shi, Zhongning; Xu, Junli; Hu, Xianwei; Gao, Bingliang; Wang, Zhaowen

    2016-06-01

    Volcanic rock found in the Longgang Volcano Group in Jilin Province of China has properties essentially similar to Apollo lunar soils and previously prepared lunar soil simulants, such as Johnson Space Center Lunar simulant and Minnesota Lunar simulant. In this study, an electrochemical method of preparation of Al-Si master alloy was investigated in 52.7 wt.%NaF-47.3 wt.%AlF3 melt adding 5 wt.% volcanic rock at 1233 K. The cathodic electrochemical process was studied by cyclic voltammetry, and the results showed that the cathodic reduction of Si(IV) is a two-step reversible diffusion-controlled reaction. Si(IV) is reduced to Si(II) by two electron transfers at -1.05 V versus platinum quasi-reference electrode in 52.7 wt.%NaF-47.3 wt.%AlF3 molten salt adding 5 wt.% volcanic rock, while the reduction peak at -1.18 V was the co-deposition of aluminum and silicon. In addition, the cathodic product obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis for 4 h was analyzed by means of x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry. The results showed that the phase compositions of the products are Al, Si, Al5FeSi, and Al3.21Si0.47, while the components are 90.5 wt.% aluminum, 4.4 wt.% silicon, 1.9 wt.% iron, and 0.2 wt.% titanium.

  7. Brine transport in porous media self-similar solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. van Duijn (Hans); L.A. Peletier (Bert); R.J. Schotting

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyze a model for brine transport in porous media, which includes a mass balance for the fluid, a mass balance for salt, Darcy's law and an equation of state, which relates the fluid density to the salt mass fraction. This model incorporates the effect of local volume

  8. The evolution of the 87Sr/86Sr in the Dead Sea brine: from the Sedom lagoon to Sahara dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mordechai

    2016-04-01

    The history of water-bodies in the Dead Sea brines commenced with the intrusion of the Sedom lagoon, possibly in the late Neogene and continued with the development of hypersaline and freshwater lakes (e.g. the modern Dead Sea and Sea of Galilee). 87Sr/86Sr ratios in these water-bodies decreased over the past ~ 5-6 Ma from 0.7087-0.7084 in salts deposited in the Sedom lagoon to ~ 0.7080 in modern Dead Sea brine. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the salts deposited from Sedom lagoon are significantly lower than those of the contemporaneous late Miocene seawater (~0.709). This difference was attributed to modification of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the Sedom lagoon solution by influx of Ca-chloride brines. The brines, in turn were formed by dolomitization of marine limestones of the DSR Cretaceous wall rocks (87Sr/86Sr ~ 0.7075) by the ingressing evaporated seawaters (Stein et al., 2000). After the disconnection of the Sedom lagoon from the open sea freshwater filled the lakes that occupied the Dead Sea basin. The freshwater influx modified the strontium isotope and chemical composition of the brine and provided bicarbonate and sulfate to the lake that led the precipitation of primary aragonite and gypsum. Freshwater that currently enter the lake are characterize by 87Sr/86Sr ~ 0.7081, significantly higher than the Cretaceous carbonates. Settled dust that deposits on the Judea Mountains is composed of calcite and quartz grains and is characterized by 87Sr/86Sr ratios ~ 0.7084. It appears that significant amounts of the strontium that entered the lakes with the freshwater originated from dissolution of the dust calcites. Large amounts of dust were transported from the Sahara desert to the Dead Sea watershed during glacial periods when the Sahara was dry and sea-level was low. The source of the detrital calcites however, is not known. They could be derived from dry paleo-lakes in the Sahara that were previously filled by waters that retained the required strontium isotope

  9. Study and Test of Process of Production of Potassium Chloride from High Calcium Potassium Bearing Brine in Salt Lake%利用盐湖高钙含钾卤水制取氯化钾工艺试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓东; 郑秀洁

    2011-01-01

    In some of chloride - type brine in Salt Lake of Qinghai. The cycling accumulation of calcium results in increasing growth of its concetration, which probably will make some effect on the production of potassium chloride from brine. This paper makes research on impact this type of high calcium potassium bearing brine has on production of potassium chloride by 4# Process . The research results show that calcium content in brine would have less impact on production of potassium chloride by 4# Process.%青海盐湖部分氯化物型卤水中,由于钙的循环积累,其浓度不断增高,这可能对从卤水中提取氯化钾带来一定影响.实验研究了该类型高钙含钾卤水对4#工艺制取氯化钾的影响,研究结果表明卤水中钙含量对4#工艺制取氯化钾影响较小.

  10. Oil exudation and histological structures of duck egg yolks during brining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K M; Chung, W H; Jao, C L; Hsu, K C

    2010-04-01

    Changes in oil exudation and histological structures of salted duck egg yolks during brining up to 5 wk were investigated. During brining, the salt contents of albumen, exterior yolk (hardened portion), and interior yolk (soft or liquid portion) gradually increased accompanied by slight decreases in moisture content. The hardening ratio of salted egg yolks increased rapidly to about 60% during the first week of brining and then reached 100% at the end of brining. After brining, part of the lipids in salted egg yolk became free due to the structural changes of low-density lipoprotein induced by dehydration and increase of salt content, and more free lipids in salted egg yolk were released after the cooking process. With the brining time increased up to 5 wk, the outer region of the cooked salted yolk gradually changed into dark brown, brown, orange, and then dark brown, whereas the center region changed into light yellow, yellow, dark yellow, and then yellow again. The microstructures of cooked salted egg yolks showed that the yolk spheres in the outer and middle regions retained their original shape, with some shrinking and being packed more loosely when brining time increased, and the exuded oil filled the space between the spheres. Furthermore, the yolk spheres in the center region transformed to a round shape but still showed granulation after 4 wk of brining, whereas they were mostly disrupted after 2 to 5 wk of brining. One of the most important characteristics of cooked salted egg yolks, gritty texture, contributed to oil exudation and granulated yolk spheres were observed at the brining time of 4 wk.

  11. Results for the Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) Brine Processing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Shaw, Hali; Kawashima, Brian; Beeler, David; Howard, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The recent Brine Processing Test compared the NASA Forward Osmosis Brine Dewatering (FOBD), Paragon Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), UMPQUA Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS), and the NASA Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB). This paper reports the results of the BEB. The BEB was operated at 70 deg C and a base pressure of 12 torr. The BEB was operated in a batch mode, and processed 0.4L of brine per batch. Two different brine feeds were tested, a chromic acid-urine brine and a chromic acid-urine-hygiene mix brine. The chromic acid-urine brine, known as the ISS Alternate Pretreatment Brine, had an average processing rate of 95 mL/hr with a specific power of 5kWhr/L. The complete results of these tests will be reported within this paper.

  12. Pure Culture Fermentation of Brined Cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, J L; Costilow, R N; Anderson, T E; Bell, T A

    1964-11-01

    The relative abilities of Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and several other species of lactic acid bacteria to grow and produce acid in brined cucumbers were evaluated in pure culture fermentations. Such fermentations were made possibly by the use of two techniques, gamma radiation (0.83 to 1.00 Mrad) and hot-water blanching (66 to 80 C for 5 min), designed first to rid the cucumbers of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining, followed by inoculation with the desired lactic acid bacteria. Of the nine species tested, strains of the three common to cucumber fermentations, P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis, grew to the highest populations, and produced the highest levels of brine acidity and the lowest pH values in fermentations at 5.4 to 5.6% NaCl by weight; also, their sequence of active development in fermentations, with the use of a three-species mixture for inoculation, was in the species order just named. This sequence of occurrence was similar to that estimated by others for natural fermentations. The rates of growth and acid production in fermentations with a mixture of P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis increased as the incubation temperature was increased from 21 to 27 to 32 C; however, the maximal populations and acidities attained were essentially the same for fermentations at each temperature. Further, these same three species were found to be the most salt tolerant of those tested; their upper limit for appreciable growth and measurable acid production was about 8% salt, whereas thermophilic species such as L. thermophilus, L. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermenti, and L. delbrueckii exhibited a much lower salt tolerance, ranging from about 2.5 to 4.0%. However, certain strains of L. delbrueckii grew very rapidly in cucumbers brined at 2.5 to 3.0% salt, and produced sufficient acid in about 30 hr at 48 C to reduce the brine pH from above 7.0 to below 4.0. An inexpensive

  13. 岩盐弹塑性损伤耦合模型研究%Coupled elastoplastic-damage model for salt rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房敬年; 周辉; 胡大伟; 邵建富; 梁玉雷

    2011-01-01

    岩盐力学模型是进行能源岩盐储存工程稳定性分析的基础,而损伤和塑性机制并存且相瓦耦合是岩盐力学行为的基本特点.采用云应岩盐,进行了多组围压条件下的三轴压缩试验,分析了不同围压下岩盐的变形特征.在试验分析的基础上,提出了一种能够描述岩盐特性的弹塑性损伤耦合的模型,该模型描述了岩盐损伤的演化和塑性变形的耦合关系,并引入了一种非关联的塑性流动法则来描述岩盐从塑性体积压缩到膨胀的转化.采用该模型对在三轴压缩下的岩盐应力-应变关系进行了模拟分析,并与试验数据进行了对比,结果表明该模型能够较好地描述岩盐的主要力学和变形特性.%Mechanical model is the basis for analysis of energy deposit engineering stability in salt seam; and the coupled damage and plasticity mechanism is the basic mechanical behavior of rock salt.Using rock salt from Yun-Ying, triaxial compression tests are performed under different confining pressures; and the deformation characteristics of salt rock are analyzed.Based on a brief account of experimental investigation, a coupled elastoplastic-damage model for salt rock is proposed.The model can describe the coupled relations between plastic deformation and damage evolution; and also a non-associated rule is preferred in order to describe a transition of plastic volumetric strain from compressibility to dilatancy.A simulation case is conducted to investigate the deformation processes of salt rock under triaxial compression; and the results show that the numerical simulations perfectly agree with the experimental data; so it is shown that the proposed coupled elastoplastic damage model is able to describe the main mechanical and deformation properties of salt rock.

  14. SALT LAKES OF THE AFRICAN RIFT SYSTEM: A VALUABLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    salts from lake brines as demonstrated herein have a direct industrial value addition to Tanzanian ... Table 1: Trend of brine ionic concentrations in Tanzanian rift valley lakes (Kameka 2006). ..... chemical investigative work, it is needed to.

  15. Technique for Separating Magnesium and Lithium from Salt Lake Brine with High Mg/Li Ratio%高镁锂比盐湖卤水镁锂分离工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽芬; 张大义; 欧阳红勇; 汪全义; 宁顺明; 万洪强

    2016-01-01

    以酸化提硼后卤水为原料,采用饱和氯化钾溶液作为沉镁剂,使用三步结晶法进行了沉淀镁并富集锂的研究。结果表明,通过3段蒸发结晶析出光卤石,可以有效地实现镁锂分离:添加95%理论用量的氯化钾可以把原卤水中的镁锂质量比由10.1∶1降低到0.39∶1,锂在滤液中总回收率为77.90%,并使锂浓度从10 g/L富集到49.30 g/L。%With the salt lake brine after boron recovery as raw material and saturated solution of potassium chloride for magnesium precipitation, research was carried out on separating lithium from magnesium by the process of three⁃step evaporation crystallization. The experimental results show that the separation between lithium and magnesium could be attained after carnallite precipitation through three⁃step evaporation crystallization. The mass ratio of magnesium to lithium was reduced from 10.1∶1 to 0.39∶1 with the addition of potassium chloride at 95% of theoretical amount, resulting in the total Li+ recovery from the filtrate reaching 77.90%, and Li+ concentration enriched from 10 g/L to 49.30 g/L.

  16. The Analysis of the Mechanical Properties of Typical Salt Rock%典型盐岩力学特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    完颜祺琪; 沈雪明; 垢艳侠; 冉莉娜

    2016-01-01

    通过单轴、三轴压缩实验及劈裂等实验研究了湖北云应、江苏淮安和河南平顶山3个地区层状盐矿岩样的短期力学特性,并对不同地区及不同深度地层的纯盐岩力学特性进行比较分析。结果表明:(1)3地区中单轴抗压强度和弹性模量最大的岩样为泥岩和含泥岩的盐岩,而其泊松比却是最小的,证明了泥岩变形性能差的特性。含有不同杂质的盐岩其抗压强度和弹性模量有所增加,其泊松比对杂质的变化不是太敏感。纯盐岩抗压强度、弹性模量和泊松比随地层深度的增加而增大,取自较浅地层的岩样单轴实验有明显的压密阶段。(2)不同地区的岩样都有随围压的增大峰值强度相应增大的规律。纯盐岩的内摩擦角基本都大于其他岩样的值,而黏聚力则都小于其他岩样的值。反映了纯盐岩晶体颗粒大,含杂质少的特点。(3)不同地区的纯盐岩相对于其他岩样的抗拉强度最小。%It is studied the short term mechanical properties of samples of bedded salt in Yunying Hubei,Huaian Jiangsu and Pingdingshan Henan by doing experiments of monopodium and triaxial compression and splitting. It also compares stratums in different district and different depth of the pure salt rock mechanical properties. The results showed that(1)the rocks in different area which have the biggest uniaxial compressive strength and modulus of elasticity and the smallest Poisson ratio belong to mudstone and mud salt rock. It indicated that mudstone has bad deformation properties. The salt rock which has different impurity will increase its compressive strength and modulus of elasticity,and its Poisson ratio is not sensitive to the change of impurity. The compressive strength,modulus of elasticity and Poisson ratio of the pure salt rock increases with increase of the depth of stratum,the rocks from the shallow layer in uniaxial tests have obvious compression

  17. Experimental confirmation of liquid brines on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, E.; Renno, N. O.; Martinez, G.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of water ice and perchlorates in the shallow subsurface of Mars [1,2] is interesting because they could produce aqueous liquid solutions under Mars' present-day environmental conditions. We used the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber [3] to simulate the pressure, temperature and relative humidity during the full diurnal cycle of sol 19 at the Phoenix landing site. Sol 19 was chosen because on this sol ice found in a shallow trench (Dodo-Goldilocks) at a depth of ~5 cm was removed with little effort [4], suggesting that it was a frozen brine (softer than freshwater ice), and because oblate spheroids found on a strut of the lander, possibly a saline mud, were observed to grow and darken (suggesting liquefaction) [4]. The results of our simulations show that early in the mission the frozen brine likely found in the Dodo-Goldilocks trench could melt in the morning, temporarily forming aqueous liquid solutions when the temperature in the trench was above the eutectic temperature of the Ca(ClO4)2 salt (~199 K). In addition, the results of our simulations indicate that the spheroids observed on a strut of the Phoenix lander were most likely droplets of liquid brines. Since halophilic terrestrial bacteria thrive in brines [5], our results suggest that Mars' polar region could potentially be a habitat for microorganisms. In addition, it has been suggested that frost could form on fine-grained terrains at Gale crater during the winter [6]. If this frost gets in contact with perchlorate salts, it could melt temporarily forming liquid brines.

  18. The Distribution of Rock Salt and Gypsum in Sequence Stratigraphic Framework—A Case in Jialingjiang Formation in Chongqing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caixa, Gao; Jun, Yi; Junjiang, Su; Yongqin, Zhang; Bo, Li

    2017-05-01

    The Jialingjiang Formation of the Lower Triassic in the eastern Sichuan Basin is subdivided into four members. The first and third members are featured with limestone, while the second and forth members which are clipped with gypsum and halite are characterized by dolomite and limy dolomite. At the same time, the second and forth members are the main geothermal reservoir in Chongqing area. Two sequence boundaries represented by regional unconformities and the lithology-lithofacies transition surface are recognized in the Jialingjiang formation based on outcrop and borehole data analysis. A total of two third-order sequences are subdivided in the Jialingjiang formation, and they are subcorrelated to the intervals of Member 1 to Member 2, Member 3 to Member 4, respectively. Each sequence is further subdivided into lacustrine transgresive system tract (TST) and highstand system tract (HST) according to variation in lithology and lithofacies. The sea level change is the main factor to control the sequence development. With the sea level change, the middle and late periods of HST in sequence are the favorable periods of the development of rock salt and gypsum.

  19. Attainable high capacity in Li-excess Li-Ni-Ru-O rock-salt cathode for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingbo; Huang, Weifeng; Tao, Shi; Xie, Hui; Wu, Chuanqiang; Yu, Zhen; Su, Xiaozhi; Qi, Jiaxin; Rehman, Zia ur; Song, Li; Zhang, Guobin; Chu, Wangsheng; Wei, Shiqiang

    2017-08-01

    Peroxide structure O2n- has proven to appear after electrochemical process in many lithium-excess precious metal oxides, representing extra reversible capacity. We hereby report construction of a Li-excess rock-salt oxide Li1+xNi1/2-3x/2Ru1/2+x/2O2 electrode, with cost effective and eco-friendly 3d transition metal Ni partially substituting precious 4d transition metal Ru. It can be seen that O2n- is formed in pristine Li1.23Ni0.155Ru0.615O2, and stably exists in subsequent cycles, enabling discharge capacities to 295.3 and 198 mAh g-1 at the 1st/50th cycle, respectively. Combing ex-situ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical characterization, we demonstrate that the excellent electrochemical performance comes from both percolation network with disordered structure and cation/anion redox couples occurring in charge-discharge process. Li-excess and substitution of common element have been demonstrated to be a breakthrough for designing novel high performance commercial cathodes in rechargeable lithium ion battery field.

  20. Reflection of microwave from energy deposit by X-ray irradiation in rock salt: Implication of an ultra high energy salt neutrino detector to act like a radio bubble chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Chiba, Masami; Kamijo, Toshio; Nakamura, Shunsuke; Shibasaki, Yuji; Takayama, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Yusuke; Yabuki, Fumiaki; Yasuda, Osamu; Amano, Akio; Chikashige, Yuichi; Ibe, Keisuke; Kon, Tadashi; Ninomiya, Sosuke; Shimizu, Yutaka; Takeoka, Yoshito; Taniuchi, Yasuyuki; Utsumi, Michiaki; Fujii, Masatoshi

    2007-01-01

    Existence of GZK neutrinos (ultra high energy neutrinos) have been justified although the flux is very low. A new method is desired to use a huge mass of a detector medium to detect them. A fundamental study of radar method was carried out to measure microwave reflection from electromagnetic energy deposit by X-ray irradiation in a small rock salt sample. The reflection rate of 1x10^-6 was found at the energy deposit of 1x10^19 eV which was proportional to square of the X-ray intensity suggesting the effect to be coherent scattering. The decay time of the reflection was several seconds. This effect implies a large scale natural rock salt formation could be utilized like a bubble chamber irradiated by radio wave instead of visible light to detect GZK neutrinos.

  1. Transport of contaminants in geologic media: Radioactive waste in salt, corrosion of copper, and colloid migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yong Soo

    Analytical and numerical models on mass transfer of radionuclides from a waste package to surrounding rock are analyzed. Based on developed models corresponding computer programs are developed. These models would be used to evaluate possible hazardous radionuclide release rates into the surrounding rock/biosphere. Specifically the following fields are studied. (1) Analysis on the possible copper canister pitting corrosion by sulfide intrusion is performed to predict the canister lifetime. The study includes both steady-state and time-dependent cases. (2) Analysis on the brine migration in a salt repository is studied. Brine was traditionally thought to be the major factor on radionuclide migration in salt. But results given in this dissertation provide that the brine migration velocity is small enough to be neglected. Two analyses are developed for open bore hole as well as consolidated salt cases. (3) Analysis on the radionuclide migration in a salt repository is carried out. After proving that the diffusion is a dominant migration mechanism, the time-dependent diffusive mass transfer theory is used to predict fractional release rates of low-soluble as well as highly-soluble nuclides. Also the steady-state radionuclide migration through interbeds is analyzed based on the potential flow theory. Finally assuming no advective flow inside interbeds the transient radionuclide migration into interbeds is studied. Results show that salt is a good host rock for a future high-level waste repository. (4) Analysis on the radiocolloid migration through the porous media with filtration effect is performed. Results show that due to the strong filtration radiocolloid would not migrate significant distance in geologic media. Cylindrical geometry is used. For this analysis due to the complexity of the prescribed problem the numerical analysis based on upwind scheme is developed. (5) Analysis on the radiocolloid migration through fractures with solute matrix diffusion into

  2. t-BAMBP-煤油溶液萃取盐湖卤水中铷和铯离子%Solvent extraction of rubidium and cesium from salt lake brine with t-BAMBP-kerosene solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世明; 刘和辉; 黄云敬; 阳卫军

    2015-01-01

    The residues of salt lake brine from which potassium had been removed were used to extract Rb+and Cs+together with a sulphonated kerosene (SK) solution of 1.0 mol/L 4-tert-butyl-2-(α-methylbenzyl) phenol (t-BAMBP). Rb+and Cs+were enriched and separated effectively by precipitating Mg2+ before extraction and by scrubbing out K+ and Na+ repeatedly before stripping. The effects of the volume ratio of organic phase to aqueous extraction phase (O/A), alkalinity of aqueous phase (c(OH)−), interference from K+and Mg2+, and ratio the volume of organic phase to aqueous scrubbing phase (O/A′) were investigated. The experimental brine was extracted optimally by 5-stage extraction with 1.0 mol/L t-BAMBP in SK, c(OH−)=1 mol/L, and O/A=1:1. The scrubbing yield of rubidium was only about 10.5%when the extraction solvent was washed 3 times with 1×10−4 mol/L NaOH at O/A′=1:0.5. After 5-stage countercurrent extraction, the final extraction yields of Rb+and Cs+reached 95.04%and 99.80%, respectively.%将工厂提钾后的盐湖卤水作为提取Rb+和Cs+的实验用卤水,将萃取剂t-BAMBP的磺化煤油溶液作为有机相进行萃取。在萃取之前预先沉淀出镁并作为一种产品,在反萃前再多次洗涤分离出大部分的 K+和 Na+,最终使Rb+和Cs+得到有效富集和分离。研究油水相比(O/A)、水相的碱性(c(OH−)、K+和Mg2+的含量及洗涤油水相比(O/A′)对萃取过程的影响。最佳工艺条件为:1.0 mol/L的 t-BAMBP磺化煤油溶液,水相碱性c(OH−)=1 mol/L,油水相比O/A=1:1。当用1×10−4 mol/L NaOH溶液洗涤萃取油相3次,洗涤油水相比O/A′=1:0.5时,铷和铯的洗脱率仅为10.5%。经过5级逆流萃取,最终铷和铯的萃取率分别达到了95.04%与99.80%。

  3. Draft genome sequence of the extremely halophilic Halorubrum sp. SAH-A6 isolated from rock salts of the Danakil depression, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Halorubrum sp. SAH-A6, isolated from commercial rock salts of the Danakil depression, Ethiopia. The genome comprised 3,325,770 bp, with the G + C content of 68.0%. The strain has many genes which are responsible for secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism as compared to other Halorubrum archaea members. Abundant genes responsible for numerous transport systems, solute accumulation, and aromatic/sulfur decomposition were detected. The first gen...

  4. Radiation damage measurements on rock salt and other minerals for waste disposal applications. Quarterly report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swyler, K J; Loman, J M; Teutonico, L J; Elgort, G E; Levy, P W

    1980-04-10

    Different aspects of radiation damage in both synthetic NaCl crystals and various natural rock salt samples as well as granite, basalt and other minerals which will be important for radioactive waste disposal applications are being investigated. The principal means of measuring radiation damage is the determination of F-center concentrations, and the concentration and size of sodium metal colloid particles. Formation of these and other defects during irradiation and the annealing of defects and characterization of other processes occurring after irradiation are being studied as a function of dose rate, total dose, sample temperature during irradiation, strain applied prior to and during irradiation, etc. Measurements are being made on synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt samples from different geological locations, including some potential repository sites. It will be necessary to determine if radiation damage in the minerals from different localities is similar. If non-negligible differences are observed a detailed study must be made for each locality under consideration. Almost all current studies are being made on rock salt but other minerals particularly granite and basalt are being phased into the program. It is now established that radiation damage formation in both natural and synthetic rock salt is strongly dependent on strain. The strain related effects strongly indicate that the damage formation processes and in particular the colloid nucleation processes are related to the strain induced disolcations. A temporary theoretical effort has been started to determine which dislocation related effects are important for radiation damage processes and, most importantly, what dislocation interactions are most likely to create nucleation sites for colloid particles. If these preliminary studies indicate that additional theoretical studies will be useful an effort will be made to have them extended.

  5. Ice Control with Brine Spread with Nozzles on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars; Fonnesbech, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    . The improvements gained by the county of Funen were mainly due to the use of technologies (brine spreading with nozzles) giving a more precise spread pattern than the traditional gritting of pre-wetted salt. The spread pattern for every spreader, tested in The County of Funen, has been meassured 3 hours after...... spreading on a highway with traffic. A total of 800 spots were measured for residual salt for every spreader. The measurements and the spread pattern for brine spreading with nozzles were so precisely, that we learned: “When there is moisture, water or ice on the road, we need to take into account...

  6. Experimental investigation of geochemical and mineralogical effects of CO2 sequestration on flow characteristics of reservoir rock in deep saline aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnaweera, T D; Ranjith, P G; Perera, M S A

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between injected CO2, brine, and rock during CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers alter their natural hydro-mechanical properties, affecting the safety, and efficiency of the sequestration process. This study aims to identify such interaction-induced mineralogical changes in aquifers, and in particular their impact on the reservoir rock's flow characteristics. Sandstone samples were first exposed for 1.5 years to a mixture of brine and super-critical CO2 (scCO2), then tested to determine their altered geochemical and mineralogical properties. Changes caused uniquely by CO2 were identified by comparison with samples exposed over a similar period to either plain brine or brine saturated with N2. The results show that long-term reaction with CO2 causes a significant pH drop in the saline pore fluid, clearly due to carbonic acid (as dissolved CO2) in the brine. Free H(+) ions released into the pore fluid alter the mineralogical structure of the rock formation, through the dissolution of minerals such as calcite, siderite, barite, and quartz. Long-term CO2 injection also creates a significant CO2 drying-out effect and crystals of salt (NaCl) precipitate in the system, further changing the pore structure. Such mineralogical alterations significantly affect the saline aquifer's permeability, with important practical consequences for the sequestration process.

  7. Heat and salt fluxes in the Atlantis II Deep (Red Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anschutz, Pierre; Blanc, Gérard

    1996-07-01

    The Atlantis II Deep is located on the Red Sea axial rift. It is a topographic depression enclosing a volume of about 17 km 3 between 1,900 m and 2,200 m depth that contains layered brines of temperatures up to 66°C and salinities up to 270‰. Previous geochemical investigations showed that the hot brines result from discharge of hydrothermal solutions that have exchanged heat and chemical components with the basaltic substratum. The last investigation of the Deep in 1992 showed that the brines occurred in four well mixed layers with the shallowest at a depth of 2,000 m. The temperature and salinity profiles describe a transition zone from 2,000 m to 1,900 m, above which Red Sea water occurs. The distribution of temperature and salt in this transition zone appears to be controlled by the topography of the Deep. The hydrographic structure of the brine column has been documented in the literature for seven time intervals between 1966 and 1992. Examination of these data shows that the system changed with time. The evolution of the entire package of brines that fill the Deep shows the following changes: (1) the temperature of the brines increased; (2) the salinity of the solutions increased; (3) the two brine layers described in 1966 still existed in 1992, but new layers appeared above them; (4) for 26 years, almost all additional heat and salt supplied in the Deep were confined to the depression and were not dispersed into the overlying seawater. The fourth point indicates that a heat and salt balance for the Deep can be calculated. The calculation of the heat that entered into the system was divided into two components: the temperature increase of the brines and the heat loss at the wall-rock; the latter component was negligible. The rate of heat input to the Deep was constant during the period considered, and amounted to 0.54 × 10 9 W. The salt input was also constant, and equalled 250-350 kg/s. During the period 1966-1992, heat and salt were most probably

  8. Experimental investigation of rock salt by uniaxial pressure test after hydrostatic preloading; Experimentelle Untersuchung des Steinsalzes mittels einaxialem Drucktest mit hydrostatischer Vorbelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filimonov, Yu.L.; Shafarenko, Y.M. [Podsemgasprom GmbH, Moskau (Russian Federation). Festigkeitslab.; Lavrov, A.V.; Shkuratnik, V.L. [Moskauer Staatsbergbauuniv., Moskau (Russian Federation). Lehrstuhl fuer Physikalisch-technische Kontrolle von Bergbauprozessen

    2000-06-01

    In situ stress measurements are an important rock mechanical task in the working of rock salt deposits, in gas and mineral oil storage and in the dumping of waste in salt mines. Estimation of the stresses and the stability of the rock is necessary both for correct dimensioning of the underground cavities and also in their construction or operation. Predominantly the Hydro Frac and overdrilling methods are currently used for stress measurement. Objective restrictions, which are characteristic of these two methods, cause scientists to seek new stress measuring methods, some of which are based on other physical principles. One of the possibilities is to utilise the memory capacity of the rock and corresponding memory effects. (orig.) [German] Eine wichtige gebirgsmechanische Aufgabe beim Abbau von Steinsalzlagerstaetten, bei Gas- und Mineraloelspeicherung sowie beim Deponieren von Abfaellen im Salzgebirge stellen In-Situ-Spannungsmessungen dar. Die Einschaetzung der Spannungen und der Stabilitaet des Gebirges ist sowohl fuer richtige Dimensionierung der untertaegigen Hohlraeume als auch bei deren Bau beziehungsweise Betrieb notwendig. Zur Zeit werden fuer Spannungsmessung vorwiegend das Hydro-Frac- und das Ueberbohrverfahren verwendet. Objektive Einschraenkungen, die diesen beiden Methoden eigen sind, lassen Wissenschaftler staendig nach neuen Spannungsmessverfahren suchen, die zum Teil auf anderen physikalischen Prinzipien basieren. Eine der Moeglichkeiten besteht darin, die Gedaechtnis-Effekte auszunutzen. (orig.)

  9. Experiment on the Application of Ionic Liquid as Green Medium for Extraction of Boric Acid from Salt Lake Brine%离子液体作为绿色介质从盐湖卤水中萃取硼酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋贤菊; 李在均

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquid is a green solvent for extraction of boron from salt lake beine as extraction medium, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid was prepared and the ionic liquid, isooctyl alcohol and kerosene were used as extraction medium, synergic reagent and diluent respectively. The influence of ionic liquid dosage and extraction conditions on the boron extraction were investigated. The optimal experimental parameters were obtained as follows: ionic liquid dosage 10% ,the extractant 50% ,the ratio of organic phase to brine 1:1, the extraction time 10 min, and pH 2.4. The concentration of Mg2+ 4.268 mollL. Under optimal conditions, the boron can be fully extracted to the organic phase with three step extractions and a recovey of 99.54% was obtained.%制备了1-辛烷基-3-甲基咪唑六氟磷酸盐离子液体,再以离子液体(IL)为萃取介质、异辛醇为萃取剂及煤油为稀释剂建立盐湖卤水硼萃取研究模型,考察了离子液体用量和萃取条件对硼萃取的影响.异辛醇从卤水中萃取提硼的最佳实验条件:离子液体体积分数为10%,萃取剂体积分数为50%,相比(O/A)为1:1,萃取时间10 min,pH 2.4,Mg2+浓度为4.268 mol/L.在此条件下,当萃取级数为3级时,萃取率为99.54%,卤水中的硼可被完全萃取到有机相中.

  10. Precipitation of halite from supersaline brine from Tønder formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arturi, Kasia; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    This project deals various treatments for geothermal brine, which is a highly salty solution containing more that 50 TDS (Total Dissolved Solids). This project focuses on the brine from Tønder formation (T=73°C), which has an extraordinarily high salt content NaCl ([C] = 300-310 g/l). According...

  11. Investigation on the permeability characteristics of bedded salt rocks and the tightness of natural gas caverns in such formations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wei; Muhammad, N.; Chen, Jie; Spiers, C.J.; Peach, C.J.; Deyi, Jiang; Li, Yinping

    In China, the salt formations close to the lower reaches of the large natural gas routes and the main gas consuming regions are all bedded structures. The presences of non-halite or low-halite mudstone interlayers and interfaces (salt-interlayer) in these bedded salt formations increase the concern

  12. 中国东部岩盐矿区建造盐穴储气库地质条件分析%GEOLOGICAL CONDITION ANALYSIS ON GAS STORAGE FOR BUILDING SALT CAVERN OF ROCK SALT AREA IN EASTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少华; 杨树杰

    2015-01-01

    The halite bed of eastern China is frequentlyinterbedded with the other rocks. According to the different rock salt bed interlayer of salt bearing zone, the section structure is separated into three types including the first interlayer which is easy to build salt cavern and dominated by dissolubility salinastone-glauberite and mudstone, the second interlayer which is common to build it and dominated by clastic rock(mudstone, siltstone) with a little readily soluble salt as well as the third interlayer which is hard to build it and dominated by gypsum and anhydrite with mud and sandstone. It is easy to build salt cavern at Jintan area of Jiangsu province but hard to build it at some basins such as Wuyang city of Henan province. Some sections with thick salt bed., thin interlayer and fewwater insoluble substance are also good for build salt cavern.%中国东部岩盐层与其它岩石频繁互层.从建造储气盐穴是否有利出发,根据含盐段岩盐层夹层的不同将剖面结构类型分为三类:第1类夹层以可溶性盐类——钙芒硝及泥岩为主,该类较易建造盐穴;第2类型夹层以碎屑岩(泥岩、粉砂岩)为主,含少量易溶盐类,该类建造盐穴条件一般;第3类型夹层以石膏、硬石膏为主,含泥、砂岩,该类难以建造盐穴.在中国东部诸多盐矿区中,江苏金坛建造盐穴条件较好,易于建造盐穴.而江苏淮安、湖南衡阳、湖北潜江、河南舞阳等盆地条件较差,但在这些矿区中,选择盐层厚度相对较大,夹层较薄、水不溶物质含量较低的地段,亦可建造储气盐穴.

  13. Searching for brine on Mars using Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, E.

    2016-07-01

    In the last few years, water ice and perchlorate salts capable of melting this ice and producing liquid solutions have been discovered at the surface and shallow subsurface of Mars. In addition to via melting of ice, perchlorate salts may also form liquid solutions by absorbing water vapor when the relative humidity is above a certain threshold in a process known as deliquescence. Formed either by melting or deliquescence, liquid solutions (brine) are the most likely way of liquid water activity on the Martian surface and in the shallow subsurface and are therefore important to understand the habitability of Mars. Using Raman spectroscopy, we provide reference spectra of various mixing states of liquid water, water ice and calcium perchlorate, all of which can occur during brine formation. We focus on the perchlorate symmetric stretching band and the O-H stretching vibrational band to distinguish brine from crystalline salt and water ice. We show that perchlorate brines can be identified by analyzing the peaks and their widths in the decomposed Raman spectra of the investigated samples. This serves as an important reference for future in-situ Raman spectrometers on Mars, such as those on the ExoMars and Mars 2020 rovers and can aid in the detection of brine formation on Mars. (Author)

  14. Treatment methods for geothermal brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S.L.; Mathur, A.K.; Garrison, W.

    1979-04-01

    A survey is made of commercially available methods currently in use as well as those which might be used to prevent scaling and corrosion in geothermal brines. More emphasis is placed on scaling. Treatments are classified as inhibitors, alterants and coagulants; they are applied to control scaling and corrosion in fresh and waste geothermal brines. Recommendations for research in brine treatment are described.

  15. Brine Distribution after Vacuum Saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Kathrine; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann

    1999-01-01

    Experiments with the vacuum saturation method for brine in plugs of chalk showed that a homogeneous distribution of brine cannot be ensured at saturations below 20% volume. Instead of a homogeneous volume distribution the brine becomes concentrated close to the surfaces of the plugs...

  16. Resarch on Unloading Modulus for Salt Rock Damage Testing%盐岩损伤测试中卸载模量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建锋; 徐进; 裴建良; 张茹

    2011-01-01

    利用MTS815 Flex Test GT岩石力学试验系统,对盐岩和大理岩进行了单轴压缩下的7级加卸载试验和低周循环加卸载试验测试,对盐岩和大理岩的卸载模量进行了探讨。低周循环试验加载波形采用正弦波,频率1Hz,循环应力幅值小于其平均抗压强度,单级应力幅值为30个振动循环。通过试验,得到了盐岩应力应变滞回环均为条带状,大理岩则均为尖叶状;盐岩在加卸载部位具有较大不可逆变形,对应弹性响应较慢,大理岩则反之;盐岩卸载模量变化趋势受加载测试方法影响较大,而大理岩在2种试验条件下得到的卸载模量变化趋势相似;加载应%The uniaxial seven stress levels cyclic loading and unloading test for salt rock and marble were carried out on MTS815 Flex Test GT rock mechanics test system,and the damage unloading modulus were discussed.The loading test wave for low cyclic loading test was sine wave,and its frequency was 1.0 Hz.The maximum of cyclic stress was less than the value of the average intensity of compression,and the cyclic number of every level cyclic stress was 30 cycles.The test showed that the hysteresis loop of the curve of strain and stress was the ribbon for salt rock and tine lobation for marble stone.The salt rock had larger irreversible deformation at reloading and unloading position where corresponding elastic deformation response was slow,but the results for the marble stone were contrary.Because the unloading modulus for salt rock was influenced by test method,the changing tendency of unloading modulus for salt rock during the two test methods was reverse,while the results for marble stone were consistent during the two test methods.The effect on the increment of irreversible deformation for salt rock was more prominent for the condition of the loading stress amplitude than that of the cyclic numbers.The damage variable test results revealed that it was more authentic to describe the damage

  17. The effect of the initial rock permeability on the extent of injectivity reduction due to brine injection through fractured formation; L'effet de la permeabilite initiale sur l'importance de la reduction d'injectivite due a l'injection d'eau au travers de formations fracturees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Homadhi, E.S. [King Saud Univ., Dept. Petroleum Engineering, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2001-07-01

    The injectivity reduction with time is an important aspect in designing water injection projects. One of the main factors that affect the injectivity, due to particle invasion, is the matrix initial permeability This factor had been experimentally investigated and evaluated by many researchers, but all of their experimental works were based on linear core flow tests. However, in some field injection projects, there was a much less reduction in the injectivity with time than what was predicted by the experimental models. This incompatibility was related to the induction of fractures caused by injection at a pressure higher than the formation fracturing pressure. This study was conducted to investigate experimentally the effect of the matrix initial permeability on the extent of injectivity reduction caused by brine injection through a rock matrix with a single fracture. The injected brine contained solid particles less than 6 {mu}m or less than 20 {mu}m in size at a concentration of 9 mg/l. The early results show experimentally the huge difference in the injectivity reduction extent between flow tests carried out with closed and open fracture injection. Then, the results are presented as an injectivity index at a certain injected pore volume versus initial permeability. The slope of this relation is called reduction rate. This rate was evaluated for different cases. For the case of brine suspensions that contain small particles, the reduction rate of the injectivity index due to initial permeability variation in the case of open fracture tests was much less than that of the closed fracture tests. For the case of fracture injection of the large particles suspensions, the reduction rate was threefold higher than that of the small particles suspension. This proves that the particle size factor has an important role in determining the extent of the initial rock permeability effect on the injectivity index in fracture injection. (author)

  18. 含杂质盐岩力学特性对比试验研究%Experimental study on mechanical property of rock salt with impurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雅丽; 张华宾; 王芝银; 丁双龙; 王芝银

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical experiments were carried out on the different kinds of rock samples which are salt,mudstone,glauberite,anhydrite and salt-mudstone.The experiment results indicate that different impurities have obvious effect on the deformability and the compressive strength;The modulus of elasticity and the uniaxial strength have a large range with the kind and content of the impurities and the glauberite's are higher;In triaxial compression tests,pure rock salts have a higher internal friction angle and a lower cohesion than the rocks with impurities.Besides the rock salt,the internal friction angle and cohesion of anhydrite are lower than others'.The test results provide certain reference to the design of salt cavern under complex stratum.%从某地拟建地下盐穴储库库区取芯,对含不同杂质盐岩(纯盐岩、钙芒硝质盐岩、硬石膏质盐岩及泥质混合盐岩)进行了力学试验,并对所获得的力学特性进行了对比分析。结果表明:①在单轴和三轴压缩试验过程中,不同杂质成分对抑制盐岩的变形能力、提高盐岩抗压强度的作用有所不同;②含不同杂质盐岩的弹性模量、单轴抗压及抗拉强度有较大变化区间,钙芒硝质盐岩的弹性模量和抗拉强度较大;③通过三轴压缩试验获得含不同杂质盐岩内摩擦角的量值明显低于纯盐岩,而黏聚力均大于纯盐岩。除纯盐岩外,硬石膏质盐岩的内摩擦角和黏聚力相对较小。

  19. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON MESO-PORE STRUCTURE PROPERTIES OF BEDDED SALT ROCK%层状盐岩细观孔隙特性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪文栋; 杨春和; 刘伟; 李铭铭

    2013-01-01

    孔隙特性是决定盐岩储库密闭性的关键因素。对层状盐岩中不同岩性的试样开展压汞法测试和电镜扫描试验,分析层状盐岩孔隙率与渗透率的关系,并对层状盐岩的孔隙结构、分布特性及其密封性能进行研究。压汞测试表明:盐岩、泥岩和泥质钙芒硝的孔隙率平均值分别为2.7%,6.0%和2.5%,与常规岩石对比发现层状盐岩的孔隙率处在非常低的水平。孔隙率与渗透率之间存在明显的关系:低孔隙率是低渗透率的充分非必要条件,而高渗透率是高孔隙率的充分非必要条件,高孔隙率的试样有时也会出现低渗透率的情况。对岩体渗透率影响最大的是相互连通的部分孔隙,一旦存在连通的孔隙,渗透率就会显著增加。电镜扫描结果显示,盐岩是典型的晶体构造,内部结构密实,无明显的孔隙存在。泥岩中黏土和有机质颗粒的差异会显著影响其孔隙性质,颗粒粒径大小不一且呈块状或卵石状的区域孔隙大量发育,颗粒均质、呈块状的区域结构密实,孔隙较不发育。泥岩和盐岩的交界面处并不是孔隙发育的区域,泥岩和盐岩相互咬合、嵌入及泥岩细小颗粒的填充使孔隙率降低。含泥盐岩(含盐泥岩)中局部孔隙较为发育,并且连通度较高,是渗流可能发生的区域,建议储气库设计建造时避免将关键部位设置在孔隙发育区域,以保障密闭性。本文的研究成果可为储气库的建造及密闭性分析提供指导。%The property of pore structure is the key issue for the tightness of storage caverns. Mercury injection porosimetry tests and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) tests are conducted for different lithological rocks in bedded salt rock. The relationship between porosity and permeability,pore structure,distribution characteristics, as well as the corresponding tightness properties,are analyzed. The mercury injection

  20. The salts of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Van Hart, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Salt compounds are apparently an important component of the fine-grained regolith on Mars. Salt enrichment may be explained either as a secondary concentration of chemical weathering products or as direct incorporation of planetary released volatiles. Geochemical measurements and chemical relationships constrain the salt species and resultant physicochemical consequences. A likely assemblage is dominated by (Mg,Na)SO4, NaCl, and (Mg,Ca)CO3. Formation of brine in equilibrium with such a salt mixture is unlikely under the temperature and water-vapor restrictions prevalent over most, if not all, of the Martian surface. Acidic conditions, accompanying salt formation, favor the preferential destruction of susceptible igneous minerals.

  1. Half-metallicity, magnetism and electrical resistivity of Sn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te alloys in rock salt and zinc blende structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yong [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology and College of Science, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Physics Department, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada L2S 3A1 (Canada); Bose, S.K., E-mail: sbose@brocku.ca [Physics Department, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada L2S 3A1 (Canada); Kudrnovský, J. [Institute of Physics, Academy of the Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-02-01

    This work presents the results for the magnetic properties of the compound SnTe doped with 3d transition metal Mn from the viewpoint of potential application in spintronics. We report a systematic density-functional study of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of these ternary compounds in both rock salt and zinc blende structures. In both cases, it is the Sn-sublattice that is doped with Mn. Among the various compounds studied, we identify one as a possible half-metallic candidate: 25% Mn-doping of the Sn-sublattice in the rock salt structure. Others are either magnetic semiconductors or metals. Exchange interaction between the Mn atoms is discussed and results for resistivities for various compositions in the two structures are compared. For low Mn concentration, the zero temperature ground state of the compound is found to be semiconducting and the Mn–Mn exchange interactions are dominantly antiferromagnetic. The weakly ferromagnetic interaction and ordering found in experiments is shown to be ‘carrier induced’. It is shown that ferromagnetic interactions between the Mn atoms are caused by the presence of ‘holes’. Another likely cause is the presence of extra Te atoms in interstitial locations, which seems to suppress Mn–Mn antiferromagnetic interactions. This is supported by the earlier experimental observation that a weak ferromagnetism occurs in these alloys for low Mn concentration only if the samples are subjected to additional Te-flux. - Highlights: • We study electronic structure and magnetic properties of Mn-doped semiconductor SnTe. • We find one antiferromagnetic half-metallic case: Sn{sub 3}Mn{sub 1}Te{sub 4} in rock salt structure. • We show that the presence of ‘holes’ may turn antiferromagnetic Mn–Mn interactions to ferromagnetic. • Results are compared with available experimental data.

  2. Transient heat conduction through a substrate of brine-spongy ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, S. R.; Naterer, G. F.; Muzychka, Y. S.

    2017-03-01

    An analytical model for heat conduction through brine-spongy ice is developed. This model fills a gap in knowledge related to transient heat conduction to a two-phase substrate which is crucial for modeling transient icing and deicing of cold surfaces in contact with salt water. The core of the model is based on the phase change of pure ice and brine pockets trapped in the structure of spongy ice. Freezing of brine pockets causes the release of the latent heat of fusion that is considered as the source of heat generation distributed throughout the brine-spongy ice. A nonlinear partial differential equation and a number of equations of state for ice, brine, and brine-spongy ice create governing equations of heat transfer through brine-spongy ice. A standard numerical scheme solves the set of equations in various initial conditions. The variation of temperature, volume fraction of brine and salinity of brine pockets are calculated numerically. Experimental samples of brine-spongy ice are examined under transient conditions and their surface temperatures are captured using an infrared thermal camera. The numerical results, which are for various overall salinities, are closely aligned with the measured surface temperatures.

  3. Transient heat conduction through a substrate of brine-spongy ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, S. R.; Naterer, G. F.; Muzychka, Y. S.

    2017-08-01

    An analytical model for heat conduction through brine-spongy ice is developed. This model fills a gap in knowledge related to transient heat conduction to a two-phase substrate which is crucial for modeling transient icing and deicing of cold surfaces in contact with salt water. The core of the model is based on the phase change of pure ice and brine pockets trapped in the structure of spongy ice. Freezing of brine pockets causes the release of the latent heat of fusion that is considered as the source of heat generation distributed throughout the brine-spongy ice. A nonlinear partial differential equation and a number of equations of state for ice, brine, and brine-spongy ice create governing equations of heat transfer through brine-spongy ice. A standard numerical scheme solves the set of equations in various initial conditions. The variation of temperature, volume fraction of brine and salinity of brine pockets are calculated numerically. Experimental samples of brine-spongy ice are examined under transient conditions and their surface temperatures are captured using an infrared thermal camera. The numerical results, which are for various overall salinities, are closely aligned with the measured surface temperatures.

  4. Experimental investigation of injectivity alteration due to salt precipitation during CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddizahed, Javad; Rostami, Behzad

    2016-10-01

    Injection of CO2 into saline aquifers causes the geochemical reaction of rock-fluid and salt precipitation due to the evaporation of water as a physical process. Well injectivity is an important issue in carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects because large volumes of CO2 must be stored for a long time and salt precipitation can significantly reduce injectivity by reducing the permeability. The impact of salt precipitation on the injectivity must therefore be specified in order to maintain the security of CCS projects and enable them to perform at a high level of practicality. The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of the injection rate and brine salinity on injectivity reduction due to evaporation and salt precipitation. In this study, we injected supercritical CO2 into a sandstone rock sample fully saturated with NaCl brine to characterize the salt precipitation induced by the evaporation process. Evaporation is investigated by mass measurement of the water and vapor produced. The extension in time of salt precipitation and the precipitation profile are analyzed by drying rate measurement, Capillary number and Peclet number. The consequences of salt precipitation on injectivity are specified by permeability and relative permeability analysis. The results show that a high drying rate in the early stage of injection induces rapid salt precipitation. The level of salt precipitation increases with salinity, within a permeability reduction range of 21-66%, and decreases with the injection rate, within a permeability reduction range of 43-62%. The relative permeability of CO2 is affected by both the injection rate and salinity.

  5. Comment on "Thermodynamic properties of rock-salt ZnO" by Leitner et al. [Thermochimica Acta 572 (2013) 1-5

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Very recently Leitner et al. [Thermochimica Acta 572 (2013) 1-5] have tried to extract the thermodynamic data of rock-salt ZnO from ab initio and experimental data available in the literature. In this Comment we show that neglecting (i) the strongly pronounced kinetic features of the pressure-induced phase transition in ZnO at room temperature and (ii) results of calorimetric measurements available in the literature [Russ. Chem. Bull. 59 (2010) 325-328] makes the proposed set of thermodynamic...

  6. Hydrogeochemical characterization and groundwater quality assessment in intruded coastal brine aquifers (Laizhou Bay, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Miao, Jinjie; Hu, Bill X; Liu, Hongwei; Zhang, Hanxiong; Ma, Zhen

    2017-07-20

    The aquifer in the coastal area of the Laizhou Bay is affected by salinization processes related to intense groundwater exploitation for brine resource and for agriculture irrigation during the last three decades. As a result, the dynamic balances among freshwater, brine, and seawater have been disturbed and the quality of groundwater has deteriorated. To fully understand the groundwater chemical distribution and evolution in the regional aquifers, hydrogeochemical and isotopic studies have been conducted based on the water samples from 102 observation wells. Groundwater levels and salinities in four monitoring wells are as well measured to inspect the general groundwater flow and chemical patterns and seasonal variations. Chemical components such as Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Sr(2+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), HCO3(-), NO3(-), F(-), and TDS during the same period are analyzed to explore geochemical evolution, water-rock interactions, sources of salt, nitrate, and fluoride pollution in fresh, brackish, saline, and brine waters. The decreased water levels without typical seasonal variation in the southeast of the study area confirm an over-exploitation of groundwater. The hydrogeochemical characteristics indicate fresh-saline-brine-saline transition pattern from inland to coast where evaporation is a vital factor to control the chemical evolution. The cation exchange processes are occurred at fresh-saline interfaces of mixtures along the hydraulic gradient. Meanwhile, isotopic data indicate that the brine in aquifers was either originated from older meteoric water with mineral dissolution and evaporation or repeatedly evaporation of retained seawater with fresher water recharge and mixing in geological time. Groundwater suitability for drinking is further evaluated according to water quality standard of China. Results reveal high risks of nitrate and fluoride contamination. The elevated nitrate concentration of 560 mg/L, which as high as 28 times of the standard content in

  7. Expected environments in high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel repositories in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Rickertsen, L.D., Graham, R.F.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the expected environments associated with high-level waste (HLW) and spent fuel (SF) repositories in salt formations. These environments include the thermal, fluid, pressure, brine chemistry, and radiation fields predicted for the repository conceptual designs. In this study, it is assumed that the repository will be a room and pillar mine in a rock-salt formation, with the disposal horizon located approx. 2000 ft (610 m) below the surface of the earth. Canistered waste packages containing HLW in a solid matrix or SF elements are emplaced in vertical holes in the floor of the rooms. The emplacement holes are backfilled with crushed salt or other material and sealed at some later time. Sensitivity studies are presented to show the effect of changing the areal heat load, the canister heat load, the barrier material and thickness, ventilation of the storage room, and adding a second row to the emplacement configuration. The calculated thermal environment is used as input for brine migration calculations. The vapor and gas pressure will gradually attain the lithostatic pressure in a sealed repository. In the unlikely event that an emplacement hole will become sealed in relatively early years, the vapor space pressure was calculated for three scenarios (i.e., no hole closure - no backfill, no hole closure - backfill, and hole closure - no backfill). It was assumed that the gas in the system consisted of air and water vapor in equilibrium with brine. A computer code (REPRESS) was developed assuming that these changes occur slowly (equilibrium conditions). The brine chemical environment is outlined in terms of brine chemistry, corrosion, and compositions. The nuclear radiation environment emphasized in this report is the stored energy that can be released as a result of radiation damage or crystal dislocations within crystal lattices.

  8. Silicate melt inclusion evidence for extreme pre-eruptive enrichment and post-eruptive depletion of lithium in silicic volcanic rocks of the western United States: implications for the origin of lithium-rich brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, Albert H.; Todorov, T.I.; Mercer, C.N.; Adams, D.T.; Marsh, E.E.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether anatectic and/or highly fractionated lithophile element-enriched rhyolite tuffs deposited in arid lacustrine basins lose enough lithium during eruption, lithification, and weathering to generate significant Li brine resources, pre-eruptive melt compositions, preserved in inclusions, and the magnitude of post-eruptive Li depletions, evident in host rhyolites, were documented at six sites in the western United States. Each rhyolite is a member of the bimodal basalt-rhyolite assemblage associated with extensional tectonics that produced the Basin and Range province and Rio Grande rift, an evolving pattern of closed drainage basins, and geothermal energy or mineral resources. Results from the 0.8 Ma Bishop tuff (geothermal) in California, 1.3 to 1.6 Ma Cerro Toledo and Upper Bandelier tephra (geothermal) and 27.9 Ma Taylor Creek rhyolite (Sn) in New Mexico, 21.7 Ma Spor Mountain tuff (Be, U, F) and 24.6 Ma Pine Grove tuff (Mo) in Utah, and 27.6 Ma Hideaway Park tuff (Mo) in Colorado support the following conclusions. Melt inclusions in quartz phenocrysts from rhyolite tuffs associated with hydrothermal deposits of Sn, Mo, and Be are extremely enriched in Li (1,000s of ppm); those from Spor Mountain have the highest Li abundance yet recorded (max 5,200 ppm, median 3,750 ppm). Forty-five to 98% of the Li present in pre-eruptive magma was lost to the environment from these rhyolite tuffs. The amount of Li lost from the small volumes (1–10 km3) of Li-enriched rhyolite deposited in closed basins is sufficient to produce world-class Li brine resources. After each eruption, meteoric water leaches Li from tuff, which drains into playas, where it is concentrated by evaporation. The localized occurrence of Li-enriched rhyolites may explain why brines in arid lacustrine basins seldom have economic concentrations of Li. Considering that hydrothermal deposits of Sn, Mo, Be, U, and F may indicate potential for Li brines in nearby basins, we surmise that the

  9. A measurement of creep and permeability of a salt cavern; Une mesure de la permeabilite et du fluage d`une caverne dans le sel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berest, P.; Bergues, J.; Brouard, B. [Ecole Polytechnique, (LMS), 91 - Palaiseau (France); Durup, G.; Guerber, B. [Gaz de France (GDF), 93 - La-Plaine-Saint-Denis (France)

    1999-07-01

    Rock mass properties differ significantly from those measured on samples in the laboratory. A test has been performed on a deep brine-filled cavern, with the objective of measuring the equilibrium pressure reached when the cavern was closed. Such an equilibrium is reached when salt mass creep, which leads to cavern shrinkage, balances brine permeation through the cavern wall. A K = 2.10{sup -19} m{sup 2} value of the average in situ intrinsic permeability has been deduced from the test; it is significantly higher than the intrinsic permeability measured in a well or in the laboratory. This result supports cavern abandonment scenarios in which the risk of natural fracturing due to high brine pressures is alleviated. (authors) 14 refs.

  10. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  11. Evaporation Rates of Brine on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Chittenden, J.; Moore, S. R.; Meier, A.; Kareev, M.; Farmer, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    While Mars is now largely a dry and barren place, recent data have indicated that water has flowed at specific locations within the last approx. 10(exp 6) y. This had led to a resurgence of interest in theoretical and experimental work aimed at understanding the behavior of water on Mars. There are several means whereby the stability of liquid water on Mars could be increased, one being the presence solutes that would depress the freezing point. Salt water on Earth is about 0.5M NaCl, but laboratory experiments suggest that martian salt water is quite different. We recently began a program of laboratory measurements of the stability of liquid water, ice and ice-dust mixtures under martian conditions and here report measurements of the evaporation rate of 0.25M brine.

  12. Electrically Conducting, Ca-Rich Brines, Rather Than Water, Expected in the Martian Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, D. M.; Knauth, L. P.

    2003-01-01

    If Mars ever possessed a salty liquid hydrosphere, which later partly evaporated and froze down, then any aqueous fluids left near the surface could have evolved to become dense eutectic brines. Eutectic brines, by definition, are the last to freeze and the first to melt. If CaC12-rich, such brines can remain liquid until temperatures below 220 K, close to the average surface temperature of Mars. In the Martian subsurface, in intimate contact with the Ca-rich basaltic regolith, NaC1-rich early brines should have reacted to become Ca-rich. Fractional crystallization (freezing) and partial melting would also drive brines toward CaC12-rich compositions. In other words, eutectic brine compositions could be present in the shallow subsurface of Mars, for the same reasons that eutectic magma compositions are common on Earth. Don Juan Pond, Antarctica, a CaC12-rich eutectic brine, provides a possible terrestrial analog, particularly because it is fed from a basaltic aquifer. Owing to their relative density and fluid nature, brines in the Martian regolith should eventually become sandwiched between ice above and salts beneath. A thawing brine sandwich provides one explanation (among many) for the young gullies recently attributed to seepage of liquid water on Mars. Whether or not brine seepage explains the gullies phenomenon, dense, CaC12-rich brines are to be expected in the deep subsurface of Mars, although they might be somewhat diluted (temperatures permitting) and of variable salt composition. In any case, they should be good conductors of electricity.

  13. Weeks Island brine diffuser site study: baseline conditions and environmental assessment technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-12

    This technical report presents the results of a study conducted at two alternative brine diffuser sites (A and B) proposed for the Weeks Island salt dome, together with an analysis of the potential physical, chemical, and biological effects of brine disposal for this area of the Gulf of Mexico. Brine would result from either the leaching of salt domes to form or enlarge oil storage caverns, or the subsequent use of these caverns for crude oil storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program. Brine leached from the Weeks Island salt dome would be transported through a pipeline which would extend from the salt dome either 27 nautical miles (32 statute miles) for Site A, or 41 nautical miles (47 statute miles) for Site B, into Gulf waters. The brine would be discharged at these sites through an offshore diffuser at a sustained peak rate of 39 ft/sup 3//sec. The disposal of large quantities of brine in the Gulf could have a significant impact on the biology and water quality of the area. Physical and chemical measurements of the marine environment at Sites A and B were taken between September 1977 and July 1978 to correlate the existing environmental conditions with the estimated physical extent of tthe brine discharge as predicted by the MIT model (US Dept. of Commerce, 1977a). Measurements of wind, tide, waves, currents, and stratification (water column structure) were also obtained since the diffusion and dispersion of the brine plume are a function of the local circulation regime. These data were used to calculate both near- and far-field concentrations of brine, and may also be used in the design criteria for diffuser port configuration and verification of the plume model. Biological samples were taken to characterize the sites and to predict potential areas of impact with regard to the discharge. This sampling focused on benthic organisms and demersal fish. (DMC)

  14. Rock-avalanche dynamics revealed by large-scale field mapping and seismic signals at a highly mobile avalanche in the West Salt Creek valley, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jeffrey A.; Baum, Rex L.; Allstadt, Kate; Kochevar, Bernard; Schmitt, Robert G.; Morgan, Matthew L.; White, Jonathan L.; Stratton, Benjamin T.; Hayashi, Timothy A.; Kean, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    On 25 May 2014, a rain-on-snow–induced rock avalanche occurred in the West Salt Creek valley on the northern flank of Grand Mesa in western Colorado (United States). The avalanche mobilized from a preexisting rock slide in the Green River Formation and traveled 4.6 km down the confined valley, killing three people. The avalanche was rare for the contiguous United States because of its large size (54.5 Mm3) and high mobility (height/length = 0.14). To understand the avalanche failure sequence, mechanisms, and mobility, we conducted a forensic analysis using large-scale (1:1000) structural mapping and seismic data. We used high-resolution, unmanned aircraft system imagery as a base for field mapping, and analyzed seismic data from 22 broadband stations (distances avalanche exerted on the earth and tracked these forces using curves in the avalanche path. Our results revealed that the rock avalanche was a cascade of landslide events, rather than a single massive failure. The sequence began with an early morning landslide/debris flow that started ∼10 h before the main avalanche. The main avalanche lasted ∼3.5 min and traveled at average velocities ranging from 15 to 36 m/s. For at least two hours after the avalanche ceased movement, a central, hummock-rich core continued to move slowly. Since 25 May 2014, numerous shallow landslides, rock slides, and rock falls have created new structures and modified avalanche topography. Mobility of the main avalanche and central core was likely enhanced by valley floor material that liquefied from undrained loading by the overriding avalanche. Although the base was likely at least partially liquefied, our mapping indicates that the overriding avalanche internally deformed predominantly by sliding along discrete shear surfaces in material that was nearly dry and had substantial frictional strength. These results indicate that the West Salt Creek avalanche, and probably other long-traveled avalanches, could be modeled as two

  15. Lithium and magnesium separation from salt lake brine by ionic liquids containing tributyl phosphate%离子液体-磷酸三丁酯体系分离盐湖卤水镁锂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石成龙; 贾永忠; 景燕

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, a typical room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C8mim][PF6]), was used as an alternative solvent to study liquid/liquid extraction of lithium from salt lake brine. In this system, the ionic liquids and tributyl phosphate (TBP) were used as extraction medium and extractant respectively. The effects of solution pH value, phase ratio and other factors on lithium extraction efficiency had been investigated. The preliminary experimental results had demonstrated that, compared with using conventional extraction system, the extraction efficiency had been increased greatly in this ionic liquid system. Optimal extraction conditions of this system include the ratio of TBP/ILs at 9/1(vol), O/A at 2:1 and unadjusted pH. Under the optimal conditions, the single extraction efficiency of lithium ion and magnesium ion were 80.64% and 5.30%, respectively. And total extraction efficiency of 99.42% was obtained by triple-stage countercurrent extraction. The single stripping rate of lithium ion and magnesium ion were 98.78% and 99.15%, respectively, at 80℃ when the A/O phase ratio was 2. The Mg/Li ratio was 3.03 in the aqueous phase after stripping, which have dropped 93.41% when compared with the initial value.To evaluate the potential use of RTILs to replace traditional volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in liquid/liquid extraction of lithium, the extractions of lithium ion with VOCs and ionic liquid were compared. Compared with using conventional extraction system, the extraction efficiency had been increased greatly in this ionic liquid system. In addition, the equipment corrosion and the environmental pollution had been avoided in this new extraction system. The extraction mechanism was deduced based on the ultraviolet-visible(UV) absorption. Cation exchange was proposed to be the mechanism of extraction followed in ionic liquid. So the ionic liquid was not only regarded as the solvent but also the co

  16. Hydrographic changes during 20 years in the brine-filled basins of the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anschutz, Pierre; Blanc, Gérard; Chatin, Fabienne; Geiller, Magali; Pierret, Marie-Claire

    1999-10-01

    Many of the deep basins filled by hot brines in the Red Sea have not been investigated since their discovery in the early 1970s. Twenty years later, in September 1992, six of these deeps were revisited. The temperature and salinity of the Suakin, Port Sudan, Chain B, and Nereus deeps ranged from 23.25 to 44.60°C and from 144 to 270‰. These values were approximately the same in 1972, indicating that the budget of heat and salt was quite balanced. We measured strong gradients of properties in the transition zone between brines and overlying seawater. The contribution of salinity to the density gradient was more than one order of magnitude higher than the opposite contribution of temperature across the seawater-brine interface. Therefore the interface was extemely stable, and the transfer of properties across it was considered to be controlled mostly by molecular diffusion. We calculate that the diffusional transport of salt from the brines to seawater cannot affect significantly the salinity of the brines over a 20 year period, which agrees with the observations. The brine pools can persist for centuries with no salt input. Therefore, the persisence of brines does not correspond to a steady balance between diffusional loss and continuous input of hydrothermal solutions. Deeps that experience only episodical hydrothermal brine supplies may persist for a long time with salt inherited from past inputs. The theoretical loss of heat by diffusion from the brine to seawater was higher than the observed decrease in temperature of the brine pool during the 20 year period of observation. We calculated that the heat flux out of the pools into the overlying seawater was compensated by a heat flux into the pools of about 250-600 mW/m 2. This range of values corresponds to bottom heat flow values that have been reported earlier for the axial zone of the Red Sea. In contrast to the other brine pools, the temperature and salinity of the Valdivia Deep brine increased by 4.1°C and

  17. Ion association in natural brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Jones, B.F.

    1969-01-01

    Natural brines, both surface and subsurface, are highly associated aqueous solutions. Ion complexes in brines may be ion pairs in which the cation remains fully hydrated and the bond between the ions is essentially electrostatic, or coordination complexes in which one or more of the hydration water molecules are replaced by covalent bonds to the anion. Except for Cl-, the major simple ions in natural brines form ion pairs; trace and minor metals in brines form mainly coordination complexes. Limitations of the Debye-Hu??ckel relations for activity coefficients and lack of data on definition and stability of all associated species in concentrated solutions tend to produce underestimates of the degree of ion association, except where the brines contain a very high proportion of Cl-. Data and calculations on closed basin brines of highly varied composition have been coupled with electrode measurements of single-ion activities in an attempt to quantify the degree of ion association. Such data emphasize the role of magnesium complexes. Trace metal contents of closed basin brines are related to complexes formed with major anions. Alkaline sulfo- or chlorocarbonate brines (western Great Basin) carry significant trace metal contents apparently as hydroxides or hydroxy polyions. Neutral high chloride brines (Bonneville Basin) are generally deficient in trace metals. With a knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of a natural water, many possible reactions with other phases (solids, gases, other liquids) may be predicted. A knowledge of these reactions is particularly important in the study of natural brines which may be saturated with many solid phases (silicates, carbonates, sulfates, etc.), which may have a high pH and bring about dissolution of other phases (silica, amphoteric hydroxides, CO2, etc.), and which because of their high density may form relatively stable interfaces with dilute waters. ?? 1969.

  18. Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant and Enzymatic Activity of Brines from Scandinavian Marinated Herring Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Osman, Ali; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2014-01-01

    Brines generated during the last marination step in the production of marinated herring (Clupea harengus) were chemically characterized and analyzed for antioxidant and enzyme activities. The end-products were vinegar cured, spice cured and traditional barrel-salted herring with either salt...... or spices. The chemical characterization encompassed pH, dry matter, ash, salt, fatty acids, protein, polypeptide pattern, iron and nitrogen. The antioxidant activity was tested with three assays measuring: iron chelation, reducing power and radical scavenging activity. The enzymatic activity for peroxidase...... with biological activity from brines from the marinated herring production was demonstrated in this work....

  19. Effect of iron cation on geochemical trapping of CO2 in brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Maroto-Valer, Mercedes

    2014-05-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration using brines has emerged as a promising technology to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change due to its large storage capacity and favorable chemistries. However, the permanent storage (mineral trapping) of CO2 in brines takes significantly long periods of time as the formation and precipitation of carbonates is very slow .[1]. The main parameters reported to effect on mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines are brine composition, brine pH, system temperature and pressure.[2, 3]. It is suggested that the precipitation of mineral carbonates is mostly dependent on brine pH. Previous studies by the authors concluded that iron in natural brines causes pH instability, but it was not ascertained whether ferric iron or ferrous iron caused pH instability .[4]. Accordingly, the aim of this project is to study synthetic brines mimicking the major ions found in natural brines and including different concentrations of ferric and ferrous iron. Three brines were prepared, as follows: Brine 1 was prepared with ferric Fe3+ iron, Brine 2 prepared with ferrous Fe2+ iron and Brine 3 prepared with no iron. A series of pH stability studies and carbonation reactions were conducted using the above three brines. It is concluded that the ferrous iron causes pH instability, while ferric iron might promote carbonate precipitation. .1. Garcia, S., et al., Sequestration of non-pure carbon dioxide streams in iron oxyhydroxide-containing saline repositories. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2012. 7: p. 89-97. 2. Liu, Q. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Investigation of the pH effect of a typical host rock and buffer solution on CO 2 sequestration in synthetic brines. Fuel Processing Technology, 2010. 91(10): p. 1321-1329. 3. Liu, Q. and M.M. MarotoValer, Parameters affecting mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, 2011. 1(3): p. 211-222. 4. Druckenmiller, M.L. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Carbon

  20. Natural heterogeneity and evolving geochemistry of Lower Tuscaloosa Formation brine in response to continuing CO2 injection at Cranfield EOR site, Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordsen, J. J.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Thomas, B.; Abedini, A. A.; Conaway, C. H.; Manning, M. A.; Lu, J.

    2012-12-01

    Geochemical monitoring of Lower Tuscaloosa Formation (LTF) brine continues at the Cranfield CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration site to investigate the potential for the geologic storage of large volumes of CO2 in saline aquifers and depleted reservoirs. Cranfield oil field is a domal depleted oil and gas reservoir in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, with production in heterogeneous fluvial sandstones of the LTF (depth ~3000 m). CO2 flood began in July 2008. Brine samples were collected from selected production wells in March and December 2009, April 2010, and November 2011. Intensive sampling also was conducted for the first 18 days of a CO2 injection experiment below the oil-water contact (December 2009) at the Detailed Area of Study (DAS) 3-well array. The sampling objectives are to define the geochemical composition of the pre-injection brine, and to understand the geochemical changes resulting from interactions between the injected CO2, brine, and reservoir minerals. Results show that Tuscaloosa brine is Na-Ca-Cl type with total salinity ranging from ~140 to 160 g/L TDS (50 samples). Relatively large variations are observed in major divalent cations (Ca ~7,500-14,000 mg/L, Mg ~800-1,250 mg/L, Sr ~475-750 mg/L). Significant positive correlations are noted amongst Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, and Br, whereas these solutes all trend negatively with Na and Cl. These results may be interpreted as possible binary mixing between two end-member waters: (1) high Na-Cl (51 and 97 g/L, respectively), low Ca, Mg, Sr, and Br (~7500, 800, 475, 280 mg/L, respectively); and (2) low Na-Cl (40 and 86 g/L), high Ca, Mg, Sr, and Br (~14,000, 1250, 750, 480 mg/L). This apparent binary mixing has no obvious correlation to CO2 injection, which suggests that observed variations are due to natural heterogeneities in LTF brine within the Cranfield dome. The variations may indicate vertical and/or lateral proximity to a halite source (i.e. salt dome), with the high Na-Cl, low Br

  1. Will salt repositories be dry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John D.

    The National Academy of Science committee that considered geologic disposal of nuclear waste in the mid-1950s recommended salt as a repository medium, partly because of its high thermal conductivity and because it was believed to be “dry” (perhaps the appropriate thought is “impermeable”). Certainly, the fact that Paleozoic salt deposits exist in many parts of t h e world is evidence for very low rates of dissolution by moving groundwater. The fact that the dissolution rates were so small led many scientists to the conclusion that the salt beds were nearly impermeable. The major source of brine within the salt beds was thought to be fluid inclusions within salt crystals, which could migrate through differential solution toward a source of high heat. The idea that salt was uniformly “dry” was revised when exploratory drilling in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico encountered brines within the Castile Formation, an evaporite deposit below the Salado Formation. The brine reservoirs were thought to be isolated pockets of brine in an otherwise “impermeable” salt section.

  2. Selection and durability of seal materials for a bedded salt repository: preliminary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, D.M.; Grutzeck, M.W.; Wakeley, L.D.

    1983-11-01

    This report details preliminary results of both experimental and theoretical studies of cementitious seal materials for use in a proposed nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. Effects of changes in bulk composition and environment upon phase stability and physical/mechanical properties have been evaluated for more than 25 formulations. Bonding and interfacial characteristics of the region between host rock and seal material or concrete aggregate and cementitious matrix for selected formulations have been studied. Compatibilities of clays and zeolites in brines typical of the SE New Mexico region have been investigated, and their stabilities reviewed. Results of these studies have led to the conclusion that cementitious materials can be formulated which are compatible with the major rock types in a bedded salt repository environment. Strengths are more than adequate, permeabilities are consistently very low, and elastic moduli generally increase only very slightly with time. Seal formulation guidelines and recommendations for present and future work are presented. 73 references, 25 figures, 61 tables.

  3. Density functional study of the optical response of FeN and CoN nitrides with zinc-blend and rock-salt structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheballah, Y.; Ziane, A.; Bouarab, S.; Vega, A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the optical properties of iron and cobalt mono-nitrides in rock-salt and zinc-blende crystal structures. Density functional theoretic calculations were performed using the linear muffin tin orbital method in the generalized gradient approximation for exchange and correlation. The optical response was characterized by means of the dielectric function, calculated for each structural phase in the different magnetic arrangements found experimentally and theoretically. The origin of the main absorption peaks was traced back to particular interband transitions after a careful analysis of the band structures and orbital- and atom- projected electronic densities of states. The optical response of both nitrides with this structure in the nomagnetic state is very similar at photon frequencies below 2 eV, but differ at high frequencies. In zinc-blende structure, both compounds are nomagnetic and present an optical gap of about 0.5 eV for interband transitions in their optical response.

  4. Draft genome sequence of the extremely halophilic Halorubrum sp. SAH-A6 isolated from rock salts of the Danakil depression, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashagrie Gibtan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The draft genome sequence of Halorubrum sp. SAH-A6, isolated from commercial rock salts of the Danakil depression, Ethiopia. The genome comprised 3,325,770 bp, with the G + C content of 68.0%. The strain has many genes which are responsible for secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism as compared to other Halorubrum archaea members. Abundant genes responsible for numerous transport systems, solute accumulation, and aromatic/sulfur decomposition were detected. The first genomic analysis encourages further research on comparative genomics, and biotechnological applications. The NCBI accession number for this genome is SAMN04278861 and ID: 4278861 and strain deposited with accession number KCTC 43215.

  5. Draft genome sequence of the extremely halophilic Halorubrum sp. SAH-A6 isolated from rock salts of the Danakil depression, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibtan, Ashagrie; Woo, Mingyeong; Oh, Dokyung; Park, Kyounghee; Lee, Han-Seung; Sohn, Jae Hak; Lee, Dong-Woo; Shin, Jung-Kue; Lee, Sang-Jae

    2016-12-01

    The draft genome sequence of Halorubrum sp. SAH-A6, isolated from commercial rock salts of the Danakil depression, Ethiopia. The genome comprised 3,325,770 bp, with the G + C content of 68.0%. The strain has many genes which are responsible for secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism as compared to other Halorubrum archaea members. Abundant genes responsible for numerous transport systems, solute accumulation, and aromatic/sulfur decomposition were detected. The first genomic analysis encourages further research on comparative genomics, and biotechnological applications. The NCBI accession number for this genome is SAMN04278861 and ID: 4278861 and strain deposited with accession number KCTC 43215.

  6. Creep acoustic emission of rock salt under triaxial compression%岩盐三轴蠕变声发射特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴池; 刘建锋; 周志威; 卓越

    2016-01-01

    To study and analyze the acoustic emission activity characteristics in the first and stable phases of salt creep, a series of triaxial creep compression tests are carried out using MTS815 flex test GT rock mechanics test system and PCI-2 acoustic emission (AE) monitoring system. The results show: under the triaxial condition, the characteristic parameters of AE such as ringing count rate and energy are proportional to the creep rate. The curve tendency of AE characteristic parameters and creep rate are basically the same. Under the constant confining pressure, the higher axial stress can accelerate the creep rate, and the AE activities also increase, which are characterized by the increase of AE incident points, ringing count rate, energy, cumulative ringing count and cumulative energy. At the same time, through the reduction of points of AE events point, it provides a basis for the study on the long-term time strength and creep damage evolution of salt rock. The creep fractal dimension values of AE of rock salt in various periods are calculated using the G–P algorithm. The laws of rise-fall-fluctuation are summarized. It may that provide the basis for studying the stability of the internal damage of rock salt.%利用四川大学 MTS815电液伺服岩石试验系统和 PCI–2声发射监测仪对岩盐进行蠕变加载试验,根据试验数据分析了岩盐蠕变前两个阶段的声发射活动特征。试验结果表明,三轴条件下,声发射特征参数,振铃计数率、能量均与蠕变速率成正比;声发射特征参数累积变化曲线与蠕变曲线走势基本相同。围压不变的情况下,较高的轴向应力能够加快试样的蠕变速率,声发射活动也有所增强,表现为 AE 定位点增多、振铃计数率和能量增大,以及累积振铃计数和累积能量的增加。通过对声发射事件点进行还原,为研究岩盐蠕变长期强度以及损伤演化提供了依据。利用 G–P算法,计算

  7. Brine migration test for Asse Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: final test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-07-01

    The United States and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) will conduct a brine migration test in the Asse Salt Mine in the FRG as part of the US/FRG Cooperative Radioactive Waste Management Agreement. Two sets of two tests each will be conducted to study both liquid inclusion migration and vapor migration in the two salt types chosen for the experiments: (1) pure salt, for its characteristics similar to the salt that might occur in potential US repositories, and (2) transitional salt, for its similarity to the salt that might occur in potential repositories in Germany.

  8. Shaft sealing concepts for high-level radioactive waste repositories based on the host-rock options rock salt and clay stone; Schachtverschlusskonzepte fuer zukuenftige Endlager fuer hochradioaktive Abfaelle fuer die Wirtsgesteinsoptionen Steinsalz und Ton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudla, Wolfram; Gruner, Matthias [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdbau und Spezialtiefbau; Herold, Philipp; Jobmann, Michael [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Unlike the shaft barriers used for the dry preservation of former mine workings and underground storage sites, shaft seals designed for radioactive-waste repositories must also fulfil additional requirements associated with the design diversity of the sealing system. This diversity makes use of the simple redundancy principle in order to prevent the proliferation of defects. In practice this means combining several sealing elements made from different materials or from materials with different properties. The R and D project, Shaft sealing systems for final repositories for high-level radioactive waste (ELSA) - phase 2: concept design for shaft seals and testing of the functional elements of shaft seals', which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), set out to investigate potential sealing elements for the two host-rock options rock salt and mudstone. This paper combines the text that the authors presented at the First International Freiberg Shaft Colloquium held at the Freiberg University of Mining and Technology on 01.10.2014 with a presentation on the sealing elements that were investigated as part of the R and D project.

  9. Spin-polarized investigation of ferromagnetism on magnetic semiconductors Mn{sub x}Ca{sub 1−x}S in the rock-salt phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choutri, H.; Ghebouli, M.A. [LMSE Laboratory, University of Bachir Ibrahimi, 34265 Bordj-Bou-Arréridj (Algeria); Ghebouli, B. [Laboratory of Surface and Interface Studies of Solid Materials, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Setif University 1, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Bouarissa, N., E-mail: n_bouarissa@yahoo.fr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of M' sila, 28000 M' sila (Algeria); Uçgun, E.; Ocak, H.Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey)

    2014-12-15

    The structural, elastic, electronic and magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductors Mn{sub x}Ca{sub 1−x}S in the rock-salt phase have been investigated using first-principles calculations with both LDA and LDA + U functional. Features such as lattice constant, bulk modulus, elastic constants, spin-polarized band structure, total and local densities of states have been computed. We predict the values of the exchange constants and the band edge spin splitting of the valence and conduction bands. The hybridization between S-3p and Mn-3d produces small local magnetic moment on the nonmagnetic Ca and S sites. The ferromagnetism is induced due to the exchange splitting of S-3p and Mn-3d hybridized bands. The total magnetic moment per Mn of Mn{sub x}Ca{sub 1−x}S is 4.4μ{sub B} and 4.5μ{sub B} for LDA and LDA + U functional and is independent of the Mn concentration. The unfilled Mn-3d levels reduce the local magnetic moment of Mn from its free space charge value of 5μ{sub B}–4.4μ{sub B} and4.5μ{sub B} for LDA and LDA + U functional due to 3p–3d hybridization. - Highlights: • Fundamental properties of magnetic semiconductors Mn{sub x}Ca{sub 1−x}S. • Rock-salt phase of Mn{sub x}Ca{sub 1−x}S. • Magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductors Mn{sub x}Ca{sub 1−x}S. • The use of LDA + U functionals.

  10. Salton Sea Geothermal Field, California, as a near-field natural analog of a radioactive waste repository in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elders, W.A.; Cohen, L.H.

    1983-11-01

    Since high concentrations of radionuclides and high temperatures are not normally encountered in salt domes or beds, finding an exact geologic analog of expected near-field conditions in a mined nuclear waste repository in salt will be difficult. The Salton Sea Geothermal Field, however, provides an opportunity to investigate the migration and retardation of naturally occurring U, Th, Ra, Cs, Sr and other elements in hot brines which have been moving through clay-rich sedimentary rocks for up to 100,000 years. The more than thirty deep wells drilled in this field to produce steam for electrical generation penetrate sedimentary rocks containing concentrated brines where temperatures reach 365/sup 0/C at only 2 km depth. The brines are primarily Na, K, Ca chlorides with up to 25% of total dissolved solids; they also contain high concentrations of metals such as Fe, Mn, Li, Zn, and Pb. This report describes the geology, geophysics and geochemistry of this system as a prelude to a study of the mobility of naturally occurring radionuclides and radionuclide analogs within it. The aim of this study is to provide data to assist in validating quantitative models of repository behavior and to use in designing and evaluating waste packages and engineered barriers. 128 references, 33 figures, 13 tables.

  11. Deformation above mobile substrates, salt rheology and spatial distribution of salt structures: A 3D seismic study of the Permian southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Karina; Mitchell, Neil; Huuse, Mads

    2016-04-01

    At ~255 Ma, cycles of evaporation of seawater led to deposition of evaporites including halite (rock salt) in the North Sea Basin. After later burial by denser sediments, the salt beds rose as pillows and diapirs. Assuming mobilization is due to Rayleigh-Taylor gravitational instability of heavy fluid (sediments) overlying light fluid (salts), theory suggests that the spacing between diapirs should be proportional to the original thickness of the salt layer. For example, a description of the theory in Turcotte and Schubert (1982) predicts structure wavelength to be 2.6 times the salt thickness. Previous research has explored mobilization of salt deposits assuming they have uniform rheology. However, this is not justified as halite rheology varies with temperature, grain size and pore brine content. Furthermore, evaporitic sequences contain various minerals besides halite (e.g., anhydrite, gypsum), which have different rheological properties. 3D seismic and well data reveal the internal structure of salt beds. The data have allowed characterization of structure wavelengths and salt thickness, so that the impact of internal composition and other properties on halokinetic behaviour can be assessed.

  12. Fluid-Evaporation Records Preserved in Meridiani Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. N.; Nyquist, Laurence E.; Sutton, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    We have shown earlier that the high SO3/Cl ratios found in secondary mineral assemblages in shergottite GRIM glasses (Gas-Rich Impact-Melt) likely resulted from interactions of regolith materials with sulfate-rich (and Cl-poor) solutions. The low SO3/Cl ratios determined in secondary salts in nakhalite fracture-fillings presumably formed by rock interactions with chloride-rich (and SO4-poor) solutions near Mars surface. The SO3 and Cl abundances determined by APXS in abraded rocks (RAT) from Endurance, Fram and Eagle craters indicate that these salt assemblages likely formed by evaporative concentration of brine fluids at Meridiani. The SO3/Cl ratios in the abraded rocks are examined here, instead of their absolute abundances, because the abundance ratios might provide better guide-lines for tracking the evolution of evaporating fluids at Meridiani. The SO3/Cl ratios in these samples, in turn, might provide clues for the mobile element ratios of the altering fluids that infiltrated into the Meridiani rocks.

  13. Sampling of brine in cores of Precambrian granite from northern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Rex A.; Seitz, Martin G.; Steindler, Martin J.

    1983-09-01

    The composition of groundwater in deep-seated rocks is of great interest, both geochemically and in connection with the disposal of radioactive waste. However, sampling of deep-seated groundwater is expensive and often difficult. We describe here a simple technique for the elution of pore fluid (groundwater) from cores of igneous rocks, and we describe brine eluted from a core of Precambrian granite from Northern Illinois drill hole UPH-3. The brine is predominantly NaCl and CaCl2, with a Ca/Na mole ratio of about 0.05 to 0.1. From analysis of soluble chloride in a crushed sample the chloride concentration in the pore water is estimated as 2.3 M. The brine is similar to brine in the Illinois Basin, and it was probably derived from the overlying sediments.

  14. Evolution of rheologically heterogeneous salt structures: a case study from the northeast of the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A F. Raith

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available At the first order salt structures are controlled by the low flow strength of evaporites and by the tectonic boundary conditions. Rheological contrasts within an evaporite body have an important effect on the evolution of the internal structure of salt, but how this mechanical layering affects salt deformation at different scales is not well known. The potassium–magnesium salts (K-Mg salts carnallite and bischofite are prime examples of layers with much lower effective viscosity than rock salt: their low viscosity presents serious drilling hazards but also allows squeeze solution mining. In contrast, anhydrite and carbonate layers (stringers in salt are much stronger than halite. In this study, we used high-resolution 3-D seismic and well data to study the evolution of the Veendam and Slochteren salt pillows at the southern boundary of the Groningen High, northern Netherlands. Here the rock salt layers contain both the mechanically stronger Zechstein III Anhydrite–Carbonate stringer and the weaker K-Mg salts, providing an example of extreme rheological heterogeneities in salt structures. The internal structure of the two salt pillows shows areas in which the K-Mg salt-rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, in combination with a complexly ruptured and folded ZIII Anhydrite–Carbonate stringer. Thickness maps of supra-salt sediments and well data are used to infer the initial depositional architecture of the K-Mg salts and their deformation history. Results suggest that active faulting and the resulting depressions of the Zechstein surface above a Rotliegend graben caused the local accumulation of bittern brines and precipitation of the thick K-Mg salts. During the first phase of salt flow and withdrawal from the Veendam area, under differential loading by Buntsandstein sediments, the ZIII stringer was boudinaged while the lens of Mg salts remained relatively undeformed. This was followed by a convergence stage, when the K-Mg salt

  15. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J.; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes. PMID:27545955

  16. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J.; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-08-01

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes.

  17. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-08-22

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes.

  18. Geochemical characterization of fluoride in water, table salt, active sediment, rock and soil samples, and its possible relationship with the prevalence of enamel fluorosis in children in four municipalities of the department of Huila (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignon, Stefania; Opazo-Gutiérrez, Mario Omar; Velásquez-Riaño, Möritz; Orjuela-Osorio, Iván Rodrigo; Avila, Viviana; Martinez-Mier, Esperanza Angeles; González-Carrera, María Clara; Ruiz-Carrizosa, Jaime Alberto; Silva-Hermida, Blanca Cecilia

    2017-06-01

    Fluoride is an element that affects teeth and bone formation in animals and humans. Though the use of systemic fluoride is an evidence-based caries preventive measure, excessive ingestion can impair tooth development, mainly the mineralization of tooth enamel, leading to a condition known as enamel fluorosis. In this study, we investigated the geochemical characterization of fluoride in water, table salt, active sediment, rock and soil samples in four endemic enamel fluorosis sentinel municipalities of the department of Huila, Colombia (Pitalito, Altamira, El Agrado and Rivera), and its possible relationship with the prevalence of enamel fluorosis in children. The concentration of fluoride in drinking water, table salt, active sediment, rock, and soil was evaluated by means of an ion selective electrode and the geochemical analyses were performed using X-ray fluorescence. Geochemical analysis revealed fluoride concentrations under 15 mg/kg in active sediment, rock and soil samples, not indicative of a significant delivery to the watersheds studied. The concentration of fluoride in table salt was found to be under the inferior limit (less than 180 μg/g) established by the Colombian regulations. Likewise, exposure doses for fluoride water intake did not exceed the recommended total dose for all ages from 6 months. Although the evidence does not point out at rocks, soils, fluoride-bearing minerals, fluoridated salt and water, the hypothesis of these elements as responsible of the current prevalence of enamel fluorosis cannot be discarded since, aqueducts might have undergone significant changes overtime.

  19. Development of the loosening zone around ultimate storage cavities in rock salt and its treatment in safety analyses; Entwicklung der Auflockerungszone um Endlagerhohlraeume im Steinsalz und ihre Behandlung in Sicherheitsanalysen. Neuere Ergebnisse eines EU-Projekts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieczorek, Klaus [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Braunschweig (Germany). Abt. Prozessanalyse; Foerster, Bernd [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Braunschweig (Germany). Abt. Sicherheitsanalysen; Rothfuchs, Tilmann [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany). Bereich Endlagersicherheitsforschung

    2011-05-15

    Excavation Damaged Zones (EDZ) in rock salt evolve as a result of the mechanical response of the rock to the excavation of underground openings. In the region close to the opening the dilatancy boundary will be exceeded, leading to microfracturing and an associated increase of porosity and permeability of the salt rock. EDZ evolution is especially relevant when considering the effectiveness of sealing structures in a nuclear waste repository. The focus of the salt group in the European Community project THERESA has been on modeling of rock salt dilatancy and on recompaction or healing effects. Laboratory experiments with different objectives were performed to produce data for model calibration. A benchmark simulation of a laboratory test case was defined and performed using the calibrated models. Finally, one of the models was used to predict EDZ evolution and recompaction around a sealed drift and the results were used as input for the analysis with the Total System Performance Analysis (TSPA) code module LOPOS. In the frame of this study, a time-dependent EDZ permeability was implemented in a TSPA code for the first time. (orig.)

  20. 盐岩蠕变模型的建立及其在地下天然气储气库中的应用%Rock Salt Creep Model Of Underground Gas Storage And Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟明

    2011-01-01

    Based on uniaxial creep test of the underground gas storage surrounding rock salt,the creep characteristics of rock salt was analyzed,and builds rock salt creep model.Through the least-square principle regression obtained each parameter of the creep model.By using the model the stability of underground natural gas storage was simulated,results indicate that the model can well reflect the creep regularity and gypsum can be used to predict the long-term stability of the rock salt natural gas storage.%本文以地下储气库盐岩单轴蠕变试验为例,对盐岩的蠕变特性进行了分析,建立了盐岩的蠕变模型;通过最小二乘法原理回归得出了盐岩蠕变模型中的各个参数。利用该模型对地下天然气储气库进行了数值计算分析,结果表明模型可以很好的反映盐岩的蠕变规律且可用来预测盐岩天然气储气库的长期稳定性。

  1. 液体钙应用于硫酸钠型矿卤生产制碱用液体盐的工艺浅析%Brief Discussion on the Application of Liquid Calcium Used in Producing Liquid Salt with Sodium Sulfate Type Brine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄承; 曹军; 戴克洋

    2015-01-01

    分析比较硫酸钠型矿卤生产液体盐中的脱硝和除钙镁的各种方法,探讨了液体钙应用于硫酸钠型矿卤生产液体盐的各种工艺,并与固体钙应用于生产液体盐的工艺进行了比较,突出了液体钙用于液体盐生产中的优势,展现了液体钙应用于液体盐生产中的良好经济效益和环境效益。%This paper mainly comparatively analyzes all kinds of process of removing calcium, magnesium and sulfate from sodium sulfate-type brine. It also discusses the processing liquid salt by liquid calcium chloride and make the technology and economic comparison with solid calcium chloride. This paper highlights the advantage of sulfate-removing by the liquid calcium chloride and shows the significant economic and environmental benefits in producing liquid salt.

  2. Improving the performance of brine wells at Gulf Coast strategic petroleum reserve sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, L.B.; Quong, R. (eds.)

    1979-11-05

    At the request of the Department of Energy, field techniques were developed to evaluate and improve the injection of brine into wells at Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) sites. These wells are necessary for the disposal of saturated brine removed from salt domes where oil is being stored. The wells, which were accepting brine at 50 percent or less of their initial design rates, were impaired by saturated brine containing particulates that deposited on the sand face and in the geologic formation next to the wellbore. Corrosion of the brine-disposal pipelines and injection wells contributed to the impairment by adding significant amounts of particulates in the form of corrosion products. When tests were implemented at the SPR sites, it was found that the poor quality of injected brines was the primary cause of impaired injection; that granular-media filtration, when used with chemical pretreatment, is an effective method for removing particulates from hypersaline brine; that satisfactory injection-well performance can be attained with prefiltered brines; and that corrosion rates can be substantially reduced by oxygen-scavenging.

  3. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide a scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by reverse...

  4. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, M.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  5. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, M.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  6. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide an easily scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by...

  7. Extremely halophilic archaea from ancient salt sediments and their long term survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga; Fendrihan, Sergiu; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, Marion

    Halophilic archaebacteria (haloarchaea) thrive in environments with salt concentrations approaching saturation, such as natural brines, marine solar salterns and alkaline salt lakes; they have also been isolated from rock salt of great geological age (195-250 million years) and some of those strains were described as novel species (1). The cells survived perhaps while being enclosed within small fluid inclusions in the halite. When simulating the embedding process of haloarchaea in laboratory-grown salt crystals, cells accumulated preferentially in fluid inclusions, as could be demonstrated by pre-staining with fluorescent dyes. The issue of extreme long term microbial survival in rock salt has considerable implications for the search for extraterrestrial life. Halite has been found in Martian meteorites, salts are present on the Martian surface and there is good evidence for a salty ocean on the Jovian moon Europa. Therefore the search for halophilic prokaryotic life in such environments appears plausible. The development of detection methods for subsurface haloarchaea, which might also be applicable to samples from future missions to space, is important and some examples such as fluorescence microscopy methods with novel dyes will be described. (1) Fendrihan, S., Legat, A., Gruber, C., Pfaffenhuemer, M., Weidler, G., Gerbl, F., Stan- Lotter, H. (2006) Extremely halophilic archaea and the issue of long term microbial survival. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/technology 5, 1569-1605.

  8. Gas content of Gladys McCall reservoir brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, C.G.; Randolph, P.L.

    1987-05-29

    On October 8, 1983, after the first full day of production from Sand No.8 in the Gladys McCall well, samples of separator gas and separator brine were collected for laboratory P-V-T (pressure, volume, temperature) studies. Recombination of amounts of these samples based upon measured rates at the time of sample collection, and at reservoir temperature (290 F), revealed a bubble point pressure of 9200 psia. This is substantially below the reported reservoir pressure of 12,783 psia. The gas content of the recombined fluids was 30.19 SCF of dry gas/STB of brine. In contrast, laboratory studies indicate that 35.84 SCF of pure methane would dissolve in each STB of 95,000 mg/L sodium chloride brine. These results indicate that the reservoir brine was not saturated with natural gas. By early April, 1987, production of roughly 25 million barrels of brine had reduced calculated flowing bottomhole pressure to about 6600 psia at a brine rate of 22,000 STB/D. If the skin factor(s) were as high as 20, flowing pressure drop across the skin would still be only about 500 psi. Thus, some portion of the reservoir volume was believed to have been drawn down to below the bubble point deduced from the laboratory recombination of separator samples. When the pressure in a geopressured geothermal reservoir is reduced to below the bubble point pressure for solution gas, gas is exsolved from the brine flowing through the pores in the reservoir rock. This exsolved gas is trapped in the reservoir until the fractional gas saturation of pore volume becomes large enough for gas flow to commence through a continuous gas-filled channel. At the same time, the gas/brine ratio becomes smaller and the chemistry of the remaining solution gas changes for the brine from which gas is exsolved. A careful search was made for the changes in gas/brine ratio or solution gas chemistry that would accompany pressure dropping below the bubble point pressure. Changes of about the same magnitude as the scatter in

  9. Spectroscopy and detectability of liquid brines on mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, M.; Beck, P.; Schmitt, B.; Pommerol, A.; McEwen, A.; Chevrier, V.; Brissaud, O.; Séjourné, A.

    2014-03-01

    Recent geomorphological observations as well as chemical and thermodynamic studies demonstrate that liquid water should be stable today on the Martian surface at some times of the day. In Martian conditions, brines would be particularly more stable than pure water because salts can depress the freezing point and lower the evaporation rate of water. Despite this evidence, no clear spectral signature of liquid has been observed so far by the hyperspectral imaging spectrometers OMEGA and CRISM. However, past spectral analysis lacks a good characterization of brines' spectral signatures. This study thus aims to determine how liquid brines can be detected on Mars by spectroscopy. In this way, laboratory experiments were performed for reproducing hydration and dehydration cycles of various brines while measuring their spectral signatures. The resulting spectra first reveal a very similar spectral evolution for the various brine types and pure water, with the main difference observed at the end of the dehydration with the crystallization of various hydrated minerals from brines. The main characteristic of this spectral behavior is an important decoupling between the evolution of albedo and hydration bands depths. During most of the wetting/drying processes, spectra usually display a low albedo associated with shallow water absorption band depths. Strong water absorption band depth and high albedo are respectively only observed when the surface is very wet and when the surface is very dry. These experiments can thus explain why the currently active Martian features attributed to the action of a liquid are only associated with low albedo and very weak spectral signatures. Hydration experiments also reveal that deliquescence occurs easily even at low temperature and moderate soil water vapor pressure and could thus cause seasonal darkening on Mars. These experiments demonstrate that the absence of water absorptions in CRISM in the middle afternoon does not rule out water

  10. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by 1H and 23Na MRI, 23Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðjónsdóttir, María; Traoré, Amidou; Jónsson, Ásbjörn

    2015-01-01

    spots with unsaturated brine, increasing the risk of microbial denaturation of the fillets during storage. Since a homogeneous water and salt distribution was not achieved with the studied pre-salting methods, further optimizations of the salting process, including the pre-salting and dry salting steps...

  11. New rock salt-related oxides Li{sub 3}M{sub 2}RuO{sub 6} (M=Co, Ni): Synthesis, structure, magnetism and electrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laha, S. [Departamento de Químicas Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Morán, E., E-mail: emoran@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Químicas Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sáez-Puche, R.; Alario-Franco, M.Á.; Dos santos-Garcia, A.J. [Departamento de Químicas Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalo, E.; Kuhn, A.; García-Alvarado, F. [Universidad CEU San Pablo, Facultad de Farmacia, Departamento de Química, 28668 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid (Spain); Sivakumar, T.; Tamilarasan, S.; Natarajan, S.; Gopalakrishnan, J. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2013-07-15

    We describe the synthesis, crystal structure, magnetic and electrochemical characterization of new rock salt-related oxides of formula, Li{sub 3}M{sub 2}RuO{sub 6} (M=Co, Ni). The M=Co oxide adopts the LiCoO{sub 2} (R-3m) structure, where sheets of LiO{sub 6} and (Co{sub 2}/Ru)O{sub 6} octahedra are alternately stacked along the c-direction. The M=Ni oxide also adopts a similar layered structure related to Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, where partial mixing of Li and Ni/Ru atoms lowers the symmetry to monoclinic (C2/c). Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that in Li{sub 3}Co{sub 2}RuO{sub 6}, the oxidation states of transition metal ions are Co{sup 3+} (S=0), Co{sup 2+} (S=1/2) and Ru{sup 4+} (S=1), all of them in low-spin configuration and at 10 K, the material orders antiferromagnetically. Analogous Li{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}RuO{sub 6} presents a ferrimagnetic behavior with a Curie temperature of 100 K. The differences in the magnetic behavior have been explained in terms of differences in the crystal structure. Electrochemical studies correlate well with both magnetic properties and crystal structure. Li-transition metal intermixing may be at the origin of the more impeded oxidation of Li{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}RuO{sub 6} when compared to Li{sub 3}Co{sub 2}RuO{sub 6}. Interestingly high first charge capacities (between ca. 160 and 180 mAh g{sup −1}) corresponding to ca. 2/3 of theoretical capacity are reached albeit, in both cases, capacity retention and cyclability are not satisfactory enough to consider these materials as alternatives to LiCoO{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Two new rock salt related oxides of formula, Li{sub 3}M{sub 2}RuO{sub 6}, (M=Co, Ni) have been prepared. The M=Co oxide adopts the LiCoO{sub 2} (R-3m) structure and the M=Ni oxide adopts a similar layered structure related to Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3,} monoclinic (C2/c), with partial mixing of Li and Ni/Ru atoms. For Li{sub 3}Co{sub 2}RuO{sub 6}, oxidation state for Ru is 4+ and antiferromagnetic (AFM) order is

  12. Natural analogs in the host rock salt. Pt. 1. General study (2011). Pt. 2. Detail studies (2012-2013); Natuerliche Analoga im Wirtsgestein Salz. T. 1. Generelle Studie (2011). T. 2. Detailstudien (2012-2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasser, Thomas; Fahrenholz, Christine; Kull, Herbert; Meleshyn, Artur; Moenig, Heike; Noseck, Ulrich; Schoenwiese, Dagmar; Wolf, Jens

    2014-12-15

    The first part of the project ISIBELII on natural analogs in the host rock salt included a summary of available studies on the topic to be used in a safety analysis for a final repository for heat generating radioactive waste. In 2012 the results of the preliminary safety analysis Gorleben was available, including results on the fracturing of anhydrite, the formation of cryogenic gaps and the influence of earthquakes. The requirements for the barrier system have been modified due to the safety requirements for the final disposal of heat-generating radioactive wastes valid since 2010. For containers the functionality gas to be demonstrated for 500 years. The following issues are covered: natural analogs for the integrity demonstration of the geological barrier, natural analogs for the integrity demonstration of geotechnical barriers, natural analogs for the evaluation of release scenarios. The detail studies include anhydrite fracturing, salt grit compaction, chemical composition of fluid inclusions, thermal stability of salt rock, mechanical stability of salt rock, influence of earthquakes, qualified closures, iron corrosion, and microbial processes.

  13. Understanding the role of brine ionic composition on oil recovery by assessment of wettability from colloidal forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshakhs, Mohammed J; Kovscek, Anthony R

    2016-07-01

    The impact of injection brine salinity and ionic composition on oil recovery has been an active area of research for the past 25years. Evidence from laboratory studies and field tests suggests that implementing certain modifications to the ionic composition of the injection brine leads to greater oil recovery. The role of salinity modification is attributed to its ability to shift wettability of a rock surface toward water wetness. The amount of trapped oil released depends on the nature of rock, oil, and brine surface interactions. Reservoir rocks exhibit different affinities to fluids. Carbonates show stronger adsorption of oil films as opposed to the strongly water-wet and mixed-wet sandstones. The concentration of divalent ions and total salinity of the injection brine are other important factors to consider. Accordingly, this paper provides a review of laboratory and field studies of the role of brine composition on oil recovery from carbonaceous rock as well as rationalization of results using DLVO (Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey and Overbeek) theory of surface forces. DLVO evaluates the contribution of each component of the oil/brine/rock system to the wettability. Measuring zeta potential of each pair of surfaces by a charged particle suspension method is used to estimate double layer forces, disjoining pressure, and contact-angle. We demonstrate the applicability of the DLVO approach by showing a comprehensive experimental study that investigates the effect of divalent ions in carbonates, and uses disjoining pressure results to rationalize observations from core flooding and direct contact-angle measurements.

  14. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during manufacture and storage of white brined cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Olaimat, Amin N; Shaker, Reyad R; Taha, Mohammad; Holley, Richard A

    2014-09-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. Survival of E. coli O157:H7 during processing and storage of white brined cheese was investigated. Cheeses were prepared using pasteurized milk inoculated with a 4 strain E. coli O157:H7 cocktail (7 log(10) CFU/g) with or without yogurt starter culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus) and stored in 10% or 15% NaCl brine at 10 and 21 ºC for 28 d. NaCl concentration, water activity (a(w)), pH, and numbers of E. coli O157:H7 and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were determined in cheese and brine. E. coli O157:H7 was able to survive in cheese stored in both brines at 10 and 21 ºC regardless of the presence of starter LAB, although the latter significantly enhanced E. coli O157:H7 reduction in cheese or its brine at 10 ºC. E. coli O157:H7 numbers were reduced by 2.6 and 3.4 log(10) CFU/g in cheese stored in 10% and 15% NaCl brine, respectively, in the presence of starter LAB and by 1.4 and 2.3 log(10) CFU/g, respectively, in the absence of starter LAB at 10 ºC. The pathogen survived, but at lower numbers in the brines. The salt concentration of cheese stored in 10% brine remained about 5% during ripening, but in 15% brine, the NaCl level increased 1.6% to 8.1% (w/w) by 28 d. Values of pH and a(w) slightly decreased 1 d after exposure to brine and reached 5.5 to 6.6 and 0.88 to 0.94, respectively, in all treatments.

  15. Research to lessen the amounts of curing agents in processed meat through use of rock salt and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, R.; Takeda, S.; Kinoshita, Y.; Waga, M.

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to examine the reddening of meat products due to the addition of natural yellow salt (YS) and carbon monoxide (CO). Following YS or NaCl addition at 2% to pork subsequent to nitrite (0∼100 ppm) treatment, color development due to this addition was analyzed visually. Heme pigment content in the meat was also determined spectrophotometrically. YS was found to bring about greater reddening than NaCl, indicating residual nitrite and nitrate content to be significantly higher in meat containing YS, through the amount of either was quite small. The amount of nitrite required for a red color to develop was noted to vary significantly from one meat product to another. CO treatment of pork caused the formation of carboxy myoglobin (COMb) with consequent reddening of the meat. COMb was shown to be heat-stable and form stably at pH 5.0 to ∼8.0 and to be extractable with water, but was barely extractable at all with acetone. Nitric oxide was found to have greater affinity toward myoglobin (Mb) than CO. Nitrosyl Mb was noted to be stable in all meat products examined. CO was seen to be capable of controlling the extent of lipid oxidation.

  16. Assessing the disturbed rock zone (DRZ) around a 655 meter vertical shaft in salt using ultrasonic waves: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARDY,ROBERT D.; HOLCOMB,DAVID J.

    2000-03-14

    An array of ultrasonic transducers was constructed consisting of three identical arrays at various depths in an air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Each array consists of transducers permanently installed in three holes arranged in an L shape. An active array, created by appropriate arrangement of the transducers and selection of transmitter-receiver pairs, allows the measurement of transmitted signal velocities and amplitudes (for attenuation studies) along 216 paths parallel, perpendicular and tangential to the shaft walls. Transducer positions were carefully surveyed, allowing absolute velocity measurements. Installation occurred over a period of about two years beginning in early 1989, with nearly continuous operation since that time, resulting in a rare, if not unique, record of the spatial and temporal variability of damage development around an underground opening. This paper reports results from the last two years of operation, updating the results reported by Holcomb, 1999. Results will be related to the damage, due to microcracking, required to produce the observed changes. It is expected that the results will be useful to other studies of the long-term deformation characteristics of salt.

  17. Organic-rich shales from internal Betic basins (SE Spain): potential source rocks analogs for the pre-Messinian Salt play in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permanyer, A.; Jorge, R.; Baudino, R.; Gilbert, L.

    2016-07-01

    Southeastern Spain has a large number of Late Neogene basins with substantial evaporitic deposits that developed under an overall NNW-SSE compressional regime related to the African-European tectonic plates collision. Located in the Betic Cordillera, they can be considered as marginal Mediterranean basins that became gradually isolated during the Tortonian and Early Messinian due to tectonic uplift. Different evaporitic units accumulated in these basins during isolation and, in several cases, evaporitic conditions were associated to episodes of important organic matter accumulation. Results obtained from Late Tortonian to Early Messinian shales collected from boreholes, mines and outcrops in the internal Betic basins of Las Minas de Hellín, Cenajo and Socovos are presented. The organic matter was studied under fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the main geochemical characteristics defined. They show a relation between organic-rich intervals with high potential of hydrocarbon generation, native sulfur, bio-induced dolomite and evaporitic deposits. These organicrich shales can be found before, during and after the evaporitic episodes. Results from the present study are compared with those previously obtained in the pre-evaporitic deposits of the Lorca Basin that showed high oil generation potential, a restricted-marine origin of the organic matter and a low degree of maturity. The occurrence of such potential source rocks in several basins points to a broad regional distribution. At a larger scale, in the Mediterranean Basin, organic-rich sediments were deposited before and during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. The studied examples could represent analogs for potential source rocks of the pre-Messinian salt play in the Western Mediterranean. (Author)

  18. 钙芒硝盐岩溶蚀的角度效应%Experiment to Angle Effect of Glauberite Salt Rock Corrosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欢; 徐素国

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand deeply dissolution characteristic of glauberite salt rock, and promote glauberite ore mining by water-solution and research to corrosion of glauberite interlayer in building salt cavern gas storage, dissolution rate and velocity of glauberite were studied by different angels in 35 degrees thermostatic water.The re-sults show that dissolution rate and velocity of glauberite are related to angles, and their values become bigger and bigger along with angles change from 90 to -90 degrees, therefore glauberite solution mining should adopt mining technique from bottom to top in favor of the upper and side solution.The expressions describing dissolution rate and velocity of glauberite along with angels and time change are obtained by using MATLAB to fit data, which have a certain guidance and reference value to solution mining glauberite ore and corrosion of glauberite interlayer in build-ing salt cavern gas storage.%为更深入的了解钙芒硝盐岩的溶解特性,促进水溶开采钙芒硝矿和盐穴储气库建造中钙芒硝夹层溶蚀的研究,对钙芒硝盐样以不同倾角在35℃恒温水中进行溶解速率和速度的实验。结果表明:钙芒硝在35℃恒温水中溶解速率和速度具有角度效应;倾角从90°~-90°变化时,溶解速率和速度越来越大,水溶采矿技术开采钙芒硝时应采用有利于上溶和侧溶,自下而上的开采技术;运用MATLAB对数据进行拟合,得出不同溶解角度下钙芒硝溶解速率和速度随时间变化规律的表达式,对水溶开采钙芒硝的相关研究和盐穴储气库夹层的溶蚀具有一定的指导和参考价值。

  19. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Hanna M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Borgia, Andrea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-06-13

    reluctant to invest in capital intensive, high risk GCS projects; early technical, economic, and environmental assessments of brine management are extremely valuable for determining the potential role of GCS in the US. We performed a first order feasibility and economic assessment, at three different locations in the US, of twelve GCS extracted-­water management options, including: geothermal energy extraction, desalination, salt and mineral harvesting, rare-­earth element harvesting, aquaculture, algae biodiesel production, road de-­icing, enhanced geothermal system (EGS) recharge, underground reinjection, landfill disposal, ocean disposal, and evaporation pond disposal. Three saline aquifers from different regions of the US were selected as hypothetical GCS project sites to encompass variation in parameters that are relevant to the feasibility and economics of brine disposal. The three aquifers are the southern Mt. Simon Sandstone Formation in the Illinois Basin, IL; the Vedder Formation in the southern San Joaquin Basin, CA; and the Jasper Interval in the eastern Texas Gulf Basin, TX. These aquifers are candidates for GCS due to their physical characteristics and their close proximity to large CO2 emission sources. Feasibility and impacts were calculated using one mt-­CO2 injected as the functional unit of brine management. Scenarios were performed for typical 1000MW coal-­fired power plants (CFPP) that incurred an assumed 24 percent carbon capture energy penalty (EP), injected 90 percent of CO2 emissions (~9 million mt-­ CO2 injected annually), and treated extracted water onsite. Net present value (NPV), land requirements, laws and regulations, and technological limits were determined for each stage of disposal, and used to estimate feasibility. The boundary of the assessment began once extracted water was brought to the surface, and ended once the water evaporated,

  20. Effects of the Indirect Ionic Interaction on the Diffusion of the Cation in the Silver Halide Crystals with the Rock-Salt Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michihiro, Yoshitaka; Itsuki, Kazuya; Endou, Shigeki; Isono, Masaya; Nakamura, Koichi; Ohno, Takashi

    2013-07-01

    The contributions from the indirect ionic interaction to the activation energy for the diffusion of the cation by the vacancy mechanism are evaluated for the silver and sodium halide crystals with the rock-salt structure. The coupling constants of the indirect ionic interaction for the cations are calculated by the self-consistent field treatment of the local density approximation and the spherical solid model. The coupling constant of the indirect ionic interaction for Ag+ in AgBr is almost one order of magnitude larger than that for Na+ in NaBr. The strong indirect ionic interaction caused by the induced polarization of Ag+ in AgBr leads to the drastic decrease in the activation energy for the diffusion of Ag+. The difference between the strength of the indirect ionic interaction by Ag+ in AgBr and that by Na+ in NaBr reasonably explains the difference between the experimental activation energy for the diffusion of Ag+ in AgBr and that of Na+ in NaBr. The similar trend is also seen in AgCl and NaCl. These facts indicate that the strong non-central forces due to the indirect ionic interaction play an important role in the diffusion of Ag+.

  1. Energy storage in evaporated brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, R. Ian

    2010-09-15

    We propose storage of electrical energy in brine solutions by using the energy to enhance natural evaporation. Using properties of existing industrial evaporation technologies and estimates of power regeneration from brine by pressure retarded osmosis, efficiency near 100% is calculated. Modelling indicates that systems ranging from 50kW to 50MW output may be practical, with storage capacities of hours to days. The method appears to have potential to be economically competitive with other technologies over a wide range of capacity. It may present a large new application area that could aid the development of salinity-based power generation technology.

  2. Capillarity and wetting of carbon dioxide and brine during drainage in Berea sandstone at reservoir conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Niu, Ben; Krevor, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    The wettability of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of carbon sequestration in subsurface geological formations. Recent contact angle measurement studies have reported sensitivity in wetting behavior of this system to pressure, temperature, and brine salinity. We report observations of the impact of reservoir conditions on the capillary pressure characteristic curve and relative permeability of a single Berea sandstone during drainage—CO2 displacing brine—through effects on the wetting state. Eight reservoir condition drainage capillary pressure characteristic curves were measured using CO2 and brine in a single fired Berea sandstone at pressures (5-20 MPa), temperatures (25-50°C), and ionic strengths (0-5 mol kg-1 NaCl). A ninth measurement using a N2-water system provided a benchmark for capillarity with a strongly water wet system. The capillary pressure curves from each of the tests were found to be similar to the N2-water curve when scaled by the interfacial tension. Reservoir conditions were not found to have a significant impact on the capillary strength of the CO2-brine system during drainage through a variation in the wetting state. Two steady-state relative permeability measurements with CO2 and brine and one with N2 and brine similarly show little variation between conditions, consistent with the observation that the CO2-brine-sandstone system is water wetting and multiphase flow properties invariant across a wide range of reservoir conditions.

  3. Influence of milk centrifugation, brining and ripening conditions in preventing gas formation by Clostridium spp. in Gouda cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y C; Ingham, S C

    2000-03-25

    This study examined milk centrifugation, increased salt concentration, and low ripening temperature as potential strategies to prevent late blowing caused by gas-forming Clostridium spp. in Gouda cheese. The survival of clostridia spores in cheese brine and their ability to enter Gouda cheese during brining was also evaluated. Centrifugation (3000 x g for 30 s) of contaminated milk resulted in > 60% spore reduction, with increased spore reduction at greater centrifugal forces. Low levels of C. tyrobutyricum and C. sporogenes spores survived in saturated (23%, w/v) brine with 2% (v/v) added whey at 15 degrees C for 63 days, while C. beijerinckii and C. butyricum spores were not detectable on days 4 and 35, respectively. Spores of C. tyrobutyricum in brine infiltrated Gouda cheese during 2 h of brining at 13 degrees C resulted in production of small gas holes during ripening. In Gouda cheese slurry stored at 13 degrees C, three C. tyrobutyricum strains plus one of three C. sporogenes strains germinated in the slurry with no added salt. Of three C. tyrobutyricum strains stored at 13 degrees C in slurries with higher water-phase salt concentrations of 2.4 and 3.6%, two strains and one strain germinated, respectively. No germination of spores was detected in any cheese slurry stored at 5 or 8 degrees C. Milk centrifugation, increased percent water-phase salt, absence of spores in brine, and decreased ripening temperature are all potentially important measures against gas production by Clostridium spp. in Gouda cheese.

  4. Nanofiltration as energy-efficient solution for sulfate waste in vacuum salt production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bargeman, Gerrald; Steensma, M.; ten Kate, A.; Westerink, J.B.; Demmer, R.L.M.; Bakkenes, H.; Manuhutu, C.F.H.

    2009-01-01

    In vacuum salt production sulfate is an important impurity, but it is also used to remove other cationic impurities from the raw brine. Removal of excess sulfate is currently done by purging salt crystallizer mother liquor from the brine plant, or crystallizing sodium sulfate through evaporative or

  5. Investigations on boron isotopic geochemistry of salt lakes in Qaidam basin, Qinghai

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Xiao, Y.K.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Liu, W.G.; Wang, Y.H.; Jin, L.

    of brine and are related to boron origin, the corrosion of salt and to certain chemical constituents. The distribution of boron isotopes in Quidam Basin showed a regional feature: salt lake brines in the west and northwest basin have the highest d11B values...

  6. 7 CFR 58.320 - Brine tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brine tanks. 58.320 Section 58.320 Agriculture....320 Brine tanks. Brine tanks used for the treating of parchment liners shall be constructed of... liners. The tank should also be provided with a satisfactory drainage outlet....

  7. Sensitivity of Some Explosive/Brine Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    concentration in brine mixtures. 3 Friction test results of brine mixtures. 10 4 Thermal test results of brine mixtures. 11 Li 71 - INTRODUCTION A...also carried out on these impact insensitive mixtures. Of the seven mixtures only the 15% M28-Comp. B sample passed the thermal test , since smoking

  8. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  9. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L.

  10. Study on the deterioration mechanism of layered rock-salt electrodes using epitaxial thin films - Li(Ni, Co, Mn)O2 and their Zr-O surface modified electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Machiko; Iba, Hideaki; Suzuki, Kota; Minamishima, Hiroaki; Hirayama, Masaaki; Tamura, Kazuhisa; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro; Saito, Tomohiro; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Kanno, Ryoji

    2017-03-01

    Deterioration mechanism of Li(Ni, Co, Mn)O2 and Zr-O surface modified electrodes has been elucidated using epitaxial thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition. The electrodes comprise a mixture of layered rock-salt and spinel phases. The deterioration mechanism is analyzed using cyclic voltammetry, in situ X-ray diffraction measurements, and in situ neutron reflectometry. The spinel phase in the electrodes has low electrochemical activity and is not involved in Li insertion/extraction. The amount of Li participating in the charge-discharge reactions in the layered rock-salt phase increases with cycling, inducing a phase change at the electrode surface, lowering the reversibility. In contrast, in the Zr-O surface modified electrode, the spinel phase does not increase on charging/discharging. Thus, the Zr-O modification stabilizes the surface of layered rock-salt structure, thereby improving the cycling characteristics. Also, after the Zr-O modification, the Li concentration in the liquid electrolyte near the electrode/electrolyte interface increases during charging/discharging. The Zr-O surface modification not only stabilizes the electrode surface but also causes changes on the electrolyte side. Using the mixed model electrodes, we elucidate the mechanism of electrode deterioration and the origin of the improvement in cycling characteristics occurring on surface modification.

  11. Degradation of concrete-based barriers by Mg-containing brines: From laboratory experiments via reactive transport modelling to overall safety analysis in repository scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Matthias; Wilhelm, Stefan; Hagemann, Sven; Xie, Mingliang; Wollrath, Jürgen; Preuss, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    The Morsleben nuclear waste repository (ERAM) for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste is located in an old rock salt and potash mine in Northern Germany. From 1971 to 1998, approximately 36 800 m3 of waste have been disposed of. Now, waste disposal is finished, and the repository has to be backfilled and sealed. The closure concept is based on extensive backfilling of the salt mine with an inexpensive concrete mixture. The major disposal areas, containing most of the waste, will be isolated from the rest of the mine building by sealing the connecting access tunnels. The good geological situation (an intact cap rock with very small flow rates) provides an excellent basic condition for a safe repository. However, the access of water to the remaining parts of the mine cannot be excluded. The brines that are formed in contact with potash salts will contain Mg in a concentration that depends on various factors and cannot be predicted. For backfill and closure of the repository, no common material chemically stable against brines of all possible compositions is available. Salt concrete has a low permeability but is corroded by brines containing Mg, whilst concrete based on Sorel phases is decomposed if the Mg-content of the brines is too low. In each of these alternatives, corrosion results in a strong increase of permeability and a loss of the mechanical integrity of the material. However, for large hydraulic seals the flow of corroding brines is limited because of the high hydraulic resistance of the barrier. Thus, the barriers will persist for a long time in spite of the chemical incompatibility of building material and brine. For the planning of the backfill and closure measures as well as for the license application procedure it is crucial to demonstrate that the seals of the major disposal areas will keep their function for a sufficient long time. This lifetime depends among others on the corrosion capacity of the brine to the building material, on the

  12. Geochemistry of Aluminum in High Temperature Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.

    1999-05-18

    The objective ofthis research is to provide quantitative data on the equilibrium and thermodynamic properties of aluminum minerals required to model changes in permeability and brine chemistry associated with fluid/rock interactions in the recharge, reservoir, and discharge zones of active geothermal systems. This requires a precise knowledge of the thermodynamics and speciation of aluminum in aqueous brines, spanning the temperature and fluid composition rangesencountered in active systems. The empirical and semi-empirical treatments of the solubility/hydrolysis experimental results on single aluminum mineral phases form the basis for the ultimate investigation of the behavior of complex aluminosilicate minerals. The principal objective in FY 1998 was to complete the solubility measurements on boehmite (AIOOH) inNaC1 media( 1 .O and 5.0 molal ionic strength, IOO-250°C). However, additional measurements were also made on boehmite solubility in pure NaOH solutions in order to bolster the database for fitting in-house isopiestic data on this system. Preliminary kinetic Measurements of the dissolution/precipitation of boehmite was also carried out, although these were also not planned in the earlier objective. The 1999 objectives are to incorporate these treatments into existing codes used by the geothermal industry to predict the chemistry ofthe reservoirs; these calculations will be tested for reliability against our laboratory results and field observations. Moreover, based on the success of the experimental methods developed in this program, we intend to use our unique high temperature pH easurement capabilities to make kinetic and equilibrium studies of pH-dependent aluminosilicate transformation reactions and other pH-dependent heterogeneous reactions.

  13. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  14. Multiphase flow of carbon dioxide and brine in dual porosity carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentland, Christopher; Oedai, Sjaam; Ott, Holger

    2014-05-01

    The storage of carbon dioxide in subsurface formations presents a challenge in terms of multiphase flow characterisation. Project planning requires an understanding of multiphase flow characteristics such as the relationship between relative permeability and saturation. At present there are only a limited number of relative permeability relations for carbon dioxide-brine fluid systems, most of which are measured on sandstone rocks. In this study coreflood experiments are performed to investigate the relative permeability of carbon dioxide and brine in two dual porosity carbonate systems. Carbon dioxide is injected into the brine saturated rocks in a primary drainage process. The rock fluid system is pre-equilibrated to avoid chemical reactions and physical mass transfer between phases. The pressure drop across the samples, the amount of brine displaced and the saturation distribution within the rocks are measured. The experiments are repeated on the same rocks for the decane-brine fluid system. The experimental data is interpreted by simulating the experiments with a continuum scale Darcy solver. Selected functional representations of relative permeability are investigated, the parameters of which are chosen such that a least squares objective function is minimised (i.e. the difference between experimental observations and simulated response). The match between simulation and measurement is dependent upon the form of the functional representations. The best agreement is achieved with the Corey [Brooks and Corey, 1964] or modified Corey [Masalmeh et al., 2007] functions which best represent the relative permeability of brine at low brine saturations. The relative permeability of carbon dioxide is shown to be lower than the relative permeability of decane over the saturation ranges investigated. The relative permeability of the brine phase is comparable for the two fluid systems. These observations are consistent with the rocks being water-wet. During the experiment

  15. Predictive modeling of selenium accumulation in brine shrimp in saline environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Earl R; Ohlendorf, Harry M; Redman, Aaron; Adams, William J; Marden, Brad; Grosell, Martin; Brooks, Marjorie L

    2011-07-01

    Great Salt Lake, Utah, is a large, terminal, hypersaline lake consisting of a northern more saline arm and a southern arm that is less saline. The southern arm supports a seasonally abundant fauna of low diversity consisting of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana), 7 species of brine flies, and multiple species of algae. Although fish cannot survive in the main body of the lake, the lake is highly productive, and brine shrimp and brine fly populations support large numbers of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds, as well as resident waterfowl, shorebirds, and gulls. Selenium and other trace elements, metals, and nutrients are contaminants of concern for the lake because of their concentrations in municipal and industrial outfalls and runoff from local agriculture and the large urban area of Salt Lake City. As a consequence, the State of Utah recently recommended water quality standards for Se for the southern arm of Great Salt Lake based on exposure and risk to birds. The tissue-based recommendations (as measured in bird eggs) were based on the understanding that Se toxicity is predominately expressed through dietary exposure, and that the breeding shorebirds, waterfowl, and gulls of the lake are the receptors of most concern. The bird egg-based recommended standards for Se require a model to link bird egg Se concentrations to their dietary concentrations and water column values. This study analyzes available brine shrimp tissue Se data from a variety of sources, along with waterborne and water particulate (potential brine shrimp diet) Se concentrations, in an attempt to develop a model to predict brine shrimp Se concentrations from the Se concentrations in surrounding water. The model can serve as a tool for linking the tissue-based water quality standards of a key dietary item to waterborne concentrations. The results were compared to other laboratory and field-based models to predict brine shrimp tissue Se concentrations from ambient water and their diet. No

  16. Manufacture of Boron-free Magnesia with High Purity from Residual Brine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fa Qiang LI; Bao Ping LING; Pei Hua MA

    2004-01-01

    A novel method for removing boron with ion exchange resin from residual brines to manufacture boron-free magnesia is described. The concentration of boron in the target magnesia manufactured thereby from Qinghai salt lakes is lower than 5μg/g, and the typical D50 size of product is 10.625μm.

  17. Leaf Physiological and Proteomic Analysis to Elucidate Silicon Induced Adaptive Response under Salt Stress in Rosa hybrida ‘Rock Fire’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakaran Soundararajan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of silicon (Si on growth and development have been witnessed in several plants. Nevertheless, studies on roses are merely reported. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to illustrate the impact of Si on photosynthesis, antioxidant defense and leaf proteome of rose under salinity stress. In vitro-grown, acclimatized Rosa hybrida ‘Rock Fire’ were hydroponically treated with four treatments, such as control, Si (1.8 mM, NaCl (50 mM, and Si+NaCl. After 15 days, the consequences of salinity stress and the response of Si addition were analyzed. Scorching of leaf edges and stomatal damages occurred due to salt stress was ameliorated under Si supplementation. Similarly, reduction of gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments, higher lipid peroxidation rate, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species under salinity stress were mitigated in Si treatment. Lesser oxidative stress observed was correlated with the enhanced activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase in Si+NaCl treatment. Importantly, sodium transportation was synergistically restricted with the stimulated counter-uptake of potassium in Si+NaCl treatment. Furthermore, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS results showed that out of 40 identified proteins, on comparison with control 34 proteins were down-accumulated and six proteins were up-accumulated due to salinity stress. Meanwhile, addition of Si with NaCl treatment enhanced the abundance of 30 proteins and downregulated five proteins. Differentially-expressed proteins were functionally classified into six groups, such as photosynthesis (22%, carbohydrate/energy metabolism (20%, transcription/translation (20%, stress/redox homeostasis (12%, ion binding (13%, and ubiquitination (8%. Hence, the findings reported in this work could facilitate a

  18. Shelf life determination of the brined golden mullet Liza aurata during vacuum refrigerated storage using some quality aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mariyam

    2012-01-01

    Salted fi sh products are popular in many countries around the world. Salting is one of the oldest techniques for fi sh preservation, and is essentially intended to increase the shelf-life of the product depressing water activity by means of dehydration and salt uptake by the fi sh muscle. However, the current demand for salted fi sh is driven more by the flavour of the product than for preservation purposes. Vacuum-packaging represents a static form of hypobaric storage. It is widely used in the food industry because of its effectiveness in reducing oxidative reactions in the product at relatively low cost. Low temperature storage is one of the primary methods to maintain fi sh quality, based on the reduction in the rates of microbiological, chemical and biochemical changes. Fresh Golden mullets were rapidly beheaded, scaled, gutted and immediately washed with tap water then, samples were taken to the laboratory in ice box for chemical and microbial analysis of fresh fish, other samples were put in the brine (6 liter water and 2160 g salt was used for brine solution). After 14 days of brining, fish were taken out of brine solution and drained, then they were Vacuum Packed and labelled (each pack contained two fish about 1500 g weight). All the packs were stored in a refrigerator 4°C. Some quality aspects including Total Volatile Nitrogen (TVN), Peroxide Value (PV), Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA), Total Viable Count (TVC), Halophilic Bacteria (HB) and presence of Clostridium Botulinum were determined in fresh mullets, fresh brined mullets after 14 days of brining, and in (Vacuum Packed) VP samples stored at 4°C at intervals of 30, 60 and 90 days. TVN increased from ten mg/100 g in fresh brined after 14 days to 30.80 mg/100 g in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4°C, PV increased after brining from 1.50 meq/kg in fresh brined to 28.90 meq/kg in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4°C, TBA increased from 0.07 mg MDA/kg in fresh brined

  19. Shelf life determination of the brined golden mullet Liza aurata during vacuum refrigerated storage using some quality aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyam Ali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Salted fish products are popular in many countries around the world. Salting is one of the oldest techniques for fish preservation, and is essentially intended to increase the shelf-life of the product depressing water activity by means of dehydration and salt uptake by the fish muscle. However, the current demand for salted fish is driven more by the flavour of the product than for preservation purposes. Vacuum-packaging represents a static form of hypobaric storage. It is widely used in the food industry because of its effectiveness in reducing oxidative reactions in the product at relatively low cost. Low temperature storage is one of the primary methods to maintain fish quality, based on the reduction in the rates of microbiological, chemical and biochemical changes. Material  and methods. Fresh Golden mullets were rapidly beheaded, scaled, gutted and immediately washed with tap water then, samples were taken to the laboratory in ice box for chemical and microbial analysis of fresh fish, other samples were put in the brine (6 liter water and 2160 g salt was used for brine solution. After 14 days of brining, fish were taken out of brine solution and drained, then they were Vacuum Packed and labelled (each pack contained two fish about 1500 g weight. All the packs were stored in a refrigerator 4°C. Some quality aspects including Total Volatile Nitrogen (TVN, Peroxide Value (PV, Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA, Total Viable Count (TVC, Halophilic Bacteria (HB and presence of Clostridium Botulinum were determined in fresh mullets, fresh brined mullets after 14 days of brining, and in (Vacuum Packed VP samples stored at 4°C at intervals of 30, 60 and 90 days. Results.  TVN increased from ten mg/100 g in fresh brined after 14 days to 30.80 mg/100 g in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4°C, PV increased after brining from 1.50 meq/kg in fresh brined to 28.90 meq/kg in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4

  20. Isolation of Halobacterium salinarum retrieved directly from halite brine inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mormile, Melanie R.; Biesen, Michelle A.; Gutierrez, M. Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio; Pavlovich, Justin B.; Onstott, T C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2003-11-01

    Halite crystals were selected from a 186m subsurface core taken from the Badwater salt pan, Death Valley, California to ascertain if halophilic Archaea and their associated 16S rDNA can survive over several tens of thousands of years. Using a combined microscope microdrill/micropipette system, fluids from brine inclusions were aseptically extracted from primary, hopper texture, halite crystals from 8 and 85 metres below the surface (mbls). U-Th disequilibrium dating indicates that these halite layers were deposited at 9600 and 97000 years before present (ybp) respectively.

  1. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  2. Cryogenic formation of brine and sedimentary mirabilite in submergent coastal lake basins, Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasby, Stephen E.; Rod Smith, I.; Bell, Trevor; Forbes, Donald L.

    2013-06-01

    Two informally named basins (Mirabilite Basins 1 and 2) along a submergent coastline on Banks Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, host up to 1 m-thick accumulations of mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) underlying stratified water bodies with basal anoxic brines. Unlike isostatically uplifting coastlines that trap seawater in coastal basins, these basins formed from freshwater lakes that were transgressed by seawater. The depth of the sill that separates the basins from the sea is shallow (1.15 m), such that seasonal sea ice formation down to 1.6 m isolates the basins from open water exchange through the winter. Freezing of seawater excludes salts, generating dense brines that sink to the basin bottom. Progressive freezing increases salinity of residual brines to the point of mirabilite saturation, and as a result sedimentary deposits of mirabilite accumulate on the basin floors. Brine formation also leads to density stratification and bottom water anoxia. We propose a model whereby summer melt of the ice cover forms a temporary freshwater lens, and rather than mixing with the underlying brines, it is exchanged with seawater once the ice plug that separates the basins from the open sea melts. This permits progressive brine development and density stratification within the basins.

  3. Modeling brine and nutrient dynamics in Antarctic sea ice: the case of dissolved silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancoppenolle, M.; Goosse, H.; de Montety, A.; Fichefet, T.; Tremblay, B.; Tison, J.

    2009-12-01

    Sea ice ecosystems are characterized by micro-algae living in brine inclusions. The growth rate of ice algae depends on light and nutrient supply. Here, the interactions between nutrients and brine dynamics under the influence of algae are investigated using a one-dimensional model. The model includes snow and ice thermodynamics with brine physics and an idealized sea ice biological component, characterized by one nutrient, namely dissolved silica (DSi). In the model, DSi follows brine motion and is consumed by ice algae. Depending on physical ice characteristics, the brine flow is either advective, diffusive or turbulent. The vertical profiles of ice salinity and DSi concentration are solutions of advection-diffusion equations. The model is configured to simulate the typical thermodynamic regimes of first-year Antarctic pack ice. The simulated vertical profiles of salinity and DSi qualitatively reproduce observations. Analysis of results highlights the role of convection in the lowermost 5-10 cm of ice. Convection mixes saline, nutrient-poor brine with comparatively fresh, nutrient-rich seawater. This implies a rejection of salt to the ocean and a flux of DSi to the ice. In presence of growing algae, the simulated ocean-to-ice DSi flux increases by 0-115% compared to an abiotic situation. In turn, primary production and brine convection act in synergy to form a nutrient pump. The other important processes are the flooding of the surface by seawater and the percolation of meltwater. The former refills nutrients near the ice surface in spring. The latter, if present, tends to expell nutrients from the ice in summer. Sketch of salt (left) and nutrient (right) exchanges at the ice-ocean interface proposed in this paper.

  4. Integrated processes for desalination and salt production: A mini-review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenten, I. Gede; Ariono, Danu; Purwasasmita, Mubiar; Khoirudin

    2017-03-01

    The scarcity of fresh water due to the rapid growth of population and industrial activities has increased attention on desalination process as an alternative freshwater supply. In desalination process, a large volume of saline water is treated to produce freshwater while a concentrated brine is discharged back into the environment. The concentrated brine contains a high concentration of salt and also chemicals used during desalination operations. Due to environmental impacts arising from improper treatment of the brine and more rigorous regulations of the pollution control, many efforts have been devoted to minimize, treat, or reuse the rejected brine. One of the most promising alternatives for brine handling is reusing the brine which can reduce pollution, minimize waste volume, and recover valuable salt. Integration of desalination and salt production can be implemented to reuse the brine by recovering water and the valuable salts. The integrated processes can achieve zero liquid discharge, increase water recovery, and produce the profitable salt which can reduce the overall desalination cost. This paper gives an overview of desalination processes and the brine impacts. The integrated processes, including their progress and advantages in dual-purpose desalination and salt production are discussed.

  5. Impact of pressure and temperature on CO2-brine-mica contact angles and CO2-brine interfacial tension: Implications for carbon geo-sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad; Al-Yaseri, Ahmed Z; Barifcani, Ahmed; Lebedev, Maxim; Iglauer, Stefan

    2016-01-15

    Precise characterization of wettability of CO2-brine-rock system and CO2-brine interfacial tension at reservoir conditions is essential as they influence capillary sealing efficiency of caprocks, which in turn, impacts the structural and residual trapping during CO2 geo-sequestration. In this context, we have experimentally measured advancing and receding contact angles for brine-CO2-mica system (surface roughness ∼12nm) at different pressures (0.1MPa, 5MPa, 7MPa, 10MPa, 15MPa, 20MPa), temperatures (308K, 323K, and 343K), and salinities (0wt%, 5wt%, 10wt%, 20wt% and 30wt% NaCl). For the same experimental matrix, CO2-brine interfacial tensions have also been measured using the pendant drop technique. The results indicate that both advancing and receding contact angles increase with pressure and salinity, but decrease with temperature. On the contrary, CO2-brine interfacial tension decrease with pressure and increase with temperature. At 20MPa and 308K, the advancing angle is measured to be ∼110°, indicating CO2-wetting. The results have been compared with various published literature data and probable factors responsible for deviations have been highlighted. Finally we demonstrate the implications of measured data by evaluating CO2 storage heights under various operating conditions. We conclude that for a given storage depth, reservoirs with lower pressures and high temperatures can store larger volumes and thus exhibit better sealing efficiency.

  6. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, J.H. [Aquatech Services, Inc., Citrus Heights, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  7. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Hanna M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Borgia, Andrea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-06-13

    reluctant to invest in capital intensive, high risk GCS projects; early technical, economic, and environmental assessments of brine management are extremely valuable for determining the potential role of GCS in the US. We performed a first order feasibility and economic assessment, at three different locations in the US, of twelve GCS extracted-­water management options, including: geothermal energy extraction, desalination, salt and mineral harvesting, rare-­earth element harvesting, aquaculture, algae biodiesel production, road de-­icing, enhanced geothermal system (EGS) recharge, underground reinjection, landfill disposal, ocean disposal, and evaporation pond disposal. Three saline aquifers from different regions of the US were selected as hypothetical GCS project sites to encompass variation in parameters that are relevant to the feasibility and economics of brine disposal. The three aquifers are the southern Mt. Simon Sandstone Formation in the Illinois Basin, IL; the Vedder Formation in the southern San Joaquin Basin, CA; and the Jasper Interval in the eastern Texas Gulf Basin, TX. These aquifers are candidates for GCS due to their physical characteristics and their close proximity to large CO2 emission sources. Feasibility and impacts were calculated using one mt-­CO2 injected as the functional unit of brine management. Scenarios were performed for typical 1000MW coal-­fired power plants (CFPP) that incurred an assumed 24 percent carbon capture energy penalty (EP), injected 90 percent of CO2 emissions (~9 million mt-­ CO2 injected annually), and treated extracted water onsite. Net present value (NPV), land requirements, laws and regulations, and technological limits were determined for each stage of disposal, and used to estimate feasibility. The boundary of the assessment began once extracted water was brought to the surface, and ended once the water evaporated, was injected underground, or was discharged into

  8. Brine migration resulting from pressure increases in a layered subsurface system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Nordbeck, Johannes; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Brine originating from the deep subsurface impairs parts of the freshwater resources in the North German Basin. Some of the deep porous formations (esp. Trias and Jurassic) exhibit considerable storage capacities for waste fluids (CO2, brine from oil production or cavern leaching), raising concerns among water providers that this type of deep subsurface utilization might impair drinking water supplies. On the one hand, overpressures induced by fluid injections and the geothermal gradient support brine migration from deep into shallow formations. On the other hand, the rising brine is denser than the surrounding less-saline formation waters and, therefore, tends to settle down. Aim of this work is to investigate the conditions under which pressurized formation brine from deep formations can reach shallow freshwater resources. Especially, the role of intermediate porous formations between the storage formation and the groundwater is studied. For this, complex thermohaline simulations using a coupled numerical process model are necessary and performed in this study, in which fluid density depends on fluid pressure, temperature and salt content and the governing partial differential equations are coupled. The model setup is 2D and contains a hypothetic series of aquifers and barriers, each with a thickness of 200 m. Formation pressure is increased at depths of about 2000 m in proximity to a salt wall and a permeable fault. The domain size reaches up to tens of kilometers horizontally to the salt wall. The fault connects the injection formation and the freshwater aquifer such that conditions can be considered as extremely favorable for induced brine migration (worst case scenarios). Brine, heat, and salt fluxes are quantified with reference to hydraulic permeabilities, storage capacities (in terms of domain size), initial salt and heat distribution, and operation pressures. The simulations reveal the development of a stagnation point in the fault region in each

  9. The fate of Listeria monocytogenes in brine and on Gouda cheese following artificial contamination during brining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wemmenhove, E.; Beumer, R.R.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Wells-Bennik, M.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The fate of 3 different Listeria monocytogenes strains (Scott A, 2F and 6E) was studied independently in brine and on factory-scale Gouda cheeses that had been submerged in brine that was artificially contaminated with these individual strains. Viable numbers of L. monocytogenes in the brine

  10. Self-assembly of ordered wurtzite/rock salt heterostructures—A new view on phase separation in Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gries, K. I.; Vogel, S.; Straubinger, R.; Beyer, A.; Chernikov, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Volz, K. [Faculty of Physics and Materials Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-Straße 6 and Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Wassner, T. A.; Bruckbauer, J. [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall 4, 85748 Garching (Germany); Häusler, I. [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Laumer, B. [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall 4, 85748 Garching (Germany); I. Physikalisches Institut and Laboratorium für Materialforschung (LaMa), Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Kracht, M.; Heiliger, C.; Eickhoff, M. [I. Physikalisches Institut and Laboratorium für Materialforschung (LaMa), Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Janek, J. [Institute for Physical Chemistry and Laboratorium für Materialforschung (LaMa), Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, 35392 Gießen (Germany)

    2015-07-28

    The self-assembled formation of ordered, vertically stacked rocksalt/wurtzite Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O heterostructures by planar phase separation is shown. These heterostructures form quasi “natural” two-dimensional hetero-interfaces between the different phases upon annealing of MgO-oversaturated wurtzite Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-plane sapphire substrates. The optical absorption spectra show a red shift simultaneous with the appearance of a cubic phase upon annealing at temperatures between 900 °C and 1000 °C. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that these effects are caused by phase separation leading to the formation of a vertically ordered rock salt/wurtzite heterostructures. To explain these observations, we suggest a phase separation epitaxy model that considers this process being initiated by the formation of a cubic (Mg,Zn)Al{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel layer at the interface to the sapphire substrate, acting as a planar seed for the epitaxial precipitation of rock salt Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O. The equilibrium fraction x of magnesium in the resulting wurtzite (rock salt) layers is approximately 0.15 (0.85), independent of the MgO content of the as-grown layer and determined by the annealing temperature. This model is confirmed by photoluminescence analysis of the resulting layer systems after different annealing temperatures. In addition, we show that the thermal annealing process results in a significant reduction in the density of edge- and screw-type dislocations, providing the possibility to fabricate high quality templates for quasi-homoepitaxial growth.

  11. Disposal/recovery options for brine waters from oil and gas production in New York State. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, M.R.; Atkinson, J.F.; Bunn, M.D.; Hodge, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    Produced water from oil and gas operations, or brine as it is typically referred, may be characterized as being highly saline, with total dissolved solids greater than 100 g/L. If these bribes are disposed improperly there may be severe adverse environmental effects. Thus, it is important that brine be disposed using environmentally sound methods. Unfortunately, costs for the disposal of brine water are a significant burden to oil and gas producers in New York State. These costs and the relatively low market price of oil and natural gas have contributed to the decline in gas and oil production in New York State during the past 10 years. The objectives of this study were to evaluate new and existing options for brine disposal in New York State, examine the technical and economic merits of these options, and assess environmental impacts associated with each option. Two new disposal options investigated for New York State oil and gas producers included construction of a regional brine treatment facility to treat brine prior to discharge into a receiving water and a salt production facility that utilizes produced water as a feed stock. Both options are technically feasible; however, their economic viability depends on facility size and volume of brine treated.

  12. Prediction of oxygen solubility in pure water and brines up to high temperatures and pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENG, Ming; DUAN, Zhenhao

    2010-10-01

    A thermodynamic model is presented to calculate the oxygen solubility in pure water (273-600 K, 0-200 bar) and natural brines containing Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Cl -, SO 42-, over a wide range of temperature, pressure and ionic strength with or close to experimental accuracy. This model is based on an accurate equation of state to calculate vapor phase chemical potential and a specific particle interaction model for liquid phase chemical potential. With this approach, the model can not only reproduce the existing experimental data, but also extrapolate beyond the data range from simple aqueous salt system to complicated brine systems including seawater. Compared with previous models, this model covers much wider temperature and pressure space in variable composition brine systems. A program for this model can be downloaded from the website: http://www.geochem-model.org.

  13. Formation and Persistence of Brine on Mars: Experimental Simulations throughout the Diurnal Cycle at the Phoenix Landing Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, E; Martínez, G M; Rennó, N O

    2016-12-01

    In the last few years, water ice and salts capable of melting this ice and producing liquid saline water (brine) have been detected on Mars. Moreover, indirect evidence for brine has been found in multiple areas of the planet. Here, we simulate full diurnal cycles of temperature and atmospheric water vapor content at the Phoenix landing site for the first time and show experimentally that, in spite of the low Mars-like chamber temperature, brine forms minutes after the ground temperature exceeds the eutectic temperature of salts in contact with water ice. Moreover, we show that the brine stays liquid for most of the diurnal cycle when enough water ice is available to compensate for evaporation. This is predicted to occur seasonally in areas of the polar region where the temperature exceeds the eutectic value and frost or snow is deposited on saline soils, or where water ice and salts coexist in the shallow subsurface. This is important because the existence of liquid water is a key requirement for habitability. Key Words: Mars-Ice-Perchlorates-Brine-Water-Raman spectroscopy. Astrobiology 16, 937-948.

  14. Optical and electron transport properties of rock-salt Sc{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Ruopeng; Zheng, P. Y.; Gall, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-07-07

    Epitaxial single-crystal Sc{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}N ternary alloy layers deposited by magnetron co-sputtering on MgO(001) substrates at 950 °C exhibit a solid solution rock-salt phase for x = 0–0.2 without decomposition. Optical absorption indicates a linear increase in the optical gap from 2.51 eV for ScN to 3.05 eV for Sc{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.2}N and, after correction due to the Moss-Burstein shift, a direct X point interband transition energy E{sub g}(X) = 2.15 + 2.75 x (eV). Correspondingly, the direct transition at the zone center increases with Al concentration according to E{sub g}(Γ) = 3.80 + 1.45 x (eV), as determined from a feature in the reflection spectra. All layers are degenerate n-type semiconductors with a room temperature mobility that decreases from 22 to 6.7 to 0.83 cm{sup 2}/V s as x increases from 0 to 0.11 to 0.20. The corresponding carrier densities are 9.2 × 10{sup 20}, 7.9 × 10{sup 20}, and 0.95 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3} as determined from Hall measurements and consistent with optical free carrier absorption below photon energies of 1 eV. Temperature dependent transport measurements indicate metallic conduction for ScN, but weak localization that leads to a resistivity minimum at 85 and 210 K for x = 0.051 and 0.15, respectively, and a negative temperature coefficient over the entire measured 4–300 K range for Sc{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.2}N. The decreasing mobility is attributed to alloy scattering at randomly distributed Al atoms on cation sites, which also cause the weak localization. The carrier density is primarily due to unintentional F doping from the Sc target and decreases strongly for x > 0.15, which is attributed to trapping in defect states due to the deterioration of the crystalline quality, as evidenced by the x-ray diffraction peak width that exhibits a minimum of 0.14° for x = 0.11 but increases to 0.49° for x = 0.20. This is consistent with asymmetric x

  15. MR imaging of heterogeneity in partially frozen brine and their effect on ultrasonic wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, O.; Matsushima, J.; Suzuki, M.

    2012-12-01

    Methane hydrate bearing sediment possesses unique seismic wave propagation properties. Both high seismic wave velocity and high wave attenuation are observed in methane hydrate bearing sediment. We used brine with salinity 2% in analogous to methane hydrate for conducting laboratory waveform measurement and characterization by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. When brine undergoes freezing, only pure water freezes into ice and salt remains in solution with successively increasing salinity and decreasing freezing point of the solution. Unfrozen brine is enclosed inside micro pores in ice, with exhibiting solid-liquid coexisting system. We used conventional pulse transmission technique to measure compressional wave velocity in partially frozen brine when brine is subjected cooling down to -12oC. Waveform measurement shows sudden increase in compressional wave velocity at temperature -3oC. Below -3oC, velocity increases slightly. Largest wave attenuation is observed at around -3oC. We conducted MRI experiment by using instrument Varian Unity Inova 4.7T. T1 weighted and diffusion weighted (DW) MR images were prepared by applying magnetic field gradient of 0.3 gauss/cm. We observe the spatial distribution of pores, microstructures and heterogeneity in partially frozen brine sample slices. Two dimensional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps are prepared from DW images with b-values 0 and 81 s/mm2 respectively. We estimate porosity quantitatively from each MR slices at temperature -3, -5, -7 and -12oC by using image analysis technique. Gassmann equation is applied to calculate compressional wave velocity from the porosity data and compared with the measured velocity obtained by waveform analysis technique. The NMR results show the existence of high and low mobility unfrozen brine in the pore space. MR imaging shows the heterogeneously distributed porosity values within a single slice with low porosity and high

  16. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Their Mixture in the Presence of Brine

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yafan

    2017-10-03

    We perform molecular dynamics simulation study of CO2, methane, and their mixture in the presence of brine over a broad range of temperature (311–473 K), pressure (up to about 100 MPa), and NaCl concentration (up to about 14 wt %). The general decrease in the interfacial tension (IFT) values of the CH4–brine system with pressure and temperature is similar to that obtained for the corresponding CH4–water system. The IFT of methane and brine is a linearly increasing function of salt concentration, and the resulting slopes are dependent on the pressure. A similar behavior as methane is observed for such systems containing CO2 and CO2–CH4 mixture. The IFT of CO2 and brine increases linearly with increasing salt content; however, the resulting slopes are independent of pressure. The simulations show that the presence of CO2 decreases the IFT values of the CH4–water and CH4–brine systems, but the degree of reduction depends on the amount of CO2 in each sample, which is consistent with experimental evidence. These IFT values show a linear correlation with the amount of CO2, and the resulting slopes are dependent on the temperature and pressure. Furthermore, our results for the mole fractions of the different species in the CO2–CH4–water system at 323 K and 9 MPa are in agreement with those of experiments. The mole fractions of methane and CO2 in the water-rich phase decrease with increasing salt concentration, whereas that of H2O in the methane- or CO2-rich phases remains almost unaffected in all of the studied cases. Our results could be useful because of the importance of carbon dioxide sequestration and shale gas production.

  17. Core-scale electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) monitoring of CO2-brine mixture in Fontainebleau sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, David; Ledo, Juanjo; Queralt, Pilar; Bellmunt, Fabian; Luquot, Linda; Gouze, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The main goal of the monitoring stage of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is to obtain an accurate estimation of the subsurface CO2 accumulation and to detect any possible leakage. Laboratory experiments are necessary to investigate the small scale processes governing the CO2-brine-rock interaction. They also provide a means to calibrate the results coming from field scale geophysical methods. In this work we set up an experimental system which is able to perform Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) measurements on centimeter-scale rock samples at various P-T conditions. We present the results of two new experiments related to CO2 monitoring, performed on a cylindrical (4 × 8 cm) Fontainebleau rock sample. In the first one, we have quantified the CO2 saturation at different volume fractions, representing zones from a deep saline aquifer with varying degrees of saturation. In the second one, we have monitored and quantified the effect of CO2 dissolution in the brine at a pressure of 40 bar during eight days, emulating the invasion of CO2 into a shallow aquifer. Results highlight the importance of accounting for the contribution of surface conductivity in highly CO2-saturated regions, even in clay-free rocks, and also for brine conductivity variation due to CO2 dissolution. Ignoring any of these effects will end up in a CO2 saturation underestimation. We present a modified CO2 saturation equation to account for these two influences.

  18. Application of a Re-Pd bimetallic catalyst for treatment of perchlorate in waste ion-exchange regenerant brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyong; Choe, Jong Kwon; Sasnow, Zachary; Werth, Charles J; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Concentrated sodium chloride (NaCl) brines are often used to regenerate ion-exchange (IX) resins applied to treat drinking water sources contaminated with perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)), generating large volumes of contaminated waste brine. Chemical and biological processes for ClO(4)(-) reduction are often inhibited severely by high salt levels, making it difficult to recycle waste brines. Recent work demonstrated that novel rhenium-palladium bimetallic catalysts on activated carbon support (Re-Pd/C) can efficiently reduce ClO(4)(-) to chloride (Cl(-)) under acidic conditions, and here the applicability of the process for treating waste IX brines was examined. Experiments conducted in synthetic NaCl-only brine (6-12 wt%) showed higher Re-Pd/C catalyst activity than in comparable freshwater solutions, but the rate constant for ClO(4)(-) reduction measured in a real IX waste brine was found to be 65 times lower than in the synthetic NaCl brine. Through a series of experiments, co-contamination of the IX waste brine by excess NO(3)(-) (which the catalyst reduces principally to NH(4)(+)) was found to be the primary cause for deactivation of the Re-Pd/C catalyst, most likely by altering the immobilized Re component. Pre-treatment of NO(3)(-) using a different bimetallic catalyst (In-Pd/Al(2)O(3)) improved selectivity for N(2) over NH(4)(+) and enabled facile ClO(4)(-) reduction by the Re-Pd/C catalyst. Thus, sequential catalytic treatment may be a promising strategy for enabling reuse of waste IX brine containing NO(3)(-) and ClO(4)(-).

  19. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  20. Evidence for remotely triggered microearthquakes during salt cavern collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Rohmer, Jérémy

    2016-04-01

    Microseismicity is a good indicator of spatio-temporal evolution of physical properties of rocks prior to catastrophic events like volcanic eruptions or landslides and may be triggered by a number of causes including dynamic characteristics of processes in play or/and external forces. We show evidence of triggered microseismicity observed in the vicinity of an underground salt cavern prone to collapse by a remote M ˜ 7.2 earthquake, which occurred ˜12 000 km away. High-dynamic range broad-band records reveal the strong time-correlation between a dramatic change in the rate of local high-frequency microseismicity and the passage of low-frequency seismic waves, including body, Love and Rayleigh surface waves. Pressure was lowered in the cavern by pumping operations of brine out of the cavern. We demonstrate the near critical state of the cavern before the collapse by means of 2-D axisymmetric elastic finite-element simulations. On this basis, we show that the increment of stress necessary for the failure of the Dolomite layer, which ensures the stability of the whole system, is of the same order of magnitude as the maximum dynamic stress magnitude observed during the passage of the earthquakes waves. This suggests that the stress oscillations due to the seismic waves correlated with the recorded microearthquakes induced damage of the overburden, which eventually led to the collapse of the salt cavern. We show that the contribution of Rayleigh waves is the most efficient to trigger microseismicity at periods close to the natural fundamental frequency of the cavern system found at about 10-20 s by investigating the impulse response of the cavern + overburden + brine system.

  1. The Brine Shrimp's Butterfly Stroke

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Brennan; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the fluid dynamics of brine shrimp larvae swimming in this gallery of fluid motion video. Time resolved particle image velocimetry was performed using nano-particles as seeding material to measure the time dependent velocity and vorticity fields. The Reynolds number of the flow was roughly 8 and the Womerseley number (ratio of periodic forcing to viscous forcing) was about 5. Vorticity dynamics reveals the formation of a vortex ring structure at the tip of each arm at the beginning of the power stroke. This two vortex system evolves dramatically with time as the stroke progresses. The outer circulation is noted to weaken while the inner circulation strengthens over the power stroke. The gaining strength of the inner vortex correlates with the acceleration and forward movement of the larvae.

  2. Study of brine treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-01

    Available information pertinent to the treatment of geothermal brines was collected by literature search and then evaluated and summarized for use by the electric utility and geothermal industries. The information was screened from the geothermal, oil and gas, wastewater disposal, and boiler water treatment industries. The current state of knowledge and methodology concerning the treatment of geothermal brines to control scaling and corrosion in geothermal electric power production was assessed. Currently, geothermal scale in pipes and wells is removed by physical or chemical methods. There is a growing effort on developing methods to control scale formation for both fresh and spent brines, including pH adjustment and application of an electrical potential for fresh fluids, and coagulation to treat spent fluids. Current methods of corrosion control center around planned replacement of piping and other plant components, with efforts focused primarily on development of materials with improved corrosion resistance. Recommendations for additional work to improve brine treatment include the following: (1) chemical and physical characterization of brine and scale compositions, (2) basic data on the mechanism of scale formation and the effects of inhibitors, (3) development of instrumentation to monitor geothermal brine constituents, (4) correlation of laboratory results with field test data, and (5) screening of currently available commercial inhibitors for application to geothermal brines. An annotated bibliography of the reference material used in this study is included.

  3. Driving mechanism of low salinity flooding in carbonate rocks (SPE-174300-MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahani, Hassan; Berg, Steffen; Keya, Arsene; Bartels, W.; Nasralla, Ramez; Rossen, William

    2015-01-01

    Several studies conducted mainly on the laboratory scale indicate that in carbonate rocks oil displacement can be influenced by the ionic composition of the brine, providing an opportunity to improve recovery by optimizing the brine mixture used in secondary or tertiary recovery. In industry this to

  4. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  5. Fluid distribution in grain boundaries of natural fine-grained rock salt deformed at low differential stress (Qom Kuh salt fountain, central Iran): Implications for rheology and transport properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desbois, G.; Urai, J.L.; Bresser, J.H.P. de

    2012-01-01

    We used a combination of broad ion beam cross-sectioning and cryogenic SEM to image polished surfaces and corresponding pairs of fractured grain boundaries in an investigation of grain boundary microstructures and fluid distribution in naturally deformed halite from the Qom Kuh salt glacier (central

  6. Geochemical evolution of a fractured zone in the cap rock of an underground carbon storage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialle, S.; Druhan, J. L.; Maher, K.

    2013-12-01

    Assessment and management of environmental risks associated with underground storage of CO2 in geological systems is essential for the commercial deployment of this technology. A major risk is leakage of the CO2 from its storage reservoir, through wellbores, and along faults and fractures in the cap rock. The geochemical reactions likely to take place as CO2 leaks through a damage zone and their impact on cap rock integrity still need to be better understood and quantified. Should CO2 leakage occur, geochemical reactions would govern the environmental impact on shallow groundwater aquifers and could provide an indication of the leak prior to surface-based monitoring techniques. We used the reactive transport code TOUGH2/TOUGHREACT to model a leakage scenario through a fractured cap rock. Since geochemical reactions will strongly depend upon the local hydrodynamics of the CO2 leak, the first step of the study is to provide an appropriate physical representation of fluid flow through the system. Typically, for a low porosity rock formation, a fault/damaged zone system is composed of a core of low permeability and a damage zone with second-order fractures whose density decreases with distance from the fault core. Permeability is thus increased along the fault plane and laterally decreases down to the permeability value of the undamaged cap rock. Appropriate scaling relationships (e.g., and analytical expression of for permeability as a function of fracture aperture and fracture density), effective physical parameters as well as constitutive relationships are carefully chosen to model the fractured system, treated as an equivalent porous medium. The cap rock is initially saturated with brine (salinity of 0.15 in mass fraction) and due to overpressure in the lower storage reservoir, CO2 migrates through the damage zone. Geochemical reactions involve both salt precipitation due to the partitioning of H2O and CO2 between liquid and gas phases as well as well reactions

  7. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA): A New Approach to Recovering Water from Wastewater Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensinger, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Brine water recovery represents a current technology gap in water recycling for human spaceflight. The role of a brine processor is to take the concentrated discharge from a primary wastewater processor, called brine, and recover most of the remaining water from it. The current state-of-the-art primary processor is the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) that currently achieves 70% water recovery. Recent advancements in chemical pretreatments are expected to increase this to 85% in the near future. This is a welcome improvement, yet is still not high enough for deep space transit. Mission architecture studies indicate that at least 95% is necessary for a Mars mission, as an example. Brine water recovery is the technology that bridges the gap between 85% and 95%, and moves life support systems one step closer to full closure of the water loop. Several brine water recovery systems have been proposed for human spaceflight, most of them focused on solving two major problems: operation in a weightless environment, and management and containment of brine residual. Brine residual is the leftover byproduct of the brine recovery process, and is often a viscous, sticky paste, laden with crystallized solid particles. Due to the chemical pretreatments added to wastewater prior to distillation in a primary processor, these residuals are typically toxic, which further complicates matters. Isolation of crewmembers from these hazardous materials is paramount. The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) is a recently developed concept from the Johnson Space Center that offers solutions to these challenges. CoBRA is centered on a softgoods evaporator that enables a passive fill with brine, and regeneration by discharging liquid brine residual to a collection bag. This evaporator is meant to be lightweight, which allows it to be discarded along with the accumulated brine solids contained within it. This paper discusses design and development of a first CoBRA prototype, and reports

  8. Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recovery of water from brine is critically important for manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for extended missions. It is anticipated...

  9. Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recovery of water from brine is critically important for future manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for such extended missions. Water...

  10. Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.

    1983-09-01

    Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ..delta..P rather than sigma ..delta..P/sup 2/ (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ..delta..P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model.

  11. Experimental study of the stability and activity of brines on the surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altheide, Travis S.

    This work contributes to the understanding of liquid water stability, with an emphasis on the role that dissolved solutes may have had on liquid water formation on Mars, past and present. In chapter 2, the stability of liquid water under martian conditions is explored through experiments on ferric sulfate brines. First, it is demonstrated that such brines can be formed starting from typical martian mineralogy. Ferric sulfates are quite soluble, up to 48 wt%, and can form solutions which remain liquid down to 205 +/-1 K at the eutectic. As a result of low water activities, these solutions exhibit evaporation rates 20 times lower than pure water. The combination of a low eutectic point and low evaporation rates allow subsurface liquids to be stable at high martian latitudes, where the majority of gullies and viscous flow features are located. Thus, the characteristics of ferric sulfate brines were further investigated in chapter 3, where the viscous properties of such solutions were measured, with respect to changing temperature and concentration. Using these results, the viscosity of these solutions on the formation of gullies was considered, where calculated fluid flow velocities were found to be in accordance with some estimates from image analyses of gully formations. In chapter 4, other Mars-relevant brines were studied and characterized under martian surface conditions. Magnesium and ferrous sulfate, and magnesium and ferric chloride brines were found to stabilize water, through lower evaporation rates and freezing point depression, much like the ferric sulfate brines. For these sulfate brines, it was found that the thermodynamic process of phase change, i.e. ice formation and/or salt crystallization, can affect the kinetic process of evaporation, through very low water activities in solution. Furthermore, in chapter 5 these studies were extended to recent results from the Phoenix mission, by examining the stability of perchlorate brines under conditions

  12. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  13. Chlorine isotopic geochemistry of salt lakes in the Qaidam Basin, China

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Liu, W.G.; Xiao, Y.K.; Wang, Q.Z.; Qi, H.P.; Wang, Y.H.; Zhou, Y.M.; Shirodkar, P.V.

    The isotopic compositions of chlorine in salt lake brine coexisting with halite, oil-field water and river water from the Qaidam Basin (Qinghai, China) have been examined using high-precision measurement of chlorine isotopes based on thermal...

  14. Combinations of nisin with salt (NaCl) to control Listeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... biopreservatives that could improve and partly replace salt/brine ..... Antimicrobial 357 edible packaging based on cellulosic ethers, fatty acids and nisin ... monocytogenes source in a Taleggio producing plant and to predict.

  15. No-Rainfall Origin of Melas Chasma Valley Networks by Salt Dehydration: Numerical Thermal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Furfaro, R.; Rodriguez, J. A. P.; Candelaria, P.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Marion, G. M.; Crowley, J.; Hook, S.

    2009-03-01

    Salts in Melas Chasma should produce large positive thermal anomalies and warm hypersaline conditions at shallow depths. Dewatering may yield brine eruptions, and we argue that in Melas Chasma valley networks were produced this way, not by rainfall.

  16. 盐岩球腔储库弹性应力分布的理论解析%THEORETICAL ANALYTICAL SOLUTION OF STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN ELASTICITY STAGE OF SPHERICAL CAVITY STORAGE CAVERN IN SALT ROCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王武; 许宏发; 江淼; 方秦

    2012-01-01

    假定地下储气库为球形腔体,利用在弹性阶段应力可叠加的基本原理,将球形储气库的受力方式简化分解为静水压力和垂直方向受力.对这2种受力方式下围岩应力分布解析结果进行叠加,获得在远场三轴压应力和储库内部压力共同作用下球腔储气库围岩弹性应力分布的完整解析解.在相同条件下,对盐岩球腔储气库进行数值分析,并将解析解与数值分析结果进行比较,结果表明,应力分布解析解与数值解吻合较好,验证所提出的分析方法是合理可行的.结合Hoek-Brown破坏准则,计算得出储气库不出现塑性破坏时的极限内压值范围.%Based on the assumption that the storage cavern is sphere, and using a basic principle that the stress could be superimposed in the elastic stage, the force modes of spherical gas storage cavern is disintegrated into hydrostatic pressure and vertical stress. Through the superposition of analytic results of surrounding rock stress distribution under the two kinds of force modes, the elastic stress distribution functions in surrounding rock of the spherical gas storage cavern in salt rock under remote field triaxial compressive stresses and internal pressure are derived. The numerical analysis of spherical gas storage cavern of salt rock is conducted under the same condition. Comparison shows that numerical simulation results are in good agreements with theoretical calculation results; and the presented analysis method is verified to be feasible. Then Hoek-Brown criterion is used to estimate the stability of spherical cavity storage cavern, and the limit of internal pressure is obtained when the plastic failure of gas storage cavern doesn't appear.

  17. Evolution of arched roofs in salt caves: Role of gravity-induced stress and relative air humidity and temperature changes (Zagros Mts., Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruthans, Jiri; Filippi, Michal; Zare, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    moisture is wetting the dry rock and slightly diluting the percolating brine in ceiling of the caves, which is otherwise just saturated with respect to halite. During days the RH is <75% and brine partly dries up and precipitates halite. By repeating the cycle of dissolution and precipitation of halite and possibly also by temperature changes the rock salt is disintegrated into interlocked salt grains, whose behavior is then strongly controlled by gravity-induced stress. Research was funded by the Czech Science Foundation (GA CR No. 16-19459S). Reference: Bruthans J, Soukup J., Vaculíková J., Filippi M., Schweigstillova J., Mayo A.L., Masin D., Kletetschka G.,Rihosek J. (2014): Sandstone landforms shaped by negative feedback between stress and erosion. Nature Geoscience 7(8): 597-601.

  18. Partition behavior of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds in oil-brine mixtures during thermal processing for fish canning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Raffaele; Paduano, Antonello; Fiore, Francesca; Della Medaglia, Dorotea; Ambrosino, Maria Luisa; Medina, Isabel

    2002-05-08

    The chemical modifications and partitioning toward the brine phase (5% salt) of major phenol compounds of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) were studied in a model system formed by sealed cans filled with oil-brine mixtures (5:1, v/v) simulating canned-in-oil food systems. Filled cans were processed in an industrial plant using two sterilization conditions commonly used during fish canning. The partitioning of phenolic compounds toward brine induced by thermal processing was studied by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the phenol fraction extracted from oils and brine. Hydroxytyrosol (1), tyrosol (2), and the complex phenolic compounds containing 1 and 2 (i.e., the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycon 3, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon 4, and the oleuropein aglycon 6) decreased in the oily phase after sterilization with a marked partitioning toward the brine phase. The increase of the total amount of 1 and 2 after processing, as well as the presence of elenolic acid 7 released in brine, revealed the hydrolysis of the ester bond of hydrolyzable phenolic compounds 3, 4, and 6 during thermal processing. Both phenomena (partitioning toward the water phase and hydrolysis) contribute to explain the loss of phenolic compounds exhibited by EVOO used as filling medium in canned foods, as well as the protection of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned-in-EVOO fish products.

  19. Effects of NaCl on Fermentative Metabolism of Mature Green Tomatoes cv. Ailsa Craig in Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Fragkostefanakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of osmotic strength on gene expression and activity of the major enzymes of fermentative metabolism of mature green tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig has been studied by exposing fruit to brine containing 0 (water, 5 and 10 % NaCl. The fruits were surface sterilized prior to treatment to prevent the growth of microbes naturally present on the skin of the fruit. Changes in fruit expression of fermentation genes and the activity of the respective enzymes as well as physicochemical quality characteristics (soluble solid content, titratable acidity, pH and firmness were studied in both fruit and brine for 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 7 and 14 days. Discrepancies in responses that resulted from the different salt concentrations were obtained at molecular and quality levels. The complex kinetics of solutes between the fruit and the surrounding solution due to osmotic potential has led to different responses of the tissue to fermentation. Tomato fruit showed cracking soon after storage in water; water-stored fruit had higher titratable acidity, lower soluble solid content, and higher induction of anaerobic metabolism as indicated by the expression or the activity of the fermentation enzymes compared to fruit stored in brine with 5 or 10 % NaCl. No cracking was observed in fruit stored in 5 (isotonic or 10 % NaCl (hypertonic brine, though in the latter, signs of dehydration were observed. The presence of salt in brine reduced the intensity of fermentative metabolism as indicated by the lower gene expression and enzyme activity. However, fruit stored in brine with 5 % NaCl survived longer than with 0 or 10 % NaCl. The presence of 5 % NaCl in brine caused mild changes of both the fermentative metabolism and the physicochemical characteristics and prevented fruit deterioration during storage.

  20. Assessment of brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Alexander; Class, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change, shortage of resources and the growing usage of renewable energy sources has lead to a growing demand for the utilization of subsurface systems which may create conflicts with essential public interests such as water supply from aquifers. For example, brine migration into potential drinking water aquifers due to the injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is perceived as a potential threat resulting from the Carbon Capture and Storage Technology (CCS). In this work, we focus on the large scale impacts of CO2 storage on brine migration but the methodology and the obtained results may also apply to other fields like waste water disposal, where large amounts of fluid are injected into the subsurface. We consider a realistic (but not real) on-shore site in the North German Basin with characteristic geological features. In contrast to modeling on the reservoir scale, the spatial scale in this work is much larger in both vertical and lateral direction, since the regional hydrogeology is considered as well. Structures such as fault zones, hydrogeological windows in the Rupelian clay or salt wall flanks are considered as potential pathways for displaced fluids into shallow systems and their influence needs to be taken into account. Simulations on this scale always require a compromise between the accuracy of the description of the relevant physical processes, data availability and computational resources. Therefore, we test different model simplifications and discuss them with respect to the relevant physical processes and the expected data availability. The simplifications in the models are concerned with the role of salt-induced density differences on the flow, with injection of brine (into brine) instead of CO2 into brine, and with simplifying the geometry of the site.

  1. Effects of in-plane magnetization orientation on magnetic and electronic properties in a Bcc Co (001)/rock salt MgO (001)/Bcc Co (001) magnetic tunnel junction system: ab initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dong Su; Chae, Kisung; Chung, Yong-Chae

    2012-04-01

    Ab initio calculations were performed on a fully epitaxial bcc Co (001)/rock salt MgO (001)/bcc Co (001) magnetic tunnel junction system for two cases where the magnetization is parallel to bcc Co [100] and to bcc Co [110]. Structural optimization reveals that the two cases are equivalent systems and that the Co electrodes contract in the z-direction whereas the MgO insulating barrier expands. The magnetic moments of each monolayer vary slightly in each case; furthermore, only the magnetic moment at the surface of the Co atom shows any enhancement (12%). The layer decomposed density of states profiles reveals that the bonding character of the junction interface is derived mainly from the 2p-3d hybridization of the MgO and Co interfacial atoms.

  2. The advantages of a salt/bentonite backfill for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B.M.; Novak, C.F. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Jercinovic, M. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-04-01

    A 70/30 wt% salt/bentonite mixture is shown to be preferable to pure crushed salt as backfill for disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report discusses several selection criteria used to arrive at this conclusion: the need for low permeability and porosity after closure, chemical stability with the surroundings, adequate strength to avoid shear erosion from human intrusion, ease of emplacement, and sorption potential for brine and radionuclides. Both salt and salt/bentonite are expected to consolidate to a final state of impermeability (i.e., {le} 10{sup {minus}18}m{sup 2}) adequate for satisfying federal nuclear regulations. Any advantage of the salt/bentonite mixture is dependent upon bentonite's potential for sorbing brine and radionuclides. Estimates suggest that bentonite's sorption potential for water in brine is much less than for pure water. While no credit is presently taken for brine sorption in salt/bentonite backfill, the possibility that some amount of inflowing brine would be chemically bound is considered likely. Bentonite may also sorb much of the plutonium, americium, and neptunium within the disposal room inventory. Sorption would be effective only if a major portion of the backfill is in contact with radioactive brine. Brine flow from the waste out through highly localized channels in the backfill would negate sorption effectiveness. Although the sorption potentials of bentonite for both brine and radionuclides are not ideal, they are distinctly beneficial. Furthermore, no detrimental aspects of adding bentonite to the salt as a backfill have been identified. These two observations are the major reasons for selecting salt/bentonite as a backfill within the WIPP. 39 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Laboratory flow experiments for visualizing carbon dioxide-induced, density-driven brine convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneafsey, T.; Pruess, K.

    2009-09-01

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into saline aquifers confined by low-permeability cap rock will result in a layer of CO{sub 2} overlying the brine. Dissolution of CO{sub 2} into the brine increases the brine density, resulting in an unstable situation in which more-dense brine overlies less-dense brine. This gravitational instability could give rise to density-driven convection of the fluid, which is a favorable process of practical interest for CO{sub 2} storage security because it accelerates the transfer of buoyant CO{sub 2} into the aqueous phase, where it is no longer subject to an upward buoyant drive. Laboratory flow visualization tests in transparent Hele-Shaw cells have been performed to elucidate the processes and rates of this CO{sub 2} solute-driven convection (CSC). Upon introduction of CO{sub 2} into the system, a layer of CO{sub 2}-laden brine forms at the CO{sub 2}-water interface. Subsequently, small convective fingers form, which coalesce, broaden, and penetrate into the test cell. Images and time-series data of finger lengths and wavelengths are presented. Observed CO{sub 2} uptake of the convection system indicates that the CO{sub 2} dissolution rate is approximately constant for each test and is far greater than expected for a diffusion-only scenario. Numerical simulations of our system show good agreement with the experiments for onset time of convection and advancement of convective fingers. There are differences as well, the most prominent being the absence of cell-scale convection in the numerical simulations. This cell-scale convection observed in the experiments is probably initiated by a small temperature gradient induced by the cell illumination.

  4. Inland Treatment of the Brine Generated from Reverse Osmosis Advanced Membrane Wastewater Treatment Plant Using Epuvalisation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurie, Mohannad; Abbadi, Jehad; Scrano, Laura; Mecca, Gennaro; Bufo, Sabino A.; Khamis, Mustafa; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-01-01

    The reverse osmosis (RO) brine generated from the Al-Quds University wastewater treatment plant was treated using an epuvalisation system. The advanced integrated wastewater treatment plant included an activated sludge unit, two consecutive ultrafiltration (UF) membrane filters (20 kD and 100 kD cutoffs) followed by an activated carbon filter and a reverse osmosis membrane. The epuvalisation system consisted of salt tolerant plants grown in hydroponic channels under continuous water flowing in a closed loop system, and placed in a greenhouse at Al-Quds University. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants were selected, and underwent two consecutive hydroponic flowing stages using different brine-concentrations: an adaptation stage, in which a 1:1 mixture of brine and fresh water was used; followed by a functioning stage, with 100% brine. A control treatment using fresh water was included as well. The experiment started in April and ended in June (2012). At the end of the experiment, analysis of the effluent brine showed a remarkable decrease of electroconductivity (EC), PO43−, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and K+ with a reduction of 60%, 74%, 70%, and 60%, respectively, as compared to the influent. The effluent of the control treatment showed 50%, 63%, 46%, and 90% reduction for the same parameters as compared to the influent. Plant growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight) showed no significant difference between fresh water and brine treatments. Obtained results suggest that the epuvalisation system is a promising technique for inland brine treatment with added benefits. The increasing of channel number or closed loop time is estimated for enhancing the treatment process and increasing the nutrient uptake. Nevertheless, the epuvalisation technique is considered to be simple, efficient and low cost for inland RO brine treatment. PMID:23823802

  5. Inland Treatment of the Brine Generated from Reverse Osmosis Advanced Membrane Wastewater Treatment Plant Using Epuvalisation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohannad Qurie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The reverse osmosis (RO brine generated from the Al-Quds University wastewater treatment plant was treated using an epuvalisation system. The advanced integrated wastewater treatment plant included an activated sludge unit, two consecutive ultrafiltration (UF membrane filters (20 kD and 100 kD cutoffs followed by an activated carbon filter and a reverse osmosis membrane. The epuvalisation system consisted of salt tolerant plants grown in hydroponic channels under continuous water flowing in a closed loop system, and placed in a greenhouse at Al-Quds University. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum plants were selected, and underwent two consecutive hydroponic flowing stages using different brine-concentrations: an adaptation stage, in which a 1:1 mixture of brine and fresh water was used; followed by a functioning stage, with 100% brine. A control treatment using fresh water was included as well. The experiment started in April and ended in June (2012. At the end of the experiment, analysis of the effluent brine showed a remarkable decrease of electroconductivity (EC, PO43−, chemical oxygen demand (COD and K+ with a reduction of 60%, 74%, 70%, and 60%, respectively, as compared to the influent. The effluent of the control treatment showed 50%, 63%, 46%, and 90% reduction for the same parameters as compared to the influent. Plant growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight showed no significant difference between fresh water and brine treatments. Obtained results suggest that the epuvalisation system is a promising technique for inland brine treatment with added benefits. The increasing of channel number or closed loop time is estimated for enhancing the treatment process and increasing the nutrient uptake. Nevertheless, the epuvalisation technique is considered to be simple, efficient and low cost for inland RO brine treatment.

  6. Inland treatment of the brine generated from reverse osmosis advanced membrane wastewater treatment plant using epuvalisation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurie, Mohannad; Abbadi, Jehad; Scrano, Laura; Mecca, Gennaro; Bufo, Sabino A; Khamis, Mustafa; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-07-03

    The reverse osmosis (RO) brine generated from the Al-Quds University wastewater treatment plant was treated using an epuvalisation system. The advanced integrated wastewater treatment plant included an activated sludge unit, two consecutive ultrafiltration (UF) membrane filters (20 kD and 100 kD cutoffs) followed by an activated carbon filter and a reverse osmosis membrane. The epuvalisation system consisted of salt tolerant plants grown in hydroponic channels under continuous water flowing in a closed loop system, and placed in a greenhouse at Al-Quds University. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants were selected, and underwent two consecutive hydroponic flowing stages using different brine-concentrations: an adaptation stage, in which a 1:1 mixture of brine and fresh water was used; followed by a functioning stage, with 100% brine. A control treatment using fresh water was included as well. The experiment started in April and ended in June (2012). At the end of the experiment, analysis of the effluent brine showed a remarkable decrease of electroconductivity (EC), PO43-, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and K+ with a reduction of 60%, 74%, 70%, and 60%, respectively, as compared to the influent. The effluent of the control treatment showed 50%, 63%, 46%, and 90% reduction for the same parameters as compared to the influent. Plant growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight) showed no significant difference between fresh water and brine treatments. Obtained results suggest that the epuvalisation system is a promising technique for inland brine treatment with added benefits. The increasing of channel number or closed loop time is estimated for enhancing the treatment process and increasing the nutrient uptake. Nevertheless, the epuvalisation technique is considered to be simple, efficient and low cost for inland RO brine treatment.

  7. Effect of electroosmotic flow on brine imbibition in porous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui WANG; Xiang-an YUE; Xu WEI; Wei ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Based on Darcy's Law and the Helmholta-Smoluchowski equation, an imbibition velocity formula for the water phase with an electric field was deduced, showing that the imbibition velocity with an electric field is to various extents not only-related to the rock permeability and characteristic length, the fluid viscosity, the oil-water interface tension and the gravity of the imbibing brine, but also to the fluid dielectric permittivity, zeta potential, applied electric field direction, and strength. Imbibition experiments with electric fields that are different in direction and strength were conducted, showing that application of a positive electric field enhances the imbibition velocity and increases the imbibition recovery ratio, while application of a negative electric field reduces the imbibition velocity and decreases the imbibition recovery ratio. The imbibition recovery ratio with a positive electric field increases with the strength of the electric field, and the imbibition recovery ratio with a negative electric field is lower than that without an electric field.

  8. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  9. Formation and Persistence of Brine on Mars: Experimental Simulations throughout the Diurnal Cycle at the Phoenix Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, E.; Martínez, G. M.; Rennó, N. O.

    2016-12-01

    In the last few years, water ice and salts capable of melting this ice and producing liquid saline water (brine) have been detected on Mars. Moreover, indirect evidence for brine has been found in multiple areas of the planet. Here, we simulate full diurnal cycles of temperature and atmospheric water vapor content at the Phoenix landing site for the first time and show experimentally that, in spite of the low Mars-like chamber temperature, brine forms minutes after the ground temperature exceeds the eutectic temperature of salts in contact with water ice. Moreover, we show that the brine stays liquid for most of the diurnal cycle when enough water ice is available to compensate for evaporation. This is predicted to occur seasonally in areas of the polar region where the temperature exceeds the eutectic value and frost or snow is deposited on saline soils, or where water ice and salts coexist in the shallow subsurface. This is important because the existence of liquid water is a key requirement for habitability.

  10. Allelic Variants in Arhgef11 via the Rho-Rock Pathway Are Linked to Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Contributes to Kidney Injury in the Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Jia

    Full Text Available Previously, genetic analyses identified that variants in Arhgef11 may influence kidney injury in the Dahl salt-sensitive (S rat, a model of hypertensive chronic kidney disease. To understand the potential mechanism by which altered expression and/or protein differences in Arhgef11 could play a role in kidney injury, stably transduced Arhgef11 knockdown cell lines as well as primary cultures of proximal tubule cells were studied. Genetic knockdown of Arhgef11 in HEK293 and NRK resulted in reduced RhoA activity, decreased activation of Rho-ROCK pathway, and less stress fiber formation versus control, similar to what was observed by pharmacological inhibition (fasudil. Primary proximal tubule cells (PTC cultured from the S exhibited increased expression of Arhgef11, increased RhoA activity, and up regulation of Rho-ROCK signaling compared to control (small congenic. The cells were also more prone (versus control to TGFβ-1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, a hallmark feature of the development of renal interstitial fibrosis, and characterized by development of spindle shape morphology, gene expression changes in EMT markers (Col1a3, Mmp9, Bmp7, and Ocln and increased expression of N-Cadherin and Vimentin. S derived PTC demonstrated a decreased ability to uptake FITC-albumin compared to the small congenic in vitro, which was confirmed by assessment of albumin re-uptake in vivo by infusion of FITC-albumin and immunofluorescence imaging. In summary, these studies suggest that genetic variants in the S form of Arhgef11 via increased expression and/or protein activity play a role in promoting kidney injury in the S rat through changes in cell morphology (Rho-Rock and/or EMT that impact the function of tubule cells.

  11. Gas dispersion in untouched rock salt. Hydro-mechanically coupled model calculations using the simulation tool TFC; Gasausbreitung in unverritztes Steinsalz. Hydro-mechanisch gekoppelte Modellrechnungen mit dem Simulationstool TFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotzel, Stephan

    2014-08-15

    Geological disposal of radioactive waste may give rise to gas injection into the host rock. The processes involved are subject of current research. In this study, the recently developed modelling tool TFC of GRS is used to model a number of coupled hydromechanical processes which may play a role in this scenario by means of a stylised gas injection experiment in rock salt. The simulation includes the gas emission phase, starting at the time of drilling the borehole, and the actual gas injection phase of the experiment. Rock salt is modelled as porous medium. Dependencies of hydrodynamic (H) parameters on mechanical (M) state changes (M→H-coupling) and of mechanical parameters on hydrodynamic state changes (H→M-coupling) are modelled by a number coupling functions. As to M→H-coupling, direct dependency of permeability on minimum effective stress is assumed as well as, alternatively, a poroelastic stress-porosity relationship with subsequent porosity-permeability relationship. As to H→M-coupling, independency between total stress and pore pressure is assumed as well as, alternatively, a poroelastic pore pressure vs. total stress relationship. Assuming direct dependency of permeability on effective stress, the simulations show that near the contour a permeability minimum develops in the emission phase, which does not vanish in the injection phase and which yields a very low gas flow. Assuming a mere poroelastic HM-coupling, gas emission is exceptionally low and also during the injection phase no enhanced gas injection can be achieved with this type of coupling. Apparently, pore volume changes in the framework of Biot's theory of poroelasticity are too small to result in such an effect. None of the various modelling assumptions results in a sudden injection of an actually large amount of gas. However, some simulations reveal an unexpected range of the injection front. Furthermore, a simulation with reduced bore hole diameter proves a scale dependency of

  12. Origin, migration and mixing of oilfield brines: Stable iso-topic evidence from Kuqa Foreland Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡春芳; 汪集旸; 曾凡刚; 何宏

    2001-01-01

    87Sr/86Sr, 8 D and δ180 together with chemistry of oilfield brines, were measured from Cambrian to Neogene strata in the Kuqa Foreland Basin, northwest China. The brines have 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70944 to 0.71716, 8D values from -33‰ to -67‰ and δ18O from -9.0‰ to 3.9‰. The most radiogenic 87Sr brines have relatively heavy δ18O in the Cambro- Ordo-vician carbonates, and are suggested to originate from crystalline basement. 8 D and δ18O sys-tematics show that all the brines slope to Global Meteoric Water Line, and intersect at 8 D = -60‰ and δ18O = -8.8‰, close to that of present-day local meteoric water, suggesting that meteoric water has mixed with evaporated ancient meteoric water. More saline samples have the lowest δD and δ180 contents and molar Na/CI ratios of more than 0.9, resulting from salt dissolution.

  13. Design of the Brine Evaporation Bag for Increased Water Recovery in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Anna L.; Delzeit, Lance D.

    2015-01-01

    The existing water recovery system on the International Space Station (ISS) is limited to 75% reclamation; consequently, long duration space missions are currently unfeasible due to the large quantity of water necessary to sustain the crew. The Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) is a proposed system to supplement the existing water recovery system aboard the ISS that can to increase water recovery to 99%. The largest barrier to high water recovery is mineral scaling inside the water recovery equipment, which leads to equipment failure; therefore, some water must remain to keep the minerals dissolved. This waste stream is liquid brine containing salts, acids, organics, and water. The BEB is designed to recover this remaining water while protecting the equipment from scale. The BEB consists of a sealed bag containing a hydrophobic membrane that allows water vapor and gas to pass through. It is operated under vacuum, heated, and continuously filled with brine to boil away the water. The water vapor is recovered and the solids are contained inside the bag for disposal. The BEB can dry the brine to a solid block. Ongoing work includes improving the design of the BEB and the evaporator to prevent leaks, maximize the rate of water removal, and minimize energy use and weight. Additional testing will determine whether designs are heat- or mass-transfer limited and the optimal water recovery rate.

  14. Design and proof of function of a closure system for an HLW-repository in rock salt. Results of the preliminary safety analysis for the Gorleben site (VSG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Hoeppe, Nina; Breustedt, Michael; Engelhardt, Hans-Joachim; Wolf, Johanna [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany); Buhmann, Dieter; Czaikowski, Oliver; Herbert, Horst-Juergen; Wieczorek, Klaus; Xie, Mingliang [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Within the preliminary safety analysis for the Gorleben site (VSG), a closure system was designed in order to complement the containment providing rock zone (CRZ) by sealing and backfilling measures. The design procedure as well as the technical proof of function was mainly performed according to standard procedures in civil engineering. In the context of VSG, rough individual technical proofs of several measures were carried out. Meanwhile, this gap has been closed by subsequent investigations. Altogether the results of all the individual technical proofs of function indicate that safe containment of radioactive waste is a realistic possibility at the Gorleben site.

  15. Effects of copper, cadmium, and zinc on the hatching success of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, K V; Gerdes, R M; Adams, W J; Grosell, M

    2006-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that the hatching success of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) cysts is surprisingly sensitive to ambient metal concentrations. These studies estimated median effective concentrations (EC50s) of 7, 5, and 28 microg l-1 for Cd, Cu, and Zn, suggesting that the hatching end point for A. franciscana is the most sensitive tested to date for Cd and Zn in saline environments and comparable in sensitivity with the most sensitive tested to date for Cu. Furthermore, these data suggest that brine shrimp are at significant risk from Cu and Zn in Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT, where ambient concentrations as high as 10 and 14 microg l-1, respectively, have been measured. Given that brine shrimp appear to be successfully reproducing in GSL, we hypothesized that these toxicity values were either biased low as a result of an artifact of the test method used or that site-specific water-quality conditions in the lake had decreased metal bioavailability such that brine shrimp could successfully reproduce. To test these hypotheses, we initiated a step-wise series of experiments. First we investigated the effects of pretreatment of brine shrimp cysts with antibiotics on brine shrimp sensitivity to metals because previous investigators as part of their test methods have used antibiotics. Next we considered the effect of ionic composition of the artificial test media on sensitivity. Finally, we evaluated the effects of the site-specific water quality of the GSL on metal bioavailability and toxicity. Results indicate that pretreatment of cysts with antibiotics had no effect on sensitivity. However, we were unable to repeat the previous values for Cd and Zn, obtaining EC50s of 11,859 and 289 microg l-1 for Cd and Zn, respectively. For Cu, however, we estimated an EC50 of 12 microg l-1, so we conducted further testing on the artificial media, adjusting the media composition to better reflect the Ca2+ and HCO3- concentration of normal seawater. This increased the EC50

  16. Nature and origin of RSL: Spectroscopy and detectability of liquid brines in the near-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Marion; Beck, Pierre; Schmitt, Bernard; Pommerol, Antoine; McEwen, Alfred; Chevrier, Vincent; Brissaud, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    If water has likely flowed on Mars in its early history, the current presence of liquid water is debatable. However, some recently discovered fea-tures named "Recurrent Slope Lineae" (RSL) suggest that superficial liquid can occur on present day Mars in a transient state [McEwen et al., 2011]. RSL are dark (up to 40% darker than the surrounding areas), narrow (0.5-5 m) and are mostly found in the southern mid-latitudes. Repeated MRO/HiRISE images reveal that they appear and grow during warm seasons and fade and disappear during cold seasons. They develop on steep slopes (25°-40°), favoring equator-facing slopes, times and places with peak temperatures of ~250-300K. The most likely formation process of RSL involves the presence of liquid brines near the surface. Brines are more stable on Mars than pure water [e.g. Chevrier et al., 2009] because salts can depress the freezing point of water by up to 70 K. However, this hypothesis suffers from the lack of clear identification of brines with the high resolution CRISM spectra. The mineralogical characterization of RSL is challenging because RSL are much smaller than the ~18 m pixel scale of CRISM data but spectral features diagnostic of water or brines [Hanley et al., 2010] are not observable even on the largest RSL. The goal of our study is to reproduce with laboratory experiments some hydration and dehydration cycles of different kind of brines mixed with basaltic soil. These experiments aim to understand the spectroscopic behavior of brines during these processes and to determine the diagnostic spectral features that we can expected to find for Martian RSL. We found that, if the surface displays a low albedo from the beginning of the hydration to the end of the dehydration, diagnostic brines absorption bands are only observed when the liquid film is formed. This is consistent with our current RSL observations. In the future, we need to acquire some new CRISM data when the formation of liquid brines is the most

  17. Generation of porphyry copper deposits by gas-brine reaction in volcanic arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundy, J.; Mavrogenes, J.; Tattitch, B.; Sparks, S.; Gilmer, A.

    2015-03-01

    Porphyry copper deposits, that is, copper ore associated with hydrothermal fluids rising from a magma chamber, supply 75% of the world's copper. They are typically associated with intrusions of magma in the crust above subduction zones, indicating a primary role for magmatism in driving mineralization. However, it is not clear that a single, copper-rich magmatic fluid could trigger both copper enrichment and the subsequent precipitation of sulphide ore minerals within a zone of hydrothermally altered rock. Here we draw on observations of modern subduction zone volcanism to propose an alternative process for porphyry copper formation. We suggest that copper enrichment initially involves metalliferous, magmatic hyper-saline liquids, or brines, that exsolve from large, magmatic intrusions assembled in the shallow crust over tens to hundreds of thousands of years. In a subsequent step, sulphide ore precipitation is triggered by the interaction of the accumulated brines with sulphur-rich gases, liberated in short-lived bursts from the underlying mafic magmas. We use high-temperature and high-pressure laboratory experiments to simulate such gas-brine interactions. The experiments yield copper-iron sulphide minerals and hydrogen chloride gas at magmatic temperatures of 700-800 °C, with textural and chemical characteristics that resemble those in porphyry copper deposits. We therefore conclude that porphyry copper ore forms in a two-stage process of brine enrichment followed by gas-induced precipitation.

  18. 东濮凹陷下第三系沙河街组层序地层划分及盐岩成因探讨%Partition of Sequence Strata and Discussion aboutSalt- rock Resource in Shahejie Formation of Eogene, Dongpu Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈发亮; 李绪涛; 朱晖; 苗翠芝

    2000-01-01

    Dongpu depression is located in the southwest of Bohai Bay basin. The area is about 5300 square kilometers.The south is wide and the north is narrow. Lanliao fault controls its development and evolvement. On the basis of sequence stratigraphic theory, the author analyzed of the geologic, seimic, geochemical, pale-obiological, drilling and logging data. There are two sequences (Sequence I and Sequence Ⅱ) and eight systemstracts(one sequence includes LST, TST, HST and FSST) has been identified in Shahejie and Dongying formation.They are all have clear characteristics in seimic, geologic, core and logging dada. In continental basin, the influ-ence of the three factors of tectonization, weather and sediments on sequence is different from that in marine basin,the weather is more important than that in marine sequence. After the synthetical analysis of sedimentary facies markers, the author has made the sedimentary lithofaciespaleogeographic reconstruction of Shahejie formation of Eogene in Dongpu depres-sion. In this paper the author also re- discussed the resource and the formation of salt - rock, which distributedwidely and has a large thickness. The characteristics of chemical components, paleobiota, lithology and distributionof the salt - rock are different from the normal evaporite. It is not come from the evaporation of sea water. Com-bined the paleotectogenesis and the paleoclimate, the result of the study indicates that the salt- rock is originatefrom the hot bittern in deep earth and formed under a deep - water environment with a moist climate in Dongpudepression. The formed model is due to an event abruptly. Development of salt - rock is related to tectonization of Lanliao fault but not the climate. The salt - rock is lo-cated in TST or HST and developed with source rock. It is advantageous to source rock by preventing it from oxy-gen. It can also provide heat and pressure for source rock to change into oil or gas. The salt - rock is tighter thanmudstone as

  19. Hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gas in salt environments, a contribution to gas genesis understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pironon, J. [BP, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Grishina, S. [United Institute of geology, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-08-01

    The analysis of organic inclusions is a contribution to the understanding of the thermal and biochemical history of the evaporite basins by the in-situ observation of organic evolution products which are preserved by entrapment in salt. Recent applications of microanalytical techniques (FT-infrared, Raman, FT-Raman, UV-fluorescence) have confirmed and elucidated the nature of the organic phases trapped in inclusions. Three geological environments were studied corresponding to different levels of organic maturation: (1) the Bresse salt deposit (France) where the presence of solid organic matter, immature oil, carbon dioxide, and ammonium is detected, is characteristic of the early diagenesis of the massive salt series deposited at the Eocene-Oligocene period in the West European continental rift, (2) the Gabon margin where oil, methane, carbon dioxide and ammonium correspond to catagenetic products trapped in a salt diapir of the Cretaceous salt series of the Ogooue delta, and (3) the Lena-Tungusska oil-bearing region of Siberian platform where graphite, carbonaceous material, sulphur, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, and oils correspond to the evolution of the evaporite-brine-organic matter system under influence of basalt intrusions. The organic history of salt rocks can be followed from Bresse to Siberian examples. Proteins and carbohydrates are rapidly destroyed during early diagenesis (Bresse-France): ammonium and carbon dioxide are produced by deamination and decarboxylation respectively, the complex organic molecular association is simplified and geopolymers (kerogen precursors) are produced. With increasing maturity (Gabon), kerogen is transformed in aliphatic compounds which are progressively cracked to produce short alkane chains and finally methane. Residual carbon dioxide is also produced. In Siberia, the organic matter evolution is linked to the d/h ratio, where d is the distance to the dolerite sill and h the thickness of the sill.

  20. 墨西哥湾深水岩膏地层钻井实践%Drilling practices of deepwater salt rock stratum in Gulf of Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张星星; 黄小龙; 严德; 冷雪霜; 田瑞瑞

    2015-01-01

    在墨西哥湾大陆架外深水区域的水下存在大量的油气资源,在钻探过程中遇到了完全不同于以往的技术障碍,产层被分布广泛的巨厚盐层所覆盖,对通常采用的钻井和完井技术是一个巨大的挑战。对如何利用先进的钻井工具、工艺和钻井液管理方法解决巨厚盐层带来的钻井难点进行了论述,探讨了如何在满足深水开发的特殊经济和技术需求的同时实现上述目标。墨西哥湾地区已经完成了盐下远景区的勘探工作,目前已进入开发和生产阶段。%There are abundant oil and gas resources underwater in the deepwater areas outside the continental shelf in the Gulf of Mexico. During the drilling and exploration, the technical obstacles encountered were completely different from those previously met. These production layers are covered by the widely distributed and tremendously thick salt beds, posing a great challenge to the common drilling and completion technologies. How to make use of advanced drilling tools, processes and drilling lfuid management methods to settle the drilling dififculties due to the tremendously thick salt beds has been expounded, and how to meet the special economic and technical requirements of deepwater development while realizing the abovementioned goals has been discussed. The perspective explo-ration below the under-salt has been ifnished in the Gulf of Mexico. Currently, it has entered the development and production stages.

  1. Microbial metabolism in ice and brine at -5°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakermans, Corien; Skidmore, Mark L

    2011-08-01

    Metabolic activity, but not growth, has been observed in ice at temperatures from -5°C to -32°C. To improve understanding of metabolism in ice, we simultaneously examined various aspects of metabolism ((14) C-acetate utilization, macromolecule syntheses and viability via reduction of CTC) of the glacial isolates Sporosarcina sp. B5 and Chryseobacterium sp. V3519-10 during incubation in nutrient-rich ice and brine at -5°C for 50 days. Measured rates of acetate utilization and macromolecule syntheses were high in the first 20 days suggesting adjustment to the lower temperatures and higher salt concentrations of both the liquid vein network in the ice and the brine. Following this adjustment, reproductive growth of both organisms was evident in brine, and suggested for Sporosarcina sp. B5 in ice by increases in cell numbers and biomass. Chryseobacterium sp. V3519-10 cells incubated in ice remained active. These data indicate that neither low temperature nor high salt concentrations prohibit growth in ice, but some other aspect of living within ice slows growth to within the detection limits of current methodologies. These results imply that microbial growth is plausible in natural ice systems with comparable temperatures and sufficient nutrients, such as debris-rich basal ices of glaciers and ice masses. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Solubilities and speciation of radionuclides in brines: Technical program plan, Fiscal years 1988, 1989: Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucher, J.; Edelstein, N.

    1987-06-26

    The objective of this program is to identify and obtain appropriate thermodynamic testing data on the solubilities of compounds and on the solution complexes of important waste radionuclides which are likely to form in the salt repository. Information on the chemical behavior of the waste radionuclides is important for site selection and characterization, and is necessary for demonstrating that the expected performance of the repository site will be in compliance with technical criteria stated in 10CFR60. Basic thermodynamic test data will be obtained on the nature and solubilities of specific compounds in brines, and on the formation constants of specific solution complexes for the waste radionuclides which are pertinent to salt repositories. Such information is needed for the thermodynamic data base to be used in predictive geochemical models and for the interpretation of site specific measurements. Although data could be obtained with salt cores for specific sites, there is a very wide variation in the components of various salt cores even from the same site. Thus, from such measurements it is impossible to determine the important factors affecting the solubilities and speciation of the radionuclides. However by the use of synthetic brine solutions, where all the components are known and controlled, it is possible to determine for experimental measurements the important components which control the solubilities and transport of the key radionuclides. Such data can then be used for predictive modeling of radionuclide solubility and transport under repository conditions.

  3. CO2-brine-mineral Reactions in Geological Carbon Storage: Results from an EOR Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H.; Wigley, M.; Bickle, M.; Kampman, N.; Dubacq, B.; Galy, A.; Ballentine, C.; Zhou, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Dissolution of CO2 in brines and reactions of the acid brines ultimately dissolving silicate minerals and precipitating carbonate minerals are the prime long-term mechanisms for stabilising the light supercritical CO2 in geological carbon storage. However the rates of dissolution are very uncertain as they are likely to depend on the heterogeneity of the flow of CO2, the possibility of convective instability of the denser CO2-saturated brines and on fluid-mineral reactions which buffer brine acidity. We report the results of sampling brines and gases during a phase of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery in a small oil field. Brines and gases were sampled at production wells daily for 3 months after initiation of CO2 injection and again for two weeks after 5 months. Noble gas isotopic spikes were detected at producing wells within days of initial CO2 injection but signals continued for weeks, and at some producers for the duration of the sampling period, attesting to the complexity of gas-species pathways. Interpretations are complicated by the previous history of the oil field and re-injection of produced water prior to injection of CO2. However water sampled from some producing wells during the phase of CO2 injection showed monotonic increases in alkalinity and in concentrations of major cations to levels in excess of those in the injected water. The marked increase in Na, and smaller increases in Ca, Mg, Si, K and Sr are interpreted primarily to result from silicate dissolution as the lack of increase in S and Cl concentrations preclude additions of more saline waters. Early calcite dissolution was followed by re-precipitation. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the waters apparently exceed the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of acetic and hydrochloric acid leaches of carbonate fractions of the reservoir rocks and the silicate residues from the leaching. This may indicate incongruent dissolution of Sr or larger scale isotopic heterogeneity of the reservoir. This is being investigated

  4. 原盐质量管理办法%The Method of Quality Management of Crude Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绪前

    2015-01-01

    文章介绍金桥盐化日晒制盐公司原盐质量管理办法,为相关制盐企业提升日晒硫酸钠型矿卤制盐质量提供了参考.%This paper introduces Jinqiao salt solarization salt, crude salt quality management approach, for salt making enterprises enhance sun sodium sulfate type brine salt quality to provide a reference.

  5. Models of Geothermal Brine Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Moller Weare; John H. Weare

    2002-03-29

    Many significant expenses encountered by the geothermal energy industry are related to chemical effects. When the composition, temperature of pressure of the fluids in the geological formation are changed, during reservoir evolution, well production, energy extraction or injection processes, the fluids that were originally at equilibrium with the formation minerals come to a new equilibrium composition, temperature and pressure. As a result, solid material can be precipitated, dissolved gases released and/or heat lost. Most geothermal energy operations experience these phenomena. For some resources, they create only minor problems. For others, they can have serious results, such as major scaling or corrosion of wells and plant equipment, reservoir permeability losses and toxic gas emission, that can significantly increase the costs of energy production and sometimes lead to site abandonment. In future operations that exploit deep heat sources and low permeability reservoirs, new chemical problems involving very high T, P rock/water interactions and unknown injection effects will arise.

  6. A Novel Ion Exchange System to Purify Mixed ISS Waste Water Brines for Chemical Production and Enhanced Water Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Spencer, LaShelle; Ruby, Anna-Maria; McCaskill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Current International Space Station water recovery regimes produce a sizable portion of waste water brine. This brine is highly toxic and water recovery is poor: a highly wasteful proposition. With new biological techniques that do not require waste water chemical pretreatment, the resulting brine would be chromium-free and nitrate rich which can allow possible fertilizer recovery for future plant systems. Using a system of ion exchange resins we can remove hardness, sulfate, phosphate and nitrate from these brines to leave only sodium and potassium chloride. At this point modern chlor-alkali cells can be utilized to produce a low salt stream as well as an acid and base stream. The first stream can be used to gain higher water recovery through recycle to the water separation stage while the last two streams can be used to regenerate the ion exchange beds used here, as well as other ion exchange beds in the ISS. Conveniently these waste products from ion exchange regeneration would be suitable as plant fertilizer. In this report we go over the performance of state of the art resins designed for high selectivity of target ions under brine conditions. Using ersatz ISS waste water we can evaluate the performance of specific resins and calculate mass balances to determine resin effectiveness and process viability. If this system is feasible then we will be one step closer to closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for current or future applications.

  7. Natural heat storage in a brine-filled solar pond in the Tully Valley of central New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Brett; Kappel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The Tully Valley, located in southern Onondaga County, New York, has a long history of unusual natural hydrogeologic phenomena including mudboils (Kappel, 2009), landslides (Tamulonis and others, 2009; Pair and others, 2000), landsurface subsidence (Hackett and others, 2009; Kappel, 2009), and a brine-filled sinkhole or “Solar pond” (fig. 1), which is documented in this report. A solar pond is a pool of salty water (brine) which stores the sun’s energy in the form of heat. The saltwater naturally forms distinct layers with increasing density between transitional zones (haloclines) of rapidly changing specific conductance with depth. In a typical solar pond, the top layer has a low salt content and is often times referred to as the upper convective zone (Lu and others, 2002). The bottom layer is a concentrated brine that is either convective or temperature stratified dependent on the surrounding environment. Solar insolation is absorbed and stored in the lower, denser brine while the overlying halocline acts as an insulating layer and prevents heat from moving upwards from the lower zone (Lu and others, 2002). In the case of the Tully Valley solar pond, water within the pond can be over 90 degrees Fahrenheit (°F) in late summer and early fall. The purpose of this report is to summarize observations at the Tully Valley brine-filled sinkhole and provide supplemental climate data which might affect the pond salinity gradients insolation (solar energy).

  8. Fate and impact of organics in an immersed membrane bioreactor applied to brine denitrification and ion exchange regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Ewan J; Pawlett, Mark; Judd, Simon J

    2010-01-01

    The application of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) to brine denitrification for ion exchange regeneration has been studied. The developed culture was capable of complete brine denitrification at 50 gNaCl.l(-1). Denitrification reduced to c.60% and c.70% when salinity was respectively increased to 75 and 100g.l(-1), presumed to be due to reduced growth rate and the low imposed solids retention time (10 days). Polysaccharide secretion was not induced by stressed cells following salt shocking, implying that cell lysis did not occur. Fouling propensity, monitored by critical flux, was steady at 12-15l.m(-2).h(-1) during salinity shocking and after brine recirculation, indicating that the system was stable following perturbation. Low molecular weight polysaccharide physically adsorbed onto the nitrate selective anion exchange resin during regeneration reducing exchange capacity by c.6.5% when operating up to complete exhaustion. However, based on a breakthrough threshold of 10 mgNO(3)(-)-N.l(-1) the exchange capacity was comparative to that determined when using freshly produced brine for regeneration. It was concluded that a denitrification MBR was an appropriate technology for IEX spent brine recovery and reuse.

  9. Minimizing the Environmental Impact of Sea Brine Disposal by Coupling Desalination Plants with Solar Saltworks: A Case Study for Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Gialis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The explosive increase in world population, along with the fast socio-economic development, have led to an increased water demand, making water shortage one of the greatest problems of modern society. Countries such as Greece, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia face serious water shortage issues and have resorted to solutions such as transporting water by ships from the mainland to islands, a practice that is expensive, energy-intensive and unsustainable. Desalination of sea-water is suitable for supplying arid regions with potable water, but extensive brine discharge may affect marine biota. To avoid this impact, we explore the option of directing the desalination effluent to a solar saltworks for brine concentration and salt production, in order to achieve a zero discharge desalination plant. In this context, we conducted a survey in order to evaluate the potential of transferring desalination brine to solar saltworks, so that its disposal to the sea is avoided. Our analysis showed that brine transfer by trucks is prohibitively expensive. In order to make the zero discharge desalination plant economically feasible, efforts should be directed into developing a more efficient technology that will result in the production of only a fraction of the brine that is produced from our systems today.

  10. Chemical and isotopic constrains on the origin of brine and saline groundwater in Hetao plain, Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Zongyu; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Yilong; Li, Zhenghong; Xu, Jiaming; Peng, Yurong

    2016-08-01

    The origin and evolution of brine and saline groundwater have always been a challenged work for geochemists and hydrogeologists. Chemical and isotopic data of brine and saline waters were used to trace the sources of salinity and therefore to understand the transport mechanisms of groundwater in Xishanzui, Inner Mongolia. Both Cl/Br (molar) versus Na/Br (molar) and Cl (meq/L) versus Na (meq/L) indicated that salinity was from halite dissolution or at least a significant impact by halite dissolution. The logarithmic plot of the concentration trends of Cl (mg/L) versus Br (mg/L) for the evaporation of seawater and the Qinghai Salt Lake showed that the terrestrial halite dissolution was the dominated contribution for the salinity of this brine. The stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen suggested that the origin of brine was from paleorecharge water which experienced mixing of modern water in shallow aquifer. δ(37)Cl values ranged from -0.02 to 3.43 ‰ (SMOC), and reflecting mixing of different sources. The Cl isotopic compositions suggest that the dissolution of halite by paleometeoric water had a great contribution to the salinity of brine, and the contributions of the residual seawater and the dissolution of halite by the Yellow River water could be excluded.

  11. Rheological Properties of Silica Nanoparticles in Brine and Brine-Surfactant Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pales, Ashley; Kinsey, Erin; Li, Chunyan; Mu, Linlin; Bai, Lingyun; Clifford, Heather; Darnault, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Rheological Properties of Silica Nanoparticles in Brine and Brine-Surfactant Systems Ashley R. Pales, Erin Kinsey, Chunyan Li, Linlin Mu, Lingyun Bai, Heather Clifford, and Christophe J. G. Darnault Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Laboratory of Hydrogeoscience and Biological Engineering, L.G. Rich Environmental Laboratory, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA Nanofluids are suspensions of nanometer sized particles in any fluid base, where the nanoparticles effect the properties of the fluid base. Commonly, nanofluids are water based, however, other bases such as ethylene-glycol, glycerol, and propylene-glycol, have been researched to understand the rheological properties of the nanofluids. This work aims to understand the fundamental rheological properties of silica nanoparticles in brine based and brine-surfactant based nanofluids with temperature variations. This was done by using variable weight percent of silica nanoparticles from 0.001% to 0.1%. Five percent brine was used to create the brine based nanofluids; and 5% brine with 2CMC of Tween 20 nonionic surfactant (Sigma-Aldrich) was used to create the brine-surfactant nanofluid. Rheological behaviors, such as shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity, were compared between these nanofluids at 20C and at 60C across the varied nanoparticle wt%. The goal of this work is to provide a fundamental basis for future applied testing for enhanced oil recovery. It is hypothesized that the addition of surfactant will have a positive impact on nanofluid properties that will be useful for enhance oil recovery. Differences have been observed in preliminary data analysis of the rheological properties between these two nanofluids indicating that the surfactant is having the hypothesized effect.

  12. Linking near- and far-field hydrodynamic models for simulation of desalination plant brine discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, D A; Barry, M E; Collecutt, G C; Brook, J; Wiltshire, D

    2013-01-01

    A desalination plant is proposed to be the major water supply to the Olympic Dam Expansion Mining project. Located in the Upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia, the site was chosen due to the existence of strong currents and their likely advantages in terms of mixing and dilution of discharged return water. A high-resolution hydrodynamic model (Estuary, Lake and Coastal Ocean Model, ELCOM) was constructed and, through a rigorous review process, was shown to reproduce the intricate details of the Spencer Gulf dynamics, including those characterising the discharge site. Notwithstanding this, it was found that deploying typically adopted 'direct insertion' techniques to simulate the brine discharge within the hydrodynamic model was problematic. Specifically, it was found that in this study the direct insertion technique delivered highly conservative brine dilution predictions in and around the proposed site, and that these were grid and time-step dependent. To improve the predictive capability, a strategy to link validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions to hydrodynamic simulations was devised. In this strategy, environmental conditions from ELCOM were used to produce boundary conditions for execution of a suite of CFD simulations. In turn, the CFD simulations provided the brine dilutions and flow rates to be applied in ELCOM. In order to conserve mass in a system-wide sense, artificial salt sinks were introduced to the ELCOM model such that salt quantities were conserved. As a result of this process, ELCOM predictions were naturally very similar to CFD predictions near the diffuser, whilst at the same time they produced an area of influence (further afield) comparable to direct insertion methods. It was concluded that the linkage of the models, in comparison to direct insertion methods, constituted a more realistic and defensible alternative to predict the far-field dispersion of outfall discharges, particularly with regards to the estimation of brine

  13. Brines in Seepage Channels as Eluants for Subsurface Relict Biomolecules on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn-Williams, David D.; Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Grin, Edmond A.; Haberle, Robert M.; Stoker, Carol R.

    2001-06-01

    Water, vital for life, not only maintains the integrity of structural and metabolic biomolecules, it also transports them in solution or colloidal suspension. Any flow of water through a dormant or fossilized microbial community elutes molecules that are potentially recognizable as biomarkers. We hypothesize that the surface seepage channels emanating from crater walls and cliffs in Mars Orbiter Camera images result from fluvial erosion of the regolith as low-temperature hypersaline brines. We propose that, if such flows passed through extensive subsurface catchments containing buried and fossilized remains of microbial communities from the wet Hesperian period of early Mars (~3.5 Ga ago), they would have eluted and concentrated relict biomolecules and delive red them to the surface. Life-supporting low-temperature hypersaline brines in Antarctic desert habitats provide a terrestrial analog for such a scenario. As in the Antarctic, salts would likely have accumulated in water-filled depressions on Mars by seasonal influx and evaporation. Liquid water in the Antarctic cold desert analogs occurs at -80°C in the interstices of shallow hypersaline soils and at -50°C in salt-saturated ponds. Similarly, hypersaline brines on Mars could have freezing points depressed below -50°C. The presence of hypersaline brines on Mars would have extended the amount of time during which life might have evolved. Phototrophic communities are especially important for the search for life because the distinctive structures and longevity of their pigments make excellent biomarkers. The surface seepage channels are therefore not only of geomorphological significance, but also provide potential repositories for biomolecules that could be accessed by landers.

  14. Mirabilite solubility in equilibrium sea ice brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Benjamin Miles; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Santoro, Anna; Kennedy, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    The sea ice microstructure is permeated by brine channels and pockets that contain concentrated seawater-derived brine. Cooling the sea ice results in further formation of pure ice within these pockets as thermal equilibrium is attained, resulting in a smaller volume of increasingly concentrated residual brine. The coupled changes in temperature and ionic composition result in supersaturation of the brine with respect to mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) at temperatures below -6.38 °C, which consequently precipitates within the sea ice microstructure. Here, mirabilite solubility in natural and synthetic seawater derived brines, representative of sea ice at thermal equilibrium, has been measured in laboratory experiments between 0.2 and -20.6 °C, and hence we present a detailed examination of mirabilite dynamics within the sea ice system. Below -6.38 °C mirabilite displays particularly large changes in solubility as the temperature decreases, and by -20.6 °C its precipitation results in 12.90% and 91.97% reductions in the total dissolved Na+ and SO42- concentrations respectively, compared to that of conservative seawater concentration. Such large non-conservative changes in brine composition could potentially impact upon the measurement of sea ice brine salinity and pH, whilst the altered osmotic conditions may create additional challenges for the sympagic organisms that inhabit the sea ice system. At temperatures above -6.38 °C, mirabilite again displays large changes in solubility that likely aid in impeding its identification in field samples of sea ice. Our solubility measurements display excellent agreement with that of the FREZCHEM model, which was therefore used to supplement our measurements to colder temperatures. Measured and modelled solubility data were incorporated into a 1D model for the growth of first-year Arctic sea ice. Model results ultimately suggest that mirabilite has a near ubiquitous presence in much of the sea ice on Earth, and illustrate the

  15. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

  16. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume IV. Bibliography and supporting data for physical oceanography. Final report. [421 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume IV contains the following: bibliography; appendices for supporting data for physical oceanography, and summary of the physical oceanography along the western Louisiana coast.

  17. Generation of porphyry copper deposits by gas-brine reaction in volcanic arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundy, Jon; Mavrogenes, John; Tattitch, Brian; Sparks, Steve; Gilmer, Amy

    2014-05-01

    within the dacite, at magmatic temperatures and support previous suggestions of gas-brine interaction as a fundamental ore-forming process. The simultaneous production of acid (HCl) during sulphide precipitation drives mica-producing alteration reactions in brine-hosting granites and their wall-rocks that replicate observed associations of sulphides and mica-rich alteration haloes around PCDs.

  18. Brine treatment test for reinjection on Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, R.; Mercado, S.; Gamino, H. (Departamento de Geotermia, Division de Fuentes de Energia, Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Justo Sierra y Herreros Sur 2098-Altos C.P. 21020, Mexicali, B.C. (MX))

    1989-01-01

    Reinjection of disposal brine from the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant System is attractive mainly because, on top of solving the brine disposal problem, it may significantly contribute to extend the reservoir useful lifetime, through thermal and hydraulic recharge. Because the high concentration of colloidal silica in the disposal brine, laboratory and pilot plant tests were conducted in order to develop the brine treatment process. Addition of 20-40 mg/1 lime to flashed and aged brine for 10-20 minutes yields a clarified brine relatively low in suspended solids (10-30 mg/1) when the over flow rate is 38.5 1/min-m/sup 2/. 1.1 mills/kWh was the estimated cost for treatment of 800 kg/s of separated brine from the Cerro Prieto I power station.

  19. Collecting Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙铮

    2007-01-01

    My hobby is collecting rocks.It is very special,isn’t it?I began to collect rocks about four years ago.I usually go hiking in the mountains,or near the river to look for rocks.When I find a rock,I pick it up and clean it with the brush and water.Then I put it into my bag.Most of the rocks I have collected are quartzite~*.They are really

  20. Formation and development of salt crusts on soil surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng

    2015-12-14

    The salt concentration gradually increases at the soil free surface when the evaporation rate exceeds the diffusive counter transport. Eventually, salt precipitates and crystals form a porous sodium chloride crust with a porosity of 0.43 ± 0.14. After detaching from soils, the salt crust still experiences water condensation and salt deliquescence at the bottom, brine transport across the crust driven by the humidity gradient, and continued air-side precipitation. This transport mechanism allows salt crust migration away from the soil surface at a rate of 5 μm/h forming salt domes above soil surfaces. The surface characteristics of mineral substrates and the evaporation rate affect the morphology and the crystal size of precipitated salt. In particular, substrate hydrophobicity and low evaporation rate suppress salt spreading.

  1. Mechanism for salt scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  2. Short-lived brine infiltration during upper amphibolite facies metamorphism in the continental collision zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Fumiko; Kawakami, Tetsuo; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi; Satish-Kumar, Madhusoodhan; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Grantham, Geoffrey; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi

    2017-04-01

    The importance of brine is increasingly recognized because of its role on mass transportation at the mid- to lower-crustal pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions (e.g., Newton & Manning, 2010). However, the passage and residence times of brine are not well understood. This study deals with garnet-hornblende (Grt-Hbl) veins, discordantly cutting the gneissose structure of garnet-orthopyroxene-hornblende gneiss from the central Sør Rondane Mountains (SRM), East Antarctica. The Cl contents of hornblende and biotite, K content of hornblende, and the thickness of Na-richer rims of plagioclase decreased with distance from the Grt-Hbl vein. The P-T conditions of the vein formation were estimated to be 680 °C, 0.69 GPa (Higashino et al., under review). In the wall rock in the vicinity of the vein, addition of Li, Cu, Rb, Ba, Pb, and U, which tend to be mobile in brines rather than in melts is observed, using Zr as an immobile element (Higashino et al., 2015). This indicates that the Grt-Hbl vein was formed by the infiltration of NaCl-KCl brine. Trace element concentrations in the wall rock minerals decrease with distance from the vein, and in most cases show concave up/down profiles. Distances where these concentrations in each mineral species become constant are dependent on elements, and not on mineral species. These profiles can be best modelled by diffusion equations, suggesting that the diffusion is the major process transferring the trace elements perpendicular to the vein. Although plagioclase does not show significant trace element zoning within each single grain, the discontinuous drop of anorthite content at rims is preserved. Thin brine films in grain boundaries presumably caused dissolution-reprecipitation (e.g., Ruiz-Agudo et al., 2014), and lattice diffusion in plagioclase would have followed this to form homogeneous trace element zonings. Therefore, the main process of brine infiltration into the wall rock is possibly grain boundary diffusion in wet

  3. The Oral Health Status and the Treatment Needs of Salt Workers at Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana Jagat; Asawa, Kailash; TAK, Mridula; Batra, Mehak; Daryani, Hemasha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Salt workers are exposed to the adversities of environmental conditions such as direct sunlight, salt dust and contact with brine, which have an impact on the health of workers. Since oral health is an integral part of the general health, we planned to determine its effect on the oral cavity.

  4. A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth’s surface-environment can be regarded as ‘water-friendly’ and ‘salt hostile’, the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, ‘salt-friendly’. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets, is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed ‘evaporites’, meaning that they formed as a consequence of the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, as an ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will attain the phase of supercritical water vapor (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (T>400°C, P>300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea indicates that a

  5. Comparison of current constitutive models and modeling procedures on the basis of calculations of the thermomechanical and healing behavior of rock salt. Report on the partial project 3; Modellrechnungen zum thermomechanischen Verhalten und zur Verheilung von Steinsalz. Ergebnisbericht zum Teilprojekt 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudewills, Alexandra

    2016-07-01

    Between October 2010 and July 2016, the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (German abbreviation BMWi) has funded a joint project within its research program ''Improvement of tools for the safety assessment of underground repositories''. The aim of benchmark calculations was to check the ability of the involved models to describe the temperature influence on deformation, the damage and dilatancy reduction and healing of rock salt.

  6. A preliminary deposit model for lithium brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; Munk, LeeAnn; Jochens, Hillary; Hynek, Scott; Labay, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to update existing mineral deposit models and to develop new ones. The global transition away from hydrocarbons toward energy alternatives increases demand for many scarce metals. Among these is lithium, a key component of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Lithium brine deposits account for about three-fourths of the world’s lithium production. Updating an earlier deposit model, we emphasize geologic information that might directly or indirectly help in exploration for lithium brine deposits, or for assessing regions for mineral resource potential. Special attention is given to the best-known deposit in the world—Clayton Valley, Nevada, and to the giant Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  7. Brine shrimp lethality assay of Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Prashanth; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Rani, Padmaja; Kadamboor, Sandhya; Mathew, Anjana; Chandrashekar, Arun P; Agarwal, Amit

    2002-03-01

    Successive petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts, a saponin rich fraction (SRF) and bacoside A isolated from Bacopa monnieri were tested for brine shrimp lethality. Successive ethanol extracts and SRF showed potent activity. Bacoside A showed the maximum activity with a LC(50) of 38.3 microg/mL. The results confirmed the previous reports of an anticancer effect of Bacopa monnieri and suggest bacoside A as the active constituent.

  8. Argon broad ion beam tomography in a cryogenic scanning electron microscope: a novel tool for the investigation of representative microstructures in sedimentary rocks containing pore fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, G; Urai, J L; Pérez-Willard, F; Radi, Z; Offern, S; Burkart, I; Kukla, P A; Wollenberg, U

    2013-03-01

    The contribution describes the implementation of a broad ion beam (BIB) polisher into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) functioning at cryogenic temperature (cryo). The whole system (BIB-cryo-SEM) provides a first generation of a novel multibeam electron microscope that combines broad ion beam with cryogenic facilities in a conventional SEM to produce large, high-quality cross-sections (up to 2 mm(2)) at cryogenic temperature to be imaged at the state-of-the-art SEM resolution. Cryogenic method allows detecting fluids in their natural environment and preserves samples against desiccation and dehydration, which may damage natural microstructures. The investigation of microstructures in the third dimension is enabled by serial cross-sectioning, providing broad ion beam tomography with slices down to 350 nm thick. The functionalities of the BIB-cryo-SEM are demonstrated by the investigation of rock salts (synthetic coarse-grained sodium chloride synthesized from halite-brine mush cold pressed at 150 MPa and 4.5 GPa, and natural rock salt mylonite from a salt glacier at Qom Kuh, central Iran). In addition, results from BIB-cryo-SEM on a gas shale and Boom Clay are also presented to show that the instrument is suitable for a large range of sedimentary rocks. For the first time, pore and grain fabrics of preserved host and reservoir rocks can be investigated at nm-scale range over a representative elementary area. In comparison with the complementary and overlapping performances of the BIB-SEM method with focused ion beam-SEM and X-ray tomography methods, the BIB cross-sectioning enables detailed insights about morphologies of pores at greater resolution than X-ray tomography and allows the production of large representative surfaces suitable for FIB-SEM investigations of a specific representative site within the BIB cross-section.

  9. Effect of brining on the drying rate of tilapia in a solar tunnel dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kituu, G.M.; Shitanda, D.; Kanali, C.L.; Mailutha, J.T. [Jomo Kenyatta Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi (Kenya). BEED

    2008-07-01

    In addition to being a source of protein, fish is an important source of local and foreign currency earnings in Kenya. A substantial amount of fish production is exported. Approximately 30 per cent is exported to the European Union, the United States, and countries in the Middle East, but nearly half of the total annual fish harvest in Kenya goes to waste due to poor processing and preservation. Measures must be taken to ensure the fish industry is protected and waste is minimized, since the livelihood of over 500,000 people depends on fish as a source of proteins and employment. Therefore, it is necessary to implement appropriate and affordable processing and preservation techniques for fish at the artisanal landing sites in order to reduce the wastage and spoilage of fish during oversupply, and to enhance long storage. This paper presented studies that were conducted to determine the effect of brining on the drying rate of tilapia in a solar tunnel dryer. The paper discussed the materials and methods, including a description of the solar tunnel dryer system; the brining process of fish; the fish drying process; and data analysis. It was concluded that limiting the amount of salt used in brining, and subsequently dehydrating fish with a solar tunnel dryer achieves a more stable and suitable dried fish product than osmotic dehydration or solar drying process separately. 19 refs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  10. Field-scale Thermal Testing in a Generic Salt Disposal Environment Underground Research Laboratory (URL): Delineation of Principal Purpose Objectives and Hypotheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassani, David C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The amount of brine present in domal salt formation is far less than in bedded salts (e.g., 0.01 to 0.1% compared with 1 to 3%). In salt domes, shear deformation associated with diapirism has caused existing brine to coalesce, leading to flow and expulsion. Brine migration behavior was investigated in bedded salt at WIPP (Nowak and McTigue 1987, SAND87-0880), and in domal salt at Asse (Coyle et al. 1987, BMI/ONWI-624). Test methods were not standardized, and the tests involved large diameter boreholes (17 to 36 in. diameter) and large apparatus. The tested intervals were proximal to mined openings (within approximately 1 diameter) where in situ stresses are redistributed due to excavation. The tests showed that (1) brine inflow rates can range over at least 2 orders of magnitude for domal vs. bedded salt, (2) that brine inflow is strongly associated with clay and interbedded permeable layers in bedded salt, and (3) that measurement systems can readily collect very small quantities of moisture over time frames of 2 years or longer. Brine inflow rates declined slightly with time in both test series, but neither series approached a state of apparent depletion. This range of flow magnitude could be significant to repository design and performance assessment, especially if inflow rates can be predicted using stratigraphic and geomechanical inputs, and can be shown to approach zero in a predictable manner.

  11. Distinguishing seawater from geologic brine in saline coastal groundwater using radium-226; an example from the Sabkha of the UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Thomas F.; Wood, Warren W.; Sanford, Ward E.

    2014-01-01

    Sabkhat (Salt flats) are common geographic features of low-lying marine coastal areas that develop under hyper-arid climatic conditions. They are characterized by the presence of highly concentrated saline solutions and evaporitic minerals, and have been cited in the geologic literature as present-day representations of hyper-arid regional paleohydrogeology, paleoclimatology, coastal processes, and sedimentation in the geologic record. It is therefore important that a correct understanding of the origin and development of these features be achieved. Knowledge of the source of solutes is an important first step in understanding these features. Historically, two theories have been advanced as to the main source of solutes in sabkha brines: an early concept entailing seawater as the obvious source, and a more recent and dynamic theory involving ascending geologic brine forced upward into the base of the sabkha by a regional hydraulic gradient in the underlying formations. Ra-226 could uniquely distinguish between these sources under certain circumstances, as it is typically present at elevated activity of hundreds to thousands of Bq/m3 (Becquerels per cubic meter) in subsurface formation brines; at exceedingly low activities in open ocean and coastal water; and not significantly supplied to water from recently formed marine sedimentary framework material. The coastal marine sabkha of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi was used to test this hypothesis. The distribution of Ra-226 in 70 samples of sabkha brine (mean: 700 Bq/m3), 7 samples of underlying deeper formation brine (mean: 3416 Bq/m3), the estimated value of seawater (< 16 Bq/m3) and an estimate of supply from sabkha sedimentary framework grains (<~6 Bq/m3) provide the first direct evidence that ascending geologic brine contributes significantly to the solutes of this sabkha system.

  12. Rock Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国平

    2000-01-01

    Around the world young people are spending unbelievable sums of money to listen to rock music. Forbes Magazine reports that at least fifty rock stars have incomes between two million and six million dollars per year.

  13. KREEP Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹永廖; 徐琳; 欧阳自远

    2004-01-01

    KREEP rocks with high contents of K, REE and P were first recognized in Apollo-12 samples, and it was confirmed later that there were KREEP rock fragments in all of the Apollo samples, particularly in Apollo-12 and-14 samples. The KREEP rocks distributed on the lunar surface are the very important objects of study on the evolution of the moon, as well as to evaluate the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks. Based on previous studies and lunar exploration data, the authors analyzed the chemical and mineral characteristics of KREEP rocks, the abundance of Th on the lunar surface materials, the correlation between Th and REE of KREEP rocks in abundance, studied the distribution regions of KREEP rocks on the lunar surface, and further evaluated the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks.

  14. Frost flowers and sea-salt aerosols over seasonal sea-ice areas in northwestern Greenland during winter–spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea salts and halogens in aerosols, frost flowers, and brine play an important role in atmospheric chemistry in polar regions. Simultaneous sampling and observations of frost flowers, brine, and aerosol particles were conducted around Siorapaluk in northwestern Greenland during December 2013 to March 2014. Results show that water-soluble frost flower and brine components are sea-salt components (e.g., Na+, Cl−, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, Br−, and iodine. Concentration factors of sea-salt components of frost flowers and brine relative to seawater were 1.14–3.67. Sea-salt enrichment of Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, and halogens (Cl−, Br−, and iodine in frost flowers is associated with sea-salt fractionation by precipitation of mirabilite and hydrohalite. High aerosol number concentrations correspond to the occurrence of higher abundance of sea-salt particles in both coarse and fine modes, and blowing snow and strong winds. Aerosol number concentrations, particularly in coarse mode, are increased considerably by release from the sea-ice surface under strong wind conditions. Sulfate depletion by sea-salt fractionation was found to be limited in sea-salt aerosols because of the presence of non-sea-salt (NSS SO42−. However, coarse and fine sea-salt particles were found to be rich in Mg. Strong Mg enrichment might be more likely to proceed in fine sea-salt particles. Magnesium-rich sea-salt particles might be released from the surface of snow and slush layer (brine on sea ice and frost flowers. Mirabilite-like and ikaite-like particles were identified only in aerosol samples collected near new sea-ice areas. From the field evidence and results from earlier studies, we propose and describe sea-salt cycles in seasonal sea-ice areas.

  15. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  16. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  17. Rock Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  18. 岩盐椭球储气库应力解析及其稳定性分析%Stress Solutions and Stability Analysis of Ellipsoidal Gas Storage Cavern in Salt Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许宏发; 王武; 方秦; 赵佩胜

    2012-01-01

    岩盐地下储气库根据成腔方式不同,储气库形状也有较大变化,但简化为细长旋转椭球体(短长轴比s)是合理的.假定岩盐体为无限大各向同性线弹性体,将旋转椭球岩盐储气库受力分解为两种受力状态:有内压的静水压力状态和无内压的非静水压力状态.利用弹性理论应力叠加原理,求得了在地应力场(垂直p,水平Po)和内压(pi)作用下储气库腔壁上关键点(顶点和赤道线上任意点)的应力精确解析解.对某岩盐储气库进行了数值模拟计算,数值计算结果与解析解较接近.分析了关键点应力随椭球腔形状、地应力和内压的变化规律,认为径向应力随内压比(pi/p)的增加而增加,几乎与轴比(s)无关;水平环向应力随内压比和轴比的增加而减小.结合已有试验资料,确定了盐岩广义Hoek-Brown破坏模型参数,并据此计算得到了储气库不出现破坏时的极限内压值范围,当s=0.9时极限内压较小.%The shapes of the gas storage caverns vary with building ways, but simplified as an elongated rotational ellipsoid ( minor to major axis ratio, s ) is reasonable. Assumed that the ellipsoidal cavity is in linear elasticity and isotropy infinite body, the mechanical status of the caverns can be resolved into: hydrostatic pressure with internal pressure and non-hydrostatic pressure without internal pressure. Using principle of superposition on stress in elastic theory, the exact stress solutions for the key points,which are the peak and an arbitrary point on the equator line of the ellipsoidal cavity, were solved under geostress field ( vertical stress, p; horizontal stress ,p0 ) and internal pressure(pi). The numerical simulation analysis on rotational ellipsoidal gas storage cavern in salt rock was conducted, and the results of numerical simulation coincided with analytic solutions. Analyzed the laws of the stresses of the key points varying with shape of cavity, geostresses and internal

  19. Salt influence on surface microorganisms and ripening of soft ewe cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabla, Rafael; Gómez, Antonia; Rebollo, José E; Roa, Isidro

    2015-05-01

    The effect of different brining treatments on salt uptake and diffusion during the first 30 d of ripening was determined in soft ewe cheese. Additionally, salt influence on surface microorganisms and physicochemical parameters was evaluated. Cheeses were placed into different brine solutions (14, 18 and 24°Bé) at 5 and 10 °C for 1, 2 or 3 h. Samples from rind, outer core and inner core were analysed at 0, 7, 15 and 30 d. Complete salt diffusion from rind to the inner core took about 15 d. The resulting salt gradient favoured the development of a pH gradient from the surface to the inner core. Salt concentration also had a significant effect on the growth of surface microorganisms (mesophiles, pseudomonads and halotolerants). However, mould and yeasts were not affected throughout ripening by the salt levels achieved. Brine salting by immersion for 3 h at 10 °C in 24°B brine was found to be the most suitable treatment to control pseudomonads in cheese rind, as spoilage microorganism.

  20. Density-driven free-convection model for isotopically fractionated geogenic nitrate in sabkha brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Warren W.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-01-01

    Subsurface brines with high nitrate (NO3−) concentration are common in desert environments as atmospheric nitrogen is concentrated by the evaporation of precipitation and little nitrogen uptake. However, in addition to having an elevated mean concentration of ∼525 mg/L (as N), NO3− in the coastal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi is enriched in 15N (mean δ15N ∼17‰), which is an enigma. A NO3− solute mass balance analysis of the sabkha aquifer system suggests that more than 90% of the nitrogen is from local atmospheric deposition and the remainder from ascending brine. In contrast, isotopic mass balances based on Δ17O, δ15N, and δ18O data suggest approximately 80 to 90% of the NO3− could be from ascending brine. As the sabkha has essentially no soil, no vegetation, and no anthropogenic land or water use, we propose to resolve this apparent contradiction with a density-driven free-convection transport model. In this conceptual model, the density of rain is increased by solution of surface salts, transporting near-surface oxygenated NO3− bearing water downward where it encounters reducing conditions and mixes with oxygen-free ascending geologic brines. In this environment, NO3− is partially reduced to nitrogen gas (N2), thus enriching the remaining NO3− in heavy isotopes. The isotopically fractionated NO3− and nitrogen gas return to the near-surface oxidizing environment on the upward displacement leg of the free-convection cycle, where the nitrogen gas is released to the atmosphere and new NO3− is added to the system from atmospheric deposition. This recharge/recycling process has operated over many cycles in the 8000-year history of the shallow aquifer, progressively concentrating and isotopically fractionating the NO3−.

  1. Porosity and Permeability Evolution in Cemented Rock Cores under Reactive Flowing Conditions: Comparative Analysis between Limestone and Sandstone Host Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, P.; Karpyn, Z.; Li, L.

    2013-12-01

    CO2-brine has the potential to alter wellbore cement in depleted oil and gas reservoirs under geological CO2 sequestration conditions. A better understanding of CO2-brine-cement-rock interaction is needed to evaluate the seal integrity of candidate sequestration formation in the long run. This work investigates possible alteration of wellbore cement when bonded by different host formation rock upon exposure to CO2-saturated brine. Composite cement-sandstone and cement-limestone core samples were created to perform reactive coreflood experiments. After an eight-day dynamic flow-through period, both cores had a similar extent of porosity increase, while the cement-limestone core experienced a ten-fold higher increase in permeability. With the aid of X-ray Micro-CT imaging and Scanning Electron Microscopy, it is observed that cement underwent greater degradation at the cement-sandstone interface. Degradation of cement-limestone core mainly took place on the host rock matrix. Worm holes were developed and a solution channel was formed in the limestone, creating a dominant flow path that altered both flow and reaction behavior. Limestone buffered the injected acidic brine preventing further deterioration of cement near the core outlet. Changes in fluid chemistry of limestone and sandstone coreflood effluents are compared. Results from this work are aimed at assisting the development and validation of robust reactive transport models through direct measurement of cemented rock core porosity and permeability evolution as well as the effluent aqueous chemistry change. This will subsequently improve predictive capabilities of reactive transport models associated with CO2 sequestration in geologic environments. Permeability Evolution of Cement-Rock Core Sample during Dynamic Flow of CO2-Brine

  2. Preliminary Feasibility Testing of the BRIC Brine Water Recovery Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Pickering, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    The Brine Residual In-Containment (BRIC) concept was developed as a new technology to recover water from spacecraft wastewater brines. Such capability is considered critical to closing the water loop and achieving a sustained human presence in space. The intention of the BRIC concept is to increase the robustness and efficiency of the dewatering process by performing drying inside the container used for the final disposal of the residual brine solid. Recent efforts in the development of BRIC have focused on preliminary feasibility testing using a laboratory- assembled pre-prototype unit. Observations of the drying behavior of actual brine solutions processed under BRIC-like conditions has been of particular interest. To date, experiments conducted with three types of analogue spacecraft wastewater brines have confirmed the basic premise behind the proposed application of in-place drying for these solutions. Specifically, the dried residual mass from these solutions have tended to exhibit characteristics of adhesion and flow that are expected to continue to challenge process stream management in spacecraft brine dewatering system designs. Yet, these same characteristics may favor the development of capillary- and surface-tension-based approaches envisioned as part of an ultimate microgravity-compatible BRIC design. In addition, preliminary feasibility testing of the BRIC pre-prototype confirmed that high rates of water recovery, up to 98% of the available brine water, may be possible while still removing the majority of the brine contaminants from the influent brine stream. These and other observations from testing are reported.

  3. Evaluation of Brine Processing Technologies for Spacecraft Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Hali L.; Flynn, Michael; Wisniewski, Richard; Lee, Jeffery; Jones, Harry; Delzeit, Lance; Shull, Sarah; Sargusingh, Miriam; Beeler, David; Howard, Jeanie; Howard, Kevin; Harris, Linden; Parodi, Jurek; Kawashima, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Brine drying systems may be used in spaceflight. There are several advantages to using brine processing technologies for long-duration human missions including a reduction in resupply requirements and achieving high water recovery ratios. The objective of this project was to evaluate four technologies for the drying of spacecraft water recycling system brine byproducts. The technologies tested were NASA's Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD), Paragon's Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), NASA's Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) System, and UMPQUA's Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS). The purpose of this work was to evaluate the hardware using feed streams composed of brines similar to those generated on board the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. The brine formulations used for testing were the ISS Alternate Pretreatment and Solution 2 (Alt Pretreat). The brines were generated using the Wiped-film Rotating-disk (WFRD) evaporator, which is a vapor compression distillation system that is used to simulate the function of the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). Each system was evaluated based on the results from testing and Equivalent System Mass (ESM) calculations. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix was also developed as a method to compare the different technologies based on customer and engineering requirements.

  4. Relative permeabilities of supercritical CO2 and brine in carbon sequestration by a two-phase lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian.-Fei.; He, S.; Zu, Y. Q.; Lamy-Chappuis, B.; Yardley, B. W. D.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the migration of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in realistic sandstone rocks under conditions of saline aquifers, with applications to the carbon geological storage, has been investigated by a two-phase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Firstly the digital images of sandstone rocks were reproduced utilizing the X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT), and high resolutions (up to 2.5 μm) were applied to the pore-scale LBM simulations. For the sake of numerical stability, the digital images were "cleaned" by closing the dead holes and removing the suspended particles in sandstone rocks. In addition, the effect of chemical reactions occurred in the carbonation process on the permeability was taken into account. For the wetting brine and non-wetting supercritical CO2 flows, they were treated as the immiscible fluids and were driven by pressure gradients in sandstone rocks. Relative permeabilities of brine and supercritical CO2 in sandstone rocks were estimated. Particularly the dynamic saturation was applied to improve the reliability of the calculations of the relative permeabilities. Moreover, the effects of the viscosity ratio of the two immiscible fluids and the resolution of digital images on the relative permeability were systematically investigated.

  5. 30 CFR 250.1601 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... circulating water into and out of a cavity in the salt core of a salt dome. Brine well means a well drilled through cap rock into the core at a salt dome for the purpose of producing brine. Cap rock means the rock... formation of rock that contains elemental sulphur. Sulphur production rate means the number of long tons...

  6. Mechanical and hydrological characterization of the near-field surrounding excavations in a geologic salt formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Clifford L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The technical basis for salt disposal of nuclear waste resides in salt’s favorable physical, mechanical and hydrological characteristics. Undisturbed salt formations are impermeable. Upon mining, the salt formation experiences damage in the near-field rock proximal to the mined opening and salt permeability increases dramatically. The volume of rock that has been altered by such damage is called the disturbed rock zone (DRZ).

  7. Imaging of oil layers, curvature and contact angle in a mixed-wet and a water-wet carbonate rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kamaljit; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the effect of wettability of carbonate rocks on the morphologies of remaining oil after sequential oil and brine injection in a capillary-dominated flow regime at elevated pressure. The wettability of Ketton limestone was altered in situ using an oil phase doped with fatty acid which produced mixed-wet conditions (the contact angle where oil contacted the solid surface, measured directly from the images, θ=180°, while brine-filled regions remained water-wet), whereas the untreated rock (without doped oil) was weakly water-wet (θ=47 ± 9°). Using X-ray micro-tomography, we show that the brine displaces oil in larger pores during brine injection in the mixed-wet system, leaving oil layers in the pore corners or sandwiched between two brine interfaces. These oil layers, with an average thickness of 47 ± 17 µm, may provide a conductive flow path for slow oil drainage. In contrast, the oil fragments into isolated oil clusters/ganglia during brine injection under water-wet conditions. Although the remaining oil saturation in a water-wet system is about a factor of two larger than that obtained in the mixed-wet rock, the measured brine-oil interfacial area of the disconnected ganglia is a factor of three smaller than that of oil layers.

  8. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, year 1 report. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site located 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. During the study period, the daily discharge averaged 529,000 barrels of 216 0/00 brine, representing a loading of 18,000 metric tons of salt per day. The objective of this study are: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. This report describes the methodology and significant results of the first year's monitoring effort of the West Hackberry brine disposal site. The investigative tasks, presented as separate sections, are: Physical Oceanography, Estuarine Hydrology and Hydrography, Analysis of Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Special Pollutant Surveys, Benthos, Nekton, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Data Management.

  9. Selective Recovery of Metals from Geothermal Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, Susanna [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bhamidi, Srinivas [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hornbostel, Marc [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nagar, Anoop [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Perea, Elisabeth [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-16

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of developing a new generation of highly selective low-cost ion-exchange resins based on metal-ion imprinted polymers for the separation of metals from geothermal fluids. Expansion of geothermal energy production over the entire U.S. will involve exploitation of low-to-medium temperature thermal waters. Creating value streams from the recovery of critical and near-critical metals from these thermal waters will encourage geothermal expansion. Selective extraction of metals from geothermal fluids is needed to design a cost-effective process for the recovery of lithium and manganese-two near-critical metals with well-known application in the growing lithium battery industry. We have prepared new lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymers in the form of beads by crosslinking polymerization of a metal polymerizable chelate, where the metal acts as a template. Upon leaching out the metal template, the crosslinked polymer is expected to leave cavities defined by the ligand functional group with enhanced selectivity for binding the template metal. We have demonstrated that lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymer beads can be used as selective solid sorbents for the extraction of lithium and manganese from brines. The polymers were tested both in batch extractions and packed bed lab-scale columns at temperatures of 45-100°C. Lithium-imprinted polymers were found to have Li+ adsorption capacity as high as 2.8 mg Li+/g polymer at 45°C. Manganese-imprinted polymers were found to have a Mn2+ adsorption capacity of more than 23 mg Mn2+/g polymer at 75°C. The Li+ extraction efficiency of the Li-imprinted polymer was found to be more that 95% when a brine containing 390 ppm Li+, 410 ppm Na+, and 390 ppm K+ was passed through a packed bed of the polymer in a lab-scale column at 45°C. In brines containing 360 ppm Li

  10. Effective Wettability Measurements of CO2-Brine-Sandstone System at Different Reservoir Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Krevor, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    The wetting properties of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of CO2 injection processes. The wettability of a system controls the flow and trapping efficiency during the storage of CO2 in geological formations as well as the efficiency of enhanced oil recovery operations. Despite its utility in EOR and the continued development of CCS, little is currently known about the wetting properties of the CO2-brine system on reservoir rocks, and no investigations have been performed assessing the impact of these properties on CO2 flooding for CO2 storage or EOR. The wetting properties of multiphase fluid systems in porous media have major impacts on the multiphase flow properties such as the capillary pressure and relative permeability. While recent studies have shown CO2 to generally act as a non-wetting phase in siliciclastic rocks, some observations report that the contact angle varies with pressure, temperature and water salinity. Additionally, there is a wide range of reported contact angles for this system, from strongly to weakly water-wet. In the case of some minerals, intermediate wet contact angles have been observed. Uncertainty with regard to the wetting properties of CO2-brine systems is currently one of the remaining major unresolved issues with regards to reservoir management of CO2 storage. In this study, we make semi-dynamic capillary pressure measurements of supercritical CO2 and brine at reservoir conditions to observe shifts in the wetting properties. We utilize a novel core analysis technique recently developed by Pini et al in 2012 to evaluate a core-scale effective contact angle. Carbon dioxide is injected at constant flow rate into a core that is initially fully saturated with water, while maintaining a constant outlet pressure. In this scenario, the pressure drop across the core corresponds to the capillary pressure at the inlet face of the core. When compared with mercury intrusion capillary pressure measurements

  11. Assessment of subsurface salt water disposal experience on the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast for applications to disposal of salt water from geopressured geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, C.K.; Boardman, C.R.

    1978-08-04

    A representative cross section of the literature on the disposal of geothermal brine was perused and some of the general information and concepts is summarized. The following sections are included: disposal statistics--Texas Railroad Commission; disposal statistics--Louisiana Office of Conservation; policies for administering salt water disposal operations; salt water disposal experience of Gulf Coast operators; and Federal Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program's brine disposal operations. The literature cited is listed in the appended list of references. Additional literature is listed in the bibliography. (MHR)

  12. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  13. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  14. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate using titanium dioxide for regeneration of ion exchange brine

    OpenAIRE

    Yang,Ting; Doudrick, Kyle; Westerhoff, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate is often removed from groundwater by ion exchange (IX) before its use as drinking water. Accumulation of nitrate in IX brine reduces the efficiency of IX regeneration and the useful life of the regeneration brine. For the first time, we present a strategy to photocatalytically reduce nitrate in IX brine, thereby extending the use of the brine. Titanium dioxide (Evonik P90), acting as photocatalyst, reduced nitrate effectively in both synthetic brines and sulfate-removed IX brine when ...

  15. 'Earhart' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock informally named 'Earhart' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the pilot Amelia Earhart. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe fractures in Earhart could have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Rover team members do not have plans to investigate Earhart in detail because it is located across potentially hazardous sandy terrain. This image was taken on sol 219 (Sept. 4) by the rover's panoramic camera, using its 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

  16. Genesis of Tuzla salt basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušić, Amir; Baraković, Amir; Komatina, Snezana

    2017-04-01

    Salt is condition for the survival of the human race, and holds a special place in the exploitation of mineral resources. It is the only mineral raw material used in direct feeding, and therefore has its own specialty. Salt is a crystalline mineral that is found in seawater, as well as in underground areas where it is formed by deposition of salt sediments. Occurrences of salt water near Tuzla and Gornja Tuzla have been known since the time of the Romans as "ad salinas". The name itself connects Bosnia with its richness in salt, because the word barefoot, which is preserved in a north-Albanian dialect, means a place where boiling salted water are obtained. At the time of the Bosnian kings, these regions are named Soli, which is in connection with occurences of saline sources. Geological studies of rock salt in the area of Tuzla basin are practically began after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the period from 1878 to 1918. Geological field work was conducted K. Paul, H. Hefer, E. Tietze and F. Katzer. Monomineral deposit of rock salt Tetima is made of halite and anhydrite mixed with marl belt, while the bay of salt in Tuzla is polymineral and contains a considerable amount of thenardite (Na2SO4) and rare minerals: nortupit, nahkolit, bradleit, probertit, glauberite and others. Both salt deposits were created as a product of chemical sedimentation in the lower Miocene Badenian sediments. The main objective of this paper is to show the genesis of the deposits and the spatial and genetic connection. In addition, genesis of geological research in the areas of Tuzla basin will be presented.

  17. The effect of brine on the creep behaviour and dissolution chemistry of evaporites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souza, E De; Lee, R

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate operational problems in evaporite deposit utilization associated with brine, halite, sylvinite, and carnallitic ore were creep tested under unconfined conditions, both with and without added brine...

  18. Rock Art

    OpenAIRE

    Huyge, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Rock art, basically being non-utilitarian, non-textual anthropic markings on natural rock surfaces, was an extremely widespread graphical practice in ancient Egypt. While the apogee of the tradition was definitely the Predynastic Period (mainly fourth millennium BCE), examples date from the late Palaeolithic (c. 15,000 BCE) until the Islamic era. Geographically speaking, “Egyptian” rock art is known from many hundreds of sites along the margins of the Upper Egyptian and Nubian Nile Valley and...

  19. Rock blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, W.

    2007-01-01

    Consider representation theory associated to symmetric groups, or to Hecke algebras in type A, or to q-Schur algebras, or to finite general linear groups in non-describing characteristic. Rock blocks are certain combinatorially defined blocks appearing in such a representation theory, first observed by R. Rouquier. Rock blocks are much more symmetric than general blocks, and every block is derived equivalent to a Rock block. Motivated by a theorem of J. Chuang and R. Kessar in the case of sym...

  20. Textural and biochemical changes during ripening of old-fashioned salted herrings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Andersen, Eva; Christensen, Line;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding of the biochemical reactions taking place during ripening of salted herring is still rather limited. Therefore, salted herrings were traditionally produced and the impact of the brine composition was evaluated in relation to the development of the characteristic texture ...... by oxidative reactions inducing myosin cross-linking followed by subsequent degradation of thesemyosin aggregates. The brine composition might play a role in the development of herring texture but this need to be investigated in more details. c 2010 Society of Chemical Industry...

  1. Effects of dry brining, liquid smoking and high-pressure treatment on the physical properties of aquacultured King salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kelvin Jia Wey; Alçiçek, Zayde; Balaban, Murat O

    2015-03-15

    Aquacultured King salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) pieces were dry brined with a salt/brown sugar mix, dipped in liquid smoke for 3 min, vacuum packed, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treated at 600 or 200 MPa for 5 min and stored at 4 °C for up to 40 days. The surface redness (average a*) of the samples increased after dry brining, then decreased after liquid smoke treatment. HHP did not change the outside color of liquid-smoked samples. However, the inside color changed depending on pressure. HHP-treated control samples without dry brining and liquid smoking changed to a pale pink color. HHP at 600 MPa resulted in a significant increase in hardness. Compared with fresh samples, dry-brined samples had reduced water activity, while samples dipped in liquid smoke had lower pH values. Dry brining and liquid smoking protect the outside color of salmon against changes caused by HHP. The increase in hardness may counteract the softening of the smoked salmon tissue over time. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Simulation of H2O-vapor and Brine-CO2 in porous media with a Lattice Boltzmann Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    This DOE-BES funded study is a collaboration between Oregon State University (led by Dr. Dorthe Wildenschild) and the University of Arizona to investigate pore-scale aspects of capillary trapping to enhance the efficiency of geological CO2 sequestration. For the purposes of this project it is important to correctly simulate the physical conditions under which super-critical CO2 will be present after injection into the host rock. This means that the LB model should be able to handle the pressures, densities, temperatures in deep geological media. A logical way of dealing with is is to combine a single-component LB model with and Equation of State (EOS) that describes the physical interrelations among pressure, temperature and density. Previously, we showed that the Peng-Robinson (PR) EOS provides an excellent fit to super-critical conditions for the pure CO2 system. However, it is necessary to consider multi-component systems as the super-critical CO2 will be present with brines of varying salinity. A natural extension to the work under is to also treat the brine with an EOS. The brine will of be in a sub-critical state and it is therefore important to find an EOS that can faithfully match the physical conditions of brine between temperatures of 300 and 400K and pressures between 7 and 30 MPa. This study will present a number of EOS alternatives that attempt to correctly capture the density of the liquid branch of the water system for relevant temperatures and pressures. We will also propose modifications that allow us to deal with different brine concentrations and compare LB modeled interfacial tension and viscosity with published data. As a secondary objective we investigate whether it is possible to match water-vapor systems under ambient surface conditions relevant for vadose zone transport. Support: DOE DE-FG02-11ER16278

  3. Wettability-Water/brine Film Thickness Relationship and the Effect of Supercritical CO2 Pre-contact for CO2/brine/mineral Systems under Geologic CO2 Sequestration Conditions: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Song, Y.; Li, W.

    2016-12-01

    also have great impact on CO2/brine migration and rock-brine interactions. Due to direct contact of supercritical CO2 bubble with rock, the mobility of CO2 bubble is decreased leading to increase of the residual trapping efficiency.

  4. The brine shrimp artemia: adapted to critical life conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajardo, Gonzalo M; Beardmore, John A

    2012-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological) to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry-out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst) capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to "perceive" forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity) when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity) that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions. At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism). The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress response of

  5. The brine shrimp Artemia: adapted to critical life conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Gajardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to perceive forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions.At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism. The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress

  6. Geochemical evolution of lacustrine brines from variable-scale groundwater circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Joseph J.; Rose, Arthur W.

    1994-02-01

    Evaporative groundwater-fed lakes in the glaciated North American Great Plains vary widely in chemistry. A contributing cause is chemical variability of source groundwater intercepted by specific lakes, caused in part by differing depths of groundwater circulation. Aqueous chemical characteristics of 61 lakes and 160 groundwater samples were compared for an area where such lakes are common in eastern Montana-western North Dakota. Results indicate that groundwater chemistry varies according to depth in a similar fashion within different aquifers. Lake water evaporation from initial groundwater solutions typical of three depths was geochemically modeled using PHRQPITZ, based on a Pitzer treatment of activities and equilibria. Results show that chemistry of most lake waters in the study area may correspond to that predicted from evaporation of shallow- and intermediate-depth groundwater, but not of deep groundwater as postulated in some previous investigations. Lakes in shallow surface depressions receive water primarily from shallow (local) groundwater flow; lakes located in deep or broad topographic depressions may additionally receive groundwater from deeper circulation. In the field area studied, relative dominance of anions (sulfate vs. carbonate) in brines is a signature for inferred depth of source. Also diagnostic is the suite of brine salts formed (NaSO 4Mg salts for shallow flow; these plus NaCO 3 salts for intermediate depth flow). Such source signatures will vary from area to area according to depth variations in groundwater chemistry and in stratigraphy. Chemical evolution of lake water is a two-stage process, with a groundwater path (influenced by residence time, depth of circulation, aquifer mineralogy, and related factors) and a surface path (influenced by evaporation rates, lake-aquifer hydraulics, and lake geochemical reactions). Groundwater flow patterns may affect the former set of factors, thereby indirectly controlling lake water

  7. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  8. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  9. Lithium- and boron-bearing brines in the Central Andes: exploring hydrofacies on the eastern Puna plateau between 23° and 23°30'S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, R. L. López

    2016-04-01

    Internally drained basins of the Andean Plateau are lithium- and boron-bearing systems. The exploration of ionic facies and parental links in a playa lake located in the eastern Puna (23°-23°30'S) was assessed by hydrochemical determinations of residual brines, feed waters and solutions from weathered rocks. Residual brines have been characterized by the Cl- (SO4 =)/Na+ (K+) ratio. Residual brines from the playa lake contain up to 450 mg/l of boron and up to 125 mg/l of lithium, and the Las Burras River supplies the most concentrated boron (20 mg/l) and lithium (3.75 mg/l) inflows of the basin. The hydro-geochemical assessment allowed for the identification of three simultaneous sources of boron: (1) inflow originating from granitic areas of the Aguilar and Tusaquillas ranges; (2) weathering of the Ordovician basement; and (3) boron-rich water from the Las Burras River. Most of the lithium input of the basin is likely generated by present geothermal sources rather than by weathering and leaching of ignimbrites and plutonic rocks. However, XRD analyses of playa lake sediments revealed the presence of lithian micas of clastic origin, including taeniolite and eucriptite. This study is the first to document these rare Li-micas from the Puna basin. Thus, both residual brines and lithian micas contribute to the total Li content in the studied hydrologic system.

  10. Lithium- and boron-bearing brines in the Central Andes: exploring hydrofacies on the eastern Puna plateau between 23° and 23°30'S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, R. L. López

    2017-01-01

    Internally drained basins of the Andean Plateau are lithium- and boron-bearing systems. The exploration of ionic facies and parental links in a playa lake located in the eastern Puna (23°-23°30'S) was assessed by hydrochemical determinations of residual brines, feed waters and solutions from weathered rocks. Residual brines have been characterized by the Cl- (SO4 =)/Na+ (K+) ratio. Residual brines from the playa lake contain up to 450 mg/l of boron and up to 125 mg/l of lithium, and the Las Burras River supplies the most concentrated boron (20 mg/l) and lithium (3.75 mg/l) inflows of the basin. The hydro-geochemical assessment allowed for the identification of three simultaneous sources of boron: (1) inflow originating from granitic areas of the Aguilar and Tusaquillas ranges; (2) weathering of the Ordovician basement; and (3) boron-rich water from the Las Burras River. Most of the lithium input of the basin is likely generated by present geothermal sources rather than by weathering and leaching of ignimbrites and plutonic rocks. However, XRD analyses of playa lake sediments revealed the presence of lithian micas of clastic origin, including taeniolite and eucriptite. This study is the first to document these rare Li-micas from the Puna basin. Thus, both residual brines and lithian micas contribute to the total Li content in the studied hydrologic system.

  11. Long-Term Modeling of Coupled Processes in a Generic Salt Repository for Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste: Analysis of the Impacts of Halite Solubility Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Martin, L.; Rutqvist, J.; Battistelli, A.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Rock salt is a potential medium for the underground disposal of nuclear waste because it has several assets, such as its ability to creep and heal fractures and its water and gas tightness in the undisturbed state. In this research, we focus on disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste and we consider a generic salt repository with in-drift emplacement of waste packages and crushed salt backfill. As the natural salt creeps, the crushed salt backfill gets progressively compacted and an engineered barrier system is subsequently created [1]. The safety requirements for such a repository impose that long time scales be considered, during which the integrity of the natural and engineered barriers have to be demonstrated. In order to evaluate this long-term integrity, we perform numerical modeling based on state-of-the-art knowledge. Here, we analyze the impacts of halite dissolution and precipitation within the backfill and the host rock. For this purpose, we use an enhanced equation-of-state module of TOUGH2 that properly includes temperature-dependent solubility constraints [2]. We perform coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical modeling and we investigate the influence of the mentioned impacts. The TOUGH-FLAC simulator, adapted for large strains and creep, is used [3]. In order to quantify the importance of salt dissolution and precipitation on the effective porosity, permeability, pore pressure, temperature and stress field, we compare numerical results that include or disregard fluids of variable salinity. The sensitivity of the results to some parameters, such as the initial saturation within the backfill, is also addressed. References: [1] Bechthold, W. et al. Backfilling and Sealing of Underground Repositories for Radioactive Waste in Salt (BAMBUS II Project). Report EUR20621 EN: European Atomic Energy Community, 2004. [2] Battistelli A. Improving the treatment of saline brines in EWASG for the simulation of hydrothermal systems. Proceedings, TOUGH Symposium 2012

  12. Empirical formula for the refractive index of freezing brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2009-01-01

    The refractive index of freezing brine is important for example in order to estimate oceanic scattering as sea ice develops. Previously, no simple continuous expression was available for estimating the refractive index of brine at subzero temperatures. I show that extrapolation of the empirical...... formula for the refractive index of seawater by Quan and Fry [Appl. Opt. 34(18), 3477-3480 (1995)] provides a good fit to the refractive index of freezing brine for temperatures above -24 degrees celsius and salinities below 180 parts per thousand....

  13. Non-conservative behavior of bromide in surface waters and brines of Central Andes: A release into the atmosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risacher, François; Fritz, Bertrand; Alonso, Hugo

    2006-05-01

    The transfer of reactive bromine into the atmosphere was recently observed by Hönninger et al. [Hönninger, G., Bobrowski, N., Palenque, E.R., Torrez, R., Platt, U., 2004. Reactive bromine and sulfur emission at salar de Uyuni, Bolivia. Geophys. Res. Lett.31, doi:10.1029/2003GL018818] in a large salt pan of the Bolivian Altiplano: the salar de Uyuni. However, bromide is considered to be an excellent conservative tracer, which leads to the questioning of its actual conservation in surficial geochemical processes. The relation between bromide and lithium, thought to be a conservative component in waters and brines of the Central Andes, points to a depletion of Br relative to Li in Uyuni brines of about 50-300 kg/day, a flux close to that measured by Hönninger et al. (2004): ⩾200 kg/day. Such values are very low in regard to the size of the salar (5-30 g/km 2/day). Salt efflorescences have a much higher surface area than a flat salt crust, which should enhance the release of bromine. Leach solutions of salt efflorescences in closed basins of northern Chile are compared to their parent waters. Conservative components should have the same concentration ratios in both solutions. Actually, a strong depletion in Br is observed in the leach solutions, which could suggest a significant release of Br from the salt into the atmosphere. During the rainy season, efflorescences are leached and their dissolved components brought in saline lakes and salars. Evaporative profiles show a slight but noticeable fractionation between Li and Br which could be due to the contribution of Br-depleted leach solutions of salt efflorescences. Therefore, bromide does not behave conservatively in surface waters and brines of the Central Andes. If the loss of Br is really due to its transfer into the atmosphere, then the flux would be much higher than that estimated for the salar de Uyuni alone. Numerous salt pans, saline lakes, and widespread efflorescences covering large land surfaces would

  14. ROCK ON

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas Grose

    2014-01-01

    ..., however, was music - especially the high-pitched sounds of pop and rock, which boosted energy output by up to 40 percent. By contrast, classical music's lower pitches barely raised effectiveness. O...

  15. Storage quality in different brines of pickled capers (Capparis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan, Musa

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Middle sized buds of Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss. Heywood collected from wild plants were pickled for two months. The buds after the fermentation were processed in 10% and 20% brines. Storage stability of the fermented capers was determined by physical, chemical and microbiological analysis at certain interval in 10 and 20% old or fresh brines 180 days. Storaged in 10% and 20% old or fresh brines for 180 days of pickled buds of both species maintained the product quality in all samples. Acidity was higher in old brine during storage. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB growth was observed only in 10% fresh brine, it decreased from initial and 30 days at C. ovata and C. spinosa, respectively. C. spinosa, compared with C. ovata was desirable due to low sediment and more firm texture. During storage of buds in fresh brines, sediment and off-flavour were not observed for both species. Pickled products can be stored in fresh brine long-term containing at least 10% salt concentration.

    Se encurtieron durante dos meses botones florales de tamaño intermedio de Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa y Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss recogidos de plantas silvestres. Las alcaparras después de la fermentación se conservaron en salmueras del 10% y 20%. Las alcaparras fermentadas fueron mantenidas durante 180 días en salmueras usadas o recién preparadas (frescas del 10 y 20%, determinándose a intervalos la estabilidad durante la conservación por análisis físicos, químicos y microbiológicos. La calidad del producto se mantuvo en todas las muestras de alcaparras fermentadas durante los 180 días, tanto en 10% como en 20% y en salmueras usadas o frescas. La acidez durante la conservación fue mayor en salmueras usadas. El crecimiento de bacterias del ácido láctico se observó sólo en salmueras frescas del 10

  16. First results of an integrated monitoring concept to detect brine migration processes in freshwater aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, M.; Schmidt-Hattenberger, C.; Wagner, F.; Schröder, S.

    2012-04-01

    The reduction of new carbon dioxide emissions is an important contribution to realise climate change mitigation solutions. One possibility consists in the long-term storage of industrial produced greenhouse gas in deep saline aquifers. The most important research focus of the multidisciplinary integrated project BRINE is to ensure the safe storage operation. This research work refers to an area in eastern Brandenburg (Germany). However, the analysis can be applied to regions with comparable geological characteristics. The relevant reservoir horizon is located within a classic anticlinal structure, generated by salt tectonic processes. Due to the local geological site specifics, the CO2 injection could cause a pressure build-up and thus a brine migration in the reservoir layer. For this reason, an adequate monitoring system for the observation of possible brine displacement into upper freshwater aquifers is essential. For both the qualitatively and quantitatively investigation a combination of several geophysical methods is needed. The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a measurement method with a comparatively high spatial resolution on small scales. Therefore it will be generally used for borehole and near subsurface investigations. The presented monitoring concept focusses on three potential pathways. Beside regional fault-zones, also formation defects in the upper aquitards and leakages around the wellbore could promote a saltwater migration. The main objective is to find an optimal combination of several electrode arrays like surface, surface-downhole and cross-borehole configurations to detect time-lapse effects of the resistivity distribution in the subsurface. By means of numerical modelling studies of different salinisation scenarios, we have tested several standard and several adapted electrode arrays. In order to further improve the results, an inversion code based on the measured resistance ratios is used. Parallel to the large-scale modelling

  17. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stuehrenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  18. 腌制和干制对即食虾仁品质的影响%Effects of Brining and Drying on the Quality of Instant Shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹丹; 李威; 李汴生; 杨朝雄

    2011-01-01

    The salt content, the moisture content, water activity, sensory evaluation and color of instant shrimp were determined during the brining and drying treatments, to investigate the effects of brining and drying on the quality of instant shrimp. The results showed that the moisture content and salt content of the shrimp were sigiificantly changed when the salt solution was over 2% by vacuum brining method. The best brining regents and time were determined as 6% salt solution and 1.5 h, respectively. And the best drying technology were found as follows:drying the pickled shrimp at 80℃ until no water was detected at the product surface and then re-drying it at 65℃ until the water content was down to 60%.%通过对产品的盐含量、水分含量、水分活度、感官评定以及色泽的测定,研究即食虾仁加工过程中的腌制和干制对其品质的影响.结果表明,腌制采用真空湿腌法,在腌制液中的盐浓度大于2%之后,可以显著改变腌制后虾仁的水分含量以及盐含量,最佳的腌制液盐浓度为6%,腌制时间为1.5 h,干制的最佳条件为:在80℃干燥到表面无复水,然后在65℃烘干至最终水分含量60%.

  19. Determination of potassium iodide in table salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The samples of table salt bought in Belgrade supermarkets are analysed in this paper. The method of indirect iodometry was used in the process of the analysis, and received results were converted into the content of KI in mg/kg of salt. Beside the content of KI, the content of NaCl was also determined, counted to dry meter and water content, and received results were compared with the requests determined by Regulations of Table Salt Quality Meant for Human Diet and by manufacturers' declaration. Received results show that the volumetric method of indirect iodometry, applied in this analysis, is very reliable for determination of potassium iodine in table salt, because of its high precision and reproducibility of the analysis results. All received results show that the samples of table salt which can be bought in supermarkets are according to the demands given by Regulations. Only one sample (evaporated salt has significantly less mass of KI than it is determined by Regulations, but also by manufacturer's declaration. Measured humidity in the samples of table salt received from sea salt (sample 1 is higher than humidity in the samples received from rock salt as the result of magnesium presence in sea salt, which is hygroscopic material. Although samples 5 and 6 also originate from sea salt, their smaller humidity is the result of additional heating and salt processing. .

  20. Performance and life cycle environmental benefits of recycling spent ion exchange brines by catalytic treatment of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jong Kwon; Bergquist, Allison M; Jeong, Sangjo; Guest, Jeremy S; Werth, Charles J; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2015-09-01

    Salt used to make brines for regeneration of ion exchange (IX) resins is the dominant economic and environmental liability of IX treatment systems for nitrate-contaminated drinking water sources. To reduce salt usage, the applicability and environmental benefits of using a catalytic reduction technology to treat nitrate in spent IX brines and enable their reuse for IX resin regeneration were evaluated. Hybrid IX/catalyst systems were designed and life cycle assessment of process consumables are used to set performance targets for the catalyst reactor. Nitrate reduction was measured in a typical spent brine (i.e., 5000 mg/L NO3(-) and 70,000 mg/L NaCl) using bimetallic Pd-In hydrogenation catalysts with variable Pd (0.2-2.5 wt%) and In (0.0125-0.25 wt%) loadings on pelletized activated carbon support (Pd-In/C). The highest activity of 50 mgNO3(-)/(min - g(Pd)) was obtained with a 0.5 wt%Pd-0.1 wt%In/C catalyst. Catalyst longevity was demonstrated by observing no decrease in catalyst activity over more than 60 days in a packed-bed reactor. Based on catalyst activity measured in batch and packed-bed reactors, environmental impacts of hybrid IX/catalyst systems were evaluated for both sequencing-batch and continuous-flow packed-bed reactor designs and environmental impacts of the sequencing-batch hybrid system were found to be 38-81% of those of conventional IX. Major environmental impact contributors other than salt consumption include Pd metal, hydrogen (electron donor), and carbon dioxide (pH buffer). Sensitivity of environmental impacts of the sequencing-batch hybrid reactor system to sulfate and bicarbonate anions indicate the hybrid system is more sustainable than conventional IX when influent water contains catalyst reactor systems have potential to reduce resource consumption and improve environmental impacts associated with treating nitrate-contaminated water sources.

  1. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) project will result in a proof-of-concept demonstration for a lightweight, compact, affordable, regenerable and disposable...

  2. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  3. Geochemical implications of brine leakage into freshwater aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Assaf; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; McCray, John E

    2013-01-01

    CO(2) injection into deep saline formations as a way to mitigate climate change raises concerns that leakage of saline waters from the injection formations will impact water quality of overlying aquifers, especially underground sources of drinking water (USDWs). This paper aims to characterize the geochemical composition of deep brines, with a focus on constituents that pose a human health risk and are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). A statistical analysis of the NATCARB brine database, combined with simple mixing model calculations, show total dissolved solids and concentrations of chloride, boron, arsenic, sulfate, nitrate, iron and manganese may exceed plant tolerance or regulatory levels. Twelve agricultural crops evaluated for decreased productivity in the event of brine leakage would experience some yield reduction due to increased TDS at brine-USDW ratios of United States are almost three times higher than public and domestic withdrawals.

  4. Salt concentrations during water production resulting from CO2 storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Lena; Class, Holger; Binning, Philip John

    2014-01-01

    present in the saline aquifer. The brine can be displaced over large areas and can reach shallower groundwater resources. High salt concentrations could lead to a degradation of groundwater quality. For water suppliers the most important information is whether and how much salt is produced at a water...... production well. In this approach the salt concentrations at water production wells depending on different parameters are determined for the assumption of a 2D model domain accounting for groundwater flow. Recognized ignorance resulting from grid resolution is qualitatively studied and statistical...... polynomial chaos expansion (aPC) [1]. The aPC is applied in this work to provide probabilities and risk values for salt concentrations at the water production well. Mixing in the aquifer has a key influence on the salt concentration at the well. Dispersion and diffusion are the relevant processes for mixing...

  5. The effects of brine disposal on a subtidal meiofauna community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Tuya, Fernando; Sacramento, Alicia; Ramos, Eva; Rodríguez, Myriam; Monterroso, Óscar

    2011-07-01

    Desalination plants generate notable (>1,000 s m 3) quantities of hypersaline brine which potentially affect the biological communities in the receiving area. We assessed whether proximity to a brine discharge point located off Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic) altered patterns in the abundance and assemblage structure of subtidal, soft-bottom, meiofauna. Samples were collected twice (May 2008 and January 2009) at 0, 15 and 30 m away from the brine discharge point, corresponding to a change in salinity from 45 to 36. Proximity to the brine discharge point affected overall meiofaunal abundances: lowest abundances were observed at 0 m (64.55 ± 39.86 ind 10 cm -2, mean ± SD) than at 15 (210.49 ± 121.01 ind 10 cm -2) and 30 m (361.88 ± 102.64 ind 10 cm -2) away from the brine discharge point. This pattern was particularly notable for the most conspicuous meiofaunal groups: nematodes and copepods, and meiofaunal assemblage structure also differed with varying proximity to the brine discharge point. Although multivariate techniques identified changes in salinity as a relevant driver of patterns in meiofaunal assemblage structure with varying proximity to the brine outfall, a shift in particle size composition between May 2008 and January 2009 also contributed to explain differences in meiofaunal abundances and assemblage structure with varying proximity to the brine discharge point. Hence, meiofauna can be considered a suitable tool to monitor environmental impacts derived from the discharge of hypersaline effluents on subtidal, soft-bottom, assemblages if potential confounding drivers, i.e. here temporal changes in particle size composition, are accounted for to avoid possible confusing interpretations.

  6. Survival of foodborne pathogens in natural cracked olive brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Eduardo; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé

    2016-10-01

    This work reports the survival (challenge tests) of foodborne pathogen species (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica) in Aloreña de Málaga table olive brines. The inhibitions were fit using a log-linear model with tail implemented in GInaFIT excel software. The olive brine had a considerable inhibitory effect on the pathogens. The residual (final) populations (Fp) after 24 h was below detection limit (olives for foodborne pathogenic microorganisms.

  7. Stability of α-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol in salami-type sausages and curing brine depending on nitrite and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerling, Eva-Maria; Ternes, Waldemar

    2014-12-01

    We studied the stability of the valuable vitamer nutrients α-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol and options for their protection in salami-type sausages (blended with α-tocotrienol-rich barley oil) and curing brine. Four different sausage formulations were produced containing nitrite curing salt; nitrite curing salt and ascorbic acid (300mg/kg); nitrite curing salt and carnosic acid (45mg/kg); or sodium chloride. Initial vitamer contents (100mg/kg) did not decrease significantly during ripening and decreased only slightly during storage. Ascorbic acid and carnosic acid were found to be effective in preserving the vitamers in fresh sausages. Freeze-drying of sausages resulted in a significant loss of vitamers (97%), particularly after 14-day storage at room temperature, even in the presence of shielding gases. The vitamer content in the curing brine decreased with decreasing pH in the presence of nitrite. A nitrite concentration of 136mg/L at pH4 resulted in significant loss (90%) of the vitamers. Sufficient stability of the vitamers in salami-type sausage and curing brine can be achieved by processing, formulation, and storage conditions.

  8. Lithium recovery from brine using a λ-MnO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seoni; Lee, Jaehan; Kang, Jin Soo; Jo, Kyusik; Kim, Seonghwan; Sung, Yung-Eun; Yoon, Jeyong

    2015-04-01

    Lithium is one of the most important elements in various fields including energy storage, medicine manufacturing and the glass industry, and demands for lithium are constantly increasing these days. The lime soda evaporation process using brine lake water is the major extraction method for lithium, but this process is not only inefficient and time-consuming but also causes a few environmental problems. Electrochemical recovery processes of lithium ions have been proposed recently, but the better idea for the silver negative electrodes used in these systems is required to reduce its cost or increase long term stability. Here, we report an electrochemical lithium recovery method based on a λ-MnO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor system. In this system, lithium ions and counter anions are effectively captured at each electrode with low energy consumption in a salt solution containing various cationic species or simulated Salar de Atacama brine lake water in Chile. Furthermore, we designed this system as a flow process for practical applications. By experimental analyses, we confirmed that this system has high selectivity and long-term stability, with its performance being retained even after repetitive captures and releases of lithium ions.

  9. Physical properties of rocks and aqueous fluids at conditions simulating near- and supercritical reservoirs

    S